Science.gov

Sample records for control health protection

  1. [Zoonoses control--new challenges in health protection of consumers].

    PubMed

    Grossklaus, D

    2001-01-01

    The eradication of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis of domestic stock in Germany through the combined efforts of veterinary medicine, the agricultural section and the state was an historic achievement. Since the two diseases are zoonoses, their successful control can also be seen as a valuable contribution to public health. Both these zoonoses are classic animal diseases presenting themselves as clinical entities complete with gross pathological lesions. In contrast, today we are confronted with pathogens causing zoonoses characterised by latent, i.e. clinically inapparent herd infections that do not result in visible tissue changes. Nevertheless, through contaminated foodstuffs, these pathogens contribute to food-borne infections leading to the outbreak of genuine zoonoses in humans. It has been estimated that there could be as many as two million cases of food-borne infections annually in Germany. Among them are salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, yersiniosis, infections with verotoxin producing E. coli, listeriosis and toxoplasmosis. While the national animal disease legislation only foresees the control of notifiable diseases, the basis for zoonoses control is laid down in the EU Zoonosis-Directive, which is presently awaiting its transposition into national law and into practice. In order, for instance, to combat the most important Salmonella infections of humans, Integrated Quality Systems (IQS) have been formulated as a means of implementing the proven HACCP concept in animal production units and ensuring animal health from the point of view of consumer protection. The aim of all measures must be to free infected herds of pathogens, to investigate and eliminate all sources with a potential for further pathogen introductions, to maintain pathogen-free herds--with a reduced pathogen challenge in mid-term time periods--, as well as to develop diagnostics capable of identifying pathogen carriers before slaughter. For the disinfection of stock, it is important

  2. Protecting mental health clients' dignity - the importance of legal control.

    PubMed

    Kogstad, Ragnfrid Eline

    2009-01-01

    Protecting human beings' dignity is a fundamental value underlying the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as several recommendations and conventions derived from this, among them the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR), a declaration that also takes precedence over Norwegian legislation. Still, clients' stories inform us that their dignity is not always protected in the mental health service systems. The aim of the study has been to investigate violations of dignity considered from the clients' points of view, and to suggest actions that may ensure that practice is brought in line with human rights values. The method used has been a qualitative content analysis of 335 client narratives. The conclusion is that mental health clients experience infringements that cannot be explained without reference to their status as clients in a system which, based on judgments from medical experts, has a legitimate right to ignore clients' voices as well as their fundamental human rights. The main focus of this discussion is the role of the ECHR and the European Court of Human Rights as instruments for protecting mental health clients' human rights. To bring about changes, recommendations and practices should be harmonized with the new UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006). Under this convention, the European Court of Human Rights has support for the application of the ECHR without exemptions for special groups of people.

  3. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  4. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection. PMID:27790274

  5. Health protection: communicable disease, public health and infection control educational programmes--a case study from the UK.

    PubMed

    El-Ansari, W; Privett, S

    2005-04-01

    The health protection (HP) landscape is changing. Issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are receiving the attention of world leaders and policy makers. In the UK, the national health policies resonate with such transformations, presenting a range of opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include the formation of a new national organisation dedicated to protecting the people's health and reducing the impact of infectious disease, the Health Protection Agency. The opportunities also include the opening of non-medical specialists's pathways in public health. The challenges represent the limited number of centres offering infection control education; the hospital focus and bias of the courses; new, resurgent and emerging infections; globalisation and travel; bacterial resistance; vaccine safety and coverage; bioterrorism; global response capacity; and visa restrictions. Within this context, this paper presents a case study of a HP educational programme at a British university in the south of England. It outlines the course design and philosophy, participants, recruitment, aims, descriptions and learning outcomes. A range of teething problems associated with the initiation and running of such programmes is considered. These include aspects related to the university, features associated with the modules, characteristics of the students, and other interconnected larger scale international issues. Some suggestions for the way forward are presented. Collectively, attention to the suggested measures can ensure that the processes that teaching programmes embrace to refine their content and delivery will equip tomorrow's professionals with the requisite HP knowledge and skills.

  6. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory--health protection.

    PubMed

    Ketchen, E; Porter, W

    1981-12-01

    Maintaining reasonable control of all hazardous materials used in a large research laboratory can be a formidable task. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a Hazardous Material Coordinator for Health Protection (HMC-Hlth) and a Hazardous Material Coordinator for Environmental Protection (HMC-Env) control hazardous materials from acquisition to disposal. The HMC-Hlth, a member of the Industrial Hygiene Department, is responsible for control of the purchase and use of hazardous materials. If the material has not had a hazard evaluation, the user is required to contact the HMC-Hlth to find out if the material is hazardous before ordering it. If the material is hazardous, the user must get permission from his divisional representative to purchase it. The user is required to fill out Part 2 of a Hazardous Material Control Card (HMCC), describing the proposed use and location of the material and to return HMCC to the HMC-Hlth. This allows the Industrial Hygiene Department to evaluate the use of the materials and to take air samples as needed. Part 1 of the HMCC also contains computer printed information on the hazards.

  7. Protective Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ganime

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: As a result of wars, starvation, traffic accidents, homicide, infectious diseases, insufficient adult protection, migration, and inadequate legal reforms the mortality rate of children has become a serious problem in the world. Protective health education contributes to a child's physical and social health. In this case, the…

  8. Modernizing public health law: protection and enforcement.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-08-01

    Health protection legislation has been updated through amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 to take account of emerging diseases and the risk of contamination by adopting an all hazard approach to disease protection. To further strengthen safeguards for protecting health, new health protection powers have been given to local authorities and magistrates. The powers can be used to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases and contamination. Health professionals, including district nurses, need to be aware of the health protection powers. This will enable them to take appropriate decisions in cases where voluntary measures to protect health are not possible.

  9. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  10. Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall ... Not Alone / Keep Weight Off / Facts About Fat / Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Fall 2008 Issue: ...

  11. A randomized, controlled trial comparing skin health effects and comfort of two adult incontinence protective underwear.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, M M; Wang, B; Gutshall, D; Rodenberg, C A; Farage, M A

    2017-05-01

    It is important to confirm product use effects on skin health for products intended for prolonged skin contact. This study compared experimental and marketed reference adult incontinence protective underwear. Randomized, single-blind (examiner), parallel study evaluating skin health effects in predominantly obese incontinent women normally using protective underwear (approximately 20% Type II Diabetes). Subjects wore experimental or marketed reference protective underwear daily, 14 consecutive days. Visual skin grading, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) assessed before, after 1 and 2 weeks of product wear. Overall assessment of comfort assessed. Of the 122 subjects (60 experimental and 62 marketed reference), 22 were diabetic and 88 were postmenopausal. Under the conditions of this study, there were no statistically significant differences in overall change from baseline for visual grading and TEWL between the experimental product and the marketed reference product for all subjects. Changes from baseline for skin erythema and skin marking were generally small for both products for all subjects as well as for both diabetics and non-diabetics. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), and no withdrawals due to AEs. Overall comfort assessments of size and fit were 'just right,' and skin comfort in the leg, waist and crotch areas were 'comfortable' or 'very comfortable' for both products. In-use 14-day testing demonstrated few statistical differences between experimental product with unique odor neutralizing technology and currently marketed product for skin assessments and comfort. Both products were comfortable and well-tolerated. © 2016 The Authors. Skin Research and Technology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experiences Recruiting Indian Worksites for an Integrated Health Protection and Health Promotion Randomized Control Trial in Maharashtra, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman Cordeira, L.; Pednekar, M. S.; Nagler, E. M.; Gautam, J.; Wallace, L.; Stoddard, A. M.; Gupta, P. C.; Sorensen, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recruitment strategies utilized in the Mumbai Worksites Tobacco Control Study, a cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of an integrated tobacco control and occupational safety and health program in Indian manufacturing worksites. From June 2012 to June 2013, 20 companies were recruited.…

  13. Experiences Recruiting Indian Worksites for an Integrated Health Protection and Health Promotion Randomized Control Trial in Maharashtra, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman Cordeira, L.; Pednekar, M. S.; Nagler, E. M.; Gautam, J.; Wallace, L.; Stoddard, A. M.; Gupta, P. C.; Sorensen, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recruitment strategies utilized in the Mumbai Worksites Tobacco Control Study, a cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of an integrated tobacco control and occupational safety and health program in Indian manufacturing worksites. From June 2012 to June 2013, 20 companies were recruited.…

  14. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sign-up for our bulletin Protect Children from Climate Change A Story of Health EBook EPA reaffirms its children's health policy Where Children Live, Learn and Play Healthy Homes Program EPA's Healthy School Environments Child care facilities Where you live - EPA's ...

  15. Experiences recruiting Indian worksites for an integrated health protection and health promotion randomized control trial in Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Cordeira, L Shulman; Pednekar, M S; Nagler, E M; Gautam, J; Wallace, L; Stoddard, A M; Gupta, P C; Sorensen, G C

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the recruitment strategies utilized in the Mumbai Worksites Tobacco Control Study, a cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of an integrated tobacco control and occupational safety and health program in Indian manufacturing worksites. From June 2012 to June 2013, 20 companies were recruited. Companies were identified using association lists, referrals, internet searches and visits to industrial areas. Four hundred eighty companies were contacted to validate information, introduce the study and seek an in-person meeting with a company representative. Eighty-three company representatives agreed to meet. Of those 83 companies, 55 agreed to a formal 'pitch meeting' with key decision makers at the company. Seventy-seven recruitment 'pitches' were given, including multiple meetings in the same companies. If the company was interested, we obtained a letter of participation and employee roster. Based on this experience, recommendations are made that can help inform future researchers and practitioners wishing to recruit Indian worksites. When compared with recruitment of US manufacturing worksites, recruitment of Indian worksites lacked current industrial lists of companies to serve as a sampling frame, and required more in-person visits, incentives for control companies and more assurances around confidentiality to allow occupational safety and health experts into their worksite.

  16. The Health Protection/Health Promotion Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Health Protection/Health Promotion Model of therapeutic recreation, highlighting its underlying concepts: the humanistic perspective, high-level wellness, the stabilization and actualization tendencies, and health. Describes components of the model (prescribed activities, recreation, and leisure), discusses utilization of the model…

  17. Protecting Student Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    Public schools have certain responsibilities for the health of their students. Approximately half of the states require schools to implement health standards, including physical exams, as a prerequisite to attendance. All 50 states require public school students to be vaccinated against diseases such as diphtheria, measles, and rubella. And,…

  18. Protecting Student Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    Public schools have certain responsibilities for the health of their students. Approximately half of the states require schools to implement health standards, including physical exams, as a prerequisite to attendance. All 50 states require public school students to be vaccinated against diseases such as diphtheria, measles, and rubella. And,…

  19. Assuring Crew Health Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    Amongst the recommendation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) were the establishment of an independent technical authorities, one of which is the Health and Medical Technical Authority. This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of this Technical Authority in maintaining standards that are aimed at implementing health and medical policy, responding to medical events and emergencies consistent with acceptable levels defined by standards and providing expertise for program milestones.

  20. Thermal Protection and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Effie E.

    2013-01-01

    During all phases of a spacecraft's mission, a Thermal Protection System (TPS) is needed to protect the vehicle and structure from extreme temperatures and heating. When designing TPS, low weight and cost while ensuring the protection of the vehicle is highly desired. There are two main types of TPS, ablative and reusable. The Apollo missions needed ablators due to the high heat loads from lunar reentry. However, when the desire for a reusable space vehicle emerged, the resultant_ Space Shuttle program propelled a push for the development of reusable TPS. With the growth of reqsable TPS, the need for ablators declined, triggering a drop off of the ablator industry. As a result, the expertise was not heavily maintained within NASA or the industry. When the Orion Program initiated a few years back, a need. for an ablator reemerged. Yet, due to of the lack of industry capability, redeveloping the ablator material took several years and came at a high cost. As NASA looks towards the future with both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs, a need to preserve reusable, ablative, and other TPS technologies is essential. Research of the different TPS materials alongside their properties, capabilities, and manufacturing process was performed, and the benefits of the materials were analyzed alongside the future of TPS. Knowledge of the different technologies has the ability to help us know what expertise to maintain and ensure a lack in the industry does not occur again.

  1. [Chile: social protection in health].

    PubMed

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  2. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, Lee K.

    1981-01-01

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  3. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, L.K.

    1979-12-07

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  4. Response Across the Health-Literacy Spectrum of Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Sun-Protection Education Program Delivered on Tablet Computers: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John J; Desai, Amishi; Gordon, Elisa J

    2015-08-18

    Sun protection can reduce skin cancer development in kidney transplant recipients, who have a greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma than the general population. A culturally sensitive sun-protection program (SunProtect) was created in English and Spanish with the option of choosing audio narration provided by the tablet computer (Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 10.1). The intervention, which showed skin cancer on patients with various skin tones, explained the following scenarios: skin cancer risk, the ability of sun protection to reduce this risk, as well as offered sun-protection choices. The length of the intervention was limited to the time usually spent waiting during a visit to the nephrologist. The development of this culturally sensitive, electronic, interactive sun-protection educational program, SunProtect, was guided by the "transtheoretical model," which focuses on decision making influenced by perceptions of personal risk or vulnerability to a health threat, importance (severity) of the disease, and benefit of sun-protection behavior. Transportation theory, which holds that narratives can have uniquely persuasive effects in overcoming preconceived beliefs and cognitive biases because people transported into a narrative world will alter their beliefs based on information, claims, or events depicted, guided the use of testimonials. Participant tablet use was self-directed. Self-reported responses to surveys were entered into the database through the tablet. Usability was tested through interviews. A randomized controlled pilot trial with 170 kidney transplant recipients was conducted, where the educational program (SunProtect) was delivered through a touch-screen tablet to 84 participants. The study involved 62 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, and 48 Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between the intervention and control groups in age, sex, income, or time since

  5. [Measurement and study report as a part of the control system for human safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation (0 Hz-300 GHz)].

    PubMed

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2007-01-01

    The National Control System for safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) (0 Hz-300 GHz) is constantly analyzed in view of Directive 2004/40/EC. Reports on the effects of investments (at the designing stage or at the stage of looking for their localization) on the environment and measurement and study reports on the objects already existing or being put into operation are important elements of this system. These documents should meet both national and European Union's legislation requirements. The overriding goal of the control system is safety and health protection of humans against electromagnetic fields in the environment and in occupational settings. The author pays a particular attention to provisions made in directives issued by relevant ministers and to Polish standards, which should be documented in measurement and study reports published by the accredited laboratories and relating to the problems of human safety and health protection. Similar requirements are valid for the Reports. Therefore, along with measurement outcomes, the reports should include data on the EMF exposure classification at work-posts and the assessment of occupational risk resulting from EMF exposure or at least thorough data facilitating such a classification.

  6. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme - the Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wright, William; Turner, Stephen; Anopa, Yulia; McIntosh, Emma; Wu, Olivia; Conway, David I; Macpherson, Lorna M D; McMahon, Alex D

    2015-12-18

    The Scottish Government set out its policy on addressing the poor oral health of Scottish children in 2005. This led to the establishment of Childsmile, a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland. One element of the programme promotes daily tooth brushing in all nurseries in Scotland (Childsmile Core). A second targeted component (Childsmile Nursery) offers twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish to children attending nurseries in deprived areas. Studies suggest that fluoride varnish application can reduce caries in both adult and child populations. This trial aims to explore the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of additional preventive value fluoride varnish application compared to Childsmile Core. The Protecting Teeth@3 Study is an ongoing 2 year parallel group randomised treatment as usual controlled trial. Three-year-old children attending the ante pre-school year are randomised (1:1) to the intervention arm (fluoride varnish & treatment as usual) or the control arm (treatment as usual). Children in the intervention arm will have Duraphat® fluoride varnish painted on the primary tooth surfaces and will continue to receive treatment as usual: the core Childsmile Nursery intervention. Children in the treatment as usual arm will receive the same series of contacts, without the application of varnish and will also continue with the Childsmile Core intervention. Interventions are undertaken by Childsmile trained extended duty dental nurses at six-monthly intervals. Participants receive a baseline dental inspection in nursery and an endpoint inspection in Primary 1 at the age of 5 years old. We will use primary and secondary outcome measures to compare the effectiveness of Duraphat® fluoride varnish plus treatment as usual with treatment as usual only in preventing any further dental decay. We will also undertake a full economic evaluation of the trial. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Number: NCT

  8. 2001 Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Letters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These letters are all to or about Christine Todd Whitman, regarding recommendations on strengthening the agency's children's health protection program, public health expertise on staff at EPA, and her leadership role on children's environmental health.

  9. Protection detail. Protecting against breach of electronic protected health information.

    PubMed

    Blass, Gerry; Miller, Susan A

    2010-01-01

    Covered entities need to conduct risk assessments that cover the requirements of HIPAA, HITECH and Meaningful use, and create a process for steady and consistent mitigation of known gaps and vulnerabilities based on risk. Reducing risk of vulnerabilities of unauthorized access to your ePHI can be done via safeguards and controls, plus audits and monitoring. When reducing risk is outside of a covered entities control, audits and monitoring are required in order to demonstrate due diligence. Know where your ePHI is stored, where it is at risk, and take steps now to reduce or eliminate the risk. Encrypt vulnerable locations. Encrypt sensitive data. By doing so, you will be protecting your organization by reducing risk of breach of ePHI. Finally, don't forget what is sometimes considered to be the hardest part--documenting your compliance activities in order to demonstrate evidence of due diligence in and avoid major $$$$ penalties for negligence under the HITECH Act of 2009.

  10. [New regimen for protection of health data].

    PubMed

    Villar Rojas, J

    2000-01-01

    The new Personal Data Protection Act of 1999 (Ley Orgánica 15/1999, de 13 de diciembre) introduces changes in legal protection of health data. This regulation fulfills the Directive 95/46/CE. There are four relevant changes: 1) extension of public control over any processing of data, automatic or manual, except in personal or domestic activities; 2) general prohibition against processing data, unless the subject gives his or her explicit consent, waived when processing personal data is required for medical needs or the management of health care services by any health professional subject to professional secrecy; 3) regardless of the purpose for which the data was been collected, further processing for scientific purposes is considered compatible; 4) any regulations contained in the General Health Act, or any other Act, relating to data concerning health continue in force. In short, the new Act waives previous and explicit consent for processing health data when medical, public heath and research goals are involved.

  11. Public health professionals' perceptions toward provision of health protection in England: a survey of expectations of Primary Care Trusts and Health Protection Units in the delivery of health protection

    PubMed Central

    Cosford, Paul A; O'Mahony, Mary; Angell, Emma; Bickler, Graham; Crawshaw, Shirley; Glencross, Janet; Horsley, Stephen S; McCloskey, Brian; Puleston, Richard; Seare, Nichola; Tobin, Martin D

    2006-01-01

    Background Effective health protection requires systematised responses with clear accountabilities. In England, Primary Care Trusts and the Health Protection Agency both have statutory responsibilities for health protection. A Memorandum of Understanding identifies responsibilities of both parties, but there is a potential lack of clarity about responsibility for specific health protection functions. We aimed to investigate professionals' perceptions of responsibility for different health protection functions, to inform future guidance for, and organisation of, health protection in England. Methods We sent a postal questionnaire to all health protection professionals in England from the following groups: (a) Directors of Public Health in Primary Care Trusts; (b) Directors of Health Protection Units within the Health Protection Agency; (c) Directors of Public Health in Strategic Health Authorities and; (d) Regional Directors of the Health Protection Agency Results The response rate exceeded 70%. Variations in perceptions of who should be, and who is, delivering health protection functions were observed within, and between, the professional groups (a)-(d). Concordance in views of which organisation should, and which does deliver was high (≥90%) for 6 of 18 health protection functions, but much lower (≤80%) for 6 other functions, including managing the implications of a case of meningitis out of hours, of landfill environmental contamination, vaccination in response to mumps outbreaks, nursing home infection control, monitoring sexually transmitted infections and immunisation training for primary care staff. The proportion of respondents reporting that they felt confident most or all of the time in the safe delivery of a health protection function was strongly correlated with the concordance (r = 0.65, P = 0.0038). Conclusion Whilst we studied professionals' perceptions, rather than actual responses to incidents, our study suggests that there are important areas

  12. Public health professionals' perceptions toward provision of health protection in England: a survey of expectations of Primary Care Trusts and Health Protection Units in the delivery of health protection.

    PubMed

    Cosford, Paul A; O'Mahony, Mary; Angell, Emma; Bickler, Graham; Crawshaw, Shirley; Glencross, Janet; Horsley, Stephen S; McCloskey, Brian; Puleston, Richard; Seare, Nichola; Tobin, Martin D

    2006-12-07

    Effective health protection requires systematised responses with clear accountabilities. In England, Primary Care Trusts and the Health Protection Agency both have statutory responsibilities for health protection. A Memorandum of Understanding identifies responsibilities of both parties, but there is a potential lack of clarity about responsibility for specific health protection functions. We aimed to investigate professionals' perceptions of responsibility for different health protection functions, to inform future guidance for, and organisation of, health protection in England. We sent a postal questionnaire to all health protection professionals in England from the following groups: (a) Directors of Public Health in Primary Care Trusts; (b) Directors of Health Protection Units within the Health Protection Agency; (c) Directors of Public Health in Strategic Health Authorities and; (d) Regional Directors of the Health Protection Agency The response rate exceeded 70%. Variations in perceptions of who should be, and who is, delivering health protection functions were observed within, and between, the professional groups (a)-(d). Concordance in views of which organisation should, and which does deliver was high (> or =90%) for 6 of 18 health protection functions, but much lower (< or =80%) for 6 other functions, including managing the implications of a case of meningitis out of hours, of landfill environmental contamination, vaccination in response to mumps outbreaks, nursing home infection control, monitoring sexually transmitted infections and immunisation training for primary care staff. The proportion of respondents reporting that they felt confident most or all of the time in the safe delivery of a health protection function was strongly correlated with the concordance (r = 0.65, P = 0.0038). Whilst we studied professionals' perceptions, rather than actual responses to incidents, our study suggests that there are important areas of health protection where

  13. Data Protection Compliance in the Age of Digital Health.

    PubMed

    Hordern, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Advances in technology are transforming the way that health data is collected and used. This includes improvements in existing technology as well as innovations in mobile technology such as smartphone apps and wearables. Health data is strictly regulated under the EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. Under current data protection rules, health data is broadly interpreted and will, in most circumstances not connected to the provision of healthcare, require organisations to obtain explicit consent from individuals for its collection and use. Further data protection compliance issues arise such as identifying who is a controller, ensuring transparency, using health data for research purposes and keeping health data secure. As the EU data protection landscape is due to change in the next few years and will affect the collection and use of health data, the forthcoming Data Protection Regulation also deserves attention.

  14. Lifecourse Models for Ensuring Children's Health Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    New knowledge about environmental risks to human reproduction and development directly relevant to children’s health protection derives from the fields of developmental and reproductive toxicology, exposure science, epidemiology, risk assessment, and public health. Together, thi...

  15. Lifecourse Models for Ensuring Children's Health Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    New knowledge about environmental risks to human reproduction and development directly relevant to children’s health protection derives from the fields of developmental and reproductive toxicology, exposure science, epidemiology, risk assessment, and public health. Together, thi...

  16. Component protection based automatic control

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P J

    1992-03-01

    Control and safety systems as well as operation procedures are designed on the basis of critical process parameters limits. The expectation is that short and long term mechanical damage and process failures will be avoided by operating the plant within the specified constraints envelopes. In this paper, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design duty cycles events is discussed to corroborate that the time has come to explicitly make component protection part of the control system. Component stress assessment and aging data should be an integral part of the control system. Then transient trajectory planning and operating limits could be aimed at minimizing component specific and overall plant component damage cost functions. The impact of transients on critical components could then be managed according to plant lifetime design goals. The need for developing methodologies for online transient trajectory planning and assessment of operating limits in order to facilitate the explicit incorporation of damage assessment capabilities to the plant control and protection systems is discussed. 12 refs.

  17. [Health of peacekeepers protection with perspective of global health].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Laixin; Tang, Shenglan; Cao, Jia

    2015-03-01

    Global health arisen recently, but it developed rapidly and attracted great attention from global researchers and institutions. China, as a member of United Nation, actively participated in many international peacekeeping activities. Health of peacekeepers is global health and it is important to consider and dealt with health of peacekeepers with conception of global health. This article reviewed and analyzed health problems and risk factors faced by peacekeepers,and provided suggestions to strategies to protect health of peacekeepers.

  18. Protecting health through public health law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The report into the outbreak of measles in the Swansea area in 2013 has recommended that public health law be used as a routine response to minimising the spread of infectious diseases. In this article, the author considers what powers are available to health and local authorities to minimise the spread of an infectious disease outbreak.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry: Scientific basis for sound health-protective and cost-effective air pollution control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.N. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    The validity of risk assessments for airborne toxics, and the effectiveness of associated risk management decisions, clearly depend on the accuracy of the data bases employed to estimate human and/or ecosystem exposures. Three current examples are used to illustrate the necessity of including in today`s risk assessments not only total emissions and ambient levels of specific primary pollutants, but also their reaction products: (1) indoor NO{sub 2} and gaseous HONO; (2) conversion of {open_quotes}non-toxic{close_quotes} polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to powerful bacterial mutagens; and (3) the conversion in polluted air of a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} pesticide, used to eradicate a major agricultural threat, to a more toxic compound to which hundreds of thousands of Southern Californians have been exposed. The pressing need for fundamental research on the atmospheric chemistry of such diverse classes of pollutants and the health effects of their reaction products is discussed.

  20. Health Insurance Coverage Protection Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Dorgan, Byron L. [D-ND

    2009-02-13

    Senate - 02/13/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Protect Our Health Privacy Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2012-06-27

    Senate - 06/27/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Retiree Health Coverage Protection Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kerry, John F. [D-MA

    2011-05-26

    Senate - 05/26/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Protecting disaster responder health: lessons (not yet?) learned.

    PubMed

    Newman, David M

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) indicate that each of these agencies is wrestling with how to better protect the health of disaster workers. This article urges increased reliance on comprehensive exposure assessments, more protective exposure benchmarks, the precautionary principle, and the hierarchy of controls of hazards. Additional issues, such as methods and content of worker training, as well as enforcement of applicable standards, are also considered. Finally, an effort is made to clarify the goals of disaster response.

  4. Protecting households from catastrophic health spending.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Evans, David B; Carrin, Guido; Aguilar-Rivera, Ana Mylena; Musgrove, Philip; Evans, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Many countries rely heavily on patients' out-of-pocket payments to providers to finance their health care systems. This prevents some people from seeking care and results in financial catastrophe and impoverishment for others who do obtain care. Surveys in eighty-nine countries covering 89 percent of the world's population suggest that 150 million people globally suffer financial catastrophe annually because they pay for health services. Prepayment mechanisms protect people from financial catastrophe, but there is no strong evidence that social health insurance systems offer better or worse protection than tax-based systems do.

  5. Health protection: Fluoridation and dental health.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Tooth decay, which affects 95 percent of Americans, is our most common health problem, costing an estimated +2 billion yearly for treatment. By the time children reach 17 years of age, 94 percent have experienced caries and 36 percent have lost one or more permanent teeth due to caries. Dental disease prevention embodies the spectrum of many activities from the fluoridation of community and school water supplies to the dental health education of the child and adult. At this stage of our knowledge, the most effective and cost-beneficial intervention is fluoridation. Fluoridation can reduce the incidence of dental caries by about 65 percent, reduce the need for multiple surface fillings, crowns and extractions, and significantly increase the number of children who are completely free of cavities. No other public health measure is as effective in building a decay-resistant tooth while being available to all without regard to education or socio-economic background. The number of people served by fluoridated water systems has increased steadily since its introduction. Currently, however, less than half of all Americans have access to fluoridated water. In areas where community water supplies are not fluoridated, school drinking water is seldom fluoridated despite evidence supporting the efficacy of this procedure. PMID:6414023

  6. Health promotion versus health protection? Employees' perceptions and concerns.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D C; Jennings, S E; Mangione, T; Merrigan, D M

    1991-01-01

    The "second public health revolution" targets factors in the environment, together with lifestyle, to prevent illness and untimely death. Yet the growth of the "wellness movement" has driven a wedge between public health advocates who argue for environmental solutions and those whose major focus is individual behavior. This tension is nowhere more evident than in the workplace, where the new wellness professionals are at odds with specialists in occupational health and industrial hygiene. This paper reports findings from a cross-sectional survey of a sizeable sample of workers at six New England facilities of a very large American manufacturing firm, assessing their perceptions of risk in the two domains: environmental exposures and lifestyle risks. Multiple regression analyses reveal that both job risks and life risks are associated with a variety of potentially costly and disruptive health problems, even after controlling for demographic and occupational factors. This analysis suggests that wellness programs in the workplace will be more effective if they integrate environmental protection with efforts to reduce lifestyle risk.

  7. Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-27

    Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number...situations during peacetime, Federal regulations governing environmental , safety, and occupational health hazards were applied. At the strategic level o f...o f t h e Army for FHP-OEH matters. DASA–ESOH SUBJECT: Force Health Protection (FHP): Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Threats 3 b. The ASA

  8. [Correlation between legal protection of the environment and health].

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Guglielmo; Rinaldi, Alessandro; D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucchetti, Pietro; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; d'Alessandro, Eugenia De Luca

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is a priority of our time and planning and the evaluation of health and hygiene should be directed towards strategies to improve the well-being and lifestyles of the community. At the legislative level in Italy, the Ministry of Health, was established in 1958 with the task of providing for the collective health of the whole nation and in 1978, with Law 833, the National Health Service (NHS) was created which secured assistance and healthcare to all Italian citizens. The most important component of the entire health system is the Local Health Unit (USL) which has responsibility for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and highlights the importance of safeguarding the health, hygiene and safely at home and at work and the "hygiene of urban settlements and communities", ie environmental protection. One of the reasons for the delays in the promotion of environmental protection initiatives in Italy is to be found in the referendums of 1993, including the one which removed the tasks regarding environmental controls from the NHS. The temporary skills gap in the environmental field was filled with the 'National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA), which later became the Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), and the regional level, the Regional Agencies Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA). Law 61/21 January 1994 joined the ARPA to the National Institute for Environmental Research and Protection (ISPRA). It is now necessary to implement a program that takes account of the damage caused to the environment and consequently the individual, which is totally committed the combination of the environment and human health and not, as in the recent past, as two distinct entities. In this sense, it is of fundamental importance the role of prevention departments to promote the organization networking and of individual companies' and individuals' skills, in fact. The integration of planning processes, environmental monitoring

  9. Primary prevention protects public health.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    It is widely accepted that epidemiological data provide the only reliable evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans, but epidemiology is unable to provide early warning of a cancer risk. The experimental approach to carcinogenicity can ascertain and predict potential cancer risks to humans in time for primary prevention to be successful. Unfortunately, only in rare instances were experimental data considered sufficiently convincing per se to stimulate the adoption of preventive measures. The experimental testing of environmental agents is the second line of defense against potential human carcinogens. The first line is the testing of synthesized agents, be these pesticides, medical drugs, or industrial chemical/physical agents, at the time of their development. We do not know, however, how many substances have been prevented from entering the environment because most tests are carried out by commercial or private laboratories and results are rarely released. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sequence of events of the carcinogenesis process will eventually lead to a more accurate characterization and quantification of risks. However, the ways that mechanistic data have been used lately for evaluating evidence of carcinogenicity have not necessarily meant that the evaluations were more closely oriented toward public health. A tendency has surfaced to dismiss the relevance of long-term carcinogenicity studies. In the absence of absolute certainty, rarely if ever reached in biology, it is essential to adopt an attitude of responsible caution, in line with the principles of primary prevention, the only one that may prevent unlimited experimentation on the entire human species.

  10. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.

  11. Protecting Labor Rights: Roles for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-01-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278

  12. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  13. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  14. Perspectives on the place of environmental health and protection in public health and public health agencies.

    PubMed

    Kotchian, S

    1997-01-01

    The field of environmental health and protection and the entire field of public health have repeatedly found themselves isolated from one another, unable to articulate the definition, mission, and goals of public health and the essential role for environmental health and protection in the provision of a healthy ecological and human environment. Environmental agencies often forget that they, too, are public health agencies; public health agencies that have had environmental health functions have divided and abdicated their environmental responsibilities, considering these to be "regulatory" rather than public health. This article reviews the history of environmental health and protection, its involvement within the field of public health, its eventual separation from other public health programs with resulting benefits and consequences, and what the future may hold for environmental health and protection activities as well as for the broader scope of public health of which these activities are a part.

  15. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM) team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM) to: (i) evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii) identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii) build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice. PMID:23256553

  16. Office of Children's Health Protection: Publications Catalog (August 2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2010 list of all materials from the EPA Office of Children's Health Protection. Categories: general environmental health, climate change, air quality, pesticides, water, fish consumption, schools, lead.

  17. 45 CFR 164.522 - Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rights to request privacy protection for protected... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.522 Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information....

  18. 45 CFR 164.522 - Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights to request privacy protection for protected... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.522 Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information....

  19. 45 CFR 164.522 - Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rights to request privacy protection for protected... ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.522 Rights to request privacy protection for protected health information....

  20. Data protection in health information systems (HIS).

    PubMed

    Griesser, G

    1989-01-01

    Information and communication systems in a health (care) environment are risky systems as the data processed, transmitted, stored and retrieved are person-related. An unjustified disclosure may compromise the individual's personal or social life. Therefore these systems must be subject to carefully designed and implemented protection procedures guaranteeing the correct use of those data, corresponding in the medical sphere with the ancient Oath of Hippokrates, as well as the preservation of their correctness, completeness etc., as requested by legal regulations valid for the location of the respective computer-aided information system. The same is true for the manual handling of person-related health data by conventional methods. In any case, the data subject's right of informational self determination must be taken into account.

  1. [Use of pharmacoeconomics analyses to health protection].

    PubMed

    Drozd, Mariola

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacoeconomics makes possible a most favourable utilization of capital resources appropriated for the health protection. For the use of economic analysis health and effects of disease and its treatment are represented in absolute values having a common base--money. The economic analysis is usually carried out from a certain perspective. Something, what is an expense for someone can be a profit for someone else. This work is a review of available Polish literature describing main assumptions of the pharmoeconomics and its instruments--the pharmacoeconomic analyses. As a result of the review it has been ascertained that a modern medicine can not do without economics. At present the capital resources are constantly too small, profitability of an employed method of the therapy or drug must be assessed all the time.

  2. Recommendations for European health data protection legislation.

    PubMed

    Callens, S; Nys, H

    1996-01-01

    In year 1 of the SEISMED project, the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven coordinated the inventory and analysis of medical personal data protection legislation in Europe. A report on legal issues of medical data protection legislation in Europe was written by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique (Paris) and the University College Dublin. This report served as a basis for a second important legal deliverable, i.e. the Health Informatics Deontology Code. In this third and final report, we take into account the results of the other two legal reports and we formulate recommendations for the national and European legislator. This report analyses critically the upcoming privacy directive. We propose several recommendations which should be taken into account by the European and national legislator. We focused quite extensively on the use of medical data for research purposes. We had several reasons to do this. One of them is the fact that the use of medical data for research purposes is very popular, in particular now the health care sector is becoming more and more 'standardized' by using computers, networksystems and telematics. Legislation is therefore needed. Moreover, the use of medical data for research purposes involves the transfer of data from one Member State to another. Therefore, a harmonized legislation is really needed. We hope that the recommendations we propose, will be taken into consideration by the European legislator.

  3. Air quality standards must protect public health

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Edelman

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    PubMed

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  5. Port health control.

    PubMed

    Horner, J S

    1974-07-13

    Almost 950,000 of the 21 million passengers passing through London (Heathrow) Airport in 1973 were seen by the health control unit, which is run by the London Borough of Hillingdon. The unit provides 24-hour medical cover and its responsibilities include x-ray examination for tuberculosis and screening passengers from smallpox-infected areas. It is suggested that, in view of changing epidemiological patterns throughout the world, there is a need to modify existing procedures rather than to abandon them. The development of a follow-up system for tracing passengers at risk and improvements in presenting information about health risks to intending travellers are advocated. While such proposals might be opposed, they could be practicable.

  6. Law on the protection of public health, 30 June 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Viet Nam's 1989 law on the protection of public health. Chapter 1 sets out the rights of citizens to health care and health-promoting activities and environments as well as the obligations of citizens to implement the public health provisions of the law. Chapter 7 covers maternal-child health care and family planning (FP). Individuals may choose their method of birth control, and couples should have no more than two children. Coercion in the implementation of FP is forbidden. Women have the right to abortion and to reproductive health care. Abortions and IUD removals must be performed by licensed individuals. Employers of women must respect reproductive health policies dealing with pregnancy, child birth, breast feeding, and FP. Women may not be employed in arduous jobs or in jobs that are harmful to health. Health services for children will be expanded to provide necessary services, and parents must see that their children have the appropriate examinations and immunizations. The care of handicapped children will be organized by the Ministry of Health and the Minister of Labour, War Invalids, and Social Affairs.

  7. Development of a respiratory protection survey instrument for occupational health nurses: an educational project.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Deborah; Burgel, Barbara J

    2013-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training outlined seven recommendations to improve the competency of occupational health nurses in respiratory protection. An advisory group was convened in December 2011, with stakeholder representation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory, American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare, American Nurses Association, and Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health. The initial work of the advisory group included developing and administering a survey to assess current occupational health nurse roles and responsibilities relevant to respiratory protection. Development of the survey was led by a master's student and advisor who worked with the advisory group. The process of tool development and preliminary findings are presented in this article.

  8. Maintaining Corrosion Protection by Anticipating Increased Environment, Safety and Health Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maintaining Corrosion Protection by Anticipating Increased Environment, Safety and Health Requirements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...responding? Environment, Safety and Health (ESH) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPC) RDECOM  Often competing requirements  Many CPC...2001, Environmental Protection Agency: “highly likely” to be carcinogenic in humans  2006, National Research Council: “potential human carcinogen

  9. [Protection of health rights in Peru: Supervisory experiences from the viewpoint of the National Health Authority].

    PubMed

    Quijano-Caballero, Óscar; Munares-García, Óscar

    2016-01-01

    In Latin America, national superintendents are charged with the supervision and enforcement of health-related matters, and accordingly the regulatory systems used by these individuals are aimed at protecting health rights and detecting solving infringements. Here, we discuss the approach undertaken by Peru with regard to health rights as programmatic rather than fundamental rights, as well as the determination of penalties. Since 2015, the National Health Authority (SUSALUD), through the Control and Penalty Intendance, has maintained both the regulatory and supervisory roles deemed essential to public health in our country. Accordingly, we present the experiences of SUSALUD with regard to the implementation of the punitive administrative process (PAP) from January 2014 to April 2016. During this period, 38 PAP responsibilities were determined and of these, 78.3% correspond to institutions that provide health services. In conclusion, the penalties applied by SUSALUD are derived from programmatic-level health rights.

  10. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protect electronic health information created, maintained, and exchanged. 170.210 Section 170.210 Public... Technology § 170.210 Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information... integrity protected link. (b) Record actions related to electronic health information. The date, time...

  11. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protect electronic health information created, maintained, and exchanged. 170.210 Section 170.210 Public... Technology § 170.210 Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information... integrity protected link. (b) Record actions related to electronic health information. The date, time...

  12. The Data Protection Act (1998): implications for health researchers.

    PubMed

    Redsell, S A; Cheater, F M

    2001-08-01

    This paper reports on the methods used in two studies to obtain access to subjects to comply with the common law duty of confidence laid out in the Data Protection Act (1998) and discusses the researchers' problems in interpreting the procedures. The amendments to the United Kingdom (UK) Data Protection Act (1998) are causing confusion within the health service and academic institutions. There is a need to balance patient confidentiality with the requirement to conduct vital, unbiased research in which health service professionals are not subject to ethical dilemmas. This paper examines the recruitment methods used in two studies in which the researchers' attempts to adhere to the requirements lengthened the study costs and may have produced less reliable results. The methodological difficulties in two studies are presented. In Study 1, the difficulties encountered when the Multicentre Research Ethics Committee refused permission for researchers to recruit patients directly to a multicentre randomized controlled trial are discussed. In Study 2, the method used to compile a sampling frame for a national questionnaire survey following the eight principles of the Act are described. Our experience has shown that health care professionals are increasingly required to recruit patients to intervention trials, and that researchers are not allowed access to the names of patients or other subjects to ask them for consent to participate in a study. The requirement for researchers to use "intermediaries" to obtain consent from and recruit subjects to studies increases the risk of selection bias, may expose the practitioner to ethical difficulties and may compromise the external validity of trial results. There is also a danger that research costs will soar when the Data Protection Act (1998) is fully realized. The Data Protection Act (1998) is currently being interpreted in a number of different ways. We conclude there is an urgent need for consensus within the health service

  13. Personal Protective Equipment: Protecting Health Care Providers in an Ebola Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Fischer, William A; Weber, David; Wohl, David A

    2015-11-01

    The recent Ebola epidemic that devastated West Africa has infected and killed more health care providers than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. An improved understanding of pathogen transmission and the institution of strategies to protect health care providers against infection are needed in infectious disease outbreaks. This review connects what is known about Ebola virus transmission with personal protective equipment (PPE) designed to arrest nosocomial transmission. Articles pertaining to filovirus transmission and PPE in filovirus outbreaks were reviewed and findings are presented. In addition, studies that evaluated PPE and donning and doffing strategies are presented. PPE is one step in a comprehensive infection prevention and control strategy that is required to protect health care providers. Given that the Ebola virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact of mucous membranes and cuts in the skin with infected patients and/or their bodily fluids, it is necessary to cover these potential portals of infection with PPE as part of a structured and instructed donning and doffing procedure. Current recommendations about PPE and the donning and doffing processes are based on anecdotal experience. However, the use of non-human viruses can help provide evidence-based guidelines on both PPE and donning and doffing processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. History of children's environmental health protection at EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1995 the Environmental Protection Agency was directed to explicitly and consistently take into account environmental health risks to infants and children in all risk characterizations and public health standards set for the United States.

  15. Concept of Educational Assistance to Health Protection of the Individual.

    PubMed

    Levanova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Kokorina, Olga Rafailovna; Nikitin, Yuriy Vladimirovich; Perepelkina, Tatiyna Vladislavovna; Segodina, Polina Anatolievna

    2015-07-13

    The article describes the theoretical and practical need for the development of the concept of assistance to health protection of the individual in order to address the problem of health protection of students and teachers in the conditions of a higher pedagogical education. The problem of studying human health, its entirety, systemacity and connection with the environment attracts particular attention in recent years. This was one of the reasons to study the problem of "healthy lifestyle" as the qualitative characteristic of a human life aimed at health, due to the fact that a healthy lifestyle is one of the determinants of health. This is made possible with the use of specific health-protecting technologies aimed at searching for ways and means of protection and conservation of health of students and teachers in the conditions of the educational process and using educational tools, which is currently included into the priorities of education.

  16. Concept of Educational Assistance to Health Protection of the Individual

    PubMed Central

    Levanova, Elena Aleksandrovna; Kokorina, Olga Rafailovna; Nikitin, Yuriy Vladimirovich; Perepelkina, Tatiyna Vladislavovna; Segodina, Polina Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the theoretical and practical need for the development of the concept of assistance to health protection of the individual in order to address the problem of health protection of students and teachers in the conditions of a higher pedagogical education. The problem of studying human health, its entirety, systemacity and connection with the environment attracts particular attention in recent years. This was one of the reasons to study the problem of “healthy lifestyle” as the qualitative characteristic of a human life aimed at health, due to the fact that a healthy lifestyle is one of the determinants of health. This is made possible with the use of specific health-protecting technologies aimed at searching for ways and means of protection and conservation of health of students and teachers in the conditions of the educational process and using educational tools, which is currently included into the priorities of education. PMID:26493439

  17. Advancing tuberculosis control within reforming health systems.

    PubMed

    Weil, D E

    2000-07-01

    In developing nations, diverse health reform programs are affecting the design, financing and delivery of health care services as well as public health practice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of major reform strategies seeking to improve efficiency, equity and quality. Opportunities and risks for tuberculosis control are identified, as are responses in managing the reform transition. Recommendations are provided to advance tuberculosis control in this dynamic environment. These include participation in the planning process; demonstration of synergy between reform objectives and tuberculosis control; articulation of core functions to be protected; technical, managerial and leadership capacity-building; documentation of effects and best practices; and collaboration with those pursuing other public health priorities and reform analysis.

  18. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  19. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  20. Control use of data to protect privacy.

    PubMed

    Landau, Susan

    2015-01-30

    Massive data collection by businesses and governments calls into question traditional methods for protecting privacy, underpinned by two core principles: (i) notice, that there should be no data collection system whose existence is secret, and (ii) consent, that data collected for one purpose not be used for another without user permission. But notice, designated as a fundamental privacy principle in a different era, makes little sense in situations where collection consists of lots and lots of small amounts of information, whereas consent is no longer realistic, given the complexity and number of decisions that must be made. Thus, efforts to protect privacy by controlling use of data are gaining more attention. I discuss relevant technology, policy, and law, as well as some examples that can illuminate the way. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. 78 FR 12065 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for Pesticide Handlers: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  2. Protecting health, facilitating trade, or both?

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2000-01-01

    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has existed and dealt with trade issues since 1947. However, to take on the question of to what extent can we set fair and science-based rules allowing countries to have the sovereign right to set measures for protecting public, animal and plant health and food safety, while not creating unjustified barriers to trade was the challenge of the Uruguay Round negotiators. The outcome of this seven-year exercise was the SPS Agreement discussed here. A number of key issues are addressed: transparency including notification, special and differential treatment for developing countries, harmonization, equivalence, regionalization, risk analysis, and other matters. Early warning and exposure of these issues has encouraged countries to resolve their problems quickly. Some of the issues that should be taken into consideration during this next round are the following: biotechnology, aquaculture, consumer concerns, animal welfare, the environment, organic foods, morality in trade, compliance with the WTO, compensation, and the precautionary principle. Compliance with the decision of the WTO is an area of grave concern, especially if developed and powerful countries continue to threaten the survival of the WTO system through lengthy and costly legal interpretations and appeals of dispute settlements without serious efforts by all parties to find win-win solutions. In spite of these problems, over all we must recognize the significant gains in trade thanks to the SPS Agreement. The most flagrant trade violations have been eliminated as a result of improved transparency in the process. Consumers are in general better off, since they have greater diversity and increased safety in what they can buy.

  3. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  4. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  5. Protecting quantum information with optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Matthew

    Quantum computation (QC) holds the promise of efficiently solving problems which are practically intractable for classical computers. However, realizing this advantage requires the precise control of a quantum information processor (QIP) and effective protection of this processor from the pernicious inuence of decoherence induced by the surrounding environment. Therefore, the ability to generate high-fidelity logical operations in the presence of environmental coupling is crucial. Methods of optimal control are applied to the field of quantum information processing, providing practical solutions for the generation of logical operations and the suppression of undesired environmental effects. The work contained in this dissertation explores important aspects of system and control design. Results obtained in this work (i) illustrate how practical QC can be greatly facilitated by optimal control theory and (ii) reveal interesting physical insights through the discovery of effective control mechanisms. A special design of the physical structure of quantum information systems is formulated which is naturally immune to certain types of decoherence and yields tremendous flexibility in the construction of logical operations for QC. A fundamental component of this design involves encoding the logical basis states of a quantum bit into multiple physical levels of the corresponding quantum system. This design also makes the QIP better suited for the interaction with ultrafast broadband laser fields used in quantum control applications. Numerical simulations demonstrate the utility of this encoding approach for thermally excited quantum systems. Optimization algorithms are developed which generate controls that protect the QIP from the effects of the environment, with or without the weak-coupling or Born approximation, and simultaneously achieve a target objective, e.g., a state-to-state transition or unitary quantum operation. For the optimal control of quantum operations, a

  6. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Gouldson, Andy; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-10-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m-3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies.

  7. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  8. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    SciTech Connect

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

  9. Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Voluntary members are external researchers, academicians, health care providers, environmentalists, state or tribal government employees, and members of the public. They advise EPA on regulations, research, and communications related to children's health.

  10. Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Letters Table

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Voluntary members are external researchers, academicians, health care providers, environmentalists, state or tribal government employees, and members of the public. They advise EPA on regulations, research, and communications related to children's health.

  11. LEGAL BASES FOR DISCLOSING CONFIDENTIAL PATIENT INFORMATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH IMPROVEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    The disclosure of confidential patient data without an individual's explicit consent should be for purposes that persons have reason to both expect and accept. We do not currently have the required level of clarity or consistency in understanding regarding the disclosure of confidential patient information for public health purposes to support effective public dialogue. The Health Service (Control of Patient Information) Regulations 2002 establish a legal basis in England and Wales for data to be disclosed for public health purposes without patient consent. Under the Regulations, there is more than one potential route towards lawful processing: Data may be processed for public health purposes under both Regulations 3 and 5. The alternatives have different safeguards and conditions attached, and their respective applicability to processing for purposes of public health improvement is currently unclear and subject to review. Beyond the need for clarity regarding the safeguards applicable to processing for particular public health purposes, there are reasons to prefer recognition that Regulation 5 is the most appropriate legal basis for disclosure when the purpose is public health improvement rather than public health protection. Where health improvement, rather than protection, is the aim, there is no justification for discarding the additional safeguards associated with processing under Regulation 5. PMID:25995294

  12. Protect Childrens Health with EPA School App

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Aug. 24, 2015) Are you looking for ways to promote a healthier learning environment, reduce absenteeism, improve test scores or enhance student or staff productivity? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently launched a new m

  13. Skin Cancer Protective Behaviors among the Elderly: Explaining Their Response to a Health Education Program Using the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 kibbutzim, 43 adults over 60 completed a questionnaire on sun-exposure protective behaviors before and 2 weeks and 4 months after a skin cancer intervention. Beliefs about skin cancer did not change, but beliefs about the value of health and internal health locus of control changed significantly. (SK)

  14. Skin Cancer Protective Behaviors among the Elderly: Explaining Their Response to a Health Education Program Using the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 kibbutzim, 43 adults over 60 completed a questionnaire on sun-exposure protective behaviors before and 2 weeks and 4 months after a skin cancer intervention. Beliefs about skin cancer did not change, but beliefs about the value of health and internal health locus of control changed significantly. (SK)

  15. 45 CFR 164.526 - Amendment of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment of protected health information. 164.526 Section 164.526 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information §...

  16. 45 CFR 164.526 - Amendment of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amendment of protected health information. 164.526 Section 164.526 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information §...

  17. 45 CFR 164.526 - Amendment of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amendment of protected health information. 164.526 Section 164.526 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164...

  18. Highlights of the Forest Health Protection Whitebark Pine Restoration Program

    Treesearch

    John Schwandt

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, Forest Health Protection (FHP) initiated a rangewide health assessment for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). This assessment summarized the forest health condition of whitebark pine throughout its range and also documented information needs, potential restoration strategies, and challenges to restoration that need to be addressed (Schwandt 2006). This led to...

  19. Electronic Health Record in Italy and Personal Data Protection.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Silvio; Bellavista, Alessandro; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Zangara, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with the Italian Electronic Health Record (hereinafter EHR), recently introduced by Act 221/2012, with a specific focus on personal data protection. Privacy issues--e.g., informed consent, data processing, patients' rights and minors' will--are discussed within the framework of recent e-Health legislation, national Data Protection Code, the related Data Protection Authority pronouncements and EU law. The paper is aimed at discussing the problems arising from a complex, fragmentary and sometimes uncertain legal framework on e-Health.

  20. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  1. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  2. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  3. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  4. 49 CFR 192.461 - External corrosion control: Protective coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Protective coating... for Corrosion Control § 192.461 External corrosion control: Protective coating. (a) Each external protective coating, whether conductive or insulating, applied for the purpose of external corrosion...

  5. Promoting and protecting the health of children and young people.

    PubMed

    Licence, K

    2004-11-01

    The health-related behaviours adopted by children and young people can have both immediate and long-term health effects. Health promotion interventions that target children and young people can lay the foundations of a healthy lifestyle that may be sustained into adulthood. This paper is based on a selective review of evidence relating to health promotion in childhood, carried out to support the external working group on the 'Healthy Child' module of the Children's National Service Framework. This is a selective review of mainly secondary research. It focuses on injury prevention, support for parenting and the promotion of good mental health, and promoting a healthy diet and physical activity amongst children and young people. In many areas, the quality of primary research into health promotion interventions aimed at children and young people is poor. Interventions are heterogeneous and not described in sufficient detail. Sample sizes tend to be small, and there are commonly problems of bias. Despite these difficulties, there is good evidence for a range of interventions, including (1) area road safety schemes; (2) combining a variety of approaches to the promotion of the use of safety equipment, including legislation and enforcement, loan/assisted purchase/giveaway schemes, education, fitting and maintenance of safety equipment; (3) school-based mental health promotion; (4) parenting support; (5) interventions that promote and facilitate 'lifestyle' activity for children, such as walking and cycling to school, and those that aim to reduce sedentary behaviours such as parent education to reduce the time children spend watching TV and using computers; and (6) controlling advertising of unhealthy food that is aimed at children. There are effective interventions to promote and protect the health of children and young people that require action across the five areas described in the Ottawa Charter. Health, social care and education services have a direct role in the

  6. Mental health disabilities and human rights protections.

    PubMed

    Szmukler, G; Bach, M

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, reports regularly expose persistent and systemic human rights violations of patients in mental health services and facilities, and of those who are unable to access needed supports. A number of factors contribute - political will; the range and quality of services available; public and professional attitudes to mental health; stigma; health professionals' training and expertise; and available resources. This paper examines one of the main determinants, the legal framework. This sets the parameters for mental health policies and services and for applicable human rights norms and standards that can be realized in practice. We provide an overview of international human rights instruments in relation to mental health disabilities, and of the major human rights violations in this area. Key implications for mental health law reform are drawn with a particular focus on discrimination and coercive interventions. The major challenges posed by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) are examined. Current mental health laws, to greater or lesser degrees, fail to meet the newly required standards. We discuss reforms based on 'generic law' and 'legal capacity' principles that seek to meet those standards. We outline some emergent and promising examples of reform. The role of civil society and the importance of the standing of those with mental health disabilities in this process is noted.

  7. Protecting the Privacy and Security of Your Health Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... care providers and professionals, and the government. Federal laws require many of the key persons and organizations ... and Breach Notification Rules are the main Federal laws that protect your health information. The Privacy Rule ...

  8. 2004 Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Meeting Agendas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objectives for the three meetings in 2004 include discussing schools-related work, mercury regulation, the Food Quality Protection Act, Children's Health Indicators, early life exposure to carcinogens, and smart growth.

  9. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY: NEW APPROACHES TO IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to safeguard public health and the environment from harmful effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY: NEW APPROACHES TO IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to safeguard public health and the environment from harmful effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food.

  11. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  12. Exercise strategies to protect against the impact of short-term reduced physical activity on muscle function and markers of health in older men: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Oliver J; Travers, Rebecca L; Gonzalez, Javier T; Turner, James E; Gillison, Fiona; Wilson, Cassie; McGuigan, Polly M; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A

    2016-08-02

    Muscles get smaller and weaker as we age and become more vulnerable to atrophy when physical activity is reduced or removed. This research is designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of two separate exercise strategies against loss in skeletal muscle function and size, and other key indices of health, following 14 days of reduced physical activity in older men. Three groups of 10 older men (aged 65-80 years) will undertake 2 weeks of reduced activity by decreasing daily steps from more than 3500 to less than 1500 (using pedometers to record step count). Two of the three groups will then undertake additional exercise interventions, either: 4 weeks of progressive resistance training prior to the step-reduction intervention (PT-group), or home-based 'exercise snacking' three times per day during the step-reduction intervention (ES-group). The third group undertaking only the step-reduction intervention (control) will provide a comparison against which to assess the effectiveness of the protective exercise strategies. Pre and post step-reduction assessments of muscle function, standing balance, anthropometry and muscle architecture will be taken. Pre and post step-reduction in postprandial metabolic control, resting systemic inflammation, adipose inflammation, oxidative stress, immune function, sleep quality, dietary habits, and quality of life will be measured. The stress response to exercise, and signalling protein and gene expression for muscle protein synthesis and breakdown following an acute bout of exercise will also be assessed pre and post step-reduction. Rates of muscle protein synthesis and adipose triglyceride turnover during the step-reduction intervention will be measured using stable isotope methodology. All participants will then undertake 2 weeks of supervised resistance training with the aim of regaining any deficit from baseline in muscle function and size. This study aims to identify exercise strategies that could be

  13. Protect Your Health as You Grow Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 of 7 sections Take Action: Driving and Memory Watch for changes that may affect your driving. ... managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services healthfinder.gov is sponsored by the National ...

  14. Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Markey, Edward J. [D-MA

    2014-09-18

    Senate - 09/18/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. 2008 Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Letters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These letters to and from Administrator Johnson address chemicals assessment and management, Voluntary Children's Chemical Evaluation Program, regulating greenhouse gases, perchlorate, lead NAAQS, and Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units.

  16. HPV disease transmission protection and control

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) represent a large collection of viral types associated with significant clinical disease of cutaneous and mucosal epithelium. HPV-associated cancers are found in anogenital and oral mucosa, and at various cutaneous sites. Papillomaviruses are highly species and tissue restricted, and these viruses display both mucosotropic, cutaneotropic or dual tropism for epithelial tissues. A subset of HPV types, predominantly mucosal, are also oncogenic and cancers with these HPV types account for more than 200,000 deaths world-wide. Host control of HPV infections requires both innate and adaptive immunity, but the viruses have developed strategies to escape immune detection. Viral proteins can disrupt both innate pathogen-sensing pathways and T-cell based recognition and subsequent destruction of infected tissues. Current treatments to manage HPV infections include mostly ablative strategies in which recurrences are common and only active disease is treated. Although much is known about the papillomavirus life cycle, viral protein functions, and immune responsiveness, we still lack knowledge in a number of key areas of PV biology including tissue tropism, site-specific cancer progression, codon usage profiles, and what are the best strategies to mount an effective immune response to the carcinogenic stages of PV disease. In this review, disease transmission, protection and control are discussed together with questions related to areas in PV biology that will continue to provide productive opportunities of discovery and to further our understanding of this diverse set of human viral pathogens. PMID:28357382

  17. A privacy protection for an mHealth messaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Akopian, David; Chronopoulos, Anthony T.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new software system that employs features that help the organization to comply with USA HIPAA regulations. The system uses SMS as the primary way of communication to transfer information. Lack of knowledge about some diseases is still a major reason for some harmful diseases spreading. The developed system includes different features that may help to communicate amongst low income people who don't even have access to the internet. Since the software system deals with Personal Health Information (PHI) it is equipped with an access control authentication system mechanism to protect privacy. The system is analyzed for performance to identify how much overhead the privacy rules impose.

  18. Industrial hygiene programs for workers' health protection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cecchetti, G; Peruzzo, G F; Sordelli, D

    1988-06-01

    The recent Health and Safety Act devolves the management of workers' health protection to new local authorities named "Local Sanitary Units." The specific program is framed in the existing state regulations and is in agreement with European community politics regarding health risks arising from the industrial use of particular substances like lead, asbestos, benzene, PCBs and others. The rapid industrial growth during recent years put into evidence completely new and numerous risks with the result of both qualitative and quantitative modifications of occupational diseases which existed in the years preceding the second world war. This rapid and remarkable change required a general adjustment in the country, which involved universities, government and industry. At the same time, the need of new relationships between occupational risks and insurance management rose. Beginning in the seventies, the Italian Industrial Hygiene Association [Associazione Italiana Degli Igienisti Industriali (A.I.D.I.I.)] promoted the progress of industrial hygiene in Italy through national and international conferences, continuous educational activities and participation with government standard-setting committees. The trend in A.I.D.I.I. future activities embraces the development of standard evaluation and control procedures and the improvement of research following European guidelines in strict cooperation with correlated European and American organizations.

  19. Can Social Protection Improve Sustainable Development Goals for Adolescent Health?

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie D; Orkin, F Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark E; Yakubovich, Alexa R; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of 'cash' (economic provision) and 'care' (psychosocial support) social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models. Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger); SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse); SDG 4 (educational access); SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health); and SDG 16 (violence perpetration). For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys' hunger and girls' school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys' sexual exploitation and girls' mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens. National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and sustainable development.

  20. Can Social Protection Improve Sustainable Development Goals for Adolescent Health?

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, F. Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark E.; Yakubovich, Alexa R.; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Background The first policy action outlined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is the implementation of national social protection systems. This study assesses whether social protection provision can impact 17 indicators of five key health-related SDG goals amongst adolescents in South Africa. Methods We conducted a longitudinal survey of adolescents (10–18 years) between 2009 and 2012. Census areas were randomly selected in two urban and two rural health districts in two South African provinces, including all homes with a resident adolescent. Household receipt of social protection in the form of ‘cash’ (economic provision) and ‘care’ (psychosocial support) social protection, and health-related indicators within five SDG goals were assessed. Gender-disaggregated analyses included multivariate logistic regression, testing for interactions between social protection and socio-demographic covariates, and marginal effects models. Findings Social protection was associated with significant adolescent risk reductions in 12 of 17 gender-disaggregated SDG indicators, spanning SDG 2 (hunger); SDG 3 (AIDS, tuberculosis, mental health and substance abuse); SDG 4 (educational access); SDG 5 (sexual exploitation, sexual and reproductive health); and SDG 16 (violence perpetration). For six of 17 indicators, combined cash plus care showed enhanced risk reduction effects. Two interactions showed that effects of care varied by poverty level for boys’ hunger and girls’ school dropout. For tuberculosis, and for boys’ sexual exploitation and girls’ mental health and violence perpetration, no effects were found and more targeted or creative means will be needed to reach adolescents on these challenging burdens. Interpretation National social protection systems are not a panacea, but findings suggest that they have multiple and synergistic positive associations with adolescent health outcomes. Such systems may help us rise to the challenges of health and

  1. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  2. Balancing Good Intentions: Protecting the Privacy of Electronic Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Electronic information is a vital but complex component in the modern health care system, fueling ongoing efforts to develop a universal electronic health record infrastructure. This innovation creates a substantial tension between two desirable values: the increased quality and utility of patient medical records and the protection of the privacy…

  3. Balancing Good Intentions: Protecting the Privacy of Electronic Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClanahan, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Electronic information is a vital but complex component in the modern health care system, fueling ongoing efforts to develop a universal electronic health record infrastructure. This innovation creates a substantial tension between two desirable values: the increased quality and utility of patient medical records and the protection of the privacy…

  4. Health Protection Features of Student Youth in Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonova, Tatyana V.; Kozhanov, Vladimir V.; Kolodovsky, Alexander A.; Shivrinskaya, Svetlana E.; Kudyashev, Nail K.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the adverse dynamics of students' physical and mental health, which creates objective obstacles to the development of research universities. The article aims to find out particular health protection features of student youth in research universities. The leading approach of the study is the systematic…

  5. Self-Protection: A New Approach to 4-H Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sharon K. B.

    This document introduces the issue of self-protection as the Minnesota 4-H Youth Development response to self-destructive behavior among adolescents. It presents findings from a statewide survey of over 36,000 secondary school students using the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Responses are given in the areas of health, school attitudes,…

  6. Protecting Health from Climate Change in the WHO European Region

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Tanja; Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Williams, Eloise; Menne, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    “How far are we in the WHO European Region in implementing action to counter the health impacts of climate change?” This was the question posed to representatives of Member States in the WHO European Region of in the WHO working group on health in climate change (HIC). Twenty-two Member States provided answers to a comprehensive 2012 questionnaire that focused on eight thematic areas (governance; vulnerability, impact and adaptation (health) assessments (VIA); adaptation strategies and action plans; climate change mitigation; strengthening health systems; raising awareness and building capacity; greening health services; and sharing best practices). Strong development has been in climate change vulnerability and impact assessments, as well as strengthening health systems and awareness raising. Areas where implementation would benefit from further action are the development of national health adaptation plans, greening health systems, sharing best practices and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in other sectors. At the Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Parma, Itatly in 2010, the European Commitment to Act on climate change and health and the European Regional Framework for Action to protect health from climate change were endorsed by the fifty-three European Member States. The results of this questionnaire present the most comprehensive assessment so far of progress made by European Member States to protect public health from climate change since the Parma Conference agreements. PMID:24937528

  7. Protecting health from climate change in the WHO European Region.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tanja; Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Williams, Eloise; Menne, Bettina

    2014-06-16

    "How far are we in implementing climate change and health action in the WHO European Region?" This was the question addressed to representatives of WHO European Member States of the working group on health in climate change (HIC). Twenty-two Member States provided answers to a comprehensive questionnaire that focused around eight thematic areas (Governance; Vulnerability, impact and adaptation (health) assessments; Adaptation strategies and action plans; Climate change mitigation; Strengthening health systems; Raising awareness and building capacity; Greening health services; and Sharing best practices). Strong areas of development are climate change vulnerability and impact assessments, as well as strengthening health systems and awareness raising. Areas where implementation would benefit from further action are the development of National Health Adaptation Plans, greening health systems, sharing best practice and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in other sectors. At the Parma Conference in 2010, the European Ministerial Commitment to Act on climate change and health and the European Regional Framework for Action to protect health from climate change were endorsed by fifty three European Member States. The results of this questionnaire are the most comprehensive assessment so far of the progress made by WHO European Member States to protecting public health from climate change since the agreements in Parma and the World Health Assembly Resolution in 2008.

  8. Has radiation protection become a health hazard?

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, T.

    1996-12-31

    Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly.

  9. Providing health care to improve community perceptions of protected areas.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; van Bavel, Bianca; Boodman, Carl; Ghai, Ria R; Gogarten, Jan F; Hartter, Joel; Mechak, Lauren E; Omeja, Patrick A; Poonawala, Sofia; Tuli, Dan; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-10-01

    Impoverished communities often turn to illegal extraction of resources from protected areas to alleviate economic pressures or to make monetary gains. Such practices can cause ecological damage and threaten animal populations. These communities also often face a high disease burden and typically do not have access to affordable health care. Here we argue that these two seemingly separate challenges may have a common solution. In particular, providing health care to communities adjacent to protected areas may be an efficient and effective way to reduce the disease burden while also improving local perceptions about protected areas, potentially reducing illegal extraction. We present a case study of a health centre on the edge of Kibale National Park, Uganda. The centre has provided care to c. 7,200 people since 2008 and its outreach programme extends to c. 4,500 schoolchildren each year. Contrasting the provision of health care to other means of improving community perceptions of protected areas suggests that health clinics have potential as a conservation tool in some situations and should be considered in future efforts to manage protected areas.

  10. Providing health care to improve community perceptions of protected areas

    PubMed Central

    van Bavel, Bianca; Boodman, Carl; Ghai, Ria R.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Hartter, Joel; Mechak, Lauren E.; Omeja, Patrick A.; Poonawala, Sofia; Tuli, Dan; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Impoverished communities often turn to illegal extraction of resources from protected areas to alleviate economic pressures or to make monetary gains. Such practices can cause ecological damage and threaten animal populations. These communities also often face a high disease burden and typically do not have access to affordable health care. Here we argue that these two seemingly separate challenges may have a common solution. In particular, providing health care to communities adjacent to protected areas may be an efficient and effective way to reduce the disease burden while also improving local perceptions about protected areas, potentially reducing illegal extraction. We present a case study of a health centre on the edge of Kibale National Park, Uganda. The centre has provided care to c. 7,200 people since 2008 and its outreach programme extends to c. 4,500 schoolchildren each year. Contrasting the provision of health care to other means of improving community perceptions of protected areas suggests that health clinics have potential as a conservation tool in some situations and should be considered in future efforts to manage protected areas. PMID:26456977

  11. 49 CFR 192.463 - External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. 192.463 Section 192.463 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... for Corrosion Control § 192.463 External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. (a) Each...

  12. 49 CFR 192.463 - External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. 192.463 Section 192.463 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... for Corrosion Control § 192.463 External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. (a) Each...

  13. 49 CFR 192.463 - External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. 192.463 Section 192.463 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... for Corrosion Control § 192.463 External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. (a) Each cathodic...

  14. 49 CFR 192.463 - External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. 192.463 Section 192.463 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... for Corrosion Control § 192.463 External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. (a) Each cathodic...

  15. 49 CFR 192.463 - External corrosion control: Cathodic protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. 192.463 Section 192.463 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... for Corrosion Control § 192.463 External corrosion control: Cathodic protection. (a) Each cathodic...

  16. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Elvis

    2016-01-01

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world’s poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented. PMID:26927589

  17. Health Insecurity and Social Protection: Pathways, Gaps, and Their Implications on Health Outcomes and Poverty.

    PubMed

    Gama, Elvis

    2015-11-27

    Health insecurity has emerged as a major concern among health policy-makers particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It includes the inability to secure adequate healthcare today and the risk of being unable to do so in the future as well as impoverishing healthcare expenditure. The increasing health insecurity among 150 million of the world's poor has moved social protection in health (SPH) to the top of the agenda among health policy-makers globally. This paper aims to provide a debate on the potential of social protection contribution to addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability brought by healthcare expenditure in low-income countries, to explore the gaps in current and proposed social protection measures in healthcare and provide suggestions on how social protection intervention aimed at addressing health insecurity, poverty, and vulnerability may be effectively implemented.

  18. Two Decades of Enhancing Children’s Environmental Health Protection at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    PubMed Central

    Firestone, Michael; Berger, Martha; Foos, Brenda; Etzel, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Summary: This article provides an overview of public health efforts by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the past two decades to protect children’s health from environmental hazards. It highlights examples of concrete steps and accomplishments toward improving environmental protection and health outcomes achieved through public policy, rules and regulations, increased scientific understanding, and public health messaging. Additionally, examples of future challenges for better understanding and improving children’s environmental health are discussed. PMID:27905272

  19. Skip policy: road to Force Health Protection 2010.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Pat; Nolan, David L

    2003-09-01

    The 2010 Force Health Protection Capstone concept envisions a single level of theater hospitalization and a greater reliance on the strategic movement of casualties from the theater. A significant Force Health Protection implication is 100% of the combat zone patients leaving theater will not have a second stay at an echelon/level IV hospital. In 2000, the Army began moving toward the Force Health Protection concept by using a skip policy for determining 2007 medical force structure requirements. Implementing the skip policy avoids (eliminates) the second echelon/level IV hospital length of stay for a percentage of combat zone patients leaving theater. The Army's decision to implement a skip policy exposed the complexities associated with determining deployable medical force structure requirements and the inherent inter-relatedness of the services medical mission.

  20. Low dose radiation adaptive protection to control neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2014-05-01

    Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR's carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Access to health care and social protection.

    PubMed

    Martin, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    In France, the access to healthcare has been conceived as a social right and is mainly managed through the coverage of the population by the National Health Insurance, which is a part of the whole French social security scheme. This system was based on the so-called Bismarckian model, which implies that it requires full employment and solid family links, as the insured persons are the workers and their dependents. This paper examines the typical problems that this system has to face as far as the right to healthcare is concerned. First, it addresses the need to introduce some universal coverage programs, in order to integrate the excluded population. Then, it addresses the issue of financial sustainability as the structural weakness of the French system--in which healthcare is still mainly provided by private practice physicians and governed by the principle of freedom--leads to conceive and implement complex forms of regulations between the State, the Social security institutions and the healthcare providers.

  2. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the First Amendment: why a substantial interest in protecting public health won't save some new restrictions on tobacco advertising.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 with the aim of reducing tobacco-related illnesses and deaths by curbing tobacco's appeal to and use by children and adolescents. Legislators considered provisions of the FSPTCA restricting tobacco advertising and labeling key to realizing the law's intended health benefits. But a lawsuit now before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit challenges the tobacco marketing restrictions as impermissible restraints on tobacco companies' commercial speech rights under the First Amendment. This article analyzes the constitutionality of each FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restriction in light of U.S. Supreme Court decisions defining the extent of First Amendment protection for commercial speech, prior efforts to restrict tobacco marketing, and the outcomes of legal challenges to some of the prior marketing restrictions. Several of the FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restrictions were drafted with insufficient accommodations for tobacco companies' First Amendment right to convey and consumers' First Amendment right to receive truthful information about lawful tobacco products and are therefore unconstitutional as currently written.

  3. 45 CFR 164.520 - Notice of privacy practices for protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... receive protected health information other than summary health information as defined in § 164.504(a) or... Health Information § 164.520 Notice of privacy practices for protected health information. (a) Standard... legal duties with respect to protected health information. (2) Exception for group health plans. (i) An...

  4. [Infectious disease emergencies. Responsibility of municipal, state and federal health protection authorities with reference to the international health regulations].

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, René; Dreesman, J; Leitmeyer, K; Krause, G

    2009-02-01

    Pandemic preparedness has become a catch phrase for politicians, government agencies and communities, both nationally and internationally. This is due to the increasing number of infectious diseases emergencies that are important challenges for health protection authorities, which was shown impressively when SARS emerged as the first pandemic in this millennium. In Germany, effective and efficient infection control is complex, with local health protection authorities having their own responsibilities. In the case of an emergency epidemic, regional health departments are responsible. Having authority over these are authorities on the federal state level as well as on the federal level. For the European Community, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established. The mission of this agency is to identify, assess and communicate current and emerging threats to human health posed by infectious diseases.

  5. Can functional emotion regulation protect children's mental health from war trauma? A Palestinian study.

    PubMed

    Diab, Marwan; Peltonen, Kirsi; Qouta, Samir R; Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-04-19

    Effective emotion regulation (ER) is expected to protect mental health in traumatic stress. We first analysed the protective (moderator) function of different ER strategies and the associations between ER and mental health. Second, we tested gender differences in the protective function of ER and the associations between ER strategies and mental health. Participants were 482 Palestinian children (girls 49.4%; 10-13 years, M = 11.29, SD = .68) whose ER was assessed by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and mental health by post-traumatic stress (Children's Impact Event Scale), depressive, and psychological distress (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) symptoms, and by psychosocial well-being (Mental Health Continuum-Short Form). War trauma involved 42 events. Results showed, first, that none of the ER strategies could protect a child's mental health from negative impact of war trauma, but self-focused ER was associated with low depressive symptoms, and other-facilitated ER with high psychological well-being. However, controlling of emotions formed a comprehensive risk for children's mental health. Second, gender differences were found in the protective role of ER, as self-focused and distractive ER formed a vulnerability among boys. The results are discussed in the context of emotional and regulative demands of war and life-threat. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Economic Shocks and Public Health Protections in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined public health system responses to economic shocks using longitudinal observations of public health activities implemented in US metropolitan areas from 1998 to 2012. Methods. The National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems collected data on the implementation of 20 core public health activities in a nationally representative cohort of 280 metropolitan areas in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate how local economic shocks relate to the scope of activities implemented in communities, the mix of organizations performing them, and perceptions of the effectiveness of activities. Results. Public health activities fell by nearly 5% in the average community between 2006 and 2012, with the bottom quintile of communities losing nearly 25% of their activities. Local public health delivery fell most sharply among communities experiencing the largest increases in unemployment and the largest reductions in governmental public health spending. Conclusions. Federal resources and private sector contributions failed to avert reductions in local public health protections during the recession. New financing mechanisms may be necessary to ensure equitable public health protections during economic downturns. PMID:25689201

  7. Apollo experience report: Protection of life and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The development, implementation, and effectiveness of the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program and the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program are discussed as part of the broad program required for the protection of the life and health of U.S. astronauts. Because the goal of the Apollo Program has been the safe transport of men to the moon and back to earth, protection of the astronauts and of the biosphere from potentially harmful lunar contaminants has been required. Also, to ensure mission success, the continuing good health of the astronauts before and during a mission has been necessary. Potential applications of specific aspects of the health and quarantine programs to possible manned missions to other planets are discussed.

  8. Travel health: sun protection and skin cancer prevention for travellers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cate

    The UK population likes to travel to sunny parts of the world, where the risk of sunburn is greater than it is at home. Sunburn and the cultural desire for a tan is one of the risk factors for the increase in skin cancer. The rise in foreign travel has resulted in an increased demand for pre-travel health services, with nurses in primary care acting as the main providers.Within these consultations, the traveller and their travel plans are risk assessed.Travel health consultations give an ideal opportunity to discuss and advise the public regarding sun burn and skin cancer protection. However, there are also other ways to impart safety in the sun message to travellers. Skin protection is a health promoting activity provided as a part of public health provision and all nurses can play a role in prevention.

  9. Privacy in the digital world: medical and health data outside of HIPAA protections.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Tasha; Monteith, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Increasing quantities of medical and health data are being created outside of HIPAA protection, primarily by patients. Data sources are varied, including the use of credit cards for physician visit and medication co-pays, Internet searches, email content, social media, support groups, and mobile health apps. Most medical and health data not covered by HIPAA are controlled by third party data brokers and Internet companies. These companies combine this data with a wide range of personal information about consumer daily activities, transactions, movements, and demographics. The combined data are used for predictive profiling of individual health status, and often sold for advertising and other purposes. The rapid expansion of medical and health data outside of HIPAA protection is encroaching on privacy and the doctor-patient relationship, and is of particular concern for psychiatry. Detailed discussion of the appropriate handling of this medical and health data is needed by individuals with a wide variety of expertise.

  10. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    PubMed

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Fitbit Fault Line: Two Proposals to Protect Health and Fitness Data at Work.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Employers are collecting and using their employees' health data, mined from wearable fitness devices and health apps, in new, profitable, and barely regulated ways. The importance of protecting employee health and fitness data will grow exponentially in the future. This is the moment for a robust discussion of how law can better protect employees from the potential misuse of their health data. While scholars have just begun to examine the problem of health data privacy, this Article contributes to the academic literature in three important ways. First, it analyzes the convergence of three trends resulting in an unprecedented growth of health-related data: the Internet of Things, the Quantified Self movement, and the Rise of Health Platforms. Second, it describes the insufficiencies of specific data privacy laws and federal agency actions in the context of protecting employee health data from employer misuse. Finally, it provides two detailed and workable solutions for remedying the current lack of protection of employee health data that will realign employer use with reasonable expectations of health and fitness privacy. The Article proceeds in four Parts. Part I describes the growth of self-monitoring apps, devices, and other sensor-enabled technology that can monitor a wide range of data related to an employee's health and fitness and the relationship of this growth to both the Quantified Self movement and the Internet of Things. Part II explains the increasing use of employee monitoring through a wide range of sensors, including wearable devices, and the potential uses of that health and fitness data. Part III explores the various regulations and agency actions that might protect employees from the potential misuse of their health and fitness data and the shortcomings of each. Part IV proposes two specific measures that would help ameliorate the ineffective legal protections that currently exist in this context. In order to improve employee notice of and control

  12. 20170422 - Programming microphysiological systems for children's health protection (SEBM meeting)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation: Programming microphysiological systems for children’s health protectionAuthors: Knudsen1 T, Klieforth2 B, and Slikker3 W Jr.1National Center for Computational Toxicology/EPA, Research Triangle Park NC2National Center for Environmental Research/EPA, Washing...

  13. Respirators, recommendations, and regulations: the controversy surrounding protection of health care workers from tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, W R; Bolyard, E A; Bozzi, C J; Burwen, D R; Dooley, S W; Martin, L S; Mullan, R J; Simone, P M

    1995-01-15

    Recent nosocomial outbreaks of tuberculosis have increased concern about the occupational acquisition of tuberculosis by health care workers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor, have issued recommendations and regulations in an effort to decrease health care workers' risk for exposure to patients with infectious tuberculosis. Within the CDC, the National Center for Infectious Diseases, the National Center for Prevention Services, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collaborated to produce the 1994 Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Tuberculosis in Health-Care Facilities. As stated in the Draft Guidelines, the major components of health care worker protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection include administration or source controls, engineering controls, and respiratory protective devices. We review the evolution of the seemingly conflicting recommendations for respiratory protective devices made by these Centers of the CDC and explain how the recommendations in the current CDC Guidelines were reached.

  14. Indian community health insurance schemes provide partial protection against catastrophic health expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Ranson, Kent; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Background More than 72% of health expenditure in India is financed by individual households at the time of illness through out-of-pocket payments. This is a highly regressive way of financing health care and sometimes leads to impoverishment. Health insurance is recommended as a measure to protect households from such catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). We studied two Indian community health insurance (CHI) schemes, ACCORD and SEWA, to determine whether insured households are protected from CHE. Methods ACCORD provides health insurance cover for the indigenous population, living in Gudalur, Tamil Nadu. SEWA provides insurance cover for self employed women in the state of Gujarat. Both cover hospitalisation expenses, but only upto a maximum limit of US$23 and US$45, respectively. We reviewed the insurance claims registers in both schemes and identified patients who were hospitalised during the period 01/04/2003 to 31/03/2004. Details of their diagnoses, places and costs of treatment and self-reported annual incomes were obtained. There is no single definition of CHE and none of these have been validated. For this research, we used the following definition; "annual hospital expenditure greater than 10% of annual income," to identify those who experienced CHE. Results There were a total of 683 and 3152 hospital admissions at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. In the absence of the CHI scheme, all of the patients at ACCORD and SEWA would have had to pay OOP for their hospitalisation. With the CHI scheme, 67% and 34% of patients did not have to make any out-of-pocket (OOP) payment for their hospital expenses at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. Both CHI schemes halved the number of households that would have experienced CHE by covering hospital costs. However, despite this, 4% and 23% of households with admissions still experienced CHE at ACCORD and SEWA, respectively. This was related to the following conditions: low annual income, benefit packages with low maximum limits

  15. Individual privacy versus public good: protecting confidentiality in health research.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Christine M; Rubin, Donald B

    2015-10-15

    Health and medical data are increasingly being generated, collected, and stored in electronic form in healthcare facilities and administrative agencies. Such data hold a wealth of information vital to effective health policy development and evaluation, as well as to enhanced clinical care through evidence-based practice and safety and quality monitoring. These initiatives are aimed at improving individuals' health and well-being. Nevertheless, analyses of health data archives must be conducted in such a way that individuals' privacy is not compromised. One important aspect of protecting individuals' privacy is protecting the confidentiality of their data. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a review of a number of approaches to reducing disclosure risk when making data available for research, and to present a taxonomy for such approaches. Some of these methods are widely used, whereas others are still in development. It is important to have a range of methods available because there is also a range of data-use scenarios, and it is important to be able to choose between methods suited to differing scenarios. In practice, it is necessary to find a balance between allowing the use of health and medical data for research and protecting confidentiality. This balance is often presented as a trade-off between disclosure risk and data utility, because methods that reduce disclosure risk, in general, also reduce data utility. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: inflammation and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Bertini, M; Conti, C M; Fulcheri, M

    2013-01-01

    A common clinical observation is the adverse relationship between stress and human diseases. The attention of scientific research on health has been disproportionately focused on risk factors that predict the onset of certain health outcomes, in particular there has been an increasing interest in the role of inflammation as a common mechanism of disease in a number of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the importance of such research being undisputed, it is necessary to emphasize what the protective factors are that promote psychosocial recovery processes and increased survival rates in a biopsychosocial perspective. This article aims to understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and immune system in the interests of health psychology, highlighting the protective factors that promote recovery, resiliency and resistance to disease.

  17. Large-scale Health Information Database and Privacy Protection*1

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Japan was once progressive in the digitalization of healthcare fields but unfortunately has fallen behind in terms of the secondary use of data for public interest. There has recently been a trend to establish large-scale health databases in the nation, and a conflict between data use for public interest and privacy protection has surfaced as this trend has progressed. Databases for health insurance claims or for specific health checkups and guidance services were created according to the law that aims to ensure healthcare for the elderly; however, there is no mention in the act about using these databases for public interest in general. Thus, an initiative for such use must proceed carefully and attentively. The PMDA*2 projects that collect a large amount of medical record information from large hospitals and the health database development project that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) is working on will soon begin to operate according to a general consensus; however, the validity of this consensus can be questioned if issues of anonymity arise. The likelihood that researchers conducting a study for public interest would intentionally invade the privacy of their subjects is slim. However, patients could develop a sense of distrust about their data being used since legal requirements are ambiguous. Nevertheless, without using patients’ medical records for public interest, progress in medicine will grind to a halt. Proper legislation that is clear for both researchers and patients will therefore be highly desirable. A revision of the Act on the Protection of Personal Information is currently in progress. In reality, however, privacy is not something that laws alone can protect; it will also require guidelines and self-discipline. We now live in an information capitalization age. I will introduce the trends in legal reform regarding healthcare information and discuss some basics to help people properly face the issue of health big data and privacy

  18. Large-scale Health Information Database and Privacy Protection.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryuichi

    2016-09-01

    Japan was once progressive in the digitalization of healthcare fields but unfortunately has fallen behind in terms of the secondary use of data for public interest. There has recently been a trend to establish large-scale health databases in the nation, and a conflict between data use for public interest and privacy protection has surfaced as this trend has progressed. Databases for health insurance claims or for specific health checkups and guidance services were created according to the law that aims to ensure healthcare for the elderly; however, there is no mention in the act about using these databases for public interest in general. Thus, an initiative for such use must proceed carefully and attentively. The PMDA projects that collect a large amount of medical record information from large hospitals and the health database development project that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) is working on will soon begin to operate according to a general consensus; however, the validity of this consensus can be questioned if issues of anonymity arise. The likelihood that researchers conducting a study for public interest would intentionally invade the privacy of their subjects is slim. However, patients could develop a sense of distrust about their data being used since legal requirements are ambiguous. Nevertheless, without using patients' medical records for public interest, progress in medicine will grind to a halt. Proper legislation that is clear for both researchers and patients will therefore be highly desirable. A revision of the Act on the Protection of Personal Information is currently in progress. In reality, however, privacy is not something that laws alone can protect; it will also require guidelines and self-discipline. We now live in an information capitalization age. I will introduce the trends in legal reform regarding healthcare information and discuss some basics to help people properly face the issue of health big data and privacy

  19. Ethical considerations in internet use of electronic protected health information.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2012-03-01

    Caregivers, patients, and their family members are increasingly reliant on social network websites for storing, communicating, and referencing medical information. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule seeks balance by protecting the privacy of patients' health information and assuring that this information is available to those who need it to provide health care. Though federal and state governments have created laws and policies to safeguard patient privacy and confidentiality, the laws are inadequate against the rapid and innovative use of electronic health websites. As Internet use broadens access to information, health professionals must be aware that this information is not always secure. We must identify and reflect on medical ethics issues and be accountable for maintaining privacy for the patient.

  20. Cancer registration, public health and the reform of the European data protection framework: Abandoning or improving European public health research?

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mette Rye; Storm, Hans H

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cancer- and other disease registries for planning, management and evaluation of healthcare systems has been shown repeatedly during the last 50 years. Complete and unbiased population-level analyses on routinely collected, individual data concerning health and personal characteristics can address significant concerns about risk factors for cancer and provide sound evidence about public health and the effectiveness of healthcare systems. The existence of quality controlled and comprehensive data in registries, allowed to be used for quality control, research and public health purposes are taken as granted by most health professionals and researchers. However, the current revision of the European Union (EU) data protection framework suggests a harmonisation of requirements for confidentiality and individual consent to data processing, likely at the expense of proper use of registry data in the health sector. Consequences of excessive confidentiality rules that may lead to missed data linkages have been simulated. The simulations provide one possible explanation for observed heterogeneity among some cancer incidence data. Further, public health, quality control and epidemiological research on large populations can no longer provide evidence for health interventions, if requirements for consent renders research impossible or where attempts to obtain consent from each data subject generates biased results. Health professionals should engage in the on-going debate on the Commission's proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation. The nature and use of registry data in public health research must be explained and known to policy-makers and the public. Use of cancer registry data and other epidemiological activity will terminate abruptly if an unnecessarily strict EU data protection regulation is adopted. Research based interventions, as well as the international recognised standing of cancer registries and register-based research institutions in

  1. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality.

  2. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality. PMID:23620829

  3. [The contribution of health professionals in the integration of health and environmental protection].

    PubMed

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article first illustrates the EU and national regulatory frameworks related to policies and integrated actions for health and environmental protection, with particular reference to evaluation of the impact of the environment on health, then provides definitions of "evaluation of health impact" and of "environmental epidemiology" and provides synthetic proposals on procedures and operational levels (national, regional and local). Finally, the responsibilities of regional and local government bodies in supporting ARPA, Departments of Prevention of local health departments and physicians.

  4. Assessment of Thermal Control and Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    This final report is concerned with the tasks performed during the contract period which included spacecraft coating development, testing, and applications. Five marker coatings consisting of a bright yellow handrail coating, protective overcoat for ceramic coatings, and specialized primers for composites (or polymer) surfaces were developed and commercialized by AZ Technology during this program. Most of the coatings have passed space environmental stability requirements via ground tests and/or flight verification. Marker coatings and protective overcoats were successfully flown on the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) and the Optical Properties Monitor (OPM) experiments flown on the Russian space station MIR. To date, most of the coatings developed and/or modified during this program have been utilized on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. For ISS, AZ Technology manufactured the 'UNITY' emblem now being flown on the NASA UNITY node (Node 1) that is docked to the Russian Zarya (FGB) utilizing the colored marker coatings (white, blue, red) developed by AZ Technology. The UNITY emblem included the US American flag, the Unity logo, and NASA logo on a white background, applied to a Beta cloth substrate.

  5. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  6. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  7. Sex, germs, and health: pathogen-avoidance motives and health-protective behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gruijters, Stefan L K; Tybur, Joshua M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Massar, Karlijn

    2016-08-01

    Recent work suggests that the psychology of pathogen-avoidance has wide-reaching effects on how people interact with the world. These processes - part of what has been referred to as the behavioural immune system - are, in a way, our 'evolved' health psychology. However, scholars have scarcely investigated how the behavioural immune system relates to health-protective behaviours. The current research attempts to fill this gap. Across two cross-sectional studies (N = 386 and 470, respectively), we examined the relationship between pathogen-avoidance motives and health-protective behaviour. The studies used self-reported measures of attitude and intention as indicators of health-protective behaviour. Data collected in Study 1 revealed that pathogen-avoidance motivation related to participants' attitude and intention towards sexually transmitted infections screening. High levels of pathogen-avoidance motivation were also related to having had fewer sexual partners, which partially mediated the effect of pathogen-avoidance variables on testing motivation. Study 2 extended these findings by showing moderate associations between pathogen-avoidance motivation and a broad range of health-protective behaviours, including but not limited to pathogen-related health concerns. We argue that understanding and targeting pathogen-avoidance psychology can add novel and important understanding of health-protective behaviour.

  8. Space toxicology: protecting human health during space operations.

    PubMed

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T; Tyl, Rochelle; Lam, Chiu-wing

    2011-02-01

    Space toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation, and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons, and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures while in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation, continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion and other purposes. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies, in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  9. Iranian Household Financial Protection against Catastrophic Health Care Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, M Nekoei; Banshi, M; Javar, M Akbari; Amiresmaili, M; Ganjavi, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protecting households against financial risks is one of objectives of any health system. In this regard, Iran’s fourth five year developmental plan act in its 90th article, articulated decreasing household’s exposure to catastrophic health expenditure to one percent. Hence, this study aimed to measure percentage of Iranian households exposed to catastrophic health expenditures and to explore its determinants. Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was carried out retrospectively. Households whose financial contributions to the health system exceeded 40% of disposable income were considered as exposed to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare expenditures were examined by logistic regression and chi-square test. Results: Of 39,088 households, 80 were excluded due to absence of food expenditures. 2.8% of households were exposed to catastrophic health expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare were utilizing ambulatory, hospital, and drug addiction cessation services as well as consuming pharmaceuticals. Socioeconomics characteristics such as health insurance coverage, household size, and economic status were other determinants of exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Conclusion: Iranian health system has not achieved the objective of reducing catastrophic healthcare expenditure to one percent. Inefficient health insurance coverage, different fee schedules practiced by private and public providers, failure of referral system are considered as probable barriers toward decreasing households’ exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. PMID:23193508

  10. Protection of semiconductor converters for controlled bypass reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgopolov, A. G.; Akhmetzhanov, N. G.; Karmanov, V. F.

    2010-05-15

    Possible ways of protecting thyristor converters in systems for magnetizing 110 - 500 kV controlled bypass reactors during switching and automatic reclosing are examined based on experience with the development of equipment, line tests, and mathematical modelling.

  11. Vaccine Acquisition Strategies - The Force Health Protection Gamble

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Wayne Foxworth Project Advisor The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) Deutsch , Mary R. ; 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39.18 ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR : Mary R. Deutsch TITLE: Vaccine Acquisition Strategies-The Force Health Protection Gamble FORMAT

  12. Health security and disease control: lessons from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2011-12-30

    This paper discusses the controversy between top-down, disease-focused, vertical programs, on the one hand, and activities that have been horizontally integrated into health services, on the other, using as a reference the public health initiatives developed in Mexico in the context of a recent comprehensive health care reform. The main message is that it is possible to achieve a synthesis between vertical and horizontal strategies, and also between public health and personal health care programs. Public health and personal care are the two sides of the health system coin, and both are central to a comprehensive concept of health security. Investments in epidemiological surveillance and response clearly contribute to the control of threats facing nation-states, such as pandemics and biological warfare. At the same time, investments in the protection of individuals from threats that endanger their health would also make our world a safer place.

  13. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections when visiting (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image ... precautions Personal protective equipment Preventing infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS MRSA ...

  14. Constitutional rights to health, public health and medical care: the status of health protections in 191 countries.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jody; Cassola, Adèle; Raub, Amy; Mishra, Lipi

    2013-07-01

    United Nations (UN) member states have universally recognised the right to health in international agreements, but protection of this right at the national level remains incomplete. This article examines the level and scope of constitutional protection of specific rights to public health and medical care, as well as the broad right to health. We analysed health rights in the constitutions of 191 UN countries in 2007 and 2011. We examined how rights protections varied across the year of constitutional adoption; national income group and region; and for vulnerable groups within each country. A minority of the countries guaranteed the rights to public health (14%), medical care (38%) and overall health (36%) in their constitutions in 2011. Free medical care was constitutionally protected in 9% of the countries. Thirteen per cent of the constitutions guaranteed children's right to health or medical care, 6% did so for persons with disabilities and 5% for each of the elderly and the socio-economically disadvantaged. Valuable next steps include regular monitoring of the national protection of health rights recognised in international agreements, analyses of the impact of health rights on health outcomes and longitudinal multi-level studies to assess whether specific formulations of the rights have greater impact.

  15. Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies: protecting women's reproductive rights and maternal and infant health.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Karleen D; McGrath, Marie; MacLaine, Ali; Lhotska, Lida

    2011-10-01

    Women have the right to support that enables them to breastfeed. Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies is important because artificial feeding places mothers and children at risk. In emergencies, artificial feeding is dangerous to the infant, difficult and requires substantial resources. In contrast, breastfeeding guards infant health. It is also protective against postpartum haemorrhage, maternal depletion, maternal anaemia and closely spaced births and should therefore concern not only nutritionists, but also those involved in reproductive health. However, it is common for women's ability to breastfeed to be undermined in emergencies by the indiscriminate distribution of breast-milk substitutes and the absence of breastfeeding support. Controlling the distribution of breast-milk substitutes, providing supportive environments, and appropriate medical and practical assistance to breastfeeding women safeguards the health and well-being of mothers and babies. Greater collaboration between the nutrition and reproductive health sectors is required to promote best practice in protecting breastfeeding women and their children in emergencies.

  16. Protecting the Health and Safety of Cell and Tissue Donors

    PubMed Central

    Stroncek, David F.; England, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Centers involved with collecting the starting material for cell and tissue therapies are obligated to protect the recipient’s and donor’s health and safety. All donors face risks during and after the collection which can be minimized by prescreening donors and excluding those that the collection would place at increased risk of physical harm. Another important part of protecting donors is the use of appropriate collection facilities. Donor risk can also be reduced by using specially designed collection devices and ancillary equipment, using only trained collection staff and limiting the volume or quantity of biologic material collected. Donors should be monitored during and after the collection for adverse events, and should adverse events occur, they should be promptly and appropriately treated. Protecting the safety of cell, gene and tissue donors is particularly difficult because of the wide variety in the types of donors and material collected. Biological material used to manufacture cell and tissue therapies is collected from healthy volunteers, matched-related, matched-unrelated and autologous donors. Precautions should be taken to ensure that the team of medical professionals evaluating related donors is not the same as the team caring for the transplant recipient in order to be sure that the donor evaluation is not biased and the donor is not coerced into donating. In conclusion, protecting cell and tissue donors requires the use of the practices developed to protect blood donors and the implementation of many other measures. PMID:25937830

  17. Protecting the Health and Safety of Cell and Tissue Donors.

    PubMed

    Stroncek, David F; England, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Centers involved with collecting the starting material for cell and tissue therapies are obligated to protect the recipient's and donor's health and safety. All donors face risks during and after the collection which can be minimized by prescreening donors and excluding those that the collection would place at increased risk of physical harm. Another important part of protecting donors is the use of appropriate collection facilities. Donor risk can also be reduced by using specially designed collection devices and ancillary equipment, using only trained collection staff and limiting the volume or quantity of biologic material collected. Donors should be monitored during and after the collection for adverse events, and should adverse events occur, they should be promptly and appropriately treated. Protecting the safety of cell, gene and tissue donors is particularly difficult because of the wide variety in the types of donors and material collected. Biological material used to manufacture cell and tissue therapies is collected from healthy volunteers, matched-related, matched-unrelated and autologous donors. Precautions should be taken to ensure that the team of medical professionals evaluating related donors is not the same as the team caring for the transplant recipient in order to be sure that the donor evaluation is not biased and the donor is not coerced into donating. In conclusion, protecting cell and tissue donors requires the use of the practices developed to protect blood donors and the implementation of many other measures.

  18. The dental health of children subject to a child protection plan.

    PubMed

    Keene, Emily J; Skelton, Ruth; Day, Peter F; Munyombwe, Theresa; Balmer, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    In the United Kingdom, child maltreatment is an area of increased awareness and concern. To compare the dental health of children subject to child protection plans with controls. Children had to be aged between two and 11 years, medically healthy, and subject either to a child protection plan or attending the paediatric outpatient orthopaedic or general surgery clinics (control group). All children had a standardized oral examination. Seventy-nine children were examined in each group. Children with child protection plans had statistically higher levels of primary tooth decay than controls (mean dmft 3.82 and 2.03, Mann-Whitney U test P = 0.002). After adjusting for socioeconomic status, the incidence rate ratios for the occurrence of dental caries in the primary dentition in children with a child protection plan was 1.76 (95% CI: 1.44-2.15) relative to the controls. There was no statistical difference in the levels of permanent tooth decay between the study and control groups (mean DMFT 0.71 and 0.30, respectively). The care index was significantly lower (P = 0.008, Mann-Whitney U test) in the study group (1.69%) compared to the control group (6.02%). Children subject to child protection plans had significantly higher levels of dental caries in the primary dentition. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Army Force Health Protection: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Combs, E Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Following the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War, many service members reported health problems and believed these problems were associated with their military service in the Persian Gulf. A paucity of health and deployment data severely limited the ability to investigate the nature and causes of these illnesses. Based on the findings from a 2002 study, the Government Accounting Office recommended that the Secretary of Defense direct the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs to establish an effective quality assurance program that would help ensure that the military services comply with the force health protection and surveillance requirements for all service members. In November 2003, The Surgeon General of the Army tasked the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) with the development of a Deployment Health Quality Assurance Program for the Army. Since 2003, a team from USACHPPM has visited approximately one Army installation per quarter. Over time, there has been remarkable improvement noted in Army deployment health metrics and practices.

  20. Health effects of hot weather: from awareness of risk factors to effective health protection.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Shakoor; O'Connor, Madeline; Kosatsky, Tom

    2010-03-06

    Because of the increasing concerns about climate change and deadly heatwaves in the past, the health effects of hot weather are fast becoming a global public health challenge for the 21st century. Some cities across the world have introduced public health protection measures, with the timely provision of appropriate home-based prevention advice to the general public being the most crucial point of intervention. In this Review, we report current epidemiological and physiological evidence about the range of health effects associated with hot weather, and draw attention to the interplay between climate factors, human susceptibility, and adaptation measures that contribute to heat burdens. We focus on the evidence base for the most commonly provided heat-protection advice, and make recommendations about the optimum clinical and public health practice that are expected to reduce health problems associated with current and future hot weather. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Philosophy in medical education: a means of protecting mental health.

    PubMed

    Keller, Eric J

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to identify and examine less commonly discussed challenges to positive mental health faced by medical students, residents, and physicians with hopes of improving current efforts to protect the mental health of these groups. Additionally, this work aimed to suggest an innovative means of preventing poor mental health during medical education. Literature on medical student, resident, and physician mental health was carefully reviewed and a number of psychiatrists who treat physician-patients were interviewed. The culture of medicine, medical training, common physician psychology and identity, and conflicting professional expectations all seem to contribute to poor mental health among medical students, residents, and physicians. Many current efforts may be more successful by better addressing the negative effects of these characteristics of modern medicine. Programs aimed at promoting healthy mental lifestyles during medical education should continue to be developed and supported to mitigate the deleterious effects of the challenging environment of modern medicine. To improve these efforts, educators may consider incorporating philosophical discussions on meaning and fulfillment in life between medical students and faculty. Through medical school faculty members sharing and living out their own healthy outlooks on life, students may emulate these habits and the culture of medicine may become less challenging for positive mental health.

  2. [Occupational health protection in business economics--business plan for health intervention].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    One of the company's actions for strengthening human capital is the protection of health and safety of its employees. Its implementation needs financial resources, therefore, employers expect tangible effectiveness in terms of health and economics. Business plan as an element of company planning can be a helpful tool for new health interventions management. The aim of this work was to elaborate a business plan framework for occupational health interventions at the company level, combining occupational health practices with company management and economics. The business plan of occupational health interventions was based on the literature review, the author's own research projects and meta-analysis of research reports on economic relations between occupational health status and company productivity. The study resulted in the development of the business plan for occupational health interventions at the company level. It consists of summary and several sections that address such issues as the key elements of the intervention discussed against a background of the company economics and management, occupational health and safety status of the staff, employees' health care organization, organizational plan of providing the employees with health protection, marketing plan, including specificity of health interventions in the company marketing plan and financial plan, reflecting the economic effects of health care interventions on the overall financial management of the company. Business plan defines occupational health and safety interventions as a part of the company activities as a whole. Planning health care interventions without relating them to the statutory goals of the company may have the adverse impact on the financial balance and profitability of the company. Therefore, business plan by providing the opportunity of comparing different options of occupational health interventions to be implemented by employers is a key element of the management of employees

  3. Integrated worker health protection and promotion programs: overview and perspectives on health and economic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2013-12-01

    To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for the integration of occupational safety and health and worksite health promotion programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes were undertaken. Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes were considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types.

  4. From endocrine disruptors to nanomaterials: advancing our understanding of environmental health to protect public health.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Jung, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Environmental health science is the study of the impact of the environment on human health. This paper introduces basic topics in environmental health, including clean air, clean water, and healthful food, as well as a range of current issues and controversies in environmental health. Conceptual shifts in modern toxicology have changed the field. There is a new understanding of the effects of exposure to chemicals at low doses, and in combination, and the impact on human growth and development. Other emerging topics include the role of epigenetics, or changes in genes and gene expression that can be brought about by chemical exposure; environmental justice; and potential effects of engineered nanomaterials and climate change. We review the important implications for public health policy and recommend a broad environmental health research strategy aimed at protecting and improving human health.

  5. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  6. Protecting Our Assets: Internal Control Principles in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert

    1997-01-01

    Discusses financial and physical asset protection in libraries based on principles of internal control. Elements of internal control are explained: reliable personnel; physical safeguarding of assets; separation of duties; adequate documentation; independent checks; proper procedures and authorizations; and bonding, job rotation, and enforced…

  7. Protecting Our Assets: Internal Control Principles in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert

    1997-01-01

    Discusses financial and physical asset protection in libraries based on principles of internal control. Elements of internal control are explained: reliable personnel; physical safeguarding of assets; separation of duties; adequate documentation; independent checks; proper procedures and authorizations; and bonding, job rotation, and enforced…

  8. 38 CFR 17.91 - Protection of health-care eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of health-care... MEDICAL Vocational Training and Health-Care Eligibility Protection for Pension Recipients § 17.91 Protection of health-care eligibility. Any veteran whose entitlement to VA pension is terminated by reason...

  9. 38 CFR 17.91 - Protection of health-care eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of health-care... MEDICAL Vocational Training and Health-Care Eligibility Protection for Pension Recipients § 17.91 Protection of health-care eligibility. Any veteran whose entitlement to VA pension is terminated by reason...

  10. 38 CFR 17.91 - Protection of health-care eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of health-care... MEDICAL Vocational Training and Health-Care Eligibility Protection for Pension Recipients § 17.91 Protection of health-care eligibility. Any veteran whose entitlement to VA pension is terminated by reason...

  11. 38 CFR 17.91 - Protection of health-care eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of health-care... MEDICAL Vocational Training and Health-Care Eligibility Protection for Pension Recipients § 17.91 Protection of health-care eligibility. Any veteran whose entitlement to VA pension is terminated by reason of...

  12. 38 CFR 17.91 - Protection of health-care eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of health-care... MEDICAL Vocational Training and Health-Care Eligibility Protection for Pension Recipients § 17.91 Protection of health-care eligibility. Any veteran whose entitlement to VA pension is terminated by reason of...

  13. [Telematics in the public health sector. Where is the protection of health data?].

    PubMed

    Voßhoff, Andrea; Raum, Bertram; Ernestus, Walter

    2015-10-01

    There is a long history of telematics in the German health system. Apart from the growing technical possibilities in the field, it is important to concentrate on the protection of health data in telematics applications. Health data in the hands of service providers or other third parties entails certain risks for the patient's personality rights, because these institutions may not be bound by the practice of medical confidentiality. In addition, big data processing risks make the individual lives of patients and insured persons totally transparent. Measures to reduce these risks have to be taken by the providers as well as by the users of telematics infrastructure; they are the ones who should explicitly address the relevant risks and dangers in a data protection and IT-security concept and develop adequate strategies to cope with these dangers. Additionally, the German legislator remains obliged to create a regulatory framework for the protection of patients' rights.

  14. Financial protection in health in Turkey: the effects of the Health Transformation Programme.

    PubMed

    Yardim, Mahmut S; Cilingiroglu, Nesrin; Yardim, Nazan

    2014-03-01

    Financial protection should be the principal objective of any health system. Commonly used indicators for financial protection are out-of-pocket (OOP) payments as a share of total health expenditure and the amount of households driven into poverty by catastrophic health expenditures (CHEs). In the last decade, OOP health payments consisted of approximately one-fifth of the health finance resources in Turkey. Until the year 2008, Turkish health system covered different public and private financing programmes as well as different types of service provision. After 2008, universal financial coverage became a part of the Health Transformation Programme (HTP). This study aimed to evaluate the financial protection in health in the era of health reforms in Turkey between 2003 and 2009. Household expenditures were derived from nationally representative Turkish Household Budget Surveys (HBSs), 2003, 2006 and 2009. Proportion of households facing CHE and impoverishment are calculated by using the methodology proposed by Ke Xu. Probability of incurring and volume of OOP spending were assessed across the health insurance groups by two-part model approach using logistic and OLS regression methods. Our findings showed that the probability of incurring and volume of OOP spending increased gradually in publicly insured households between 2003 and 2009. However, there was a diminishing trend in CHE in Turkey during the period under consideration. The official data showing an ∼3-fold increase in per capita health care use since 2003 and our study findings on decreasing CHE in this period can be interpreted as positive impact of HTP. On the other hand, increased household consumption as a share of OOP health payment and the deterioration in the progressivity of OOP spending in this period should be monitored closely.

  15. Longitudinal Effects of Health-Harming and Health-Protective Behaviors within Adolescent Romantic Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Carpentier, Melissa; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Most models exploring adolescent health behavior have focused on individual influences to understand behavior change. The goal of the current study was to assess the role of adolescent romantic partners on the expression of health behavior. Our sample utilized two waves of data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994, 1996), which included 80 romantic dyads (160 individuals). A longitudinal multilevel analysis was conducted. We assessed individual and romantic partner health-harming behaviors (i.e., delinquency, alcohol use, smoking, and marijuana use), health-protective behaviors (i.e., physical activity, physical inactivity, sleep patterns, seatbelt use, and contraception motivations), as well as the role of gender and age. Participants average age was 16 years at baseline. We found evidence for partner similarity and partner influence with the majority of health-harming behaviors. Specifically, partner influence was evident for smoking and alcohol use with partner influence approaching significance for marijuana use. We found limited evidence for partner similarity and partner influence for health-protective behaviors. The importance of assessing romantic dyads was evident in these data. Interventions focusing on health-harming behavior for adolescent populations are important public health goals. It is recommended that future intervention efforts with adolescent health-harming behaviors should target not only peers, but also consider the role of romantic partners. PMID:22424832

  16. Shared Expectations for Protection of Identifiable Health Care Information

    PubMed Central

    Wynia, Matthew K; Coughlin, Steven S; Alpert, Sheri; Cummins, Deborah S; Emanuel, Linda L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Ethical Force Program is a collaborative effort to create performance measures for ethics in health care. This report lays out areas of consensus that may be amenable to performance measurement on protecting the privacy, confidentiality and security of identifiable health information. DESIGN Iterative consensus development process. PARTICIPANTS The program's oversight body and its expert panel on privacy include national leaders representing the perspectives of physicians, patients, purchasers, health plans, hospitals, and medical ethicists as well as public health, law, and medical informatics experts. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS The oversight body appointed a national Expert Advisory Panel on Privacy and Confidentiality in September 1998. This group compiled and reviewed existing norms, including governmental reports and legal standards, professional association policies, private organization statements and policies, accreditation standards, and ethical opinions. A set of specific and assessable expectations for ethical conduct in this domain was then drafted and refined through 7 meetings over 16 months. In the final 2 iterations, each expectation was graded on a scale of 1 to 10 by each oversight body member on whether it was: (1) important, (2) universally applicable, (3) feasible to measure, and (4) realistic to implement. The expectations that did not score more than 7 (mean) on all 4 scales were reconsidered and retained only if the entire oversight body agreed that they should be used as potential subjects for performance measurement. Consensus was achieved on 34 specific expectations. The expectations fell into 8 content areas, addressing the need for transparency of policies and practices, consent for use and disclosure of identifiable information, limitations on information that can be collected and by whom, individual access to one's own health records, security requirements for storage and transfer of information, provisions to ensure

  17. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Guochun; Pan, An; Chen, Fengying; Zheng, Chunli

    2016-11-01

    As increasing demand for green energy and high-tech devices grows, so does the rising prospecting of rare earth metals required for their production. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth element (REE) mining as well as emerging pollutants is urgently required to achieve sustainable development. This study mapped Earth's hidden REE deposits to identify potential contamination hotspots with the aim of preventing its deleterious effects on the environment. We worry that there would be widespread tailing facilities concomitant with serious pollutions, such as the Bayan Obo tailings site, and argue that a tradeoff between the underground REE exploration and environment conservation should be reached as soon as possible.

  18. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  19. Over-the-Counter and Out-of-Control: Legal Strategies to Protect Youths From Abusing Products for Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter drugs and supplements such as laxatives and diet pills for weight control by youths is well documented in the epidemiological literature. Many such products are not medically recommended for healthy weight control or are especially susceptible to abuse, and their misuse can result in serious health consequences. We analyzed the government’s role in regulating these products to protect public health. We examined federal and state regulatory authority, and referred to international examples to inform our analysis. Several legal interventions are indicated to protect youths, including increased warnings and restrictions on access through behind-the-counter placement or age verification. We suggest future directions for governments internationally to address this pervasive public health problem. PMID:23237149

  20. [The protection of drinking water in a public health department].

    PubMed

    Monari, R; Petrolo, A; Mascelli, M; Vannucchi, G

    2008-01-01

    The protection of drinking water is a key issue in a Public Health Department's activity. A substantial amount of planning and monitoring work is involved in the development and implementation of a water safety plan, aimed not only at the enforcement of public health regulations, but also at the improvement of the quality water. We provide an overview of the quality monitoring program of the municipality of Prato, a highly populated and industrialized area, where ground water is contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and nitrate. We show how, in spite of the intrinsically poor quality of the basic water resource, the careful application of an appropriate prevention plan, with the cooperation of the local water authority, allows the delivery of drinking water of increasing safety and quality.

  1. [Telematics in the health system and data protection].

    PubMed

    Müller, J H

    2005-06-01

    In the health system, telematics are to be used for the benefit of patients and to make it possible for them to receive better medical care. Telematics must be employed in accordance with the guidelines of data protection and this means in particular that the patient must remain the master of his data. Therefore, he must be able to decide in which situation and to whom he wants to reveal his medical data. For this reason, the exact implementation of the introduction of the electronic medical smart card envisaged by the law requires detailed access authorisations and limitations, which must be reinforced by ample technical security measures. These measures must be transmitted to the patients through co-operation of doctors and health insurance companies in such a transparent way that they recognise the advantages of the new technology. The higher the acceptance is on the patients' side, the more they will be willing to participate voluntarily in telematic projects.

  2. Protecting public health in the age of emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Lev, Ori; Rager-Zisman, Bracha

    2014-11-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infections cause huge concern among public health workers and international and national bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Indeed, scientists around the world express the view that despite the danger, research on these emerging virulent pathogens is crucial and must continue. While most of the studies underway are targeted at improving and protecting public health, some studies bear potentiallyserious risks resulting from misuse. These studies are defined as dual-use research of concern (DURC), where it is not evident that the benefits outweigh the risks. The H5N1 controversy has pushed various governments to institute new policies to govern such research. We describe the regulations that govern this emerging field of research in the United States and Israel, two countries that have taken leading stands on these issues. We suggest that the existing policies are able to mitigate many of the risks that this research encapsulates, yet more work is required--especially on the global level.

  3. Veterinary medicine protecting and promoting the public's health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2004-03-16

    Dr. Calvin Schwabe's vision of "One Medicine" has long inspired many in the public health community to strive toward bringing human and veterinary medicine together to improve the public's health and well-being around the world. In an increasingly human-dominated world, as Dr. Schwabe suggested many years ago, human health provides the most-logical unifying or apical cause in veterinary medicine's hierarchy of values. Veterinarians in all aspects of the profession-have opportunity and responsibility to protect the health and well-being of people in all that they do, including protecting food security and safety; addressing threats to antibiotic sensitivity; preventing and controlling zoonotic emerging infectious diseases; protecting environments and ecosystems; participating in bio- and agro-terrorism preparedness and response; using their skills to confront non-zoonotic diseases (such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, vaccine preventable diseases, chronic diseases and injuries); strengthening the public-health infrastructure; and advancing medical science through research. This article provides an overview of contributions made by veterinarians in each of these areas, and discusses the challenges to be overcome and the need for strategic thinking and action to achieve the vision of "one medicine".

  4. Protecting unauthorized immigrant mothers improves their children's mental health.

    PubMed

    Hainmueller, Jens; Lawrence, Duncan; Martén, Linna; Black, Bernard; Figueroa, Lucila; Hotard, Michael; Jiménez, Tomás R; Mendoza, Fernando; Rodriguez, Maria I; Swartz, Jonas J; Laitin, David D

    2017-09-08

    The United States is embroiled in a debate about whether to protect or deport its estimated 11 million unauthorized immigrants, but the fact that these immigrants are also parents to more than 4 million U.S.-born children is often overlooked. We provide causal evidence of the impact of parents' unauthorized immigration status on the health of their U.S. citizen children. The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program granted temporary protection from deportation to more than 780,000 unauthorized immigrants. We used Medicaid claims data from Oregon and exploited the quasi-random assignment of DACA eligibility among mothers with birthdates close to the DACA age qualification cutoff. Mothers' DACA eligibility significantly decreased adjustment and anxiety disorder diagnoses among their children. Parents' unauthorized status is thus a substantial barrier to normal child development and perpetuates health inequalities through the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Force Health Protection: the mission and political context of the longitudinal health record.

    PubMed

    Collmann, Jeff

    2009-05-01

    Drawing upon an extensive search of publically available literature and discussions at the "National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," this article documents the evolving mission and political context of the longitudinal health record (LHR) as an instrument for Force Health Protection (FHP). Because of the Gulf War syndrome controversy, the Department of Defense (DoD) launched an ambitious, complex series of programs designed to create a comprehensive, integrated defense health surveillance capability to assure FHP and keep faith with the American people. This "system of systems" includes individual component systems to perform specific functions such as disease surveillance, battlefield assessment, and patient care and consolidates these diverse types of information into centrally accessible archives that serve the interests of occupational health, preventive medicine, medical strategic planning, and longitudinal patient health care. After 25 years of effort and major accomplishments, progress toward a LHR remains uneven and controversy persists.

  6. Integrated Worker Health Protection and Promotion Programs: Overview and Perspectives on Health and Economic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe integrated worker health protection and promotion (IWHPP) program characteristics, to discuss the rationale for integration of OSH and WHP programs, and to summarize what is known about the impact of these programs on health and economic outcomes. Methods A descriptive assessment of the current state of the IWHPP field and a review of studies on the effectiveness of IWHPP programs on health and economic outcomes. Results Sufficient evidence of effectiveness was found for IWHPP programs when health outcomes are considered. Impact on productivity-related outcomes is considered promising, but inconclusive, whereas insufficient evidence was found for health care expenditures. Conclusions Existing evidence supports an integrated approach in terms of health outcomes but will benefit significantly from research designed to support the business case for employers of various company sizes and industry types. PMID:24284747

  7. Privacy protection for personal health information and shared care records.

    PubMed

    Neame, Roderick L B

    2014-01-01

    The protection of personal information privacy has become one of the most pressing security concerns for record keepers: this will become more onerous with the introduction of the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in mid-2014. Many institutions, both large and small, have yet to implement the essential infrastructure for data privacy protection and patient consent and control when accessing and sharing data; even more have failed to instil a privacy and security awareness mindset and culture amongst their staff. Increased regulation, together with better compliance monitoring, has led to the imposition of increasingly significant monetary penalties for failure to protect privacy: these too are set to become more onerous under the GDPR, increasing to a maximum of 2% of annual turnover. There is growing pressure in clinical environments to deliver shared patient care and to support this with integrated information. This demands that more information passes between institutions and care providers without breaching patient privacy or autonomy. This can be achieved with relatively minor enhancements of existing infrastructures and does not require extensive investment in inter-operating electronic records: indeed such investments to date have been shown not to materially improve data sharing. REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVACY: There is an ethical duty as well as a legal obligation on the part of care providers (and record keepers) to keep patient information confidential and to share it only with the authorisation of the patient. To achieve this information storage and retrieval, communication systems must be appropriately configured. There are many components of this, which are discussed in this paper. Patients may consult clinicians anywhere and at any time: therefore, their data must be available for recipient-driven retrieval (i.e. like the World Wide Web) under patient control and kept private: a method for delivering this is outlined.

  8. Does User Fee Removal Policy Provide Financial Protection from Catastrophic Health Care Payments? Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Masiye, Felix; Kaonga, Oliver; Kirigia, Joses M

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-pocket payments in health care have been shown to impose significant burden on households in Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to constrained access to health care and impoverishment. In an effort to reduce the financial burden imposed on households by user fees, some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished user fees in the health sector. Zambia is one of few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to abolish user fees in primary health care facilities with a view to alleviating financial burden of out-of-pocket payments among the poor. The main aim of this paper was to examine the extent and patterns of financial protection from fees following the decision to abolish user fees in public primary health facilities. Our analysis is based on a nationally representative health expenditure and utilization survey conducted in 2014. We calculated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure based on households' out-of-pocket payments during a visit as a percentage of total household consumption expenditure. We further show the intensity of the problem of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) experienced by households. Our analysis show that following the removal of user fees, a majority of patients who visited public health facilities benefitted from free care at the point of use. Further, seeking care at public primary health facilities is associated with a reduced likelihood of incurring CHE after controlling for economic wellbeing and other covariates. However, 10% of households are shown to suffer financial catastrophe as a result of out-of-pocket payments. Further, there is considerable inequality in the incidence of CHE whereby the poorest expenditure quintile experienced a much higher incidence. Despite the removal of user fees at primary health care level, CHE is high among the poorest sections of the population. This study also shows that cost of transportation is mainly responsible for limiting the protective effectiveness of user fee removal

  9. Does User Fee Removal Policy Provide Financial Protection from Catastrophic Health Care Payments? Evidence from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Masiye, Felix; Kaonga, Oliver; Kirigia, Joses M

    2016-01-01

    Background Out-of-pocket payments in health care have been shown to impose significant burden on households in Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to constrained access to health care and impoverishment. In an effort to reduce the financial burden imposed on households by user fees, some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished user fees in the health sector. Zambia is one of few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to abolish user fees in primary health care facilities with a view to alleviating financial burden of out-of-pocket payments among the poor. The main aim of this paper was to examine the extent and patterns of financial protection from fees following the decision to abolish user fees in public primary health facilities. Methods Our analysis is based on a nationally representative health expenditure and utilization survey conducted in 2014. We calculated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure based on households’ out-of-pocket payments during a visit as a percentage of total household consumption expenditure. We further show the intensity of the problem of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) experienced by households. Results Our analysis show that following the removal of user fees, a majority of patients who visited public health facilities benefitted from free care at the point of use. Further, seeking care at public primary health facilities is associated with a reduced likelihood of incurring CHE after controlling for economic wellbeing and other covariates. However, 10% of households are shown to suffer financial catastrophe as a result of out-of-pocket payments. Further, there is considerable inequality in the incidence of CHE whereby the poorest expenditure quintile experienced a much higher incidence. Conclusion Despite the removal of user fees at primary health care level, CHE is high among the poorest sections of the population. This study also shows that cost of transportation is mainly responsible for limiting the

  10. The predictive protective control of the heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevriva, Pavel; Filipova, Blanka; Vilimec, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the predictive control applied to flexible cogeneration energy system FES. FES was designed and developed by the VITKOVICE POWER ENGINEERING joint-stock company and represents a new solution of decentralized cogeneration energy sources. In FES, the heating medium is flue gas generated by combustion of a solid fuel. The heated medium is power gas, which is a gas mixture of air and water steam. Power gas is superheated in the main heat exchanger and led to gas turbines. To protect the main heat exchanger against damage by overheating, the novel predictive protective control based on the mathematical model of exchanger was developed. The paper describes the principle, the design and the simulation of the predictive protective method applied to main heat exchanger of FES.

  11. Protecting patients with cardiovascular diseases from catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment by health finance reform.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Fan, Yancun; McNeil, Edward

    2015-12-01

    To compare the incidences of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment, the risk protection offered by two health financial reforms and to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Patients with CVDs aged over 18 years residing in the sample areas for at least one year were eligible. The definitions of CHE and impoverishment recommended by WHO were adopted. The protection of CHE and impoverishment was compared between the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) alone and NCMS plus National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) using the percentage change of incidences for CHE and impoverishment. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment. The incidences of CHE and impoverishment under NCMS plus NEMS were 11.26% and 3.30%, respectively, which were lower than those under NCMS alone. The rates of protection were higher among households with patients with CVDs covered by NCMS plus NEMS (25.68% and 34.65%, respectively). NCMS plus NEMS could protect the poor households more from CHE but not impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS protected more than one-fourth of households from CHE and more than one-third from impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS was more effective at protecting households with patients with CVDs from CHE and impoverishment than NCMS alone. An integration of NCMS with NEMS should be expanded. However, further strategies to minimise catastrophic health expenditure after this health finance reform are still needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Health sector employment: a tracer indicator for universal health coverage in national Social Protection Floors.

    PubMed

    Scheil-Adlung, Xenia; Behrendt, Thorsten; Wong, Lorraine

    2015-08-31

    Health sector employment is a prerequisite for availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of health services. Thus, in this article health worker shortages are used as a tracer indicator estimating the proportion of the population lacking access to such services: The SAD (ILO Staff Access Deficit Indicator) estimates gaps towards UHC in the context of Social Protection Floors (SPFs). Further, it highlights the impact of investments in health sector employment equity and sustainable development. The SAD is used to estimate the share of the population lacking access to health services due to gaps in the number of skilled health workers. It is based on the difference of the density of the skilled health workforce per population in a given country and a threshold indicating UHC staffing requirements. It identifies deficits, differences and developments in access at global, regional and national levels and between rural and urban areas. In 2014, the global UHC deficit in numbers of health workers is estimated at 10.3 million, with most important gaps in Asia (7.1 million) and Africa (2.8 million). Globally, 97 countries are understaffed with significantly higher gaps in rural than in urban areas. Most affected are low-income countries, where 84 per cent of the population remains excluded from access due to the lack of skilled health workers. A positive correlation of health worker employment and population health outcomes could be identified. Legislation is found to be a prerequisite for closing access as gaps. Health worker shortages hamper the achievement of UHC and aggravate weaknesses of health systems. They have major impacts on socio-economic development, particularly in the world's poorest countries where they act as drivers of health inequities. Closing the gaps by establishing inclusive multi-sectoral policy approaches based on the right to health would significantly increase equity, reduce poverty due to ill health and ultimately contribute

  13. Composite control for protecting two nonorthogonal qubit states against decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ya; Tian, Guojing; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Yang, Ying-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei

    2017-03-01

    Quantum feedback control (QFBC) and quantum feedforward control (QFFC) are two of the major techniques for protecting two nonorthogonal qubit states against decoherence. In this paper, we propose a quantum composite control scheme for protecting such states, where QFBC and QFFC are combined. Note that the combination is deliberately devised, other than simply one plus one (i.e., the trivial combination). We show the performance of our scheme is better than that of both the previous control schemes and the trivially combined one for most states and noises in the sense that, for given success probability, our scheme can achieve the biggest fidelity, and for given fidelity, our scheme has the biggest success probability. Furthermore, our scheme can be experimentally implemented with current technologies.

  14. [Health protection coverage in Mexico, and profile of unprotected population 2000-2012].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the coverage of health protection in Mexico, as well as its trends from 2000 to 2012. Descriptive analysis using household informant report about health protection in the national health surveys 2000, 2006 & 2012, profiling unprotected population in 2012, and demographic differences by scheme of health protection. From 2000 to 2012, Mexican population that reported to be without health protection decreased from 57.6 to 21.4%. This reduction is mainly due to the increase in coverage of Seguro Popular, which by 2012 is the main insurer in Mexico, covering 38.5 of the population. Unprotected population is concentrated between 15 and 30 years of age. These results present a huge increase in health protection in Mexico in the past 12 years. Nevertheless, they also highlight the complexity of reaching universal health protection in a fragmented health system.

  15. Coping with perceived discrimination: does ethnic identity protect mental health?

    PubMed

    Mossakowski, Krysia N

    2003-09-01

    Using data (N = 2,109) from a large-scale epidemiological study of Filipino Americans, this study examines whether ethnic identity is linked to mental health and reduces the stress of discrimination. The strength of identification with an ethnic group is found to be directly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. In other words, having a sense of ethnic pride, involvement in ethinic practices, and cultural commitment to one's racial/ethnic group may protect mental health. Self-reports of racial/ethnic discrimination over a lifetime and everyday discrimination in the past month not due to race/ethnicity are associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Yet ethnic identity buffers the stress of racial/ethnic discrimination. This suggests that ethnic identity is a coping resource for racial/ethnic minorities that should not be overlooked. The strong link between ethnic identity and better mental health has implications for social-psychological theories on race/ethnicity and assimilation in the United States.

  16. Maternal mental health and risk of child protection involvement: mental health diagnoses associated with increased risk.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Melissa; Maclean, Miriam J; Sims, Scott; Morgan, Vera A; Leonard, Helen; Stanley, Fiona J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research shows that maternal mental illness is an important risk factor for child maltreatment. This study aims to quantify the relationship between maternal mental health and risk of child maltreatment according to the different types of mental health diagnoses. The study used a retrospective cohort of children born in Western Australia between 1990 and 2005, with deidentified linked data from routine health and child protection collections. Nearly 1 in 10 children (9.2%) of mothers with a prior mental health contact had a maltreatment allegation. Alternatively, almost half the children with a maltreatment allegation had a mother with a mental health contact. After adjusting for other risk factors, a history of mental health contacts was associated with a more than doubled risk of allegations (HR=2.64, 95% CI 2.50 to 2.80). Overall, all mental health diagnostic groups were associated with an increased risk of allegations. The greatest risk was found for maternal intellectual disability, followed by disorders of childhood and psychological development, personality disorders, substance-related disorders, and organic disorders. Maltreatment allegations were substantiated at a slightly higher rate than for the general population. Our study shows that maternal mental health is an important factor in child protection involvement. The level of risk varies across diagnostic groups. It is important that mothers with mental health issues are offered appropriate support and services. Adult mental health services should also be aware and discuss the impact of maternal mental health on the family and children's safety and well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Integrating worksite health protection and health promotion: A conceptual model for intervention and research.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Glorian; McLellan, Deborah L; Sabbath, Erika L; Dennerlein, Jack T; Nagler, Eve M; Hurtado, David A; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Wagner, Gregory R

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of the value added by integrating traditionally separate efforts to protect and promote worker safety and health. This paper presents an innovative conceptual model to guide research on determinants of worker safety and health and to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of integrated approaches to promoting and protecting worker health. This model is rooted in multiple theories and the premise that the conditions of work are important determinants of individual safety and health outcomes and behaviors, and outcomes important to enterprises such as absence and turnover. Integrated policies, programs and practices simultaneously address multiple conditions of work, including the physical work environment and the organization of work (e.g., psychosocial factors, job tasks and demands). Findings from two recent studies conducted in Boston and Minnesota (2009-2015) illustrate the application of this model to guide social epidemiological research. This paper focuses particular attention on the relationships of the conditions of work to worker health-related behaviors, musculoskeletal symptoms, and occupational injury; and to the design of integrated interventions in response to specific settings and conditions of work of small and medium size manufacturing businesses, based on a systematic assessment of priorities, needs, and resources within an organization. This model provides an organizing framework for both research and practice by specifying the causal pathways through which work may influence health outcomes, and for designing and testing interventions to improve worker safety and health that are meaningful for workers and employers, and responsive to that setting's conditions of work.

  18. Reading About the Flu Online: How Health-Protective Behavioral Intentions Are Influenced by Media Multitasking, Polychronicity, and Strength of Health-Related Arguments.

    PubMed

    Kononova, Anastasia; Yuan, Shupei; Joo, Eunsin

    2017-06-01

    As health organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate medical information and advice (Shortliffe et al., 2000; World Health Organization, 2013), studying factors that affect health information processing and health-protective behaviors becomes extremely important. The present research applied the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to explore the effects of media multitasking, polychronicity (preference for multitasking), and strength of health-related arguments on health-protective behavioral intentions. Participants read an online article about influenza that included strong and weak suggestions to engage in flu-preventive behaviors. In one condition, participants read the article and checked Facebook; in another condition, they were exposed only to the article. Participants expressed greater health-protective behavioral intentions in the media multitasking condition than in the control condition. Strong arguments were found to elicit more positive behavioral intentions than weak arguments. Moderate and high polychronics showed greater behavioral intentions than low polychronics when they read the article in the multitasking condition. The difference in intentions to follow strong and weak arguments decreased for moderate and high polychronics. The results of the present study suggest that health communication practitioners should account for not only media use situations in which individuals typically read about health online but also individual differences in information processing, which puts more emphasis on the strength of health-protective suggestions when targeting light multitaskers.

  19. Dental Outpatients: Health Locus of Control Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludenia, Krista; Donham, Greg W.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among specific personality variables, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales, and criterion-based ratings by staff dentists with dental outpatients (N=101). Found a consistent relationship between the perception that health is maintained by engaging in health-related behaviors and individual difference measures…

  20. Dental Outpatients: Health Locus of Control Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludenia, Krista; Donham, Greg W.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among specific personality variables, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales, and criterion-based ratings by staff dentists with dental outpatients (N=101). Found a consistent relationship between the perception that health is maintained by engaging in health-related behaviors and individual difference measures…

  1. Risk assessment, remedial decisions and the challenge to protect public health: the perchlorate case study.

    PubMed

    Baier-Anderson, Cal

    2006-05-10

    While scientists have a responsibility to defer judgment in the absence of conclusive data, public health and ecological protection require that government regulators make decisions based on available information. The risk assessment paradigm has evolved to help risk managers balance risks to public health with the cost of pollution control and remediation. Risk assessments are designed to be reasonably protective of public health, however the time and money required to develop and evaluate a robust scientific database can significantly delay regulatory action while exposures continue. The federal assessment of perchlorate, a component of rocket fuel and a thyroid toxicant, is presented here as a case study that demonstrates some of the limitations of risk assessment in protecting public health. Perchlorate was detected in a city well field that lies beneath a military training range at Aberdeen Proving Ground, a U.S. Army garrison in Maryland. Cleanup was put on hold, pending promulgation of a national drinking water standard for perchlorate. This case study (1) illustrates the challenge of preventing chemical exposures in the absence of promulgated standards, and (2) makes recommendations for approaches to preventing exposures to chemicals of unknown, or uncertain toxicity before they occur.

  2. 76 FR 13615 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) AGENCY... Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) will be held March 30 and 31 at the Arlington Court... Environmental Protection Agency on science, regulations, and other issues relating to children's environmental...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing...

  4. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing...

  5. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing...

  6. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. 20.2007 Section 20.2007 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing...

  7. Training new community health, food service, and environmental protection workers could boost health, jobs, and growth.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Tsui, Emma

    2011-11-01

    General job training programs, and separate disease prevention or health promotion programs, are usually viewed as two different strategies for reducing poverty and promoting community development. We propose that with better alignment of the strategies, new jobs with the potential to simultaneously improve population health, lower the cost of health care, and reduce unemployment could be created and filled. Initiatives for three types of entry-level positions-in the fields of community health, environmental remediation and protection, and food preparation-show particular promise as vehicles for health and economic improvement at the individual and community levels. Building on current federal programs, new pilot projects financed by federal funding should be created to test and refine such initiatives and their impact and assemble an evidence base for future policy action.

  8. Preventable newborn readmissions since passage of the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ian M; Lehman, Erik B; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Maisels, M Jeffrey

    2006-12-01

    Congress passed the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act in 1996, reversing the trend of shorter newborn nursery lengths of stay. Hope existed that morbidities would lessen for this vulnerable population, but some reports indicate that the timeliness and quality of postdischarge care may have worsened in recent years. Our goal was to determine risk factors for the potentially preventable readmissions because of jaundice, dehydration, or feeding difficulties in the first 10 days of life in Pennsylvania since passage of the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act. Birth records from 407,826 newborns > or = 35 weeks' gestation from 1998 to 2002 were merged with clinical discharge records. A total of 2540 newborns rehospitalized for jaundice, dehydration, or feeding difficulties in the first 10 days of life were then compared with 5080 control infants. Predictors of readmission were identified by using multiple logistic regression analysis. An unadjusted comparison of baseline characteristics revealed numerous predictors of readmission. Subsequent adjusted analysis revealed that Asian mothers, those 30 years of age or older, nonsmokers, and first-time mothers were more likely to have a readmitted newborn, as were those with diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension. For neonates, female gender and delivery via cesarean section were protective for readmission, whereas vacuum-assisted delivery, gestational age < 37 weeks, and nursery length of stay < 72 hours were predictors of readmission in the first 10 days of life. Although readmissions for jaundice, dehydration, and feeding difficulties may be less common for some minority groups and Medicaid recipients in the era of the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act compared with nonminorities or privately insured patients, several predictors of newborn readmission have established associations with inexperienced parenting and/or breastfeeding difficulty. This is one indication that this well

  9. Automatic detection of protected health information from clinic narratives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a natural language processing (NLP) system that was designed to participate in the 2014 i2b2 de-identification challenge. The challenge task aims to identify and classify seven main Protected Health Information (PHI) categories and 25 associated sub-categories. A hybrid model was proposed which combines machine learning techniques with keyword-based and rule-based approaches to deal with the complexity inherent in PHI categories. Our proposed approaches exploit a rich set of linguistic features, both syntactic and word surface-oriented, which are further enriched by task-specific features and regular expression template patterns to characterize the semantics of various PHI categories. Our system achieved promising accuracy on the challenge test data with an overall micro-averaged F-measure of 93.6%, which was the winner of this de-identification challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Health research and the Data Protection Act 1998.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Phil

    2003-07-01

    The 1998 Data Protection Act in the UK largely restates existing good practice: individuals have a right to know what data are held about them and why; and those processing data have a duty to proceed with fairness and transparency, maintain high data quality and keep data secure. Some health researchers have criticised the Act, seeing it as a legal minefield, unnecessary bureaucracy and interference from the European Union. This is largely based on misconceptions. Recent guidance from the Information Commissioner aims to assist researchers by advising how legal requirements can be met through anonymisation of data, attention to data-processing methods and fair collection of data. The Act provides a clear framework of rights and responsibilities that should be embraced with enthusiasm rather than with the reluctance of a person forced to carry out a meaningless chore.

  11. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  12. Over Current Protection for PFM Control DC-DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kouhei; Sugahara, Satoshi; Fujii, Nobuo

    An over current protection method suitable for Fixed ON-time PFM (Pulse Frequency Modulation) Control DC-DC converters is proposed. It is based on inductor bottom current limiting, realized by monitoring the synchronous rectifier current and extending the OFF-phase of the main switch until it decreases to a predetermined limit, and can properly limit the output current even in case of short circuit. A Fixed ON-time PFM DC-DC converter with the proposed over current protection was designed and fabricated in CMOS IC. Its current limiting operation was verified with simulations and measurements.

  13. Public Health Pest Control. Bulletin 755.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Burton R.

    This manual gives general control principles and specific information on control of mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs, fleas, lice, cockroaches, venomous arthropods, ticks and chiggers, and rodents. The specific information includes life-cycles and habitats, public health importance, non-chemical control, and control with pesticides. (BB)

  14. Public Health Pest Control. Bulletin 755.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Burton R.

    This manual gives general control principles and specific information on control of mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs, fleas, lice, cockroaches, venomous arthropods, ticks and chiggers, and rodents. The specific information includes life-cycles and habitats, public health importance, non-chemical control, and control with pesticides. (BB)

  15. Impact of health insurance on health care treatment and cost in Vietnam: a health capability approach to financial protection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Ma, Shuangge; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-08-01

    We applied an alternative conceptual framework for analyzing health insurance and financial protection grounded in the health capability paradigm. Through an original survey of 706 households in Dai Dong, Vietnam, we examined the impact of Vietnamese health insurance schemes on inpatient and outpatient health care access, costs, and health outcomes using bivariate and multivariable regression analyses. Insured respondents had lower outpatient and inpatient treatment costs and longer hospital stays but fewer days of missed work or school than the uninsured. Insurance reform reduced household vulnerability to high health care costs through direct reduction of medical costs and indirect reduction of income lost to illness. However, from a normative perspective, out-of-pocket costs are still too high, and accessibility issues persist; a comprehensive insurance package and additional health system reforms are needed.

  16. Impact of Health Insurance on Health Care Treatment and Cost in Vietnam: A Health Capability Approach to Financial Protection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kim Thuy; Khuat, Oanh Thi Hai; Pham, Duc Cuong; Khuat, Giang Thi Hong

    2012-01-01

    We applied an alternative conceptual framework for analyzing health insurance and financial protection grounded in the health capability paradigm. Through an original survey of 706 households in Dai Dong, Vietnam, we examined the impact of Vietnamese health insurance schemes on inpatient and outpatient health care access, costs, and health outcomes using bivariate and multivariable regression analyses. Insured respondents had lower outpatient and inpatient treatment costs and longer hospital stays but fewer days of missed work or school than the uninsured. Insurance reform reduced household vulnerability to high health care costs through direct reduction of medical costs and indirect reduction of income lost to illness. However, from a normative perspective, out-of-pocket costs are still too high, and accessibility issues persist; a comprehensive insurance package and additional health system reforms are needed. PMID:22698046

  17. The sentinel role of poisons centers in the protection of children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    Pronczuk de Garbino, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Growing concern exists about the threats posed by environmental pollutants and physical agents on children's health. A number offactors, including globalization, increased industrialization, and trade of chemicals and poverty have an impact on the quality of the environment and on children's health. Acute toxic exposures lead to poisoning, and chronic low-level exposures may cause functional and organ damage during periods of special vulnerability. The need to protect children's environmental health is urgent, in view of the magnitude of the problem and the fact that "children are not little adults." The effects suffered during special developmental periods-"windows of vulnerability"-can be permanent and irreversible. The main global environmental problems affecting children's health are lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation and exposure to indoor air pollution. Furthermore, environmentally related accidents, injuries, and poisonings have a major impact on children and adolescent's morbidity and mortality. A number of examples that illustrate the complexity of assessing and dealing with children's environmental health issues are presented. A Task Force on the Protection of Children's Environmental Health that aims to prevent disease and disability in children associated with chemical and physical threats was set up in 1999 by the World Health Organization. The priorities for action include the consideration of accidents, injuries, and poisonings (accidental, intentional, and occupational), and children in the workplace (e.g., scavenging children, children in cottage industries). Poisons Centers and related toxicology centers are in a strategic position to play a "sentinel" role in the protection of children's environmental health. They record acute and chronic toxic exposures in children in a harmonized manner, using controlled vocabularies and definitions. This will allow collecting a large, highly valuable database on the main toxicological

  18. Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Wilson Jr, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR layout (prismatic core version), where its inlet coolant enters the reactor vessel at the bottom, traversing up the sides to the top plenum, down-flow through an annular core, and exiting from the lower plenum (hot duct). This research provided NRC staff with (a) insights and knowledge about the control and protection systems for the NGNP and VHTR, (b) information on the technologies/approaches under consideration for use in the reactor and process heat applications, (c) guidelines for the design of highly integrated control rooms, (d) consideration for modeling of control and protection system designs for

  19. EPA Issues Health Advisories to Protect Americans from Algal Toxins in Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today issued health advisory values that states and utilities can use to protect Americans from elevated levels of algal toxins in drinking water. Algal blooms in rivers, lakes, and bays so

  20. Development of Protection and Control Unit for Distribution Substation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Fumiaki; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Motohiro; Kido, Mitsuyasu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yanaoka, Atsushi

    The Recently, electronics and IT technologies have been rapidly innovated and have been introduced to power system protection & control system to achieve high reliability, maintainability and more functionality. Concerning the distribution substation application, digital relays have been applied for more than 10 years. Because of a number of electronic devices used for it, product cost becomes higher. Also, products installed during the past high-growth period will be at the end of lifetime and will be replaced. Therefore, replacing market is expected to grow and the reduction of cost is demanded. Considering above mentioned background, second generation digital protection and control unit as a successor is designed to have following concepts. Functional integration based on advanced digital technologies, Ethernet LAN based indoor communication network, cost reduction and downsizing. Pondering above concepts, integration of protection and control function is adopted in contrary to the functional segregation applied to the previous system in order to achieve one-unit concept. Also the adoption of Ethernet LAN for inter-unit communication is objective. This report shows the development of second-generation digital relay for distribution substation, which is equipped with control function and Ethernet LAN by reducing the size of auxiliary transformer unit and the same size as previous product is realized.

  1. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    .... Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review; Final Rule #0;#0... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health... reporting, utilization, and collection of data under the federal rate review program, and revises the...

  2. 76 FR 66927 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) AGENCY... Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) will be held November 16 and 17 at 2660 Woodley..., regulations, and other issues relating to children's environmental health. DATES: The CHPAC will meet from 9 a...

  3. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L.

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  4. 76 FR 66925 - Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC); Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... AGENCY Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC); Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY... Advisory Committee Act (FACA), 5 U.S.C. App.2. The Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC... children's health risks. Inquiries may be directed to Martha Berger, Designated Federal Officer, CHPAC, U.S...

  5. 45 CFR 164.524 - Access of individuals to protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protected health information about the individual in a designated record set, for as long as the protected health information is maintained in the designated record set, except for: (i) Psychotherapy notes; (ii... request for access is made by the individual's personal representative and a licensed health care...

  6. 45 CFR 164.528 - Accounting of disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Implementation specifications: Provision of the accounting. (1) The covered entity must act on the individual's... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of disclosures of protected health... Health Information § 164.528 Accounting of disclosures of protected health information. (a)...

  7. 45 CFR 164.520 - Notice of privacy practices for protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of privacy practices for protected health... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.520 Notice of privacy practices for protected health information. (a)...

  8. 45 CFR 164.520 - Notice of privacy practices for protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of privacy practices for protected health... DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164.520 Notice of privacy practices for protected health information. (a)...

  9. Public health protection through bank filtration - Kearney Nebraska case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esseks, E.; Bellamy, W.; Heinemann, T.; Stocker, K.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of Kearney's bank filtration system provides further evidence of this technology's capability to assist in providing public health protection, as it relates to drinking water. The results of hydrogeologic and treatment studies demonstrate the capabilities of the Platte River aquifer materials, in this locale, to remove pathogens and their surrogates. Continual monitoring and evaluations will establish the system’s longevity and continued treatment efficacy. The City of Kearney is located in south central Nebraska. The City owns and operates a public water system that serves approximately 24,889 people. The water system includes 12 wells located on Killgore Island in the Platte River. In 1994, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services System (Department) determined that 3 wells in the wellfield serving the City of Kearney were ground water under the direct influence of surface water. This determination was based on results of microscopic particulate analysis (MPA). The City of Kearney undertook the natural bank filtration study to determine whether natural bank filtration was occurring at the site and if the filtration was sufficient to meet pathogen treatment requirements designed to protect public health. A preliminary study was undertaken from June through October 1995. This coincided with the City’s peak pumping time, which may be the time when the influence of the River is greatest on the wellfield wells. Hydrogeologic studies assisted in selecting wells that were at highest risk based on shortest travel times and greatest differential head. Data collected included particle counts, MPAs, turbidity, coliform, centrifugate pellet evaluation (CPE) volumes, pH, conductivity, and temperature. Following analysis of data collected during the preliminary 18-week study the Department granted conditional approval of 2-log credit for removal of Giardia lamblia and 1-log credit for removal of viruses through bank filtration, pending the

  10. A perineal protection device designed to protect the perineum during labor: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lavesson, Tony; Griph, Inger D; Skärvad, Anna; Karlsson, Ann-Sofi; Nilsson, Helen B; Steinvall, Margareta; Haadem, Knut

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of a new device for reducing perineal tears during vaginal childbirth. A multicenter open randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed in Helsingborg, Lund and Malmö, Sweden consisting of 1148 women. Women anticipating a vaginal delivery were either randomized to the intervention group (n=574 in which the perineal protection device was used, or a control group (n=574), in which the perineal protection device was not used. The main outcome measurements were incidence of vaginal and perineal tears (1st to 4th degree tears) and adverse effects on the parturient and newborn. The incidences of first- and second-degree tears of the vagina (p=0.018) and perineum (p=0.005) were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with the controls. In the intervention- and control group, 184 women (34.9%) and 142 (26.6%) showed no perineal tearing, respectively (p=0.034). Numbers needed to treat to avoid any perianal tearing was 12. The incidence of anal sphincter rupture (ASR) was the same in both groups (n=19; 3.4%). No negative effects on mother or child from using the device were observed. The perineal protective device significantly reduced the incidence of first- and second-degree tears in the vagina and perineum during vaginal birth and also significantly increased the number of parturients with a fully intact posterior commissure. No significant reduction of ASR and no negative effects of the device were observed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Children’s Health Care and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Fry-Bowers, Eileen K.; Nicholas, William; Halfon, Neal

    2014-01-01

    Although the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hereafter referred to as the ACA) of 2010 does not explicitly target the health care needs of children, its significant reforms and cascading effects throughout our complex health system are likely to directly and indirectly affect children’s health care. The ACA increases insurance coverage for children and their families by covering comprehensive preventive services with no cost sharing, eliminating exclusions for preexisting conditions, prohibiting lifetime dollar limits, extending dependent health benefits to 26 years of age, and expanding coverage to many previously uninsured parents. Despite these advances, some provisions of the ACA have the potential to compromise children’s health care in unanticipated ways. Because children account for a disproportionately small percentage of overall health care spending, the effect of the ACA on children is not on the radar of those individuals implementing the ACA who are more focused on insurance expansion and cost control among adults. Thus, it falls to children’s health advocates to monitor the ACA’s effect on child health care, to both minimize harm and maximize opportunities for improvement. PMID:24756169

  12. [Survey on individual occupational health protection behaviors of welding workers using theory of reasoned action].

    PubMed

    Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying

    2012-03-01

    To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P < 0.01). the subjective norm of company was correlated with all protection behaviors (χ(2) = 20.60, 10.98 and 19.86, P < 0.01), the subjective norm of colleague was correlated with mask and earplug use, (χ(2) = 27.43, 36.39, P < 0.01), and the subjective norm of family was correlated with mask use (χ(2) = 5.73, P < 0.05). Theory of reasoned action is suitable for welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.

  13. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  14. Health risks and informal employment in South Africa: does formality protect health?

    PubMed

    Alfers, L; Rogan, M

    2015-01-01

    The association between work and health has not been well explored in the context of economically developing countries, largely due to inadequate data. The objective of this study was to identify the association between informal wage work and health in South Africa using a newly available data set that includes detailed information on both employment and health. To explore the relationship between formality, work, and health in South Africa, data from the first (2008) wave of the National Income Dynamic Study (NIDS) were analyzed. We constructed a "formality index" which represents work arrangements on a continuum of formality to informality allowing for a more nuanced analysis of the association between wage work and health. We found that formality of employment was significantly associated with health in South Africa, but that the protective effect of formality in employment on health was largely derived from the higher levels of income earned through more formal types of employment. Nevertheless, we did find that the association between informality and poor health was significantly greater for women in wage employment than for males.

  15. Protecting Bone Health in Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases: Pharmacological Considerations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujuan; Milojevic, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Bone health in children with rheumatic conditions may be compromised due to several factors related to the inflammatory disease state, delayed puberty, altered life style, including decreased physical activities, sun avoidance, suboptimal calcium and vitamin D intake, and medical treatments, mainly glucocorticoids and possibly some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Low bone density or even fragility fractures could be asymptomatic; therefore, children with diseases of high inflammatory load, such as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and those requiring chronic glucocorticoids may benefit from routine screening of bone health. Most commonly used assessment tools are laboratory testing including serum 25-OH-vitamin D measurement and bone mineral density measurement by a variety of methods, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as the most widely used. Early disease control, use of steroid-sparing medications such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biologics, supplemental vitamin D and calcium, and promotion of weight-bearing physical activities can help optimize bone health. Additional treatment options for osteoporosis such as bisphosphonates are still controversial in children with chronic rheumatic diseases, especially those with decreased bone density without fragility fractures. This article reviews common risk factors leading to compromised bone health in children with chronic rheumatic diseases and discusses the general approach to prevention and treatment of bone fragility.

  16. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  17. [Health promotion and computer science in radiation protection].

    PubMed

    Pennarola, R; Porzio, G; Cavaliere, L

    2007-01-01

    An automatic system of clinical-diagnostic information has been applied to workers exposed to ionising radiation at the University of Naples Federico II with reference to the last 5 years. For every person exposed a computerized case sheet was elaborated recording clinical, biological, dosimetric and other preventive data. In the localized risk, capillaroscopic monitoring was used. This research has highlighted the role of medical surveillance in developing health promotion criteria and the planning of the interventions with the complete control of all data in real time.

  18. Astronautical Hygiene - A New Discipline to Protect the Health of Astronauts Working in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, J. R.

    This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.

  19. A novel dentifrice technology for advanced oral health protection: A review of technical and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Baig, Arif; He, Tao

    2005-09-01

    Throughout the world, dentifrices have played a key role in the practice of good oral hygiene and promotion of better oral health. In addition to providing general dental cleaning, toothpastes also have served as an excellent vehicle for the introduction of new agents that deliver therapeutic and cosmetic benefits. Key examples of using dentifrices to provide added benefits include the introduction in 1955 of the first fluoridated toothpaste clinically proven to fight caries (Crest Cavity Protection) and the launch of the first tartar-control dentifrice (Crest Tartar Control) in the mid-1980s. To continue expanding the health and esthetic benefits offered by a single dentifrice, a multitude of agents have been investigated over the past 3 decades. The focus of these investigations has been in the multibenefit segment, the most widely used among US consumers.

  20. Upgrade reproductive health services to better protect women.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1998-06-01

    This article excerpts a speech by the State Family Planning Commissioner of China, among New York-based population-based nongovernmental organizations. Minister Peng Peiyun pointed out the successes of the family planning (FP) program in reducing the rate of natural increase from 2.6% to 1% during 1970-97. Lifetime fertility declined from 6 to 2 children. However, the annual net population increase amounts to 13 million. China's population size is expected to reach 1.4 billion by 2010, and zero population growth by 2050. FP must be a long term effort. FP should protect the rights and interests of women and enable women to have access to quality health services. FP aims to improve women's livelihood and social status. Margaret Sanger, in New York City during the early part of the century, helped women achieve similar improvements in their social and economic development as China tried to do in the 1950s. It is encouraging to view women's active participation in all aspects of social life at different periods historically and in different countries. Regardless how much progress is achieved, there are still deficiencies in some regions in China, in quality of services and reproductive health services. Some providers lack professional training. Some remote regions lack services. Son preference encourages higher fertility. Since the 1994 ICPD, China has become aware of the need to shift focus. China should update grassroots service facilities and upgrade services. China identifies model programs that provide quality FP services. China is still a long way from its goals and will need assistance.

  1. Pesticide assessment: Protecting public health on the home turf

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Meg; Walker, C Robin; van der Jagt, Richard HC; Claman, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Pesticide regulation is examined in the context of Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency’s assessment of the chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for turf. 2,4-D is the most common herbicide used to kill weeds in grass. The medical literature does not uniformly indicate harms from herbicides. However, the balance of epidemiological research suggests that 2,4-D can be persuasively linked to cancers, neurological impairment and reproductive problems. These may arise from 2,4-D itself, from breakdown products or dioxin contamination, or from a combination of chemicals. Regulators rely largely on toxicology, but experiments may not replicate exposures from 2,4-D application to lawns because environmental breakdown products (eg, 2,4-dichlorophenol) may not accumulate and selected herbicides are possibly less contaminated. Dioxins are bioaccumulative chemicals that may cause cancer, harm neurological development, impair reproduction, disrupt the endocrine system and alter immune function. No dioxin analyses were submitted to the Pest Management Regulatory Agency, and the principal contaminants of 2,4-D are not among the 17 congeners covered in pesticide regulation. Independent assessment of all dioxins is needed, in tissues and in the environment. The 2,4-D assessment does not approach standards for ethics, rigour or transparency in medical research. Canada needs a stronger regulator for pesticides. Potentially toxic chemicals should not be registered when more benign solutions exist, risks are not clearly quantifiable or potential risks outweigh benefits. Until landscaping pesticides are curtailed nationally, local bylaws and Quebec’s Pesticide Code are prudent measures to protect public health. Physicians have a role in public education regarding pesticides. PMID:19030278

  2. Response to health inequity: the role of social protection in reducing poverty and achieving equity.

    PubMed

    Scheil-Adlung, Xenia

    2014-06-01

    Health inequities are determined by multiple factors within the health sector and beyond. While gaps in social health protection coverage and effective access to health care are among the most prominent causes of health inequities, social and economic inequalities existing beyond the health sector contribute greatly to barriers to access affordable and acceptable health care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Making Health Care Safer Protect patients from antibiotic resistance Language: English ... hours later. Know when to stop antibiotic treatment. Health care facility CEOs/ administrators can Prevent infections and their ...

  4. Therapeutic games to improve attachment capabilities and protect sexual health.

    PubMed

    Beier, Klaus M; Rebensburg, Klaus; Behrmann, Malte

    2010-01-01

    From the very beginning of life, man's fundamental needs for acceptance, security, trust, warmth and closeness can only be satisfied in relationships [1]. During infancy this is accomplished by body contact and the emotional experience of being taken care of, for instance by the sheltering manner in which an infant is held during breast-feeding. Through this parental loving care the modus of satisfying psychosocial fundamental needs by skin contact is learned by the infant and reinforced on a neuronal level, the way all processes of learning elementary skills generally are. According to present knowledge, chronic lack of security transmitted by frustration of psychosocial fundamental needs increases the probability of developing psychological and physical disorders. Furthermore it hinders overcoming prevailing diseases [2]. In developing therapeutic computer games this phylogenetically established programming for attachment in order to fulfill fundamental psychosocial needs will be the focus of interaction, cognitive triggers and strategic as well as emotional rules to be applied in the games which are designed in a modular way for difficult developmental phases (e.g. adolescence) or various chronic diseases. This is a new approach transferring sexological clinical experience into therapeutic computer games for prevention purposes and protection of sexual health.

  5. [Human habitats and the protection of health in Islam].

    PubMed

    Hadrović, A

    1997-01-01

    Architecture is an expression so wide in its dimensions and meanings, that it can be compared to expression "life". Architecture is a synthesis and an expression of all rational and irrational that attributes a man, family, community in general, or mankind at all-im one hand; and rational expression of physical structure given by architects, in other hand. Thus, architecture comes down from the highest spheres of philosophy, sociology, discussions on ethics etc., to life. That is the way how architecture becomes defining frame of human life. Human habitude and health protection in islam could be elaborated through theoretical concept of architecturally defined space (ADS), that considers (treats) architecture as a complex system, consisting of four fundamental elements: man, environment, limits and perspectives. Each of these elements, when looking from the perspective of islam, has its specific characteristics, that author discusses in this paper. No doubt, in islamic sphere of life there is a wide spectrum of architectural programmes, that follows natural environment, and has a goal to confirm human and general social values.

  6. Integration of Health Protection and Health Promotion: Rationale, Indicators, and Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Glorian; McLellan, Deborah; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Boden, Leslie I.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Hashimoto, Dean; Stoddard, Anne; Wagner, Gregory R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer a definition of an “integrated” approach to worker health and operationalize this definition using indicators of the extent to which integrated efforts are implemented in an organization. Methods Guided by the question, “How will we know it when we see it?” we reviewed relevant literature to identify available definitions and metrics, and used a modified-Delphi process to review and refine indicators and measures of integrated approaches. Results A definition of integrated approaches to worker health is proposed and accompanied by indicators and measures that may be used by researchers, employers and workers. Conclusions A shared understanding of what is meant by integrated approaches to protect and promote worker health has the potential to improve dialogue among researchers and facilitate the research-to-practice process. PMID:24284762

  7. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  8. Health research and systems' governance are at risk: should the right to data protection override health?

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, C T; Carinci, F; Oderkirk, J

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Data Protection Regulation will have profound implications for public health, health services research and statistics in Europe. The EU Commission's Proposal was a breakthrough in balancing privacy rights and rights to health and healthcare. The European Parliament, however, has proposed extensive amendments. This paper reviews the amendments proposed by the European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs and their implications for health research and statistics. The amendments eliminate most innovations brought by the Proposal. Notably, derogation to the general prohibition of processing sensitive data shall be allowed for public interests such as the management of healthcare services,but not health research, monitoring, surveillance and governance. The processing of personal health data for historical, statistical or scientific purposes shall be allowed only with the consent of the data subject or if the processing serves an exceptionally high public interest, cannot be performed otherwise and is legally authorised. Research, be it academic, government,corporate or market research, falls under the same rule.The proposed amendments will make difficult or render impossible research and statistics involving the linkage and analysis of the wealth of data from clinical,administrative, insurance and survey sources, which have contributed to improving health outcomes and health systems performance and governance; and may illegitimise efforts that have been made in some European countries to enable privacy-respectful data use for research and statistical purposes. If the amendments stand as written, the right to privacy is likely to override the right to health and healthcare in Europe.

  9. Health promotion and the First Amendment: government control of the informational environment.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Javitt, G H

    2001-01-01

    Government efforts to protect public health often include controlling health information. The government may proscribe messages conveyed by commercial entities (e.g., false or misleading), recommend messages from commercial entities (e.g., warnings and safety instructions), and convey health messages (e.g., health communication campaigns). Through well-developed, albeit evolving, case law, government control of private speech has been constrained to avoid impinging on such values as free expression, truthfulness, and autonomous decision making. No simple legal framework has been developed for the government's own health messages to mediate between the legitimate goals of health protection and these other values. Nevertheless, government recommendations on matters of health raise difficult social and ethical questions and involve important societal trade-offs. Accordingly, this article proposes legal and ethical principles relating to government control of the health information environment.

  10. State protection by quantum control before and after noise processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamura, Hiroaki; Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    We discuss protection of a quantum state that goes through a noise process by measurements and operations before and after the noise process. In our previous work, we showed the nonexistence of "truly quantum" protocols that protect an unknown qubit state against depolarizing noise better than "classical" ones. Toward identifying the class of noise processes that is optimally suppressed by such a "classical" protocol, we extend our previous result in two directions. First, we show that the statement is also true in any finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, which was previously conjectured; the optimal protocol is either the do nothing protocol or the discriminate and reprepare protocol, depending on the strength of the noise. Second, in the case of a single qubit, we show that essentially the same conclusion holds for any unital noise. Thus, the noise must be nonunital for a control protocol beyond "classical" ones to exist.

  11. Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health.

  12. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  13. The frontoparietal control system: a central role in mental health.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael W; Repovš, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Recent findings suggest the existence of a frontoparietal control system consisting of flexible hubs that regulate distributed systems (e.g., visual, limbic, motor) according to current task goals. A growing number of studies are reporting alterations of this control system across a striking range of mental diseases. We suggest this may reflect a critical role for the control system in promoting and maintaining mental health. Specifically, we propose that this system implements feedback control to regulate symptoms as they arise (e.g., excessive anxiety reduced via regulation of amygdala), such that an intact control system is protective against a variety of mental illnesses. Consistent with this possibility, recent results indicate that several major mental illnesses involve altered brain-wide connectivity of the control system, likely altering its ability to regulate symptoms. These results suggest that this "immune system of the mind" may be an especially important target for future basic and clinical research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael W.; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the existence of a frontoparietal control system consisting of ‘flexible hubs’ that regulate distributed systems (e.g., visual, limbic, motor) according to current task goals. A growing number of studies are reporting alterations of this control system across a striking range of mental diseases. We suggest this may reflect a critical role for the control system in promoting and maintaining mental health. Specifically, we propose that this system implements feedback control to regulate symptoms as they arise (e.g., excessive anxiety reduced via regulation of amygdala), such that an intact control system is protective against a variety of mental illnesses. Consistent with this possibility, recent results indicate that several major mental illnesses involve altered brain-wide connectivity of the control system, likely altering its ability to regulate symptoms. These results suggest that this ‘immune system of the mind’ may be an especially important target for future basic and clinical research. PMID:24622818

  15. Regulation for the enforcement of federal health care provider conscience protection laws. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-02-23

    The Department of Health and Human Services issues this final rule which provides that enforcement of the federal statutory health care provider conscience protections will be handled by the Department's Office for Civil Rights, in conjunction with the Department's funding components. This Final Rule rescinds, in part, and revises, the December 19, 2008 Final Rule entitled "Ensuring That Department of Health and Human Services Funds Do Not Support Coercive or Discriminatory Policies or Practices in Violation of Federal Law" (the "2008 Final Rule"). Neither the 2008 final rule, nor this final rule, alters the statutory protections for individuals and health care entities under the federal health care provider conscience protection statutes, including the Church Amendments, Section 245 of the Public Health Service Act, and the Weldon Amendment. These federal statutory health care provider conscience protections remain in effect.

  16. 78 FR 78071 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Adjustments to the Allowance System for Controlling HCFC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... December 24, 2013 Part VI Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 82 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone... PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 82 RIN 2060-AR04 Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Adjustments to the Allowance System for Controlling HCFC Production, Import and Export AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  17. Does Community-Based Health Insurance Protect Household Assets? Evidence from Rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Divya; Reinhold, Steffen; Souares, Aurélia; Savadogo, Germain; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether community-based health insurance (CBHI) protects household assets in rural Burkina Faso, Africa. Data Sources Data were used from a household panel survey that collected primary data from randomly selected households, covering 41 villages and one town, during 2004–2007(n = 890). Study Design The study area was divided into 33 clusters and CBHI was randomly offered to these clusters during 2004–2006. We applied different strategies to control for selection bias—ordinary least squares with covariates, two-stage least squares with instrumental variable, and fixed-effects models. Data Collection Household members were interviewed in their local language every year, and information was collected on demographic and socio-economic indicators including ownership of assets, and on self-reported morbidity. Principal Findings Fixed-effects and ordinary least squares models showed that CBHI protected household assets during 2004–2007. The two-stage least squares with instrumental variable model showed that CBHI increased household assets during 2004–2005. Conclusions In this study, we found that CBHI has the potential to not only protect household assets but also increase household assets. However, similar studies from developing countries that evaluate the impact of health insurance on household economic indicators are needed to benchmark these results with other settings. PMID:22091950

  18. 45 CFR 164.524 - Access of individuals to protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... protected health information about the individual in a designated record set, for as long as the protected health information is maintained in the designated record set, except for: (i) Psychotherapy notes; (ii...) Subject to the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments of 1988, 42 U.S.C. 263a, to the extent the...

  19. 77 FR 14519 - Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the next meeting of the Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) will be held March 28 and 29 at Mount Vernon Place, 900... AGENCY Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) AGENCY:...

  20. 75 FR 69070 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the next meeting of the Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) will be held December 2 and 3, 2010 at the Westin... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)...

  1. Are health care personnel trained in correct use of personal protective equipment?

    PubMed

    John, Amrita; Tomas, Myreen E; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Mana, Thriveen S C; Jencson, Annette; Shaikh, Aaron; Zabarsky, Trina F; Wilson, Brigid M; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-07-01

    Effective use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential to protect personnel and patients in health care settings. However, in a survey of 222 health care personnel, PPE training was often suboptimal with no requirement for demonstration of proficiency. Fourteen percent of physicians reported no previous training in use of PPE. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  3. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  4. 77 FR 17052 - Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... AGENCY Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and Department of... between the Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of..., Information Technology and Resources Management Division (7502P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental...

  5. Social History, Mental Health, and Community Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Charles

    1972-01-01

    The professional mental health community, which had romanticized the concept of community control, is presently becoming disenchanted with it due to the lack of facility and skills for working with it. The task is to understand and evaluate community control and to alter only those aspects found destructive to community well-being. (DM)

  6. 2013 Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Meeting Agendas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objectives for three meetings in 2013 include discussing social determinants of health, prenatal health, brownfields, healthy housing, asthma disparities, pesticides, ozone, perchlorate, and environmental justice.

  7. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

  8. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section establishes... stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on the...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section... would impose a more stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health...

  10. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section... would impose a more stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health...

  11. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section establishes... stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on the...

  12. [Historical reflections on health protection and the condom].

    PubMed

    Forrai, J

    1991-12-01

    The condom was first mentioned in a 1564 writing by Gabriel Fallopius as a means of protection against syphilis describing his tests on 1100 people. The name itself has been ascribed to the Latin word condere, Cum Domino, the French city of Condom, and doctor Quondom, the physician of the English King Charles II. The Marquis de Sade and Casanova used it to avoid venereal diseases (VDs). In London condom manufacturing started in the 18th century. Later it became a symbol of prostitution and immorality. The material used consisted of fish bladder or animal intestines (calf, sheep). The discovery of the rubber tree and the invention of vulcanization by the American technician Goodyear in 1840 made possible large-scale production. In Hungary the 1st rubber manufacturing plant EMERGE started production in 1893 along with toys and other wares. IN 1895 the HUngarian medial association warned about the spread of syphilis facilitated by the activities of 15,400 syphilitic prostitutes in the country. 30% of hospital patients had syphilis. The use of the condom was limited, and illegitimate births increased by 10.5% during the millennium celebrations of Hungary's existence in 1896. EMERGE manufactured condoms called Nono which were mostly distributed to soldiers during World War I, yet they had little popularity. US soldiers did not use the condoms either, as 7 million active days were lost due to VDs during World War II. In the 1950's Anna Ratko was Minister of Health in Hungary who opposed promotion of condoms to increase the population. The invention of penicillin in 1942 also pushed the condom to the background, but in the 1980's the epidemic of AIDS has made its use widespread.

  13. Travelers' Health: Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Arthropods

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 2 (21) Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & ...

  14. Brattleboro Company Takes Steps to Better Protect Public Health under EPA Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Brattleboro, Vt., company that manufactures coatings will design and install a system that captures and controls solvent vapors at its plant, ensuring that workers are protected from solvent emissions and that the environment is protected...

  15. Health and Environmental Protection: A Survey of Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtowicz, G. Greg

    Are students aware of the link between environmental hazards and disease? What are the parameters of individual and social responsibility as they relate to environmental protection? What are the attitudes that inhibit or support the development of environmental protection behavior? Answers to these questions may help teachers to develop effective…

  16. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  17. Protecting worker health and safety using remote handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing and installing two large-scale, remotely controlled systems for use in improving worker health and safety by minimizing exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The first system is a full-scale liquid feed system for use in delivering chemical reagents to LLNL`s existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). The Tank Farm facility is used to remove radioactive and toxic materials in aqueous wastes prior to discharge to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP), in accordance with established discharge limits. Installation of this new reagent feed system improves operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need to manually handle reagents used in the treatment processes. This was done by installing a system that can inject precisely metered amounts of various reagents into the treatment tanks and can be controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The second system uses a robotic manipulator to remotely handle, characterize, process, sort, and repackage hazardous wastes containing tritium. This system uses an IBM-developed gantry robot mounted within a special glove box enclosure designed to isolate tritiated wastes from system operators and minimize the potential for release of tritium to the atmosphere. Tritiated waste handling is performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. The system is compatible with an existing portable gas cleanup unit designed to capture any gas-phase tritium inadvertently released into the glove box during waste handling.

  18. To what extent does a tobacco carve-out protect public health in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement?

    PubMed

    Hirono, Katherine; Gleeson, Deborah; Freeman, Becky

    2016-04-15

    In November 2015, negotiations of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement came to a close with the release of the final text. It included an optional carve-out (exclusion) for tobacco control measures from the TPP's investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. Despite the apparent 'win' for the field of tobacco control, the limited scope of the carve-out provides only partial protection for public health regulatory measures.

  19. Practical and affordable measures for the protection of health care workers from tuberculosis in low-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Maher, D.; Nunn, P.

    1997-01-01

    With the global upsurge in tuberculosis (TB), fueled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, and the increase in multidrug-resistant TB, the condition has become a serious occupational hazard for health care workers worldwide. Much of the current understanding about nosocomial TB transmission stems from the USA; however, little is known about the risk of such transmission in low-income countries. The focus of this review is on sub-Saharan Africa, since this is the region with the highest TB incidence, the highest HIV incidence, the worst epidemic of HIV-related TB, and where the risk to health care workers is probably greatest. Measures used in industralized countries to control nosocomial TB transmission (ventilation systems, isolation rooms, personal protective equipment) are beyond the resources of low-income countries. Protecting health care workers in these settings involves practical measures relating to diagnosis and treatment of infectious cases; appropriate environmental control; and relevant personal protection and surveillance of health care workers. Research needs to be carried out to examine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of measures such as voluntary HIV-testing of health care workers (to enable known HIV-positive health care workers to avoid high-risk settings) and isoniazid preventive therapy for workers in high-risk settings. More resources are also needed to ensure full implementation of currently recommended measures to decrease the risk of nosocomial and laboratory-acquired TB. PMID:9447782

  20. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Benn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition. PMID:24623907

  1. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents: associated risk and protective correlates.

    PubMed

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine; Melhus, Marita; Kvernmo, Siv Eli; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami. Cross-sectional data were collected from "Well-being among Youth in Greenland" (WBYG) and "The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study" (NAAHS), conducted during 2003-2005 and comprising 10th and 11th graders, 378 Inuit and 350 Sami. SRH was assessed by one single item, using a 4-point and 5-point scale for NAAHS and WBYG, respectively. Logistic regressions were performed separately for each indigenous group using a dichotomous measure with "very good" (NAAHS) and "very good/good" (WBYG) as reference categories. We simultaneously controlled for various socio-demographics, risk correlates (drinking, smoking, violence and suicidal behaviour) and protective correlates (physical activity, well-being in school, number of close friends and adolescent-parent relationship). A majority of both Inuit (62%) and Sami (89%) youth reported "good" or "very good" SRH. The proportion of "poor/fair/not so good" SRH was three times higher among Inuit than Sami (38% vs. 11%, p≤0.001). Significantly more Inuit females than males reported "poor/fair" SRH (44% vs. 29%, p≤0.05), while no gender differences occurred among Sami (12% vs. 9%, p≤0.08). In both indigenous groups, suicidal thoughts (risk) and physical activity (protective) were associated with poor and good SRH, respectively. In accordance with other studies of indigenous adolescents, suicidal thoughts were strongly associated with poorer SRH among Sami and Inuit. The Inuit-Sami differences in SRH could partly be due to higher "risk" and lower "protective" correlates among Inuit than Sami. The positive impact of physical activity on SRH needs to be targeted in future intervention programs.

  2. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  3. Travelers' Health: Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Arthropods

    MedlinePlus

    ... have been specified in the list above. Repellency Awareness Graphic The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows companies ... ptype/repel.html Figure 2-01. Sample repellency awareness graphic for skin-applied insect repellents 1 View ...

  4. Health-system strengthening and tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David

    2010-06-19

    Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice.

  5. How well do international drug conventions protect public health?

    PubMed

    Room, Robin; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-07

    The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 aimed to eliminate the illicit production and non-medical use of cannabis, cocaine, and opioids, an aim later extended to many pharmaceutical drugs. Over the past 50 years international drug treaties have neither prevented the globalisation of the illicit production and non-medical use of these drugs, nor, outside of developed countries, made these drugs adequately available for medical use. The system has also arguably worsened the human health and wellbeing of drug users by increasing the number of drug users imprisoned, discouraging effective countermeasures to the spread of HIV by injecting drug users, and creating an environment conducive to the violation of drug users' human rights. The international system has belatedly accepted measures to reduce the harm from injecting drug use, but national attempts to reduce penalties for drug use while complying with the treaties have often increased the number of drug users involved with the criminal justice system. The international treaties have also constrained national policy experimentation because they require nation states to criminalise drug use. The adoption of national policies that are more aligned with the risks of different drugs and the effectiveness of controls will require the amendment of existing treaties, the formulation of new treaties, or withdrawal of states from existing treaties and re-accession with reservations.

  6. The importance of traceability for public health and consumer protection.

    PubMed

    McKean, J D

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1980s, concerns about the safety and quality of food have increased at both governmental and consumer levels. The importance of traceability of animals and animal products has grown as food production and marketing have been removed from direct consumer control. Product traceability, which requires a transparent chain of custody to maintain credibility and to complete information transfer functions, has two components, namely: a unique identification system, and a credible and verifiable mechanism for identity preservation. Traceability systems can be subdivided into the following four categories: country of origin; retail; processor; and farm-to-retail identity. Although the availability of computers and electronic data devices can enhance the speed and accuracy of data acquisition and manipulation, a common set of developmental criteria exists, irrespective of data-handling processes. As data management technologies become more powerful and less costly, product traceability requirements will multiply. Public and private sectors should seize these opportunities to improve public health and quality parameters, or risk a narrowing of their markets.

  7. Worker rights and health protection for prostitutes: a comparison of The Netherlands, Germany, and Nevada.

    PubMed

    Seals, Maryann

    2015-01-01

    I analyze prostitution policy changes regarding worker rights and health protection for legal prostitutes in The Netherlands, Germany, and Nevada to determine whether the changes benefit the prostitutes. I critically analyze and compare laws, government policy briefs, advocacy studies, books, articles, and ethnographic studies. Problems were revealed in recognizing prostitution as legitimate work and in realization of health protection. Health and safety concerns exist in The Netherlands and Germany where policy does not mandate health requirements and condom usage. Nevada law requires safety precautions, health testing, and condom usage, resulting in no legal prostitutes testing positive for HIV.

  8. The need to include animal protection in public health policies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-11-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development.

  9. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  10. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  11. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  12. Role of the Office International des Epizooties in protecting the health of free-ranging mammals.

    PubMed

    Blancou, J

    1992-12-01

    The various activities undertaken by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1924 to protect the helth of free-ranging mammals are outlined and discussed. Two types of activity have been conducted over the years: --The first type promotes measures to protect the health of free-ranging mammals in order to safeguard the health of domestic animals and human beings. These measures have prevented the propagation of the highly contagious diseases of animals and the more serious zoonoses. --The second type aims at protecting the health of free-ranging mammals in order to maintain the fauna and the natural equilibrium. Ecological and epidemiological studies are promoted with a view to effective management of wildlife populations and overcoming the associated health risks. By virtue of its close contacts with officials in charge of animal health in 126 Member Countries, the OIE has made a noteworthy contribution to the protection of populations of free-ranging mammals.

  13. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Cipiti, Ben; Demuth, Scott Francis; Fallgren, Andrew James; Jarman, Ken; Li, Shelly; Meier, Dave; Miller, Mike; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  14. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  15. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  16. [Protecting health of workers and predictive preventive personified medicine].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Prokopenko, L V; Kuz'mina, L P

    2013-01-01

    Industrial medicine is an integrated sphere of preventive medicine, aimed to regulate health of workers and concerned with scentific basis and practical application of means and methods to preserve and improve workers' health. The article covers major research trends in workers' health preservation, results of fundamental studies on pathogenetic mechanisms and developmental patterns of contemporary occupational and industrial pathologies, prospects of predictive personified trend development and its application in industrial medicine.

  17. The responsibility of healthcare institutions to protect global health security.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; McDougall, Christopher; Forster, Alan

    2009-01-01

    New public threats that can rapidly cross borders are continuing to challenge global health securityand will require unprecedented levels of co-operation. At the international level, the response to this challenge led to the approval of revised International Health Regulations (IHR). This unanimously approved document outlines how countries are to prepare for and respond to public health emergencies of international concern in a manner that does not unnecessarily impact on travel and trade.

  18. 78 FR 44947 - Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... policy, research, and in specific issues such as lead poisoning and asthma, prenatal environmental... disparities and other environmental health disparities; Data and information collection issues; Lead,...

  19. 45 CFR 164.526 - Amendment of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELATED REQUIREMENTS SECURITY AND PRIVACY Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information § 164... otherwise providing a link to the location of the amendment. (2) Informing the individual. In...

  20. Protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in Asia.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza A (H5N1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. These pandemic viral diseases originated in South East Asia. Many human and animal lives were lost. Economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. The question arises of why did the pandemics originate from South East Asian areas. Human influenza A consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the SARS virus and the avian influenza (H5N1) that are all variants of RNA of avian coronavirus. Variants are formed during infection of a coronavirus through not only birds but also mammals, including human beings. There are hot spots where viral infection rates are accelerated among birds, mammals and human beings. Suspicious areas are in South East Asia, where living conditions of birds, mammals and human beings are so close that there are always risks of viral infection. When we see the living conditions of farmers in southern China, northern Vietnam, Laos and northern Myanmar, they commonly raise ducks/chickens with pigs sharing ponds into which they discharge household wastewater, including human excreta, and pig excreta that are significant carriers of viruses. Bird faeces are also key carriers of the viruses. In the ponds, they raise ducks and conduct fish culture. Other important players are migrating birds from North Asia, which are principal vectors of avian influenza viruses. There is an urgent necessity of improving human and ecological health in South East Asia to control viral infection among birds, mammals and human beings. We can hinder the vicious cycle of virus infection through water contamination in ponds by providing good human, pig and chicken sanitation. It is easy to provide good sanitation practices for human, pigs and chickens, introducing collection and treatment of excreta. Our modern water technology can find good solutions for the problem.

  1. Health System Innovation: Lessons from Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Garcia, John

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive tobacco control is considered by many to be a model for effective population health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Its history holds lessons for the "scalable, actionable, innovation agenda" called for by Anne Snowdon (2017). This commentary discusses lessons from tobacco control related to: changing practices in response to evolving paradigms and scientific evidence; international best practices; the importance of a broadly-accepted, shared vision about elements of an effective strategy; scientific and public service leadership; social actors leading change through advocacy, policy and the media; organizational learning mechanisms and capacity building systems; and, the importance of a continuously renewing, forward-looking agenda. The end-game for tobacco forms part of Canada's health innovation agenda and lessons from tobacco control may inform this important forward-looking strategy.

  2. Fire Protection Engineering Survey of Air Traffic Control Towers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    tower fire water system. Fire water is supplied by the city distribution system. Hydrants are located along Fairfax Road. EXITING FACILITIES There are...Protection Water Supply There is no in tower fire water system. Fire water protection is apparently supplied off the city water distribution system...needed. Fire Protection Water Supply The tower has no fire water protection. There are no fire hydrants in the area. Well water supplies domestic

  3. The financial protection effect of Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme: evidence from a study in two rural districts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the key functions of health insurance is to provide financial protection against high costs of health care, yet evidence of such protection from developing countries has been inconsistent. The current study uses the case of Ghana to contribute to the evidence pool about insurance's financial protection effects. It evaluates the impact of the country's National Health Insurance Scheme on households' out-of-pocket spending and catastrophic health expenditure. Methods We use data from a household survey conducted in two rural districts, Nkoranza and Offinso, in 2007, two years after the initiation of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. To address the skewness of health expenditure data, the absolute amount of out-of-pocket spending is estimated using a two-part model. We also conduct a probit estimate of the likelihood of catastrophic health expenditures, defined at different thresholds relative to household income and non-food consumption expenditure. The analysis controls for chronic and self-assessed health conditions, which typically drive adverse selection in insurance. Results At the time of the survey, insurance coverage was 35 percent. Although the benefit package of insurance is generous, insured people still incurred out-of-pocket payment for care from informal sources and for uncovered drugs and tests at health facilities. Nevertheless, they paid significantly less than the uninsured. Insurance has been shown to have a protective effect against the financial burden of health care, reducing significantly the likelihood of incurring catastrophic payment. The effect is particularly remarkable among the poorest quintile of the sample. Conclusions Findings from this study confirm the positive financial protection effect of health insurance in Ghana. The effect is stronger among the poor group than among general population. The results are encouraging for many low income countries who are considering a similar policy to expand social

  4. Financial risk protection and universal health coverage: evidence and measurement challenges.

    PubMed

    Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B

    2014-09-01

    Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC.

  5. Financial Risk Protection and Universal Health Coverage: Evidence and Measurement Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, Priyanka; Hsu, Justine; Evans, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper presents the rationale behind the methodologies for measuring financial risk protection and how this relates to UHC as well as some empirical examples of the types of measures. Additionally, the specific challenges related to monitoring inequalities in financial risk protection are discussed. The paper then goes on to examine and document the practical challenges associated with measurement of financial risk protection. This paper summarizes current thinking on the area of financial risk protection, provides novel insights, and suggests future developments that could be valuable in the context of monitoring progress towards UHC. PMID:25244520

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS AT UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently published two different indicators reports, America's Children and the Environment (ACE) and the Draft Report on the Environment (see: http://www.epa.gov/indicators/ and http://www.epa.gov/envirohealth/children/). ACE...

  7. Force health protection: 10 years of lessons learned by the Department of Defense.

    PubMed

    Trump, David H; Mazzuchi, John F; Riddle, James; Hyams, Kenneth C; Balough, Brian

    2002-03-01

    The Department of Defense has applied lessons learned since the Persian Gulf War to develop the force health protection (FHP) strategy. The goal of this new, unified strategy is to protect the health of military members from medical and environmental hazards associated with military service to the maximum extent possible. FHP is an evolving strategy that seeks to balance the military health system's responsibilities to promote and sustain health and wellness throughout each person's military service; prevent acute and chronic illnesses and injuries during training and deployment; and rapidly stabilize, treat, and evacuate casualties. In addition, FHP demands a continuous assessment of the current and future health of military members through medical surveillance, longitudinal health studies, adequate medical record documentation, and clinical follow-up. Effective communication with military members, leaders, veterans, families, and the public regarding military members' health status and the health risks of military service is a key element of the FHP strategy.

  8. Fact Sheet: Revised National Recommended Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Human Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2003 Revised National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. 15 Pollutants revised criteria will be published including, chlorobenzene, cyanide, endrin, ethylbenzene, lindane, thallium, toluene, and more.

  9. 45 CFR 164.514 - Other requirements relating to uses and disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Locators (URLs); (O) Internet Protocol (IP) address numbers; (P) Biometric identifiers, including finger... Universal Resource Locators (URLs); (xiv) Internet Protocol (IP) address numbers; (xv) Biometric identifiers... procedures (which may be standard protocols) that limit the protected health information disclosed to...

  10. 45 CFR 164.514 - Other requirements relating to uses and disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Locators (URLs); (O) Internet Protocol (IP) address numbers; (P) Biometric identifiers, including finger... Universal Resource Locators (URLs); (xiv) Internet Protocol (IP) address numbers; (xv) Biometric identifiers... procedures (which may be standard protocols) that limit the protected health information disclosed to...

  11. 10 CFR 20.2007 - Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2007 Compliance with environmental and health protection regulations. Nothing... regulations governing any other toxic or hazardous properties of materials that may be disposed of under...

  12. Protecting visitor health in beach waters of Lake Michigan: problems and opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will review past research on Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and its relationship to recreational waters. Further, we will discuss current monitoring research and future prospects for improving monitoring efficiency to protect the health of beachgoers.

  13. Health research ethics in public health: trials and implementation of malaria mosquito control strategies.

    PubMed

    Kilama, Wen L

    2009-11-01

    Health research ethics has its roots in protecting individuals participating in clinical trials. There is, however, nascent interest in ethics in public health, although it does not yet cover ethics in the development of public health products. The paper reviews the history of the development of malaria vector interventions, which initially aimed at promoting colonial interests. Attempts at eradicating malaria in Africa ended in 1969, and DDT, the leading malaria vector control tool was banned soon after. Insecticide Treated Nets, which later gave rise to Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets have resurrected malaria mosquito vector control, and their development has set new benchmarks, which it is suggested should be followed by all vector control tools under development. Furthermore, DDT has been exonerated and is back in the vector control arsenal. New tools under development include the sterile male technique, genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and odorants.The paper proposes that these new tools be tested in community settings, abiding by all the leading bioethical principles, and calls for the development and implementation of international ethical guidelines for trials in public health.

  14. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  15. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  16. [The systemic approach to the health protection in the workers of industrial enterprises].

    PubMed

    Oransky, I E; Razumov, A N; Fedorov, A A

    This paper presents the results of the systemic approach to the protection of health and prophylaxis of disability in the workers of industrial enterprises. The leading role in the technologies of rehabilitation (both short-term and long-term one) is played by the natural and physical therapeutic factors. The priority in the implementation of the therapeutic and health-promoting measures is given to the treatment based on the spa and health resort facilities as well as the factory health centers.

  17. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  18. 78 FR 48683 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Personal Protective Technology (PPT...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Health (NIOSH) Personal Protective Technology (PPT) Program; Framework Document for the Healthcare Worker... availability of a document titled ``Framework for Setting the NIOSH PPT Program Action Plan for Healthcare... ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NIOSH personal protective technology (PPT) program publishes and periodically...

  19. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  20. 78 FR 41928 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the..., USEPA, MC 1107A, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20460, (202) 564-2191 or...

  1. 78 FR 14790 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the..., DC 20460, (202) 564-2191 or berger.martha@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meetings of...

  2. 75 FR 9410 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the... 1107A, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460, (202) 564-2191,...

  3. 78 FR 65644 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the..., USEPA, MC 1107A, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20460, (202) 564-2191 or...

  4. 76 FR 36918 - Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... AGENCY Notice of Meeting of the EPA's Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee (CHPAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the..., NW., Washington, DC 20460, (202) 564-2191, berger.martha@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  5. Interagency Collaboration between Child Protection and Mental Health Services: Practices, Attitudes and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Judith A.; Rixon, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine some of the factors that facilitate and hinder interagency collaboration between child protection services and mental health services in cases where there is a parent with a mental illness and there are protection concerns for the child(ren). The paper reports on agency practices, worker attitudes and…

  6. Interagency Collaboration between Child Protection and Mental Health Services: Practices, Attitudes and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Judith A.; Rixon, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine some of the factors that facilitate and hinder interagency collaboration between child protection services and mental health services in cases where there is a parent with a mental illness and there are protection concerns for the child(ren). The paper reports on agency practices, worker attitudes and…

  7. Peer-Victimization and Mental Health Problems in Adolescents: Are Parental and School Support Protective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age…

  8. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents: associated risk and protective correlates

    PubMed Central

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine; Melhus, Marita; Kvernmo, Siv Eli; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami. Design Cross-sectional data were collected from “Well-being among Youth in Greenland” (WBYG) and “The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study” (NAAHS), conducted during 2003–2005 and comprising 10th and 11th graders, 378 Inuit and 350 Sami. Methods SRH was assessed by one single item, using a 4-point and 5-point scale for NAAHS and WBYG, respectively. Logistic regressions were performed separately for each indigenous group using a dichotomous measure with “very good” (NAAHS) and “very good/good” (WBYG) as reference categories. We simultaneously controlled for various socio-demographics, risk correlates (drinking, smoking, violence and suicidal behaviour) and protective correlates (physical activity, well-being in school, number of close friends and adolescent–parent relationship). Results A majority of both Inuit (62%) and Sami (89%) youth reported “good” or “very good” SRH. The proportion of “poor/fair/not so good” SRH was three times higher among Inuit than Sami (38% vs. 11%, p≤0.001). Significantly more Inuit females than males reported “poor/fair” SRH (44% vs. 29%, p≤0.05), while no gender differences occurred among Sami (12% vs. 9%, p≤0.08). In both indigenous groups, suicidal thoughts (risk) and physical activity (protective) were associated with poor and good SRH, respectively. Conclusions In accordance with other studies of indigenous adolescents, suicidal thoughts were strongly associated with poorer SRH among Sami and Inuit. The Inuit–Sami differences in SRH could partly be due to higher “risk” and lower “protective” correlates among Inuit than Sami. The positive impact of physical activity on SRH needs to be targeted in future intervention programs. PMID:23396865

  9. [Concept of personal data relating to health in the law of personal data protection].

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Jesús Rubí

    2006-01-01

    The Law on the Protection of Data states that health data are sensible data and therefore subject to a strengthened system of guarantees. In order to apply this, the information must make reference to physical persons and must be susceptible of being included within the concept of health data. The resolutions of the Spanish Agency for Data Protection and the rulings of the Courts provide very valuable elements to clarify both concepts.

  10. Will the new Australian health privacy law provide adequate protection?

    PubMed

    Bomba, David; Hallit, George

    2002-01-01

    Amendments to the original Privacy Act (1988) come at a key point in time, as a national medical record system looms on the Australian horizon. Changes to The Privacy Act have the potential to define a level of information privacy prior to the implementation of such a system. We have therefore collected expert opinions on the ability of the Health Privacy Guidelines (enacted in December 2001 under The Privacy Act and hereafter more specifically known as Health Privacy Legislation) to ensure the privacy and security of patient information. We conclude that the legislation is flawed in its capacity to withstand an increasingly corporatised health sector. Deficiencies in consent requirements, together with feeble enforcement capabilities, mean The Legislation cannot effectively ensure that personally identifiable information will not end up in corporate third party hands. To significantly bolster the new legislation, we argue that it should be supplemented with explicit health data legislation and privacy auditing.

  11. 2006 Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Meeting Agendas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objectives for the three meetings in 2006 include discussing emerging chemicals of concern, Children's Health Research Center, toxicology screening, green chemistry, body burden, perchlorate, and National Ambient Air Quality for particulates.

  12. Health Care Provider and Hospital Conscience Protection Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2011-08-02

    Senate - 08/02/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Health Care Provider and Hospital Conscience Protection Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2013-01-24

    Senate - 01/24/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Protecting Pakistan's health during the global economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Jooma, R; Khan, A; Khan, A A

    2012-03-01

    The world is facing an unprecedented global economic crisis, with many countries needing to reconsider their level of health care spending. This paper explores the many consequences of the global economic turndown on Pakistan's health, including reduced government and donor spending and increased poverty with the consequent diversion of funds away from health. Nevertheless, these challenges may provide opportunities not only to mitigate the adverse effects of the economic crisis but also to institute some much-needed reforms that may not receive political support during more affluent times. Our suggestions focus on setting priorities based on the national disease burden, prioritizing prevention interventions, demanding results, curbing corruption, experimenting with innovative funding mechanisms, advocating for increased funding by presenting health spending as an investment rather than an expense and by selected recourse to civil society interventions and philanthropy to bridge the gap between available and needed resources.

  15. 2007 Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee Meeting Agendas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objectives for the three meetings in 2007 include discussing mutagenic mode of action, National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead, Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units, and emerging chemicals of concern.

  16. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; establishment of exchanges and qualified health plans; Small Business Health Options Program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-06-04

    This final rule implements provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act) related to the Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP). Specifically, this final rule amends existing regulations regarding triggering events and special enrollment periods for qualified employees and their dependents and implements a transitional policy regarding employees' choice of qualified health plans (QHPs) in the SHOP.

  17. Toxicology primer: understanding workplace hazards and protecting worker health.

    PubMed

    Arble, Janice

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous substances are ubiquitous in the environment and common in industrialized societies. Serious harm can occur with sufficient exposures under certain conditions. However, much harm can be avoided if hazardous substances are handled with respect and appreciation for their use and potential. Occupational health nurses must be aware of potential hazards to employees in the work environment and apply scientific principles to their practice of promoting worker safety and health.

  18. BC: campaign launched to protect personal health information.

    PubMed

    Garmaise, David

    2004-12-01

    A diverse group of rights, health, union, and HIV/AIDS organizations has launched a province-wide campaign to demand that the British Columbia government cease contracting out the administration of its medical plans to a private US company. The Right to Privacy Campaign (RPC) believes that the government's contract with Maximus Inc. places British Columbians' confidential health and related information within easy reach of US government agencies as a result of provisions in the USA PATRIOT Act and other US legislation.

  19. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. Methods The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Results Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health

  20. Tracking humanitarian funding for reproductive health: a systematic analysis of health and protection proposals from 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Mihoko; Schaus, Kristen; Rastogi, Sonia; Krause, Sandra K; Patel, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    The Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises conducted a ten-year global evaluation of reproductive health in humanitarian settings. This paper examines proposals for reproductive health activities under humanitarian health and protection funding mechanisms for 2002-2013, and the level at which these reproductive health proposals were funded. The study used English and French health and protection proposal data for 2002-2013, extracted from the Financial Tracking Service (FTS) database managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Every project was reviewed for relevance against pre-determined reproductive health definitions for 2002-2008. An in-depth analysis was additionally conducted for 2009-2013 through systematically reviewing proposals via a key word search and subsequently classifying them under designated reproductive health categories. Among the relevant reproductive health proposals, counts and proportions were calculated in Excel based on their reproductive health components, primarily by year. Contributions, requests, and unfunded requests were calculated based on the data provided by FTS. Among the 11,347 health and protection proposals issued from 345 emergencies between 2002 and 2013, 3,912 were relevant to reproductive health (34.5%). The number of proposals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 21.9% per year, while the proportion of health and protection sector appeals containing reproductive health activities increased by an average of 10.1% per year. The total funding request over the 12 years amounted to $4.720 billion USD, of which $2.031 billion USD was received. Among reproductive health components for 2009-2013 proposals, maternal newborn health comprised the largest proportion (56.4%), followed by reproductive health-related gender-based violence (45.9%), HIV/sexually transmitted infections (37.5%), general reproductive health (26.2%), and lastly

  1. Identifying Protective Factors to Promote Health in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Henson, Michele; Sabo, Samantha; Trujillo, Aurora; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to protective factors, conditions that protect against the occurrence of an undesirable outcome or promote the occurrence of a desirable outcome within an adolescent's environment, can foster healthy adolescent behaviors and reduce adult morbidity and mortality. Yet, little is known about the nature and effect of protective factors on the positive social and health outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents. We conducted a review of the literature to identify the protective factors associated with positive health outcomes among AIAN adolescents. We consulted Elsevier Science Direct, ERIC EBSCOhost, PubMed, and the Web of Science databases. A total of 3421 articles were encountered. Excluded publications were those that did not focus on AIAN adolescents (n = 3341), did not identify protective factors (n = 56), were not original research studies (n = 8), or were not written in the English language. We identified nine categories of protective factors positively associated with health and social outcomes, including: current and/or future aspirations, personal wellness, positive self-image, self-efficacy, non-familial connectedness, family connectedness, positive opportunities, positive social norms, and cultural connectedness. Such factors positively influenced adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and substance use; delinquent and violent behavior; emotional health including depression, suicide attempt; resilience; and academic success. Protective factors spanned multiple domains of the socio-ecological model. Strengths-based health promotion efforts that leverage local, innate protective factors and work with AIANs to create environments rich in protective factors are key to improving the health and wellbeing of AIAN adolescents.

  2. Beyond UHC: monitoring health and social protection coverage in the context of tuberculosis care and prevention.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Knut; Glaziou, Philippe; Weil, Diana; Floyd, Katherine; Uplekar, Mukund; Raviglione, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem. In all societies, the disease affects the poorest individuals the worst. A new post-2015 global TB strategy has been developed by WHO, which explicitly highlights the key role of universal health coverage (UHC) and social protection. One of the proposed targets is that "No TB affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB." High direct and indirect costs of care hamper access, increase the risk of poor TB treatment outcomes, exacerbate poverty, and contribute to sustaining TB transmission. UHC, conventionally defined as access to health care without risk of financial hardship due to out-of-pocket health care expenditures, is essential but not sufficient for effective and equitable TB care and prevention. Social protection interventions that prevent or mitigate other financial risks associated with TB, including income losses and non-medical expenditures such as on transport and food, are also important. We propose a framework for monitoring both health and social protection coverage, and their impact on TB epidemiology. We describe key indicators and review methodological considerations. We show that while monitoring of general health care access will be important to track the health system environment within which TB services are delivered, specific indicators on TB access, quality, and financial risk protection can also serve as equity-sensitive tracers for progress towards and achievement of overall access and social protection.

  3. Confidentiality Protection of Digital Health Records in Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shyh-Wei; Chiang, Dai Lun; Liu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Lai, Feipei; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Electronic medical records containing confidential information were uploaded to the cloud. The cloud allows medical crews to access and manage the data and integration of medical records easily. This data system provides relevant information to medical personnel and facilitates and improve electronic medical record management and data transmission. A structure of cloud-based and patient-centered personal health record (PHR) is proposed in this study. This technique helps patients to manage their health information, such as appointment date with doctor, health reports, and a completed understanding of their own health conditions. It will create patients a positive attitudes to maintain the health. The patients make decision on their own for those whom has access to their records over a specific span of time specified by the patients. Storing data in the cloud environment can reduce costs and enhance the share of information, but the potential threat of information security should be taken into consideration. This study is proposing the cloud-based secure transmission mechanism is suitable for multiple users (like nurse aides, patients, and family members).

  4. The Efficacy of a Standalone Protective Behavioral Strategies Intervention for Students Accessing Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Napper, Lucy E.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective Students with poor mental health are at increased risk for problematic alcohol use. These students also tend to underutilize alcohol-related protective behavioral strategies (PBS). Cross-sectional studies indicate that PBS use may be particularly useful for students with mental health challenges; however, it is unclear whether training these students to use PBS is an effective approach for reducing alcohol use and consequences. The current study evaluated the efficacy of a standalone PBS skills training and personalized feedback (PBS-STPF) intervention among students accessing mental health services. Method Participants (N = 251) were randomly assigned to either an individual facilitator-led PBS-STPF intervention or a health-related control condition. Participants completed online follow-up surveys 1- and 6-months post-intervention which included measures of alcohol use, negative consequences and a composite measure of PBS use. Results Relative to control participants, students in the PBS-STPF condition reported significantly greater PBS use, but no differences in alcohol use or consequences. Participants in both conditions reported decreases in drinking outcomes over time. Tests of mediation indicated that the intervention indirectly led to reduction in drinking outcomes at 6 months through increased PBS use. Conclusions Although the intervention resulted in changes in PBS use that were maintained for up to 6 months post-intervention, the effects of the intervention on drinking and consequences were limited. A brief standalone PBS training may need augmentation in order to promote effective use of PBS for substantial decreases in alcohol consequences. PMID:25728042

  5. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  6. The labor movement's role in gaining federal safety and health standards to protect America's workers.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Deborah; Failey, Tara

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, unions sometimes joined by worker advocacy groups (e.g., Public Citizen and the American Public Health Association) have played a critical role in strengthening worker safety and health protections. They have sought to improve standards that protect workers by participating in the rulemaking process, through written comments and involvement in hearings; lobbying decision-makers; petitioning the Department of Labor; and defending improved standards in court. Their efforts have culminated in more stringent exposure standards, access to information about the presence of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals, and improved access to personal protective equipment-further improving working conditions in the United States.

  7. Development of Wireless Subsurface Microsensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallix, Joan; Milos, Frank; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Low cost access to space is a primary goal for both NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry. Integrated subsystem health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVS) in order to reduce life cycle costs, increase safety margins and improve mission reliability. A number of efforts are underway to use existing and emerging technologies to establish new methods for vehicle health monitoring on operational vehicles as well as X-vehicles. This paper summarizes a joint effort between several NASA centers and industry partners to develop rapid wireless diagnostic tools for failure management and long-term TPS performance monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS) on future RLVS. An embedded wireless microsensor suite is being designed to allow rapid subsurface TPS health monitoring and damage assessment. This sensor suite will consist of both passive overlimit sensors and sensors for continuous parameter monitoring in flight. The on-board diagnostic system can be used to radio in maintenance requirements before landing and the data could also be used to assist in design validation for X-vehicles. For a 3rd generation vehicle, wireless diagnostics should be at a stage of technical development that will allow use for intelligent feedback systems for guidance and navigation control applications and can also serve as feedback for TPS that can intelligently adapt to its environment.

  8. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater.

  9. Child protection reports: key issues arising for public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Hanafin, Sinead

    2013-10-01

    Similar to other countries, there have been a number of high-profile reports into past and recent cases of child abuse and neglect in Ireland. The most recent of these have been the Monageer Inquiry, the Ryan Report, the Roscommon Child Care Case and the Report of the Independent Child Death Review Group. An analysis of these reports highlights the critical role played by public health nurses with troubled families. It also makes explicit key issues that consistently emerge as problematic in terms of professional practice. This paper summarises the main findings of the reports as they relate to the public health nursing service and identifies key themes emerging along with recommendations arising. The emerging themes relate to assessment, early intervention, record keeping, communication and interdisciplinary working and the role of public health nursing management.

  10. [The need for human health protection from climate changes].

    PubMed

    Revich, B A

    2009-01-01

    The occurring climate changes have a considerable impact on human health. The higher frequency of different natural disasters, including flood and typhoons, deteriorates the epidemiological situation. Evidence is provided for the importance of climate warming as a risk factor for a number of communicable diseases, including West Nile fever in the Astrakhan and Volgograd Regions. The paper presents the results of analytical epidemiological surveys, by using the time-series analysis, in Tver and Moscow, which indicate an increase in the number of fatal outcomes particularly among the elderly during temperature heat and cold waves. The specific features of the impact of climate warming on human health in the northern and southern regions of the country are considered. The need for developing the National Plan of Actions to prevent the population's health from climate changes is warranted.

  11. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhehan

    processing technique based on discrete wavelet transformation (DWT), the first attempt is devised, which extracts the features of both line-to-line (L-L) and line-to-ground (L-G) faults and employs a fuzzy inference system (FIS) for the decision-making stage of fault detection. This scheme is then improved as the second attempt by further studying the system's behaviors during L-L faults, extracting more efficient fault features, and devising a more advanced decision-making stage: the two-stage support vector machine (SVM). For the first time, the two-stage SVM method is proposed in this dissertation to detect L-L faults in PV system with satisfactory accuracies. Numerous simulation and experimental case studies are carried out to verify the proposed control and protection strategies. Simulation environment is set up using the PSCAD/EMTDC and Matlab/Simulink software packages. Experimental case studies are conducted in a PV-battery hybrid microgrid using the dSPACE real-time controller to demonstrate the ease of hardware implementation and the controller performance. Another small-scale grid-connected PV system is set up to verify both fault detection algorithms which demonstrate promising performances and fault detecting accuracies.

  12. Control and protection system for paralleled modular static inverter-converter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.; Gourash, F.

    1973-01-01

    A control and protection system was developed for use with a paralleled 2.5-kWe-per-module static inverter-converter system. The control and protection system senses internal and external fault parameters such as voltage, frequency, current, and paralleling current unbalance. A logic system controls contactors to isolate defective power conditioners or loads. The system sequences contactor operation to automatically control parallel operation, startup, and fault isolation. Transient overload protection and fault checking sequences are included. The operation and performance of a control and protection system, with detailed circuit descriptions, are presented.

  13. Development and implementation of surface water quality standards for protection of human health in Korea.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kwak, Jin; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Jung, Myung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Current water quality standards for the protection of human health in Korea include 17 substances found in rivers and streams. Due to increasing concern over the release of hazardous chemicals into the aquatic environment, there has been a demand for additional water quality standards. Therefore, the Korean Ministry of the Environment plans to gradually increase the number of water quality standards to 30 substances, including 22 substances for protection of human health and 8 substances for protection of aquatic ecosystems by 2015. In this study, new water quality standards for protection of human health were established for 1,4-dioxane, formaldehyde, and hexachlorobenzene. We selected candidate hazardous chemicals, conducted a human health risk assessment to determine priority chemicals, established water quality standards based on technical analyses and comparison with domestic and developed countries' water quality standards, and conducted an expert review. Water quality standards for protection of aquatic ecosystems will be derived in the near future. This study describes how the water quality standards for protection of human health were developed and implemented. Current status, recent expansion, and future plans for water quality standards in Korea are also covered.

  14. Nurse and Health Care Worker Protection Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2009-10-15

    Senate - 05/11/2010 Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Subcommittee on Employment and Workplace Safety. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-1138. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. The Protective Function of Neighborhood Social Ties on Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…

  16. Computers and Health--Individual and Institutional Protective Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegrove, Daniel A.; Updegrove, Kimberly H.

    1991-01-01

    Two issues related to computers and health are discussed: ergonomics/work habits and radiation hazards. Several approaches that colleges and universities might use to promote workplace safety are suggested, including education, training, and more informed purchasing. San Francisco's new worker safety ordinance is presented, and carpal tunnel…

  17. Computers and Health--Individual and Institutional Protective Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegrove, Daniel A.; Updegrove, Kimberly H.

    1991-01-01

    Two issues related to computers and health are discussed: ergonomics/work habits and radiation hazards. Several approaches that colleges and universities might use to promote workplace safety are suggested, including education, training, and more informed purchasing. San Francisco's new worker safety ordinance is presented, and carpal tunnel…

  18. The Case for "FORCED" Health Protection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    that contributed to public health: diphtheria, whooping cough , typhoid, tetanus, smallpox, and rabies.61 MDPH began serious research on the anthrax...fever, and muscle aches.30 Follow on symptoms for untreated persons include coughing , chest pain, and shortness of breath.31 Post- exposure

  19. Nurse and Health Care Worker Protection Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2009-10-15

    05/11/2010 Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Subcommittee on Employment and Workplace Safety. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 111-1138. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. The Protective Function of Neighborhood Social Ties on Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, He Len; Docherty, Meagan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine relations between neighborhood characteristics and psychological health, specifically whether neighborhood trust and cooperation buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder on depression and aggressive behavior. Methods: The sample was composed of 127 urban, African American young adults from Trenton, NJ. Results: The…

  1. Familial Risk and Protective Factors Influencing Adolescent Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    This study examined the relation between family variables and the mental health outcomes of adolescents. Family members' feelings about one another were assessed when the children were in grades 6 and 8. Family members' closeness to one another was assessed when children were in grades 8 and 12, and in a 4-year follow-up study. Adolescents' mental…

  2. 45 CFR 164.502 - Uses and disclosures of protected health information: general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: adults and emancipated minors. If under applicable law a person has authority to act on behalf of an... authority to act on behalf of an individual who is an unemancipated minor in making decisions related to... act as an individual, with respect to protected health information pertaining to a health care...

  3. The quest for universal health coverage: achieving social protection for all in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; García-Junco, David; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Sandoval, Rosa; Caballero, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Juan, Mercedes; Kershenobich, David; Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruelas, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Tapia, Roberto; Soberón, Guillermo; Chertorivski, Salomón; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-06

    Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with financial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the financial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to effective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the effects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientific literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, especially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in effective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate financial resources into more effective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries.

  4. Seadust wildlife controllant and other techniques to protect forest plantations

    Treesearch

    Dan L. Campbell; Brooke K. Campbell; Clinton L. Campbell

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review some of the materials and methods used for reducing wildlife damage to forest crops. Many of these have also been used to protect Christmas trees, ornamentals, and other agricultural crops. Few chemicals have been effective as repellents, and few are exempted from registration by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Section 25(b) of the...

  5. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: opportunities for prevention and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Frederic E; Asomugha, Chisara N; Conway, Patrick H; Rein, Andrew S

    2014-07-05

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which was enacted by the US Congress in 2010, marks the greatest change in US health policy since the 1960s. The law is intended to address fundamental problems within the US health system, including the high and rising cost of care, inadequate access to health insurance and health services for many Americans, and low health-care efficiency and quality. By 2019, the law will bring health coverage--and the health benefits of insurance--to an estimated 25 million more Americans. It has already restrained discriminatory insurance practices, made coverage more affordable, and realised new provisions to curb costs (including tests of new health-care delivery models). The new law establishes the first National Prevention Strategy, adds substantial new funding for prevention and public health programmes, and promotes the use of recommended clinical preventive services and other measures, and thus represents a major opportunity for prevention and public health. The law also provides impetus for greater collaboration between the US health-care and public health systems, which have traditionally operated separately with little interaction. Taken together, the various effects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act can advance the health of the US population.

  6. Tracking and controlling soft surface contamination in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Jonathan D; Wilson, Amanda M; Sassi, Hannah P; Reynolds, Kelly A

    2017-09-12

    Study objectives were to track the transfer of microbes on soft surfaces in health care environments and determine the efficiency of an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered soft surface sanitizer in the health care environment. Soft surfaces at 3 health care facilities were sampled for heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli followed by a tracer study with a virus surrogate seeded onto volunteer hands and commonly touched surfaces. The occurrence of microbial contaminants was determined along with microbial reductions using the soft surface sanitizer. Soft surfaces were swabbed pre- and postintervention. Tracer viruses spread to 20%-64% and 13%-41% of surfaces in long-term health care facilities and physicians' offices, respectively. Only 1 pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, was recovered. The waiting room chairs had the highest concentration of HPC bacteria before disinfection (145.4 ± 443.3 colony forming units [cfu]/cm(2)), and the privacy curtains had the lowest (39.5 ± 84.2 cfu/cm(2)). Reductions of up to 98.5% were achieved with the sanitizer in health care settings and up to 99.99% under controlled laboratory conditions. Soft surfaces are involved in the spread of microbes throughout health care facilities. Routine application of an EPA-registered sanitizer for soft surfaces can help to reduce the microbial load and minimize exposure risks. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  8. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for health information technology to... Welfare Department of Health and Human Services HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health...

  9. Confidentiality Protections for Adolescents and Young Adults in the Health Care Billing and Insurance Claims Process.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The importance of protecting confidential health care for adolescents and young adults is well documented. State and federal confidentiality protections exist for both minors and young adults, although the laws vary among states, particularly for minors. However, such confidentiality is potentially violated by billing practices and in the processing of health insurance claims. To address this problem, policies and procedures should be established so that health care billing and insurance claims processes do not impede the ability of providers to deliver essential health care services on a confidential basis to adolescents and young adults covered as dependents on a family's health insurance plan. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-Control Protects Against Overweight Status in the Transition from Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tsukayama, Eli; Toomey, Sara L.; Faith, Myles; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether more self-controlled children are protected from weight gain as they enter adolescence. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Setting Ten sites across the United States from 1991-2007. Participants The 844 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development birth cohort who had height and weight information at age 15 (in 2006). Main Exposure A composite measure of self-control was created from mother, father, and teacher-report ratings using items from the Social Skills Rating System. Main Outcome Measure Overweight status at age 15 years. Results Approximately one-third of the sample (n = 262) was overweight at age 15. Compared to their non-overweight peers, overweight adolescents at age 15 were about a half-standard deviation lower in self-control at age 9 (unstandardized difference = 0.15, pooled SD = 0.29, P < .001). Children rated higher by their parents and teachers in self-control at age 9 were less likely to be overweight at age 15 (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.98), controlling for overweight status at age 10, pubertal development, age, IQ, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and maternal overweight status. Conclusion More self-controlled boys and girls are less likely to become overweight as they enter adolescence. The ability to control impulses and delay gratification enables children to maintain a healthy weight even in today's obesogenic environment. PMID:20603463

  11. Group health plans and health insurance issuers relating to coverage of preventive services under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Interim final rules with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2011-08-03

    This document contains amendments to the interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act regarding preventive health services.

  12. Workplace incivility and new graduate nurses' mental health: the protective role of resiliency.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol; Regan, Sandra; Young-Ritchie, Carol; Bushell, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between coworker, physician, and supervisor workplace incivility and new graduate nurses' mental health and the protective role of personal resiliency. Positive interpersonal relationships in healthcare work environments are important for new graduate nurses' career transition and commitment. Workplace incivility threatens new graduate nurses' health and well-being. Personal resiliency helps employees to recover from negative stressors and may protect new nurses from the negative effects of workplace incivility. We surveyed 272 new graduate nurses in Ontario to explore the influence of 3 forms of workplace incivility and personal resiliency on new nurses' mental health. All sources of incivility were related to poor mental health. Results suggest that personal resiliency may protect nurses from the negative effects of incivility. New nurses are experiencing workplace incivility from a variety of sources in their work environments, which have detrimental effects on their workplace well-being.

  13. [Financial allocations in the System for Social Protection in Health in Mexico: challenges for strategic purchasing].

    PubMed

    González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Figueroa, Alejandro; García-Téllez, Ignacio; Alarcón, José

    2016-01-01

    The financial coordination of the System of Social Protection in Health (SPSS) was analyzed to assess its support to strategic purchasing. Official reports and surveys were analyzed. SPSS covers a capita of 2 765 Mexican pesos, equivalent to 0.9% of GDP. The Ministry of Health contributed 35% of the total, state governments 16.7% and beneficiaries 0.06%. The National Commission for Social Protection in Health received 48.3% of resources, allocating 38% to State Social Protection Schemes in Health and paying 7.4% of the total directly to providers.The state contribution is in deficit while family contributions tend not to be charged. SPSS has not built funds specialized in strategic purchasing, capable of transforming historical budgets.The autonomy of providers is key to reduce out-of-pocket spending through the supply of quality services.

  14. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C

    2017-02-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20-49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants' changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full "assimilation"); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans).

  15. Health protection and risks for rescuers in cases of floods.

    PubMed

    Janev Holcer, Nataša; Jeličić, Pavle; Grba Bujević, Maja; Važanić, Damir

    2015-03-01

    Floods can pose a number of safety and health hazards for flood-affected populations and rescuers and bring risk of injuries, infections, and diseases due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and different biological and chemical contaminants. The risk factors and possible health consequences for the rescuers involved in evacuation and rescuing operations during the May 2014 flood crisis in Croatia are shown, as well as measures for the prevention of injuries and illnesses. In cases of extreme floods, divers play a particularly important role in rescuing and first-response activities. Rescuing in contaminated floodwaters means that the used equipment such as diving suits should be disinfected afterwards. The need for securing the implementation of minimal health and safety measures for involved rescuers is paramount. Data regarding injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers are relatively scarce, indicating the need for medical surveillance systems that would monitor and record all injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers in order to ensure sound epidemiological data. The harmful effects of flooding can be reduced by legislation, improvement of flood forecasting, establishing early warning systems, and appropriate planning and education.

  16. 77 FR 70643 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...This proposed rule details standards for health insurance issuers consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. Specifically, this proposed rule outlines Exchange and issuer standards related to coverage of essential health benefits and actuarial value. This proposed rule also proposes a timeline for qualified health plans to be accredited in Federally-facilitated Exchanges and an amendment which provides an application process for the recognition of additional accrediting entities for purposes of certification of qualified health plans.

  17. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the regulation of the health insurance industry.

    PubMed

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC&A) Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Mark; Farmer, James; Haase, Michael; Mann, Greg; Soo Hoo, Mark; Toth, William

    1999-07-21

    To date, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) program has assisted in the implementation of operational site-wide MPC and A systems at several nuclear facilities in Russia. Eleven sites from the civilian sector have completed the site-wide installations and two have completed sub-site installations. By the end of 1999, several additional sites will have completed site-wide and sub-site system installations through DOE assistance. the effort at the completed sites has focused primarily on the design, integration, and installation of upgraded MPC and A systems. In most cases, little work has been performed to ensure that the installed systems will be sustained. Because of concerns that the installed systems would not be operated in the future, DOE established a sustainability pilot program involving the 11 sites. The purpose of DOE's MPC and A Sustainability Program is to ensure that MPC and A upgrades installed at sites in Russia are effective and will continue to operate over the long term. The program mission is to work with sites where rapid upgrades have been completed to cultivate enduring and consistent MPC and A practices. The program attempts to assist the Russian sites to develop MPC and A organizations that will operate, maintain, and continue to improve the systems and procedures. Future assistance will strive to understand and incorporate culturally sensitive approaches so that the sites take ownership for all MPC and A matters. This paper describes the efforts of the sustainability program to date.

  19. Nutrition and Other Protective Behaviors Motivated by Environmental Health Risk Awareness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elizabeth W; Feng, Limin; Dixon, Jane K; Dixon, John P; Hofe, Carolyn R; Gaetke, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that exposure to environmental pollutants contributes to increased health risks, which may be modulated by certain nutrition and other protective health behaviors. Nutrition professionals play an important role in effectively disseminating this information and in devising specific community-based nutrition education programs for audiences located in areas with environmental health issues. To assess awareness of environmental health problems and motivation to adopt protective health behaviors for use in planning nutrition education programs for communities exposed to environmental pollutants. Data were collected from a modified, validated Environmental Health Engagement Profile (EHEP) survey instrument administered to adults (n=774) participating in community events in Kentucky based on location relative to hazardous waste sites. The modified EHEP survey instrument showed good internal consistency reliability, and demographic characteristics were evaluated. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive correlations in all groups, separately and combined, between awareness of environmental pollution in an individual's surroundings and the extent of concern that pollutants cause adverse health effects (P < 0.01) and between concern that pollutants cause adverse health effects and taking personal actions to protect against such environmental insults (P < 0.01). The groups having the highest level of awareness posed by pollution are those residing near federally designated hazardous waste sites. These results suggest that determining and expanding an audience's knowledge and perceptions of environmental health risks will enhance effective nutrition education program planning.

  20. Nutrition and Other Protective Behaviors Motivated by Environmental Health Risk Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Elizabeth W.; Feng, Limin; Dixon, Jane K.; Dixon, John P.; Hofe, Carolyn R.; Gaetke, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research findings have suggested that exposure to environmental pollutants contributes to increased health risks, which may be modulated by certain nutrition and other protective health behaviors. Nutrition professionals play an important role in effectively disseminating this information and in devising specific community-based nutrition education programs for audiences located in areas with environmental health issues. Objective To assess awareness of environmental health problems and motivation to adopt protective health behaviors for use in planning nutrition education programs for communities exposed to environmental pollutants. Method Data were collected from a modified, validated Environmental Health Engagement Profile (EHEP) survey instrument administered to adults (n=774) participating in community events in Kentucky based on location relative to hazardous waste sites. Results The modified EHEP survey instrument showed good internal consistency reliability, and demographic characteristics were evaluated. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive correlations in all groups, separately and combined, between awareness of environmental pollution in an individual’s surroundings and the extent of concern that pollutants cause adverse health effects (P < 0.01) and between concern that pollutants cause adverse health effects and taking personal actions to protect against such environmental insults (P < 0.01). The groups having the highest level of awareness posed by pollution are those residing near federally designated hazardous waste sites. Conclusion These results suggest that determining and expanding an audience’s knowledge and perceptions of environmental health risks will enhance effective nutrition education program planning. PMID:28090221

  1. Evaluation of influenza prevention in the workplace using a personally controlled health record: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Florence T; Simons, William W; Olson, Karen; Brownstein, John S; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2008-03-14

    Personally controlled health records (PCHRs) are accessible over the Internet and allow individuals to maintain and manage a secure copy of their medical data. These records provide a new opportunity to provide customized health recommendations to individuals based on their record content. Health promotion programs using PCHRs can potentially be used in a variety of settings and target a large range of health issues. The aim was to assess the value of a PCHR in an employee health promotion program for improving knowledge, beliefs, and behavior around influenza prevention. We evaluated a PCHR-based employee health promotion program using a randomized controlled trial design. Employees at Hewlett Packard work sites who reported reliable Internet access and email use at least once every 2 days were recruited for participation. PCHRs were provided to all participants for survey administration, and tailored, targeted health messages on influenza illness and prevention were delivered to participants in the intervention group. Participants in the control group received messages addressing cardiovascular health and sun protection. The main outcome measure was improvement in knowledge, beliefs, and behavior around influenza prevention. Secondary outcomes were influenza vaccine rates among household members, the impact of cardiovascular health and sun protection messages on the control group, and the usability and utility of the PCHR-based program for employees. The intervention did not have a statistically significant effect on the influenza knowledge elements we assessed but did impact certain beliefs surrounding influenza. Participants in the intervention group were more likely to believe that the influenza vaccine was effective (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 1.7-18.5), that there were actions they could take to prevent the flu (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.1-9.2), and that the influenza vaccine was unlikely to cause a severe reaction (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.3-15.3). Immunization rates did

  2. Protecting reproductive health and the environment: toxics use reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, K

    1993-01-01

    Toxics use reduction is a new chemical hazard management approach that has emerged in several state laws over the past years. While toxics use reduction has been promoted as a means of preventing environmental pollution, little thought has been given to its adoption as a means of managing reproductive hazards. This paper provides illustrations of use reduction approaches to conventionally recognized reproductive and developmental toxicants. These approaches will require the opening of a new dialogue between industrial designers and process managers and those most concerned about reproductive health. Several different strategies are proposed that might be adopted into state programs for promoting reduction in the use of reproductive and developmental toxicants. PMID:8243394

  3. A North/South collaboration between two national public health institutes--a model for global health protection.

    PubMed

    Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Ncube, Fortune; Schoub, Barry; Blumberg, Lucille; Ruggles, Ruth; Salter, Mark; Madhi, Shabir; Kessel, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Rapid international spread of emerging infections has increased interest in strategic collaborations, as they may be the best way to protect populations. Strategic collaborations can build capacity in less-resourced settings. As specialised institutions that provide a stable locus of expertise, continuity of experience, scientific knowledge, and appropriate human, technical, and financial resources, national public health institutes (NPHIs) are well-prepared to tackle public health challenges. We describe how a collaboration between the NPHIs of England and South Africa built a mutually beneficial professional relationship to help implement the WHO International Health Regulations, build capacity for health protection, and promote the exchange of information, advice, and expertise. We illustrate how this can be achieved in a mutually beneficial way.

  4. Cancer screening and health system resilience: keys to protecting and bolstering preventive services during a financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Alfonso-Sanchez, Jose L; Gorgojo, Lydia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the rationale for sustaining and expanding cost-effective, population-based screening services for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers in the context of the current financial crisis. Our objective is not only to promote optimal delivery of high-quality secondary cancer prevention services, but also to underline the importance of strengthening comprehensive cancer control, and with it, health system response to the complex care challenges posed by all chronic diseases. We focus primarily on issues surrounding planning, organisation, implementation and resources, arguing that given the growing cancer burden, policymakers have ample justification for establishing and expanding population-based programmes that are well-organised, well-resourced and well-executed. In a broader economic context of rescue packages, deficits and cutbacks to government entitlements, health professionals must intensify their advocacy for the protection of vital preventive health services by fighting for quality services with clear benefits for population health outcomes.

  5. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 8: protection from exposure to tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Yamato, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ying; Ohta, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to implement 100% smoke-free environments in all indoor workplaces and indoor public places in order to protect people from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). Forty-four countries have already implemented comprehensive smoke-free legislations according to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Guidelines on protection from exposure to tobacco smoke. The Occupational Safety and Health Law (OSHL) was partially revised to strengthen the countermeasures against SHS in Japan in 2014. However, the revision was only minimal. Firstly, it is necessary to make efforts to implement countermeasures against SHS (their implementations are not obligatory, as required in Article 8). Secondly, the revised OSHL allowed the implementation of designated smoking rooms inside workplaces (Article 8 requires 100% smoke-free environments). Thirdly, revised OSHL does not effectively cover the small-scale entertainment industry so that workers in restaurants and pubs will not be protected from occupational SHS. We explain the importance of implementation of 100% smoke-free environments by law, using the data on leakage of smoke from designated smoking rooms, and occupational exposure to SHS among service industry workers. The decrease in the incidence of smoking-related diseases in people where a comprehensive smoke-free law is implemented is also introduced. These data and information should be widely disseminated to policy makers, media, owners of service industries, and Japanese people.

  6. Building national public health capacity for managing chemical events: A case study of the development of health protection services in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephen; Coleman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (2005) require that countries develop plans for chemical threats. In 2012, the World Health Assembly reported that most countries had not yet achieved ‘adequate capacity'. We review the evolution of chemical hazards services in the United Kingdom, the result of 15 years of grass-roots pressure and an accumulating weight of chemical incidents that eventually convinced the UK Department of Health of the need for a new national public health function, culminating, in 2003, in the creation of the Chemical Hazards Division of the new Health Protection Agency. Ten years later, public health services are again being radically reorganized with the creation of Public Health England, potentially destabilizing health protection arrangements and creating confusion among roles in managing chemical emergencies. Incorporating health protection into a broader public health organization, however, offers a new opportunity to broaden the scope of health protection services to embrace prevention of non-infectious environmental diseases. PMID:23447032

  7. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... Assessing Whether To Rely on the Results of Human Research in EPA Actions § 26.1706 Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section...

  8. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  9. Effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing: riders' health outcomes in the six months following a crash.

    PubMed

    de Rome, L; Ivers, R; Fitzharris, M; Haworth, N; Heritier, S; Richardson, D

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about the contribution of protective clothing worn in motorcycle crashes to subsequent health-related outcomes, impairment and quality of life. A prospective cohort of 212 adult motorcyclists were recruited following presentations to hospitals or crash repair services in a defined geographic area in Australia between June 2008 and July 2009. Data was obtained from participant interviews and medical records at baseline, then by mailed survey two and six months post-crash (n=146, 69%). The exposure factor was usage of protective clothing classified as full protection (motorcycle jacket and pants), partial protection (motorcycle jacket) and unprotected (neither). Outcomes of interest included general health status (Short Form SF-36), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) treatment and recovery progress, quality of life and return to work in the six months post-crash. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated for categorical outcomes using multiple logistic regression to assess differences in outcomes associated with levels of protection adjusted for potential confounders including age, sex, occupation, speed and type of impact. Non-parametric procedures were used for data that was not normally distributed. Compared to unprotected riders, both fully and partially protected riders had fewer days in hospital and reported less pain immediately post-crash; at two months both protection groups were less likely to have disabilities or reductions in physical function. By six months there were no significant differences in disability or physical function between groups, but both protection groups were more likely to be fully recovered and returned to pre-crash work than unprotected riders. Fully protected riders achieved better outcomes than either partially or unprotected riders on most measures. There were few significant differences between the full and partial protection groups although the latter showed greater impairment in physical health two months post

  10. Investigating m-Health Acceptance from a Protection Motivation Theory Perspective: Gender and Age Differences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  11. [Protection of the environment, protection of the health. Note 1 - fluvial monitoring: cultural evolution and methodological evolution].

    PubMed

    Cocchioni, M; Scuri, S; Morichetti, L; Petrelli, F; Grappasonni, I

    2006-01-01

    The article underlines the fundamental importance of the protection and promotion of environmental quality for the human health. The evolution of fluvial monitoring techniques is contemplated from chemical and bacteriological analysis until the Index Functional Index (I.F.F). This evolution it's very important because shows a new methodological and cultural maturation that has carried from a anthropocentric vision until an ecocentric vision. The target of this ecological vision is the re-establishment of ecological functionality of the rivers, eliminating the consumer's vision of the water considered only as a usable resource. The importance of an correct monitoring of a river is confirmed, even though the preventive approach priority remains.

  12. Enabling Technology to Advance Health-Protecting Individual Rights-Are We Walking the Talk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Crystal; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    The evolving structure and business of health care services and delivery need the functionality and capability offered by electronic health record (EHR) systems. By electronically diffusing the traditional patient record, however, this new model blurs the long-established medical data home, raising concerns about data ownership, confidentiality, access and individual rights. In 2008 the Lawson Health Research Institute began the process of instituting a robust health informatics and collaborative research infrastructure, now known as I-THINK Research. As data are migrated to the platform and policies are developed, we are forced to confront the complexity of issues around protection of individual rights. The paper presents, in a broader context, the main issues surrounding the privacy debate and the need for education, accountability and new legislation to help define and protect individual rights as new e-health business models emerge.

  13. Health risk in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in central Mexico: perspectives for protection.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E; Blumenthal, U; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Bennett, S; Quigley, M

    2000-01-01

    9,435 individuals participated in a cross-sectional survey in the irrigation districts of the Mezquital Valley (central Mexico). Exposure groups were: 848 households irrigating with untreated wastewater, 544 households irrigating with the effluent from a series of interconnected reservoirs, and 928 households farming with natural rainfall. The unit of analysis was the individual, and the health outcomes included diarrhoeal diseases and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Water quality was assessed using faecal coliforms (FC) and nematode eggs, as suggested by (WHO, 1989) for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture. Children from households irrigating with untreated wastewater (10(8) FC/100 mL and 135 nematode eggs/L) had a 33% higher risk of diarrhoeal diseases and a fivefold increase in risk of A. lumbricoides infection (OR = 5.71) compared to children from the control group, farming with rainfall. The risk of A. lumbricoides infection in older individuals was even higher (OR = 13.18). The final analysis showed that drinking unboiled water and cultivating vegetables crops were both associated with a higher risk of diarrheal diseases (OR = 1.45 and 2.00); individuals infected with A. lumbricoides infection came mostly from landless households with poorer dwellings and low standards of sanitation (OR = 2.20, 2.23, 1.72 and 1.43, respectively). These results are discussed in the context of health protection measures and policy recommendations.

  14. Improving Health Care Coverage, Equity, And Financial Protection Through A Hybrid System: Malaysia's Experience.

    PubMed

    Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Anuranga, Chamara; Manual, Adilius; Sararaks, Sondi; Jailani, Anis S; Hamid, Abdul J; Razif, Izzanie M; Tan, Ee H; Darzi, Ara

    2016-05-01

    Malaysia has made substantial progress in providing access to health care for its citizens and has been more successful than many other countries that are better known as models of universal health coverage. Malaysia's health care coverage and outcomes are now approaching levels achieved by member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Malaysia's results are achieved through a mix of public services (funded by general revenues) and parallel private services (predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending). We examined the distributional aspects of health financing and delivery and assessed financial protection in Malaysia's hybrid system. We found that this system has been effective for many decades in equalizing health care use and providing protection from financial risk, despite modest government spending. Our results also indicate that a high out-of-pocket share of total financing is not a consistent proxy for financial protection; greater attention is needed to the absolute level of out-of-pocket spending. Malaysia's hybrid health system presents continuing unresolved policy challenges, but the country's experience nonetheless provides lessons for other emerging economies that want to expand access to health care despite limited fiscal resources. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. 76 FR 25342 - Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations to the Children's Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... in children's environmental health policy, and in specific issues such as lead poisoning and asthma...; Chemical exposures, pesticide exposures, health outcomes, policy and regulation; Asthma disparities...

  16. 45 CFR 170.210 - Standards for health information technology to protect electronic health information created...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... health information created, maintained, and exchanged: (a) Encryption and decryption of electronic health information—(1) General. Any encryption algorithm identified by the National Institute of Standards and...

  17. E-health blood pressure control program.

    PubMed

    Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care.

  18. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  19. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses' Respiratory Protection Education Program and Resources Webkit for Occupational Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Pompeii, Lisa; Byrd, Annette; Delclos, George L; Conway, Sadie H

    2016-12-01

    Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit). This article describes the development, content, and success of this training. To date, 724 participants have completed the training, 32.6% of whom lead their organization's respiratory protection program, 15.3% who indicated they will lead a program in the near future, and 52% who did not lead a program, but indicated that the training was relevant to their work. The majority "strongly agreed" the training was applicable to their work and it enhanced their professional expertise. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Who's in Charge of Protecting Children's Health at School? A Report on "America's Largest Unaddressed Children's Health Crisis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Claire L.

    2005-01-01

    This report makes the case that no one is in charge of protecting children from harmful environmental exposures at school and recommends steps at the federal and in New York State to begin to address this hidden world. With information gleaned from adult occupational health experts, from new national studies and reports, and from the reports of…

  1. Mandatory reporting for child protection in health settings and the rights of parents with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mudrick, Nancy R; Smith, Carrie Jefferson

    2017-04-01

    This commentary considers the intersection of mandatory reporting in health settings and the public child protection system's treatment of parents with disabilities. Its impetus is the August 2015 technical assistance document issued jointly by the U.S. departments of Justice (DOJ) and Health and Human Services (HHS) that affirms the applicability of the ADA and Section 504 to child protection system (CPS) processes. The DOJ/HHS document speaks to actions of state child protection agencies and courts, without addressing the first step, mandatory reporting. Nonetheless, there are implications for how mandated reporters understand child risk in the presence of disability, and health settings are one venue where mandated reports initiate. This commentary seeks to provide medical professionals with greater understanding of the CPS process and its intersection with disability rights. It concludes that mandatory reporter training must include ADA principles for addressing disability so parents are not unnecessarily reported for investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Is religiosity a protective factor? Social epidemiologic study of adolescent psychological health].

    PubMed

    Pikó, Bettina; Kovács, Eszter

    2009-10-11

    One of the important tasks of epidemiological analyses is mapping protective factors for health promotion. Religiosity is a protective factor which has an impact on all of the three dimensions of health status, among others, it goes together with a longer lifetime, better indicators of health status indicators and quality of life, less anxiety, depression and suicide, more effective coping strategies. In relation to adolescent health, less investigation has been available thus far. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and psychological health among adolescents. Regarding religiosity, religious affiliation, religiousness (subjective level of religiosity) and religious participation were assessed. Among health status indicators, occurrence of depressive symptomatology, level of satisfaction with life and self-perceived health were determined. Data collection of the questionnaire survey was going on among 881 high school students in Szeged (age range between 14-20 years, mean = 16.6 years, S.D. = 1.3 years of age, 44.6% of the sample was female). Associations between health status indicators (as dependent variables) and religiosity factors (as independent variables) were assessed using Odds Ratios calculated by logistic regression analyses. Our findings suggest that youth's religiosity had the least effect on depressive symptomatology, whereas youth defined themselves as religious and those who actually participated at religious events perceived their own health better and they were more satisfied with their life. Girls tended to belong more to a religious community and their religiosity was more associated with life satisfaction and self-perceived health. Religiosity is a determinant factor in adolescent psychological health except for depression. Further research is needed to analyze protective factors related to adolescents' health status.

  3. SOURCE WATER PROTECTION: ITS ROLE IN CONTROLLING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA) has focused the attention of wter utility managers and public health and regulatory officials on source water protection (SWP) and its role in protecting public water supplies. There is growing awareness that water treatm...

  4. SOURCE WATER PROTECTION: ITS ROLE IN CONTROLLING DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA) has focused the attention of wter utility managers and public health and regulatory officials on source water protection (SWP) and its role in protecting public water supplies. There is growing awareness that water treatm...

  5. Biological Control beneath the Feet: A Review of Crop Protection against Insect Root Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Bakhtiari, Moe; Formenti, Ludovico; Xiao, Zhenggao; Defossez, Emmanuel; Rasmann, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids) that are used against root herbivores. In addition, we discuss the synergistic action of different bio-control agents when co-inoculated in soil and how the induction and priming of plant chemical defense could be synergized with the use of the bio-control agents described above to optimize root pest control. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research for optimizing a more sustainable management of root pests. PMID:27916820

  6. 77 FR 18309 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...This final rule will implement the new Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The Exchanges will provide competitive marketplaces for individuals and small employers to directly compare available private health insurance options on the basis of price, quality, and other factors. The Exchanges, which will become operational by January 1, 2014, will help enhance competition in the health insurance market, improve choice of affordable health insurance, and give small businesses the same purchasing clout as large businesses.

  7. Manufacturing uncertainty: contested science and the protection of the public's health and environment.

    PubMed

    Michaels, David; Monforton, Celeste

    2005-01-01

    Opponents of public health and environmental regulations often try to "manufacture uncertainty" by questioning the validity of scientific evidence on which the regulations are based. Though most identified with the tobacco industry, this strategy has also been used by producers of other hazardous products. Its proponents use the label "junk science" to ridicule research that threatens powerful interests. This strategy of manufacturing uncertainty is antithetical to the public health principle that decisions be made using the best evidence available. The public health system must ensure that scientific evidence is evaluated in a manner that assures the public's health and environment will be adequately protected.

  8. Noise Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  9. Social protection to support vulnerable children and families: the potential of cash transfers to protect education, health and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Adato, M.; Bassett, L.

    2009-01-01

    Investing in social protection in sub-Saharan Africa has taken on a new urgency as HIVand AIDS interact with other drivers of poverty to simultaneously destabilise livelihoods systems and family and community safety nets. Cash transfer programmes already reach millions of people in South Africa, and in other countries in southern and East Africa plans are underway to reach tens and eventually hundreds of thousands more. Cash transfers worldwide have demonstrated large impacts on the education, health and nutrition of children. While the strongest evidence is from conditional cash transfer evaluations in Latin America and Asia, important results are emerging in the newer African programmes. Cash transfers can be implemented in conjunction with other services involving education, health, nutrition, social welfare and others, including those related to HIV and AIDS. HIV/ AIDS-affected families are diverse with respect to household structure, ability to work and access to assets, arguing for a mix of approaches, including food assistance and income-generation programmes. However, cash transfers appear to offer the best strategy for scaling up to a national system of social protection, by reaching families who are the most capacity constrained, in large numbers, relatively quickly. These are important considerations for communities hard-hit by HIV and AIDS, given the extent and nature of deprivation, the long-term risk to human capital and the current political willingness to act. PMID:22380980

  10. Measuring financial protection for health in families with chronic conditions in Rural China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunhong; Ma, Jingdong; Zhang, Xiang; Luo, Wujin

    2012-11-16

    As the world's largest developing country, China has entered into the epidemiological phase characterized by high life expectancy and high morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and malignant tumors have become the leading causes of death since the 1990s. Constant payments for maintaining the health status of a family member who has chronic diseases could exhaust household resources, undermining fiscal support for other necessities and eventually resulting in poverty. The purpose of this study is to probe to what degree health expenditure for chronic diseases can impoverish rural families and whether the New Cooperative Medical Scheme can effectively protect families with chronic patients against catastrophic health expenditures. We used data from the 4th National Health Services Survey conducted in July 2008 in China. The rural sample we included in the analysis comprised 39,054 households. We used both households suffering from medical impoverishment and households with catastrophic health expenditures to compare the financial protection for families having a chronic patient with different insurance coverage statuses. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the impact of different benefit packages on health financial protection for families having a chronic patient. An additional 10.53% of the families with a chronic patient were impoverished because of healthcare expenditure, which is more than twice the proportion in families without a chronic patient. There is a higher catastrophic health expenditure incidence in the families with a chronic patient. The results of logistic regression show that simply adding extra benefits did not reduce the financial risks. There is a lack of effective financial protection for healthcare expenditures for families with a chronic patient in rural China, even though there is a high coverage rate with the New Cooperative Medical Schemes. Given the

  11. [Management System of Personal Data Protection in the Health Care Field].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryuichi

    2014-11-01

    In Japan, the law on personal data protection was enacted in 2005. Privacy is a human right, including the 1981 right to be let alone. The need for confidentiality in the health care field has been accepted since the ancient Greek era, and privacy in the 19th century was developed in this field. However, the concept of privacy has gradually altered, especially due to the development of information technology. The author suggests that the guideline for the security of heath information systems of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare is very important and information security management with PDCA cycles is essential for personal data protection in the health care field. In recent years, gathering a large amount of life logging or health-related data and analyzing such data for academic and/or industrial applications has become common. Revising privacy protection legislation has become an urgent political issue in many countries. The Japanese Government published their policy to personal data protection act in Dec. 2013. Balancing public benefit and privacy is a major task of future legislation. The author recommends that health care professionals pay attention to, participate in the discussion of, and make suggestions regarding this act.

  12. Embedded reference electrodes for corrosion potential monitoring, electrochemical characterization, and controlled-potential cathodic protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Bobbi Jo Elizabeth

    A thin wire Ag/AgCl reference electrode was prepared using 50 mum Ag wire in dilute FeCl3. The wire was embedded beneath the polyurethane topcoat of two sacrificial coating systems to monitor their corrosion potential. This is the first report of a reference electrode embedded between organic coating layers to monitor substrate health. The embedded reference electrode (ERE) successfully monitored the corrosion potential of Mg primer on AA 2024-T3 for 800 days of constant immersion in dilute Harrison's solution. Zn primer on steel had low accuracy in comparison. This is in part due to short circuiting by Zn oxidation products, which are much more conductive than Mg corrosion products. Data interpretation was improved through statistical analysis. On average, ERE corrosion potentials are 0.1 to 0.2 V and 0.2 to 0.3 V more positive than a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in solution for AA 2024-T3 and steel coating systems, respectively. Further research may confirm that ERE obtains corrosion potential information not possible by an exterior, conventional reference electrode. The ERE is stable under polarization. AA 2024-T3 was polarized to -0.95 V vs ERE to emulate controlled potential cathodic protection (CPCP) applications. Polarizations of -0.75 V vs ERE are recommended for future experiments to minimize cathodic delamination. The ERE was utilized to analyze coating mixtures of lithium carbonate, magnesium nitrate, and Mg metal on AA2024-T3. Corrosion potential, low frequency impedance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and noise resistance by electrochemical noise method (ENM) were reported. Coating performance ranking is consistent with standard electrochemical characterization and visual analyses. The results suggest anti-corrosion resistance superior to a standard Mg primer following 1600 hours of B117 salt spray. Both lithium carbonate and magnesium nitrate are necessary to achieve corrosion protection. Unique corrosion protective coatings for

  13. UNESCO's Proposal to License Journalists: Protection vs. Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deskins, Lucinda E.

    Unesco's proposal to license journalists would entail setting certain criteria for all reporters to follow in their foreign and domestic stories, in return for which, licensed journalists would be protected from government harassment or harm. The proposal, which greatly disturbs journalists from Western nations, is an effort by Third World…

  14. Integrating community health workers within Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act implementation.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nadia; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Zahn, Deborah; Skillman, Megan; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's (PPACA) emphasis on community-based initiatives affords a unique opportunity to disseminate and scale up evidence-based community health worker (CHW) models that integrate CHWs within health care delivery teams and programs. Community health workers have unique access and local knowledge that can inform program development and evaluation, improve service delivery and care coordination, and expand health care access. As a member of the PPACA-defined health care workforce, CHWs have the potential to positively impact numerous programs and reduce costs. This article discusses different strategies for integrating CHW models within PPACA implementation through facilitated enrollment strategies, patient-centered medical homes, coordination and expansion of health information technology (HIT) efforts, and also discusses payment options for such integration. Title V of the PPACA outlines a plan to improve access to and delivery of health care services for all individuals, particularly low-income, underserved, uninsured, minority, health disparity, and rural populations. Community health workers' role as trusted community leaders can facilitate accurate data collection, program enrollment, and provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate, patient- and family-centered care. Because CHWs already support disease management and care coordination services, they will be critical to delivering and expanding patient-centered medical homes and Health Home services, especially for communities that suffer disproportionately from multiple chronic diseases. Community health workers' unique expertise in conducting outreach make them well positioned to help enroll people in Medicaid or insurance offered by Health Benefit Exchanges. New payment models provide opportunities to fund and sustain CHWs. Community health workers can support the effective implementation of PPACA if the capacity and potential of CHWs to serve as cultural

  15. Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis in China: a review of policy and practice in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chai, Shua J; Mattingly, Daniel C; Varma, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis causes >1.7 million deaths worldwide each year and is frequently transmitted in hospitals. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have led to illness and death among health care workers (HCWs) in many countries. Some countries, such as the United States, implemented occupational health policies that substantially reduced tuberculosis rates among HCWs. Inadequate tuberculosis infection control in China may contribute to its high burden of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, which are both the second highest worldwide. Occupational health policies in China for tuberculosis control can be strengthened. We reviewed the development and content of tuberculosis infection control policies in the United States and China. Sources included published academic literature, Chinese Ministry of Health policies, US government agency reports, legal databases, personal observations of hospitals, review of internet discussion sites, and discussions with HCWs and health care and law experts. In the United States, slow acceptance of the tuberculosis problem in HCWs resulted in decades of inaction. Tuberculosis infection control policies, based mostly on expert opinion, were implemented only after tuberculosis resurged in the 1980s. Effective evidence-based policies were developed only after multiple cycles of policy implementation, evaluation and revision. These policies have now substantially reduced occupational tuberculosis. In China, tuberculosis has not been formally recognized as an occupational disease, and data regarding the burden in HCWs are sparse. Vagueness of current labour laws and suboptimal alignment of infection control authority and expertise result in varied and sometimes absent protection of HCWs against tuberculosis. Formal evaluations of occupational tuberculosis policies have not been reported. By collecting data on its current HCW tuberculosis burden and infection control practices, refining policies, continually evaluating its

  16. Modeling & Verifying Aircraft Paint Hangar Airflow to Reduce Green House Gas and Energy Usage while Protecting Occupational Health Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-30

    HANGAR AIRFLOW TO REDUCE GREEN HOUSE GAS AND ENERGY USAGE WHILE PROTECTING OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Edwin Chiang P.E. NAVFAC EXWC James S. Bennett Ph.D...Aircraft Paint Hangar Airflow to Reduce Green House Gas and Energy Usage while Protecting Occupational Health Energy Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM...particular purpose Modeling & Verifying Aircraft Paint Hangar Airflow to Reduce Green House Gas and Energy Usage while Protecting Occupational Health v

  17. Risk and protective factors for falls from furniture in young children: multicenter case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Denise; Maula, Asiya; Reading, Richard; Hindmarch, Paul; Coupland, Carol; Watson, Michael; Hayes, Mike; Deave, Toity

    2015-02-01

    Falls from furniture are common in young children but there is little evidence on protective factors for these falls. To estimate associations for risk and protective factors for falls from furniture in children aged 0 to 4 years. Multicenter case-control study at hospitals, minor injury units, and general practices in and around 4 UK study centers. Recruitment commenced June 14, 2010, and ended April 27, 2012. Participants included 672 children with falls from furniture and 2648 control participants matched on age, sex, calendar time, and study center. Thirty-five percent of cases and 33% of control individuals agreed to participate. The mean age was 1.74 years for cases and 1.91 years for control participants. Fifty-four percent of cases and 56% of control participants were male. Exposures included safety practices, safety equipment use, and home hazards. Falls from furniture occurring at the child's home resulting in attendance at an emergency department, minor injury unit, or hospital admission. Compared with parents of control participants, parents of cases were significantly more likely not to use safety gates in the home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.65; 95% CI, 1.29-2.12) and not to have taught their children rules about climbing on kitchen objects (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.15). Cases aged 0 to 12 months were significantly more likely to have been left on raised surfaces (AOR, 5.62; 95% CI, 3.62-8.72), had their diapers changed on raised surfaces (AOR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.24-2.88), and been put in car/bouncing seats on raised surfaces (AOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.29-3.27). Cases 3 years and older were significantly more likely to have played or climbed on furniture (AOR, 9.25; 95% CI, 1.22-70.07). Cases were significantly less likely to have played or climbed on garden furniture (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.97). If estimated associations are causal, some falls from furniture may be prevented by incorporating advice into child health contacts, personal child health

  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Health Equity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Minority Health Public Health Ethics Forum Media Gallery Speakers Continuing ...

  19. Child Protection, Public Health and Nursing V Appleton Jane and Peckover Sue Child Protection, Public Health and Nursing 110pp £19.95 Dunedin Academic Press 9781780460451 1780460457 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2017-04-11

    The remit of public health is undergoing major transformation in the UK, and specialist community public health nurses are at the forefront of the changes. Much of their work will include child protection, which is the subject of this book.

  20. [The health protection of Italian workers abroad: complex and varied but still guaranteed].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Luigi; Corfiati, Marisa; Cassano, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    The employment contracts for Italian working abroad are legally different. So many national laws, European Union (EU) directives and regulations should be applied concerning health and safety at work. This paper is aimed to clarify these features, focusing on their impact on workers' health surveillance. For originally transnational contracts the law applicable is chosen by the parties but in compliance with minimum standards of workers' health protection. An authorization by Italian Labour Minister is also needed for employment in non-EU countries requiring minimum protection conditions. Italian legislation is applied to temporary work abroad. Long-lasting or permanent abroad transfer is regulated as originally transnational work. Workers posted in a EU country should receive the same protection ensured by laws, regulations, collective agreements or arbitrations to resident workers. Health surveillance of workers hired or transferred to work abroad is performed by a occupational physician (OP) operating in the foreign country. Temporary abroad workers undergo health surveillance by the Italian OP. The workplace inspection could be conducted by the OP through audiovisual electronic systems, reserving the on-site visit to particular situations. The host employer is responsible for health surveillance of posted workers entrusted to a local OP.

  1. Collaborative Protection and Control Schemes for Shipboard Electrical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-26

    these schemes are element based, i.e., they are aimed to protect the main elements (lines, transformers ) etc. on a system. For the DC SES, on the...Secondary DC Zone The secondary DC zone, as shown in Figure 2.1, includes the secondary DC bus, the buck converter isolation transformer , the load side...or negative secondary dc bus to ground faults occurring on the secondary DC bus are localized by the isolation transformer of the buck converter

  2. Aid for health in times of political unrest in Mali: does donors' way of intervening allow protecting people's health?

    PubMed

    Paul, Elisabeth; Samaké, Salif; Berthé, Issa; Huijts, Ini; Balique, Hubert; Dujardin, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Mali has long been a leader in francophone Africa in developing systems aimed at improving aid effectiveness, especially in the health sector. But following the invasion of the Northern regions of the country by terrorist groups and a coup in March 2012, donors suspended official development assistance, except for support to NGOs and humanitarian assistance. They resumed aid after transfer of power to a civil government, but this was not done in a harmonized framework. This article describes and analyses how donors in the health sector reacted to the political unrest in Mali. It shows that despite its long sector-wide approach experience and international agreements to respect aid effectiveness principles, donors have not been able to intervene in view of safeguarding the investments of co-operation in the past decade, and of protecting the health system's functioning. They reacted to the political unrest on a bilateral basis, stopped working with their ministerial partners, interrupted support to the health system which was still expected to serve populations' needs and took months before organizing alternative and only partial solutions to resume aid to the health sector. The Malian example leads to a worrying conclusion: while protecting the health system's achievements and functioning for the population should be a priority, and while harmonizing donors' interventions seems the most appropriate way for that purpose, donors' management practices do not allow for reacting adequately in times of unrest. The article concludes by a number of recommendations.

  3. MMOD Protection and Degradation Effects for Thermal Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by JSC & is the predominate threat in low Earth orbit - ORDEM 3.0 is latest model (released December 2013) - http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/ - Man-made objects in orbit about Earth impacting up to 16 km/s average 9-10 km/s for ISS orbit - High-density debris (steel) is major issue Meteoroid model provided by MSFC - MEM-R2 is latest release - http://www.nasa.gov/offices/meo/home/index.html - Natural particles in orbit about sun Mg-silicates, Ni-Fe, others - Meteoroid environment (MEM): 11-72 km/s Average 22-23 km/s.

  4. Protecting pro-poor health services during financial crises: lessons from experience.

    PubMed

    Gottret, Pablo; Gupta, Vaibhav; Sparkes, Susan; Tandon, Ajay; Moran, Valerie; Berman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This chapter assesses the extent to which previous economic and financial crises had a negative impact on health outcomes and health financing. In addition, we review evidence related to the effectiveness of different policy measures undertaken in past crises to protect access to health services, especially for the poor and vulnerable. The current global crisis is unique both in terms of its scale and origins. Unlike most previous instances, the current crisis has its origins in developed countries, initially the United States, before it spread to middle- and lower-income countries. The current crisis is now affecting almost all countries at all levels of income. This chapter addresses several key questions aimed at helping inform possible policy responses to the current crisis from the perspective of the health sector: What is the nature of the current crisis and in what ways does it differ from previous experiences? What are some of the key. lessons from previous crises? How have governments responded previously to protect health from such macroeconomic shocks? How can we improve the likelihood of positive action today? The chapter reviews the literature on the impact of financial crises on health outcomes and health expenditures and on the effectiveness of past policy efforts to protect human development during periods of economic downturn. It also presents analysis of household surveys and health expenditure data to track health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket expenditures by households during times of financial crisis. Evidence from previous crises indicates that health-related impacts during economic downturns can occur through various channels. The impact in households experiencing reductions in employment and income could be manifest in terms of poorer nutritional outcomes and lower levels of utilization of health care when needed. Households may become impoverished, reduce needed health services, and experience reductions in consumption as a result of

  5. Risk and protection: the discourse of confinement in contemporary mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Moon, G

    2000-09-01

    Confinement has regained respectability in the discourses of contemporary UK mental health policy. This development reflects concern about violent offences by people with mental health problems and is rooted in claims about the 'failure' of community care. Confinement is presented as a strategic response to the risks and dangers posed by particular fractions of the population of mental health service users. Using two key policy statements issued by the Department of Health and associated discussions in the health services management press, the confinement theme is explored and assessed. The paper notes its emergence as a consequence of the spatial impacts of deinstitutionalization and its specific origins in response to violent offences by people with mental health problems. The notion that the growing emphasis on confinement presages a return to the asylum is considered and rejected. Rather, the paper stresses the importance of discourses of protection, safety, risk and dangerousness in understanding the turn to confinement.

  6. Stress on health-related quality of life in older adults: the protective nature of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Whyne, Erum

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined whether the link between stress and health-related quality of life was buffered by protective factors, namely mindfulness, in a sample of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 134 healthy, community-dwelling adults (ages 50–85 years) were recruited from Dallas, TX. The participants were screened for depressive symptoms and severity (using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]). All participants completed measures of self-reported health status (i.e. SF36v2: mental and physical health composites), life stress (using the Elders Life Stress Inventory [ELSI]), and trait mindfulness (i.e. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale). Results: Hierarchical regressions (covarying for age, gender, and education) showed that life stress was inversely related to physical and mental health. Mindfulness was positively related to mental health. The negative effect of life stress on mental health was weakened for those individuals with higher levels of trait mindfulness. Conclusions: The results suggest that mindfulness is a powerful, adaptive strategy that may protect middle-aged and older adults from the well-known harmful effects of stress on mental health. PMID:24940847

  7. Comparative Cost of Stockpiling Various Types of Respiratory Protective Devices to Protect the Health Care Workforce During an Influenza Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Gio; Eisert, Sheri; Eagan, Aaron; Radonovich, Lewis

    2015-06-01

    Specific guidance on the size and composition of respiratory protective device (RPD) stockpiles for use during a pandemic is lacking. We explore the economic aspects of stockpiling various types and combinations of RPDs by adapting a pandemic model that estimates the impact of a severe pandemic on a defined population, the number of potential interactions between patients and health care personnel, and the potential number of health care personnel needed to fulfill those needs. Our model calculates the number of the different types of RPDs that should be stockpiled and the consequent cost of purchase and storage, prorating this cost over the shelf life of the inventory. Compared with disposable N95 or powered air-purifying respirators, we show that stockpiling reusable elastomeric half-face respirators is the least costly approach. Disposable N95 respirators take up significantly more storage space, which increases relative costs. Reusing or extending the usable period of disposable devices may diminish some of these costs. We conclude that stockpiling a combination of disposable N95 and reusable half-face RPDs is the best approach to preparedness for most health care organizations. We recommend against stockpiling powered air-purifying respirators as they are much more costly than alternative approaches.

  8. Risk and Protective Factors for Depression and Health Outcomes in American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David D.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined whether protective factors reduce the effects of depression in American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Surveys of 2,034 Native high school students from 33 states indicated that depression moderately influenced self-perceived health status and that caring and connectedness counteracted the risk factors from depression that…

  9. ESCHERICHIA COLI: THE BEST BIOLOGICAL DRINKING WATER INDICATOR FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health protection requires an indicator of fecal pollution. It is not to analyze drinking water for all pathogens. Escherichia coli is found in all mammal feces at concentrations of 10 log 9/gram. It does not multiply appreciably in the environment. In the 1890s, it was ch...

  10. Protective Factors, Campus Climate, and Health Outcomes among Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Kulick, Alex; Atteberry, Brittanie

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexism on campus can create a chilly climate for sexual minority students. Research has documented the negative impacts of campus climate on sexual minority students' health; however, little research has examined the role of potential protective factors among this population. Drawing on data collected from self-identified sexual minority…

  11. 45 CFR 164.528 - Accounting of disclosures of protected health information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other notification purposes as provided in § 164.510; (vi) For national security or intelligence... by the accounting, the covered entity has made multiple disclosures of protected health information... accounting may, with respect to such multiple disclosures, provide: (i) The information required by...

  12. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire protection. 2052.235-71 Section 2052.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... by private contractors and universities and for other technical services as appropriate:...

  13. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire protection. 2052.235-71 Section 2052.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... by private contractors and universities and for other technical services as appropriate:...

  14. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire protection. 2052.235-71 Section 2052.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... by private contractors and universities and for other technical services as appropriate:...

  15. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Safety, health, and fire protection. 2052.235-71 Section 2052.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... by private contractors and universities and for other technical services as appropriate:...

  16. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire protection. 2052.235-71 Section 2052.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY... by private contractors and universities and for other technical services as appropriate:...

  17. 77 FR 64531 - Notice of Availability of Guidance for Protecting Responders' Health During the First Week...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Following a Wide-Area Aerosol Anthrax Attack AGENCY: Office of Health Affairs, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Anthrax Attack. This guidance provides recommendations for protecting personnel responding to a wide-area anthrax attack from developing anthrax as a result of exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores...

  18. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  19. Revision of the Measurement Tool for Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Song, Youngshin; Lee, Miyoung; Jun, Younghee; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Jeonghwa; Kwon, Myoungjin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite the importance of the protection of patients' health information in clinical settings, little is known about the awareness of this concept in nursing students due to the lack of a suitable measurement tool. Hence, this study attempted to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale, and evaluate its construct validity and reliability for nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Nursing students who were in their 3rd and 4th year were recruited from 10 universities in Korea to assess the construct validity, and 30 experts (27 nurses and 3 faculty members) participated in the content validation process. Results The content validity assessment indicated that 23 items were ideal. The assessment of construct validity using exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors: communication, management, and referrals. They together accounted for 54.1% of the variance in scale scores. The three-factor scale had good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. Scale reliability was confirmed, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 for all items. Conclusions This study was the first attempt to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale for student nurses. The 23-item scale was shown to be a reliable and valid tool. It facilitates the assessment of nursing students' awareness of patient information protection. Academic nursing programs and health organizations can use its scores to implement adequate education plans to safeguard information in nursing students. PMID:27525162

  20. The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

  1. Protective Factors, Campus Climate, and Health Outcomes among Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Kulick, Alex; Atteberry, Brittanie

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexism on campus can create a chilly climate for sexual minority students. Research has documented the negative impacts of campus climate on sexual minority students' health; however, little research has examined the role of potential protective factors among this population. Drawing on data collected from self-identified sexual minority…

  2. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  3. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  4. Community Violence, Protective Factors, and Adolescent Mental Health: A Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among community violence exposure, protective factors, and mental health in a sample of urban, predominantly African American adolescents (N = 504). Latent Profile Analysis was conducted to identify profiles of adolescents based on a combination of community violence exposure, self-worth, parental monitoring,…

  5. The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

  6. ESCHERICHIA COLI: THE BEST BIOLOGICAL DRINKING WATER INDICATOR FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health protection requires an indicator of fecal pollution. It is not to analyze drinking water for all pathogens. Escherichia coli is found in all mammal feces at concentrations of 10 log 9/gram. It does not multiply appreciably in the environment. In the 1890s, it was ch...

  7. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, public health, and the elusive target of human rights.

    PubMed

    Gable, Lance

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) sets in motion a wide range of programs that substantially affected the health system in the United States and signify a moderate but important regulatory shift in the role of the federal government in public health. This article briefly addresses two interesting policy paradoxes about the ACA. First, while the legislation primarily addresses health care financing and insurance and establishes only a few initiatives directly targeting public health, the ACA nevertheless has the potential to produce extensive public health benefits across the United States population by improving access to health care and services and reducing cost. Essentially, the ACA does not take the explicit form of a public health law but instead strives to advance public health indirectly through its effects. Second, while the ACA does not establish a right to health - or even a right to health insurance - in the United States, it does set in motion a number of significant structural and normative changes to United States law that comport with the attainment of the right to health. Most significantly, key provisions of the bill are designed to improve availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of conditions necessary for health, and to prompt the government to respect, protect, and fulfill these conditions. These developments mean that, to a degree, the United States essentially has undertaken the same types of legal and policy steps that a country would be required to take to uphold the right to health without actually recognizing the right to health in any formal or legally binding way. Despite these dual paradoxes and the upside potential for public health improvements resulting from the ACA, the public health impact of the law remains uncertain and will be decided by numerous subsequent regulatory and implementation decisions. The ACA authorizes multiple federal agencies to engage in rulemaking, a process that will largely

  8. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-01-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables. PMID:25855212

  9. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The Human Right to Adequate Housing: A Tool for Promoting and Protecting Individual and Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Bret

    2002-01-01

    The human right to adequate housing is enshrined in international law. The right to adequate housing can be traced to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was unanimously adopted by the world community in 1948. Since that time, the right to adequate housing has been reaffirmed on numerous occasions and further defined and elaborated. A key component of this right is habitability of housing, which should comply with health and safety standards. Therefore, the right to adequate housing provides an additional tool for advocates and others interested in promoting healthful housing and living conditions and thereby protecting individual and community health. PMID:11988432

  11. Use of "excess" human embryos for stem cell research: protecting women's rights and health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C B

    2000-01-01

    Proposed National Institutes of Health guidelines for stem cell research are too narrowly drawn and do not adequately protect the freedom of choice and health of women who donate embryos. They need to be expanded to cover not only the point of embryo donation, but also that of embryo creation. Guidelines are provided to ensure that donors undergoing hyperstimulation and egg retrieval gave voluntary informed consent to the production of embryos that might later prove in excess. A standard for determining when embryos have been overproduced is presented to address the possibility that additional embryos will be created for stem cell research in violation of the guidelines and at risk to women's health.

  12. Urgent strategic research into influenza to inform health policy and protect the public.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Tania C; Lonsdale, Carey

    2006-11-20

    The Australian management plan for pandemic influenza (2005) highlighted a number of areas where more information may yield better plans for protecting Australia. In 2005, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) developed a special "urgent research" funding program to meet those information needs as quickly as possible. The funding program resulted in grants totalling $6.5 million being awarded for 33 research projects, in five broad areas: Detection and identification of the virus; Vaccine development and evaluation; Antiviral medication use and effectiveness; Public health interventions; and Understanding behavioural responses to achieve effective communication and staged implementation of public health strategies. Outcomes of the program will be evaluated formally in 2007.

  13. Women's Health in the Age of Patient Protection and the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is the most sweeping health care legislation in a generation. The goal of the legislation is to increase access to both public and private insurance, and to improve the affordability and quality of care. Many provisions of the bill have a direct impact on the women's health care services. This paper provides an overview of the bill's provisions that have the largest impact on women's health care and provides data on the impact of the bill to date.

  14. Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies and Reduced Alcohol Risk: Examining the Moderating Effects of Mental Health, Gender and Race

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)—previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students—may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past month incidence of heavy episodic drinking. Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences, use of PBS, and depression and anxiety symptomatology. Overall, results demonstrated that among participants experiencing depression or anxiety, greater PBS utilization was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol-related consequences, even after controlling for drinking and other predictors. However, findings also revealed important distinctions in the potential effectiveness of PBS by depression/anxiety severity and racial-gender subgroup, such that Asian men with poor mental health appeared to garner unique and substantial benefit (i.e., lesser consequences) from increased PBS use. Further, PBS were found to offer substantial protective benefit for White females, irrespective of mental health. This study points to the potential for targeted PBS-specific skills training and interventions to minimize alcohol-related risks faced by the growing subpopulation of college students experiencing psychological distress, and further highlights important race-gender differentials. PMID:24079648

  15. The New Zealand Health and Disability Commissioner: a comparative assessment of the commissioner's contribution to protecting the rights of mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Kazmierow, Maria

    2002-02-01

    The Health and Disabliity Commissioner's contribution to the protection of mental health consumers' rights is examined. This assessment covers a number of aspects. It includes the scope of consumer rights jurisdiction, the breadth of legal entitlements, protective mechanisms used, and the effectiveness of that protection. The Commissioner's role is also assessed comparatively. It is contrasted domestically with District Inspectors of Mental Health and internationally with Scottish and United Kingdom reform proposals. While analysis reveals considerable similarities, the New Zealand Health and Disability Commissioner is favourably highlighted in contrast with Scotland and the United Kingdom, particularly in the area of enforceability of mental health consumer rights.

  16. Assessing different measures of population-level vaccine protection using a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; You, Young Ae; Kanungo, Suman; Manna, Byomkesh; Deen, Jacqueline L; Lopez, Anna Lena; Wierzba, Thomas F; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Sur, Dipika; Clemens, John D

    2015-11-27

    Case-control studies have not been examined for their utility in assessing population-level vaccine protection in individually randomized trials. We used the data of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a cholera vaccine to compare the results of case-control analyses with those of cohort analyses. Cases of cholera were selected from the trial population followed for three years following dosing. For each case, we selected 4 age-matched controls who had not developed cholera. For each case and control, GIS was used to calculate vaccine coverage of individuals in a surrounding "virtual" cluster. Specific selection strategies were used to evaluate the vaccine protective effects. 66,900 out of 108,389 individuals received two doses of the assigned regimen. For direct protection among subjects in low vaccine coverage clusters, we observed 78% (95% CI: 47-91%) protection in a cohort analysis and 84% (95% CI: 60-94%) in case-control analysis after adjusting for confounding factors. Using our GIS-based approach, estimated indirect protection was 52% (95% CI: 10-74%) in cohort and 76% (95% CI: 47-89%) in case control analysis. Estimates of total and overall effectiveness were similar for cohort and case-control analyses. The findings show that case-control analyses of individually randomized vaccine trials may be used to evaluate direct as well as population-level vaccine protection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Action planning as predictor of health protective and health risk behavior: an investigation of fruit and snack consumption

    PubMed Central

    van Osch, Liesbeth; Beenackers, Mariëlle; Reubsaet, Astrid; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    Background Large discrepancies between people's intention to eat a healthy diet and actual dietary behavior indicate that motivation is not a sufficient instigator for healthy behavior. Research efforts to decrease this 'intention - behavior gap' have centered on aspects of self-regulation, most importantly self-regulatory planning. Most studies on the impact of self-regulatory planning in health and dietary behavior focus on the promotion of health protective behaviors. This study investigates and compares the predictive value of action planning in health protective behavior and the restriction of health risk behavior. Methods Two longitudinal observational studies were performed simultaneously, one focusing on fruit consumption (N = 572) and one on high-caloric snack consumption (N = 585) in Dutch adults. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate and compare the predictive value of action planning in both behaviors, correcting for demographics and the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The nature of the influence of action planning was investigated by testing mediating and moderating effects. Results Action planning was a significant predictor of fruit consumption and restricted snack consumption beyond the influence of motivational factors and past behavior. The strength of the predictive value of action planning did not differ between the two behaviors. Evidence for mediation of the intention - behavior relationship was found for both behaviors. Positive moderating effects of action planning were demonstrated for fruit consumption, indicating that individuals who report high levels of action planning are significantly more likely to translate their intentions into actual behavior. Conclusion The results indicate that the planning of specific preparatory actions predicts the performance of healthy dietary behavior and support the application of self-regulatory planning in both health protective and health risk behaviors. Future

  18. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations.

  19. Internal health locus of control predicts willingness to track health behaviors online and with smartphone applications.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brooke L; Goldstein, Carly M; Gathright, Emily C; Hughes, Joel W; Latner, Janet D

    2017-04-17

    Given rising technology use across all demographic groups, digital interventions offer a potential strategy for increasing access to health information and care. Research is lacking on identifying individual differences that impact willingness to use digital interventions, which may affect patient engagement. Health locus of control, the amount of control an individual believes they have over their own health, may predict willingness to use mobile health (mHealth) applications ('apps') and online trackers. A cross-sectional study (n = 276) was conducted to assess college students' health locus of control beliefs and willingness to use health apps and online trackers. Internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs predicted willingness to use health apps and online trackers while chance health locus of control beliefs did not. Individuals with internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs are more willing than those with chance health locus of control beliefs to utilize a form of technology to monitor or change health behaviors. Health locus of control is an easy-to-assess patient characteristic providers can measure to identify which patients are more likely to utilize mHealth apps and online trackers.

  20. Congress, courts, and commerce: upholding the individual mandate to protect the public's health.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Orenstein, Daniel G; O'Keefe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Among multiple legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the premise that PPACA's "individual mandate" (requiring all individuals to obtain health insurance by 2014 or face civil penalties) is inviolate of Congress' interstate commerce powers because Congress lacks the power to regulate commercial "inactivity." Several courts initially considering this argument have rejected it, but federal district courts in Virginia and Florida have concurred, leading to numerous appeals and prospective review of the United States Supreme Court. Despite creative arguments, the dispositive constitutional question is not whether Congress' interstate commerce power extends to commercial inactivity. Rather, it is whether Congress may regulate individual decisions with significant economic ramifications in the interests of protecting and promoting the public's health. This article offers a counter-interpretation of the scope of Congress' interstate commerce power to regulate in furtherance of the public's health.

  1. A WWW Implementation of National Recommendations for Protecting Electronic Health Information

    PubMed Central

    Halamka, John D.; Szolovits, Peter; Rind, David; Safran, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Abstract In March of 1997, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences issued the report, “For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information.” Concluding that the current practices at the majority of health care facilities in the United States are insufficient, the Council delineated both technical and organizational approaches to protecting electronic health information. The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center recently implemented a proof-of-concept, Web-based, cross-institutional medical record, CareWeb, which incorporates the NRC security and confidentiality recommendations. We report on our WWW implementation of the NRC recommendations and an initial evaluation of the balance between ease of use and confidentiality. PMID:9391933

  2. [ELGA--the electronic health record in the light of data protection and data security].

    PubMed

    Ströher, Alexander; Honekamp, Wilfried

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of an electronic health record (ELGA) is a subject discussed for a long time in Austria. Another big step toward ELGA is made at the end of 2010 on the pilot project e-medication in three model regions; other projects should follow. In addition, projects of the ELGA structure are sped up on the part of the ELGA GmbH to install the base of a functioning electronic health record. Unfortunately, many of these initiatives take place, so to speak, secretly, so that in the consciousness of the general public - and that includes not only patients but also physicians and other healthcare providers - always concerns about protection and security of such a storage of health data arouse. In this article the bases of the planned act are discussed taking into account the data protection and data security.

  3. Tuberculosis as a force health protection threat to the United States military.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose L; Sanchez, Joyce L; Cooper, Michael J; Hiser, Michelle J; Mancuso, James D

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that poses a threat to force health protection to the U.S. military. The rate of TB disease in the military is low; however, there are unique challenges for its control in this setting. As a low-risk population, TB testing in the U.S. military can be scaled back from the universal testing approach used previously. Reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) present at accession into service is the most important factor leading to TB disease; therefore, its diagnosis and treatment among recruits should be given a high priority. Deployment and overseas military service is an uncommon but important source of TB infection, and rigorous surveillance should be ensured. Case management of TB disease and LTBI can be improved by the use of cohort reviews at the service and installation levels and case finding and delays in the diagnosis of TB disease can be improved by education of providers, as well as increased use of molecular diagnostic tests. Program outcomes can be improved by making LTBI treatment compulsory, offering shorter treatment regimens, and increasing accountability through oversight and evaluation. The diagnosis of LTBI can be improved by implementing targeted testing in all settings and reducing confirmatory interferon-gamma release assay testing. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Migration Selection, Protection, and Acculturation in Health: A Binational Perspective on Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca; Palloni, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we test for four potential explanations of the Hispanic Health Paradox (HHP): the “salmon bias,” emigration selection, and sociocultural protection originating in either destination or sending country. To reduce biases related to attrition by return migration typical of most U.S.-based surveys, we combine data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study in Mexico and the U.S. National Health Interview Survey to compare self-reported diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, obesity, and self-rated health among Mexican-born men ages 50 and older according to their previous U.S. migration experience, and U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. We also use height, a measure of health during childhood, to bolster some of our tests. We find an immigrant advantage relative to non-Hispanic whites in hypertension and, to a lesser extent, obesity. We find evidence consistent with emigration selection and the salmon bias in height, hypertension, and self-rated health among immigrants with less than 15 years of experience in the United States; we do not find conclusive evidence consistent with sociocultural protection mechanisms. Finally, we illustrate that although ignoring return migrants when testing for the HHP and its mechanisms, as well as for the association between U.S. experience and health, exaggerates these associations, they are not fully driven by return migration-related attrition. PMID:23192395

  5. Risk Protection, Service Use, and Health Outcomes under Colombia’s Health Insurance Program for the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Grant; Pinto, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected medical care spending imposes considerable financial risk on developing country households. Based on managed care models of health insurance in wealthy countries, Colombia’s Régimen Subsidiado is a publicly financed insurance program targeted to the poor, aiming both to provide risk protection and to promote allocative efficiency in the use of medical care. Using a “fuzzy” regression discontinuity design, we find that the program has shielded the poor from some financial risk while increasing the use of traditionally under-utilized preventive services – with measurable health gains. PMID:25346799

  6. Does the National Health Insurance Scheme provide financial protection to households in Ghana?

    PubMed

    Kusi, Anthony; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Asante, Felix A; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-08-15

    Excessive healthcare payments can impede access to health services and also disrupt the welfare of households with no financial protection. Health insurance is expected to offer financial protection against health shocks. Ghana began the implementation of its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004. The NHIS is aimed at removing the financial barrier to healthcare by limiting direct out-of-pocket health expenditures (OOPHE). The study examines the effect of the NHIS on OOPHE and how it protects households against catastrophic health expenditures. Data was obtained from a cross-sectional representative household survey involving 2,430 households from three districts across Ghana. All OOPHE associated with treatment seeking for reported illness in the household in the last 4 weeks preceding the survey were analysed and compared between insured and uninsured persons. The incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) among households were measured by the catastrophic health payment method. The relative effect of NHIS on the incidence of CHE in the household was estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. About 36% of households reported at least one illness during the 4 weeks period. Insured patients had significantly lower direct OOPHE for out-patient and in-patient care compared to the uninsured. On financial protection, the incidence of CHE was lower among insured households (2.9%) compared to the partially insured (3.7%) and the uninsured (4.0%) at the 40% threshold. The incidence of CHE was however significantly lower among fully insured households (6.0%) which sought healthcare from NHIS accredited health facilities compared to the partially insured (10.1%) and the uninsured households (23.2%). The likelihood of a household incurring CHE was 4.2 times less likely for fully insured and 2.9 times less likely for partially insured households relative to being uninsured. The NHIS has however not completely eliminated OOPHE for the

  7. Does the perception that God controls health outcomes matter for health behaviors?

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between God Locus of Health Control, health behaviors, and beliefs utilizing a cross-sectional online survey (N = 549). Results indicated that God Locus of Health Control was correlated with alcohol use, physical activity, perceived risk of chronic disease, and beliefs that poor health behaviors contribute to chronic disease (all p values < .05). Multiple regression analyses including covariates and other locus of control variables revealed that God Locus of Health Control was only an independent correlate of the belief that physical inactivity contributed to chronic disease. Insights from this study may be important for future faith-based health behavior change interventions.

  8. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  9. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Reproductive Health: Harnessing Data to Improve Care

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has great potential to improve reproductive health through several components: expanded coverage of people of reproductive age; required coverage of many reproductive health services; and insurance exchange structures that encourage individuals and states to hold plans and providers accountable. These components can work together to improve reproductive health. But in order for this to work, consumers and states need information with which to assess plans. This review article summarizes state contracting theory and argues that states should use this structure to require health plans to collect and report meaningful data that patients, providers, plans, payers, and third-party researchers can access. Now that the Supreme Court has upheld the PPACA and states must set up health insurance exchanges, populations can benefit from improved care and outcomes through data transparency. PMID:23262767

  10. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and reproductive health: harnessing data to improve care.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Debra

    2013-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has great potential to improve reproductive health through several components: expanded coverage of people of reproductive age; required coverage of many reproductive health services; and insurance exchange structures that encourage individuals and states to hold plans and providers accountable. These components can work together to improve reproductive health. But in order for this to work, consumers and states need information with which to assess plans. This review article summarizes state contracting theory and argues that states should use this structure to require health plans to collect and report meaningful data that patients, providers, plans, payers, and third-party researchers can access. Now that the Supreme Court has upheld the PPACA and states must set up health insurance exchanges, populations can benefit from improved care and outcomes through data transparency.

  11. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; health insurance market rules. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-27

    This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed availability, guaranteed renewability, single risk pools, and catastrophic plans, consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The final rule clarifies the approach used to enforce the applicable requirements of the Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal governmental plans. This final rule also amends the standards for health insurance issuers and states regarding reporting, utilization, and collection of data under the federal rate review program, and revises the timeline for states to propose state-specific thresholds for review and approval by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).

  12. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  13. Promoting and Protecting Mental Health as Flourishing: A Complementary Strategy for Improving National Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…

  14. Vitamin D and sun protection: the impact of mixed public health messages in Australia.

    PubMed

    Youl, Philippa H; Janda, Monika; Kimlin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    Exposure of the skin to sunlight can cause skin cancer and is also necessary for cutaneous Vitamin D production. Media reports have highlighted the purported health benefits of Vitamin D. Our aim was to examine attitudes and behaviours related to sun protection and Vitamin D. A cross-sectional study of 2,001 residents in Queensland, Australia, aged 20-70 years was undertaken. Information collected included the following: skin cancer risk factors; perceptions about levels of sun exposure required to maintain Vitamin D; belief that sun protection increases risk of Vitamin D deficiency; intention, and actual change in sun protection practices for adults and children. Multivariate models examined predictors of attitudinal and behavioural change. One-third (32%) believed a fair-skinned adult, and 31% thought a child required at least 30 min/day in summer sun to maintain Vitamin D levels. Reductions in sun protection were reported by 21% of adults and 14% of children. Factors associated with the belief that sun protection may result in not obtaining enough Vitamin D included age of >or=60 years (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.66) and having skin that tanned easily (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.38-2.78). Participants from low-income households, and those who frequently used sun-protective clothing were more likely to have reduced sun protection practices (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.10-1.73 and OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.36-2.20, respectively). This study provides evidence of reductions in sun protection practices in a population living in a high UV environment. There is an urgent need to refocus messages regarding sun exposure and for continued sun protection practices.

  15. The health workforce: managing the crisis ethical international recruitment of health professionals: will codes of practice protect developing country health systems?

    PubMed

    Martineau, Tim; Willetts, Annie

    2006-02-01

    Many countries are using the strategy of international recruitment to make up for shortages of health professionals to the detriment of health systems in the poorest parts of the world. This study reviewed the potential impact of eight national level and international codes of practice or similar instruments that are being introduced to encourage ethical recruitment in order to protect these countries. Whilst effective dissemination of the instruments is generally in place, support systems, incentives and sanctions and monitoring systems necessary for effective implementation and sustainability are currently weak or have not been planned. If such codes or instruments are to be used to protect developing country health systems, lessons should be learnt from the early adopters; the focus of protecting developing country health systems needs to be emphasised in instruments with multiple objectives; the process of implementing the instruments strengthened; and internal and external pressure needs to be increased to ensure the codes and instruments lead to ethical recruitment and help to protect developing country health systems.

  16. Fibre Optics In Electricity Substations Their Application To Power System Protection And Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Martin J.

    1985-08-01

    The development of a fibre optic based digital communication system for use in power system protection and control equipment for use within electricity substations is discussed. Emphasis is given to systems wholly within the substation confines and their interfacing to public and private multiplexed telecommunication systems. Particular reference is made to the system used in a Current Differential Protection for EHV transmission circuits.

  17. Temperature-time issues in bioburden control for planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2004-01-01

    Heat energy, administered in the form of an elevated temperature heat soak over a specific interval of time, is a well-known method for inactivating organisms. Sterilization protocols, from commercial pasteurization to laboratory autoclaving, specify both temperature and time, as well as water activity, for treatments to achieve either acceptable reduction of bioburden or complete sterilization. In practical applications of planetary protection, whether to reduce spore load in forward or roundtrip contamination, or to exterminate putative organisms in returned samples from bodies suspected of possible life, avoidance of expensive or potentially damaging treatments of hardware (or samples) could be accomplished if reciprocal relationships between time duration and soak temperature could be established. Conservative rules can be developed from consideration of empirical test data, derived relationships, current standards and various theoretical or proven mechanisms for thermal damage to biological systems.

  18. Temperature-Time Issues in Bioburden Control for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B.

    Heat energy, administered in the form of an elevated temperature heat soak over a specific interval of time, is a well-known method of inactivating organisms. Ster- ilization protocols, from commercial pasteurization to laboratory autoclaving, specify both the temperature and the time, as well as water activity, for treatments to achieve either acceptable reduction of bioburden or complete sterilization. In practical applications of planetary protection, whether to reduce spore load in for- ward or roundtrip contamination, or to exterminate putative organisms in returned samples from planetary bodies suspected of possible life, avoidance of expensive or potentially damaging treatments of hardware (or samples) could be accomplished if reciprocal relationships between time duration and soak temperature could be established. Conservative rules can be developed from consideration of empirical test data, derived relationships, current standards and various theoretical or proven mechanisms for thermal damage to biological systems.

  19. 75 FR 26759 - Health Care Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) and National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11368] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Care Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) and National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB... 1996. Government agencies that license or certify health care practitioners, providers or suppliers...

  20. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Performance Standards § 250.107 What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing all operations in a...