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  1. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  2. A structural equation model analysis of perceived control and psychological distress on worry among African American and European American young adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, L Kevin; Kertz, Sarah J; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control has been identified as an important factor in the development and maintenance of mood disorders, and worry has been shown to have a unique relationship with psychological distress associated with mood disorders. The relationships between these variables have received little attention in the literature, and even less in terms of the role racial status may serve. The current study investigated the structural relationship between psychological distress and perceived control in predicting self-reported worry as well as potential differences in paths to worry in African American and European American young adults using a structural equation model. One hundred twenty-one European American and 100 African American undergraduate students completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Results suggest that psychological distress and perceived control predict worry in both the African American and European American samples, however there were significant differences in terms of which construct contributed most. For African Americans, psychological distress contributed significantly more to worry than perceived control, whereas low perceived control contributed more to worry for European Americans. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  4. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  5. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

  6. Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  7. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females.

  8. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment among African-American and European-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the…

  9. What can Europeans learn from Americans?

    PubMed Central

    Enthoven, Alain C.

    1989-01-01

    In a wide-ranging look at many aspects of health care financing and delivery, the concepts of glasnost and perestroika are used as a framework for presenting ideas from the American system that may have value for European health care planners. These include more uniform approaches to data collection and cost reporting, patient outcome studies, evaluation of service and access standards, publication of information, quality assurance review, decentralization and independent institutions, prepaid group practice, demonstrations and experiments, and managed competition. Suggestions are offered for making health care systems on both sides of the Atlantic more manageable, efficient, and responsive. PMID:10313435

  10. Korean American Parents' Communication with European American Therapist during Behavioral Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research method was employed in order to explore how Korean American parents of children with severe developmental disabilities and problem behaviors collaborate with European American service providers. Ten Korean American parents who received behavioral therapy from European American therapists participated in this study. Results of…

  11. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  12. A Psychometric Revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…

  13. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  14. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  15. Predictors of self-esteem for Mexican American and European American youths: a reexamination of the influence of parenting.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sonia Y; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2002-03-01

    Decades of research with European American middle-class families have found significant relations between parenting behavior and child self-esteem. Similar research with minority and low-income families is rare. The present study examined the relation between parenting practices and child self-esteem among 70 Mexican American and 161 European American youths. The analyses consisted of regressing child self-esteem on parenting practices (acceptance, rejection, inconsistent discipline, and hostile control), ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and the interactions between ethnicity, SES, and parenting practices. Several main effects and interactions were significant; for each interaction, behavior of low-income or Mexican American parents had less influence on children's self-esteem than did similar behavior by middle-class or European American parents.

  16. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  17. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings.

  18. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were examined and compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were positively related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother object-oriented behaviors were positively related only among European Americans. In all groups, infant and mother behaviors within each modality were mutually contingent. Culture moderated lead-lag relations: Japanese infants were more likely than their mothers to respond in object-oriented interactions, European American mothers were more likely than their infants to respond in person-oriented interactions. Japanese American dyads behaved more like European American dyads. Interaction, infant effects, and parent socialization findings are set in cultural and accultural models of transactions between young infants and their mothers. PMID:22860874

  19. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  20. The Relationship between Family Dynamics and Career Interests among Chinese Americans and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Kao, Erika Ming-Chu; Lee, Szu-Hui

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ethnic differences in family dynamics and career interests of European Americans and Chinese Americans and how these dynamics--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--influence one's career interests. Significant ethnic differences in career interests were found. The Chinese Americans' highest career…

  1. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  2. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms.

  3. MEASUREMENT EQUIVALENCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD QUALITY MEASURES FOR EUROPEAN AMERICAN AND MEXICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Nair, Rajni; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    The factorial and construct equivalence of subscales assessing parents’ and children’s perceptions of the quality of their neighborhood was examined in Mexican American and European American families. All subscales (dangerous people in the neighborhood, sense of safety in the neighborhood, quality of the physical environment) demonstrated adequate partial factorial invariance across English- and Spanish-speaking Mexican American and European American families. Reports by children about dangerous people in the neighborhood was the closest to achieving strict factorial invariance, and the only one of the four dimensions to achieve invariance in the validity analyses across Mexican American and European American families. The implications of using these self-report neighborhood quality measures in studies of multiple cultural or language groups are discussed. PMID:19183709

  4. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    PubMed

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-06-01

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence.

  5. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  6. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  7. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization.

  8. Meeting US and European supplier control requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers operating under European quality system requirements are sometimes surprised to learn that their supplier control procedures do not fully meet United States (US) requirements. This article discusses important differences between US and European requirements for controlling suppliers.

  9. Chinese-American and European-American Mothers and Infants: Cultural Influences in the First Three Months of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    This study explores cultural influences in the first three months of life by comparing the daily experiences of first generation Chinese-American and European-American infants whose parents were born in the United States. The study focused on 10 Chinese-American and 10 European-American families whose mothers were recruited during the third…

  10. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    PubMed

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  11. Ethnic Identity and Psychological Adjustment: A Validity Analysis for European American and African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Miwa; Dorham, Carole LaRue; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    This research studied the role of ethnic identity as a protective factor among European American (n = 77) and African American (n = 82) adolescents identified either as high risk or successful. Adolescents participated in a multiagent, multimethod assessment of depression, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, competence, and academic…

  12. Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences between African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child samples, we explored the relationships among child and adolescent depressive symptoms, spanking, and emotional support offered to youth. We present cross-sectional and change models for both African Americans and European Americans. Findings showed that regardless of race,…

  13. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  14. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  15. Friendship Factors and Suicidality: Common and Unique Patterns in Mexican American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth, but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. The relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican American and European American adolescents was examined in this study. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor…

  16. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  17. African American and European American College Students' Expectations for Self and for Future Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines self-expectations, expectations for future partners, and comparative expectations (self versus partner) held by college students. African Americans had higher self-expectations regarding future income, professional success, and educational achievement than European Americans. No differences emerged in expectations for future partners'…

  18. How Latino American and European American Adolescents Discuss Conflicts, Sexuality, and AIDS with Their Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Romo, Laura F.; Corona, Rosalie; Au, Terry Kit-fong; Sigman, Marian

    2000-01-01

    Examined individual, ethnic, and age differences in structure of mother-adolescent conversations. Found Latin American mothers dominated conversations more than European Americans; mothers dominated conversations about sexuality/AIDS more than conversations about conflicts; older adolescents reported less satisfaction, less openness, and more…

  19. Measurement Equivalence of Neighborhood Quality Measures for European American and Mexican American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su Yeong; Nair, Rajni; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    The factorial and construct equivalence of subscales assessing parents' and children's perceptions of the quality of their neighborhood was examined in Mexican American and European American families. All subscales (dangerous people in the neighborhood, sense of safety in the neighborhood, quality of the physical environment) demonstrated adequate…

  20. Discrimination and unfair treatment: relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Guyll, M; Matthews, K A; Bromberger, J T

    2001-09-01

    This study examined the relationship of cardiovascular reactivity to both interpersonal mistreatment and discrimination in a community-based sample of African American and European American women (N=363) in midlife. Subtle mistreatment related positively to diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity for African American participants but not their European American counterparts. Moreover, among the African American participants, those who attributed mistreatment to racial discrimination exhibited greater average DBP reactivity. In particular, these women demonstrated greater DBP reactivity to the speech task, which bore similarities to an encounter with racial prejudice but not to a nonsocial mirror tracing task. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that racial discrimination is a chronic stressor that can negatively impact the cardiovascular health of African Americans through pathogenic processes associated with physiologic reactivity.

  1. American Civic Issues in the Light of European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nostrand, Howard Lee

    A second series of discussions of American civic issues in the light of European experience is summarized. The overall topics were: the third age of life as a resource in a community, health care, western Eurpoean communism, labor-management co-determination, language education, and the question of whether youth hostels should be subsidized in…

  2. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  3. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Evans, Roger

    2014-11-04

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was set up in 2005 to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases. The centre is an independent agency of the European Union and is based in Stockholm, Sweden.

  4. Economic stress, parenting, and child adjustment in Mexican American and European American families.

    PubMed

    Parke, Ross D; Coltrane, Scott; Duffy, Sharon; Buriel, Raymond; Dennis, Jessica; Powers, Justina; French, Sabine; Widaman, Keith F

    2004-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic hardship on 111 European American and 167 Mexican American families and their 5th-grade (M age=11.4 years) children, a family stress model was evaluated. Structural equation analyses revealed that economic hardship was linked to indexes of economic pressure that were related to depressive symptoms for mothers and fathers of both ethnicities. Depressive symptoms were linked to marital problems and hostile parenting. Paternal hostile parenting was related to child adjustment problems for European Americans, whereas marital problems were linked to child adjustment problems for Mexican Americans. Maternal acculturation was associated with both higher marital problems and lower hostile parenting. The utility of the model for describing the effects of economic hardship in Mexican Americans is noted.

  5. Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Chao, R K

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance to provide a clearer understanding of why authoritative parenting does not have as beneficial effects for Asian Americans as it does for European Americans. Over 500 adolescents of Chinese- (148 first and 176 second generation) and European-descent (208 primarily third generation or more) families from seven different high schools completed measures of (1) parenting style, (2) parent-adolescent closeness (cohesion subscale from the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Environment Scales II and relationship satisfaction), and (3) school performance. Positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance were found for European Americans and, to some extent, second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. These effects were also stronger for European Americans than first-generation Chinese. Through examination of the mediating role of parent-adolescent relationships, this study also found that among European American families, the beneficial effects of authoritative parenting are explained through relationship closeness.

  6. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  7. Comparing Social Anxiety Between Asian Americans and European Americans: An Examination of Measurement Invariance.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Alexander; Xu, Yiyuan; Cicero, David C

    2016-06-29

    There have been over 30 studies and two meta-analyses comparing social anxiety between Asian Americans and European Americans. However, few have investigated the invariance of social anxiety measures that would make these comparisons appropriate. In the current study, we systematically examined psychometric properties and configural, metric, and scalar invariance of five social anxiety measures and four short forms that have been used more than once to compare Asian Americans (n = 232) and European Americans (n = 193). We found that four (i.e., SPS-6, SIAS-6, SPS, and SPAI-18) of the nine scales were scalar invariant, three scales (i.e., SIAS, SPAI, and B-FNES) only achieved configural invariance, and two scales (i.e., FNES and SADS) failed to achieve configural invariance. Latent mean comparisons based on the scalar invariant measures revealed higher social anxiety scores for Asian Americans than European Americans. The findings are discussed with regard to the issues and challenges when comparing social anxiety among different cultural and ethnic groups.

  8. Impoverishment and child maltreatment in African American and European American neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Korbin, J E; Coulton, C J; Chard, S; Platt-Houston, C; Su, M

    1998-01-01

    Although it is well documented that child maltreatment exerts a deleterious impact on child adaptation, much less is known about the precise etiological pathways that eventuate in child abuse and neglect. This paper reports on a multimethod ecological study of the relationship between neighborhood structural factors and child maltreatment reports in African American and European American census tracts. The study had two major components. First, in an aggregate analysis, the effects of four measures of community structure (impoverishment, child care burden, instability, and geographic isolation) on child maltreatment report rates were examined separately for predominantly African American (n = 94) and predominantly European American (n = 189) census tracts. Impoverishment in particular had a significantly weaker effect on maltreatment rates in African American than in European American neighborhoods. Second, focused ethnographies were conducted in four selected census tracts with child maltreatment report rates in the highest and lowest quartiles. Ethnographic data point to the importance of the social fabric in accounting for differences in child maltreatment report rates by predominant neighborhood ethnicity.

  9. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources.

    PubMed

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

  10. Implication of European-derived adiposity loci in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hester, JM; Wing, MR; Li, J; Palmer, ND; Xu, J; Hicks, PJ; Roh, BH; Norris, JM; Wagenknecht, LE; Langefeld, CD; Freedman, BI; Bowden, DW; Ng, MCY

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with adiposity in European-derived study populations. Limited study of these loci has been reported in African Americans. Here we examined the effects of these previously identified adiposity loci in African Americans. Methods A total of 46 representative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 loci that were previously reported in GWAS in Europeans (including FTO and MC4R) were genotyped in 4992 subjects from six African-American cohorts. These SNPs were tested for association with body mass index (BMI) after adjustment for age, gender, disease status and population structure in each cohort. Meta-analysis was conducted to combine the results. Results Meta-analysis of 4992 subjects revealed seven SNPs near four loci, including NEGR1, TMEM18, SH2B1/ATP2A1 and MC4R, showing significant association at 0.005American cohorts that demonstrated a consistent direction of association with previous studies of adiposity in Europeans. These loci are all highly expressed in the brain, consistent with an important role for central nervous system processes in weight regulation. However, further comprehensive examination of these regions may be necessary to fine map and elucidate for possible genetic differences between these two populations. PMID:21750520

  11. Cross-Ethnic Equivalence of Socialization Measures in European American and African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Buehler, Cheryl; Barber, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the cross-ethnic equivalency of socialization measures developed primarily with European American families. Four aspects of measurement equivalence were assessed: conceptual, operational, scalar, and functional. Evidence of between-and within-group measurement equivalency of socialization measures was derived from youth reports of 500…

  12. Perceived Barriers to Employment Success: Are There Differences between European American and African American VR Consumers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen A.; Lustig, Daniel C.; Ishitani, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were differences between European and African American vocational rehabilitation consumers' perceptions of the barriers they experience towards obtaining employment. A secondary purpose was to determine whether there were differences in these perceptions based upon gender…

  13. Assessing measurement invariance of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II among Hispanics, African Americans, and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Yuki; Thoen, Megan A; Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the cross-cultural validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012) with Hispanic, African American, and European American community samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data from 218 Hispanics, 129 African Americans, and 552 European Americans to examine measurement equivalence among these groups. Measurement invariance of the PGIS-II was established with the original 4 factors of readiness for change, planfulness, using resources, and intentional behavior. These findings suggest the PGIS-II can be administered across these groups and provide meaningful comparisons and interpretations. All samples yielded good internal consistency estimates. The African American sample reported higher means than Hispanic and European American samples for all subscale and total mean scores, and Hispanics scored higher in planfulness, readiness for change, and total score than European Americans, indicating potential cultural factors influencing the scores. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  14. The relationship between momentary emotions and well-being across European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E

    2016-07-26

    Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.

  15. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    PubMed

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  16. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  17. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-08

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry.

  18. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  19. Body size in early life and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Ciupak, Gregory; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that body size in early life influences lifetime breast cancer risk, but little is known for African American (AA) women. Methods We evaluated body size during childhood and young adulthood and breast cancer risk among 1,751 cases [979 AA and 772 European American (EA)] and 1,673 controls (958 AA and 715 EA) in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models while adjusting for potential covariates. Results Among AA women, being shorter at 7–8 y compared to peers was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.74), and being heavier at menarche with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, although of borderline significance (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20–1.02). For EA women, being shorter from childhood through adolescence, particularly at menarche, was associated with reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.98). After excluding hormone replacement therapy users, an inverse association with postmenopausal breast cancer was found among EA women reporting to be heavier than their peers at menarche (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04–0.79). The inverse relationship between BMI at age 20 and breast cancer risk was stronger and only statistically significant in EA women. No clear association with weight gain since age 20 was found. Conclusions Findings suggest that the impact of childhood height on breast cancer risk may differ for EA and AA women and confirm the inverse association previously reported in EA populations with adolescent body fatness, in AA women. PMID:24113797

  20. Physical Discipline and Behavior Problems in African American, European American, and Hispanic Children: Emotional Support as a Moderator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Smith, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was used to assess whether maternal emotional support of a child moderates the relation between spanking and behavior problems. For each group (European Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans), spanking predicted an increase in the level of problem behavior over time. Maternal emotional…

  1. Beyond Parenting Practices: Extended Kinship Support and the Academic Adjustment of African-American and European-American Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallock, Linda L.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation.…

  2. Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…

  3. Changes and tracking of physical activity across seven years in Mexican-American and European-American mothers.

    PubMed

    Sallis, J F; Greenlee, L; McKenzie, T L; Broyles, S L; Zive, M M; Berry, C C; Brennan, J; Nader, P R

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal changes in physical activity among 129 Mexican-American (mean age 30.8; SD = 5.6) and 97 European-American (mean age 31.2; SD = 5.4) women were studied. Two physical activity recall interviews were administered at baseline and 7 years later. At baseline, European-American women reported more vigorous leisure activity (p < .005) than Mexican-Americans, and Mexican-Americans reported more moderate work activity (p < .02) than European-Americans. Virtually all components of physical activity increased significantly over the 7 years. Pearson tracking correlations for total energy expenditure were about r = 0.30. The finding that both groups increased physical activity overtime was unexpected and was unrelated to a reduction in the number of preschool children in the homes over time.

  4. Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in European American, Japanese, and Chinese Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants, suggesting that differences in expressivity between European…

  5. Racial/Ethnic Identities and Related Attributed Experiences of Multiracial Japanese European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suyemoto, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Surveys from 50 multiracial Japanese European Americans supported the endorsement of multiple simultaneous racial/ethnic identities and a differentiated multiracial identity. Multiracial Japanese European American participants were recruited through Internet postings on Web sites, advertising in newsletters, and flyers sent to local and national…

  6. North American free trade and the European situation compared.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, S

    1992-01-01

    The author analyzes and compares the trade situation in the European Community (EC) with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). He finds that "while both the EC and NAFTA are designed to provide trade preferences to the member countries, the two groupings differ markedly in other respects. The Treaty of Rome, establishing what is now the EC, consciously used economic means to foster political cohesion in Western Europe; whereas, the NAFTA negotiations seek free trade rather than more comprehensive economic integration precisely to minimize political content. The EC contains many social provisions absent from the NAFTA discussions, the most important of which is the right of migration from one EC country to another." The effects of NAFTA on the economy of Mexico and on Mexican migration to the United States are also assessed.

  7. The space laboratory: A European-American cooperative effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, H. E. W.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the history of the European participation in the American space shuttle project is presented. Some early work carried out in West Germany on the rocket-powered second state of a reusable launch vehicle system is cited, in particular wind tunnel studies of the aerodynamic and flight-mechanical behavior of various lifting body configurations in the subsonic range. The offer made by the U.S. to Europe of participating in the space shuttle program by developing a reusable launch vehicle is discussed, noting West Germany's good preparation in this area, as well as the ultimate decision of the U.S. to exclude Europe from participation in the design of the Orbiter and the booster stage of the shuttle.

  8. Biohistorical approaches to "race" in the United States: Biological distances among African Americans, European Americans, and their ancestors.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Heather J H

    2009-05-01

    Folk taxonomies of race are the categorizations used by people in their everyday judgments concerning the persons around them. As cultural traditions, folk taxonomies may shape gene flow so that it is unequal among groups sharing geography. The history of the United States is one of disparate people being brought together from around the globe, and provides a natural experiment for exploring the relationship between culture and gene flow. The biohistories of African Americans and European Americans were compared to examine whether population histories are shaped by culture when geography and language are shared. Dental morphological data were used to indicate phenotypic similarity, allowing diachronic change through United States history to be considered. Samples represented contemporary and historic African Americans and European Americans and their West African and European ancestral populations (N = 1445). Modified Mahalanobis' D(2) and Mean Measure of Divergence statistics examined how biological distances change through time among the samples. Results suggest the social acceptance for mating between descendents of Western Europeans and Eastern and Southern European migrants to the United States produced relatively rapid gene flow between the groups. Although African Americans have been in the United States much longer than most Eastern and Southern Europeans, social barriers have been historically stronger between them and European Americans. These results indicate that gene flow is in part shaped by cultural factors such as folk taxonomies of race, and have implications for understanding contemporary human variation, relationships among prehistoric populations, and forensic anthropology.

  9. Replication of GWAS "Hits" by Race for Breast and Prostate Cancers in European Americans and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Raska, Paola; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Millikan, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we assessed association of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) "hits" by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS) in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; N total = 3693 individuals) and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk, and Ethnicity (SCORE; N total = 1135 individuals). In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS "hits" (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, MSMB, 8q24) were genotyped. Principal component analysis was used to assess ancestral differences by race. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in cancer risk with and without adjustment for the first ancestral principal component (PC1) and for an interaction effect between PC1 and the GWAS "hit" (SNP) of interest. PC1 explained 53.7% of the variance for CBCS and 49.5% of the variance for SCORE. European Americans and African Americans were similar in their ancestral structure between CBCS and SCORE and cases and controls were well matched by ancestry. In the CBCS European Americans, 9/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment, but after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs1219648 in FGFR2); for CBCS African Americans, 6/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, all six SNPs remained significant and an additional SNP now became significant. In the SCORE European Americans, 0/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and no changes were seen after additional adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect; for SCORE African Americans, 2/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs16901979 at 8q24). We show that genetic associations by race are modified by interaction between individual SNPs and PS.

  10. Replication of GWAS “Hits” by Race for Breast and Prostate Cancers in European Americans and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Raska, Paola; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we assessed association of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) “hits” by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS) in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; N total = 3693 individuals) and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk, and Ethnicity (SCORE; N total = 1135 individuals). In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS “hits” (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, MSMB, 8q24) were genotyped. Principal component analysis was used to assess ancestral differences by race. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in cancer risk with and without adjustment for the first ancestral principal component (PC1) and for an interaction effect between PC1 and the GWAS “hit” (SNP) of interest. PC1 explained 53.7% of the variance for CBCS and 49.5% of the variance for SCORE. European Americans and African Americans were similar in their ancestral structure between CBCS and SCORE and cases and controls were well matched by ancestry. In the CBCS European Americans, 9/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment, but after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs1219648 in FGFR2); for CBCS African Americans, 6/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, all six SNPs remained significant and an additional SNP now became significant. In the SCORE European Americans, 0/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and no changes were seen after additional adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect; for SCORE African Americans, 2/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs16901979 at 8q24). We show that genetic associations by race are modified by interaction between individual SNPs and PS

  11. Suppression and interpersonal harmony: a cross-cultural comparison between Chinese and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Su, Jenny C; Carrera, Stephanie; Lin, Shu-Ping; Yi, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Based on Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory, this study was conducted to examine whether the association between emotional suppression and interpersonal harmony would be moderated by cultural group (i.e., Chinese and European Americans) and an Asian cultural value (i.e., emotional self-control). A total of 451 college students (205 Chinese and 246 European Americans) participated in this study. As expected, results indicated that the association between emotional suppression and interpersonal harmony was significantly positive for Chinese but not significant for European Americans. Similarly, when emotional self-control was examined as a moderator, the results still confirmed our hypotheses. That is, the association between emotional suppression and interpersonal harmony was significantly positive for those with stronger endorsement of emotional self-control but not for those with weaker endorsement of emotional self-control. Furthermore, we examined whether the above results could be replicated when forbearance (a construct similar to suppression) and distress disclosure (a construct opposite to suppression) were examined. The results showed the same pattern for forbearance and distress disclosure when cultural group or emotional self-control served as the moderator. The convergence of findings increased the robustness of our results. Finally, our data suggest that individuals from Eastern, interdependent cultures (e.g., Chinese) tend to value emotional suppression to preserve interpersonal harmony; individuals from Western, independent cultures may or may not necessarily suppress their emotions for this purpose. A comprehensive understanding of the different meanings of a specific strategy (i.e., emotional suppression) in different cultural contexts is important to promote effective cross-cultural counseling.

  12. Hydrogenotrophic microbiota distinguish native Africans from African and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Nava, Gerardo M; Carbonero, Franck; Ou, Junhai; Benefiel, Ann C; O'Keefe, Stephen J; Gaskins, H Rex

    2012-06-01

    Reduced susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer in native Africans (NA) is correlated with low consumption of animal products and greater microbial production of colonic methane. In this context, two hydrogenotrophic microbial groups are of interest, methanogenic Archaea (MA) utilizing H2 to produce methane and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) generating hydrogen sulfide, which has been linked with chronic inflammatory disorders of the colon. In the present study, stool samples from NA, consuming a diet high in resistant starch and low in animal products, and from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), both consuming a typical Western diet, were examined for genetic diversity and structure of Archaea, MA and SRB communities. In general, a greater proportion of NA than AA and EA harboured the full range of targeted hydrogenotrophic groups. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes and specific functional genes, combined with multivariate statistical analyses, revealed that NA harboured more diverse and different Archaea and MA populations than AA and EA. Also, NA harboured significantly distinct SRB populations compared with AA and EA. Taken together, these data are consistent with diet selecting for distinct hydrogenotrophic microbiota.

  13. Breast cancer characteristics at diagnosis and survival among Arab-American women compared to European- and African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Sharon Hensley; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B.; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. Materials and Methods We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973–2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. Results The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23–1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Conclusion Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women. PMID:18415013

  14. Are Teachers' Expectations Different for Racial Minority than for European American Students? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Ruck, Martin D.

    2007-01-01

    Four quantitative meta-analyses examined whether teachers' expectations, referrals, positive and neutral speech, and negative speech differed toward ethnic minority students (i.e., African American, Asian American, and Latino/a) as compared with European American students. Teachers were found to hold the highest expectations for Asian American…

  15. Visual Representation of Body Shape in African-American and European American Women: Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Capers, Patrice L.; Kinsey, Amber W.; Miskell, Edrika L.; Affuso, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Body mass index (BMI) has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. METHODS African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years (n = 552) in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal). Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android–gynoid ratio (AGR) and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1). An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3), hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7), and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1). CONCLUSION Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians. PMID:27478392

  16. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  17. Asian and European American Cultural Values, Bicultural Competence, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…

  18. Parent Beliefs and Children's Achievement Trajectories during the Transition to School in Asian American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sy, Susan R.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the predictive relationships among 309 Asian American and 9471 European American parents' beliefs, expectations, and involvement, and their children's math and reading achievement trajectories during children's transition to school. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), an ongoing…

  19. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  20. Understanding Distress: The Role of Face Concern among Chinese Americans, European Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Amy G.; Yiu, Venus F. L.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the cultural mechanisms underlying the distress experience among Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese, Chinese Americans, and European Americans, this investigation examined the role of face concern in psychological distress through a series of studies in both college students and community samples. Face concern refers to one's concern over…

  1. Disproportionate Diagnosis of Mental Disorders among African American versus European American Clients: Implications for Counseling Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Feisthamel, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Research generated by the professions of psychiatry and psychology reveals that African Americans are more often diagnosed with specific mental disorders (e.g., psychotic disorders) compared with European Americans. No research to date, however, has investigated whether professional counselors make differential diagnoses according to client race.…

  2. Adolescent Bicultural Stress and Its Impact on Mental Well-Being among Latinos, Asian Americans, and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Carvajal, Scott C.; Valle, Fabian; Orduna, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The perception of bicultural stress, stress due to discrimination/prejudice, immigration, and acculturation, was investigated in relation to mental well-being in a sample of urban Latino (n = 304), European American (n = 215), and Asian American (n = 131) 8th grade students. Bicultural stress was reported by all ethnic groups and was significantly…

  3. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (EA; n = 408) and African American women (AA; n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body…

  4. Perceptions of Siblings with Autism and Relationships with Them: European American and Asian American Siblings Draw and Tell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Kara D.; Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined typically developing children's perceptions of their siblings with autism and their relationships with them in a European American and an Asian American family. Method: Data were drawn from interviews with the siblings using the "draw-and-tell" technique and participant observation in the homes of the 2 families.…

  5. Culture, Power, Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being within Romantic Relationships: A Comparison of European American and Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Kristin D.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated possible cultural differences in the association of power, authentic self-expression, and well-being within romantic relationships. Participants (N = 314) included European American students from a central Texas university and Mexican American students from a border university. Results indicated that power inequality was…

  6. The Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors and Evidence of Measurement Equivalence in Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…

  7. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised for Latino, European American, and African American Male Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Elizabeth A.; Abramowitz, Carolyn S.; Lopez, Mabel; Kosson, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The utility of the psychopathy construct in predicting laboratory deficits, criminal behavior, response to intervention, and recidivism has been well documented in European American populations. However, less is known about the manifestation and correlates of psychopathy in Latino and African American populations. The present study examined the…

  8. Differences in somatic mutation landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian American and European American populations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Liu, Biao; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Song

    2016-01-01

    The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is higher in populations of Asian ancestry than European ancestry (EA). We sought to investigate HCC mutational differences between the two populations, which may reflect differences in the prevalence of etiological factors. We compared HCC somatic mutations in patients of self-reported Asian American and EA from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and assessed associations of tumor mutations with established HCC risk factors. Although the average mutation burden was similar, TP53 and RB1 were mutated at a much higher frequency in Asian Americans than in EAs (TP53: 43% vs. 21%; RB1: 19% vs. 2%). Three putative oncogenic genes, including TRPM3, SAGE1, and ADAMTS7, were mutated exclusively in Asians. In addition, VEGF binding pathway, a druggable target by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib, was mutated at a higher frequency among Asians (13% vs. 2%); while the negative regulation of IL17 production, involved in inflammation and autoimmunity, was mutated only in EAs (12% vs. 0). Accounting for HCC risk factors had little impact on any of the mutational differences. In conclusion, we demonstrated here mutational differences in important cancer genes and pathways between Asian and European ancestries. These differences may have implications for the prevention and treatment of HCC. PMID:27246981

  9. Genetic variants in microRNAs and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song; Graham, Kelly; Shen, Jie; Campbell, Lara E Sucheston; Singh, Prashant; Zirpoli, Gary; Roberts, Michelle; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen S; Bandera, Elisa V; Liu, Song; Ambrosone, Christine B; Zhao, Hua

    2013-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an integral part of the post-transcriptional machinery of gene expression and have been implicated in the carcinogenic cascade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs and risk of breast cancer have been evaluated in populations of European or Asian ancestry, but not among women of African ancestry. Here we examined 145 SNPs in six miRNA processing genes and in 78 miRNAs which target genes known to be important in breast cancer among 906 African American (AA) and 653 European American (EA) cases and controls enrolled in the Women's Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies of most SNPs (87 %) differed significantly by race. We found a number of SNPs in miRNAs and processing genes in association with breast cancer overall or stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Several associations were significantly different by race, with none of the associations being significant in both races. Using a polygenic risk score to combine the effects of multiple SNPs, we found significant associations with the score in each subgroup analysis. For ER-positive cancer, each unit increment of the risk score was associated with a 51 % increased risk in AAs (OR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.30-1.74, p = 3.3 × 10(-8)) and a 73 % increased risk in EAs (OR = 1.73, 95 % CI = 1.45-2.06, p = 1.4 × 10(-9)). These data show, for the first time, that miRNA-related genetic variations may underlie the etiology of breast cancer in both populations of African and European ancestries. Future studies are needed to validate our findings and to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Intergenerational cultural dissonance in parent-adolescent relationships among Chinese and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K

    2011-03-01

    Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps. The authors of the study examined the associations of such generational gaps with adolescents' behavioral problems and whether youth's appreciation of Chinese parent-adolescent relationships (parental devotion, sacrifice, thoughtfulness, and guan) described by the notion of qin would moderate the relationship between discrepancies and youth's adjustment. A total of 634 high school students (M = 15.97 years; 95 and 154 first- and second-generation Chinese American respectively, and 385 European Americans) completed measures of parental warmth, parent-adolescent open communication, qin, and psychological adjustment. The U.S.-born Chinese American adolescents' ideals exceeded perceptions of parents' warmth and open communication to a greater degree than it did for European American adolescents (ps < 0.05). Such discrepancies in parental warmth were related to greater internalizing symptoms for second-generation Chinese American youth than for their European American peers. In addition, for second-generation Chinese, their perceptions of qin, particularly parents' devotion and sacrifice, had stronger moderating effects, diminishing the associations between generational cultural gaps and youth's behavioral problems compared with those of European American and first-generation Chinese youth. Parental thoughtfulness also played a similar beneficial role, but did so for all youth.

  11. Cultural sharing in a global village: evidence for extracultural cognition in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Alter, Adam L; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the effects of exposure to foreign cultural environments and symbols on decision making among European Americans. Although European Americans predicted change less frequently than East Asians did (Pilot Study A), European Americans anticipated greater change when primed with East Asian culturally-laden locations (Pilot Study B and Study 1) and the East Asian yin-yang symbol (Studies 2-7). These effects held in the domains of stock prediction and weather forecasting and were stronger the more familiar European Americans were with the cultural primes, and the longer they had spent overseas. Together, these findings suggest that familiar culturally-laden cues sometimes prime people within one cultural milieu to make so-called extracultural judgments.

  12. Differences in Health between Americans and Western Europeans: Effects on Longevity and Public Finance

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Gailey, Adam; Zheng, Yuhui

    2011-01-01

    In 1975, 50 year-old Americans could expect to live slightly longer than most of their Western European counterparts. By 2005, American life expectancy had fallen behind that of most Western European countries. We find that this growing longevity gap is primarily due to real declines in the health of near-elderly Americans, relative to their Western European peers. We use a microsimulation approach to project what US longevity would look like, if US health trends approximated those in Western Europe. The model implies that differences in health can explain most of the growing gap in remaining life expectancy. In addition, we quantify the public finance consequences of this deterioration in health. The model predicts that gradually moving American cohorts to the health status enjoyed by Western Europeans could save up to $1.1 trillion in discounted total health expenditures from 2004 to 2050. PMID:21719178

  13. Native Americans experienced a strong population bottleneck coincident with European contact.

    PubMed

    O'Fallon, Brendan D; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2011-12-20

    The genetic and demographic impact of European contact with Native Americans has remained unclear despite recent interest. Whereas archeological and historical records indicate that European contact resulted in widespread mortality from various sources, genetic studies have found little evidence of a recent contraction in Native American population size. In this study we use a large dataset including both ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA to construct a high-resolution portrait of the Holocene and late Pleistocene population size of indigenous Americans. Our reconstruction suggests that Native Americans suffered a significant, although transient, contraction in population size some 500 y before the present, during which female effective size was reduced by ∼50%. These results support analyses of historical records indicating that European colonization induced widespread mortality among indigenous Americans.

  14. [Pregnancy and venous thromboembolism. North-American and European guidelines. American College of Chest Physicians].

    PubMed

    Conard, J; Horellou, M H; Samama, M M

    2009-11-01

    Guidelines concerning the prevention and treatment of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been elaborated by the American College of Chest Physicians and published in Chest in 2008. In this review, they have been compared with European guidelines and discussed taking into account the papers published since 2008.Most recommendations are of low grade of evidence because randomized studies are lacking during pregnancy and many reflect guidelines proposed by experts. The decisions on the most appropriate prophylaxis, dose to be administered and moment of pregnancy for starting prophylaxis are often decided case by case after careful assessment of the risk of pregnancy-associated VTE, on one hand, and the risk for the mother, on the other.Risk factors (age >or= 35, obesity, history of VTE with or without sequellae, in vitro fertilization)or thrombophilia have to be taken into account. Scores have been proposed to improve standardisation and evaluation of the risk of VTE and they should be validated.

  15. Why are Chinese mothers more controlling than American mothers? "My child is my report card".

    PubMed

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (Mage  = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African American) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers.

  16. European Studies as Answer to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Michael H.

    European studies can provide a solution to several of the issues raised in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." European studies pursue the academic quest for what is truth, what is goodness, and what is beauty. In seeking to answer these questions, the Greeks were among the first to explore many of humanity's problems and…

  17. How European American and Taiwanese Mothers Talk to Their Children about Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Fung, Heidi; Bakeman, Roger; Rae, Katharine; Wei, Wanchun

    2014-01-01

    Little cross-cultural research exists on parental socialization of children's learning beliefs. The current study compared 218 conversations between European American and Taiwanese mothers and children (6-10 years) about good and poor learning. The findings support well-documented cultural differences in learning beliefs. European Americans…

  18. The Tripler Army Medical Center's LE3AN program: a six-month retrospective analysis of program effectiveness for African-American and European-American females.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Mark; Earles, Jay; Folen, Raymond; Trammel, Rick; James, Larry

    2004-01-01

    This is a retrospective study that examines the effectiveness of the Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) LE3AN Program for weight management among African-American and European American women. African-American and European-American active-duty females who enrolled in the TAMC LE3AN Program between July 1998 and December 2001, and completed six months of follow-up were included in the analysis. The results indicate that the program is associated with significant weight loss for participants, and that it is equally effective for African-American and European-American women. Weekly follow-up visits were correlated with greater weight loss. PMID:15540884

  19. European Ancestry as a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Gregory M.; Alonso, Alvaro; Peralta, Carmen A.; Lettre, Guillaume; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lubitz, Steven A.; Fox, Ervin R.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Mehra, Reena; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Deo, Rajat; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Akylbekova, Meggie; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Paltoo, Dina N.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Heckbert, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite a higher burden of standard atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors, African Americans have a lower risk of AF than whites. It is unknown if the higher riskis due to genetic or environmental factors. As African Americans have varying degrees of European ancestry, we sought to test the hypothesis that European ancestry is an independent risk factor for AF. Methods and Results We studied whites (n=4,543) and African Americans (n=822) in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and whites (n=10,902) and Africa Americans (n=3,517) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n=3,517). Percent European ancestry in African Americans was estimated using 1,747 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) from the Illumina custom ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array. Among African Americans without baseline AF, 120 of 804 CHS participants and 181 of 3,517 ARIC participants developed incident AF. A meta-analysis from the two studies revealed that every 10% increase in European ancestry increased the risk of AF by 13% (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23, p=0.007). After adjusting for potential confounders, European ancestry remained a predictor of incident AF in each cohort alone, with a combined estimated hazard ratio for each 10% increase in European ancestry of 1.17 (95% CI 1.07–1.29, p=0.001). A second analysis using 3,192 AIMs from a genome wide Affymetrix 6.0 array in ARIC African Americans yielded similar results. Conclusion European ancestry predicted risk of incident AF. Our study suggests that investigating genetic variants contributing to differential AF risk in individuals of African versus European ancestry will be informative. PMID:21098467

  20. The Mythology of Schooling: The Historiography of American and European Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Matthew Gardner

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…

  1. Teaching Media and Methods in Marketing: European and North American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Natalia; Kuster, Ines

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to examine the most widely used teaching media and methods in university education. To achieve this objective, international research has been carried out among 135 marketing teachers from North American and European universities. The study shows that North American teachers use more traditional media and participatory methods…

  2. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  3. CD33 rs3865444 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Chinese, European, and North American Populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingwang; Shen, Ning; Zhang, Shuyan; Liu, Jiafeng; Jiang, Qinghua; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Wang, Guangyu; Ma, Guoda; Zhou, Haihong; Chen, Zugen; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2015-08-01

    The CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism was first identified to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European population. However, the following studies reported weak or no significant association in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, American, and Canadian populations. We think that these negative results may have been caused by either relatively small sample sizes compared with those used for the previous GWAS in European ancestry or the genetic heterogeneity of the rs3865444 polymorphism in different populations. Here, we reevaluated this association using the relatively large-scale samples from previous 27 studies (N = 86,759; 31,106 cases and 55,653 controls) by searching the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We identified significant heterogeneity and observed no significant association between the rs3865444 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 0.264, odds ratio (OR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.02). In subgroup analysis, we identified significant heterogeneity only in East Asian population and observed no significant association between the rs3865444 polymorphism and AD. We further identified significant heterogeneity and observed significant association between the rs3865444 polymorphism and AD in Chinese population. We identified no significant heterogeneity and significant association in North American and European populations. Collectively, our analysis shows that the CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism is associated with AD susceptibility in Chinese, European, and North American populations. We believe that our findings will be very useful for future genetic studies on AD.

  4. The Use of Self-Pleasure: Masturbation and Body Image among African American and European American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Julie L.; Horne, Sharon G.

    2003-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship between masturbation and body image among 96 women seeking services at a local family planning clinic in a mid-southern U.S. city. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed body image and masturbatory practices. Ethnic differences were found with European American women reporting…

  5. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  6. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity in African Americans and European Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Divers, Jasmin; Hugenschmidt, Christina; Sink, Kaycee M; Williamson, Jeffrey D; Ge, Yaorong; Smith, S Carrie; Bowden, Donald W; Whitlow, Christopher T; Lyders, Eric; Maldjian, Joseph A; Freedman, Barry I

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies involving inner city populations detected higher cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) scores in African Americans (AAs) compared with European Americans (EAs). This finding might be attributable to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and poorer access to healthcare in AAs. Despite racial differences in CVD risk factor profiles, AAs have paradoxically lower levels of subclinical CVD. We hypothesized that AAs with diabetes and good access to healthcare would have comparable or lower levels of WMH as EAs. Racial differences in the distribution of WMH were analyzed in 46 AAs and 156 EAs with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS)-Mind, and replicated in a sample of 113 AAs and 61 EAs patients who had clinically indicated cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Wilcoxon 2-sample tests and linear models were used to compare the distribution of WMH in AAs and EAs and to test for association between WMH and race. The unadjusted mean WMH score from the Diabetes Heart Study-Mind was 1.9 in AAs and 2.3 in EAs (P = .3244). Among those with clinically indicated magnetic resonance imaging, the mean WMH score was 2.9 in AAs and 3.9 in EAs (P = .0503). Adjustment for age and sex produced no statistically significant differences in WMH score between AAs and EAs. These independent datasets reveal comparable WMH scores in AAs and EAs, suggesting that disparities in access to healthcare and environmental exposures likely underlie the previously reported excess burden of WMH in AAs.

  7. Psychological Aspects of European Cosmology in American Society: African and European Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Eurocentric nature of the United States social reality, and investigates psychological and mental health implications for the African-American community. Outlines the basic themes, emphases and criteria of Euro-American cosmology and describes how it can come to dominate the Afro-American's self-consciousness. Suggests ways to…

  8. Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth.

  9. Association between Copy Number Variation Losses and Alcohol Dependence across African American and European American Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Alvaro Emilio; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor Manuel; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American population. Methods This study considers two CNV datasets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands and specific losses in CNV regions. Results Results from the discovery dataset showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53x10−3). An overlapping CNV region from the validation dataset exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9×10−3) in our discovery dataset. Although not observed in the validation dataset, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Conclusions

  10. Gene-centric analysis of serum cotinine levels in African and European American populations.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; Goodloe, Robert J; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L; Styn, Mindi A; Kasberger, Jay L; Choquet, Helene; Young, Taylor R; Meng, Yan; Palmer, Cameron; Pletcher, Mark; Kertesz, Stefan; Hitsman, Brian; Spring, Bonnie; Jorgenson, Eric

    2012-03-01

    To date, most genetic association studies of tobacco use have been conducted in European American subjects using the phenotype of smoking quantity (cigarettes per day). However, smoking quantity is a very imprecise measure of exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. Analyses of alternate phenotypes and populations may improve our understanding of tobacco addiction genetics. Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and measuring serum cotinine levels in smokers provides a more objective measure of nicotine dose than smoking quantity. Previous genetic association studies of serum cotinine have focused on individual genes. We conducted a genetic association study of the biomarker in African American (N=365) and European American (N=315) subjects from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study using a chip containing densely-spaced tag SNPs in ∼2100 genes. We found that rs11187065, located in the non-coding region (intron 1) of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), was the most strongly associated SNP (p=8.91 × 10(-6)) in the African American cohort, whereas rs11763963, located on chromosome 7 outside of a gene transcript, was the most strongly associated SNP in European Americans (p=1.53 × 10(-6)). We then evaluated how the top variant association in each population performed in the other group. We found that the association of rs11187065 in IDE was also associated with the phenotype in European Americans (p=0.044). Our top SNP association in European Americans, rs11763963 was non-polymorphic in our African American sample. It has been previously shown that psychostimulant self-administration is reduced in animals with lower insulin because of interference with dopamine transmission in the brain reward centers. Our finding provides a platform for further investigation of this, or additional mechanisms, involving the relationship between insulin and self-administered nicotine dose.

  11. Latina and European American Girls' Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.

  12. Do differences in subclinical cardiovascular disease in mexican americans versus European americans help explain the Hispanic paradox?

    PubMed

    Gardin, Julius M; Allebban, Zuhair; Wong, Nathan D; Sklar, Sharon K; Bess, Renee L; Spence, M Anne; Pershadsingh, Harrihar A; Detrano, Robert

    2010-01-15

    Mexican Americans have exhibited increases in various coronary heart disease risk factors compared to European Americans but have also had reportedly lower coronary heart disease mortality from vital statistics studies. We hypothesized this apparent paradox might relate to lower levels of subclinical disease in Mexican Americans. A total of 105 adult Mexican Americans (42 men and 63 women, age 46 +/- 14 years) and 100 European Americans (59 men and 41 women, age 50 +/- 11 years) were studied using blood tests, transthoracic echocardiography, and computed tomography coronary artery calcium (CAC) scans. Despite a greater body mass index and triglycerides in Mexican Americans (p <0.001), the Mexican Americans demonstrated less subclinical disease than did the European Americans (14.4% vs 25.7% with CAC scores >0, p <0.05 and mean left ventricular mass [LV] of 146 vs 160 g, p <0.05). Also, the LV mass was significantly greater in Mexican Americans with than in those without CAC (mean 172 vs 140 g, p <0.05). On logistic regression analysis, age and diastolic blood pressure were associated with an increased likelihood of CAC (p <0.001 and p <0.01, respectively), and Mexican-American ethnicity was associated with a decreased likelihood of CAC (odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.87, p <0.05). On multiple regression analysis, male gender, body surface area, and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with an increased LV mass (all p <0.001). The body mass index was less strongly related to the LV mass than was the body surface area and was not related to CAC. In conclusion, Mexican-American ethnicity is associated with both a lower LV mass and a lower prevalence of CAC, although the differences in LV mass did not remain after adjustment for other factors. Although systolic blood pressure, body surface area, and male gender were most strongly associated with the LV mass, age and diastolic blood pressure, in addition to Mexican-American ethnicity

  13. A Reassessment of the Impact of European Contact on the Structure of Native American Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hunley, Keith; Gwin, Kiela; Liberman, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of pre-Columbian history in the Americas rests in part on several trends identified in recent genetic studies. The goal of this study is to reexamine these trends in light of the impact of post-Columbian admixture and the methods used to study admixture. The previously-published data consist of 645 autosomal microsatellite genotypes from 1046 individuals in 63 populations. We used STRUCTURE to estimate ancestry proportions and tested the sensitivity of these estimates to the choice of the number of clusters, K. We used partial correlation analyses to examine the relationship between gene diversity and geographic distance from Beringia, controlling for non-Native American ancestry (from Africa, Europe and East Asia), and taking into account alternative paths of migration. Principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to investigate the relationships between Andean and non-Andean populations and to explore gene-language correspondence. We found that 1) European and East Asian ancestry estimates decline as K increases, especially in Native Canadian populations, 2) a north-south decline in gene diversity is driven by low diversity in Amazonian and Paraguayan populations, not serial founder effects from Beringia, 3) controlling for non-Native American ancestry, populations in the Andes and Mesoamerica have higher gene diversity than populations in other regions, and 4) patterns of genetic and linguistic diversity are poorly correlated. We conclude that patterns of diversity previously attributed to pre-Columbian processes may in part reflect post-Columbian admixture and the choice of K in STRUCTURE analyses. Accounting for admixture, the pattern of diversity is inconsistent with a north-south founder effect process, though the genetic similarities between Mesoamerican and Andean populations are consistent with rapid dispersal along the western coast of the Americas. Further, even setting aside the disruptive effects of

  14. Americans Split on Government Control of Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Nearly seven months before the November election, a plurality of Americans favor Barack Obama to tackle what they consider the most pressing issue in higher education: the runaway cost of a bachelor's degree. According to a new nationwide survey conducted through The Chronicle/Gallup Panel, 42 percent of Americans think that controlling college…

  15. Early and mid-adolescence risk factors for later substance abuse by African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had higher exposure to school, family structure, delinquency, and psychosocial factors. School factors and drug-use modeling of peers and family were the most important risk factors for marijuana abuse or dependence for both European and African Americans. CONCLUSION: Personal, familial, and social context factors during early adolescence affect adult drug-use problems, particularly for African Americans. Levels of drug use are lower among African Americans, but exposure to risks is higher and there are clear differences in the long-range impact of risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing and timing appropriate prevention efforts. PMID:12435824

  16. Children's attention to interactions directed to others: Guatemalan mayan and european american patterns.

    PubMed

    Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Rogoff, Barbara

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated differences in attention and learning among Guatemalan Mayan and European American children, ages 5-11 years, who were present but not addressed while their sibling was shown how to construct a novel toy. Each child waited with a distracter toy for her or his turn to make a different toy. Nonaddressed children from Mayan traditional families (with little maternal involvement in Western schooling; n = 40) showed more sustained attention and learning than their counterparts from Mayan families with extensive involvement in Western schooling (n = 40) or European American children (with extensive family involvement in schooling; n = 40). The nonaddressed Mayan children from highly schooled families in turn attended more than the European American children. These findings are consistent with research showing that traditional indigenous ways of organizing learning emphasize observation of ongoing interactions.

  17. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  18. Genetic evidence of "American" and "European" type symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria Ehrenberg.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, R; Kato, Y; Kamako, S; Imamura, N

    2005-09-01

    Paramecium bursaria is composed of a "host" ciliate and a "symbiont" green alga. Based upon physiology, DNA hybridization and virus infection, two types of symbionts, called "American" type and "European" type, have been reported to date. Here, we determined the 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions for both "American" and "European" types. Sequence features clearly separated into two lineages; NC64A (USA), Syngen 2-3 (USA), Cs2 (Chinese), MRBG1 (Australian), and Japanese strains belong to the "American", whereas PB-SW1 (German) and CCAP 1660/11 (British) strains belong to the "European". In "American" 18S rDNA, three introns were inserted in the same positions as for previously described Japanese symbionts. In "European" 18S rDNA, a single intron occurred in a different position than in the "American". Between the types, sequence differences were seven or eight nucleotides (0.39 %) in the 18S rDNA exon, and more than 48 nucleotides (19.2 %) in ITS2 regions. We subsequently sequenced the host 18S rDNA. As a result, two groups: Cs2, MRBG1, and Japanese strains, and PB-SW1 and CCAP 1660/11 strains, were separated (with 23 substitutions and 4 insertions or deletions between the groups). The congruent separations between hosts and symbionts may imply that the type of symbiont depends on the host type.

  19. Psychiatric distress among Asian and European American survivors of the 1994 Northridge earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhur; Pole, Nnamdi

    2008-08-01

    Relatively few studies focus on the psychological effects of trauma exposure on Asian Americans. This article presents secondary analyses of a random survey of 118 Asian American and 762 European American survivors of the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. Asian American participants reported more psychiatric distress and were more than twice as likely to meet caseness criteria on the Brief Symptom Inventory. Ethnic differences remained after accounting for group differences in age, immigrant status, and exposure to the earthquake. Moreover, moderator analyses showed that Asian Americans were not more sensitive to these risk factors but that ethnic differences were explained by the interaction of ethnicity and having a foreign born parent. Though more work needs to be done to understand the basis of these differences, these findings challenge model minority myths about Asian American people and draw attention to their potential need for greater mental health resources following a natural disaster.

  20. A time transect of exomes from a Native American population before and after European contact

    PubMed Central

    Lindo, John; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia; Nakagome, Shigeki; Rasmussen, Morten; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Willerslev, Eske; DeGiorgio, Michael; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2016-01-01

    A major factor for the population decline of Native Americans after European contact has been attributed to infectious disease susceptibility. To investigate whether a pre-existing genetic component contributed to this phenomenon, here we analyse 50 exomes of a continuous population from the Northwest Coast of North America, dating from before and after European contact. We model the population collapse after European contact, inferring a 57% reduction in effective population size. We also identify signatures of positive selection on immune-related genes in the ancient but not the modern group, with the strongest signal deriving from the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) gene HLA-DQA1. The modern individuals show a marked frequency decrease in the same alleles, likely due to the environmental change associated with European colonization, whereby negative selection may have acted on the same gene after contact. The evident shift in selection pressures correlates to the regional European-borne epidemics of the 1800s. PMID:27845766

  1. Update on the American Mosquito Control Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Mosquito Control Association in a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to promoting the highest standard in professional mosquito control. It is comprised of more than 1300 members representing students, scientists, regulators, industry, mosquito control employees and many other...

  2. Competence, Self-Esteem, and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of Ecological Risk and Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test [Sandler, "American Journal of Community Psychology" 29: 19-61.] a theoretical model of risk and resilience in an urban sample of African American and European American adolescents. The aims of the present study were to examine whether self-system processes (i.e., competence, self-esteem, and coping…

  3. Mental Health Stigma, Self-Concealment, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among Asian American and European American College Students with No Help-Seeking Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…

  4. Differences between African American and European American First-Year College Students in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectations, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2012-01-01

    First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…

  5. Education for Sustainability in University Studies: Experiences from a Project Involving European and Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geli de Ciurana, Anna M.; Filho, Walter Leal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis…

  6. Diversity in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Perspectives Held by Undergraduate Students at a Predominantly European American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleford, Linh Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 932, 83.8% European Americans, 69.6% women) completed an online survey and reported their definitions of diversity, their attitudes toward incorporating diversity into the curriculum, and their motivations for learning about diversity issues. Findings revealed that students conceptualized diversity primarily in terms of…

  7. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change…

  8. Why Attend School? Chinese Immigrant and European American Preschoolers' Views and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Yamamoto, Yoko; Luo, Lily; Batchelor, Andrea K.; Bresnahan, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The developing views of the purposes of school learning (PSLs) and related achievement among immigrant Chinese preschoolers and their European American (EA) age-mates were examined. Both culture and socioeconomic status (SES) were considered simultaneously, an often neglected research approach to studying Asian children. One hundred and fifty…

  9. [Are therapeutic LDL goals justified? Controversies between the European and American guidelines].

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente

    2016-12-30

    Dyslipidemia is one of the most important risk factors of the cardiovascular disease, so its treatment is one of the key strategies of cardiovascular prevention. Statins have been consolidated as the reference treatment for the reduction of serum cholesterol levels. There are some divergences in the treatment of dyslipidemia between American and European guidelines. This narrative review discusses the key points of this controversy.

  10. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  11. The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Andrew J.; Small, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a community-wide survey of adolescents to compare adolescent perceptions of parental support, knowledge, and authoritative decision making in samples of Hmong and European Americans. Additional analyses considered variation in parental influence on adolescent outcomes across these groups. The results suggested that Hmong American…

  12. First Encounters: Native Americans and Europeans in the Mississippi Valley. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, George, III; Restrepo, Luis Fernando; Jones, Linda

    This CD-ROM provides interactive, multimedia software that enables students to investigate many aspects of Native American and European encounters in the Mississippi Valley through study of original historical sources, including texts, maps, artworks, and archaeological finds. The Lower Mississippi Valley was chosen as the study area because of…

  13. Chronological Age, Cognitions, and Practices in European American Mothers: A Multivariate Study of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied multiple parenting cognitions and practices in European American mothers (N=262) who ranged from 15 to 47 years of age. All were 1st-time parents of 20-month-old children. Some age effects were 0; others were linear or nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects determined by spline regression showed significant associations to a "knot"…

  14. Sex Differences in Developmental Trends of Suicide Ideation, Plans, and Attempts among European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Feldman, Betsy J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    Although suicide ideation, plans, and attempts increase during adolescence, it remains unclear whether boys' and girls' risk for these outcomes peaks at different ages. We used longitudinal categorical data ("never," "once," "2+ times") from the Family Transitions Project (N = 1,248 rural European Americans, ages 11-19) to investigate whether…

  15. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  16. Selected Sound Recordings of American, British, and European Literature in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Homer E.

    This discography of cassette tapes and discs in English includes 1365 main entries of materials related to literature in 12 subject areas, including Elizabethan drama, European drama, and American poetry. Recordings are of five types: (1) dramatizations; (2) readings by the author; (3) readings by professional talent; (4) discussions of literary…

  17. Genic SSRs for European and North American Hop (Humulua lupulus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight genic SSR loci were evaluated for genetic diversity assessment and genotype identification in Humulus lupulus L. from Europe and North America. Genetic diversity, as measured by three diversity indices, was significantly lower in European cultivars than in North American wild accessions. Neigh...

  18. Intergenerational Cultural Dissonance in Parent-Adolescent Relationships among Chinese and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K.

    2011-01-01

    Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps.…

  19. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of child rearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. Using a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers' parenting knowledge; compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and…

  20. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social…

  1. Eye color: A potential indicator of alcohol dependence risk in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Sulovari, Arvis; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel; Li, Dawei

    2015-07-01

    In archival samples of European-ancestry subjects, light-eyed individuals have been found to consume more alcohol than dark-eyed individuals. No published population-based studies have directly tested the association between alcohol dependence (AD) and eye color. We hypothesized that light-eyed individuals have a higher prevalence of AD than dark-eyed individuals. A mixture model was used to select a homogeneous sample of 1,263 European-Americans and control for population stratification. After quality control, we conducted an association study using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders (age, sex, and genetic ancestry). We found evidence of association between AD and blue eye color (P = 0.0005 and odds ratio = 1.83 (1.31-2.57)), supporting light eye color as a risk factor relative to brown eye color. Network-based analyses revealed a statistically significant (P = 0.02) number of genetic interactions between eye color genes and AD-associated genes. We found evidence of linkage disequilibrium between an AD-associated GABA receptor gene cluster, GABRB3/GABRG3, and eye color genes, OCA2/HERC2, as well as between AD-associated GRM5 and pigmentation-associated TYR. Our population-phenotype, network, and linkage disequilibrium analyses support association between blue eye color and AD. Although we controlled for stratification we cannot exclude underlying occult stratification as a contributor to this observation. Although replication is needed, our findings suggest that eye pigmentation information may be useful in research on AD. Further characterization of this association may unravel new AD etiological factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R

    2005-07-01

    Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the Atlantic Ocean, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions.

  3. GWAS SNP Replication among African American and European American Men in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zongli; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Smith, Gary J.; Mohler, James L.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common SNPs associated with prostate cancer (CaP) risk in men of European descent. This study evaluates GWAS SNPs associated with CaP in African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). Methods 800 SNPs were genotyped, including 32 from European-based GWAS and 35 flanking SNPs, in 417 AA and 455 EA cases from the NC-LA Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) and compared to 925 AA and 1,687 EA controls from Illumina's iControlDB. The 32 GWAS SNPs were evaluated for their predictive power to discriminate between cases and controls using ROC curves. Results Of the 32 GWAS SNPs, 13 were significant at P < 0.05 in EA and 4 in AA (rs6983267, rs7017300, rs1859962, rs6501455). Three of 35 flanking SNPs, all from chromosome 8q, reached study-wide significance (p < 3.5×10−5); two in AA (rs10505476 rs6985504) and one in EA (rs16901970). Among the remaining 656 SNPs, two were associated with CaP (p < 3.5×10−5): rs1472606 (OR: 1.43 in EA) and rs9351265 (OR: 1.48 in AA) both in intergenic regions. For the 32 GWAS SNPs, ROC plots yielded AUC estimates too low for clinical use (EA AUC= 0.60 and AA AUC= 0.56). Conclusions This study confirms a large proportion of CaP associated regions implicated by European-based GWAS and provides evidence that some regions may be important in AA CaP risk. Despite the identification of a large panel of GWAS replicated SNPs for CaP, this panel is not appropriate for clinical screening. PMID:21456070

  4. Emotion Socialization Practices in Latina and European American Mothers of Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined mothers’ emotion socialization of 3-year-old children with behavior problems, to determine whether emotion socialization practices, as well as the relation between these practices and child functioning, varied across ethnicities. Participants were 134 preschoolers with behavior problems. Mothers were European American (n = 96) and Latina American (n = 38; predominately Puerto Rican). Audiotaped mother-child interactions were coded for emotion socialization behaviors. Latina and European American mothers used similar emotion socialization practices on most dimensions. Latina mothers were more likely to minimize or not respond to their children’s negative affect. However, this difference did not appear to have ramifications for children. This study provided evidence for both differences and similarities across ethnicities on emotion socialization practices. PMID:27042157

  5. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  6. European American and African American Mothers’ Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to their Children’s Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers’ responses to their children’s negative emotions and teachers’ reports of children’s academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children’s negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children’s current academic standing and skillfulness with peers. Problem-focused responses to children’s negative emotions, which have traditionally been considered a supportive response, were positively associated with children’s school competence for European American children, but expressive encouragement, another response considered supportive, was negatively associated with children’s competence for African American children. The findings highlight the need to examine parental socialization practices from a culturally-specific lens. PMID:23914076

  7. Variability levels, population size and structure of American and European Drosophila montana populations.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A

    2001-04-01

    The level and patterns of nucleotide diversity have been characterized for two X-linked loci, fused (fu; a region of 2362 bp) and suppressor of sable (su(s); a region of 413 bp), in one European and one American D. montana population. Sequence variation at these loci shows that the two populations are divergent, although they may not be completely isolated. Data on the level of silent site variability at su(s) (1.1% and 0.5% for the European and American populations, respectively) suggest that the effective population sizes of the two populations may be similar. At the fused locus, one European sequence was highly divergent and may have resulted from gene conversion, and was excluded from the analysis. With this sequence removed, the level of silent site variability was significantly lower in the European population (0.28%) than in the American population (2.3%), which suggests a selective sweep at or near fu in the former population.

  8. Why are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? “My Child is My Report Card”

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  9. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-03-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as "Americanization". This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica (n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families.

  10. Common biological networks underlie genetic risk for alcoholism in African- and European-American populations

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Mark Z.; Yan, Jia; Dick, Danielle M.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Rice, John P.; Johnson, Eric O.; Schuckit, Marc; Kuperman, Sam; Kramer, John; Goate, Alison M.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Porjesz, Bernice; Bierut, Laura J.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Almasy, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a heritable substance addiction with adverse physical and psychological consequences, representing a major health and economic burden on societies worldwide. Genes thus far implicated via linkage, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for only a small fraction of its overall risk, with effects varying across ethnic groups. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of alcoholism and report on the extent to which common, genome-wide SNPs collectively account for risk of AD in two US populations, African-Americans (AAs) and European-Americans (EAs). Analyzing GWAS data for two independent case-control sample sets, we compute polymarker scores that are significantly associated with alcoholism (P=1.64 × 10−3 and 2.08 × 10−4 for EAs and AAs, respectively), reflecting the small individual effects of thousands of variants derived from patterns of allelic architecture that are population-specific. Simulations show that disease models based on rare and uncommon causal variants (MAF<0.05) best fit the observed distribution of polymarker signals. When scoring bins were annotated for gene location and examined for constituent biological networks, gene enrichment is observed for several cellular processes and functions in both EA and AA populations, transcending their underlying allelic differences. Our results reveal key insights into the complex etiology of AD, raising the possibility of an important role for rare and uncommon variants, and identify polygenic mechanisms that encompass a spectrum of disease liability, with some, such as chloride transporters and glycine metabolism genes, displaying subtle, modifying effects that are likely to escape detection in most GWAS designs. PMID:23607416

  11. Common biological networks underlie genetic risk for alcoholism in African- and European-American populations.

    PubMed

    Kos, M Z; Yan, J; Dick, D M; Agrawal, A; Bucholz, K K; Rice, J P; Johnson, E O; Schuckit, M; Kuperman, S; Kramer, J; Goate, A M; Tischfield, J A; Foroud, T; Nurnberger, J; Hesselbrock, V; Porjesz, B; Bierut, L J; Edenberg, H J; Almasy, L

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a heritable substance addiction with adverse physical and psychological consequences, representing a major health and economic burden on societies worldwide. Genes thus far implicated via linkage, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for only a small fraction of its overall risk, with effects varying across ethnic groups. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of alcoholism and report on the extent to which common, genome-wide SNPs collectively account for risk of AD in two US populations, African-Americans (AAs) and European-Americans (EAs). Analyzing GWAS data for two independent case-control sample sets, we compute polymarker scores that are significantly associated with alcoholism (P = 1.64 × 10(-3) and 2.08 × 10(-4) for EAs and AAs, respectively), reflecting the small individual effects of thousands of variants derived from patterns of allelic architecture that are population specific. Simulations show that disease models based on rare and uncommon causal variants (MAF < 0.05) best fit the observed distribution of polymarker signals. When scoring bins were annotated for gene location and examined for constituent biological networks, gene enrichment is observed for several cellular processes and functions in both EA and AA populations, transcending their underlying allelic differences. Our results reveal key insights into the complex etiology of AD, raising the possibility of an important role for rare and uncommon variants, and identify polygenic mechanisms that encompass a spectrum of disease liability, with some, such as chloride transporters and glycine metabolism genes, displaying subtle, modifying effects that are likely to escape detection in most GWAS designs.

  12. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  13. Ethnic identity and family processes among adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2009-02-01

    Ninth graders (N = 679; 50% male, 50% female) from Latin American (41%), Asian (38%), and European (21%) backgrounds reported on their ethnic identity and family attitudes and relationships. Adolescents also completed daily checklists of family interactions over a two-week period. Results indicated that ethnic identity, measured through exploration and belonging was more strongly associated with family obligation and assistance than with parent-child closeness and family leisure time. Adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds reported significantly higher levels of obligation and assistance as compared to adolescents with European backgrounds, and these ethnic differences were mediated by ethnic identity. Longitudinal analyses indicated ongoing associations, with ethnic identity predicting respect and obligation one year later. The discussion focuses on the role of ethnic identity in children's family connectedness during adolescence.

  14. The potential impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on American dental licensure: a European community model.

    PubMed

    Paul, D P

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate licensure is a significant barrier to entry to the practice of dentistry. The history of dental licensure in the United States is briefly examined, and current dental licensure requirements in the United States and Mexico are noted. The impact that establishment of the European Community had on dental licensure in Europe is examined, noting that changes were the result of political, rather than professional, input. Requirements of NAFTA are examined to see how they will impact current American dental licensure requirements. Some migration of dental professionals between the United States and Mexico is expected as a result of NAFTA.

  15. Brief communication: discrimination between European-American and African-American children based on deciduous dental metrics and morphology.

    PubMed

    Lease, Loren R; Sciulli, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    This study employs metric and morphological features of the deciduous dentition for discriminating between European-American and African-American children and providing allocation rules (regression equations). Five logistic regression equations are presented, with the percentage of correct allocation to group of between 90.1-92.6%. All five equations employ three metric traits (the mesiodistal diameters of the mandibular deciduous canines and anterior and posterior deciduous premolars) and one morphological feature (cusp number of the maxillary deciduous anterior premolar). In addition to these four variables, only two or three additional morphological features are added in carious combinations in the final equations. Correct allocation to group is 4-12% greater when combining metric and morphological features compared to using the features separately.

  16. Parental involvement and African American and European American adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional development in secondary school.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Hill, Nancy E; Hofkens, Tara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal trajectories of parental involvement across middle and high school, and how these trajectories related to adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional adjustment. In addition, ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in longitudinal associations and the potential moderating role of parental warmth were assessed. Longitudinal growth modeling technique was used to describe trajectories of different types of parental involvement and adolescent outcomes over 7th, 9th, and 11th grades (mean ages = 12.9, 14.3, and 17.2 years, respectively) on an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 1,400 adolescents (51% female, 56% African American, 39% European American, 5% others). Each aspect of parental involvement contributed differentially but significantly to adolescent outcomes. Finally, parental warmth moderated the associations between providing structure at home and adolescent grade point average and problem behavior.

  17. Factors Contributing to 50-ft Walking Speed and Observed Ethnic Differences in Older Community-Dwelling Mexican Americans and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hazuda, Helen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans comprise the most rapidly growing segment of the older US population and are reported to have poorer functional health than European Americans, but few studies have examined factors contributing to ethnic differences in walking speed between Mexican Americans and European Americans. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to walking speed and observed ethnic differences in walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans using the disablement process model (DPM) as a guide. Design This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were 703 Mexican American and European American older adults (aged 65 years and older) who completed the baseline examination of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). Hierarchical regression models were performed to identify the contribution of contextual, lifestyle/anthropometric, disease, and impairment variables to walking speed and to ethnic differences in walking speed. Results The ethic difference in unadjusted mean walking speed (Mexican Americans=1.17 m/s, European Americans=1.29 m/s) was fully explained by adjustment for contextual (ie, age, sex, education, income) and lifestyle/anthropometric (ie, body mass index, height, physical activity) variables; adjusted mean walking speed in both ethnic groups was 1.23 m/s. Contextual variables explained 20.3% of the variance in walking speed, and lifestyle/anthropometric variables explained an additional 8.4%. Diseases (ie, diabetes, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) explained an additional 1.9% of the variance in walking speed; impairments (ie, FEV1, upper leg pain, and lower extremity strength and range of motion) contributed an additional 5.5%. Thus, both nonmodifiable (ie, contextual, height) and modifiable (ie, impairments, body mass index, physical activity) factors contributed to walking speed in older Mexican Americans and European Americans. Limitations

  18. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  19. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L.; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    A three-culture comparison – native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers – of two types of parenting cognitions – attributions and self-perceptions – was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children’s development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers’ attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea. PMID:26912926

  20. Invasive procedures carried out in conscious children: contrast between North American and European paediatric oncology centres

    PubMed Central

    Hain, R; Campbell, C; SPACE, S; KHARASCH, S; BAUCHNER, H

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To define practice in managing repeated invasive procedures in selected paediatric oncology centres in North America and Europe, especially the United Kingdom; to define and contrast concerns that shape policy making, and to contrast practice, particularly regarding procedures performed on conscious patients.
METHODS—Postal survey: 118 centres of the Pediatric Oncology Group and the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group received questionnaires.
RESULTS—68 questionnaires (58%) were returned (52 from North America, 12 from Europe). For all procedures, North American centres tended to use less effective techniques than European, especially for bone marrow procedures. Many North American centres reported performing these on conscious patients on at least three quarters (25%) or half (30%) the occasions. In contrast, corresponding figures for the European centres were 6% and 0%.
CONCLUSIONS—Many bone marrow procedures are still carried out in the conscious patient despite the safety and effectiveness of modern anaesthetic and deep sedation techniques. There appears to be a greater reluctance to offer these to patients in North American centres than in European ones. This may reflect a misperception that the risks of adverse effects are high. Several non-pharmacological techniques are used, but they remain uncommon.

 PMID:11420188

  1. Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Brooks, J Paul; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Girerd, Philippe H; Edwards, David J; Strauss, Jerome F; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women.

  2. Skeletal estimation and identification in American and East European populations.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Erin H; Jantz, Richard L; Konigsberg, Lyle W; Baraybar, Jose Pablo

    2008-05-01

    Forensic science is a fundamental transitional justice issue as it is imperative for providing physical evidence of crimes committed and a framework for interpreting evidence and prosecuting violations to International Humanitarian Law (IHL). The evaluation of evidence presented in IHL trials and the outcomes various rulings by such courts have in regard to the accuracy or validity of methods applied in future investigations is necessary to ensure scientific quality. Accounting for biological and statistical variation in the methods applied across populations and the ways in which such evidence is used in varying judicial systems is important because of the increasing amount of international forensic casework being done globally. Population variation or the perceived effect of such variation on the accuracy and reliability of methods is important as it may alter trial outcomes, and debates about the scientific basis for human variation are now making their way into international courtrooms. Anthropological data on population size (i.e., the minimum number of individuals in a grave), demographic structure (i.e., the age and sex distribution of victims), individual methods applied for identification, and general methods of excavation and trauma analysis have provided key evidence in cases of IHL. More generally, the question of population variation and the applicability of demographic methods for estimating individual and population variables is important for American and International casework in the face of regional population variation, immigrant populations, ethnic diversity, and secular changes. The reliability of various skeletal aging methods has been questioned in trials prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Radislav Krstic (Case No. IT-98-33, Trial Judgment) and again in the currently ongoing trial of The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Zdravko Tolimir, Radivolje

  3. Strong genetic differentiation between North American and European populations of Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Jaime; Adams, Gerard C; Halkett, Fabien; Catal, Mursel; Husson, Claude; Nagy, Zoltán Á; Hansen, Everett M; Marçais, Benoît; Frey, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni has been one of the most important diseases of natural ecosystems in Europe during the last 20 years. The emergence of P. alni subsp. alni -the pathogen responsible for the epidemic-is linked to an interspecific hybridization event between two parental species: P. alni subsp. multiformis and P. alni subsp. uniformis. One of the parental species, P. alni subsp. uniformis, has been isolated in several European countries and, recently, in North America. The objective of this work was to assess the level of genetic diversity, the population genetic structure, and the putative reproduction mode and mating system of P. alni subsp. uniformis. Five new polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to contrast both geographical populations. The study comprised 71 isolates of P. alni subsp. uniformis collected from eight European countries and 10 locations in North America. Our results revealed strong differences between continental populations (Fst = 0.88; Rst = 0.74), with no evidence for gene flow. European isolates showed extremely low genetic diversity compared with the North American collection. Selfing appears to be the predominant mating system in both continental collections. The results suggest that the European P. alni subsp. uniformis population is most likely alien and derives from the introduction of a few individuals, whereas the North American population probably is an indigenous population.

  4. Do Gender Differences in Help Avoidance Vary by Ethnicity? An Examination of African American and European American Students during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena; Lampkins-uThando, Shawn A.; Kiefer, Sarah M.; Thompson, Geneene N.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses…

  5. The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

  6. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  7. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  8. The Roles of Parental Inductions, Moral Emotions, and Moral Cognitions in Prosocial Tendencies among Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…

  9. Ethnicity and Risk for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Following Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence and Predictors in European American and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…

  10. The Effects of Ethnicity, SES, and Crime Status on Juror Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of European American and Mexican American Mock Jurors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Espinoza, Russ K. E.; Culhane, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, a defendant's ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and crime status were varied for effects on verdict decisions, sentencing recommendations, culpability assignments, and trait assessments. In Study 1, European Americans (N = 221) provided a low SES Mexican American defendant with more guilt verdicts, a lengthier sentence, and…

  11. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  12. Microbial diversity in European and South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra

    Spacecraft assembly clean rooms are unique environments for microbes: Due to low nutri-ent levels, desiccated, clean conditions, constant control of humidity and temperature, these environments are quite inhospitable to microbial life and even considered "extreme". Many procedures keep the contamination as low as possible, but these conditions are also highly se-lective for indigenous microbial communities. For space missions under planetary protection requirements, it is crucial to control the contaminating bioburden as much as possible; but for the development of novel cleaning/sterilization methods it is also important to identify and characterize (understand) the present microbial community of spacecraft clean rooms. In prepa-ration for the recently approved ESA ExoMars mission, two European and one South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms were analyzed with respect to their microbial diversity, using standard procedures, new cultivation approaches and molecular methods, that should shed light onto the presence of planetary protection relevant microorganisms. For this study, the Her-schel Space Observatory (launched in May 2009) and its housing clean rooms in Friedrichshafen (Germany), at ESTEC (The Netherlands) and CSG, Kourou (French Guyana) were sampled during assembly, test and launch operations. Although Herschel does not demand planetary protection requirements, all clean rooms were in a fully operating state during sampling. This gave us the opportunity to sample the microbial diversity under strict particulate and molecular contamination-control. Samples were collected from spacecraft and selected clean room surface areas and were subjected to cultivation assays (32 different media), molecular studies (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) and quantitative PCR. The results from different strategies will be compared and critically discussed, showing the advantages and limits of the selected methodologies. This talk will sum up the lessons

  13. The relationship between European genetic admixture and body composition among Hispanics and Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Klimentidis, Y C; Miller, G F; Shriver, M D

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between health-related phenotypes and the degree of African, European, or Native American genetic admixture, indicating that there may be a genetic component to these phenotypes. However, these relationships may be driven to a large extent by the environmental differences that co-vary with admixture differences between and within groups. In this study, we examine the relationship between genetic admixture and two phenotypic measurements that are potentially related to health: body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF). In addition to admixture proportions, we attempt to assess the influence of some environmental covariates by examining how the phenotypes vary with self-reported household income, education of parents, and physical activity level. Genetic, anthropometric, and environmental data were collected from 170 self-reported Hispanic and Native American university students in Albuquerque, NM. We examine the relationships between genetic admixture, phenotype, and environment in both the full sample, as well as in Hispanics and Native Americans separately. Among Hispanics, we find no significant relationship between genetic admixture and body composition. Among Native Americans, despite a small sample size, we find a statistically significant, negative relationship between European genetic admixture and PBF and BMI, after adjusting for other predictor variables. We compare our findings to previous research, and discuss their implications for understanding health disparities within and between ethnic groups.

  14. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as “Americanization”. This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica (n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families. PMID:25709142

  15. Genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer risk in European American and African American women.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; David Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Roberts, Michelle; Khoury, Thaer; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Bandera, Elisa V; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2015-08-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism plays critical roles in DNA synthesis, repair and DNA methylation. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolizing enzymes has been investigated in risk of breast cancer among European or Asian populations, but not among women of African ancestry. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SNPs in eleven genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer in 1,275 European-American (EA) and 1,299 African-American (AA) women who participated in the Women's Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies varied significantly between EA and AA populations. A number of these SNPs, specifically in genes including MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, TYMS and SLC19A1, were associated with overall breast cancer risk, as well as risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in either EA or AA women. Associations appeared to be modified by dietary folate intake. Although single-SNP associations were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, polygenetic score analyses revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. Per unit increase of the risk score was associated with a modest 19 to 50% increase in risk of breast cancer overall, ER positive or ER negative cancer (all p < 0.0005) in EAs or AAs. In summary, our data suggest that one-carbon metabolizing gene polymorphisms could play a role in breast cancer and that may differ between EA and AA women.

  16. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei

    2011-01-01

    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  17. Depression and Relational Health in Asian American and European American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…

  18. Knowledge of memory functions in European and Asian American adults and children: the relation to autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.

  19. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weitkunat, Rolf; Sanders, Edward; Lee, Peter N

    2007-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco is often referred to as a major contributor to oral cancer. In some regions, especially Southeast Asia, the risk is difficult to quantify due to the variety of products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients) and usage practices involved. In Western populations, the evidence of an increased risk in smokeless tobacco users seems unclear, previous reviews having reached somewhat differing conclusions. We report a detailed quantitative review of the evidence in American and European smokeless tobacco users, and compare our findings with previous reviews and meta-analyses. Methods Following literature review a meta-analysis was conducted of 32 epidemiological studies published between 1920 and 2005 including tests for homogeneity and publication bias. Results Based on 38 heterogeneous study-specific estimates of the odds ratio or relative risk for smokeless tobacco use, the random-effects estimate was 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.40–2.48). The increase was mainly evident in studies conducted before 1980. No increase was seen in studies in Scandinavia. Restricting attention to the seven estimates adjusted for smoking and alcohol eliminated both heterogeneity and excess risk (1.02; 0.82–1.28). Estimates also varied by sex (higher in females) and by study design (higher in case-control studies with hospital controls) but more clearly in studies where estimates were unadjusted, even for age. The pattern of estimates suggests some publication bias. Based on limited data specific to never smokers, the random-effects estimate was 1.94 (0.88–4.28), the eight individual estimates being heterogeneous and based on few exposed cases. Conclusion Smokeless tobacco, as used in America or Europe, carries at most a minor increased risk of oral cancer. However, elevated risks in specific populations or from specific products cannot definitely be excluded. PMID:18005437

  20. BMI, body discrepancy, and self-construal as predictors of eating disturbances in European and Asian American females.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward C; Yu, Elizabeth A; Kahle, Emma R

    2014-04-01

    This study examined for ethnic variations in the predictive utility of body discrepancy and self-construal in eating disturbances between 156 European American and 129 Asian American females. We found important ethnic variations in the prediction model between these two groups, especially in the value of self-construal. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.

  1. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: Monophyletic origin of European isolates from North American Genogroup M

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enzmann, P.-J.; Kurath, G.; Fichtner, D.; Bergmann, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was first detected in Europe in 1987 in France and Italy, and later, in 1992, in Germany. The source of the virus and the route of introduction are unknown. The present study investigates the molecular epidemiology of IHNV outbreaks in Germany since its first introduction. The complete nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein (G) and non-virion (NV) genes from 9 IHNV isolates from Germany have been determined, and this has allowed the identification of characteristic differences between these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of partial G gene sequences (mid-G, 303 nucleotides) from North American IHNV isolates (Kurath et al. 2003) has revealed 3 major genogroups, designated U, M and L. Using this gene region with 2 different North American IHNV data sets, it was possible to group the European IHNV strains within the M genogroup, but not in any previously defined subgroup. Analysis of the full length G gene sequences indicated that an independent evolution of IHN viruses had occurred in Europe. IHN viruses in Europe seem to be of a monophyletic origin, again most closely related to North American isolates in the M genogroup. Analysis of the NV gene sequences also showed the European isolates to be monophyletic, but resolution of the 3 genogroups was poor with this gene region. As a result of comparative sequence analyses, several different genotypes have been identified circulating in Europe. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  2. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: monophyletic origin of European isolates from North American genogroup M.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, P J; Kurath, G; Fichtner, D; Bergmann, S M

    2005-09-23

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was first detected in Europe in 1987 in France and Italy, and later, in 1992, in Germany. The source of the virus and the route of introduction are unknown. The present study investigates the molecular epidemiology of IHNV outbreaks in Germany since its first introduction. The complete nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein (G) and non-virion (NV) genes from 9 IHNV isolates from Germany have been determined, and this has allowed the identification of characteristic differences between these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of partial G gene sequences (mid-G, 303 nucleotides) from North American IHNV isolates (Kurath et al. 2003) has revealed 3 major genogroups, designated U, M and L. Using this gene region with 2 different North American IHNV data sets, it was possible to group the European IHNV strains within the M genogroup, but not in any previously defined subgroup. Analysis of the full length G gene sequences indicated that an independent evolution of IHN viruses had occurred in Europe. IHN viruses in Europe seem to be of a monophyletic origin, again most closely related to North American isolates in the M genogroup. Analysis of the NV gene sequences also showed the European isolates to be monophyletic, but resolution of the 3 genogroups was poor with this gene region. As a result of comparative sequence analyses, several different genotypes have been identified circulating in Europe.

  3. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status.

  4. Shading as a Control Method for Invasive European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Ellis, Michael S.; Fancher, Kelly L.; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) has negative environmental and economic impacts in North American water bodies. It is therefore important to develop effective management tools to control this invasive species. This study investigated shading as a control method for European frogbit in both greenhouse and lake mesocosm experiments. A series of shade treatments (0%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 100%) were tested in the greenhouse for three weeks. Results showed that the 100% shade was most effective at controlling European frogbit, and other shade treatments greater than 50% were less effective, reducing frogbit biomass up to 38.2%. There were no differences found in temperature between treatments, but dissolved oxygen decreased as shading increased. A lake mesocosm experiment utilizing 0% shade, 70% shade, and 100% shade treatments was performed in a sheltered inlet of Oneida Lake in New York State for over one month. Resulting European frogbit biomass was significantly (25 times) less in areas treated with the 70% shade and nearly zero with the 100% shade. Shading did not affect temperature but improved DO conditions. Results on the shading effects on submerged macrophytes were not conclusive: no significant differences in changes in species richness and abundance between the three groups at the end of studied period suggested no shading effects; significant differences between the beginning and end communities in the 70% shade and the 100% shade but not in the control group indicated significant impacts of shading. This study is the first one to investigate shading as a control method for European frogbit and it is concluded that a moderately high density shade can effective remove European frogbit likely with minor impacts on the environment. More experiments with larger scales and longer time periods are recommended for further investigation. PMID:24886916

  5. A genetic association study of activated partial thromboplastin time in European Americans and African Americans: the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Cushman, Mary; Pankow, James S.; Basu, Saonli; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.; Tang, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a risk marker for incident and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Genetic factors influencing aPTT are not well understood, especially in populations of non-European ancestry. The present study aimed to identify aPTT-related gene variants in both European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). We conducted a genetic association study for aPTT in 9719 EAs and 2799 AAs from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium candidate gene array, the analyses were based on ∼50 000 SNPs in ∼2000 candidate genes. In EAs, the analyses identified a new independent association for aPTT in F5 (rs2239852, P-value = 1.9 × 10−8), which clusters with a coding variant rs6030 (P-value = 7.8 × 10−7). The remaining significant signals were located on F5, HRG, KNG1, F11, F12 and ABO and have been previously reported in EA populations. In AAs, significant signals were identified in KNG1, HRG, F12, ABO and VWF, with the leading variants in KNG1, HRG and F12 being the same as in the EAs; the significant variant in VWF (rs2229446, P-value = 1.2 × 10−6) was specific to the AA sample (minor allele frequency = 19% in AAs and 0.2% in EAs) and has not been previously reported. This is the first study to report aPTT-related genetic variants in AAs. Our findings in AAs demonstrate transferability of previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG and F12 in EAs. We also identified new associations at F5 in EAs and VWF in AAs that have not been previously reported for aPTT. PMID:25552651

  6. A genetic association study of activated partial thromboplastin time in European Americans and African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lu-Chen; Cushman, Mary; Pankow, James S; Basu, Saonli; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R; Tang, Weihong

    2015-04-15

    Reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is a risk marker for incident and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Genetic factors influencing aPTT are not well understood, especially in populations of non-European ancestry. The present study aimed to identify aPTT-related gene variants in both European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). We conducted a genetic association study for aPTT in 9719 EAs and 2799 AAs from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium candidate gene array, the analyses were based on ∼50 000 SNPs in ∼2000 candidate genes. In EAs, the analyses identified a new independent association for aPTT in F5 (rs2239852, P-value = 1.9 × 10(-8)), which clusters with a coding variant rs6030 (P-value = 7.8 × 10(-7)). The remaining significant signals were located on F5, HRG, KNG1, F11, F12 and ABO and have been previously reported in EA populations. In AAs, significant signals were identified in KNG1, HRG, F12, ABO and VWF, with the leading variants in KNG1, HRG and F12 being the same as in the EAs; the significant variant in VWF (rs2229446, P-value = 1.2 × 10(-6)) was specific to the AA sample (minor allele frequency = 19% in AAs and 0.2% in EAs) and has not been previously reported. This is the first study to report aPTT-related genetic variants in AAs. Our findings in AAs demonstrate transferability of previously reported associations with KNG1, HRG and F12 in EAs. We also identified new associations at F5 in EAs and VWF in AAs that have not been previously reported for aPTT.

  7. Ancestry analysis reveals a predominant Native American component with moderate European admixture in Bolivians.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Tanja; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Carracedo, Angel; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We have genotyped 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) in two of the most populated areas in Bolivia, namely, La Paz (Andean region; n=105), and Chuquisaca (Sub-Andean region; n=73). Using different analytical tools, we inferred admixture proportions of these two American communities by comparing the genetic profiles with those publicly available from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) panel representing three main continental groups (Africa, Europe, and America). By way of simulations, we first evaluated the minimum sample size needed in order to obtain accurate estimates of ancestry proportions. The results indicated that sample sizes above 30 individuals could be large enough to estimate main continental ancestry proportions using the 46 AIMs panel. With the exception of a few individuals, the results also indicated that Bolivians showed a predominantly Native American ancestry with variable levels of European admixture. The proportions of ancestry were statistically different in La Paz and Chuquisaca: the Native American component was 86% and 77% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=2.1×10(-5)), while the European ancestry was 13% and 21% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=3.6×10(-5)), respectively. The African ancestry in Bolivians captured by the AIMs analyzed in the present study was below 2%. The inferred ancestry of Bolivians fits well with previous studies undertaken on haplotype data, indicating a major proportion of Native American lineages. The genetic differences observed in these two groups suggest that forensic genetic analysis should be better performed based on local databases built in the main Bolivian areas.

  8. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Tappen, Ruth; Engstrom, Gabriella; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups. Participants and methods Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics). Results Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0), having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013), back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8), feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7), and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6) were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups. Conclusion Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging. PMID:26604718

  9. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology.

  10. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  11. The influence of mitigation evidence, ethnicity, and SES on death penalty decisions by European American and Latino venire persons.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Russ K E; Willis-Esqueda, Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine whether European American and Latino mock jurors would demonstrate bias in death penalty decision making when mitigation evidence and defendant ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) were varied. A total of 561 actual venire persons acted as mock jurors and read a trial transcript that varied a defendant's case information (mitigating circumstances: strong/weak, defendant ethnicity: European American/Latino, and defendant SES: low/high). European American jurors recommended the death penalty significantly more often for the low SES Latino defendant when strength of mitigation evidence was weak. In addition, they also assigned this defendant higher culpability ratings and lower ratings on positive personality trait measures compared with all other conditions. Strong mitigation evidence contributed to lower guilt ratings by European American jurors for the high SES European American defendant. Latino jurors did not differ in their death penalty sentencing across defendant mitigation, ethnicity, or SES conditions. Discussion of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, as well as suggestions for procedures to diminish juror bias in death penalty cases, is provided.

  12. Convergence in feeling, divergence in physiology: How culture influences the consequences of disgust suppression and amplification among European Americans and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Soto, José A; Lee, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Nicole A

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical work documents the downsides of suppressing emotions. Emerging research points to the need for a more sophisticated and culturally informed approach to understanding the consequences of emotion regulation. To that end, we employed behavioral, self-report, and psychophysiological measures to examine the consequences of two types of emotion regulation (suppression and amplification) in a sample of 28 Asian Americans and 31 European Americans. Participants were shown a neutral film and then a series of disgust-eliciting films during which they were asked to regulate their response by suppressing or amplifying their emotional behavior (counterbalanced). Despite self-reporting equal levels of disgust, European Americans showed greater skin conductance reactivity than Asian Americans in both regulation conditions, but not in response to a neutral film. These findings extend work on divergence in the consequences of emotion regulation across different cultural groups, which could help identify optimal emotion regulation strategies for health and well-being.

  13. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of childrearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. In a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers’ parenting knowledge, compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and social status, and identified principal sources of mothers’ parenting knowledge in terms of social factors, parenting supports, and formal classes. On the whole, European American mothers demonstrated a fair but less than complete basic parenting knowledge, and mothers’ age, education, and rated helpfulness of written materials each uniquely contributed to their knowledge. Adult mothers scored higher than adolescent mothers, and mothers improved in their knowledge of parenting from their first to their second child (and were stable across time). No differences were found between mothers of girls and boys, mothers who varied in employment status, or between birth and adoptive mothers. The implications of variation in parenting knowledge and its sources for parenting education and clinical interactions with parents are discussed. PMID:20836597

  14. Antiphospholipid syndrome in Latin American patients: clinical and immunologic characteristics and comparison with European patients.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, M; Galarza, C; Gómez-Ponce, M; Cervera, R; Rojas-Rodríguez, J; Espinosa, G; Bucciarelli, S; Gómez-Puerta, J A; Bové, A; Escárcega, R O; Font, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of the main clinical and immunological manifestations at the onset and during the evolution of the disease in a cohort of patients from Latin America (mainly of mestizo origin) and to compare the Latin American with the European patients. Clinical and serological characteristics of 100 APS patients from Mexico and Ecuador were collected in a protocol form that was identical to that used to study the ;Euro-Phospholipid' cohort. The cohort consisted of 93 female patients (93.0%) and seven (7.0%) male patients. There were 91 mestizos (91.0%), seven whites (7.0%) and two Amerindians (2.0%). The most common manifestations were livedo reticularis (40.0%), migraine (35.0%), inferior extremity deep vein thrombosis (32.0%), thrombocytopenia (28.0%) and hemolytic anemia (20.0%). Several clinical manifestations were more prevalent in Latin American than in European patients and they included mainly neurological (migraine, transient global amnesia, acute ischemic encephalopathy, amaurosis fugax) and cutaneous (livedo reticularis, skin ulcerations, superficial cutaneous necrosis, multiple subungual splinter hemorrhages) manifestations as well as hemolytic anemia. The APS has a wide variety of clinical and immunological manifestations at the onset and during the evolution of the disease and the ethnic origin in addition to environmental and socioeconomic factors can modify the disease expression.

  15. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jatulan, Eduardo O.; Rabajante, Jomar F.; Banaay, Charina Gracia B.; Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Jose, Editha C.

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic. PMID:26674357

  16. Do gender differences in help avoidance vary by ethnicity? An examination of African American and European American students during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Allison M; Shim, S Serena; Lampkins-Uthando, Shawn A; Thompson, Geneene N; Kiefer, Sarah M

    2009-07-01

    The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses indicated that help avoidance increased over time, voice remained stable, and achievement declined. In line with hypotheses based on cultural variations in the female role, there were no gender differences in help avoidance for African American students, whereas for European American students, girls were lower in help avoidance than were boys. For African American students, there were no gender differences in voice with the teacher, whereas for European American students, girls were higher than were boys. These group differences were present at all 3 waves. For all students, increases in help avoidance negatively predicted changes in achievement, whereas increases in voice positively predicted achievement. Results underscore the importance of examining gender and ethnicity together to understand academic adjustment during early adolescence.

  17. Western European nuclear forces. A British, a French, and an American view

    SciTech Connect

    Witney, N.; Debouzy, O.; Levine, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Each of the three papers that make up this report focuses on the question: What is the best rationale for the continued existence of the West European-British and French-nuclear forces in the post- cold war period. The three analyses are not symmetrical. The British and French papers discuss the specifics of their own forces, and in doing so come up with similar rationales, each of which invokes what both papers term a European Vocation for the two forces operating in increasingly close cooperation with one another. The American paper is based on a view of U.S. interests in these forces which values their retention but questions the European Vocation as the primary premise. The three papers share a common structure, each providing a description of the past-the French paper with a more thoroughgoing description of a more complex past-as a basis for examining future alternatives. They also share the premise that it is in the real interests of not only Britain and France, but also of the United States and of international stability, that the British and French retain their forces. That is why the central issue throughout the report is not the real need, but rather the ranonale for the forces, the set of arguments that will convince the electorates of the two countries that their real interests dictate retention of their nuclear forces. (KAR) P. 8.

  18. Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

  19. Acculturation and Health Locus of Control among Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    1998-01-01

    Health locus of control was investigated across culture of origin (Mexicanism), mainstream culture (Americanism), and bicultural linguistic-acculturation domains among 424 Mexican-American adolescents. Belief in powerful others' external control was the strongest explanation of locus of control in the culture-of-origin domain; internal control was…

  20. Relations between colorblind socialization and children's racial bias: evidence from European American mothers and their preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the others' racial attitudes. Results indicated that nearly all mothers adopted "colormute" and "colorblind" approaches to socialization. Furthermore, neither children nor mothers accurately predicted the others' views. Children's racial attitudes were unrelated to their mothers' attitudes but were predicted by their mothers' cross-race friendships; those children whose mothers had a higher percentage of non-European American friends showed lower levels of racial biases than those children whose mothers had a lower percentage of non-European American friends.

  1. For and against a European quality control of training.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakakis, C; Michalas, S

    2001-01-01

    In a world of medicine that evolves more and more rapidly, sufficient quality of education in the arts and crafts of our discipline and control of this quality are essential for the progress and vitality of Ob/Gyn. There are variations in training within European countries but with the aim of harmonization in training programmes and the flexibility of quality control mechanisms we will meet our objective that is the high standards in the care of woman throughout Europe.

  2. Influence of geographical origin and botanical species on the content of extractives in American, French, and East European oak woods.

    PubMed

    Prida, Andrei; Puech, Jean-Louis

    2006-10-18

    The chemical composition of East European (Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania) oaks was investigated profoundly for the first time in the present study and compared with American and French counterparts. Taking into account the high natural variability of oak extractives contents, the wide-ranging sampling was performed for all oak origins: 276 French oaks, 102 East European oaks of both species (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl.), and 56 American oaks (Quercus alba). These oaks were compared with great attention paid to the extractives, which are most important for sensorial impact in wine or spirit maturation, such as ellagitannins and principal odorant substances (aromatic aldehydes, lactones and phenols). The substances in question were studied by application of HPLC and GC-MS techniques. The pattern of all studied extractive contents allowed adequate separation of oak samples according to their geographical origin or botanical species. The highest separation rate was for American and French oaks, whereas East European samples could be partially misclassified in two sets mentioned above. The most important variables for species discrimination were whiskey lactone related variables and ellagitannins, whereas the most important features for distinguishing the origin were eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, vanillin, and syringaldehyde. These substances allowed the distinction of French and East European woods of the same species. With regard to chemical composition, East European wood held the intermediary place between American and French oaks according to their ellagitannin and whiskey lactone levels; nevertheless, it was characterized by specific high values of eugenol, aromatic aldehydes, and 2-phenylethanol.

  3. Fat Distribution, Aerobic Fitness, Blood Lipids, and Insulin Sensitivity in African-American and European-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Brock, David W.; Lara-Castro, Cristina; Fernandez, Jose R.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine independent relationships of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), leg fat, and aerobic fitness with blood lipids and insulin sensitivity (Si) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) premenopausal women. Ninety-three EA and ninety-four AA with BMI between 27 and 30 kg/m2 had IAAT by computed tomography, total fat and leg fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, aerobic fitness by a graded exercise test, African admixture (AFADM) by ancestry informative markers, blood lipids by the Ektachem DT system, and Si by glucose tolerance test. Independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and leg fat, IAAT was positively related to low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C), cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglycerides (TGs), and fasting insulin (standardized β varying 0.16–0.34) and negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and Si (standardized β −0.15 and −0.25, respectively). In contrast, independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and IAAT, leg fat was negatively related to total cholesterol, LDL-C, cholesterol-HDL ratio, TGs, and fasting insulin (standardized β varying −0.15 to −0.21) and positively related to HDL-C and Si (standardized β 0.16 and 0.23). Age was not independently related to worsening of any blood lipid but was related to increased Si (standardized β for Si 0.25, insulin −0.31). With the exception of total cholesterol and LDL-C, aerobic fitness was independently related to worsened blood lipid profile and increased Si (standardized β varying 0.17 to −0.21). Maintenance of favorable fat distribution and aerobic fitness may be important strategies for healthy aging, at least in premenopausal EA and AA women. PMID:19661963

  4. Ethnic differences in glucose disposal, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and endogenous glucose production among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Granger, Wesley M; Ovalle, Fernando; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-05-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests have demonstrated lower whole-body insulin sensitivity (S(I)) among African Americans (AA) compared with European Americans (EA). Whole-body S(I) represents both insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, primarily by skeletal muscle, and insulin's suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by liver. A mathematical model was recently introduced that allows for distinction between disposal and hepatic S(I). The purpose of this study was to examine specific indexes of S(I) among AA and EA women to determine whether lower whole-body S(I) in AA may be attributed to insulin action at muscle, liver, or both. Participants were 53 nondiabetic, premenopausal AA and EA women. Profiles of EGP and indexes of Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were calculated by mathematical modeling and incorporation of a stable isotope tracer ([6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose) into the intravenous glucose tolerance test. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After adjustment for percentage fat, both Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were lower among AA (P = .009 for both). Time profiles for serum insulin and EGP revealed higher peak insulin response and corresponding lower EGP among AA women compared with EA. Indexes from a recently introduced mathematical model suggest that lower whole-body S(I) among nondiabetic AA women is due to both hepatic and peripheral components. Despite lower Hepatic S(I), AA displayed lower EGP, resulting from higher postchallenge insulin levels. Future research is needed to determine the physiological basis of lower insulin sensitivity among AA and its implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

  5. Fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood lipids, and insulin sensitivity in African-American and European-American women.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Brock, David W; Lara-Castro, Cristina; Fernandez, Jose R; Gower, Barbara A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine independent relationships of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), leg fat, and aerobic fitness with blood lipids and insulin sensitivity (S(i)) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) premenopausal women. Ninety-three EA and ninety-four AA with BMI between 27 and 30 kg/m(2) had IAAT by computed tomography, total fat and leg fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, aerobic fitness by a graded exercise test, African admixture (AFADM) by ancestry informative markers, blood lipids by the Ektachem DT system, and S(i) by glucose tolerance test. Independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and leg fat, IAAT was positively related to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglycerides (TGs), and fasting insulin (standardized beta varying 0.16-0.34) and negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and S(i) (standardized beta -0.15 and -0.25, respectively). In contrast, independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and IAAT, leg fat was negatively related to total cholesterol, LDL-C, cholesterol-HDL ratio, TGs, and fasting insulin (standardized beta varying -0.15 to -0.21) and positively related to HDL-C and S(i) (standardized beta 0.16 and 0.23). Age was not independently related to worsening of any blood lipid but was related to increased S(i) (standardized beta for S(i) 0.25, insulin -0.31). With the exception of total cholesterol and LDL-C, aerobic fitness was independently related to worsened blood lipid profile and increased S(i) (standardized beta varying 0.17 to -0.21). Maintenance of favorable fat distribution and aerobic fitness may be important strategies for healthy aging, at least in premenopausal EA and AA women.

  6. Rare, low frequency, and common coding variants in CHRNA5 and their contribution to nicotine dependence in European and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Olfson, Emily; Saccone, Nancy L.; Johnson, Eric O.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Culverhouse, Robert; Doheny, Kimberly; Foltz, Steven M.; Fox, Louis; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Hartz, Sarah; Hetrick, Kurt; Laurie, Cathy C.; Marosy, Beth; Amin, Najaf; Arnett, Donna; Barr, R. Graham; Bartz, Traci M.; Bertelsen, Sarah; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Brown, Michael R.; Chasman, Daniel I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fox, Ervin R.; Franceschini, Nora; Franco, Oscar H.; Grove, Megan L.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hofman, Albert; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rao, D.C.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rice, Kenneth; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Schick, Ursula M.; Schwander, Karen; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vojinovic, Dina; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Ware, Erin B.; Wilson, Gregory; Yao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Rice, John; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    The common nonsynonymous variant rs16969968 in the α5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene (CHRNA5) is the strongest genetic risk factor for nicotine dependence in European Americans and contributes to risk in African Americans. To comprehensively examine whether other CHRNA5 coding variation influences nicotine dependence risk, we performed targeted sequencing on 1582 nicotine dependent cases (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score≥4) and 1238 non-dependent controls, with independent replication of common and low frequency variants using 12 studies with exome chip data. Nicotine dependence was examined using logistic regression with individual common variants (MAF≥0.05), aggregate low frequency variants (0.05>MAF≥0.005), and aggregate rare variants (MAF<0.005). Meta-analysis of primary results was performed with replication studies containing 12 174 heavy and 11 290 light smokers. Next-generation sequencing with 180X coverage identified 24 nonsynonymous variants and 2 frameshift deletions in CHRNA5, including 9 novel variants in the 2820 subjects. Meta-analysis confirmed the risk effect of the only common variant (rs16969968, European ancestry: OR=1.3, p=3.5×10−11; African ancestry: OR=1.3, p=0.01) and demonstrated that 3 low frequency variants contributed an independent risk (aggregate term, European ancestry: OR=1.3, p=0.005; African ancestry: OR=1.4, p=0.0006). The remaining 22 rare coding variants were associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence in the European American primary sample (OR=12.9, p=0.01) and in the same risk direction in African Americans (OR=1.5, p=0.37). Our results indicate that common, low frequency and rare CHRNA5 coding variants are independently associated with nicotine dependence risk. These newly identified variants likely influence risk for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer. PMID:26239294

  7. Rare, low frequency and common coding variants in CHRNA5 and their contribution to nicotine dependence in European and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Olfson, E; Saccone, N L; Johnson, E O; Chen, L-S; Culverhouse, R; Doheny, K; Foltz, S M; Fox, L; Gogarten, S M; Hartz, S; Hetrick, K; Laurie, C C; Marosy, B; Amin, N; Arnett, D; Barr, R G; Bartz, T M; Bertelsen, S; Borecki, I B; Brown, M R; Chasman, D I; van Duijn, C M; Feitosa, M F; Fox, E R; Franceschini, N; Franco, O H; Grove, M L; Guo, X; Hofman, A; Kardia, S L R; Morrison, A C; Musani, S K; Psaty, B M; Rao, D C; Reiner, A P; Rice, K; Ridker, P M; Rose, L M; Schick, U M; Schwander, K; Uitterlinden, A G; Vojinovic, D; Wang, J-C; Ware, E B; Wilson, G; Yao, J; Zhao, W; Breslau, N; Hatsukami, D; Stitzel, J A; Rice, J; Goate, A; Bierut, L J

    2016-05-01

    The common nonsynonymous variant rs16969968 in the α5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene (CHRNA5) is the strongest genetic risk factor for nicotine dependence in European Americans and contributes to risk in African Americans. To comprehensively examine whether other CHRNA5 coding variation influences nicotine dependence risk, we performed targeted sequencing on 1582 nicotine-dependent cases (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score⩾4) and 1238 non-dependent controls, with independent replication of common and low frequency variants using 12 studies with exome chip data. Nicotine dependence was examined using logistic regression with individual common variants (minor allele frequency (MAF)⩾0.05), aggregate low frequency variants (0.05>MAF⩾0.005) and aggregate rare variants (MAF<0.005). Meta-analysis of primary results was performed with replication studies containing 12 174 heavy and 11 290 light smokers. Next-generation sequencing with 180 × coverage identified 24 nonsynonymous variants and 2 frameshift deletions in CHRNA5, including 9 novel variants in the 2820 subjects. Meta-analysis confirmed the risk effect of the only common variant (rs16969968, European ancestry: odds ratio (OR)=1.3, P=3.5 × 10(-11); African ancestry: OR=1.3, P=0.01) and demonstrated that three low frequency variants contributed an independent risk (aggregate term, European ancestry: OR=1.3, P=0.005; African ancestry: OR=1.4, P=0.0006). The remaining 22 rare coding variants were associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence in the European American primary sample (OR=12.9, P=0.01) and in the same risk direction in African Americans (OR=1.5, P=0.37). Our results indicate that common, low frequency and rare CHRNA5 coding variants are independently associated with nicotine dependence risk. These newly identified variants likely influence the risk for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer.

  8. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-10

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  9. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  10. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS IN EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA) AND AMERICAN MINK (NEOVISON VISON) IN SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Sisco; Gómez, Asunción; Asensio, Victoria; Palazón, Santiago; Podra, Madis; Alarcia, Olga Esther; Ruiz-Olmo, Jordi; Casal, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) has undergone a dramatic decline and is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. The invasive American mink (Neovison vison) is considered the main factor for this decline. However, the American mink's introduction and the subsequent ecological concurrence of the two species cannot solely explain the decline or disappearance of the European mink. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the main health problem in fur farming worldwide, causing varied clinical syndromes that depend on the viral strain and host factors. Infection with AMDV has been speculated to contribute to the decline of the European mink, but a detailed study has not been performed. To assess the potential effects of AMDV infection on the conservation of the European mink, we surveyed AMDV antibody in samples from 492 native European mink and 1,735 feral American mink collected over 16 yr. The antibody prevalence in European mink was 32%. There were no statistically significant differences in antibody prevalence between sexes, among years, or among weight classes. For recaptured European mink, incidence of seroconversion (negative to positive) was 0.46 cases per animal-year at risk. For positive animals, the incidence of conversion from positive to negative was 0.18 cases per animal-year at risk. In 1,735 feral American minks, the overall prevalence was 32.4% and varied among the six wild populations studied. Infection with AMDV appears to be endemic, distributed across the entire ranges of both species, and no effects on the population dynamics of either species were observed.

  11. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…

  12. Mother-Child Conversations of Emotionally Salient Events: Exploring the Functions of Emotional Reminiscing in European-American and Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Fivush, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the functional variations in mother-child conversations of emotionally salient events in European-American and Chinese families. Thirty Chinese and 31 European-American 3-year-old children and their mothers participated. Mothers were asked to discuss with their children at home two specific one-point-in-time events in which…

  13. The roles of the American and European governments in the development and persistence of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Martens, W H J

    2004-01-01

    Both the American and European governments play a crucial part in the development and continuation of antisocial behavior. They demonstrate a lack of activities or initiatives that should intervene in or prevent negative conditions that correlate with antisocial behavior such as media violence; poverty; poor neighborhoods; homelessness; unfavourable parental impact and attitude, educational, psychiatric, neurobiological, and physical problems. More research is needed into a) the determinants of antisocial behavior, b) the construction of new and improvement of existing prevention and intervention programs, c) the exact reasons for governments' lack of initiatives and adequate measurements in order to tackle problems that correlate with antisocial behavior, and d) the development of methods that are suitable to stimulate the government's awareness of the necessity for adequate prevention and intervention programs.

  14. Change in coping and defense mechanisms across adulthood: longitudinal findings in a European American sample.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L; Lumley, Mark A; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-02-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change trajectories for sublimation and suppression showed that their use increased from adolescence to late middle age and early old age and remained mostly stable into late old age. The change trajectory for intellectualization showed that the use of this defense mechanism increased from adolescence to middle age, remained stable until late midlife, and started to decline thereafter. The defense mechanisms of doubt, displacement, and regression showed decreases from adolescence until early old age, with increases occurring again after the age of 65. Linear age-related decreases were found for the coping mechanism of ego regression and the defense mechanisms of isolation and rationalization. Gender and socioeconomic status were associated with the mean levels of several coping and defense mechanisms but did not moderate age-related changes. Increases in ego level were associated with increased use of the defense mechanism intellectualization and decreased use of the defense mechanisms of doubt and displacement. Overall, these findings in a European American sample suggest that most individuals showed development in the direction of more adaptive and less maladaptive coping and defense strategies from adolescence until late middle age or early old age. However, in late old age this development was reversed, presenting potential challenges to the adaptive capacity of older adults.

  15. [Challenges to Latin-American health systems: what can be learned from the European experience?].

    PubMed

    Figueras, J; Musgrove, P; Carrin, G; Durán, A

    2002-01-01

    This article compares the challenges of health systems in Latin America and the experience in Europe. The framework is the analysis of four functions: a) to generate resources; b) to produce activities; c) to finance, and d) to exercise stewardship. It is at this level where actors can influence health system responsiveness. Five challenges are identified in Latin America: a) to extend (prepayment and solidarity) financial protection; b) to stabilise that protection for crisis times; c) to equilibrate resources in accordance to capacity for financing services; d) to increase efficiency (technical and of placement) to produce services, and e) to improve the stewardship function in public and private sectors (the most important and difficult challenge Latin-American systems have nowadays). The experience of reform in Europe is analysed, showing: a) experiences about financial protection in Beveridge and Bismarck systems; b) stability in crisis times, recently confirm (West) and with important obstacles (East); c) efforts to equilibrate hospital beds and health care professionals, combining regulation and incentives; d) increase of efficiency in services production, with more express prioritisation, empowering patients, decentralising management and with market incentives, and e) improvement of stewardship with better (not less, sometimes even more) regulation. Three areas of European experience stand out: a) to combine solidarity with financial sustainability; b) to introduce market incentives in a measured way, but maintaining a clear stewardship role for the state, and c) to adopt innovations in organising and producing services. In spite of methodological difficulties, convergence of challenges and adopted solutions justify this analysis, but learning must be seen in each national context. A future article will analyse lessons offered by reform in Latin-American systems for European reforms.

  16. Blood group comparisons between European mouflon sheep and north American desert bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T D; Nguyen, T C

    1982-01-01

    Blood group systems in true sheep (Ovis) provide an additional method by which phylogenetic relationships can be measured. Of the eight genetic systems of blood groups identified in domestic sheep, all appeared to have their homologue in European mouflons and at least six might have their equivalent in North American desert bighorns. The red cells of the European mouflon, which is believed to be ancestral to domestic sheep, cross-reacted with domestic sheep blood-group typing reagents much more strongly and extensively than did the red cells of desert bighorn sheep. It also was noted that all the Mexican desert bighorns tested were Da positive, but their blood factor was not observed in the Nelson desert bighorns sampled. This observation indicated that the two subspecies might differ from each other with respect to the D blood group system. Transferrin type D was observed in the mouflons, while Tfs D and E were in the desert bighorns. Hemoglobins B and AB were observed in the mouflons but only Hb B occurred in the desert bighorns. The systematic implications of blood group polymorphisms are discussed.

  17. The Emergence of Cultural Self-Constructs: Autobiographical Memory and Self-Description in European American and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the emergence of cultural self-constructs as reflected in children's remembered and conceptual aspects of the self. European American and Chinese children in preschool through 2nd grade participated (N=180). Children each recounted 4 autobiographical events and described themselves in response to open-ended questions. American…

  18. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  19. "The Finest 'Bunch' of Children to Be Found Anywhere": Educating European and American Youths in Korea, 1880s-1940s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses how European and American communities in Korea organised the education of their own children from the "opening" of the country to foreign residents in the 1880s until the Second World War. Education serves as a lens to investigate these dominantly bourgeois communities of missionaries, merchants, experts and…

  20. Impact of GGCX, STX1B and FPGS Polymorphisms on Warfarin Dose Requirements in European-Americans and Egyptians.

    PubMed

    Hamadeh, I S; Shahin, M H; Lima, S M; Oliveira, F; Wilson, L; Khalifa, S I; Langaee, T Y; Cooper-DeHoff, R M; Cavallari, L H; Johnson, J A

    2016-02-01

    Genotype-based algorithms that include VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes are less predictive of warfarin dose variability in Africans as opposed to Europeans. Polymorphisms in GGCX, FPGS, or STX1B are associated with warfarin dose requirements in African-Americans. We sought to determine if they influenced warfarin dose in European-Americans, and another African population, specifically Egyptians. We genotyped 529 adults (n = 325 European-Americans, 204 Egyptians) on a stable warfarin dose for GGCX rs12714145 and rs10654848, FPGS rs7856096, and STX1B rs4889606. Rs12714145, rs10654848, and rs7856096 were not associated with warfarin dose, whereas STX1B rs4889606 was a significant determinant in univariate analysis (P < 0.0001) in both cohorts. However, STX1B rs4889606 was in high linkage disequilibrium with VKORC1-1639 G>A, and was no longer significant after including VKORC1-1639 G>A in the regression model. Based on these data, the polymorphisms do not appear to influence, in a clinically important way, warfarin dose requirements in European-Americans and Egyptians.

  1. Parent-Child Participation in Planning Children's Activities Outside of School in European American and Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal research used a sociocultural perspective to examine planning competence in the everyday experiences of European American and Latino children from 7 to 9 years of age. Data on children's participation in planning their activities outside of school, parental expectations about children's planning competence, and children's…

  2. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  3. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  4. Relations between Colorblind Socialization and Children's Racial Bias: Evidence from European American Mothers and Their Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the…

  5. Clinical Phenomenology, Somatic Symptoms, and Distress in Hispanic/Latino and European American Youths With Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Armando A.; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared clinic-anxious Hispanic/Latino and European American youths (ages 6 to 17 years old) along sociodemographic and clinical variables. Groups were relatively similar, although significant differences emerged as a function of ethnocultural and language choice (English, Spanish) used during the assessment. Within the English…

  6. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  7. Planning, Re-Bordering and Setting Times: A Comparative Analysis of European and Latin American "Education Spaces"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…

  8. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  9. Independent introductions and admixtures have contributed to adaptation of European maize and its American counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Rigaill, Guillem; Corti, Hélène; Vitte, Clémentine; Charcosset, Alain; Tenaillon, Maud I.

    2017-01-01

    Through the local selection of landraces, humans have guided the adaptation of crops to a vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. This is particularly true of maize, which was domesticated in a restricted area of Mexico but now displays one of the broadest cultivated ranges worldwide. Here, we sequenced 67 genomes with an average sequencing depth of 18x to document routes of introduction, admixture and selective history of European maize and its American counterparts. To avoid the confounding effects of recent breeding, we targeted germplasm (lines) directly derived from landraces. Among our lines, we discovered 22,294,769 SNPs and between 0.9% to 4.1% residual heterozygosity. Using a segmentation method, we identified 6,978 segments of unexpectedly high rate of heterozygosity. These segments point to genes potentially involved in inbreeding depression, and to a lesser extent to the presence of structural variants. Genetic structuring and inferences of historical splits revealed 5 genetic groups and two independent European introductions, with modest bottleneck signatures. Our results further revealed admixtures between distinct sources that have contributed to the establishment of 3 groups at intermediate latitudes in North America and Europe. We combined differentiation- and diversity-based statistics to identify both genes and gene networks displaying strong signals of selection. These include genes/gene networks involved in flowering time, drought and cold tolerance, plant defense and starch properties. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of European maize and highlight a major role of admixture in environmental adaptation, paralleling recent findings in humans. PMID:28301472

  10. Independent introductions and admixtures have contributed to adaptation of European maize and its American counterparts.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Rigaill, Guillem; Hearne, Sarah J; Corti, Hélène; Joets, Johann; Vitte, Clémentine; Charcosset, Alain; Nicolas, Stéphane D; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2017-03-01

    Through the local selection of landraces, humans have guided the adaptation of crops to a vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. This is particularly true of maize, which was domesticated in a restricted area of Mexico but now displays one of the broadest cultivated ranges worldwide. Here, we sequenced 67 genomes with an average sequencing depth of 18x to document routes of introduction, admixture and selective history of European maize and its American counterparts. To avoid the confounding effects of recent breeding, we targeted germplasm (lines) directly derived from landraces. Among our lines, we discovered 22,294,769 SNPs and between 0.9% to 4.1% residual heterozygosity. Using a segmentation method, we identified 6,978 segments of unexpectedly high rate of heterozygosity. These segments point to genes potentially involved in inbreeding depression, and to a lesser extent to the presence of structural variants. Genetic structuring and inferences of historical splits revealed 5 genetic groups and two independent European introductions, with modest bottleneck signatures. Our results further revealed admixtures between distinct sources that have contributed to the establishment of 3 groups at intermediate latitudes in North America and Europe. We combined differentiation- and diversity-based statistics to identify both genes and gene networks displaying strong signals of selection. These include genes/gene networks involved in flowering time, drought and cold tolerance, plant defense and starch properties. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of European maize and highlight a major role of admixture in environmental adaptation, paralleling recent findings in humans.

  11. Associations between estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and timing of reproductive events differ between African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary R; Bovbjerg, Dana Howard; Shankar, Jyoti; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Ruszczyk, Melanie; Khoury, Thaer; Yao, Song; Ciupak, Gregory L; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen S; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-06-01

    The effects of reproductive factors on breast cancer risk seem to differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Menarche and first live birth (FLB) tend to occur at younger ages in African Americans (AA) than European Americans (EA), and could play a role in breast cancer disparities. In the Women's Circle of Health Study, a case-control study of breast cancer in EA and AA women, in-person interviews were conducted to collect epidemiologic data, including reproductive histories. Data on ER status, abstracted from pathology reports, were available for 814 AA and 538 EA breast cancer cases, and were analyzed with 1015 AA and 715 EA controls, to evaluate associations between subgroups and age at menarche, age at FLB, and the interval between those ages. Among AA women, later age at menarche (≥14 years) was associated with reduced risk of both ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer, with ORs strongest for ER(-) disease [OR = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.88]; associations were weaker and nonsignificant for EA women. There were no significant associations with age at FLB, but AA women with a FLB within 15 years of menarche had increased risk of ER(-) disease (OR = 2.26; 95% CI, 1.29-3.95), with no significant associations among EAs. In our data, earlier age at menarche and shorter intervals until FLB are associated with ER(-) breast cancer in AA women; differential distributions by race of these and other reproductive risk factors could contribute to the higher prevalence of ER(-) breast cancer in AA women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1115-20. ©2014 AACR.

  12. Progression to Problem Drinking Among Mexican American and White European First-Year College Students: A Multiple Group Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Roesch, Scott C.; Myers, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Problem drinking during college is a well-known phenomenon. However, predictors of progression to problematic drinking, particularly among ethnic minorities such as Mexican Americans, have received limited research attention. Method: The current study compared the rates and predictors of problem drinking progression from the first to the second year of college among four groups: Mexican American men, Mexican American women, White European men, and White European women (N = 215). At baseline, participants were all first-year college students who scored as nonproblem drinkers on the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST). Participants were classified as progressors or stable nondrinkers/nonproblem drinkers based on YAAPST scores 12 months later. Hypothesized predictors of progression included behavioral undercontrol, negative emotionality, alcohol use expectancies, and cultural orientation (Mexican American sample only). Differences were anticipated between gender and ethnic groups in both progression rates and predictors of progression. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the sample progressed to problematic drinking; however, no differences emerged by gender or ethnicity. For the full sample, higher behavioral undercontrol and higher negative emotionality significantly predicted progression. Differences in predictors were not found across gender and ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: The hypothesis that rates of progression to problem drinking would differ among the four gender and ethnic groups was not supported. Thus, although White European men are most often identified as at high risk for alcohol use problems, the present findings indicate that women and Mexican American students also should be targeted for prevention and/or intervention. PMID:22051211

  13. Use of the European preliminary criteria, the Breiman-classification tree and the American-European criteria for diagnosis of primary Sjögren's Syndrome in daily practice: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Langegger, C; Wenger, M; Duftner, C; Dejaco, C; Baldissera, I; Moncayo, R; Schirmer, M

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the use of the European preliminary criteria, the Breiman-classification tree and the American-European criteria for diagnosis of primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) in daily practice. A retrospective analysis of 17 consecutive patients with pSS (European criteria) was performed evaluating the application of the Schirmer test, semiquantitative sialoscintigraphy, immunologic tests, including rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, Sjögren's syndrome autoantibodies (SS-A, SS-B) and lip biopsy. Out of the 17 patients with pSS according to the European criteria, 15 patients fulfilled the classification tree (=88.2%), and 4 patients fulfilled the American-European criteria (=23.5%, P = 0.001). In the four patients fulfilling the American-European criteria, a positive result of the sialoscintigraphy was not crucial for the diagnosis according to these criteria. In conclusion, the American-European criteria are more stringent than the European preliminary criteria. We assume the role of sialoscintigraphy to be reduced when applying the American-European criteria.

  14. PREFACE: European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Sören

    2014-12-01

    The European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis is an annual event that has been organised since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary and Denmark. The overall planning of the workshops is conducted by the Intelligent Control and Diagnosis (ICD) steering committee. This year's ACD workshop took place at HTW Berlin (University of Applied Sciences) and was organised by the Control Engineering group of School of Engineering I of HTW Berlin. 38 papers were presented at ACD 2014, with contributions spanning a variety of fields in modern control science: Discrete control, nonlinear control, model predictive control, system identification, fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control, control applications, applications of fuzzy logic, as well as modelling and simulation, the latter two forming a basis for all tasks in modern control. Three interesting and high-quality plenary lectures were delivered. The first plenary speaker was Wolfgang Weber from Pepperl+Fuchs, a German manufacturer of state-of-the-art industrial sensors and process interfaces. The second and third plenary speakers were two internationally high-ranked researchers in their respective fields, Prof. Didier Theilliol from Université de Lorraine and Prof. Carsten Scherer from Universität Stuttgart. Taken together, the three plenary lectures sought to contribute to closing the gap between theory and applications. On behalf of the whole ACD 2014 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who submitted papers and participated in the workshop. We hope it was a fruitful and memorable event for all. Together we are looking forward to the next ACD workshop in 2015 in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Horst Schulte (General Chair), Sören Georg (Programme Chair)

  15. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  16. Associations of dietary folate, Vitamins B6 and B12 and methionine intake with risk of breast cancer among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Lu, Quanjun; Hwang, Helena; Khoury, Thaer; Wiam, Bshara; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-03-15

    African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with breast cancer at younger ages and to develop poor prognosis tumors. However, these racial differences are largely unexplained. Folate and other methyl-group nutrients may be related to breast carcinogenesis, but few studies have examined these associations in AA populations. We examined the associations of dietary intake of these nutrients with breast cancer risk overall, by menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status among 1,582 AA (749 cases) and 1,434 EA (744 cases) women using data from a case-control study, the Women's Circle of Health Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of each nutrient and breast cancer risk. In AA women, inverse associations were observed for natural food folate intake among premenopausal women (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.33-1.00; p for trend = 0.06) and for ER-positive tumors (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.36-0.93; p for trend = 0.03), whereas in EA women, a positive association was observed for intake of synthetic folate (fourth vs. first quartile: OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.06-2.21; p for trend = 0.03). Our findings suggest that natural food folate intake is inversely associated with breast cancer risk and that this association may vary by race, menopausal status or ER status. The finding of an increased risk observed among EA women with the highest intake of synthetic folate from fortified foods warrants further investigation.

  17. Are There Common Familial Influences for Major Depressive Disorder and an Overeating-Binge Eating Dimension in both European-American and African-American Female Twins?

    PubMed Central

    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE), phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups Method Participants included 3226 European-American (EA) and 550 African-American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. Results The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]) Discussion Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. PMID:24659561

  18. Genetic Variants Associated with Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels in European Americans and African Americans from the eMERGE Network

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Jennifer R.; Denny, Joshua C.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Basford, Melissa A.; Bradford, Yuki; Peissig, Peggy L.; Carrell, David; Crosslin, David R.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Rasmussen, Luke; Pacheco, Jennifer; Kho, Abel; Newton, Katherine M.; Li, Rongling; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Chute, Christopher G.; Chisholm, Rex L.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Larson, Eric B.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Masys, Daniel R.; Roden, Dan M.; de Andrade, Mariza; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) hormone levels are normally tightly regulated within an individual; thus, relatively small variations may indicate thyroid disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants in PDE8B and FOXE1 that are associated with TSH levels. However, prior studies lacked racial/ethnic diversity, limiting the generalization of these findings to individuals of non-European ethnicities. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network is a collaboration across institutions with biobanks linked to electronic medical records (EMRs). The eMERGE Network uses EMR-derived phenotypes to perform GWAS in diverse populations for a variety of phenotypes. In this report, we identified serum TSH levels from 4,501 European American and 351 African American euthyroid individuals in the eMERGE Network with existing GWAS data. Tests of association were performed using linear regression and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and principal components, assuming an additive genetic model. Our results replicate the known association of PDE8B with serum TSH levels in European Americans (rs2046045 p = 1.85×10−17, β = 0.09). FOXE1 variants, associated with hypothyroidism, were not genome-wide significant (rs10759944: p = 1.08×10−6, β = −0.05). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in African Americans. However, multiple known associations with TSH levels in European ancestry were nominally significant in African Americans, including PDE8B (rs2046045 p = 0.03, β = −0.09), VEGFA (rs11755845 p = 0.01, β = −0.13), and NFIA (rs334699 p = 1.50×10−3, β = −0.17). We found little evidence that SNPs previously associated with other thyroid-related disorders were associated with serum TSH levels in this study. These results support the previously reported association between PDE8B and serum TSH levels in European Americans and emphasize the need for additional genetic

  19. Genetic variants associated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in European Americans and African Americans from the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Jennifer R; Denny, Joshua C; Bielinski, Suzette J; Basford, Melissa A; Bradford, Yuki; Peissig, Peggy L; Carrell, David; Crosslin, David R; Pathak, Jyotishman; Rasmussen, Luke; Pacheco, Jennifer; Kho, Abel; Newton, Katherine M; Li, Rongling; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Chute, Christopher G; Chisholm, Rex L; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; McCarty, Catherine A; Masys, Daniel R; Roden, Dan M; de Andrade, Mariza; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) hormone levels are normally tightly regulated within an individual; thus, relatively small variations may indicate thyroid disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants in PDE8B and FOXE1 that are associated with TSH levels. However, prior studies lacked racial/ethnic diversity, limiting the generalization of these findings to individuals of non-European ethnicities. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network is a collaboration across institutions with biobanks linked to electronic medical records (EMRs). The eMERGE Network uses EMR-derived phenotypes to perform GWAS in diverse populations for a variety of phenotypes. In this report, we identified serum TSH levels from 4,501 European American and 351 African American euthyroid individuals in the eMERGE Network with existing GWAS data. Tests of association were performed using linear regression and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and principal components, assuming an additive genetic model. Our results replicate the known association of PDE8B with serum TSH levels in European Americans (rs2046045 p = 1.85×10-17, β = 0.09). FOXE1 variants, associated with hypothyroidism, were not genome-wide significant (rs10759944: p = 1.08×10-6, β = -0.05). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in African Americans. However, multiple known associations with TSH levels in European ancestry were nominally significant in African Americans, including PDE8B (rs2046045 p = 0.03, β = -0.09), VEGFA (rs11755845 p = 0.01, β = -0.13), and NFIA (rs334699 p = 1.50×10-3, β = -0.17). We found little evidence that SNPs previously associated with other thyroid-related disorders were associated with serum TSH levels in this study. These results support the previously reported association between PDE8B and serum TSH levels in European Americans and emphasize the need for additional genetic studies in more

  20. [Endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids and their control].

    PubMed

    Schmäschke, R

    2015-01-01

    In a literature review, common endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids are described, presenting morphological details and clinical signs important for diagnosis. Based on the life cycle of the parasites, possibilities for prophylaxis and therapy are indicated. The review should aid the veterinarian to diagnose and control common parasitic infections in South American camelids.

  1. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families.

  2. The anatomy of vocal divergence in North American Elk and European red deer.

    PubMed

    Frey, Roland; Riede, Tobias

    2013-03-01

    Loud and frequent vocalizations play an important role in courtship behavior in Cervus species. European red deer (Cervus elaphus) produce low-pitched calls, whereas North American elk (Cervus canadensis) produce high-pitched calls, which is remarkable for one of the biggest land mammals. Both species engage their vocal organs in elaborate maneuvers but the precise mechanism is unknown. Vocal organs were compared by macroscopic and microscopic dissection. The larynx is sexually dimorphic in red deer but not in elk. The laryngeal lumen is more constricted in elk, and narrows further during ontogeny. Several elements of the hyoid skeleton and two of four vocal tract segments are longer in red deer than in elk allowing greater vocal tract expansion and elongation. We conclude that elk submit the larynx and vocal tract to much higher tension than red deer, whereby, enormously stressed vocal folds of reduced effective length create a high resistance glottal source. The narrow, high impedance laryngeal vestibulum matches glottal and vocal tract impedance allowing maximum power transfer. In red deer longer and relaxed vocal folds create a less resistant glottal source and a wider vestibulum matches the low glottal impedance to the vocal tract, thereby also ensuring maximum power transfer.

  3. An official European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society research statement: interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Aryeh; Antoniou, Katerina M; Brown, Kevin K; Cadranel, Jacques; Corte, Tamera J; du Bois, Roland M; Lee, Joyce S; Leslie, Kevin O; Lynch, David A; Matteson, Eric L; Mosca, Marta; Noth, Imre; Richeldi, Luca; Strek, Mary E; Swigris, Jeffrey J; Wells, Athol U; West, Sterling G; Collard, Harold R; Cottin, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) have clinical features that suggest an underlying autoimmune process but do not meet established criteria for a connective tissue disease (CTD). Researchers have proposed differing criteria and terms to describe these patients, and lack of consensus over nomenclature and classification limits the ability to conduct prospective studies of a uniform cohort.The "European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force on Undifferentiated Forms of Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease" was formed to create consensus regarding the nomenclature and classification criteria for patients with IIP and features of autoimmunity.The task force proposes the term "interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features" (IPAF) and offers classification criteria organised around the presence of a combination of features from three domains: a clinical domain consisting of specific extra-thoracic features, a serologic domain consisting of specific autoantibodies, and a morphologic domain consisting of specific chest imaging, histopathologic or pulmonary physiologic features.A designation of IPAF should be used to identify individuals with IIP and features suggestive of, but not definitive for, a CTD. With IPAF, a sound platform has been provided from which to launch the requisite future research investigations of a more uniform cohort.

  4. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) research statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  5. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD.

    PubMed

    Celli, Bartolome R; Decramer, Marc; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Wilson, Kevin C; Agustí, Alvar A; Criner, Gerard J; MacNee, William; Make, Barry J; Rennard, Stephen I; Stockley, Robert A; Vogelmeier, Claus; Anzueto, Antonio; Au, David H; Barnes, Peter J; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Calverley, Peter M; Casanova, Ciro; Clini, Enrico M; Cooper, Christopher B; Coxson, Harvey O; Dusser, Daniel J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Fahy, Bonnie; Ferguson, Gary T; Fisher, Andrew; Fletcher, Monica J; Hayot, Maurice; Hurst, John R; Jones, Paul W; Mahler, Donald A; Maltais, François; Mannino, David M; Martinez, Fernando J; Miravitlles, Marc; Meek, Paula M; Papi, Alberto; Rabe, Klaus F; Roche, Nicolas; Sciurba, Frank C; Sethi, Sanjay; Siafakas, Nikos; Sin, Don D; Soriano, Joan B; Stoller, James K; Tashkin, Donald P; Troosters, Thierry; Verleden, Geert M; Verschakelen, Johny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John W; Washko, George R; Wise, Robert A; Wouters, Emiel F M; ZuWallack, Richard L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  6. The role of the European court of justice in the Europeanization of communicable disease control: driver or irrelevance?

    PubMed

    Hervey, Tamara

    2012-12-01

    What role(s) does the European Court of Justice (ECJ) play in the Europeanization of communicable disease control? Drawing on a review of the ECJ's case law, especially but not exclusively in public health fields, from the 1950s to 2009, this article argues that the ECJ's past and present role in the Europeanization of communicable disease control is neither that of a driver nor that of an irrelevance. Instead, the ECJ has been responsible for four important elements of the environment that over time led to the Europeanization of communicable disease control in general and the establishment of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in particular: (1) the European Union itself has responsibility for public health; (2) agencies are a constitutionally permissible institutional arrangement in the EU; (3) EU legislation that inter alia protects public health is mandatory and justiciable; and (4) such EU legislation may not be undermined by liberalizing internal market law. A fifth idea, "mainstreaming" public health, could play a role in the future.

  7. Menopausal attitudes, objectified body consciousness, aging anxiety, and body esteem: European American women's body experiences in midlife.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Lyon, Louise Ann

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-four European American women aged 50-68 years completed surveys of menopausal attitudes, appearance aging anxiety, body esteem, body surveillance, and body shame. Hypotheses based on the connections between cultural constructions of femininity and menopause were partially supported. Menopausal attitudes and appearance-related aging anxiety were related to body surveillance. Appearance-related menopausal attitudes were related to both body surveillance and body esteem. Body shame moderated the relationship between appearance-related menopausal attitudes and body esteem.

  8. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries.

    PubMed

    Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; der Reijden Wa, Wil A Van; Dahlen, Gunnar; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB) Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135) number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.

  9. DNA barcoding and the differentiation between North American and West European Phormia regina (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Chrysomyinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Braet, Yves; De Meyer, Marc; Backeljau, Thierry; Goovaerts, Frankie; Bourguignon, Luc; Desmyter, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Phormia regina (the black fly) is a common Holarctic blow fly species which serves as a primary indicator taxon to estimate minimal post mortem intervals. It is also a major research model in physiological and neurological studies on insect feeding. Previous studies have shown a sequence divergence of up to 4.3% in the mitochondrial COI gene between W European and N American P. regina populations. Here, we DNA barcoded P. regina specimens from six N American and 17 W European populations and confirmed a mean sequence divergence of ca. 4% between the populations of the two continents, while sequence divergence within each continent was a ten-fold lower. Comparable mean mtDNA sequence divergences were observed for COII (3.7%) and cyt b (5.3%), but mean divergence was lower for 16S (0.4–0.6%). Intercontinental divergence at nuclear DNA was very low (≤ 0.1% for both 28S and ITS2), and we did not detect any morphological differentiation between N American and W European specimens. Therefore, we consider the strong differentiation at COI, COII and cyt b as intraspecific mtDNA sequence divergence that should be taken into account when using P. regina in forensic casework or experimental research. PMID:24453556

  10. Historical climates explain contrasting dormancy-breaking requirements in North American, Asian, and European woody species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohner, Constantin M.; Benito, Blas M.; Fridley, Jason D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S.

    2016-04-01

    Leaf-out times in temperate woody species are determined by winter chilling and spring warming, with day length playing a minor role. The species-specific relative importance of these phenological cues determines the sensitivity of leaf unfolding to climate warming in the globe's temperate forests. Using experimental and monitoring data on leaf-out cues in 495 woody species [about 1/3rd each from Asia, Europe, and North America (NA)], we show that NA species have higher winter chilling and spring warming requirements than do European and Asian species of similar genetic stock. The continent effect remained significant when controlling for the modern climates that species are adapted to, suggesting that contrasting historic climate conditions led to the differentiation of leaf-out strategies among NA, European, and Asian plants. The NA flora experienced more and longer periods of climatic instability and harshness (esp. since the Pliocene) than did southern Europe and East Asia, which may explain why NA species have higher dormancy requirements and leaf-out later than Asian species, which are characterized by a more shallow dormancy. That species from Asia require significantly less chilling than their NA relatives suggests contrasting responses of NA and Asian temperate forests to continued climate warming. Earlier leaf-out in NA trees and shrubs will be constrained by unmet chilling requirements as winters get warmer, whereas Asian woody species generally lack such temperature limitations.

  11. BVDV control and eradication in Europe--an update.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, Karl; Alenius, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are endemic in cattle populations worldwide and result in major economic losses. For long, attempts to control BVDV were limited to prophylactic vaccination practices, implemented primarily to reduce or prevent clinical disease on a herd basis. However, the benefit of preventing clinical disease in transiently infected animals is negligible when considering the overall losses of the disease. Another more systematic strategy to control evolved during the 1990s within eradication programmes in the Scandinavian countries. This was based on an initial determination of herd BVDV status, followed by implementation of systematic zoo-sanitary measures at a regional or national scale (without the use of vaccines) to prevent introduction of BVDV in non-infected herds, and to reduce the prevalence of infected herds by identification and elimination of PI animals. These programmes have been very successful, and all of the Scandinavian countries are currently either free, or almost free from BVDV. Today control programmes are underway in several European countries. This short review discusses the general model of BVDV control, and gives an overview of strategies used within, and the current status of, the ongoing control programmes in Europe.

  12. More than black and white: differences in predictors of obesity among Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Madan, Alok; Archambeau, Olga G; Milsom, Vanessa A; Goldman, Rachel L; Borckardt, Jeffery J; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Tuerk, Peter W; Frueh, B Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Although Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders exhibit the highest rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases of any racial/ethnic group, they remain vastly underrepresented in health research. In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 402) we examined BMI and health outcomes in an ethno-racially diverse rural sample of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (25.1%), Asian Americans (39.8%), and European Americans (35.1%). Measures assessed BMI, health status, health behaviors, frequency of exercise, and symptoms of psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance abuse and dependence). Regression analyses revealed that an overall model of five predictors (gender, race, regular exercise, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety) was significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.001) and correctly classified 84.2% of cases. A 30.7% of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were obese as compared with 9.2% of European Americans and 10.6% of Asian Americans. These findings suggest that Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islanders are at high risk for obesity and associated medical comorbidities, but that regular physical activity may ameliorate this risk. Further, these results support the consideration of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial/ethnic subgroup separate from other Asian populations.

  13. 2015 Gout Classification Criteria: An American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Collaborative Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Tim L. Th. A.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Fransen, Jaap; Schumacher, H. Ralph; Berendsen, Dianne; Brown, Melanie; Choi, Hyon; Edwards, N. Lawrence; Janssens, Hein J. E. M.; Lioté, Frédéric; Naden, Raymond P.; Nuki, George; Ogdie, Alexis; Perez‐Ruiz, Fernando; Saag, Kenneth; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sundy, John S.; Tausche, Anne‐Kathrin; Vaquez‐Mellado, Janitzia; Yarows, Steven A.; Taylor, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Existing criteria for the classification of gout have suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, and were developed at a time when advanced imaging was not available. The current effort was undertaken to develop new classification criteria for gout. Methods An international group of investigators, supported by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism, conducted a systematic review of the literature on advanced imaging of gout, a diagnostic study in which the presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in synovial fluid or tophus was the gold standard, a ranking exercise of paper patient cases, and a multicriterion decision analysis exercise. These data formed the basis for developing the classification criteria, which were tested in an independent data set. Results The entry criterion for the new classification criteria requires the occurrence of at least 1 episode of peripheral joint or bursal swelling, pain, or tenderness. The presence of MSU crystals in a symptomatic joint/bursa (i.e., synovial fluid) or in a tophus is a sufficient criterion for classification of the subject as having gout, and does not require further scoring. The domains of the new classification criteria include clinical (pattern of joint/bursa involvement, characteristics and time course of symptomatic episodes), laboratory (serum urate, MSU‐negative synovial fluid aspirate), and imaging (double‐contour sign on ultrasound or urate on dual‐energy computed tomography, radiographic gout‐related erosion). The sensitivity and specificity of the criteria are high (92% and 89%, respectively). Conclusion The new classification criteria, developed using a data‐driven and decision analytic approach, have excellent performance characteristics and incorporate current state‐of‐the‐art evidence regarding gout. PMID:26352873

  14. 2015 Gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Tuhina; Jansen, Tim L Th A; Dalbeth, Nicola; Fransen, Jaap; Schumacher, H Ralph; Berendsen, Dianne; Brown, Melanie; Choi, Hyon; Edwards, N Lawrence; Janssens, Hein J E M; Lioté, Frédéric; Naden, Raymond P; Nuki, George; Ogdie, Alexis; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Saag, Kenneth; Singh, Jasvinder A; Sundy, John S; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Vaquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Yarows, Steven A; Taylor, William J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Existing criteria for the classification of gout have suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, and were developed at a time when advanced imaging was not available. The current effort was undertaken to develop new classification criteria for gout. Methods An international group of investigators, supported by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism, conducted a systematic review of the literature on advanced imaging of gout, a diagnostic study in which the presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in synovial fluid or tophus was the gold standard, a ranking exercise of paper patient cases, and a multi-criterion decision analysis exercise. These data formed the basis for developing the classification criteria, which were tested in an independent data set. Results The entry criterion for the new classification criteria requires the occurrence of at least one episode of peripheral joint or bursal swelling, pain, or tenderness. The presence of MSU crystals in a symptomatic joint/bursa (ie, synovial fluid) or in a tophus is a sufficient criterion for classification of the subject as having gout, and does not require further scoring. The domains of the new classification criteria include clinical (pattern of joint/bursa involvement, characteristics and time course of symptomatic episodes), laboratory (serum urate, MSU-negative synovial fluid aspirate), and imaging (double-contour sign on ultrasound or urate on dual-energy CT, radiographic gout-related erosion). The sensitivity and specificity of the criteria are high (92% and 89%, respectively). Conclusions The new classification criteria, developed using a data-driven and decision-analytic approach, have excellent performance characteristics and incorporate current state-of-the-art evidence regarding gout. PMID:26359487

  15. Comparison of American and European practices in the management of patients with primary immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Trujillo, H S; Chapel, H; Lo Re III, V; Notarangelo, L D; Gathmann, B; Grimbacher, B; Boyle, J M; Hernandez-Trujillo, V P; Scalchunes, C; Boyle, M L; Orange, J S

    2012-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of rare disorders. This study was devised in order to compare management of these diseases in the northern hemisphere, given the variability of practice among clinicians in North America. The members of two international societies for clinical immunologists were asked about their management protocols in relation to their PID practice. An anonymous internet questionnaire, used previously for a survey of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), was offered to all full members of the European Society for Immunodeficiency (ESID). The replies were analysed in three groups, according to the proportion of PID patients in the practice of each respondent; this resulted in two groups from North America and one from Europe. The 123 responses from ESID members (23·7%) were, in the majority, very similar to those of AAAAI respondents, with > 10% of their practice devoted to primary immunodeficiency. There were major differences between the responses of these two groups and those of the general AAAAI respondents whose clinical practice was composed of < 10% of PID patients. These differences included the routine use of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) for particular types of PIDs, initial levels of IVIg doses, dosing intervals, routine use of prophylactic antibiotics, perceptions of the usefulness of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy (SCIg) and of the risk to patients' health of policies adopted by health-care funders. Differences in practice were identified and are discussed in terms of methods of health-care provision, which suggest future studies for ensuring continuation of appropriate levels of immunoglobulin replacement therapies. PMID:22670779

  16. Environmental variability and population dynamics: Do European and North American ducks play by the same rules?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pöysä, Hannu; Rintala, Jukka; Johnson, Douglas H.; Kauppinen, Jukka; Lammi, Esa; Nudds, Thomas D.; Väänänen, Veli-Matti

    2016-01-01

    Density dependence, population regulation, and variability in population size are fundamental population processes, the manifestation and interrelationships of which are affected by environmental variability. However, there are surprisingly few empirical studies that distinguish the effect of environmental variability from the effects of population processes. We took advantage of a unique system, in which populations of the same duck species or close ecological counterparts live in highly variable (north American prairies) and in stable (north European lakes) environments, to distinguish the relative contributions of environmental variability (measured as between-year fluctuations in wetland numbers) and intraspecific interactions (density dependence) in driving population dynamics. We tested whether populations living in stable environments (in northern Europe) were more strongly governed by density dependence than populations living in variable environments (in North America). We also addressed whether relative population dynamical responses to environmental variability versus density corresponded to differences in life history strategies between dabbling (relatively “fast species” and governed by environmental variability) and diving (relatively “slow species” and governed by density) ducks. As expected, the variance component of population fluctuations caused by changes in breeding environments was greater in North America than in Europe. Contrary to expectations, however, populations in more stable environments were not less variable nor clearly more strongly density dependent than populations in highly variable environments. Also, contrary to expectations, populations of diving ducks were neither more stable nor stronger density dependent than populations of dabbling ducks, and the effect of environmental variability on population dynamics was greater in diving than in dabbling ducks. In general, irrespective of continent and species life history

  17. An official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society policy statement: disparities in respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Schraufnagel, Dean E; Blasi, Francesco; Kraft, Monica; Gaga, Mina; Finn, Patricia; Rabe, Klaus F

    2013-10-01

    Health disparities, defined as a significant difference in health between populations, are more common for diseases of the respiratory system than for those of other organ systems, because of the environmental influence on breathing and the variation of the environment among different segments of the population. The lowest social groups are up to 14 times more likely to have respiratory diseases than are the highest. Tobacco smoke, air pollution, environmental exposures, and occupational hazards affect the lungs more than other organs and occur disproportionately in ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Lack of access to quality healthcare contributes to disparities. The executive committees of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) established a writing committee to develop a policy on health disparities. The document was reviewed, edited, and approved by their full executive committees and boards of directors of the societies. This document expresses a policy to address health disparities by promoting scientific inquiry and training, disseminating medical information and best practices, and monitoring and advocating for public respiratory health. The ERS and the ATS have strong international commitments and work with leaders from governments, academia, and other organisational bodies to address and reduce avoidable health inequalities. Their training initiatives improve the function of healthcare systems and health equality. Both the ATS and the ERS support all aspects of this document, confer regularly, and act together when possible, but the activities to bring about change may vary because of the differences in the continents where the two organisations carry out most of their activities. The ATS and ERS pledge to frame their actions to reduce respiratory health disparities. The vision of the ATS and ERS is that all persons attain better and sustained respiratory health. They call on all their members

  18. Forecasting European Droughts using the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thober, Stephan; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Sheffield, Justin; Schäfer, David; Mai, Juliane

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts have the potential to diminish crop yields causing economic damage or even threatening the livelihood of societies. State-of-the-art drought forecasting systems incorporate seasonal meteorological forecasts to estimate future drought conditions. Meteorological forecasting skill (in particular that of precipitation), however, is limited to a few weeks because of the chaotic behaviour of the atmosphere. One of the most important challenges in drought forecasting is to understand how the uncertainty in the atmospheric forcings (e.g., precipitation and temperature) is further propagated into hydrologic variables such as soil moisture. The North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) provides the latest collection of a multi-institutional seasonal forecasting ensemble for precipitation and temperature. In this study, we analyse the skill of NMME forecasts for predicting European drought events. The monthly NMME forecasts are downscaled to daily values to force the mesoscale hydrological model (mHM). The mHM soil moisture forecasts obtained with the forcings of the dynamical models are then compared against those obtained with the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach. ESP recombines historical meteorological forcings to create a new ensemble forecast. Both forecasts are compared against reference soil moisture conditions obtained using observation based meteorological forcings. The study is conducted for the period from 1982 to 2009 and covers a large part of the Pan-European domain (10°W to 40°E and 35°N to 55°N). Results indicate that NMME forecasts are better at predicting the reference soil moisture variability as compared to ESP. For example, NMME explains 50% of the variability in contrast to only 31% by ESP at a six-month lead time. The Equitable Threat Skill Score (ETS), which combines the hit and false alarm rates, is analysed for drought events using a 0.2 threshold of a soil moisture percentile index. On average, the NMME

  19. Genome-wide association study reveals two loci for serum magnesium concentrations in European-American children

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiao; Glessner, Joseph; Tin, Adrienne; Li, Jin; Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Liu, Yichuan; Mentch, Frank D.; Hou, Cuiping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tiancheng; Qiu, Haijun; Kim, Cecilia; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions are essential to the basic metabolic processes in the human body. Previous genetic studies indicate that serum magnesium levels are highly heritable, and a few genetic loci have been reported involving regulation of serum magnesium in adults. In this study, we examined if additional loci influence serum magnesium levels in children. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,267 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 or Quad610 arrays, sharing over 500,000 markers, as the discovery cohort and 257 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina Human OmniExpress arrays as the replication cohort. After genotype imputation, the strongest associations uncovered were with imputed SNPs residing within the FGFR2 (rs1219515, P = 1.1 × 10−5) and PAPSS2 (rs1969821, P = 7.2 × 10−6) loci in the discovery cohort, both of which were robustly replicated in our independent patient cohort (rs1219515, P = 3.5 × 10−3; rs1969821, P = 1.2 × 10−2). The associations at the FGFR2 locus were also weakly replicated in a dataset from a previous GWAS of serum magnesium in European adults. Our results indicate that FGFR2 and PAPSS2 may play an important role in the regulation of magnesium homeostasis in children of European-American ancestry. PMID:26685716

  20. Genome-wide association study reveals two loci for serum magnesium concentrations in European-American children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Glessner, Joseph; Tin, Adrienne; Li, Jin; Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Liu, Yichuan; Mentch, Frank D; Hou, Cuiping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tiancheng; Qiu, Haijun; Kim, Cecilia; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-12-21

    Magnesium ions are essential to the basic metabolic processes in the human body. Previous genetic studies indicate that serum magnesium levels are highly heritable, and a few genetic loci have been reported involving regulation of serum magnesium in adults. In this study, we examined if additional loci influence serum magnesium levels in children. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,267 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 or Quad610 arrays, sharing over 500,000 markers, as the discovery cohort and 257 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina Human OmniExpress arrays as the replication cohort. After genotype imputation, the strongest associations uncovered were with imputed SNPs residing within the FGFR2 (rs1219515, P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) and PAPSS2 (rs1969821, P = 7.2 × 10(-6)) loci in the discovery cohort, both of which were robustly replicated in our independent patient cohort (rs1219515, P = 3.5 × 10(-3); rs1969821, P = 1.2 × 10(-2)). The associations at the FGFR2 locus were also weakly replicated in a dataset from a previous GWAS of serum magnesium in European adults. Our results indicate that FGFR2 and PAPSS2 may play an important role in the regulation of magnesium homeostasis in children of European-American ancestry.

  1. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    PubMed

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary.

  2. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives. PMID:19915965

  3. Meaning in life as a mediator of ethnic identity and adjustment among adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28-52% of ethnic identity's protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents' lives.

  4. Colonic transcriptional response to 1α,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 in African- and European-Americans.

    PubMed

    Alleyne, Dereck; Witonsky, David B; Mapes, Brandon; Nakagome, Shigeki; Sommars, Meredith; Hong, Ellie; Muckala, Katy A; Di Rienzo, Anna; Kupfer, Sonia S

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant health burden especially among African Americans (AA). Epidemiological studies have correlated low serum vitamin D with CRC risk, and, while hypovitaminosis D is more common and more severe in AA, the mechanisms by which vitamin D modulates CRC risk and how these differ by race are not well understood. Active vitamin D (1α,25(OH)2D3) has chemoprotective effects primarily through transcriptional regulation of target genes in the colon. We hypothesized that transcriptional response to 1α,25(OH)2D3 differs between AA and European Americans (EA) irrespective of serum vitamin D and that regulatory variants could impact transcriptional response. We treated ex vivo colon cultures from 34 healthy subjects (16 AA and 18 EA) with 0.1μM 1α,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle control for 6h and performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling. We found 8 genes with significant differences in transcriptional response to 1α,25(OH)2D3 between AA and EA with definitive replication of inter-ethnic differences for uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1) and zinc finger-SWIM containing 4 (ZSWIM4). We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping and identified response cis-eQTLs for ZSWIM4 as well as for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), the latter of which showed a trend toward significant inter-ethnic differences in transcriptional response. Allele frequency differences of eQTLs for ZSWIM4 and HDAC3 accounted for observed transcriptional differences between populations. Taken together, our results demonstrate that transcriptional response to 1α,25(OH)2D3 differs between AA and EA independent of serum 25(OH)D levels. We provide evidence in support of a genetic regulatory mechanism underlying transcriptional differences between populations for ZSWIM4 and HDAC3. Further work is needed to elucidate how response eQTLs modify vitamin D response and whether genotype and/or transcriptional response correlate with chemopreventive effects. Relevant biomarkers

  5. European and American WAIS III Norms: Cross-National Differences in Performance Subtest Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2010-01-01

    For this study, European WAIS III performance subtest norms were compared to the original US norms. When European WAIS III raw scores were scored using US norms, the resulting perceptual organization index (POI) means were significantly higher than the processing speed index (PSI) means. The POI/PSI difference is roughly 5-10 points for the German…

  6. Genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer risk in European American (EA) and African American (AA) women

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Roberts, Michelle; Khoury, Thaer; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism plays critical roles in DNA synthesis, repair, and DNA methylation. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolizing enzymes has been investigated in risk of breast cancer among European or Asian populations, but not among women of African ancestry. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SNPs in eleven genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer in 1,275 European-American (EA) and 1,299 African-American (AA) women who participated in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies varied significantly between EA and AA populations. A number of these SNPs, specifically in genes including MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, TYMS, and SLC19A1, were associated with overall breast cancer risk, as well as risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in either EA or AA women. Associations appeared to be modified by dietary folate intake. Although single-SNP associations were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, polygenetic score analyses revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. Per unit increase of the risk score was associated with a modest 19% to 50% increase in risk of breast cancer overall, ER positive or ER negative cancer (all P<0.0005) in EAs or AAs. In summary, our data suggest that one-carbon metabolizing gene polymorphisms could play a role in breast cancer and that may differ between EA and AA women. PMID:25598430

  7. Adherence to Asian and European American Cultural Values and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Possible relations among enculturation and acculturation to cultural values and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were examined among 146 Asian American college students. In addition, possible relations between various dimensions of Asian values and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were examined. As…

  8. The crime drop in comparative perspective: the impact of the economy and imprisonment on American and European burglary rates.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard; Messner, Steven F

    2009-09-01

    Influential statements on recent American crime reductions maintain that the crime drop was confined to the USA. Yet other research has revealed comparable crime decreases in Europe. We suggest that the USA and European crime declines occurred in tandem because they were both brought about by upturns in the economy. In light of US research showing crime reductions resulting from growth in imprisonment, we also examine the possibility that rising imprisonment rates reduced European crime rates. We test these hypotheses in a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis of burglary rates in the USA and nine European nations between 1993 and 2006. The results indicate that burglary declines in the US and Europe were associated with rising consumer confidence. By contrast, imprisonment appears to be significantly related to burglary rates only after unusual policy interventions, such as Italy's 2006 clemency measure that dramatically reduced the size of its prison population. We interpret these findings as reflecting the structural similarity and economic integration of the world's developed nations and the uneven convergence in US and European punishment policies.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in African- and European-American women: morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilization in the USA.

    PubMed

    Mehari, Alem; Gillum, Richard F

    2015-04-01

    The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in US women. In 2008-2010, an estimated 7.9 million US women were living with COPD. Chronic lower respiratory disease was the third leading cause of mortality in 2010 and was a major cause of morbidity. Its economic and social burden is both substantial and increasing in the USA. The annual number of COPD deaths is now higher in women than in men. In 2011, 72,584 women and 65,920 men aged 25 years and over died of COPD. The death rate in African-American women was only half compared with European-American women. Further, rates of COPD prevalence, emergency room visits and hospitalization were greater among women than men. This review reports the latest patterns and trends in several measures of COPD in US women.

  10. 77 FR 59986 - Johnson Controls Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under IMECO LLC; North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... IMECO LLC; North American Refrigeration Dixon, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply... Johnson Controls, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois (subject firm). The workers were engaged... LLC, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois, who became totally or partially separated...

  11. Disease management to promote blood pressure control among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert

    2010-04-01

    African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan. A prospective randomized controlled study (March 2006-December 2007) was conducted, with 12 months of follow-up on each subject. A total of 5932 health plan members were randomly selected from the population of self-identified African Americans, age 23 and older, in health maintenance organization plans, with hypertension; 954 accepted, 638 completed initial assessment, and 485 completed follow-up assessment. The intervention consisted of telephonic nurse DM (intervention group) including educational materials, lifestyle and diet counseling, and home BP monitor vs. home BP monitor alone (control group). Measurements included proportion with BP < 120/80, mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and frequency of BP self-monitoring. Results revealed that systolic BP was lower in the intervention group (adjusted means 123.6 vs. 126.7 mm Hg, P = 0.03); there was no difference for diastolic BP. The intervention group was 50% more likely to have BP in control (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.997-2.27, P = 0.052) and 46% more likely to monitor BP at least weekly (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-2.00, P = 0.02) than the control group. A nurse DM program tailored for African Americans was effective at decreasing systolic BP and increasing the frequency of self-monitoring of BP to a greater extent than home monitoring alone. Recruitment and program completion rates could be improved for maximal impact.

  12. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  13. Chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon discovered by linkage mapping and supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Geographical isolation has generated a distinct difference between Atlantic salmon of European and North American Atlantic origin. The European Atlantic salmon generally has 29 pairs of chromosomes and 74 chromosome arms whereas it has been reported that the North American Atlantic salmon has 27 chromosome pairs and an NF of 72. In order to predict the major chromosomal rearrangements causing these differences, we constructed a dense linkage map for Atlantic salmon of North American origin and compared it with the well-developed map for European Atlantic salmon. Results The presented male and female genetic maps for the North American subspecies of Atlantic salmon, contains 3,662 SNPs located on 27 linkage groups. The total lengths of the female and male linkage maps were 2,153 cM and 968 cM respectively, with males characteristically showing recombination only at the telomeres. We compared these maps with recently published SNP maps from European Atlantic salmon, and predicted three chromosomal reorganization events that we then tested using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The proposed rearrangements, which define the differences in the karyotypes of the North American Atlantic salmon relative to the European Atlantic salmon, include the translocation of the p arm of ssa01 to ssa23 and polymorphic fusions: ssa26 with ssa28, and ssa08 with ssa29. Conclusions This study identified major chromosomal differences between European and North American Atlantic salmon. However, while gross structural differences were significant, the order of genetic markers at the fine-resolution scale was remarkably conserved. This is a good indication that information from the International Cooperation to Sequence the Atlantic salmon Genome, which is sequencing a European Atlantic salmon, can be transferred to Atlantic salmon from North America. PMID:22928605

  14. Accountability and Control in American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; Collins, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most controversial and significant of contemporary education reforms has been the teacher accountability movement. From this perspective, low-quality teachers and teaching are a major factor behind inadequate school performance, and a lack of accountability and control in schools is a major factor behind the problem of low-quality…

  15. A Brief History of American Drug Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musto, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of drug control in the United States from the extensive consumption of opium, heroin, and cocaine before World War I to the popularity of marijuana and LSD during the 1960s. Discusses public concern over drug use that seems to peak following periods of widespread drug use that is linked to foreign influences. (DK)

  16. Infections Control in North American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Elise; Dhuru, Virendra B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from 1982 and 1987 surveys of dental schools concerning infection control issues found greater recent emphasis on instrument sterilization and barrier use, but some inconsistency and confusion concerning hepatitis B and HIV virus carrier patients and personnel. The information was used to develop guidelines for school policy formation.…

  17. The History of American Drug Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musto, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the history of U.S. drug control efforts as a means of investigating the idea that decriminalization is a reasonable response to the widespread use of drugs. Suggests that other courses of action may have been more effective in dealing with opiate and cocaine consumption in the past. (KO)

  18. Guided cognitive reframing of adolescent-father conflict: who Mexican American and European American adolescents seek and why.

    PubMed

    Cookston, Jeffrey T; Olide, Andres F; Adams, Michele A; Fabricius, William V; Parke, Ross D

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents may seek to understand family conflict by seeking out confidants. However, little is known about whom adolescents seek, whether and how such support helps youth, and the factors that predict which sources are sought. This chapter offers a conceptual model of guided cognitive reframing that emphasizes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective implications of confidant support as well as individual, family, and cultural factors linked to support seeking. The authors present empirical data from 392 families of seventh graders of Mexican and European ancestry to predict whether adolescents seek mothers, coresident fathers, and other sources and provide directions for subsequent research.

  19. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Strom, Sara S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B.; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; John, Esther M.; Murphy, Adam B.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J. M.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B.; Stram, Daniel O.; Blot, William J.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, ZSofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Fitzgerald, Liesel M.; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E.; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L. J.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Cook, Margaret; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Sawyer, Emma J.; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Saunders, Edward J.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morgan, Angela; Fisher, Cyril; Hazel, Steve; Livni, Naomi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Pedersen, John; Hopper, John L.; Adolfson, Jan; Stattin, Paer; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Cavalli-Bjoerkman, Carin; Karlsson, Ami; Broms, Michael; Auvinen, Anssi; Kujala, Paula; Maeaettaenen, Liisa; Murtola, Teemu; Taari, Kimmo; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Roder, Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Wallinder, Hans; Gustafsson, Sven; Cox, Angela; Brown, Paul; George, Anne; Marsden, Gemma; Lane, Athene; Davis, Michael; Zheng, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Tillmans, Lori; Riska, Shaun; Wang, Liang; Rinckleb, Antje; Lubiski, Jan; Stegmaier, Christa; Pow-Sang, Julio; Park, Hyun; Radlein, Selina; Rincon, Maria; Haley, James; Zachariah, Babu; Kachakova, Darina; Popov, Elenko; Mitkova, Atanaska; Vlahova, Aleksandrina; Dikov, Tihomir; Christova, Svetlana; Heathcote, Peter; Wood, Glenn; Malone, Greg; Saunders, Pamela; Eckert, Allison; Yeadon, Trina; Kerr, Kris; Collins, Angus; Turner, Megan; Srinivasan, Srilakshmi; Kedda, Mary-Anne; Alexander, Kimberly; Omara, Tracy; Wu, Huihai; Henrique, Rui; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Barros-Silva, Joao; Conti, David V.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I.; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R.; Price, Alkes L.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa. PMID:27052111

  20. Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb; Pomerantz, Mark; Li, Fugen; Long, Henry W; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Strom, Sara S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B; Zheng, Wei; Pettaway, Curtis A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; John, Esther M; Murphy, Adam B; Signorello, Lisa B; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Kaggwa, Sam; Cook, Michael B; Stram, Daniel O; Blot, William J; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Fitzgerald, Liesel M; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teerlink, Craig; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y; Sellers, Thomas A; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Kierzek, Andrzej; Conti, David V; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Berndt, Sonja I; Campa, Daniele; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Yeager, Meredith; Trynka, Gosia; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schumacher, Frederick R; Price, Alkes L; Freedman, Matthew L; Haiman, Christopher A; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2016-04-07

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.

  1. A comparison of metal concentrations in the tissues of yellow American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Pannetier, Pauline; Caron, Antoine; Campbell, Peter G C; Pierron, Fabien; Baudrimont, Magalie; Couture, Patrice

    2016-11-01

    Historically abundant and widespread, populations of Atlantic eels have suffered a sharp decline in recent decades, in the ranges 40-80% and 90-99% for American and European eels, respectively. As a result, American eels are now classified as threatened, whereas European eels are considered to be in critical danger of extinction. Several causes have been identified as likely contributors of this decline, including overfishing, obstacles to migration (hydroelectric dams), climate change and habitat contamination. In the context of a larger project investigating the role of organic and inorganic contaminants in this decline, in this study, we measured the liver, kidney and muscle concentrations of essential (Cu, Se and Zn) and non-essential (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) metals in eels sampled at four sites in the South-West of France and four sites in Eastern Canada varying in contamination. Tissue concentrations of Cd, Hg and Se increased with fish size and age. Tissue metal concentrations generally reflected the contamination of their sampling sites. This was the case for Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Se. Comparison of tissue concentrations of these metals with the toxicological literature suggests that all of them except As could pose a risk to the health of eels from the most contaminated sites. In particular, European eels may be particularly at risk of Cd and Pb toxicity. Globally, our study suggests that a substantial accumulation of inorganic contaminants in the tissues of both eel species at sites contaminated by historical anthropogenic inputs may play a role in their decline.

  2. Characterization of the HLA-C*07:01:01G allele group in European and African-American cohorts.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhihui; Gao, Xiaojiang; Kirk, Gregory D; Wolinsky, Steven; Carrington, Mary

    2012-07-01

    The HLA-C*07:01:01G allele group consists of three nonsynonymous alleles, C*07:01:01, C*07:06 and C*07:18, plus C*07:01:02, which is synonymous to C*07:01:01. All of these alleles have identical exons 2, 3 and 4, but differ in exons 5 or 6. Therefore routine sequence-based typing (SBT) of exons 2 and 3 is unable to resolve these subtypes, resulting in ambiguous typing results in population and disease cohort studies. In the present study, we fully characterized C*07:01:01G subtypes in European and African Americans and examined their relative frequency distributions. In European Americans C*07:01:01G is predominantly represented by C*07:01:01 (94.4%), whereas C*07:01:02 (1.1%) and C*07:18 (4.5%) were detected relatively infrequently. In African Americans C*07:18 (42.4%) showed a high frequency similar to that of C*07:01:01 (44.7%) whereas C*07:06 was detected at a low frequency (4.7%). C*07:06 was found exclusively on B*44:03 carrying haplotypes in both ethnic groups, but C*07:18 showed multiple linkage relationships with HLA-B. These results demonstrate that C*07:01:01G as defined by routine SBT is a heterogeneous group of alleles, especially among individuals of African origin. If C*07:01:01G subtypes prove to bear divergent functional significance, it would be necessary to include these subtypes in routine HLA-C typing for clinical transplantation and disease association studies.

  3. Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Disease—A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale.

  4. Healthy lifestyle interventions to combat noncommunicable disease-a novel nonhierarchical connectivity model for key stakeholders: a policy statement from the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Cherie Franklin, Nina; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter; Arena, Ross; Berra, Kathy; Dengel, Donald; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Hivert, Marie-France; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Myers, Jonathan; Whitsel, Laurie; Williams, Mark; Corra, Ugo; Cosentino, Francesco; Dendale, Paul; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Gielen, Stephan; Guazzi, Marco; Halle, Martin; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Piepoli, Massimo F; Pinto, Fausto J; Guthrie, George; Lianov, Liana; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-14

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale.

  5. Mentoring, Competencies, and Adjustment in Adolescents: American Part-Time Employment and European Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Snider, J. Blake

    2008-01-01

    Based on the conceptual argument that the European apprenticeship might explain cross-national variability in adolescent adjustment, the current investigation tested the relationships between mentoring experiences, namely joint activities with mentors as well as perceived mentoring behaviors by unrelated adults in the work setting, and measures of…

  6. Cross-Cultural Training of European and American Managers in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mansour, Bassou; Wood, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the training provided to US and European expatriates in Morocco, and subsequently build the body of knowledge for international HRD in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Design/methodology/approach: The study used the models of Black and Mendenhall and Mendenhall and Oddou, subdividing the…

  7. A Rapid Diagnostic Test to Distinguish Between American and European Populations of Phytophthora ramorum.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Laurens P N M; Verstappen, Els C P; Kox, Linda F F; Flier, Wilbert G; Bonants, Peter J M

    2004-06-01

    ABSTRACT A new devastating disease in the United States, commonly known as Sudden Oak Death, is caused by Phytophthora ramorum. This pathogen, which previously was described attacking species of Rhododendron and Viburnum in Germany and the Netherlands, has established itself in forests on the central coast of California and is killing scores of native oak trees (Lithocarpus densiflora, Quercus agrifolia, Q. kelloggii, and Q. parvula var. shrevei). The phytosanitary authorities in the European Union consider non-European isolates of P. ramorum as a threat to forest trees in Europe. To date, almost all European isolates are mating type A1 while those from California and Oregon are type A2. The occurrence of both mating types in the same region could lead to a population capable of sexual recombination, which could generate a new source of diversity. To prevent contact between these two populations, a rapid, reliable, and discriminating diagnostic test was developed to easily distinguish the two populations. Based on a DNA sequence difference in the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) protocol to distinguish between isolates of P. ramorum originating in Europe and those originating in the United States. A total of 83 isolates of P. ramorum from Europe and 51 isolates from the United States were screened and all isolates could be consistently and correctly allocated to either the European or the U.S. populations using the SNP protocol.

  8. The Adolescent Experience: European and American Adolescents in the 1990s. Research Monographs in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Francoise D., Ed.; Flammer, August, Ed.

    Scholars are increasingly recognizing that adolescent development is best understood by acknowledging and examining adolescents' cultural, social, historical, and political contexts. The Euronet for Research on Adolescence in the Context of Social Change project, begun in 1991, is a collaborative effort among research teams from European countries…

  9. Circadian rhythms of European and African-Americans after a large delay of sleep as in jet lag and night work

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Charmane I.; Tomaka, Victoria A.; Crowley, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Jet travel and night shift work produce large changes in when people sleep, work and eat; a challenge that was not encountered during most of our evolution. Successful adaptation would require the internal, master, circadian clock to make large phase shifts to reduce the circadian misalignment between circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work and meals. We compared African-Americans and non-Hispanic European-Americans in how much their circadian clocks shifted after a 9 hour phase delay of the light/dark, sleep/wake and meal schedule, which has similarities to flying west or sleeping in the daytime after night shifts. We also measured their free-running circadian periods using a forced desynchrony protocol with a 5-h day. European-Americans had longer free-running periods and larger phase delays than African-Americans. Correlations (among all subjects, just African-Americans and just European-Americans) showed that longer circadian periods were associated with larger phase delays. Larger phase delays, facilitated by longer circadian periods, reduce jet lag after westward travel and make it easier to work night shifts and sleep during the daytime after night work. On the other hand, a shorter circadian period, which makes one more of a morning-type person, is better for most people given our early-bird dominated society. PMID:27819313

  10. [New Aspects and Controversies in the Current European and American Hypertension Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nägele, Matthias; Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas; Ruschitzka, Frank

    2015-05-20

    At the end of 2013, the long-awaited guidelines of the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC8) were published. These guidelines developed nine specific recommendations for the management of arterial hypertension. The harmonization of blood pressure treatment thresholds and goals represents a convenient simplification for the practicing physician. However, the recommendations did not come without controversy. Especially the raise of the treatment goal in patients aged 60 years or older was criticized. In this and other aspects, the 2013 guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH 2013) share a different point of view. The article tries to summarize the different viewpoints and to provide an overview over the increasing number of hypertension guidelines.

  11. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  12. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  13. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  14. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success among African-American and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    2012-01-01

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores…

  15. Obesity in American Indian and Mexican American Men and Women: Associations with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular autonomic control. Cardiovascular autonomic control, systolic and diastolic mean BP, and body mass index were obtained from one hundred thirty-two American Indian and Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Men had a significant greater systolic and diastolic BP and were more likely to develop systolic prehypertension and hypertension than women. Obese participants showed greater mean heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic BP than nonobese participants. Obese men also exhibited greater cardiac sympathetic activity and lower cardiovagal control than obese women. These results suggest that obesity and gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic control may contribute to risk for cardiovascular disorders in this sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans. PMID:24024026

  16. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union.

  17. Relations of Maternal Style and Child Self-Concept to Autobiographical Memories in Chinese, Chinese Immigrant, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared…

  18. Do Infants Show Distinct Negative Facial Expressions for Fear and Anger? Emotional Expression in 11-Month-Old European American, Chinese, and Japanese Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; Oster, Harriet; Bakeman, Roger; Meng, Zhaolan; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Campos, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for different negative emotions? To address this question, European American, Chinese, and Japanese 11-month-olds were videotaped during procedures designed to elicit mild anger or frustration and fear. Facial behavior was coded using Baby FACS, an anatomically based scoring system. Infants'…

  19. Context and Culture in the Socialization and Development of Personal Achievement Values: Comparing Latino Immigrant Families, European American Families, and Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.; Quiroz, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    We documented cross-cultural similarities and differences in values concerning personal achievement between Latino immigrant parents, a group of multiethnic teachers, and European American parents. We also explored intergenerational similarities and differences between parents and their fifth-grade children. The theoretical premise was that…

  20. Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Aggressiveness in African American and European American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    stratified by menopausal status, vitamin D levels were lower in women with invasive breast cancer than in controls, regardless of menopausal status (Table 6...mean ± SD (year) 55.8 ± 12.5 53.8 ± 13.8 Menopause , n (%) Premenopausal 245 (42.3) 245 (42.7) Postmenopausal 334 (57.7) 329 (57.3) BMI...10 | P a g e Table 6. Serum 25-OHD levels by tumor characteristics and menopausal status Premenopausal

  1. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables.

  2. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    PubMed

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kimberly B.; Grant, Julia D.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Sartor, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric rho = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems – behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD– and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. PMID:27322801

  4. Lifestyle and socioeconomic-status modify the effects of ADRB2 and NOS3 on adiposity in European-American and African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Vasiliki; Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S; Gutin, Bernard; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of and interaction between lifestyle behaviors (diet and physical activity (PA)) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-candidate genes (ADRB2, APOB and NOS3) on general and central adiposity. Six-hundred-and-twenty-one European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) youths aged 13-19 years were classified by ethnicity (49% AA), gender (45% male), and socioeconomic status (SES). PA and dietary intake with up to seven 24-h recalls were reported for all subjects. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Reported energy intake (EI) and vigorous PA (VPA) were negative predictors of %BF and SAAT. Carriers of the NOS3 Asp298 allele had higher %BF only in the presence of an adverse environment (low SES). Compared to the most common NOS3 haplotype, homozygotes for haplotype A-non4r-Asp had 6.1% higher %BF. Significant interactions were revealed between the ADRB2 Arg16Gly SNP and VPA on VAT, SAAT and waist circumference (WC) such that Gly16 homozygotes may benefit less from increased VPA to reduce their weight. Genetic susceptibility to increased general and central adiposity is dependent on several factors, such as SES and vigorous exercise. Improved understanding of the joint effect of genes and lifestyle on adiposity will offer new insights into obesity and may provide new avenues for personalized prevention and treatment.

  5. Associations of free fatty acids with insulin secretion and action among African-American and European-American girls and women.

    PubMed

    Goree, Laura Lee T; Darnell, Betty E; Oster, Robert A; Brown, Marian A; Gower, Barbara A

    2010-02-01

    Ethnic differences in insulin secretion and action between African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs) may influence mobilization of free fatty acids (FFAs). We tested the hypotheses that FFA concentrations would be associated with measures of insulin secretion and action before and during a glucose challenge test. Subjects were 48 prepubertal girls, 60 premenopausal women, and 46 postmenopausal women. Fasting insulin (insulin(0)), the acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)), the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), basal and nadir FFA (FFA(0), FFA(nadir)), and nadir time (TIME(nadir)) were determined during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was conducted to identify associations of FFA(0), FFA(nadir), and TIME(nadir) with ethnicity, age group, insulin measures, indexes of body composition from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and measures of fat distribution from computed tomography scan. In this population, insulin(0) and AIR(g) were higher among AAs vs. EAs, whereas S(I) was lower, independent of age group. MLR analyses indicated that FFA(0) was best predicted by lean tissue mass (LTM), leg fat mass, ethnicity (lower in AAs), S(I), and insulin(0). FFA(nadir) was best predicted by FFA(0), age group, and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). TIME(nadir) was best predicted by leg fat mass, AIR(g), and S(I). In conclusion, indexes of insulin secretion and action were associated with FFA dynamics in healthy girls and women. Lower FFA(0) among AAs was independent of insulin(0) and S(I). Whether lower FFA(0) is associated with substrate oxidation or risk for obesity remains to be determined.

  6. Age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function among European-American and African-American women.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Phadke, Radhika P; Granger, Wesley M; Fernández, José R; Muñoz, Julian A; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Ovalle, Fernando; Gower, Barbara A

    2011-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women for reasons that are unknown. Ethnic differences in physiological processes related to insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and secretion, and age-related changes in these processes, may play a role. The purpose of this study was to identify ethnicity- and age-related differences in S(I) and β-cell responsivity among AA and EA females, and to determine whether these differences are independent of body composition and fat distribution. Healthy, normoglycemic females aged 7-12 years (n = 62), 18-32 years (n = 57), and 40-70 years (n = 49) were recruited for entry into this study. Following an overnight fast, S(I), intravenous glucose tolerance (Kg), acute C-peptide secretion (X0), and basal, first-phase, second-phase, and total β-cell responsivity to glucose (PhiB, Phi1, Phi2, and Phi(TOT), respectively) were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Total % body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intra-abdominal adiposity (IAAT) by computed tomography. Main effects of age group and ethnicity were measured with analysis of covariance, adjusting for % fat, IAAT, and S(I) as indicated. AA had lower S(I), and higher Kg, X0, Phi1, and Phi(TOT) (P < 0.05), which remained after adjustment for % fat and IAAT. Greater X0, Phi1, and Phi(TOT) among AA were independent of S(I). Advancing age was associated with greater Phi2 among both EA and AA. To conclude, inherent ethnic differences in β-cell function exist independently of adiposity and S(I). Future research should examine whether ethnic differences in β-cell physiology contribute to disparities in T2D risk.

  7. STRATEGIES FOR EQUITABLE PHARMACOGENOMIC-GUIDED WARFARIN DOSING AMONG EUROPEAN AND AFRICAN AMERICAN INDIVIDUALS IN A CLINICAL POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    WILEY, LAURA K.; VANHOUTEN, JACOB P.; SAMUELS, DAVID C.; ALDRICH, MELINDA C.; RODEN, DAN M.; PETERSON, JOSH F.; DENNY, JOSHUA C.

    2017-01-01

    The blood thinner warfarin has a narrow therapeutic range and high inter- and intra-patient variability in therapeutic doses. Several studies have shown that pharmacogenomic variants help predict stable warfarin dosing. However, retrospective and randomized controlled trials that employ dosing algorithms incorporating pharmacogenomic variants under perform in African Americans. This study sought to determine if: 1) including additional variants associated with warfarin dose in African Americans, 2) predicting within single ancestry groups rather than a combined population, or 3) using percentage African ancestry rather than observed race, would improve warfarin dosing algorithms in African Americans. Using BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center biobank linked to electronic medical records, we compared 25 modeling strategies to existing algorithms using a cohort of 2,181 warfarin users (1,928 whites, 253 blacks). We found that approaches incorporating additional variants increased model accuracy, but not in clinically significant ways. Race stratification increased model fidelity for African Americans, but the improvement was small and not likely to be clinically significant. Use of percent African ancestry improved model fit in the context of race misclassification. PMID:27897005

  8. An historical sketch of the American population control movement.

    PubMed

    Mass, B

    1974-01-01

    The fundamental premises and historical development of the American population control movement are critically examined from the Marxist viewpoint. It is initially shown how the Malthusian theories of population growth became interwoven with those of the eugenics movement during the first 4 decades of the 20th century. After World War II, the concern of eugenicists with race betterment and with halting the growth in numbers of the "unfit" was superseded by claims that the world was gravely menaced by a "population explosion." Subsequently, it is shown how American financiers and industrialists became leading figures of the "Population Establishment" and promoted private and public funding for support of population control activities. The uneven growth in the 1950's and the rapid growth in the 1960's of United States' efforts to promote domestic and international family planning activities are described at length. Activities of UN agencies and of United States Government agencies, particularly the activities of the Agency for International Development, are emphasized. A description of events connected with World Population Year notes the opposition of many developing countries to what they regard as an overemphasis upon birth control divorced from broad programs of social and economic development. The alleged economic exploitation of capitalism is regarded as a fundamental roadblock to intelligent family planning. Thus, talk of the population bomb merely masks the need to eliminate capitalism and proceed with an equitable distribution of the world's resources.

  9. [Spanish interdisciplinary committee for cardiovascular disease prevention and the spanish society of cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and american guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-04-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  10. Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-11-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  11. [Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org/en.

  12. [Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology Position Statement on Dyslipidemia Management. Differences Between the European and American Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  13. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections.

  14. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: tobacco control initiatives within the American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    Wewers, Mary Ellen; Bailey, William C; Carlsen, Kai-Häkon; Eisner, Mark D; Folan, Patricia; Heath, Janie; Klinnert, Mary D; Kovesi, Tom; Pien, Grace W; Reichart, Virginia C; Talwar, Arunabh; Thompson, Katherine

    2010-02-01

    Cigarette smoking represents the single most preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States and the burden of tobacco use is apparent world-wide. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2004. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and its members have contributed significantly to an understanding of the biological and pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the development and management of tobacco-attributable disease and disability. The society's active involvement in tobacco control advocacy and policy-related initiatives are central to its mission. Within the ATS, there is also increased interest in accelerating the society's efforts to understand the mechanisms responsible for the uptake, persistence, and cessation of tobacco use. Scientific, clinical, and educational activities that include an examination of these underlying mechanisms are warranted. This paper describes findings from an ATS initiative that developed a preliminary strategy for enhancing scientific, clinical, educational, and policy-related tobacco control efforts that are consistent with the vision of the ATS. The specific aims of this project included the identification of existing mechanisms, as well as the current governance in place within the ATS infrastructure, to address tobacco control issues related to scientific inquiry, policy initiatives, and advocacy for tobacco control. This assessment generated recommendations to inform the ATS leadership with regard to the future development of relevant tobacco control initiatives.

  15. Genome-wide association studies identify several new loci associated with pigmentation traits and skin cancer risk in European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Song, Fengju; Liang, Liming; Nan, Hongmei; Zhang, Jiangwen; Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Li-E.; Wei, Qingyi; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Amos, Christopher I.; Kraft, Peter; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Han, Jiali

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to identify novel genetic loci for pigmentation and skin cancer, we conducted a series of genome-wide association studies on hair color, eye color, number of sunburns, tanning ability and number of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) among 10 183 European Americans in the discovery stage and 4504 European Americans in the replication stage (for eye color, 3871 males in the discovery stage and 2496 males in the replication stage). We targeted novel chromosome regions besides the known ones for replication. As a result, we identified a new region downstream of the EDNRB gene on 13q22 associated with hair color and the strongest association was the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs975739 (P = 2.4 × 10−14; P = 5.4 × 10−9 in the discovery set and P = 1.2 × 10−6 in the replication set). Using blue, intermediate (including green) and brown eye colors as co-dominant outcomes, we identified the SNP rs3002288 in VASH2 on 1q32.3 associated with brown eye (P = 7.0 × 10−8; P = 5.3 × 10−5 in the discovery set and P = 0.02 in the replication set). Additionally, we identified a significant interaction between the SNPs rs7173419 and rs12913832 in the OCA2 gene region on brown eye color (P-value for interaction = 3.8 × 10−3). As for the number of NMSCs, we identified two independent SNPs on chr6 and one SNP on chromosome 14: rs12203592 in IRF4 (P = 7.2 × 10−14; P = 1.8 × 10−8 in the discovery set and P = 6.7 × 10−7 in the replication set), rs12202284 between IRF4 and EXOC2 (P = 5.0 × 10−8; P = 6.6 × 10−7 in the discovery set and P = 3.0 × 10−3 in the replication set) and rs8015138 upstream of GNG2 (P = 6.6 × 10−8; P = 5.3 × 10−7 in the discovery set and P = 0.01 in the replication set). PMID:23548203

  16. Flame retardants in eggs of American kestrels and European starlings from southern Lake Ontario region (North America).

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela

    2012-11-01

    While a number of studies have extensively investigated flame retardant (FR) contamination in aquatic ecosystems from the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, there remains a dearth of information for terrestrial ecosystems. In the current study, American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (AMKE) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (EUST) that are terrestrial ecosystem consumers, and from the southern Lake Ontario regions, were investigated as potential terrestrial bio-monitoring species. Egg homogenates were screened for sixteen PBDE congeners and nineteen non-PBDE FRs of established or emerging environmental importance. PBDE congeners dominated the FR burdens in eggs of AMKE and EUST, with total concentrations ranging from 3.4 to 39.8 (median: 13.5) and 1.5 to 117 (median: 4.9) ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Although the production and application of the Firemaster FF-1 (a commercial hexabromobiphenyl PBB mixture) has been discontinued for over four decades, its major component, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), was still frequently detected in AMKE and EUST eggs. Two isomers of the chlorinated FR Dechlorane plus (DP) were mostly detected in eggs collected from Niagara-on-the-Lake in the western portion of Lake Ontario, approximately 15 km from the only North American DP manufacturing site, clearly reflecting point source influences. FR comparisons in eggs from AMKE, EUST and Great Lakes herring gulls revealed species-specific contamination burdens and PBDE congener profiles, likely due to influences from trophic levels and PBDE congener-specific bioaccumulation and biomagnification capacities in terrestrial versus aquatic food chains. Insectivorous birds (e.g. great tit) and relatives of AMKE have also been used as bio-monitoring tools in European and Asian regions, allowing investigation of spatial distribution patterns on a more international scale. AMKE and EUST have also been used as model species for laboratory evaluation of FR toxic effects in

  17. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  18. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-07

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin.

  19. The European and American use of exploratory approaches for first-in-human studies.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Carlson, David; Jones, David R; Laurie, David; Stahl, Elke; Maria, Vasco; Janssens, Walter; Robinson, William T

    2010-02-01

    Exploratory approaches for first-in-human clinical studies have evolved over the last few years and have stimulated the issuance of national regulatory guidances in some European countries as well as the United States. With the increasing implementation of these approaches and the recent preparation of a multiregional regulatory guidance (ICH M3 rev2), an exchange of experiences on the opportunities and challenges of exploratory clinical trials was desirable; thus, a workshop focusing on the use of this clinical approach was planned and conducted in Lisbon, Portugal, March 18-19, 2009 sponsored by the Portuguese Health Authority (INFARMED) and DIA. The structure of the workshop focused in three main areas. Regulatory representatives from Portugal, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States formally reviewed their experiences. This was followed by a discussion on issues from an ethics review perspective as well as an insight to the opportunities in the area of biologics. The industry perspective was presented by representatives from Merck, Pfizer, J&J, Novartis, Speedel, AstraZeneca, GSK, and Roche. Finally, through break out sessions, issues were identified to be addressed moving forward. It is the purpose of this paper to report on the outcome of this workshop.

  20. COMPONENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN NORTH AMERICAN PHEROMONE STRAINS OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER

    PubMed Central

    Dopman, Erik B.; Robbins, Paul S.; Seaman, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z and E pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers was nearly complete isolation (> 99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as ~10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence. PMID:19895559

  1. Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence: significant findings in African- and European-Americans including novel risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Gelernter, J; Kranzler, HR; Sherva, R; Almasy, L; Koesterer, R; Smith, AH; Anton, R; Preuss, UW; Ridinger, M; Rujescu, D; Wodarz, N; Zill, P; Zhao, H; Farrer, LA

    2014-01-01

    We report a GWAS of alcohol dependence (AD) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations, with replication in independent samples of EAs, AAs and Germans. Our sample for discovery and replication was 16 087 subjects, the largest sample for AD GWAS to date. Numerous genome-wide significant (GWS) associations were identified, many novel. Most associations were population specific, but in several cases were GWS in EAs and AAs for different SNPs at the same locus, showing biological convergence across populations. We confirmed well-known risk loci mapped to alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes, notably ADH1B (EAs: Arg48His, P = 1.17 × 10−31; AAs: Arg369Cys, P = 6.33 × 10−17) and ADH1C in AAs (Thr151Thr, P = 4.94 × 10−10), and identified novel risk loci mapping to the ADH gene cluster on chromosome 4 and extending centromerically beyond it to include GWS associations at LOC100507053 in AAs (P = 2.63 × 10−11), PDLIM5 in EAs (P = 2.01 × 10−8), and METAP in AAs (P = 3.35 × 10−8). We also identified a novel GWS association (1.17 × 10−10) mapped to chromosome 2 at rs1437396, between MTIF2 and CCDC88A, across all of the EA and AA cohorts, with supportive gene expression evidence, and population-specific GWS for markers on chromosomes 5, 9 and 19. Several of the novel associations implicate direct involvement of, or interaction with, genes previously identified as schizophrenia risk loci. Confirmation of known AD risk loci supports the overall validity of the study; the novel loci are worthy of genetic and biological follow-up. The findings support a convergence of risk genes (but not necessarily risk alleles) between populations, and, to a lesser extent, between psychiatric traits. PMID:24166409

  2. Variants of estrogen-related genes and breast cancer risk in European and African American women.

    PubMed

    Quan, Lei; Hong, Chi-Chen; Zirpoli, Gary; Roberts, Michelle R; Khoury, Thaer; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Bandera, Elisa V; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yao, Song

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed previously that compared with women of European ancestry (EA), those of African ancestry (AA) are more likely to develop estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, although the mechanisms have not been elucidated. We tested the associations between breast cancer risk and a targeted set of 20 genes known to be involved in estrogen synthesis, metabolism, and response and potential gene-environment interactions using data and samples from 1307 EA (658 cases) and 1365 AA (621 cases) participants from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). Multivariable logistic regression found evidence of associations with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene in EA women (rs1801132, odds ratio (OR)=1.47, 95% CI=1.20-1.80, P=0.0002; rs2046210, OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.47, P=0.02; and rs3020314, OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.19-1.70, P=0.00009), but not in AA women. The only other gene associated with breast cancer risk was CYP1A2 in AA women (rs2470893, OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.00-2.02, P=0.05), but not in EA women. When stratified by ER status, ESR1 rs1801132, rs2046210, and rs3020314 showed stronger associations in ER-positive than in ER-negative breast cancer in only EA women. Associations with the ESR1 SNPs in EA women also appeared to be stronger with longer endogenous estrogen exposure or hormonal replacement therapy use. Our results indicate that there may be differential genetic influences on breast cancer risk in EA compared with AA women and that these differences may be modified by tumor subtype and estrogen exposures. Future studies with a larger sample size may determine the full contribution of estrogen-related genes to racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer.

  3. Innate immunity pathways and breast cancer Risk in African American and European-American women in the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS).

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Quan, Lei; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V; Roberts, Michelle; Coignet, Jean-Gabriel; Cabasag, Citadel; Sucheston, Lara; Hwang, Helena; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses) have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women) we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes) differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers). Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02), while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002) and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01). For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02) and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02) were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001). However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42) except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women), we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961), which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.

  4. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  5. 2015 Recommendations for the management of polymyalgia rheumatica: a European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology collaborative initiative.

    PubMed

    Dejaco, Christian; Singh, Yogesh P; Perel, Pablo; Hutchings, Andrew; Camellino, Dario; Mackie, Sarah; Abril, Andy; Bachta, Artur; Balint, Peter; Barraclough, Kevin; Bianconi, Lina; Buttgereit, Frank; Carsons, Steven; Ching, Daniel; Cid, Maria; Cimmino, Marco; Diamantopoulos, Andreas; Docken, William; Duftner, Christina; Fashanu, Billy; Gilbert, Kate; Hildreth, Pamela; Hollywood, Jane; Jayne, David; Lima, Manuella; Maharaj, Ajesh; Mallen, Christian; Martinez-Taboada, Victor; Maz, Mehrdad; Merry, Steven; Miller, Jean; Mori, Shunsuke; Neill, Lorna; Nordborg, Elisabeth; Nott, Jennifer; Padbury, Hannah; Pease, Colin; Salvarani, Carlo; Schirmer, Michael; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Spiera, Robert; Tronnier, David; Wagner, Alexandre; Whitlock, Madeline; Matteson, Eric L; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2015-10-01

    Therapy for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) varies widely in clinical practice as international recommendations for PMR treatment are not currently available. In this paper, we report the 2015 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations for the management of PMR. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology as a framework for the project. Accordingly, the direction and strength of the recommendations are based on the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, patients' and clinicians' values and preferences, and resource use. Eight overarching principles and nine specific recommendations were developed covering several aspects of PMR, including basic and follow-up investigations of patients under treatment, risk factor assessment, medical access for patients and specialist referral, treatment strategies such as initial glucocorticoid (GC) doses and subsequent tapering regimens, use of intramuscular GCs and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), as well as the roles of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drugs and non-pharmacological interventions. These recommendations will inform primary, secondary and tertiary care physicians about an international consensus on the management of PMR. These recommendations should serve to inform clinicians about best practices in the care of patients with PMR.

  6. 2015 recommendations for the management of polymyalgia rheumatica: a European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology collaborative initiative.

    PubMed

    Dejaco, Christian; Singh, Yogesh P; Perel, Pablo; Hutchings, Andrew; Camellino, Dario; Mackie, Sarah; Abril, Andy; Bachta, Artur; Balint, Peter; Barraclough, Kevin; Bianconi, Lina; Buttgereit, Frank; Carsons, Steven; Ching, Daniel; Cid, Maria; Cimmino, Marco; Diamantopoulos, Andreas; Docken, William; Duftner, Christina; Fashanu, Billy; Gilbert, Kate; Hildreth, Pamela; Hollywood, Jane; Jayne, David; Lima, Manuella; Maharaj, Ajesh; Mallen, Christian; Martinez-Taboada, Victor; Maz, Mehrdad; Merry, Steven; Miller, Jean; Mori, Shunsuke; Neill, Lorna; Nordborg, Elisabeth; Nott, Jennifer; Padbury, Hannah; Pease, Colin; Salvarani, Carlo; Schirmer, Michael; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Spiera, Robert; Tronnier, David; Wagner, Alexandre; Whitlock, Madeline; Matteson, Eric L; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2015-10-01

    Therapy for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) varies widely in clinical practice as international recommendations for PMR treatment are not currently available. In this paper, we report the 2015 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations for the management of PMR. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology as a framework for the project. Accordingly, the direction and strength of the recommendations are based on the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, patients' and clinicians' values and preferences, and resource use. Eight overarching principles and nine specific recommendations were developed covering several aspects of PMR, including basic and follow-up investigations of patients under treatment, risk factor assessment, medical access for patients and specialist referral, treatment strategies such as initial glucocorticoid (GC) doses and subsequent tapering regimens, use of intramuscular GCs and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), as well as the roles of non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drugs and non-pharmacological interventions. These recommendations will inform primary, secondary and tertiary care physicians about an international consensus on the management of PMR. These recommendations should serve to inform clinicians about best practices in the care of patients with PMR.

  7. 2012 Provisional classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: a European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology collaborative initiative.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Cimmino, Marco A; Kremers, Hilal Maradit; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Schirmer, Michael; Salvarani, Carlo; Bachta, Artur; Dejaco, Christian; Duftner, Christina; Jensen, Hanne Slott; Duhaut, Pierre; Poór, Gyula; Kaposi, Novák Pál; Mandl, Peter; Balint, Peter V; Schmidt, Zsuzsa; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Nannini, Carlotta; Cantini, Fabrizio; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Pipitone, Nicolò; Del Amo, Montserrat; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Cid, Maria C; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor M; Nordborg, Elisabeth; Direskeneli, Haner; Aydin, Sibel Zehra; Ahmed, Khalid; Hazleman, Brian; Silverman, Barbara; Pease, Colin; Wakefield, Richard J; Luqmani, Raashid; Abril, Andy; Michet, Clement J; Marcus, Ralph; Gonter, Neil J; Maz, Mehrdad; Carter, Rickey E; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Candidate criteria were evaluated in a 6-month prospective cohort study of 125 patients with new-onset PMR and 169 non-PMR comparison subjects with conditions mimicking PMR. A scoring algorithm was developed based on morning stiffness >45 minutes (2 points), hip pain/limited range of motion (1 point), absence of rheumatoid factor and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (2 points), and absence of peripheral joint pain (1 point). A score ≥4 had 68% sensitivity and 78% specificity for discriminating all comparison subjects from PMR. The specificity was higher (88%) for discriminating shoulder conditions from PMR and lower (65%) for discriminating RA from PMR. Adding ultrasound, a score ≥5 had increased sensitivity to 66% and specificity to 81%. According to these provisional classification criteria, patients ≥50 years old presenting with bilateral shoulder pain, not better explained by an alternative pathology, can be classified as having PMR in the presence of morning stiffness >45 minutes, elevated C-reactive protein and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and new hip pain. These criteria are not meant for diagnostic purposes.

  8. American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: Advances in Knowledge since 2002.

    PubMed

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Lynch, David A; Hansell, David M; Johkoh, Takeshi; King, Talmadge E; Travis, William D

    2015-01-01

    In the updated American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), the major entities have been preserved and grouped into (a) "chronic fibrosing IIPs" (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia), (b) "smoking-related IIPs" (respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease and desquamative interstitial pneumonia), (c) "acute or subacute IIPs" (cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia), and (d) "rare IIPs" (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis). Furthermore, it has been acknowledged that a final diagnosis is not always achievable, and the category "unclassifiable IIP" has been proposed. The diagnostic interpretation of the IIPs is often challenging because other diseases with a known etiology (most notably, connective tissue disease and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) may show similar morphologic patterns. Indeed, more emphasis has been given to the integration of clinical, computed tomographic (CT), and pathologic findings for multidisciplinary diagnosis. Typical CT-based morphologic patterns are associated with the IIPs, and radiologists play an important role in diagnosis and characterization. Optimal CT quality and a systematic approach are both pivotal for evaluation of IIP. Interobserver variation for the various patterns encountered in the IIPs is an issue. It is important for radiologists to understand the longitudinal behavior of IIPs at serial CT examinations, especially for providing a framework for cases that are unclassifiable or in which a histologic diagnosis cannot be obtained.

  9. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  10. Corporate coalitions and policymaking in the European Union: How and why British American Tobacco promoted ‘Better Regulation’

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an inter-connected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way European Union (EU) policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex-ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this paper discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights: (i) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (ii) the extent to which ‘think tanks’ may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (iii) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favour the use of ‘evidence-tools’, such as impact assessments, in policymaking. We argue a key aspect of BAT’s ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the ‘Advocacy Coalition Framework’, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote ‘transparency’ and public health in the EU. PMID:25646389

  11. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  12. Tobacco Control and Health Advocacy in the European Union: Understanding Effective Coalition-Building

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff; Amos, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Coalitions of supporters of comprehensive tobacco control policy have been crucial in achieving policy success nationally and internationally, but the dynamics of such alliances are not well understood. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured, narrative interviews with 35 stakeholders involved in developing the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. These were thematically analyzed to examine the dynamics of coalition-building, collaboration and leadership in the alliance of organizations which successfully called for the development of comprehensive European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Results: An alliance of tobacco control and public health advocacy organizations, scientific institutions, professional bodies, pharmaceutical companies, and other actors shared the goal of fighting the harms caused by second-hand smoke. Alliance members jointly called for comprehensive EU smoke-free policy and the protection of the political debates from tobacco industry interference. The alliance’s success was enabled by a core group of national and European actors with long-standing experience in tobacco control, who facilitated consensus-building, mobilized allies and synchronized the actions of policy supporters. Representatives of Brussels-based organizations emerged as crucial strategic leaders. Conclusions: The insights gained and identification of key enablers of successful tobacco control advocacy highlight the strategic importance of investing into tobacco control at European level. Those interested in effective health policy can apply lessons learned from EU smoke-free policy to build effective alliances in tobacco control and other areas of public health. PMID:25634938

  13. CERVICAL CANCER CONTROL RESEARCH IN VIETNAMESE AMERICAN COMMUNITIES

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Nguyen, Tung T.; Jackson, J. Carey; McPhee, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Census data show that the US Vietnamese population now exceeds 1,250,000. Cervical cancer among Vietnamese American women has been identified as an important health disparity. Available data indicate the cervical cancer disparity may be due to low Pap testing rates rather than variations in HPV infection rates and/or types. The cervical cancer incidence rates among Vietnamese and non-Latina white women in California during 2000–2002 were 14.0 and 7.3 per 100,000, respectively. Only 70% of Vietnamese women who participated in the 2003 California Health Interview Survey reported a recent Pap smear, compared to 84% of non-Latina white women. Higher levels of cervical cancer screening participation among Vietnamese women are strongly associated with current/previous marriage, having a usual source of care/doctor, and previous physician recommendation. Vietnamese language media campaigns and lay health worker intervention programs have been effective in increasing Pap smear use in Vietnamese American communities. Cervical cancer control programs for Vietnamese women should address knowledge deficits; enable women who are without a usual source of care to find a primary care doctor; and improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering women to ask for testing. PMID:18990732

  14. WTEC panel report on European nuclear instrumentation and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, James D.; Lanning, David D.; Beltracchi, Leo; Best, Fred R.; Easter, James R.; Oakes, Lester C.; Sudduth, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Control and instrumentation systems might be called the 'brain' and 'senses' of a nuclear power plant. As such they become the key elements in the integrated operation of these plants. Recent developments in digital equipment have allowed a dramatic change in the design of these instrument and control (I&C) systems. New designs are evolving with cathode ray tube (CRT)-based control rooms, more automation, and better logical information for the human operators. As these new advanced systems are developed, various decisions must be made about the degree of automation and the human-to-machine interface. Different stages of the development of control automation and of advanced digital systems can be found in various countries. The purpose of this technology assessment is to make a comparative evaluation of the control and instrumentation systems that are being used for commercial nuclear power plants in Europe and the United States. This study is limited to pressurized water reactors (PWR's). Part of the evaluation includes comparisons with a previous similar study assessing Japanese technology.

  15. Feeling close and doing well: the prevalence and motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions in Mexican and European American cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Savani, Krishna; Alvarez, Ayme; Mesquita, Batja; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigate whether interpersonally engaging emotions--those that bring the self closer to others (e.g., affection, shame)--are central to the model of self and relationships prevalent in Mexican cultural contexts. Study 1 demonstrated that compared to people in European American contexts, people in Mexican contexts were more likely to report experiencing interpersonally engaging emotions and less likely to report experiencing interpersonally disengaging emotions. Study 2 found that interpersonally engaging emotions had a substantial influence on performance motivation in Mexican contexts--Mexican participants solved more word search puzzles after recalling instances in which they experienced positive interpersonally engaging emotions, and fewer after recalling negative interpersonally disengaging emotions; in contrast, there were no differences by condition for European Americans. These findings significantly extend previous research by documenting the implications of relational concerns (e.g., simpatia, personalismo) for emotion and motivation in Mexican contexts, and are the first to demonstrate the motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions.

  16. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption.

  17. Aspects of the Acquisition of Object Control and ECM-Type Verbs in European Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, Anabela; Hyams, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the acquisition of sentential complementation under causative, perception, and object control verbs in European Portuguese, a language rich in complement types, including the typologically marked inflected infinitives. We tested 58 children between 3 and 5 years of age and 24 adults on a sentence completion task. The results support…

  18. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-01-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415

  19. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  20. Functional Resilience against Climate-Driven Extinctions - Comparing the Functional Diversity of European and North American Tree Floras.

    PubMed

    Liebergesell, Mario; Reu, Björn; Stahl, Ulrike; Freiberg, Martin; Welk, Erik; Kattge, Jens; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Peñuelas, Josep; Wirth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Future global change scenarios predict a dramatic loss of biodiversity for many regions in the world, potentially reducing the resistance and resilience of ecosystem functions. Once before, during Plio-Pleistocene glaciations, harsher climatic conditions in Europe as compared to North America led to a more depauperate tree flora. Here we hypothesize that this climate driven species loss has also reduced functional diversity in Europe as compared to North America. We used variation in 26 traits for 154 North American and 66 European tree species and grid-based co-occurrences derived from distribution maps to compare functional diversity patterns of the two continents. First, we identified similar regions with respect to contemporary climate in the temperate zone of North America and Europe. Second, we compared the functional diversity of both continents and for the climatically similar sub-regions using the functional dispersion-index (FDis) and the functional richness index (FRic). Third, we accounted in these comparisons for grid-scale differences in species richness, and, fourth, investigated the associated trait spaces using dimensionality reduction. For gymnosperms we find similar functional diversity on both continents, whereas for angiosperms functional diversity is significantly greater in Europe than in North America. These results are consistent across different scales, for climatically similar regions and considering species richness patterns. We decomposed these differences in trait space occupation into differences in functional diversity vs. differences in functional identity. We show that climate-driven species loss on a continental scale might be decoupled from or at least not linearly related to changes in functional diversity. This might be important when analyzing the effects of climate-driven biodiversity change on ecosystem functioning.

  1. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement: Update on Limb Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, François; Decramer, Marc; Casaburi, Richard; Barreiro, Esther; Burelle, Yan; Debigaré, Richard; Dekhuijzen, P. N. Richard; Franssen, Frits; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Gea, Joaquim; Gosker, Harry R.; Gosselink, Rik; Hayot, Maurice; Hussain, Sabah N. A.; Janssens, Wim; Polkey, Micheal I.; Roca, Josep; Saey, Didier; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Spruit, Martijn A.; Steiner, Michael; Taivassalo, Tanja; Troosters, Thierry; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Wagner, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limb muscle dysfunction is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it has important clinical implications, such as reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life, and even survival. Since the previous American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) statement on limb muscle dysfunction, important progress has been made on the characterization of this problem and on our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical implications. Purpose: The purpose of this document is to update the 1999 ATS/ERS statement on limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. Methods: An interdisciplinary committee of experts from the ATS and ERS Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Clinical Problems assemblies determined that the scope of this document should be limited to limb muscles. Committee members conducted focused reviews of the literature on several topics. A librarian also performed a literature search. An ATS methodologist provided advice to the committee, ensuring that the methodological approach was consistent with ATS standards. Results: We identified important advances in our understanding of the extent and nature of the structural alterations in limb muscles in patients with COPD. Since the last update, landmark studies were published on the mechanisms of development of limb muscle dysfunction in COPD and on the treatment of this condition. We now have a better understanding of the clinical implications of limb muscle dysfunction. Although exercise training is the most potent intervention to address this condition, other therapies, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation, are emerging. Assessment of limb muscle function can identify patients who are at increased risk of poor clinical outcomes, such as exercise intolerance and premature mortality. Conclusions: Limb muscle dysfunction is a key systemic consequence of COPD. However, there are still important gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of development of this problem

  2. Functional Resilience against Climate-Driven Extinctions – Comparing the Functional Diversity of European and North American Tree Floras

    PubMed Central

    Liebergesell, Mario; Stahl, Ulrike; Freiberg, Martin; Welk, Erik; Kattge, Jens; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Future global change scenarios predict a dramatic loss of biodiversity for many regions in the world, potentially reducing the resistance and resilience of ecosystem functions. Once before, during Plio-Pleistocene glaciations, harsher climatic conditions in Europe as compared to North America led to a more depauperate tree flora. Here we hypothesize that this climate driven species loss has also reduced functional diversity in Europe as compared to North America. We used variation in 26 traits for 154 North American and 66 European tree species and grid-based co-occurrences derived from distribution maps to compare functional diversity patterns of the two continents. First, we identified similar regions with respect to contemporary climate in the temperate zone of North America and Europe. Second, we compared the functional diversity of both continents and for the climatically similar sub-regions using the functional dispersion-index (FDis) and the functional richness index (FRic). Third, we accounted in these comparisons for grid-scale differences in species richness, and, fourth, investigated the associated trait spaces using dimensionality reduction. For gymnosperms we find similar functional diversity on both continents, whereas for angiosperms functional diversity is significantly greater in Europe than in North America. These results are consistent across different scales, for climatically similar regions and considering species richness patterns. We decomposed these differences in trait space occupation into differences in functional diversity vs. differences in functional identity. We show that climate-driven species loss on a continental scale might be decoupled from or at least not linearly related to changes in functional diversity. This might be important when analyzing the effects of climate-driven biodiversity change on ecosystem functioning. PMID:26848836

  3. In vitro antimicrobial activity against 10 North American and European Lawsonia intracellularis isolates.

    PubMed

    Wattanaphansak, Suphot; Singer, Randall S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2009-03-02

    The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials against 10 isolates of Lawsonia intracellularis, the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE). Antimicrobials tested included carbadox, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, tiamulin, tylosin and valnemulin. The MIC of each antimicrobial against L. intracellularis was determined using a tissue culture system and was identified as the lowest concentration that inhibited 99% of L. intracellularis growth, as compared to the antimicrobial-free control. Each antimicrobial concentration was evaluated for both intracellular and extracellular activity against L. intracellularis, an obligately intracellular bacterium. When tested for intracellular activity, carbadox, tiamulin, and valnemulin were the most active antimicrobials with MICs of < or =0.5microg/ml. Tylosin (MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32microg/ml) and chlortetracycline (MICs ranging from 0.125 to 64microg/ml) showed intermediate activities and lincomycin (MICs ranging from 8 to >128mIcog/ml) showed the least activity. When tested for extracellular activity, valnemulin (MICs ranging from 0.125 to 4microg/ml) was the most active against most L. intracellularis isolates. Chlortetracycline (MICs ranging from 16 to 64microg/ml), tylosin (MICs ranging from 1 to >128microg/ml), and tiamulin (MICs ranging from 1 to 32microg/ml) showed intermediate activities. Lincomycin (MICs ranging from 32 to >128microg/ml) showed the least activity. Our in vitro results showed that each L. intracellularis isolate had a different antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and these data can be utilized as an in vitro guideline for the further antimicrobial evaluation of field L. intracellularis isolates.

  4. Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Andreas; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Jannigje M; Oordt-Speets, Anouk M; van Kessel, Gerarda B; de Vlas, Sake J; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies. This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes. Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control. PMID:27589214

  5. Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Andreas; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Jannigje M; Oordt-Speets, Anouk M; van Kessel, Gerarda B; de Vlas, Sake J; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-08-25

    Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and international and national organisations were consulted on the components of programmatic LTBI control that should be considered and evaluated in literature reviews, mathematical models and cost-effectiveness studies. This was done through a questionnaire and two interactive discussion rounds. The main components identified were identification and targeting of risk groups, determinants of LTBI and progression to active TB, optimal diagnostic tests for LTBI, effective preventive treatment regimens, and to explore the potential for combining LTBI control with other health programmes. Political commitment, a solid healthcare infrastructure, and favourable economic situation in specific countries were identified as essential to facilitate the implementation of programmatic LTBI control.

  6. Interference in foraging behaviour of European and American house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) by catmint, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Jones, I; Loza-Reyes, E; Cameron, M M; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A

    2012-05-01

    The European and American house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, have a huge impact upon human health worldwide due to being the most important indoor trigger of atopic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Preceding studies have shown that the behavioural response of house dust mites towards volatile chemicals from food sources can be assessed using a Y-tube olfactometer assay. In the current study, we used this assay to investigate, for the first time, the ability of the essential oil of the catmint plant, Nepeta cataria (Lamiaceae), known to repel other ectoparasites affecting human and animal health, to interfere with the attraction of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae towards a standard food source (fish flakes). Two distinct chemotypes (A and B), enriched in the iridoid compounds (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone and (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, and the sesquiterpene (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, were used. Initial assays with a hexane extract of fish flakes (FF extract) confirmed attraction of mites to this positive control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively), but when presented in combination with either N. cataria chemotype, tested across a range of doses (10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 μg), decreasing attraction of mites to their food source was observed as the dose augmented. Our study shows that N. cataria, enriched in iridoid nepetalactones and (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, exhibits potent repellent activity for house dust mites, and has the potential for deployment in control programmes based on interference with normal house dust mite behaviour.

  7. A comparison of the structure of American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobster cuticle with particular reference to shell disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Whitten, Miranda M A; Kim, Anita; Wootton, Emma C; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Tlusty, Michael; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-03-01

    The integument of arthropods is an important first-line defence against the invasion of parasites and pathogens. Once damaged, this can be subject to colonisation by microbial agents from the surrounding environment, which in crustaceans can lead to a condition termed shell disease syndrome. This condition has been reported in several crustacean species, including crabs and lobsters. The syndrome is a progressive condition where the outer cuticle becomes pitted and eroded, and in extreme cases is compromised, leaving animals susceptible to septicaemia. This study examined the susceptibility of juvenile American (Homarus americanus) and European (Homarus gammarus) lobsters to shell disease, as a result of mechanical damage. Scanning electron microscopy was used as a method to identify differences in the cuticle structure and consequences of mechanical damage. Claw regions were aseptically punctured, whilst carapaces were abraded using sterile sandpaper, to mimic natural damage. After a period of between 10 and 12 weeks, lobsters were sacrificed, fixed and stored for later examination. The carapace and claws of juvenile American lobsters were shown to be thinner and more vulnerable to abrasion damage than their European counterparts. In addition, the number and distribution of setal pits and pore canal openings also differed between the two species of lobster. Mechanical damage resulted in the formation of shell disease lesions on the claw and carapace of both lobster species. However, American lobsters, unlike their European counterparts, had extensive bacterial colonisation on the margins of these lesions. Overall, it is concluded that the cuticle of the American lobster is more susceptible to damage and resulting microbial colonisation. This may have implications for susceptibility of both species of lobster to shell disease syndrome.

  8. Efffect of Aeroallergen Sensitization on Asthma Control in African-American Teens with Persistent Asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    In African-American adolescents with persistent asthma, allergic profile predicted the likelihood of having poorly controlled asthma despite guidelines-directed therapies. Our results suggest that tree and weed pollen sensitization are independent risk factors for poorly controll...

  9. PREFACE: 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Ondřej; Punčochář, Ivo; Duník, Jindřich

    2015-11-01

    The 12th European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis (ACD 2015) took place at the Research Centre NTIS - New Technologies for the Information Society, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic, on November 19 - 20, 2015. The annual European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis has been organized since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary, and Denmark to bring together senior and junior academics and engineers from diverse fields of automatic control, fault detection, and signal processing. The workshop provides an opportunity for researchers and developers to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, or even open problems. It also offers a great opportunity for industrial partners to express their needs and priorities and to review the current activities in the fields. A total of 74 papers have been submitted for ACD 2015. Based on the peer reviews 48 papers were accepted for the oral presentation and 10 papers for the poster presentation. The accepted papers covered areas of control theory and applications, identification, estimation, signal processing, and fault detection. In addition, four excellent plenary lectures were delivered by Prof. Fredrik Gustafsson (Automotive Sensor Mining for Tire Pressure Monitoring), Prof. Vladimír Havlena (Advanced Process Control for Energy Efficiency), Prof. Silvio Simani (Advanced Issues on Wind Turbine Modelling and Control), and Prof. Robert Babuška (Learning Control in Robotics). The ACD 2015 was for the first time in the workshop history co-sponsored by the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC). On behalf of the ACD 2015 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who prepared and submitted papers, participated in the peer review process, supported, and attended the workshop.

  10. Mosquito-borne disease surveillance by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Zeller, H; Marrama, L; Sudre, B; Van Bortel, W; Warns-Petit, E

    2013-08-01

    For a few years, a series of traditionally tropical mosquito-borne diseases, such as chikungunya fever and dengue, have posed challenges to national public health authorities in the European region. Other diseases have re-emerged, e.g. malaria in Greece, or spread to other countries, e.g. West Nile fever. These diseases are reportable within the European Union (EU), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control collects information in various ways to provide EU member states with topical assessments of disease threats, risks and trends for prompt and appropriate public health action. Using disease-specific expert networks, the European Surveillance System (TESSy) collects standardized comparable information on all statutory communicable diseases in a database. In addition, the event-based surveillance aims to detect potential public health threats early, and to allow timely response and support to blood deferral decisions for pathogens that can be transmitted through blood donation. Laboratory capacity for early detection is implemented through external quality assessments. Other activities include the development of guidelines for the surveillance of mosquito vectors, and the production of regularly updated maps on the currently known occurrence of mosquito vector species.

  11. Non-European Immigrants among Political Science Faculty: American Higher Education and the New Wave of Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manrique, Gabriel G.; Manrique, Cecilia G.

    This document reports the results of a survey of immigrant political science faculty of non-European origin during the fall of 1992. There were five purposes for conducting the survey: (1) to collect data on the characteristics of faculty in the United States who migrated from non-European countries, particularly the less developed countries; (2)…

  12. Smoking and genetic risk variation across populations of European, Asian, and African American ancestry--a meta-analysis of chromosome 15q25.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Shiun; Saccone, Nancy L; Culverhouse, Robert C; Bracci, Paige M; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Dueker, Nicole; Han, Younghun; Huang, Hongyan; Jin, Guangfu; Kohno, Takashi; Ma, Jennie Z; Przybeck, Thomas R; Sanders, Alan R; Smith, Jennifer A; Sung, Yun Ju; Wenzlaff, Angie S; Wu, Chen; Yoon, Dankyu; Chen, Ying-Ting; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cho, Yoon Shin; David, Sean P; Duan, Jubao; Eaton, Charles B; Furberg, Helena; Goate, Alison M; Gu, Dongfeng; Hansen, Helen M; Hartz, Sarah; Hu, Zhibin; Kim, Young Jin; Kittner, Steven J; Levinson, Douglas F; Mosley, Thomas H; Payne, Thomas J; Rao, D C; Rice, John P; Rice, Treva K; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Shete, Sanjay S; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret R; Sun, Yan V; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wang, Jen C; Wrensch, Margaret R; Xian, Hong; Gejman, Pablo V; He, Jiang; Hunt, Steven C; Kardia, Sharon L; Li, Ming D; Lin, Dongxin; Mitchell, Braxton D; Park, Taesung; Schwartz, Ann G; Shen, Hongbing; Wiencke, John K; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yokota, Jun; Amos, Christopher I; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-05-01

    Recent meta-analyses of European ancestry subjects show strong evidence for association between smoking quantity and multiple genetic variants on chromosome 15q25. This meta-analysis extends the examination of association between distinct genes in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 region and smoking quantity to Asian and African American populations to confirm and refine specific reported associations. Association results for a dichotomized cigarettes smoked per day phenotype in 27 datasets (European ancestry (N = 14,786), Asian (N = 6,889), and African American (N = 10,912) for a total of 32,587 smokers) were meta-analyzed by population and results were compared across all three populations. We demonstrate association between smoking quantity and markers in the chromosome 15q25 region across all three populations, and narrow the region of association. Of the variants tested, only rs16969968 is associated with smoking (P < 0.01) in each of these three populations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.25-1.42, P = 1.1 × 10(-17) in meta-analysis across all population samples). Additional variants displayed a consistent signal in both European ancestry and Asian datasets, but not in African Americans. The observed consistent association of rs16969968 with heavy smoking across multiple populations, combined with its known biological significance, suggests rs16969968 is most likely a functional variant that alters risk for heavy smoking. We interpret additional association results that differ across populations as providing evidence for additional functional variants, but we are unable to further localize the source of this association. Using the cross-population study paradigm provides valuable insights to narrow regions of interest and inform future biological experiments.

  13. Identification of Novel Inherited Genetic Markers for Aggressive PCa in European and African Americans Using Whole Genome Sequencing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    PCa and to better understand the racial disparity of PCa that exists between Europen Americans (EA) and African Americans ( AA ). In this DOD proposal...Another dilemma is a large difference in PCa risk, especially aggressive PCa, between races. African Americans ( AAs ) have the world’s highest...between races may contribute to higher incidence of and mortality from aggressive PCa in AA . In this DOD proposal, we proposed: 1) To discover novel

  14. Tribally Controlled Colleges: Making Good Medicine. American Indian Studies, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Wayne J.

    This book traces the development of tribally controlled colleges (TCC), placing them in a historical context within Native American higher education and within the junior and community college movement. It examines the first 10 years of the movement, focusing in particular on six TCC's and the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC),…

  15. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  16. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  17. Efficacy of potential chemical control compounds for removing invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Witmer, Gary W; Snow, Nathan P; Moulton, Rachael S

    2015-01-01

    Invasive American bullfrogs [Rana catesbeiana (Lithobates catesbeianus)] are outcompeting and predating on native biota and contributing to reductions in biodiversity worldwide. Current methods for controlling American bullfrogs are incapable of stopping their expansion, thus more cost-effective and broadly applicable methods are needed. Although chemical control compounds have been identified as effective for removing other invasive amphibians, none have been tested for American bullfrogs. Our objective was to expand on previous research and test the efficacy of 10 potential chemical control compounds for removing invasive American bullfrogs. After a dermal spray-application of 4 ml, we found 3 compounds (i.e., chloroxylenol, rotenone with permethrin, and caffeine) at 5-10 % concentrations in water were 100 % lethal for adult American bullfrogs. Chloroxylenol and rotenone with permethrin were fast acting with time-to-death <2 h. This research presents a first-step toward incorporating chemical control as part of integrated pest management strategy for controlling invasive American bullfrogs. Follow-up studies on delivery systems and reducing non-target hazards should ensue with these compounds to confirm their effectiveness and safety for removing invasive American bullfrogs.

  18. Qualitative Analysis of the Role of Culture in Coping Themes of Latina and European-American Mothers of Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Alexis L.; Oland, Alyssa A.; Katz, Ernest R.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Askins, Martha A.; Butler, Robert W.; Dolgin, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that mothers of children diagnosed with cancer experience high levels of distress. Latina mothers may be at risk for higher levels of distress related to language barriers, cultural factors, and economic, immigration, and acculturation stressors. Despite the increasing US Latino population, few studies have examined the role of culture within pediatric oncology, including how mothers cope with their child’s cancer. This study used qualitative analysis of 24 sessions from 3 Latina and 3 European-American mothers of children recently diagnosed with cancer. The session transcripts were divided into a total of 2,328 thought segments that were then analyzed for themes using a collaborative iterative process. Analysis identified 9 shared coping themes that included, with some variations: gathering information, professional help-seeking, activities, problem solving, positive thinking, present orientation, reframing, avoidance, and religion. Three themes were culture-specific: only European-American mothers discussed compromise, while normalization and perspective taking were unique to the Latina mothers and suggest that the cultural value of simpatía influences coping. Clinical and research recommendations are discussed. PMID:19398713

  19. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  20. Levenson's IPC (Internal-External Control) Scale: A Comparison of Chinese and American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao, Rosina C.

    1978-01-01

    The results of this study, taken together and compared with data from previous studies, suggest that the locus of control variable may be tapping some basic psychological dimension common to both Chinese and American cultures. (Author/AM)

  1. The Pan European Phenological Database PEP725: Data Content and Data Quality Control Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkovic, Anita; Hübner, Thomas; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Ungersböck, Markus; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Phenology - the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world - has become an important approach for climate change impact studies in recent years. It is therefore a "conditio sine qua non" to collect, archive, digitize, control and update phenological datasets. Thus and with regard to cross-border cooperation and activities it was necessary to establish, operate and promote a pan European phenological database (PEP725). Such a database - designed and tested under cost action 725 in 2004 and further developed and maintained in the framework of the EUMETNET program PEP725 - collects data from different European governmental and nongovernmental institutions and thus offers a unique compilation of plant phenological observations. The data follows the same classification scheme - the so called BBCH coding system - that makes datasets comparable. Europe had a long tradition in the observation of phenological events: the history of collecting phenological data and their usage in climatology began in 1751. The first datasets in PEP725 date back to 1868. However, there are only a few observations available until 1950. From 1951 onwards, the phenological networks all over Europe developed rapidly: Currently, PEP725 provides about 9 million records from 23 European countries (covering approximately 50% of Europe). To supply the data in a good and uniform quality it is essential and worthwhile to establish and develop data quality control procedures. Consequently, one of the main tasks within PEP725 is the conception of a multi-stage-quality control. Currently the tests are stepwise composed: completeness -, plausibility -, time consistency -, climatological - and statistical checks. In a nutshell: The poster exemplifies the status quo of the data content of the PEP725 database and incipient stages of used and planned quality controls, respectively. For more details, we would also like to promote and refer to the PEP725 website (http

  2. Barriers to diabetes prevention and control among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ronny A

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina's American Indian population experiences a disproportionate diabetes burden, in terms of both a high prevalence of the disease and excess diabetes-related death and disability. Concerted efforts need to be made to provide culturally appropriate and easily accessible education, health care, and health-promoting resources in these vulnerable communities.

  3. Cancer Prevention and Control in American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines differences among American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives with regard to incidence and mortality rates for various types of cancer, particularly lung, cervix, breast, biliary, gastric, colorectal, prostate, and primary hepatic cancer. Discusses the influence of genetic and environmental factors, smoking, and inadequate medical…

  4. Commonality of flight control systems for support of European telecommunications missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debatin, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the presentation of mission-independent software systems that provide a common software platform to ground data systems for mission operations. The objectives of such common software platforms are to reduce the cost of the development of mission-dedicated software systems and to increase the level of reliability of the ground data systems for mission operations. In accordance with this objective, the Multi-Satellite Support System (MSSS) was developed at the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Between 1975 and 1992, the MSSS provided support to 16 European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among them very demanding science missions such as GEOS, EXOSAT, and Giotto. The successful support of these missions proved the validity of the MSSS concept with its extended mission-independent platform. This paper describes the MSSS concept and focuses on the wide use of MSSS as a flight control system for geosynchronous telecommunications satellites. Reference is made to more than 15 telecommunications missions that are operated from Western Europe using flight control systems with an underlying MSSS concept, demonstrating the benefits of a commonly used software platform. Finally, the paper outlines the design of the new generation of flight control systems, which is being developed at ESOC for this decade, following a period of more than 15 years of MSSS support.

  5. Vaccine-preventable diseases: the role of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Kramarz, P; Lopalco, P L; Huitric, E; Pastore Celentano, L

    2014-05-01

    The role of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is to strengthen the capacity of the European Union (EU) Member States to protect human health through the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The main objective of the programme on vaccine-preventable diseases and invasive bacterial infections (VPD) is to provide robust evidence and high-quality technical support to the EU Member States to help them in their efforts to prevent and control VPD. Since the establishment of ECDC, several existing VPD surveillance networks have been transferred to ECDC, namely EU-IBIS, DIPNET and EUVAC. In addition to surveillance of diseases, ECDC is collecting information and monitoring other parameters that are of crucial importance for a well-functioning immunization system, including vaccination coverage. The VPD programme also provides independent scientific opinions in the area of immunization and initiates and coordinates scientific studies in the area of vaccination to answer specific questions of public health importance, including risk perception and analysis of behaviour in different population groups. One of the overall ECDC priorities over recent years is the Centre's involvement in measles elimination. The 'Message' tool and the 'Measles Atlas' are examples of work aiming at supporting the efforts of Member States in the elimination phase.

  6. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: Consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive; Brockow, Knut; Carter, Melody C; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Siebenhaar, Frank; Lange, Magdalena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Castells, Mariana; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Hornick, Jason L; Torrelo, Antonio; Grabbe, Jürgen; Rabenhorst, Anja; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Butterfield, Joseph H; Gotlib, Jason; Reiter, Andreas; Radia, Deepti; Hermine, Olivier; Sotlar, Karl; George, Tracy I; Kristensen, Thomas K; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Yavuz, Selim; Hägglund, Hans; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Triggiani, Massimo; Maurer, Marcus; Nilsson, Gunnar; Horny, Hans-Peter; Arock, Michel; Orfao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Dean D; Akin, Cem; Valent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. To address this unmet need, an international task force involving experts from different organizations (including the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) met several times between 2010 and 2014 to discuss the classification and criteria for diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. This article provides the major outcomes of these meetings and a proposal for a revised definition and criteria. In particular, we recommend that the typical maculopapular cutaneous lesions (urticaria pigmentosa) should be subdivided into 2 variants, namely a monomorphic variant with small maculopapular lesions, which is typically seen in adult patients, and a polymorphic variant with larger lesions of variable size and shape, which is typically seen in pediatric patients. Clinical observations suggest that the monomorphic variant, if it develops in children, often persists into adulthood, whereas the polymorphic variant may resolve around puberty. This delineation might have important prognostic implications, and its implementation in diagnostic algorithms and future mastocytosis classifications is recommended. Refinements are also suggested for the diagnostic criteria of CM, removal of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans from the current classification of CM, and removal of the adjunct solitary from the term solitary mastocytoma.

  7. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe.

  8. Efficacy of control measures for European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Delanoy, Luc; Archibold, O W

    2007-10-01

    Introduced to Saskatchewan in the 1930s as a potential shelterbelt species, European buckthorn is now a prominent understory shrub in riparian woodland and shrub communities around Saskatoon. Locally, the Meewasin Valley Authority (MVA) is actively controlling buckthorn as part of its mandate to conserve natural heritage resources of the South Saskatchewan River Valley, with the goal of restoring the natural biodiversity of remnant patches of native vegetation. European buckthorn is normally dioecious, and MVA has chosen to treat only fruiting stems in an attempt to limit seed production. Two control techniques have been used. In one treatment, glyphosate was applied to stems after cutting; alternatively Garlon 4 Dow AgroSciences herbicide (active ingredient triclopyr) was applied as a chemical girdle directly to the stems using a streamline basal bark spray method. To date, more than 347,000 fruiting stems of buckthorn have been treated. Results indicate good initial progress in limiting seed production in dense buckthorn sites, but at a high cost. Although seed eradication is not a practical short-term goal for the Saskatoon buckthorn population, chemical girdling can substantially and strategically reduce seed and effectively limit spread. Field-tested strategies to reduce costs and improve efficiencies are discussed.

  9. European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Rota, Maria Cristina; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Massari, Marco

    2004-02-01

    In Italy, 35 clusters of travel associated Legionnaires' disease were identified from July 2002, when the European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease have been adopted by the EWGLINET network, to October 2003. Eight per cent (28.6%) would not have been identified without the network. The clusters detected were small, ranging from 2 cases to a maximum of 6. All clusters involved 5 camping sites and 30 hotels/residences, and an overall of 87 patients. The diagnosis was confirmed in 92.0% of the cases and mainly performed by urinary antigen detection (84.7%). A clinical isolate was available only in one case. Following environmental investigations, samples were collected for all the 35 clusters from the water system, and Legionella pneumophila was found in 23 occasions (65.7%). In 15 resorts out of 35, investigations were already in progress at the time of EWGLI cluster notification, since in Italy full environmental investigation is performed even after notification of a single case. Control measures were implemented in all accommodation sites at risk and one hotel only was closed. In all the 35 clusters, reports were completed and sent on time, highlighting that it is possible to comply with the procedures requested by the European Guidelines.

  10. Efficacy of Control Measures for European Buckthorn ( Rhamnus cathartica L.) in Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delanoy, Luc; Archibold, O. W.

    2007-10-01

    Introduced to Saskatchewan in the 1930s as a potential shelterbelt species, European buckthorn is now a prominent understory shrub in riparian woodland and shrub communities around Saskatoon. Locally, the Meewasin Valley Authority (MVA) is actively controlling buckthorn as part of its mandate to conserve natural heritage resources of the South Saskatchewan River Valley, with the goal of restoring the natural biodiversity of remnant patches of native vegetation. European buckthorn is normally dioecious, and MVA has chosen to treat only fruiting stems in an attempt to limit seed production. Two control techniques have been used. In one treatment, glyphosate was applied to stems after cutting; alternatively Garlon 4 Dow AgroSciences herbicide (active ingredient triclopyr) was applied as a chemical girdle directly to the stems using a streamline basal bark spray method. To date, more than 347,000 fruiting stems of buckthorn have been treated. Results indicate good initial progress in limiting seed production in dense buckthorn sites, but at a high cost. Although seed eradication is not a practical short-term goal for the Saskatoon buckthorn population, chemical girdling can substantially and strategically reduce seed and effectively limit spread. Field-tested strategies to reduce costs and improve efficiencies are discussed.

  11. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  12. Analysis of Pan-European attitudes to the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, C; Misturelli, F; Nielsen, L; Gunn, G J; Yu, J

    2009-02-07

    At present, national-level policies concerning the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) differ widely across Europe. Some Scandinavian countries have enacted strong regulatory frameworks to eradicate the disease, whereas other countries have few formal policies. To examine these differences, the attitudes of stakeholders and policy makers in 17 European countries were investigated. A web-based questionnaire was sent to policy makers, government and private sector veterinarians, and representatives of farmers' organisations. In total, 131 individuals responded to the questionnaire and their responses were analysed by applying a method used in sociolinguistics: frame analysis. The results showed that the different attitudes of countries that applied compulsory or voluntary frameworks were associated with different views about the attribution or blame for BVD and the roles ascribed to farmers and other stakeholders in its eradication and control.

  13. Geogenic and agricultural controls on the geochemical composition of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, Gerben; Saaltink, Remon; Griffioen, Jasper; Birke, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Concern about the environmental impact of agriculture caused by intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the geogenic and agricultural controls on the elemental composition of European, grazing and agricultural soils. Materials and methods: Robust factor analysis was applied to data series for Al,B,Ca, Cd,Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg,Mn, Na,Ni, P, S, Se, Sr, U, Zn (ICP-MS) and SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3 (XRF) based on the European GEMAS dataset. In addition, the following general soil properties were included: clay content, pH, chemical index of alteration (CIA), loss on ignition (LOI), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon and total sulfur. Furthermore, this dataset was coupled to a dataset containing information of historic P2O5 fertilization across Europe. Also, a mass balance was carried out for Cd, Cu and Zn to determine if concentrations of these elements found in the soils have their origin in historic P2O5 fertilization. Results and discussion: Seven geogenic factors and one agricultural factor were found of which four prominent ones (all geogenic): chemical weathering, reactive iron-aluminum oxide minerals, clay minerals and carbonate minerals. Results for grazing and agricultural soils were near identical, which further proofs the prominence of geogenic controls on the total elemental composition. When the cumulative amount of P2O5 fertilization was considered, no extra agriculture-related factors became visible. The mass balance confirms these observations. Conclusion: Overall, the geological controls are more important for the total soil chemistry in agricultural and grazing land soils than the anthropogenic controls.

  14. Long range geoid control through the European GPS traverse: Final results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torge, W.; Basic, T.; Denker, H.; Doliff, J.; Wenzel, H.-G.

    1989-01-01

    The European north-south Global Positioning System (GPS)-traverse proposed by IAG SSG 3.88, should control and improve the European geoid. This traverse follows first order leveling lines, included in the United European Leveling Network. From May to August 1986 and in July 1987, the central and northern part of this traverse (approx. 3000 km) was observed using up to four TI 4100 receivers, covering Austria, Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Both traverse parts contain 71 stations with distances of about 50 km. In addition, 8 stations have been occupied for overlapping connections, and traverse links were established for connecting the fundamental stations Wettzell (VLBI and SLR) and Onsala (VLBI). Final results show a GPS observation precision of a few cm for loops of some 100 km circumference. After transformation of the GPS results to geoid heights using the leveled heights, comparisons with different existing gravimetric geoid determinations including geopotential models were performed. In addition, new geopotential models complete to degree and order 360 tailored to gravity data in Europe, and gravimetric geoid solutions using 6 x 10' mean gravity anomalies were investigated. The comparison with GPS and leveling yields rms discrepancies of + or - 0.1...0.2 m over 1000 km traverse sections for the best solutions, but a strong slope is existing in Sweden and southern Norway in almost all solutions, which is probably caused by systematic errors in the available gravity data for Scandinavia. This is confirmed by a new geoid computation at the Danish Geodetic Institute where the slope has disappeared. If this new solution is taken for the northern traverse section and the best solution for the central part, the rms discrepancy reduces to approximately + or - 0.2 m over 3000 km. Thus, a + or - 10 (exp 7) relative height accuracy seems to be achievable over long distances with the GPS/leveling and the gravimetric geoid calculation techniques

  15. Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control among African American Youth: The Relationships to Academic Grades, Delinquency, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Barber, Brian K.; Crane, D. Russell

    2006-01-01

    Associations among three dimensions of parenting (support, behavioral control, psychological control) and measures of adolescent depression, delinquency, and academic achievement were assessed in a sample of African American youth. All data were adolescent self-reports by way of school-administered questionnaires in random samples of classrooms in…

  16. Relations of maternal style and child self-concept to autobiographical memories in chinese, chinese immigrant, and European american 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared memories with their children and completed questionnaires; children recounted autobiographical events and described themselves with a researcher. Independent of culture, gender, child age, and language skills, maternal elaborations and evaluations were associated with children's shared memory reports, and maternal evaluations and child agentic self-focus were associated with children's independent memory reports. Maternal style and child self-concept further mediated cultural influences on children's memory. The findings provide insight into the social-cultural construction of autobiographical memory.

  17. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Özçakar, L; Franchignoni, F; Frontera, W; Negrini, S

    2013-04-01

    Case reports (CR) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side-effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. Yet, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AJPMR) and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, we discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well-written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  18. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  19. European Invasion of North American Pinus strobus at Large and Fine Scales: High Genetic Diversity and Fine-Scale Genetic Clustering over Time in the Adventive Range

    PubMed Central

    Mandák, Bohumil; Hadincová, Věroslava; Mahelka, Václav; Wildová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Background North American Pinus strobus is a highly invasive tree species in Central Europe. Using ten polymorphic microsatellite loci we compared various aspects of the large-scale genetic diversity of individuals from 30 sites in the native distribution range with those from 30 sites in the European adventive distribution range. To investigate the ascertained pattern of genetic diversity of this intercontinental comparison further, we surveyed fine-scale genetic diversity patterns and changes over time within four highly invasive populations in the adventive range. Results Our data show that at the large scale the genetic diversity found within the relatively small adventive range in Central Europe, surprisingly, equals the diversity found within the sampled area in the native range, which is about thirty times larger. Bayesian assignment grouped individuals into two genetic clusters separating North American native populations from the European, non-native populations, without any strong genetic structure shown over either range. In the case of the fine scale, our comparison of genetic diversity parameters among the localities and age classes yielded no evidence of genetic diversity increase over time. We found that SGS differed across age classes within the populations under study. Old trees in general completely lacked any SGS, which increased over time and reached its maximum in the sapling stage. Conclusions Based on (1) the absence of difference in genetic diversity between the native and adventive ranges, together with the lack of structure in the native range, and (2) the lack of any evidence of any temporal increase in genetic diversity at four highly invasive populations in the adventive range, we conclude that population amalgamation probably first happened in the native range, prior to introduction. In such case, there would have been no need for multiple introductions from previously isolated populations, but only several introductions from

  20. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  1. Updating control of puberty in male European sea bass: A holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Manuel; Espigares, Felipe; Felip, Alicia; Escobar, Sebastian; Molés, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarado, Maria Victoria; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-09-15

    Puberty is the process by which an immature animal acquires the ability to reproduce for the first time; its onset occurs soon after sexual differentiation and is characterized by the beginning of gametogenesis in both sexes. Here we present new insights on when and how the onset of puberty occurs in male European sea bass, its dependence on reaching a critical size, and how it can be controlled by photoperiod, revealing the existence of a photolabile period with important applications in aquaculture. Regarding size, apparently only European sea bass above a certain size threshold attain the ability to carry out gametogenesis during their first year of life, while their smaller counterparts fail to do so. This could imply that fish need to achieve an optimal threshold of hormone production, particularly from the kisspeptin/Gnrh/Gth systems, in order to initiate and conclude puberty. However, a long-term restricted feeding regime during the second year of life did not prevent the onset of puberty, thus suggesting that the fish are able to maintain the reproductive function, even at the expense of other functions. Finally, the study of daily hormonal rhythms under different photoperiod regimes revealed the equivalence between their core values and those of seasonal rhythms, in such a way that the daily rhythms could be considered as the functional units of the seasonal rhythms.

  2. Collaboration Networks for Innovation and Socio-economic Development: European and Latin American Perspectives on Digital Ecosystems Research, Local Readiness, Deployment Strategies and Their Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera León, Lorena; Kataishi, Rodrigo

    International cooperation and knowledge transfer among countries has become increasingly important in the last decades, giving opportunity to a set of multiple interaction programs particularly amongst developed and developing regions. This paper discusses the feasibility of the adoption of Digital Ecosystems (DEs) in the Latin American context, based on the experience of deployment of DEs in the European Union. Different deployment experiences in the European context revealed the need of a methodology for planning and implementing DEs that resulted in a set of tools for measuring the maturity grade of localities related to the deployment of DEs and the need of an impact index for understanding its long-term implications of the dynamics of their implementation. This paper proposes a new methodological framework that integrates concepts related to ICT adoption, connectivity and absorption capacities and recognises the strong influence of social capital over these. The paper concludes with the description of a methodological tool oriented towards the mapping, evaluation and modification of scenarios related to ICT adoption process among multiple agents.

  3. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement of the Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Elena M.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Kalady, Matthew F.; Lau, Michelle Wan Yee; Lu, Karen H.; Roach, Nancy; Limburg, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide recommendations on prevention, screening, genetics, treatment, and management for people at risk for hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. Methods The Familial Risk–Colorectal Cancer: European Society for Medical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline published in 2013 on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Guidelines Working Group in Annals of Oncology was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists, with content and recommendations reviewed by an ASCO endorsement panel. Results The ASCO endorsement panel determined that the recommendations of the ESMO guidelines are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. The ASCO panel endorsed the ESMO guidelines and added a few qualifying statements. Recommendations Approximately 5% to 6% of patient cases of CRC are associated with germline mutations that confer an inherited predisposition for cancer. The possibility of a hereditary cancer syndrome should be assessed for every patient at the time of CRC diagnosis. A diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or another genetic syndrome can influence clinical management for patients with CRC and their family members. Screening for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients with CRC should include review of personal and family histories and testing of tumors for DNA mismatch repair deficiency and/or microsatellite instability. Formal genetic evaluation is recommended for individuals who meet defined criteria. PMID:25452455

  4. Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancers among African-American Men and Comparisons with Cancers from European and Asian Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0303 TITLE: Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancers among African-American Men and Comparisons with Cancers from...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 29 Sep 2014 – 28 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancers... genetics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b

  5. A Randomized Controlled Exercise Training Trial on Insulin Sensitivity in African American Men: The ARTIIS study

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Robert L.; Johnson, William D.; Hendrick, Chelsea; Harris, Melissa; Andrews, Emanuel; Johannsen, Neil; Rodarte, Ruben Q.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Church, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lack of regular physical activity at prescribed intensity levels is a modifiable risk factor for insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. African American men are at increased risk for developing diabetes and most African American men are not meeting the current recommended levels of physical activity. The primary objective of the Aerobic Plus Resistance Training and Insulin Resistance in African American Men (ARTIIS) study is to determine the effectiveness of an exercise training intervention aimed at reducing diabetes risk factors in African American men at risk for developing diabetes. Methods Insufficiently active 35–70 year old African American men with a family history of diabetes were eligible for the study. The 5-month randomized controlled trial assigns 116 men to an exercise training or healthy living control arm. The exercise training arm combines aerobic and resistance training according to the current national physical activity recommendations and is conducted in community (YMCA) facilities. The healthy living arm receives information promoting healthy lifestyle changes. Outcomes Insulin response to an oral glucose load is the primary outcome measure, and changes in physiological parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, body composition, and psychological well-being comprise the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The ARTIIS study is one of the first adequately powered, rigorously designed studies to investigate the effects of an aerobic plus resistance exercise training program and to assess adherence to exercise training in community facilities, in African American men. PMID:25979318

  6. Genome-wide methylation patterns provide insight into differences in breast tumor biology between American women of African and European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Young, Allyson C; Sucheston, Lara E; Wang, Dan; Yan, Li; Liu, Song; Tang, Li; Hu, Qiang; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G; Morrison, Carl D; Demissie, Kitaw; Higgins, Michael J

    2014-01-15

    American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than European-Americans (EA) to be diagnosed with aggressive, estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast tumors; mechanisms underlying these disparities are poorly understood. We conducted a genome wide (450K loci) methylation analysis to determine if there were differences in DNA methylation patterns between tumors from AA and EA women and if these differences were similar for both ER positive and ER negative breast cancer. Methylation levels at CpG loci within CpG islands (CGI)s and CGI-shores were significantly higher in tumors (n=138) than in reduction mammoplasty samples (n=124). In hierarchical cluster analysis, there was separation between tumor and normal samples, and in tumors, there was delineation by ER status, but not by ancestry. However, differential methylation analysis identified 157 CpG loci with a mean β value difference of at least 0.17 between races, with almost twice as many differences in ER-negative tumors compared to ER-positive cancers. This first genome-wide methylation study to address disparities indicates that there are likely differing etiologic pathways for the development of ER negative breast cancer between AA and EA women. Further investigation of the genes most differentially methylated by race in ER negative tumors can guide new approaches for cancer prevention and targeted therapies, and elucidate the biologic basis of breast cancer disparities.

  7. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison by birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; Derose, Alessandra; Digiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-11-01

    According to the 'reproductive polarization' hypothesis, family-policy regimes unfavourable to the combination of employment with motherhood generate greater socio-economic differentials in fertility than other regimes. This hypothesis has been tested mainly for 'liberal' Anglo-American regimes. To investigate the effects elsewhere, we compared education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types. Women with low educational attainment have continued to have first births early, not only in Britain and the USA but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Women at all other levels of education have experienced a shift towards later first births, a shift that has been largest in Southern Europe. Unlike the educationally heterogeneous changes in age pattern at first birth seen under the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes, the changes across birth cohorts in the study's two 'universalistic' countries, Norway and France, have been educationally homogeneous.

  8. European Expert Consensus Paper on the implementation of Article 14 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Luke

    2016-11-01

    On 24 November 2015, under the auspices of the European Policy Roundtable on Smoking Cessation, 15 experts on tobacco control and dependence from across the European Union, chaired by Professor Luke Clancy, met in Oslo, Norway, to discuss the implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, namely Article 14. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper reports the consensus reached by all Roundtable participants on the need to further advance the availability and access to services to support cessation of tobacco use. The implementation of services to support cessation of tobacco use in line with Article 14 can and should be significantly improved to protect the health of European citizens. The meeting was initiated and funded by Pfizer.

  9. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sophie; Staubach, Christoph; Blome, Sandra; Guberti, Vittorio; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Vos, Ad; Koenen, Frank; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV) has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990’s and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000’s among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop vaccination efforts

  10. "White aliens": the control of European immigration to Australia 1920-30.

    PubMed

    Langfield, M

    1991-01-01

    The author reviews Australian and British policies restricting non-British immigration to Australia after World War I. "The intense desire in many quarters to maintain a 'white Australia' led not only to the active encouragement of British immigrants but to the restrictions and regulations upon European immigration in the period under review. These restrictions took two forms. Statutory powers of exclusion and restriction were conferred through...legislation.... At the same time...administrative techniques were used to limit further and control 'white alien' immigration. These techniques, such as quotas and the discretionary power of the Minister to limit visas and landing permits, changing in response to economic conditions and public opinion, were perhaps more important in the government's policy of ensuring Australia's racial purity."

  11. A classification and regression tree model of controls on dissolved inorganic nitrogen leaching from European forests.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, James J; Futter, Martyn N; Dise, Nancy B

    2008-11-01

    Often, there is a non-linear relationship between atmospheric dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) input and DIN leaching that is poorly captured by existing models. We present the first application of the non-parametric classification and regression tree approach to evaluate the key environmental drivers controlling DIN leaching from European forests. DIN leaching was classified as low (<3), medium (3-15) or high (>15kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) at 215 sites across Europe. The analysis identified throughfall NO(3)(-) deposition, acid deposition, hydrology, soil type, the carbon content of the soil, and the legacy of historic N deposition as the dominant drivers of DIN leaching for these forests. Ninety four percent of sites were successfully classified into the appropriate leaching category. This approach shows promise for understanding complex ecosystem responses to a wide range of anthropogenic stressors as well as an improved method for identifying risk and targeting pollution mitigation strategies in forest ecosystems.

  12. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P < 0.0011 statistically significant. Means (SD) for HbA1c were 5.4% (0.3) in EA, 5.7% (0.4) in AA, and 5.5% (0.3) in HA. We observed significant evidence for association with HbA1c for two variants near SH2B1 in EA (rs4788102, P = 2.2 × 10(-4) ; rs7359397, P = 9.8 × 10(-4) ) for Model 1. Both results were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (rs4788102, P = 1.7 × 10(-3) ; rs7359397, P = 4.6 × 10(-3) ). No variant reached Bonferroni-corrected significance in AA or HA. These results suggest that SH2B1 polymorphisms are associated with HbA1c, largely independent of BMI, in EA young adults.

  13. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  14. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Latham, A. David M.; Latham, M. Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate (‘1080’) delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10–15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30–35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93–94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  15. Enhancing cancer control programmatic and research opportunities for African-Americans through technical assistance training.

    PubMed

    Satcher, David; Sullivan, Louis W; Douglas, Harry E; Mason, Terry; Phillips, Rogsbert F; Sheats, Joyce Q; Smith, Selina A

    2006-10-15

    African-Americans remain severely underrepresented in cancer control program delivery and research. Community-based organizational leaders and minority junior investigators have received little attention as representatives of target populations, or as agents to deliver and evaluate efforts to eliminate cancer health disparities. This paper describes activities of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer II: Network Project, which has sought to address these issues. Community leaders and junior investigators received technical assistance (TA) and mentoring to develop applications for cancer education and community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. TA was provided to 35 community leaders and 32 junior investigators. Twenty-nine community leaders won funding through the Community Partners for Cancer Education Program. Three pilot research applications were funded. Technical assistance may improve minority recruitment/retention in CBPR cancer control research and enhance understanding and elimination of cancer health disparities among African-Americans. Cancer 2006. (c) American Cancer Society.

  16. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    SciTech Connect

    Chardonnet, Pascal

    2015-12-17

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d’Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet

  17. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet the

  18. Factors controlling spatial variability of DOC concentrations in soil solution at European level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino Serrano, Marta; Janssens, Ivan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Gielen, Bert; Guenet, Bertrand; De Vos, Bruno; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important and not well-understood process linking terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Up to day very few Earth System Models (ESMs) represent explicitly this process despite its crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, to be able to integrate DOC leaching in ESMs, more accurate information is needed in order to better understand and predict DOC dynamics. DOC concentrations mainly vary by geographical location, soil and vegetation types, topography, season and climate. Within this framework, a database was designed to compile data on DOC in soil solution at different depths in different ecosystems around the world, with special focus on European sites. The database contains information on 349 sites, with 304 being forest, gathered from published literature and datasets accessible on the internet. A substantial dataset was provided by International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The database also includes other meta-data related to the sites, such as land cover, soil properties, climate, annual water balance and other soil solution parameters. The analysis of the database has been focused on: 1) the study of the environmental and physical factors that are acting as drivers of DOC concentrations changes in soil solution across sites at European level , and 2) the DOC distribution through the soil profile and how this varies with different vegetation types and soil properties. The preliminary results show that variables related to biological processes (Dry weight of the organic layer, for example) are the most important in explaining the spatial distribution of the DOC concentration in soil solution at the European scale. However, the interactions between variables are complex and we will need further analysis in order to draw more robust conclusions. With regards to the vertical profile of DOC, we found that there is a

  19. Conspiracy beliefs about birth control: barriers to pregnancy prevention among African Americans of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Thorburn, Sheryl; Bogart, Laura M

    2005-08-01

    This article examines the endorsement of conspiracy beliefs about birth control (e.g., the belief that birth control is a form of Black genocide) and their association with contraceptive attitudes and behavior among African Americans. The authors conducted a telephone survey with a random sample of 500 African Americans (aged 15-44). Many respondents endorsed birth control conspiracy beliefs, including conspiracy beliefs about Black genocide and the safety of contraceptive methods. Stronger conspiracy beliefs predicted more negative attitudes toward contraceptives. In addition, men with stronger contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs were less likely to be currently using any birth control. Among current birth control users, women with stronger contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs were less likely to be using contraceptive methods that must be obtained from a health care provider. Results suggest that conspiracy beliefs are a barrier to pregnancy prevention. Findings point to the need for addressing conspiracy beliefs in public health practice.

  20. Impact of North American intense fires on aerosol optical properties measured over the European Arctic in July 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowicz, K. M.; Pakszys, P.; Ritter, C.; Zielinski, T.; Udisti, R.; Cappelletti, D.; Mazzola, M.; Shiobara, M.; Xian, P.; Zawadzka, O.; Lisok, J.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Karasiński, G.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper impact of intensive biomass burning (BB) in North America in July 2015, on aerosol optical and microphysical properties measured in the European Arctic, is discussed. This study was made within the framework of the Impact of Absorbing aerosols on Radiating forcing in the European Arctic project. During the BB event aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm exceeded 1.2 in Spitsbergen and 0.7 in Andenes (Norway). Angstrom exponent exceeded 1.4, while the absorbing Angstrom exponent varied between 1 and 1.25. BB aerosols were observed in humid atmosphere with a total water vapor column between 2 and 2.5 cm. In such conditions aerosols are activated and may produce clouds at different altitudes. Vertical structure of aerosol plumes over Svalbard, obtained from ceilometers and lidars, shows variability of range-corrected signal between surface and middle and upper troposphere. Aerosol backscattering coefficients show values up to 10-5 m-1 sr-1 at 532 nm. Aerosol surface observations indicate chemical composition typical for biomass burning particles and very high single scattering properties. Scattering and absorption coefficients at 530 nm were up to 130 and 15 Mm-1, respectively. Single scattering albedo at the surface varied from 0.9 to 0.94. The averaged values over the entire atmospheric column ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. Preliminary statistics of model and Sun photometer data as well as previous studies indicate that this event, in the Arctic region, must be considered extreme (such AOD was not observed in Svalbard since 2005) with a significant impact on energy budget.

  1. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  2. 78 FR 23596 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on March 11,...

  3. Zero Tolerance for Marginal Populations: Examining Neoliberal Social Controls in American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose is to investigate the expansion of social control efforts in American elementary and secondary school settings, particularly the use of zero-tolerance policies. These policies entail automatic punishments, such as suspensions, expulsions, and referrals to the juvenile and criminal justice systems for a host of school-based…

  4. Parental Locus of Control and Externalizing Behavior Problems among Mexican American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Kristen M.; Goehring, Kelly; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna S.

    2008-01-01

    Research conducted with non-Hispanic Whites indicates that parents of preschoolers with behavioral problems are more likely to have an external locus of control regarding parenting than parents whose preschoolers are free of such problems. However, it is unclear whether such research can be generalized to Mexican American families, especially…

  5. Race, Gender, and Social Control: Voices of Imprisoned Native American and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Luana

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the differing experiences of Native American and white women in prison. A literature review and unstructured interviews with 31 women in a Montana state prison concentrate on relationships between prisoners and guards, sexual harassment, mind-altering drugs, and prisoners' responses to multiple forms of control. Recommends new approach…

  6. The Tribally Controlled Indian Colleges: The Beginnings of Self Determination in American Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppelt, Norman T.

    This book examines tribally controlled Indian colleges established since the early 1960s and provides perspectives on their educational philosophy, history, and present status. Chapter 1 is an overview of four centuries of abortive efforts by churches and the federal government to provide higher education for American Indians, including profiles…

  7. Overcoming barriers to glycemic control in African Americans with type-2 diabetes: benefits of insulin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Merville C.

    2007-01-01

    A disproportionate number of African-American men and women are affected by obesity and diabetes. The documented rate of poor glycemic control in the African-American population may contribute to the high rate of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes observed in these patients. Since the benefits of strict glycemic control have been demonstrated in multiple large trials, the aim of treatment should be to achieve the goals set forth by the American Diabetes Association. Insulin remains an essential therapeutic agent for helping patients achieve glycemic control and preventing long-term comorbidities. However, barriers to insulin therapy exist for both the physician and patient. Strategies to counter this resistance include identifying barriers to treatment, restoring the patient's sense of control, utilizing simple regimens, and reviewing the benefits of insulin and the risk of hypoglycemia. In treating African-American patients with diabetes, providers of various racial and ethnic backgrounds may maximize treatment efficacy by attempting to understand and practice culturally competent care. PMID:17722663

  8. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  9. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  10. Stable hydrogen-isotope ratios in beetle chitin: preliminary European data and re-interpretation of North American data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröcke, Darren R.; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Elias, Scott; Miller, Randall F.

    2006-08-01

    Beetle exoskeletons contain chitin, a poly amino-sugar that is biosynthesized incorporating hydrogen isotopes from diet and water. As the stable isotope ratios D/H (or 2H/ 1H, expressed as δ D values) of precipitation and diet are jointly influenced by climate, the biochemically recorded hydrogen-isotope ratio in fossil beetle exoskeleton has the potential to be used for paleoclimatic reconstruction. New δ D data from modern beetles are presented as a preliminary database for Europe, with a re-evaluation of earlier North American data. We present correlated matrices of δ D values in modern beetle chitin and modern precipitation to demonstrate the concept. We review the pertinent literature to highlight the history, utility, and likely future research directions for the use of chitin's stable isotopes in entomological paleoclimatology.

  11. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. These foodborne parasites reach the human beings through the consumption of raw infected food such as muscle tissues of different animal species (Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suishominis, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Opisthorchis felineus, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Trichinella spp.), or vegetables (Fasciola hepatica), and contaminated food and water resources (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., T. gondii, Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu, Echinococcus multilocularis, T. solium, Taenia multiceps). As a general role, the control strategies should be based on the education of the consumers, farmers and shepherds, the improvement of farming conditions, the improvement or the development of more sensitive methods to detect these parasites in slaughtered animals and in foodstuff, a control of sewage sludge on pastures and of drinking water resources, and the reduction of contacts between livestock and wild animals which frequently represent the most important reservoir of these pathogens.

  12. Perceived control over personal goals in Russian and American college students.

    PubMed

    Savina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cultural variations in perceived control over personal goals in Russian and American college students. Several appraisal dimensions of personal goals were studied including goals' importance, their attainability, and sources of control over goal attainment, such as self, others, luck, and fate. The association between assimilative (tenacious goal pursuit) and accommodative (flexible goal adjustment) control strategies and perceived attainability of goals was also examined. The results indicated that both Russian and American students gave higher priority to work- and education-related goals and lower priority to the familial goal. In both samples, the familial goal was the most influenced and health was the least influenced by luck/chance and fate. Overall, American students were more optimistic about the perceived probability to attain their goals, which may be affected by a cultural tendency for self-enhancement and positive outlook. Russian students had a stronger belief in control by luck/chance and fate over personal goals, which coincides with a less agentic orientation of Russian culture. Regardless of culture and goal content, goal importance was associated with greater perceived success in goal attainment. However, control strategies (assimilative and accommodative) as well as internal control differentially predicted perceived attainability of goals depending on the goals' content. For both Russians and Americans, perceived attainability of education-related goals was associated with assimilative strategies and internal control; leisure was associated with accommodative strategies and health-related goals were associated with internal control. Characteristics of cultural contexts accountable for crosscultural differences in perceived control over personal goals are discussed.

  13. Serotonin transporter protein (SLC6A4) allele and haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibria in African- and European-American and Japanese populations and in alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Gelernter, J; Kranzler, H; Cubells, J F

    1997-12-01

    The SLC6A4 locus encodes the serotonin transporter, which in turn mediates the synaptic inactivation of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Two PCR-formatted polymorphisms at this locus have been described, the first of which is a variable number tandem repeat located in exon 2, and the second a repeat sequence polymorphism located in the promoter region. The latter polymorphism alters transcriptional activity of SLC6A4, and has been reported to be associated with anxiety and depression-related traits. We studied allele frequencies, and computed haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium measures, for these two polymorphisms in European-American, African-American, and Japanese populations, and in a set of alcohol-dependent European-American subjects. Allele frequencies for both systems showed variation, with significant differences overall for each system, and significant differences between each pair of populations for both systems. Linkage disequilibrium also varied among the populations. There were no significant differences in allele or haplotype frequencies between the European-American population samples and alcohol-dependent subjects. The population differences demonstrate a potential for population stratification in association studies of either of these SLC6A4 polymorphisms. If genetic variation at this locus really is associated with behavioral variation, these results could reflect either different behavioral adaptations in different populations, or random genetic drift of a behaviorally important but selectively neutral polymorphism.

  14. Helicobacter pylori genotyping from American indigenous groups shows novel Amerindian vacA and cagA alleles and Asian, African and European admixture.

    PubMed

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.

  15. Helicobacter pylori Genotyping from American Indigenous Groups Shows Novel Amerindian vacA and cagA Alleles and Asian, African and European Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E.; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America. PMID:22073291

  16. Mexican-American mothers' socialization strategies: effects of education, acculturation, and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Cousins, J H; Power, T G; Olvera-Ezzell, N

    1993-04-01

    The present study examined maternal education, acculturation, and health locus of control beliefs in relation to parenting strategies that promote the internalization of healthy eating habits in Mexican-American children. Eighty low-income Mexican-American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in the study. Mother-child interactions during dinner were observed, and mothers were interviewed about the socialization strategies they used to influence their children's food consumption. Results indicated that mothers with more external health locus of control beliefs were less likely to use socialization techniques associated with internalization. Acculturation was negatively related to the use of internalization techniques, with less traditional mothers using more directive strategies. Education did not predict maternal behavior after controlling for health locus of control beliefs.

  17. Correlates of Sense of Control among Older Korean-American Immigrants: Financial Status, Physical Health Constraints, and Environmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Responding to the need for more research on minority older populations, the present study assessed sense of control among older Korean-American immigrants. The association of sense of control with financial status, physical health constraints, and environmental challenges was examined with a sample of 230 older Korean-Americans (M[age] = 69.8,…

  18. Frequency Control Concerns in the North American Electric Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-03-26

    This paper examines the relationship between system frequency, reliability and markets. It was prompted by the frequency deviations recently experienced at 2200 hours daily but is more generally concerned with the question of what frequency control is necessary. The paper does not provide new information or document new research. Nor is it intended to educate readers concerning power system engineering. Instead, the purpose is to reexamine well known truths concerning the power system and to freshly explore the basic relationship between frequency, reliability and markets: stepping back, if you will, to see if we are collectively missing something. The concern of this paper is with frequency and reliability. Off-nominal frequency can impact reliability and markets efficiency (as we are using the term here) in four ways. It could damage equipment (generation, transmission, or load). It could degrade the quality of the product being delivered to end users (too low and lights would flicker unacceptably, for example). It could result in the collapse of the power system itself (by triggering protective system actions, for example). Or it could result in overloading transmission lines as various generators try to restore system frequency impacting markets efficiency. Often these causes operate in concert. Generator protective systems take action to prevent generator damage, for example, but exacerbate the overall generation/load imbalance. The paper is divided into two sections. The Introduction is followed by a section titled ''A Perspective on Frequency Control'' which addresses the physical requirements of the power system and how market transactions interact with the physical system. The ''Frequency Standards and Control Performance'' section discusses the various NERC and regional reliability council policies that govern utility performance and how these relate to frequency and reliability. Finally, Conclusions are provided.

  19. Key controls of surface carbonate system dynamics around the northwest European continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Hydes, D. J.; Hartman, S. E.; Hartman, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Monthly sampling coupled to continuous underway observation from a ship-of-opportunity (Pride of Bilbao) provides new insights into the relative importance of processes controlling the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the carbonate system around the northwest European continental margin. Total alkalinity (TA) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were determined alongside measurements of nutrients and continuous records of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-fluorescence, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The northwest European continental margin is temperate latitude system with a strong seasonal cycle in biological productivity determined by light, nutrient supply, and stratification. Here we contrast findings in two areas: the shallow non stratified English Channel (depth ~50 m) and seasonally stratified oligotrophic waters of the central Bay of Biscay (depth >3000 m). In the Bay of Biscay, the seasonal variations of the carbonate system, nutrient, and DO were mainly controlled by the winter mixing and spring phytoplankton bloom. DIC and nutrients in the Bay increased from autumn and reached the annual maxima in later winter, they then decreased significantly during the spring bloom corresponding to the biological uptake. DIC fell during the spring bloom with a near Redfield ratio in relation to the nutrient uptake. In contrast, post bloom in summer, a continued decrease in DIC in the absence of measurable nitrate was possibly related to the nutrient supply from the turbulent mixing. pCO2 and pH showed a double peak in the annual cycles modulated by temperature which counterbalanced the influence of winter mixing and biological production. The inter-annual biogeochemical variability was closely related to the changes in winter mixed layer depth and the phytoplankton biomass. The Bay of Biscay acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 in all seasons, with higher air-to-sea CO2 fluxes observed in cold winter and the productive spring season. In the more dynamic

  20. Coccolithophores on the north-west European shelf: calcification rates and environmental controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulton, A. J.; Stinchcombe, M. C.; Achterberg, E. P.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Dumousseaud, C.; Lawson, H. E.; Lee, G. A.; Richier, S.; Suggett, D. J.; Young, J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Coccolithophores are a key functional group in terms of the pelagic production of calcium carbonate (calcite), although their contribution to shelf sea biogeochemistry, and how this relates to environmental conditions, is poorly constrained. Measurements of calcite production (CP) and coccolithophore abundance were made on the north-west European shelf to examine trends in coccolithophore calcification along natural gradients of carbonate chemistry, macronutrient availability and plankton composition. Similar measurements were also made in three bioassay experiments where nutrient (nitrate, phosphate) and pCO2 levels were manipulated. Nanoflagellates (< 10 μm) dominated chlorophyll biomass and primary production (PP) at all but one sampling site, with CP ranging from 0.6 to 9.6 mmol C m-2 d-1. High CP and coccolithophore abundance occurred in a diatom bloom in fully mixed waters off Heligoland, but not in two distinct coccolithophore blooms in the central North Sea and Western English Channel. Coccolithophore abundance and CP showed no correlation with nutrient concentrations or ratios, while significant (p < 0.01) correlations between CP, cell-specific calcification (cell-CF) and irradiance in the water column highlighted how light availability exerts a strong control on pelagic CP. In the experimental bioassays, Emiliania-huxleyi-dominated coccolithophore communities in shelf waters (northern North Sea, Norwegian Trench) showed a strong response in terms of CP to combined nitrate and phosphate addition, mediated by changes in cell-CF and growth rates. In contrast, an offshore diverse coccolithophore community (Bay of Biscay) showed no response to nutrient addition, while light availability or mortality may have been more important in controlling this community. Sharp decreases in pH and a rough halving of calcite saturation states in the bioassay experiments led to decreased CP in the Bay of Biscay and northern North Sea, but not the Norwegian Trench. These

  1. Pathogenic variants for Mendelian and complex traits in exomes of 6,517 European and African Americans: implications for the return of incidental results.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Holly K; Auer, Paul L; Jamal, Seema M; Chong, Jessica X; Yu, Joon-Ho; Gordon, Adam S; Graubert, Timothy A; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Rich, Stephen S; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J

    2014-08-07

    Exome sequencing (ES) is rapidly being deployed for use in clinical settings despite limited empirical data about the number and types of incidental results (with potential clinical utility) that could be offered for return to an individual. We analyzed deidentified ES data from 6,517 participants (2,204 African Americans and 4,313 European Americans) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project. We characterized the frequencies of pathogenic alleles in genes underlying Mendelian conditions commonly assessed by newborn-screening (NBS, n = 39) programs, genes associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, n = 17), and genes known to influence drug response (PGx, n = 14). From these 70 genes, we identified 10,789 variants and curated them by manual review of OMIM, HGMD, locus-specific databases, or primary literature to a total of 399 validated pathogenic variants. The mean number of risk alleles per individual was 15.3. Every individual had at least five known PGx alleles, 99% of individuals had at least one ARMD risk allele, and 45% of individuals were carriers for at least one pathogenic NBS allele. The carrier burden for severe recessive childhood disorders was 0.57. Our results demonstrate that risk alleles of potential clinical utility for both Mendelian and complex traits are detectable in every individual. These findings highlight the necessity of developing guidelines and policies that consider the return of results to all individuals and underscore the need to develop innovative approaches and tools that enable individuals to exercise their choice about the return of incidental results.

  2. Categorization of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations in American and European Practice: Importance and Imperative of Avoiding Framing and Confirmation Biases.

    PubMed

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L

    2015-09-01

    Interpretation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) remains controversial and unsatisfactory. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the commonest aberrant feature on cardiotocographs and considered "center-stage" in the interpretation of EFM. A recent American study suggested that the lack of correlation of American three-tier system to neonatal acidemia may be due to the current peculiar nomenclature of FHR decelerations leading to loss of meaning. The pioneers like Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia classified decelerations based primarily on time relationship to contractions and not on etiology per se. This critical analysis debates pros and cons of significant anchoring/framing and confirmation biases in defining different types of decelerations based primarily on the shape (slope) or time of descent. It would be important to identify benign early decelerations correctly to avoid unnecessary intervention as well as to improve the positive predictive value of the other types of decelerations. Currently the vast majority of decelerations are classed as "variable". This review shows that the most common rapid decelerations during contractions with trough corresponding to peak of contraction cannot be explained by "cord-compression" hypothesis but by direct/pure (defined here as not mediated through baro-/chemoreceptors) or non-hypoxic vagal reflex. These decelerations are benign, most likely and mainly a result of head-compression and hence should be called "early" rather than "variable". Standardization is important but should be appropriate and withstand scientific scrutiny. Significant framing and confirmation biases are necessarily unscientific and the succeeding three-tier interpretation systems and structures embodying these biases would be dysfunctional and clinically unhelpful. Clinical/pathophysiological analysis and avoidance of flaws/biases suggest that a more physiological and scientific categorization of decelerations should be based on time relationship to

  3. Categorization of Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations in American and European Practice: Importance and Imperative of Avoiding Framing and Confirmation Biases

    PubMed Central

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) remains controversial and unsatisfactory. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the commonest aberrant feature on cardiotocographs and considered “center-stage” in the interpretation of EFM. A recent American study suggested that the lack of correlation of American three-tier system to neonatal acidemia may be due to the current peculiar nomenclature of FHR decelerations leading to loss of meaning. The pioneers like Hon and Caldeyro-Barcia classified decelerations based primarily on time relationship to contractions and not on etiology per se. This critical analysis debates pros and cons of significant anchoring/framing and confirmation biases in defining different types of decelerations based primarily on the shape (slope) or time of descent. It would be important to identify benign early decelerations correctly to avoid unnecessary intervention as well as to improve the positive predictive value of the other types of decelerations. Currently the vast majority of decelerations are classed as “variable”. This review shows that the most common rapid decelerations during contractions with trough corresponding to peak of contraction cannot be explained by “cord-compression” hypothesis but by direct/pure (defined here as not mediated through baro-/chemoreceptors) or non-hypoxic vagal reflex. These decelerations are benign, most likely and mainly a result of head-compression and hence should be called “early” rather than “variable”. Standardization is important but should be appropriate and withstand scientific scrutiny. Significant framing and confirmation biases are necessarily unscientific and the succeeding three-tier interpretation systems and structures embodying these biases would be dysfunctional and clinically unhelpful. Clinical/pathophysiological analysis and avoidance of flaws/biases suggest that a more physiological and scientific categorization of decelerations should be based on

  4. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  5. “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. Methods and Findings In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost–benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial Lifestyle Interventions for Asian Americans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Won, Gloria Y.; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Asian Americans are the fastest-growing race in the United States. However, they are largely underrepresented in health research, particularly lifestyle interventions. A systematic review was conducted to analyze the characteristics and quality of lifestyle intervention literature promoting changes in physical activity (PA), diet, and/or weight management targeting Asian Americans. Method A systematic electronic database search identified randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT), involving lifestyle interventions for Asian Americans, published from 1995 to 2013 conducted in the U.S. Data extraction was conducted from August through December 2013. Results Seven RCTs met the review criteria. Cross-study comparisons were difficult due to diversity in: RCT intervention designs, cultural appropriateness, outcome measures, sample size, and race/ethnic groups. Overall, risk of bias and cultural appropriateness scores were moderate to low. Five out of seven RCTs showed significant between group differences for PA, diet, and weight. In general, sample sizes were small or lacked sufficient power to fully analyze intervention efficacy. Conclusion Evidence of the efficacy for lifestyle interventions among Asian Americans was mixed. Recommendations include: more rigorous RCT designs, more objective measures, larger Asian American sample sizes, culturally appropriate interventions, individual tailoring, maintenance phase with support, and providing education and modeling of lifestyle behaviors. PMID:25086326

  7. The paradox of the long-term positive effects of a North American crayfish on a European community of predators.

    PubMed

    Tablado, Zulima; Tella, José L; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    Invasions of non-native species are one of the major causes of losses of native species. In some cases, however, non-natives may also have positive effects on native species. We investigated the potential facilitative effects of the North American red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) on the community of predators in southwestern Spain. To do so, we examined the diets of predators in the area and their population trends since introduction of the crayfish. Most predator species consumed red swamp crayfish, which sometimes occurred in over 50% of their diet samples. Moreover, the abundance of species preying on crayfish increased significantly in the area as opposed to the abundance of herbivores and to predator populations in other areas of Europe, where those predators are even considered threatened. Thus, we report the first case in which one non-native species is both beneficial because it provides prey for threatened species and detrimental because it can drive species at lower trophic levels to extinction. Increases in predator numbers that are associated with non-native species of prey, especially when some of these predators are also invasive non-natives, may increase levels of predation on other species and produce cascading effects that threaten native biota at longer temporal and larger spatial scales. Future management plans should include the complexity of interactions between invasive non-natives and the entire native community, the feasibility of successful removal of non-native species, and the potential social and economic interests in the area.

  8. [Environmental services of the forest: an essay in an European Atlantic river basin based on a Central American experience].

    PubMed

    Orrantia Albizu, Oreina; Ortega Hidalgo, M Mercedes; Quirós Madrigal, Olman; Loidi Arregui, Javier

    2008-12-01

    A Conservation Interest Index (CI) was designed to numerically assess the natural quality or value of a given terrestrial area. This CI has been applied along the Golako River Watershed (Biosphere Reserve, Basque Country, Spain). The area, although benefiting from some protection, is strongly influenced by human activities (forestry and cattle breeding). The CI is based on both available cartographic information about vegetation and fieldwork, the later needed to provide estimations for the various descriptors included in this index: in this way, a particular vegetation fragment received a final score on a scale from 0 to 1000. A set of 9 Vegetation Units has been defined to analyze the current vegetation profile and, a ten plot (500 x 500 m) uniformly distributed sampling design has been implemented. Landscape homogenization is high where main land use relies on timbering, contrasting with the more heterogeneous and fragmented profile related to rural activities. At a height of more than 150 m forest appears to be dominant while human occupation becomes patchy, whereas abruptness restraints farms to locations below 100 m. Concerning the index performance, gradual differences have been displayed by the forest, which appears as the only vegetation unit attaining values above 500 (50% in the index scale), mature forest ranking highest (860), followed closely by the riparian forest. We have developed a formula to translate environmental value into economic benefit to promote conservation work at private property level, imitating the initial work undergone in Central American countries, where environmental services are rewarded irrespective of their conservation status.

  9. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  10. Complementary tools for the control and eradication of caprine and ovine brucellosis in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Crespo León, F; Sáez Llorente, J L; Reviriego Gordejo, F J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Durán Ferrer, M

    2012-12-01

    Caprine and ovine brucellosis is one of the most serious and complex animal health problems faced by Veterinary Services in countries where the disease is endemic. Various geographical factors and the nature of the disease itself influence its epidemiology, encouraging widespread distribution and, at the same time, impeding the ability of animal health programmes to prevent, control and eradicate it. Although strategies against brucellosis have traditionally been based on two specific tools (namely, vaccination of the at-risk population and testing and slaughter of animals which are suspected of or test positive for the disease), other complementary tools of a technical or administrative nature should also be considered. Experience in the European Union has shown that these tools are necessary to guarantee sustainable progress and success against this disease. However, these complementary tools have not always received sufficient attention during the strategic planning and subsequent implementation of animal health programmes, with consequent reductions in efficiency. The aim of this article is to review these complementary tools, in order to facilitate their adoption and use by official Veterinary Services, according to the resources available.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of the Sense of Smell in U.S. Older Adults: Identification of Novel Risk Loci in African-Americans and European-Americans.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Wyss, Annah; Yang, Jingyun; Price, T Ryan; Nicolas, Aude; Nalls, Michael; Tranah, Greg; Franceschini, Nora; Xu, Zongli; Schulte, Claudia; Alonso, Alvaro; Cummings, Steven R; Fornage, Myriam; Zaykin, Dmitri; Li, Leping; Huang, Xuemei; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Liu, Yongmei; Gasser, Thomas; Wilson, Robert S; De Jager, Philip L; Singleton, Andrew B; Pinto, Jayant M; Harris, Tamara; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; London, Stephanie; Yu, Lei; Chen, Honglei

    2016-11-23

    The human sense of smell decreases with age, and a poor sense of smell are among the most important prodromal symptoms of several neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence further suggests a racial difference in the sense of smell among U.S. older adults. However, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) on the sense of smell has been conducted in African-Americans (AAs). We performed the first genome-wide meta-analysis of the sense of smell among 1979 AAs and 6582 European-Americans (EAs) from three U.S. aging cohorts. In the AA population, we identified nine novel regions (KLF4-ACTL7B, RAPGEF2-FSTL5, TCF4-LOC100505474, PCDH10, KIAA1751, MYO5B, MIR320B1-CD2, NR5A2-LINC00862, SALL1-C16orf97) that were associated with the sense of smell (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Many of these regions have been previously linked to neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia or epilepsy) or neurodegenerative (Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease) diseases associated with a decreased sense of smell. In the EA population, we identified two novel loci in or near RASGRP1 and ANXA2P3 associated with sense of smell. In conclusion, this study identified several ancestry-specific loci that are associated with the sense of smell in older adults. While these findings need independent confirmation, they may lead to novel insights into the biology of the sense of smell in older adults and its relationships to neuropsychological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Carotenoid Intake and Adipose Tissue Carotenoid Levels in Relation to Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness among African-American and European-American Men in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP)

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Samuel O.; Steck, Susan E.; Su, L. Joseph; Hebert, James R.; Zhang, Hongmei; Craft, Neal E.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Smith, Gary J.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Mohler, James L.; Arab, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between carotenoid intake and prostate cancer (CaP) incidence have varied across studies. This may be due to combining indolent with aggressive disease in most studies. This study examined whether carotenoid intake and adipose tissue carotenoid levels were inversely associated with CaP aggressiveness. Methods Data on African-American (AA, n=1,023) and European-American (EA, n=1,079) men with incident CaP from North Carolina and Louisiana were analyzed. Dietary carotenoid intake was assessed using a detailed food frequency questionnaire, and abdominal adipose tissue samples were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable logistic regression was used in race-stratified analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) comparing high aggressive CaP with low/intermediate aggressive CaP. Results Carotenoid intake differed significantly between AAs and EAs, which included higher intake of lycopene among EAs and higher β–cryptoxanthin intake among AAs. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles, dietary lycopene was associated inversely with high aggressive CaP among EAs (OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.34–0.89, Ptrend=0.02), while an inverse association was observed between dietary β–cryptoxanthin intake and high aggressive CaP among AAs (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.36–0.87, Ptrend=0.01). Adipose tissue α–carotene and lycopene (cis + trans) concentrations were higher among EAs than AAs, and marginally significant inverse linear trends were observed for adipose α–carotene (Ptrend=0.07) and lycopene (Ptrend=0.11), and CaP aggressiveness among EAs only. Conclusions These results suggest that diets high in lycopene and β–cryptoxanthin may protect against aggressive CaP among EAs and AAs, respectively. Differences in dietary behaviors may explain the racial differences in associations. PMID:27271547

  13. Push hard, push fast, if you're downtown: a citation review of urban-centrism in American and European basic life support guidelines.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Aaron M

    2013-04-20

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. In settings with prolonged ambulance response times, skilled bystanders may be even more crucial. In 2010, American Heart Association (AHA) and European Resuscitation Council (ERC) introduced compression-only CPR as an alternative to conventional bystander CPR under some circumstances. The purpose of this citation review and document analysis is to determine whether the evidentiary basis for 2010 AHA and ERC guidelines attends to settings with prolonged ambulance response times or no formal ambulance dispatch services. Primary and secondary citations referring to epidemiological research comparing adult OHCA survival based on the type of bystander CPR were included in the analysis. Details extracted from the citations included a study description and primary outcome measure, the geographic location in which the study occurred, EMS response times, the role of dispatchers, and main findings and summary statistics regarding rates of survival among patients receiving no CPR, conventional CPR or compression-only CPR. The inclusion criteria were met by 10 studies. 9 studies took place exclusively in urban settings. Ambulance dispatchers played an integral role in 7 studies. The cited studies suggest either no survival benefit or harm arising from compression-only CPR in settings with extended ambulance response times. The evidentiary basis for 2010 AHA and ERC bystander CPR guidelines does not attend to settings without rapid ambulance response times or dispatch services. Standardized bystander CPR guidelines may require adaptation or reconsideration in these settings.

  14. Will isomalto-oligosaccharides, a well-established functional food in Asia, break through the European and American market? The status of knowledge on these prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Dorothee; Delzenne, Nathalie; Blecker, Christophe; Hanon, Emilien; Deroanne, Claude; Paquot, Michel

    2011-05-01

    This critical review article presents the current state of knowledge on isomalto-oligosaccharides, some well known functional oligosaccharides in Asia, to evaluate their potential as emergent prebiotics in the American and European functional food market. It includes first a unique inventory of the different families of compounds which have been considered as IMOs and their specific structure. A description has been given of the different production methods including the involved enzymes and their specific activities, the substrates, and the types of IMOs produced. Considering the structural complexity of IMO products, specific characterization methods are described, as well as purification methods which enable the body to get rid of digestible oligosaccharides. Finally, an extensive review of their techno-functional and nutritional properties enables placing IMOs inside the growing prebiotic market. This review is of particular interest considering that IMO commercialization in America and Europe is a topical subject due to the recent submission by Bioneutra Inc. (Canada) of a novel food file to the UK Food Standards Agency, as well as several patents for IMO production.

  15. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence.

  16. Stability, Continuity, and Similarity of Parenting Stress in European American Mothers and Fathers across their Child’s Transition to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Painter, Kathleen M.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Experiencing some degree of parenting stress is virtually unavoidable, particularly as children enter early adolescence and assert their independence. In this study, we examined how parenting stress attributed to the parent, the child, or the dyad changed in mean level and relative standing across their child’s transition to adolescence. We also compared mothers and fathers from the same families in terms of parenting stress and explored how one parent’s stress affected the other parent’s stress. Design Participants included 222 European American parents (111 mothers and 111 fathers), assessed when their children were 10 and 14 years old. Results Parenting stress was highly stable from 10 to 14 years. Total parenting stress increased across time, and was attributable to stress due to increased parent-child dysfunctional interaction, not parental distress or stress due to child behavior. Mothers and fathers agreed moderately in their relative standing and in the average levels of parenting stress in the three different domains of parenting stress at each time point. Mothers’ and fathers’ stress across domains were sometimes related. Conclusions Mothers’ and fathers’ increased parenting stress across their child’s transition to adolescence seems to derive from parent-child interaction rather than qualities of the parent or the child per se. Finding ways to maintain parent-child communication and closeness may protect parents and families from increased stress during this vulnerable time. PMID:20191083

  17. Precision medicine in allergic disease-food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Lemanske, R F; Castells, M; Torres, M J; Khan, D; Simon, H-U; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Poulsen, L K; Sampson, H A; Worm, M; Nadeau, K C

    2017-01-25

    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug allergy, but further validation and quantification of these biomarkers are needed to allow their translation into practice in the clinical management of allergic disease.

  18. Assessment of heterogeneity between European Populations: a Baltic and Danish replication case-control study of SNPs from a recent European ulcerative colitis genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs. Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively

  19. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    PubMed

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  20. Consistency of Care and Blood Pressure Control among Elderly African Americans and Whites with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Carson, April P.; Holmes, DaJuanicia N.; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether racial differences exist between consistency of medical care and blood pressure (BP) control over time among elderly, hypertensive African Americans and whites. Methods: Participants included 1,402 African Americans and 1,058 whites from the Piedmont Health Survey of the Elderly who were hypertensive (SBP >140 mmHg, DBP >90 mmHg, or used anti-hypertensive medications) at baseline (1987). Consistency of care was assessed based on self-reported receipt of physician care at each wave and categorized as consistent (care at each wave), inconsistent (care at some, but not all waves), and no standard care (no care at any wave). BP control was defined as SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP < 90 mmHg at subsequent waves of participation (1990, 1994, 1998). Repeated measures regression was used to longitudinally assess the association between consistency of care and BP control. Results: African Americans had a less favorable health profile and significantly less consistency of care over time (p<0.0001). In analyses adjusted for demographic factors, participants with consistent or inconsistent care had greater odds of BP control (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.64 and OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.78) than those with no standard care, but these associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for health care characteristics and co-morbidities. Conclusions: Compared to no standard care, receipt of consistent or inconsistent physician care was associated with BP control among the elderly. These associations did not differ by race, although African Americans were more likely to report inconsistent or no standard care which suggests disparities in health care access remain. PMID:19429737

  1. Accreditation of Individualized Quality Control Plans by the College of American Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Hoeltge, Gerald A

    2017-03-01

    The Laboratory Accreditation Program of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) began in 2015 to allow accredited laboratories to devise their own strategies for quality control of laboratory testing. Participants now have the option to implement individualized quality control plans (IQCPs). Only nonwaived testing that features an internal control (built-in, electronic, or procedural) is eligible for IQCP accreditation. The accreditation checklists that detail the requirements have been peer-reviewed by content experts on CAP's scientific resource committees and by a panel of accreditation participants. Training and communication have been key to the successful introduction of the new IQCP requirements.

  2. The Native American Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  3. Linking Changes in Parenting to Parentchild Relationship Quality and Youth Self-Control: The Strong African American Families Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; McBride Murry, Velma; McNair, Lily; Chen, Yi-Fu; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Ashby Wills, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A randomized prevention trial was conducted contrasting families who took part in the Strong African American Families Program (SAAF), a preventive intervention for rural African American mothers and their 11-year-olds, with control families. SAAF is based on a conceptual model positing that changes in intervention-targeted parenting behaviors…

  4. Predictors of perceived control among African American women in Detroit: exploring empowerment as a multilevel construct.

    PubMed

    Becker, Adam B; Israel, Barbara A; Schulz, Amy J; Parker, Edith A; Klem, Laura

    2002-12-01

    Efforts to enhance empowerment toward the aim of improved health require an understanding of factors that contribute to perceived control at multiple levels, as a dimension of empowerment. In this article, the authors examine hypothesized predictors of perceived control at multiple levels among urban, African American women. Variables that predict perceived control include greater participation in change-related action; level of activity within respondents' most important organizations; and attempts made by those organizations to influence public officials, businesses, and other groups. Results suggest that (1) perceived control is a context-specific, multilevel construct; (2) citizen participation is an important factor in control and influence at multiple levels; and (3) organizations that are involved within neighborhoods and in the broader community can help to increase control and influence at multiple levels in marginalized communities. Implications for health education practice and research are discussed.

  5. Community Interventions to Improve Glycemic Control in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smalls, Brittany L.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Bonilha, Heather S.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published community interventions to evaluate different components of community interventions and their ability to positively impact glycemic control in African Americans with T2DM. Methods: Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL were searched for potentially eligible studies published from January 2000 through January 2012. The following inclusion criteria were established for publications: (1) describe a community intervention, not prevention; (2) specifically indicate, in data analysis and results, the impact of the community intervention on African American adults, 18 years and older; (3) measure glycemic control (HbA1C) as an outcome measure; and (4) involve patients in a community setting, which excludes hospitals and hospital clinics. Results: Thirteen studies out of 9,233 articles identified in the search met the predetermined inclusion criteria. There were 5 randomized control trials and 3 reported improved glycemic control in the intervention group compared to the control group at the completion of the study. Of the 8 studies that were not randomized control trials, 6 showed a statistically significant change in HbA1C. Conclusion: In general, the community interventions assessed led to significant reductions in HbA1C in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Community health workers did not have a greater impact on glycemic control in this sample. The findings of this study provides insight for designing community-based interventions in the future, such as including use of multiple delivery methods, consideration of mobile device software, nutritionist educator, and curriculum-based approaches. PMID:26156923

  6. Introduction to the special issue on the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards.

  7. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  8. Cytokine and cytokine receptor genes of the adaptive immune response are differentially associated with breast cancer risk in American women of African and European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Bandera, Elisa V; Zirpoli, Gary; Hwang, Helena; Roberts, Michelle; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Sucheston, Lara; Pawlish, Karen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Cabasag, Citadel; Coignet, Jean-Gabriel; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2014-03-15

    Disparities in breast cancer biology are evident between American women of African ancestry (AA) and European ancestry (EA) and may be due, in part, to differences in immune function. To assess the potential role of constitutional host immunity on breast carcinogenesis, we tested associations between breast cancer risk and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 cytokine-related genes of the adaptive immune system using 650 EA (n = 335 cases) and 864 AA (n = 458 cases) women from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). With additional participant accrual to the WCHS, promising SNPs from the initial analysis were evaluated in a larger sample size (1,307 EAs and 1,365 AAs). Multivariate logistic regression found SNPs in genes important for T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity (IFNGR2 rs1059293, IL15RA rs2296135, LTA rs1041981), Th2 immunity (IL4R rs1801275), and T regulatory cell-mediated immunosuppression (TGFB1 rs1800469) associated with breast cancer risk, mainly among AAs. The combined effect of these five SNPs was highly significant among AAs (P-trend = 0.0005). When stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status, LTA rs1041981 was associated with ER-positive breast cancers among EAs and marginally among AAs. Only among AA women, IL15 rs10833 and IL15RA rs2296135 were associated with ER-positive tumors, and IL12RB1 rs375947, IL15 rs10833 and TGFB1 rs1800469 were associated with ER-negative tumors. Our study systematically identified genetic variants in the adaptive immune response pathway associated with breast cancer risk, which appears to differ by ancestry groups, menopausal status and ER status.

  9. A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of an Interpersonal Violence Prevention Program With a Mexican American Community

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Lesser, Janna; Cheng, An-Lin; Osóos-Sánchez, Manuel; Martinez, Elisabeth; Pineda, Daniel; Mancha, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Using methods of community-based participatory research, a prospective randomized controlled trial of a violence prevention program based on Latino cultural values was implemented with elementary school children in a Mexican American community. Community members participated in intervention program selection, implementation, and data collection. High-risk students who participated in the program had greater nonviolent self-efficacy and demonstrated greater endorsement of program values than did high-risk students in the control group. This collaborative partnership was able to combine community-based participatory research with a rigorous study design and provide sustained benefit to community partners. PMID:20531101

  10. Level and Change in Perceived Control Predict 19-Year Mortality: Findings from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Perceived control plays an important role for health across adulthood and old age. However, little is known about the factors that account for such associations and whether changes in control (or control trajectory) uniquely predict major health outcomes over and above mean levels of control. Using data from the nationwide Americans' Changing…

  11. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  12. Improved Reflections: American Magazines, Higher Education, and the Construction of a Middle-Class Male Identity through European Comparisons, 1890-1915

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Historians of American education readily acknowledge that in the mid-19th century the German university and academic ideal rose in prominence among American academicians, who then worked diligently to replicate the German university model in the United States. During this same time, however, many more Americans were exposed to a different…

  13. Commonsense illness beliefs, adherence behaviors, and hypertension control among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Lambert, Jennifer; Leventhal, Elaine; Leventhal, Howard; Jahn, Eric; Contrada, Richard J

    2008-10-01

    Hypertension, particularly among African Americans, has been increasing in importance in the past 10 years. One aspect of this problem is poor disease management. This study examined illness beliefs, behaviors, and hypertension control among 102 African American outpatients. Participants were interviewed about their commonsense beliefs concerning hypertension and its management in accordance with Leventhal's commonsense model of self-regulation (CSM). Also assessed were medication adherence, stress-reducing behaviors, and lifestyle behaviors recommended for blood pressure control. Blood pressure was measured at about the time of interviewing. Results indicated that endorsement of a medical belief model of hypertension (i.e., caused and controlled by factors such as diet, age, and weight) was cross-sectionally associated with lower systolic blood pressure, a relationship that was statistically mediated by lifestyle behaviors (e.g., cut down salt, exercise). Endorsement of a stress belief model (i.e., stress is the main factor in hypertension cause and control) was associated with engagement in stress-related behaviors but not with blood pressure. These results further support the utility of the CSM for understanding patients' disease management behaviors.

  14. Lay Health Worker Intervention Improved Compliance with Hepatitis B Vaccination in Asian Americans: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunmi; Lee, Sunmin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a lay health worker (LHW) telephone intervention on completing a series of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccinations among foreign-born Asian Americans in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan area. Methods During the period of April 2013 and March 2014, we recruited Asian Americans who were 18 years of age and older in the community-based organizations. Of the 645 eligible participants, 600 (201 Chinese, 198 Korean, 201 Vietnamese) completed a pretest survey and received hepatitis B screening. Based on the screening results, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among those unprotected (HBsAg-/HBsAB-) by assigning them either to an intervention group (n = 124) or control group (n = 108). The intervention group received a list of resources by mails for where to get free vaccinations as well as reminder calls for vaccinations from trained LHWs, while the control group received only list of resources by mail. Seven months after mailing the HBV screening results, trained LHWs followed up with all participants by phone to ask how many of the recommended series of 3 vaccinations they had received: none, 1 or 2, or all 3 (complete). Their self-reported vaccinations were verified with the medical records. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of the LHW intervention. Process evaluation was conducted by asking study participants in the intervention group to evaluate the performance of the LHWs. Results After seven months, those in the intervention group were more likely to have 1 or more vaccines than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 3.04, 95% CI, 1.16, 8.00). Also, those in the intervention group were more likely to complete a series of vaccinations than the control group, compared to the no vaccination group (OR = 7.29, 95% CI 3.39, 15.67). The most important barrier preventing them from seeking hepatitis B vaccinations was lack of time to get the vaccination

  15. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for American Indians: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death among American Indian and Alaska Natives, AI/ANs. Two out of every five AI/AN will die from tobacco-related diseases if the current smoking rates of AI/ANs (40.8%) persist. Currently, there is no proven, effective culturally-tailored smoking cessation program designed specifically for a heterogeneous population of AI. The primary aim of this group randomized clinical trial is to test the efficacy of "All Nations Breath of Life" (ANBL) program compared to a non-tailored "Current Best Practices" smoking cessation program among AI smokers. Methods We will randomize 56 groups (8 smokers per group) to the tailored program or non-tailored program for a total sample size of 448 American Indian smokers. All participants in the proposed study will be offered pharmacotherapy, regardless of group assignment. This study is the first controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation program for American Indians. If the intervention is successful, the potential health impact is significant because the prevalence of smoking is the highest in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01106456 PMID:21592347

  16. Health Messaging and African-American Infant Sleep Location: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Moon, Rachel Y; Mathews, Anita; Joyner, Brandi L; Oden, Rosalind P; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Infant-parent bedsharing increases the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related deaths. Despite AAP recommendations to avoid bedsharing, public health efforts have been unsuccessful in changing behaviors. African-American infants are more than twice as likely to die from SIDS and other sleep-related deaths, and are also twice as likely to bedshare with their parents. Further, African-American parents have a high degree of self-efficacy with regards to preventing infant suffocation, but low self-efficacy with regards to SIDS risk reduction. It is unclear whether messages emphasizing suffocation prevention will decrease bedsharing. To evaluate the impact of specific health messages on African-American parental decisions regarding infant sleep location. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of African-American mothers of infants. The control group received standard messaging emphasizing AAP-recommended safe sleep practices, including avoidance of bedsharing, for the purposes of SIDS risk reduction. The intervention group received enhanced messaging emphasizing safe sleep practices, including avoidance of bedsharing, for both SIDS risk reduction and suffocation prevention. Participants completed interviews at 2-3 weeks, 2-3 months, and 5-6 months after the infant's birth. 1194 mothers were enrolled in the study, and 637 completed all interviews. Bedsharing, both usually (aOR 1.005 [95 % CI 1.003, 1.006]) and last night (aOR 1.004 [95 % CI 1.002, 1.007]) increased slightly but statistically significantly with infant age (p < 0.001). Receipt of the enhanced message did not impact on sleep location. Maternal belief that bedsharing increased the risk of SIDS or suffocation declined over 6 months (p < 0.001) and did not differ by group assignment. African-American mothers who received an enhanced message about SIDS risk reduction and suffocation prevention were no less likely to bedshare with their infants.

  17. Guilt Trips and Love Withdrawal: Does Mothers' Use of Psychological Control Predict Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Pikes, Crysta L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maternal psychological control on the depressive symptoms of 152 lower socioeconomic status African American adolescents. After controlling for the effects of other parenting practices, psychological control had a strong positive relationship with girls' depressive symptoms, but none for boys, even though the 2…

  18. Minimum package for cross-border TB control and care in the WHO European region: a Wolfheze consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Masoud; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana; Centis, Rosella; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Sandgren, Andreas; Heldal, Einar; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Jansen, Niesje; Bahtijarevic, Rankica; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) European region estimates that more than 400,000 tuberculosis (TB) cases occur in Europe, a large proportion of them among migrants. A coordinated public health mechanism to guarantee TB prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care across borders is not in place. A consensus paper describing the minimum package of cross-border TB control and care was prepared by a task force following a literature review, and with input from the national TB control programme managers of the WHO European region and the Wolfheze 2011 conference. A literature review focused on the subject of TB in migrants was carried out, selecting documents published during the 11-yr period 2001–2011. Several issues were identified in cross-border TB control and care, varying from the limited access to early TB diagnosis, to the lack of continuity of care and information during migration, and the availability of, and access to, health services in the new country. The recommended minimum package addresses the current shortcomings and intends to improve the situation by covering several areas: political commitment (including the implementation of a legal framework for TB cross-border collaboration), financial mechanisms and adequate health service delivery (prevention, infection control, contact management, diagnosis and treatment, and psychosocial support). PMID:22653772

  19. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus.

    PubMed

    van der Kruk, J J; Kortekaas, F; Lucas, C; Jager-Wittenaar, H

    2013-09-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood weight control interventions. We include European Union studies targeting parents in order to improve children's weight status in multi-component (parental, behaviour change and nutrition) health promotion or lifestyle interventions. The included studies have at least one objectively measured anthropometric outcome in the weight status of the child. Parental involvement was described and categorized based on the intensity of parental involvement and coded using a validated behaviour change taxonomy specific to childhood obesity. Twenty-four studies were analysed. In effective long-term treatment studies, medium and high intensity parental involvement were identified most frequently; whereas in prevention studies low intensity parental involvement was identified most frequently. Parenting skills, generic and specific to lifestyle behaviour, scored frequently in effective weight control interventions. To list parental skills in generic and specific to lifestyle, descriptions of the included studies were summarized. We conclude that intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change techniques are important issues in the effectiveness of long-term childhood weight control interventions.

  20. Food contamination control in European new Member States and associated candidate countries: data collected within the SAFEFOODNET project.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Benfenati, Emilio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Roots, Ott; Tasiopoulou, Stavroula; Visentin, Sara

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports the results obtained from the data collected within the European Commission funded project SAFEFOODNET regarding the state of the art in the control of chemical food contaminants in twelve European New Member States and one Associated Candidate Country (Turkey). Information has been gathered on institutions involved in food chemical contamination control, types of contaminants and matrices analyzed, procedures for data quality assurance, purposes of the analyses and accessibility of data in the participant countries. The resulting picture points out the general availability of adequate capabilities for the analysis of food contaminants in the laboratories in charge of control and the performance of the analysis of a large variety of chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, radionuclides) in almost each country with few exceptions (dioxins in Bulgaria, Turkey, Latvia, persistent organic pollutants in Lithuania and Malta, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Malta). The application of validated analytical methods and the process of laboratory accreditation are partially fulfilled within the investigated countries, but still forthcoming for some countries, as in Romania, Turkey and Malta. Information collected on food controls is only partially available online and the language used is prevalently local and English to a lesser extent.

  1. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan's power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory's merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory's merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups.

  2. Circalunidian clocks control tidal rhythms of locomotion in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Christopher C.; Ramberg-Pihl, Nicole C.; Watson, Winsor H.

    2016-01-01

    While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24.8h. First, spontaneous “skipping” of one of the daily bouts was observed under several different conditions. Second, the presence of two bouts of activity/day, with different periods, was observed. Lastly, we were able to separately synchronize bouts of activity to two artificial tidal regimes with different periods. These results, taken together, argue in favor of two separate circalunidian clocks in Limulus, each of which controls one of the two bouts of their daily tidal activity rhythms. PMID:27559270

  3. Circalunidian clocks control tidal rhythms of locomotion in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Christopher C; Ramberg-Pihl, Nicole C; Watson, Winsor H

    While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24.8h. First, spontaneous "skipping" of one of the daily bouts was observed under several different conditions. Second, the presence of two bouts of activity/day, with different periods, was observed. Lastly, we were able to separately synchronize bouts of activity to two artificial tidal regimes with different periods. These results, taken together, argue in favor of two separate circalunidian clocks in Limulus, each of which controls one of the two bouts of their daily tidal activity rhythms.

  4. Acculturation, Medication Adherence, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Blood Pressure Control Among Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    Tailakh, Ayman K.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Morisky, Donald E.; Mentes, Janet C.; Pike, Nancy A.; Phillips, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation, medication adherence, lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical activity, nutrition, weight control), and blood pressure control among hypertensive Arab Americans. Design The study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design. A convenience sample of 126 participants completed questionnaires and had measures of blood pressure, weight, and height. Forty-six participants were hypertensive and were included in the analysis. Results Only 29.2% of participants reported high medication adherence. High medication adherence was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure, eating a healthy diet, and following lifestyle modifications. Acculturation was significantly associated with physical activity and body mass index. Conclusion Our study found that acculturated participants were more adherent to medications and physical activity and had better blood pressure control. Further studies are needed to explore how acculturation improves adherence and what factors contribute to better adherence in order to design culturally sensitive interventions. PMID:24848347

  5. Variants of the Ankyrin Repeat Domain 6 Gene (ANKRD6) and Muscle and Physical Activity Phenotypes Among European-Derived American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Van Deveire, Katherine N.; Scranton, Sarah K.; Kostek, Mathew A.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Gordon, Paul M.; Moyna, Niall M.; Visich, Paul S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Thompson, Paul D.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P.; Maresh, Carl M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat domain 6 (ANKRD6) is a ubiquitous protein that associates with early development in mammals and is highly expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and heart of humans. We examined the role of 8 ANKRD6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on muscle performance and habitual physical activity (PA). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 545 T>A (rs9362667), 485 M>L (rs61736690), 233 T>M (rs2273238), 128 I>L (rs3748085), 631 P>L (rs61739327), 122 Q>E (rs16881983), 197805 G>A (rs9344950), and 710 L>X (NOVEL). This study consisted of 922 healthy, untrained, European-derived American men (n = 376, 23.6 ± 0.3 years, 25.0 ± 0.2 kg·m−2) and women (n = 546, 23.2 ± 0.2 years, 24.0 ± 0.2 kg·m−2). Muscle strength (maximum voluntary contraction [MVC] and 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and size (cross-sectional area [CSA]) were assessed before and after 12 weeks of unilateral resistance training (RT). A subsample (n = 536, 23.4 ± 0.2 years, 24.6 ± 0.2 kg·m−2) completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations among ANKRD6 genotypes and muscle phenotypes were tested with repeated measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and PA phenotypes with multivariate ANCOVA, with age and body mass index as covariates. ANKRD6 122 Q>E was associated with increased baseline biceps CSA. ANKRD6 545 A>T and ANKRD6 710 L>X were associated with increased 1RM and MVC in response to RT, respectively. ANKRD6 631 P>L was associated with increased biceps CSA response to RT and time spent in moderate-intensity PA among the total sample and women. ANKRD6 genetic variants were associated with the muscle size and strength response to RT and habitual PA levels. Further research is needed to validate our results and explore mechanisms for the associations we observed. PMID:22580979

  6. Structural and functional assessment of the brain in European Americans with mild-to-moderate kidney disease: Diabetes Heart Study-MIND

    PubMed Central

    Murea, Mariana; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Cox, Amanda J.; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Xu, Jianzhao; Adams, Jeremy N.; Raffield, Laura M.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Bowden, Donald W.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with altered cerebral structure and function. Relationships between mild-to-moderate CKD and brain morphology and cognitive performance were evaluated in European Americans (EAs). Methods A total of 478 EAs with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) < 300 mg/g, most with type 2 diabetes (T2D), were included. Measures of total intracranial volume (TICV), cerebrospinal fluid volume, total white matter volume (TWMV), total gray matter volume (TGMV), total white matter lesion volume (TWMLV), hippocampal white matter volume (HWMV) and hippocampal gray matter volume (HGMV) were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive testing included memory (Rey Auditory Visual Learning Test), global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) and executive function (Stroop Task, Semantic Fluency, Digit Symbol Substitution Test). Associations with CKD were assessed using log-transformed eGFR and UACR, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, diabetes duration, cardiovascular disease and education. Results Participants were 55.2% female, 78.2% had T2D; mean ± SD age 67.6 ± 9.0 years, T2D duration 16.4 ± 6.5 years, eGFR 92.0 ± 22.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR 23.8 ± 39.6 mg/g. In adjusted models, eGFR was negatively associated with TICV only in participants with T2D [parameter estimate (β): −72.2, P = 0.002]. In non-diabetic participants, inverse relationships were observed between eGFR and HGMV (β: −1.0, P = 0.03) and UACR and normalized TWMLV (β: −0.2, P = 0.03). Kidney function and albuminuria did not correlate with cognitive testing. Conclusions In EAs with mild CKD enriched for T2D, brain structure and cognitive performance were generally not impacted. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine when cerebral structural changes and cognitive dysfunction develop with progressive CKD in

  7. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G.; Powell, Charles A.; Riely, Gregory J.; Van Schil, Paul E.; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H. M.; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M.; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Methods An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection

  8. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch) trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP) control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC) in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs). Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications), psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy), and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet) characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%), middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years), high school educated (62.4%), low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income), and received Medicaid (35.9%) or Medicare (12.6%). Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). One-quarter (25.6%) of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7%) reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7%) reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes mellitus was

  9. American Elementary School Children's Attitudes about Immigrants, Immigration, and Being an American

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined 5 to 11-year-old European American children's (N = 90) attitudes regarding immigrants, immigration policy, and what it means to be an American. The majority of children in the sample (from a predominantly European American community) held strong American identities and had distinct ideas about what it means to be an…

  10. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic.

  11. A Study Determining Significant Differences in TerraNova Reading and Math Scores between Eighth Grade African and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barriett Jackson

    2011-01-01

    The participating school system's minority population, notably African Americans, ranked in the top five school systems in academic performance in reading and math when compared to other states and other African American populations across the United States. These measurements were taken from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).…

  12. Genetic control of the seed coat colour of Middle American and Andean bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Possobom, Micheli Thaise Della Flora; Ribeiro, Nerinéia Dalfollo; Zemolin, Allan Emanoel Mezzomo; Arns, Fernanda Daltrozo

    2015-02-01

    Seed coat colour of bean seeds is decisive for acceptance of a cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether there is maternal effect for "L", a* and b* colour parameters in Middle American and Andean bean seeds; to obtain estimates of heritability and gain with selection for "L", a* and b* values; and select recombinants with the seed coat colour required by the market demand. Thus, controlled crossings were carried out between the Middle American lines CNFP 10104 and CHC 01-175, and between the Andean lines Cal 96 and Hooter, for obtaining F1, F1 reciprocal, F2 and F2 reciprocal generations for each hybrid combination. Parents and generations were evaluated in two field experiments (2012 normal rainy and 2013 dry seasons) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seed coat colour was quantified with a portable colorimeter. Genetic variability for "L" (luminosity), chromaticity a* (green to red shade), and chromaticity b* (blue to yellow shade) values was observed in seeds with F2 seed coat of Middle American and Andean beans. "L", a* and b* values in bean seeds presented maternal effects. High broad-sense heritability are observed for luminosity (h(2)b: 76.66-95.07%), chromaticity a* (h(2)b: 73.08-89.31%), and chromaticity b* (h(2)b: 88.63-92.50%) values in bean seeds. From the crossings, it was possible to select bean seeds in early generation for the black group, and for carioca and cranberry types (dark or clear background) which present the colour required by the market demand.

  13. African Americans with cancer: the relationships among self-esteem, locus of control, and health perception.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Jean E

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the relationships among self-esteem, locus of control, and perceived health status in African Americans with cancer and to identify predictors of perceived health status. A convenience sample of 95 oncology outpatients at two large medical facilities completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Cantril Ladder, a measurement of perceived health. In an audiotaped interview two open-ended questions were used to clarify participants' Cantril Ladder scores. A significant positive relationship was discovered between self-esteem and powerful others health locus of control (p <.05). Participants tended to view God as the Powerful Other capable of influencing their health and well-being. Self-esteem and an internal health locus of control were found to account for 23% of the perceived variance in health status. In addition, interview data indicated that participants with normal to high levels of self-esteem and an internal health locus of control perceived their state of health and well-being positively.

  14. Capturing complexity: Mixing methods in the analysis of a European tobacco control policy network

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA), a method which can be used to explore networks in various contexts, has received increasing attention. Drawing on the development of European smoke-free policy, this paper explores how a mixed method approach to SNA can be utilised to investigate a complex policy network. Textual data from public documents, consultation submissions and websites were extracted, converted and analysed using plagiarism detection software and quantitative network analysis, and qualitative data from public documents and 35 interviews were thematically analysed. While the quantitative analysis enabled understanding of the network's structure and components, the qualitative analysis provided in-depth information about specific actors' positions, relationships and interactions. The paper establishes that SNA is suited to empirically testing and analysing networks in EU policymaking. It contributes to methodological debates about the antagonism between qualitative and quantitative approaches and demonstrates that qualitative and quantitative network analysis can offer a powerful tool for policy analysis. PMID:26185482

  15. Capturing complexity: Mixing methods in the analysis of a European tobacco control policy network.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    Social network analysis (SNA), a method which can be used to explore networks in various contexts, has received increasing attention. Drawing on the development of European smoke-free policy, this paper explores how a mixed method approach to SNA can be utilised to investigate a complex policy network. Textual data from public documents, consultation submissions and websites were extracted, converted and analysed using plagiarism detection software and quantitative network analysis, and qualitative data from public documents and 35 interviews were thematically analysed. While the quantitative analysis enabled understanding of the network's structure and components, the qualitative analysis provided in-depth information about specific actors' positions, relationships and interactions. The paper establishes that SNA is suited to empirically testing and analysing networks in EU policymaking. It contributes to methodological debates about the antagonism between qualitative and quantitative approaches and demonstrates that qualitative and quantitative network analysis can offer a powerful tool for policy analysis.

  16. European official control of food: Determination of histamine in fish products by a HPLC-UV-DAD method.

    PubMed

    Altieri, I; Semeraro, A; Scalise, F; Calderari, I; Stacchini, P

    2016-11-15

    The evaluation of histamine content in fish and fishery products, responsible for scombroid poisoning, is essential to guarantee the safety of food. EU regulation requires validated analytical methods to ensure the verification of compliance with food law in official control activity. To this aim a previous gradient RP-HPLC method with DAD detection was modified and validated, according to international guidelines. The reliability of results was tested by analysing fish reference materials within the participation in European proficiency tests. The method has been used for the analysis of real samples consisting of several fish-based products with considerable differences in matrix composition. This characteristic is of great relevance to be able of apply the method in the field of official control.

  17. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    PubMed

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  18. Characterizing Climate Controls on Vegetation Seasonality in the North American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, M. A.; Cook, B.; Smerdon, J. E.; Seager, R.; Williams, P.

    2014-12-01

    The North American Southwest, which extends from Colorado to southern Mexico and California to eastern Texas, encompasses a diversity of climates, elevations, and ecosystems. This region is expected to experience significant climatic change, and associated impacts, in the coming decades. To better understand the spatiotemporal variability of vegetation in the Southwest and the expected climatic controls on timing and spatial extend of vegetation growth, we compared GIMMS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, 1981-2011) against temperature and precipitation data. Spatial variations in vegetation seasonality and the timing of peak NDVI are linked to spatial variability in the precipitation regimes across the Southwest. Regions with spring NDVI peaks are dominated by winter precipitation, while late summer and fall peaks are in regions with significant summer precipitation driven by the North American Monsoon. Inter-annual variability in peak NDVI is positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature, with the largest correlation coefficients at one-month lags. The only significant long-term trends in NDVI are for northern Mexico, where agricultural productivity has been increasing over the last 30 years.

  19. Human leukocyte antigen class I supertypes and HIV-1 control in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Song, Wei; Lobashevsky, Elena; Tang, Jianming; Shrestha, Sadeep; Zhang, Kui; Gardner, Lytt I; McNicholl, Janet M; Wilson, Craig M; Klein, Robert S; Rompalo, Anne; Mayer, Kenneth; Sobel, Jack; Kaslow, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    The role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I supertypes in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in African Americans has not been established. We examined the effects of the HLA-A and HLA-B alleles and supertypes on the outcomes of HIV-1 clade B infection among 338 African American women and adolescents. HLA-B58 and -B62 supertypes (B58s and B62s) were associated with favorable HIV-1 disease control (proportional odds ratio [POR] of 0.33 and 95% confidence interval [95% CI] of 0.21 to 0.52 for the former and POR of 0.26 and 95% CI of 0.09 to 0.73 for the latter); B7s and B44s were associated with unfavorable disease control (POR of 2.39 and 95% CI of 1.54 to 3.73 for the former and POR of 1.63 and 95% CI of 1.08 to 2.47 for the latter). In general, individual alleles within specific B supertypes exerted relatively homogeneous effects. A notable exception was B27s, whose protective influence (POR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94) was masked by the opposing effect of its member allele B*1510. The associations of most B supertypes (e.g., B58s and B7s) were largely explained either by well-known effects of constituent B alleles or by effects of previously unimplicated B alleles aggregated into a particular supertype (e.g., B44s and B62s). A higher frequency of HLA-B genotypic supertypes correlated with a higher mean viral load (VL) and lower mean CD4 count (Pearson's r = 0.63 and 0.62, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the genotypic supertypes, B58s and its member allele B*57 contributed disproportionately to the explainable VL variation. The study demonstrated the dominant role of HLA-B supertypes in HIV-1 clade B-infected African Americans and further dissected the contributions of individual class I alleles and their population frequencies to the supertype effects.

  20. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.

    2005-08-01

    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  1. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies Joint Committee recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer N; Provenzano, David; Peng, Philip; Eichenberger, Urs; Lee, Sang Chul; Nicholls, Barry; Moriggl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in pain medicine for interventional axial, nonaxial, and musculoskeletal pain procedures is rapidly evolving and growing. Because of the lack of specialty-specific guidelines for ultrasonography in pain medicine, an international collaborative effort consisting of members of the Special Interest Group on Ultrasonography in Pain Medicine from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, and the Asian Australasian Federation of Pain Societies developed the following recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided interventional pain procedures. The purpose of these recommendations is to define the required skills for performing ultrasound-guided pain procedures, the processes for appropriate education, and training and quality improvement. Training algorithms are outlined for practice- and fellowship-based pathways. The previously published American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy education and teaching recommendations for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia served as a foundation for the pain medicine recommendations. Although the decision to grant ultrasound privileges occurs at the institutional level, the committee recommends that the training guidelines outlined in this document serve as the foundation for educational training and the advancement of the practice of ultrasonography in pain medicine.

  2. The Changing Image of Hispanic Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Charles N.

    2005-01-01

    Data from surveys representative of the adult population of the United States were used to examine changes from 1990 to 2000 in the image of Hispanic Americans on wealth, work ethic, violence, and intelligence as seen by 2,226 European Americans, 90 Jewish Americans, 304 African Americans, and 205 Hispanic Americans. The image that European…

  3. Gender, Race, and Delinquent Behavior: An Extension of Power-Control Theory to American Indian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Niedrist, Fallon; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Research testing Hagan’s power-control theory has largely been tested with samples of non-Hispanic whites. We extend prior research by testing the theory’s merits with a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents. Overall, we find mixed support for the theory’s merits. However, we find that our measure of patriarchy is a robust predictor of AI female delinquent activity. We also find that a grandparent in the household serves to greatly reduce involvement in violent behavior among AI females. Compared to a sample of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:25342866

  4. Male, but not Female, Alcohol-Dependent African Americans Discount Delayed Gains More Steeply than Propensity-Score Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol dependence is known to be associated with steep discounting of delayed rewards, but its relation to the discounting of delayed losses and probabilistic rewards is unclear. Moreover, patterns of alcohol consumption vary considerably between communities, but previous research has not examined the relation between discounting and alcohol dependence in low-income African Americans. Objectives The goal of the present study was to determine whether low-income, alcohol-dependent African Americans differ from controls in the degree to which they discount delayed rewards, delayed losses, or probabilistic rewards. Methods African American participants, both cases and controls, were recruited from the same low-income neighborhoods, and propensity-score matching was used to further control for demographic differences. Participants performed three tasks that assessed their discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes: delayed rewards, delayed losses, and probabilistic rewards. Results Alcohol-dependent cases discounted delayed gains, but not delayed losses or probabilistic gains, more steeply than their matched controls. The difference in discounting of delayed gains was localized to the male cases, whose discounting was steeper than either the male controls or the female cases; no gender difference was observed between male and female controls. Conclusions The present results extend findings regarding discounting by substance abusers to a previously unstudied group, low-income African Americans, and suggest that in this group at least, alcohol dependence, particularly in males, may be more a reflection of choosing immediate rewards than of ignoring their delayed negative consequences. PMID:26387518

  5. Association Between Fatty Acid Supplementation and Prenatal Stress in African Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.; Bortner, Jenna; Hoffmann, Amy; McAloon, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)supplementation and perceived stress and cortisol response to a stressor during pregnancy in a sample of African American women living in low-income environments. Methods Sixty-four African American women were enrolled at 16–21 weeks of gestation. Power calculations were computed using published standard deviations for the Perceived Stress Scale and the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants were randomized to either 450 mg per day of DHA(n=43) or placebo (n=21).At baseline, 24, and 30 weeks of gestation, perceived stress was assessed by self-report. Cortisol response to a controlled stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured from saliva samples collected upon arrival to the laboratory and after the completion of the TSST. Results Women in the DHA supplementation group reported lower levels of perceived stress at 30 weeks of gestation, controlling for depression and negative life events (mean = 27.4 versus 29.5, (F [3, 47] = 5.06, p = .029, cohen’s d = .65). Women in the DHA supplementation had lower cortisol output in response to arriving to the laboratory and a more modulated response to the stressor (F [1.78, 83.85] = 6.24, p = .004, cohen’s d = .76). Conclusions Pregnant women living in urban low-income environments who received DHA reported reduced perceived stress and lower levels of stress hormones in the third trimester. DHA supplementation may be a method for attenuating the effects of maternal stress during late pregnancy and improving the uterine environment with regard to fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. PMID:25415158

  6. Relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS and birth control.

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Although prior research shows that substantial proportions of African Americans hold conspiracy beliefs, little is known about the subgroups of African Americans most likely to endorse such beliefs. We examined the relationship of African Americans' sociodemographic characteristics to their conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS and birth control. Anonymous telephone surveys were conducted with a targeted random-digit-dial sample of 500 African Americans (15-44 years) in the contiguous United States. Respondents reported agreement with statements capturing beliefs in HIV/AIDS conspiracies (one scale) and birth control conspiracies (two scales). Sociodemographic variables included gender, age, education, employment, income, number of people income supports, number of living children, marital/cohabitation status, religiosity and black identity. Multivariate analyses indicated that stronger HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs were significantly associated with male gender, black identity and lower income. Male gender and lower education were significantly related to black genocide conspiracy beliefs, and male gender and high religiosity were significantly related to contraceptive safety conspiracy beliefs. The set of sociodemographic characteristics explained a moderately small amount of the variance in conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS (R2 range=0.07-0.12) and birth control (R2 range=0.05-0.09). Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not isolated to specific segments of the African-American population. PMID:16895286

  7. The targetable A1 Huntington disease haplotype has distinct Amerindian and European origins in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kay, Chris; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Collins, Jennifer A; Wright, Galen; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Veliz-Otani, Diego; Ketelaar, Maria E; Slama, Ramy A; Ross, Colin J; Mazzetti, Pilar; Hayden, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. HD occurs worldwide, but the causative mutation is found on different HTT haplotypes in distinct ethnic groups. In Latin America, HD is thought to have European origins, but indigenous Amerindian ancestry has not been investigated. Here, we report dense HTT haplotypes in 62 mestizo Peruvian HD families, 17 HD families from across Latin America, and 42 controls of defined Peruvian Amerindian ethnicity to determine the origin of HD in populations of admixed Amerindian and European descent. HD in Peru occurs most frequently on the A1 HTT haplotype (73%), as in Europe, but on an unexpected indigenous variant also found in Amerindian controls. This Amerindian A1 HTT haplotype predominates over the European A1 variant among geographically disparate Latin American controls and in HD families from across Latin America, supporting an indigenous origin of the HD mutation in mestizo American populations. We also show that a proportion of HD mutations in Peru occur on a C1 HTT haplotype of putative Amerindian origin (14%). The majority of HD mutations in Latin America may therefore occur on haplotypes of Amerindian ancestry rather than on haplotypes resulting from European admixture. Despite the distinct ethnic ancestry of Amerindian and European A1 HTT, alleles on the parent A1 HTT haplotype allow for development of identical antisense molecules to selectively silence the HD mutation in the greatest proportion of patients in both Latin American and European populations.

  8. Baseline characteristics of European and non-European adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder participating in a placebo-controlled, randomized treatment study with atomoxetine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults; yet it is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries. This analysis examines the characteristics of adult patients with ADHD in a European (EUR) and non-European (NE) patient population. Methods Baseline data from the open-label treatment period of a randomized trial of atomoxetine in adult patients with ADHD (N=2017; EUR, n=1217; NE, n=800) were examined. All patients who were enrolled were included in the baseline analyses. Results The demographics for patients in the EUR and NE groups were comparable. Patients in the EUR group had a somewhat lower percentage of prior exposure to psychostimulants compared with the NE group (32.7% vs. 38.9%, p=.0049). Scores on the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version with adult ADHD prompts (18-item total, inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subscales, and index) were comparable. The adult ADHD Quality of Life-Life Outlook and Life Productivity domain scores were significantly different between groups (p≤.0004). The EuroQol-5 Dimension United Kingdom and United States population-based index scores and Health State score were comparable between groups. Conclusions Adults with ADHD in Europe present similar demographics and baseline characteristics to those outside Europe and hence, study results outside Europe may be generalizable to patients in Europe. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00700427 PMID:23648011

  9. [Progress and pending issues in the Latin American agenda for tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Valdés-Salgado, Raydel

    2010-01-01

    Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be done. If current smoking prevalence among teenagers remains unchanged, there will be a significant increase in the number of premature deaths attributable to tobacco consumption in future decades.

  10. Challenging controlling images, oppression, poverty and other structural constraints: Survival strategies among African American women in distressed households

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Powerful controlling images perpetuate misguided messages about impoverished African American women that contribute to the oppression these women endure. These images inform policies and behavior that create and maintain structural barriers such as lack of access to education and meaningful employment further marginalizing oppressed individuals. This article uses in-depth interview data to analyze interlocking oppressions in the lived experience of impoverished African American women. The authentic women’s voices presented serve as a counter narrative of resistance. Our larger goal in writing this paper is to encourage the public, policy makers, service providers and impoverished African American women themselves to fight against controlling images by deconstructing personal biases, educating the public, and developing culturally congruent interventions to social problems. PMID:23555317

  11. Wolbachia in European Populations of the Invasive Pest Drosophila suzukii: Regional Variation in Infection Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, Patricia; Martinez, Julien; Fraimout, Antoine; Jiggins, Francis; Andrieux, Thibault; Siozios, Stefanos; Anfora, Gianfranco; Miller, Wolfgang; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Mouton, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii is characterized by a specific fresh-fruit targeting behavior and has quickly become a menace for the fruit economy of newly infested North American and European regions. D. suzukii carries a strain of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia, named wSuz, which has a low infection frequency and no reproductive manipulation capabilities in American populations of D. suzukii. To further understand the nature of wSuz biology and assess its utility as a tool for controlling this pest’s populations, we investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 23 European D. suzukii populations, and compared our results with those available in American populations. Our data showed a highly variable infection frequency with a mean prevalence of 46%, which is significantly higher than the 17% found in American populations. Based on Multilocus Sequence Typing analysis, a single wSuz strain was diagnosed in all European populations of D. suzukii. In agreement with American data, we found no evidence of cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by wSuz. These findings raise two questions: a) why Wolbachia is maintained in field populations of D. suzukii and b) what are the selective forces responsible for the variation in prevalence within populations, particularly between European and American continents? Our results provide new insights into the D. suzukii-Wolbachia association and highlight regional variations that await further investigation and that should be taken into account for using Wolbachia-based pest management programs. PMID:26809119

  12. Wolbachia in European Populations of the Invasive Pest Drosophila suzukii: Regional Variation in Infection Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Cattel, Julien; Kaur, Rupinder; Gibert, Patricia; Martinez, Julien; Fraimout, Antoine; Jiggins, Francis; Andrieux, Thibault; Siozios, Stefanos; Anfora, Gianfranco; Miller, Wolfgang; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Mouton, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii is characterized by a specific fresh-fruit targeting behavior and has quickly become a menace for the fruit economy of newly infested North American and European regions. D. suzukii carries a strain of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia, named wSuz, which has a low infection frequency and no reproductive manipulation capabilities in American populations of D. suzukii. To further understand the nature of wSuz biology and assess its utility as a tool for controlling this pest's populations, we investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 23 European D. suzukii populations, and compared our results with those available in American populations. Our data showed a highly variable infection frequency with a mean prevalence of 46%, which is significantly higher than the 17% found in American populations. Based on Multilocus Sequence Typing analysis, a single wSuz strain was diagnosed in all European populations of D. suzukii. In agreement with American data, we found no evidence of cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by wSuz. These findings raise two questions: a) why Wolbachia is maintained in field populations of D. suzukii and b) what are the selective forces responsible for the variation in prevalence within populations, particularly between European and American continents? Our results provide new insights into the D. suzukii-Wolbachia association and highlight regional variations that await further investigation and that should be taken into account for using Wolbachia-based pest management programs.

  13. Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nahid, Payam; Dorman, Susan E; Alipanah, Narges; Barry, Pennan M; Brozek, Jan L; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Chaisson, Lelia H; Chaisson, Richard E; Daley, Charles L; Grzemska, Malgosia; Higashi, Julie M; Ho, Christine S; Hopewell, Philip C; Keshavjee, Salmaan A; Lienhardt, Christian; Menzies, Richard; Merrifield, Cynthia; Narita, Masahiro; O'Brien, Rick; Peloquin, Charles A; Raftery, Ann; Saukkonen, Jussi; Schaaf, H Simon; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Starke, Jeffrey R; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Vernon, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline. This guideline provides recommendations on the clinical and public health management of tuberculosis in children and adults in settings in which mycobacterial cultures, molecular and phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, and radiographic studies, among other diagnostic tools, are available on a routine basis. For all recommendations, literature reviews were performed, followed by discussion by an expert committee according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Given the public health implications of prompt diagnosis and effective management of tuberculosis, empiric multidrug treatment is initiated in almost all situations in which active tuberculosis is suspected. Additional characteristics such as presence of comorbidities, severity of disease, and response to treatment influence management decisions. Specific recommendations on the use of case management strategies (including directly observed therapy), regimen and dosing selection in adults and children (daily vs intermittent), treatment of tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection (duration of tuberculosis treatment and timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy), as well as treatment of extrapulmonary disease (central nervous system, pericardial among other sites) are provided. The development of more potent and better-tolerated drug regimens, optimization of drug exposure for the

  14. Executive Summary: Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nahid, Payam; Dorman, Susan E; Alipanah, Narges; Barry, Pennan M; Brozek, Jan L; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Chaisson, Lelia H; Chaisson, Richard E; Daley, Charles L; Grzemska, Malgosia; Higashi, Julie M; Ho, Christine S; Hopewell, Philip C; Keshavjee, Salmaan A; Lienhardt, Christian; Menzies, Richard; Merrifield, Cynthia; Narita, Masahiro; O'Brien, Rick; Peloquin, Charles A; Raftery, Ann; Saukkonen, Jussi; Schaaf, H Simon; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Starke, Jeffrey R; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Vernon, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline. This guideline provides recommendations on the clinical and public health management of tuberculosis in children and adults in settings in which mycobacterial cultures, molecular and phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, and radiographic studies, among other diagnostic tools, are available on a routine basis. For all recommendations, literature reviews were performed, followed by discussion by an expert committee according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Given the public health implications of prompt diagnosis and effective management of tuberculosis, empiric multidrug treatment is initiated in almost all situations in which active tuberculosis is suspected. Additional characteristics such as presence of comorbidities, severity of disease, and response to treatment influence management decisions. Specific recommendations on the use of case management strategies (including directly observed therapy), regimen and dosing selection in adults and children (daily vs intermittent), treatment of tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection (duration of tuberculosis treatment and timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy), as well as treatment of extrapulmonary disease (central nervous system, pericardial among other sites) are provided. The development of more potent and better-tolerated drug regimens, optimization of drug exposure for the

  15. Cultural Challenges Faced by American Mission Control Personnel Working with International Partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approach