Science.gov

Sample records for control mission operations

  1. Operational efficiency subpanel advanced mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the term mission control will be taken quite broadly to include both ground and space based operations as well as the information infrastructure necessary to support such operations. Three major technology areas related to advanced mission control are examined: (1) Intelligent Assistance for Ground-Based Mission Controllers and Space-Based Crews; (2) Autonomous Onboard Monitoring, Control and Fault Detection Isolation and Reconfiguration; and (3) Dynamic Corporate Memory Acquired, Maintained, and Utilized During the Entire Vehicle Life Cycle. The current state of the art space operations are surveyed both within NASA and externally for each of the three technology areas and major objectives are discussed from a user point of view for technology development. Ongoing NASA and other governmental programs are described. An analysis of major research issues and current holes in the program are provided. Several recommendations are presented for enhancing the technology development and insertion process to create advanced mission control environments.

  2. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  3. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  4. Dye fading test for mission control operator console displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A dye fading test of 40 days duration was conducted to determine the effect of mission control operator console and ambient lighting effects on a series of photographic products under consideration for use in mission console operator consoles. Six different display samples, each containing 36 windows of several different colors, were prepared and placed in the mission control consoles for testing. No significant changes were recorded during the testing period. All changes were attributed to a mechanical problem with the densitometer. Detailed results are given in graphs.

  5. The NASA Mission Operations and Control Architecture Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul J.; Carper, Richard D.; Jeffries, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    The conflict between increases in space mission complexity and rapidly declining space mission budgets has created strong pressures to radically reduce the costs of designing and operating spacecraft. A key approach to achieving such reductions is through reducing the development and operations costs of the supporting mission operations systems. One of the efforts which the Communications and Data Systems Division at NASA Headquarters is using to meet this challenge is the Mission Operations Control Architecture (MOCA) project. Technical direction of this effort has been delegated to the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). MOCA is to develop a mission control and data acquisition architecture, and supporting standards, to guide the development of future spacecraft and mission control facilities at GSFC. The architecture will reduce the need for around-the-clock operations staffing, obtain a high level of reuse of flight and ground software elements from mission to mission, and increase overall system flexibility by enabling the migration of appropriate functions from the ground to the spacecraft. The end results are to be an established way of designing the spacecraft-ground system interface for GSFC's in-house developed spacecraft, and a specification of the end to end spacecraft control process, including data structures, interfaces, and protocols, suitable for inclusion in solicitation documents for future flight spacecraft. A flight software kernel may be developed and maintained in a condition that it can be offered as Government Furnished Equipment in solicitations. This paper describes the MOCA project, its current status, and the results to date.

  6. (abstract) Mission Operations and Control Assurance: Flight Operations Quality Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Kazz, Sheri L.; Witkowski, Mona M.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), a recent addition to flight operations teams at JPL. provides a system level function to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA's primary goal at JPL is to help improve the operational reliability for projects during flight. MO&CA tasks include early detection and correction of process design and procedural deficiencies within projects. Early detection and correction are essential during development of operational procedures and training of operational teams. MO&CA's effort focuses directly on reducing the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. Over the last seven years at JPL, MO&CA has become a valuable asset to JPL flight projects. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's efforts to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit directly from previous and ongoing experience. Since MO&CA, like Total Quality Management (TQM), focuses on continuous improvement of processes and elimination of rework, we recommend that this effort be continued on NASA flight projects.

  7. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalls, James R.; Jones, Cheryl L.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    There are several engineering disciplines, such as reliability, supportability, quality assurance, human factors, risk management, safety, etc. Safety is an extremely important engineering specialty within NASA, and the consequence involving a loss of crew is considered a catastrophic event. Safety is not difficult to achieve when properly integrated at the beginning of each space systems project/start of mission planning. The key is to ensure proper handling of safety verification throughout each flight/mission phase. Today, Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) operations engineers continue to conduct these flight product reviews across all open flight products. As such, these reviews help ensure that each mission is accomplished with safety requirements along with controls heavily embedded in applicable flight products. Most importantly, the S&MA operations engineers are required to look for important design and operations controls so that safety is strictly adhered to as well as reflected in the final flight product.

  8. CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control Mission Operations Interoperability Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucord, Steve; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2009-01-01

    We are entering a new era in space exploration. Reduced operating budgets require innovative solutions to leverage existing systems to implement the capabilities of future missions. Custom solutions to fulfill mission objectives are no longer viable. Can NASA adopt international standards to reduce costs and increase interoperability with other space agencies? Can legacy systems be leveraged in a service oriented architecture (SOA) to further reduce operations costs? The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is collaborating with Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) to answer these very questions. The Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area (MOIMS) Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) Working Group within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing the Mission Operations standards to address this problem space. The set of proposed standards presents a service oriented architecture to increase the level of interoperability among space agencies. The OTF and DLR are developing independent implementations of the standards as part of an interoperability prototype. This prototype will address three key components: validation of the SM&C Mission Operations protocol, exploration of the Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS), and the incorporation of legacy systems in a SOA. The OTF will implement the service providers described in the SM&C Mission Operation standards to create a portal for interaction with a spacecraft simulator. DLR will implement the service consumers to perform the monitor and control of the spacecraft. The specifications insulate the applications from the underlying transport layer. We will gain experience with a DDS transport layer as we delegate responsibility to the middleware and explore transport bridges to connect disparate middleware products. A SOA facilitates the reuse of software components. The prototype will leverage the

  9. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  10. Verification and Implementation of Operations Safety Controls for Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cheryl L.; Smalls, James R.; Carrier, Alicia S.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately eleven years ago, the International Space Station launched the first module from Russia, the Functional Cargo Block (FGB). Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Operations (Ops) Engineers played an integral part in that endeavor by executing strict flight product verification as well as continued staffing of S&MA's console in the Mission Evaluation Room (MER) for that flight mission. How were these engineers able to conduct such a complicated task? They conducted it based on product verification that consisted of ensuring that safety requirements were adequately contained in all flight products that affected crew safety. S&MA Ops engineers apply both systems engineering and project management principles in order to gain a appropriate level of technical knowledge necessary to perform thorough reviews which cover the subsystem(s) affected. They also ensured that mission priorities were carried out with a great detail and success.

  11. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  12. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  13. An intelligent automated command and control system for spacecraft mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffel, A. William

    1994-01-01

    The Intelligent Command and Control (ICC) System research project is intended to provide the technology base necessary for producing an intelligent automated command and control (C&C) system capable of performing all the ground control C&C functions currently performed by Mission Operations Center (MOC) project Flight Operations Team (FOT). The ICC research accomplishments to date, details of the ICC, and the planned outcome of the ICC research, mentioned above, are discussed in detail.

  14. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  15. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  16. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  17. SPOT satellite family: Past, present, and future of the operations in the mission and control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippe, Pacholczyk

    1993-01-01

    SPOT sun-synchronous remote sensing satellites are operated by CNES since February 1986. Today, the SPOT mission and control center (CCM) operates SPOT1, SPOT2, and is ready to operate SPOT3. During these seven years, the way to operate changed and the CCM, initially designed for the control of one satellite, has been modified and upgraded to support these new operating modes. All these events have shown the performances and the limits of the system. A new generation of satellite (SPOT4) will continue the remote sensing mission during the second half of the 90's. Its design takes into account the experience of the first generation and supports several improvements. A new generation of control center (CMP) has been developed and improves the efficiency, quality, and reliability of the operations. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites at the same time during launching, in-orbit testing, and operating phases. It supports several automatic procedures and improves data retrieval and reporting.

  18. Leadership Challenges in ISS Operations: Lessons Learned from Junior and Senior Mission Control Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, James L.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Saylor, Stephanie A.; Kanas, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is operated by a multi-national, multi-organizational team that is dispersed across multiple locations, time zones, and work schedules. At NASA, both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the leadership challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to examine the major leadership challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount them. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and to the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which responses are consistent across the junior and senior samples. Further, we compare the issues identified by our interview survey to those identified by a standardized questionnaire survey of mission control personnel and a contrasting group of space station crewmembers. We studied a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior ISS controllers. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of 13 American astronauts, 17 Russian cosmonauts, and 150 U.S. and 36 Russian mission control personnel supporting the ISS or Mir space stations. The interview data showed that the survey respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Interview data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. The questionnaire data showed that the US mission

  19. Activities in the Payload Operations Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Members of the Fluid Experiment System (FES) group monitor the progress of their experiment through video at the POCC. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administion, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  20. Activities in the Payload Operation Control Center at MSFC During the IML-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photograph shows activities during the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) mission (STS-42) in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research. The mission was to explore, in depth, the complex effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. The crew conducted experiments on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and the effects on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Low gravity materials processing experiments included crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury, iodine, and virus. The International space science research organizations that participated in this mission were: The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, the French National Center for Space Studies, the German Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The POCC was the air/ground communication charnel used between the astronauts aboard the Spacelab and scientists, researchers, and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The facility made instantaneous video and audio communications possible for scientists on the ground to follow the progress and to send direct commands of their research almost as if they were in space with the crew.

  1. Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  2. Activities During Spacelab-J Mission at Payload Operations and Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The group of Japanese researchers of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) were thumbs-up in the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center after the successful launch of Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour that carried their experiments. The SL-J was a joint mission of NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a marned Spacelab module. The mission conducted microgravity investigations in materials and life sciences. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, frogs, and frog eggs. The POCC was the air/ground communications channel between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. The Spacelab science operations were a cooperative effort between the science astronaut crew in orbit and their colleagues in the POCC. Spacelab-J was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour on September 12, 1992.

  3. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  4. Ulysses mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses mission is described in terms of in-Shuttle operations, initial in-orbit operations, routine operations, operational organization, and data gathering and production. The configuration of the Ulysses payload is illustrated, and the flight to orbit is described including a three-hour on-orbit checkout. The first contact was reported at the Deep Space Network station followed by an adjustment of the spacecraft solar-aspect angle and the acquisition of ranging and Doppler data. In-orbit operations include the earth acquisition maneuver, a trajectory correction maneuver, and a payload switch. Continuous data gathering is discussed with reference to the Jupiter encounter and the first and second oppositions and conjunctions. The data-gathering components comprise ground stations, a data-processing computer, and a data-records system. Data production is performed in an off-line mode that does not interfere with the real-time operations.

  5. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  6. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  7. Mission Operations Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Dave; Parksinson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    The mission description Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES): I) Collect and disseminate worldwide meteorological and environmental data: a) Provide day and night information (AVHRR): 1) cloud cover distribution and type; 2) cloud top temperature; 3) Moisture patterns and ice/snow melt. b) Provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles of atmospheres (HIRS, AMSU, MHS. c) Measure global ozone distribution and solar UV radiation (SBUV). d) Measure proton, electro, and charged particle density to provide solar storm warnings (SEM). d) Collect environmental data (DCS): 1) Stationary platforms in remote locations; 2) Free floating platforms on buoys, balloons, migratory animals. II) Provide Search and Rescue capabilities (SARR, SARP): a) Detection and relay of distress signals. b) Has saved thousands of lives around the world.

  8. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2010-01-01

    This paper will summarize the thirty-year history of Space Shuttle operations from the perspective of training in NASA Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. It will focus on training and development of flight controllers and instructors, and how training practices have evolved over the years as flight experience was gained, new technologies developed, and programmatic needs changed. Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The audience will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, we will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  9. The Virtual Mission Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mike; Fox, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft management is becoming more human intensive as spacecraft become more complex and as operations costs are growing accordingly. Several automation approaches have been proposed to lower these costs. However, most of these approaches are not flexible enough in the operations processes and levels of automation that they support. This paper presents a concept called the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) that provides highly flexible support for dynamic spacecraft management processes and automation. In a VMOC, operations personnel can be shared among missions, the operations team can change personnel and their locations, and automation can be added and removed as appropriate. The VMOC employs a form of on-demand supervisory control called management by exception to free operators from having to actively monitor their system. The VMOC extends management by exception, however, so that distributed, dynamic teams can work together. The VMOC uses work-group computing concepts and groupware tools to provide a team infrastructure, and it employs user agents to allow operators to define and control system automation.

  10. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  11. Modeling Real-Time Coordination of Distributed Expertise and Event Response in NASA Mission Control Center Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Jeffrey

    This dissertation introduces a multidisciplinary framework for the enabling of future research and analysis of alternatives for control centers for real-time operations of safety-critical systems. The multidisciplinary framework integrates functional and computational models that describe the dynamics in fundamental concepts of previously disparate engineering and psychology research disciplines, such as group performance and processes, supervisory control, situation awareness, events and delays, and expertise. The application in this dissertation is the real-time operations within the NASA Mission Control Center in Houston, TX. This dissertation operationalizes the framework into a model and simulation, which simulates the functional and computational models in the framework according to user-configured scenarios for a NASA human-spaceflight mission. The model and simulation generates data according to the effectiveness of the mission-control team in supporting the completion of mission objectives and detecting, isolating, and recovering from anomalies. Accompanying the multidisciplinary framework is a proof of concept, which demonstrates the feasibility of such a framework. The proof of concept demonstrates that variability occurs where expected based on the models. The proof of concept also demonstrates that the data generated from the model and simulation is useful for analyzing and comparing MCC configuration alternatives because an investigator can give a diverse set of scenarios to the simulation and the output compared in detail to inform decisions about the effect of MCC configurations on mission operations performance.

  12. Mission Control Operations: Employing a New High Performance Design for Communications Links Supporting Exploration Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The planetary exploration programs demand a totally new examination of data multiplexing, digital communications protocols and data transmission principles for both ground and spacecraft operations. Highly adaptive communications devices on-board and on the ground must provide the greatest possible transmitted data density between deployed crew personnel, spacecraft and ground control teams. Regarding these requirements, this proposal borrows from research into quantum mechanical computing by applying the concept of a qubit, a single bit that represents 16 states, to radio frequency (RF) communications link design for exploration programs. This concept of placing multiple character values into a single data bit can easily make the evolutionary steps needed to meet exploration mission demands. To move the qubit from the quantum mechanical research laboratory into long distance RF data transmission, this proposal utilizes polarization modulation of the RF carrier signal to represent numbers from zero to fifteen. It introduces the concept of a binary-to-hexadecimal converter that quickly chops any data stream into 16-bit words and connects variously polarized feedhorns to a single-frequency radio transmitter. Further, the concept relies on development of a receiver that uses low-noise amplifiers and an antenna array to quickly assess carrier polarity and perform hexadecimal to binary conversion. Early testbed experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as an operations laboratory can be implemented to provide the most cost-effective return for research investment. The improvement in signal-to-noise ratio while supporting greater baseband data rates that could be achieved through this concept justifies its consideration for long-distance exploration programs.

  13. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  14. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors. These endeavors could range from going to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle and inspire the next generation of space explorers.

  15. Toward lowering the cost of mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Ledbetter, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The mission operations system is one of the more significant drivers of the cost of the mission operations and data analysis segment of missions. In large or long-lived projects, the MOS can also be a driver in total mission cost. Larger numbers of missions, together with an increasingly cost-conscious environment, dictate that future missions must more strictly control costs as they perform to their requirements. It is therefore prudent to examine the conduct of past missions for ways to conserve resources. In this paper we review inputs made to past projects' 'lessons-learned' activities, in which personnel from past projects (among other things) identified major cost drivers of MOS's and considered how economies were or might have been realized in both design and performance of their MOS. Common themes among four such reviews are summarized in an attempt to provide suggestions for cost reduction in future missions.

  16. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. As the space shuttle program ends in 2011, a review of how training for STS-1 was conducted compared to STS-134 will show multiple changes in training of shuttle flight controller over a thirty year period. This paper will additionally give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams have been trained certified over the life span of the space shuttle. The training methods for developing flight controllers have evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  17. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  18. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  19. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  20. Mission operations for Astronomy Spacelab Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osler, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is provided of mission operations for Astronomy Spacelab Payloads. Missions considered are related to solar physics, high energy astrophysics, and stellar ultraviolet/optical astronomy. Operational aspects are examined. Mission operations include the flight activities and associated ground support work for implementing the mission. The prelaunch activity will begin about a year before launch with the assignment of a mission operations manager.

  1. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  2. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  3. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  4. A Virtual Mission Operations Center: Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system

  5. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  6. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  7. Integrating Automation into a Multi-Mission Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surka, Derek M.; Jones, Lori; Crouse, Patrick; Cary, Everett A, Jr.; Esposito, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) Project is currently tackling the challenge of minimizing ground operations costs for multiple satellites that have surpassed their prime mission phase and are well into extended mission. These missions are being reengineered into a multi-mission operations center built around modern information technologies and a common ground system infrastructure. The effort began with the integration of four SMEX missions into a similar architecture that provides command and control capabilities and demonstrates fleet automation and control concepts as a pathfinder for additional mission integrations. The reengineered ground system, called the Multi-Mission Operations Center (MMOC), is now undergoing a transformation to support other SSMO missions, which include SOHO, Wind, and ACE. This paper presents the automation principles and lessons learned to date for integrating automation into an existing operations environment for multiple satellites.

  8. Mission Operations with an Autonomous Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Sawyer, Scott R.; Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Benjamin; Bernard, Douglas E.

    1998-01-01

    The Remote Agent (RA) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system which automates some of the tasks normally reserved for human mission operators and performs these tasks autonomously on-board the spacecraft. These tasks include activity generation, sequencing, spacecraft analysis, and failure recovery. The RA will be demonstrated as a flight experiment on Deep Space One (DSI), the first deep space mission of the NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). As we moved from prototyping into actual flight code development and teamed with ground operators, we made several major extensions to the RA architecture to address the broader operational context in which PA would be used. These extensions support ground operators and the RA sharing a long-range mission profile with facilities for asynchronous ground updates; support ground operators monitoring and commanding the spacecraft at multiple levels of detail simultaneously; and enable ground operators to provide additional knowledge to the RA, such as parameter updates, model updates, and diagnostic information, without interfering with the activities of the RA or leaving the system in an inconsistent state. The resulting architecture supports incremental autonomy, in which a basic agent can be delivered early and then used in an increasingly autonomous manner over the lifetime of the mission. It also supports variable autonomy, as it enables ground operators to benefit from autonomy when L'@ey want it, but does not inhibit them from obtaining a detailed understanding and exercising tighter control when necessary. These issues are critical to the successful development and operation of autonomous spacecraft.

  9. Mars Pathfinder mission operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturms, Francis M., Jr.; Dias, William C.; Nakata, Albert Y.; Tai, Wallace S.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project plans a December 1996 launch of a single spacecraft. After jettisoning a cruise stage, an entry body containing a lander and microrover will directly enter the Mars atmosphere and parachute to a hard landing near the sub-solar latitude of 15 degrees North in July 1997. Primary surface operations last for 30 days. Cost estimates for Pathfinder ground systems development and operations are not only lower in absolute dollars, but also are a lower percentage of total project costs than in past planetary missions. Operations teams will be smaller and fewer than typical flight projects. Operations scenarios have been developed early in the project and are being used to guide operations implementation and flight system design. Recovery of key engineering data from entry, descent, and landing is a top mission priority. These data will be recorded for playback after landing. Real-time tracking of a modified carrier signal through this phase can provide important insight into the spacecraft performance during entry, descent, and landing in the event recorded data is never recovered. Surface scenarios are dominated by microrover activity and lander imaging during 7 hours of the Mars day from 0700 to 1400 local solar time. Efficient uplink and downlink processes have been designed to command the lander and microrover each Mars day.

  10. Satellite Mission Operations Best Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Hogan, Roger P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The effort of compiling a collection of Best Practices for use in Space Mission Operations was initiated within a subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Space Operations and Support Technical Committee (SOSTC). The idea was to eventually post a collection of Best Practices on a website so as to make them available to the general Space Operations community. The effort of searching for available Best Practices began in the fall of 1999. As the search progressed, it became apparent that there were not many Best Practices developed that were available to the general community. Therefore, the subcommittee decided to use the SOSTC Annual Workshop on Reducing Space Mission Costs as a forum for developing Best Practices for our purpose of sharing them with a larger audience. A dedicated track at the April 2000 workshop was designed to stimulate discussions on developing such Best Practices and forming working groups made up of experienced people from various organizations to perform the development. These groups were solicited to help outside the workshop to bring this effort to fruition. Since that time, biweekly teleconferences have been held to discuss the development of the Best Practices and their posting.

  11. Reconfigurable Software for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We developed software that provides flexibility to mission organizations through modularity and composability. Modularity enables removal and addition of functionality through the installation of plug-ins. Composability enables users to assemble software from pre-built reusable objects, thus reducing or eliminating the walls associated with traditional application architectures and enabling unique combinations of functionality. We have used composable objects to reduce display build time, create workflows, and build scenarios to test concepts for lunar roving operations. The software is open source, and may be downloaded from https:github.comnasamct.

  12. Giotto—The mission operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, David E. B.

    On 2 July 1985, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched an interplanetary probe to encounter Halley's Comet on the night of 13/14 March 1986 at a distance of 0.98 AU from Earth. The mission to Halley's Comet was the Agency's first venture into deep space. The tracking stations necessary to support such a mission were not directly available to ESA at the initiation of the GIOTTO project although facilities operated by NASA's deep space network were later made available for certain phases of the mission, together with the 30-m Weilheim antenna of the DFVLR. ESA's European Space Operations Centre, ESOC therefore developed the new deep space tracking stations especially for support of the GIOTTO mission. One of these stations, the 15-m antenna facility at Carnarvon, West Australia, was designed and installed by ESA as a dedicated S-band and X-band tracking, telemetry and command station. The second station at Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, a 64-m radio telescope owned by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) was modified to provide X-band telemetry reception using cryogenic MASER low-noise amplifiers. This station operated by CSIRO with assistance from a ESA engineering and operations team, provided support to the GIOTTO mission for reception of the 46 kbs high speed telemetry format which is vital to success of the GIOTTO mission at time of Cometary Encounter. Additionally, the DFVLR Weilheim station was modified to include the newly developed ESOC deep space tracking system which was also installed at the Carnarvon Station. The paper discusses in some detail the network of tracking stations which provided the Control Centre at ESOC in Darmstadt, F.R.G. with the data which was vital to the success of the mission. Because the launch date of GIOTTO was a date which could not be rescheduled, the design installation, integration and testing of the complete GIOTTO mission operations system was an extremely time critical activity

  13. The Mission Operations Planning Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Principal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZetaLisp and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  14. The mission operations planning assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Prinicpal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZETALISP and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  15. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  16. The IRAS project organisation and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Holtz, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The project organisation of IRAS is described, showing the tasks assigned to each project group during post-launch operations. The satellite is described, emphasizing the detectors. In the task division, the role of the U.S. is to construct the telescope and survey instrument, launch the satellite, process final science data for the survey instrument, and provide certain standard satellite items. The Netherlands construct the spacecraft and three additional instruments, integrates and tests the overall satellite, and designs and participates in the development of the operational system. The U.K. provides the operational control center and primary tracking station, generates a system for preliminary science analysis of the survey data, provides housekeeping analysis software and science data distribution software, and staffs the control center operations. The teams involved in mission planning and operations, and their roles, are identified, and a block diagram of the operations organisation is presented.

  17. Architectures for mission control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Reger A.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    JPL is currently converting to an innovative control center data system which is a distributed, open architecture for telemetry delivery and which is enabling advancement towards improved automation and operability, as well as new technology, in mission operations at JPL. The scope of mission control within mission operations is examined. The concepts of a mission control center and how operability can affect the design of a control center data system are discussed. Examples of JPL's mission control architecture, data system development, and prototype efforts at the JPL Operations Engineering Laboratory are provided. Strategies for the future of mission control architectures are outlined.

  18. Operational Lessons Learned from NASA Analog Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.

    2010-01-01

    vehicle and system capabilities are required to support the activities? How will the crew and the Earth-based mission control team interact? During the initial phases of manned planetary exploration, one challenge in particular is virtually the same as during the Apollo program: How can scientific return be maximized during a relatively short surface mission? Today, NASA is investigating solutions to these challenges by conducting analog missions. These Earth-based missions possess characteristics that are analogous to missions on the Moon or Mars. These missions are excellent for testing operational concepts, and the design, configuration, and functionality of spacesuits, robots, rovers, and habitats. Analog mission crews test specific techniques and procedures for surface field geology, biological sample collection, and planetary protection. The process of actually working an analog mission reveals a myriad of small details, which either contribute to or impede efficient operations, many of which would never have been thought about otherwise. It also helps to define the suite of tools, containers, and other small equipment that surface explorers will use. This paper focuses on how analog missions have addressed selected operational considerations for future planetary missions.

  19. Hitchhiker mission operations: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    What is mission operations? Mission operations is an iterative process aimed at achieving the greatest possible mission success with the resources available. The process involves understanding of the science objectives, investigation of which system capabilities can best meet these objectives, integration of the objectives and resources into a cohesive mission operations plan, evaluation of the plan through simulations, and implementation of the plan in real-time. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive description of what the Hitchhiker mission operations approach is and why it is crucial to mission success. The authors describe the significance of operational considerations from the beginning and throughout the experiment ground and flight systems development. The authors also address the necessity of training and simulations. Finally, the authors cite several examples illustrating the benefits of understanding and utilizing the mission operations process.

  20. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  1. A Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie

    2002-01-01

    Development of technologies that enable significant reductions in the cost of space mission operations is critical if constellations, formations, federations and sensor webs, are to be economically feasible. One approach to cost reduction is to infuse automation technologies into mission operations centers so that fewer personnel are needed for mission support. But missions are more culturally and politically adverse to the risks of automation. Reducing the mission risk associated with increased use of automation within a MOC is therefore of great importance. The belief that mission risk increases as more automation is used stems from the fact that there is inherently less direct human oversight to investigate and resolve anomalies in an unattended MOC. The Virtual Missions Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) project was launched to address this concern. The goal of the VMOC-CE project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission operations between onsite operators and on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. VMOC-CE enables missions to more readily adopt automation because off-site operators and engineers can more easily identify, investigate, and resolve anomalies without having to be present in the MOC. The VMOC-CE intent is to have a single access point for all resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment. Team members will be able to interact during spacecraft operations, specifically for resolving anomalies, utilizing a desktop computer and the Internet. Mission operations management can use the VMOC-CE as a tool to participate in and monitor status of anomaly resolution or other mission operations issues. In this paper we present the VMOC-CE project, system capabilities and technologies, operations concept, and results of its pilot in support of the Earth Science Mission Operations System (ESMOS).

  2. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The duration of a mission--and subsequently, the minimum spacecraft lifetime--is a key component in designing the capabilities of a spacecraft during mission formulation. However, determining the duration is not simply a function of how long it will take the spacecraft to execute the activities needed to achieve mission objectives. Instead, the effects of the interaction between the spacecraft and ground operators must also be taken into account. This paper describes a method, using "operations efficiency factors", to account for these effects for Mars surface missions. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission development cycle, and has not been able to influence mission or spacecraft design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission--and the effect that change would have on operations productivity and mission objective choices--has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL, the (now-cancelled) joint NASA-ESA 2018 Mars rover, and the proposed rover for Mars 2020). Since MSL had a single control center and sun-synchronous relay assets (like MER), estimates of productivity derived from MER prime and extended missions were used. However, Mars 2018's anticipated complexity (there would have been control centers in California and Italy, and a non-sun-synchronous relay asset) required the development of an explicit model of operations efficiency that could handle these complexities. In the case of the proposed Mars 2018 mission, the model was employed to assess the mission return of competing operations concepts, and as an input to component lifetime requirements. In this paper we provide examples of how to calculate the operations efficiency factor for a given operational configuration, and how to apply the factors to surface mission scenarios. This model can be applied to future missions to enable early effective trades between operations design, science mission

  3. OTF Mission Operations Prototype Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the JSC/OTF prototype of a CCSDS SM&C protocol based communications link between two space flight operations control centers. Varied implementations using software architectures from current web enterprise venues are presented. The AMS protocol (CCSDS Blue Book standard 735.1) was used for messaging and link communications.

  4. Pointing control for the International Comet Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Schumacher, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the pointing control system for the proposed International Comet Mission, intended to fly by Comet Halley and rendezvous with Comet Tempel-2 is presented. Following a review of mission objectives and the spacecraft configuration, design constraints on the pointing control system controlling the two-axis gimballed scan platform supporting the science instruments are discussed in relation to the scientific requirements of the mission. The primary design options considered for the pointing control system design for the baseline spacecraft are summarized, and the design selected, which employs a target-referenced, inertially stabilized control system, is described in detail. The four basic modes of operation of the pointing control subsystem (target acquisition, inertial hold, target track and slew) are discussed as they relate to operations at Halley and Tempel-2. It is pointed that the pointing control system design represents a significant advance in the state of the art of pointing controls for planetary missions.

  5. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  6. Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Hanna, Robert A.; Mossey, Michael P.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.; Martin Mur, Tomas J.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2009-01-01

    MONTE (Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment) Release 7.3 is an extensible software system designed to support trajectory and navigation analysis/design for space missions. MONTE is intended to replace the current navigation and trajectory analysis software systems, which, at the time of this reporting, are used by JPL's Navigation and Mission Design section. The software provides an integrated, simplified, and flexible system that can be easily maintained to serve the needs of future missions in need of navigation services.

  7. Cost efficient operations for Discovery class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, G. E.; Landshof, J. A.; Whitworth, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is scheduled to launch the first spacecraft in NASA's Discovery program. The Discovery program is to promote low cost spacecraft design, development, and mission operations for planetary space missions. The authors describe the NEAR mission and discuss the design and development of the NEAR Mission Operations System and the NEAR Ground System with an emphasis on those aspects of the design that are conducive to low-cost operations.

  8. Evolution of Training in NASA's Mission Operations Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Mission Operations Directorate provides all the mission planning, training, and operations support for NASA's human spaceflight missions including the International Space Station (ISS) and its fleet of supporting vehicles. MOD also develops and maintains the facilities necessary to conduct training and operations for those missions including the Mission Control Center, Space Station Training Facility, Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. MOD's overarching approach to human spaceflight training is to "train like you fly." This approach means not only trying to replicate the operational environment in training but also to approach training with the same mindset as real operations. When in training, this means using the same approach for executing operations, responding to off-nominal situations, and conducting yourself in the operations environment in the same manner as you would for the real vehicle.

  9. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated LANDSAT-D systems operation plan is presented and discussed with respect to functional elements, personnel, and procedures. Specifically, a review of the LANDSAT-D program, mission requirements and management, and flight operations is given.

  10. MSFC Skylab contamination control systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Cluster external contamination control evaluation was made throughout the Skylab Mission. This evaluation indicated that contamination control measures instigated during the design, development, and operational phases of this program were adequate to reduce the general contamination environment external to the Cluster below the threshold senstivity levels for experiments and affected subsystems. Launch and orbit contamination control features included eliminating certain vents, rerouting vents for minimum contamination impact, establishing filters, incorporating materials with minimum outgassing characteristics and developing operational constraints and mission rules to minimize contamination effects. Prior to the launch of Skylab, contamination control math models were developed which were used to predict Cluster surface deposition and background brightness levels throughout the mission. The report summarizes the Skylab system and experiment contamination control evaluation. The Cluster systems and experiments evaluated include Induced Atmosphere, Corollary and ATM Experiments, Thermal Control Surfaces, Solar Array Systems, Windows and Star Tracker.

  11. Mars mission science operations facilities design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wales, Roxana; Powell, Mark W.; Backes, Paul G.; Steinke, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    A variety of designs for Mars rover and lander science operations centers are discussed in this paper, beginning with a brief description of the Pathfinder science operations facility and its strengths and limitations. Particular attention is then paid to lessons learned in the design and use of operations facilities for a series of mission-like field tests of the FIDO prototype Mars rover. These lessons are then applied to a proposed science operations facilities design for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. Issues discussed include equipment selection, facilities layout, collaborative interfaces, scalability, and dual-purpose environments. The paper concludes with a discussion of advanced concepts for future mission operations centers, including collaborative immersive interfaces and distributed operations. This paper's intended audience includes operations facility and situation room designers and the users of these environments.

  12. NASA Antarctic Mission Operation ICE Bridge 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Operation ICE Bridge is the most recent success for the Airborne Science Program, NASA scientists and climate researchers. This six minute video summarizes NASA's research mission over west ...

  13. Artificial intelligence in a mission operations and satellite test environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1988-01-01

    A Generic Mission Operations System using Expert System technology to demonstrate the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) automated monitor and control functions in a Mission Operations and Satellite Test environment will be developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Expert system techniques in a real time operation environment are being studied and applied to science and engineering data processing. Advanced decommutation schemes and intelligent display technology will be examined to develop imaginative improvements in rapid interpretation and distribution of information. The Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC) will demonstrate improved data handling accuracy, flexibility, and responsiveness in a complex mission environment. The ultimate goal is to automate repetitious mission operations, instrument, and satellite test functions by the applications of expert system technology and artificial intelligence resources and to enhance the level of man-machine sophistication.

  14. Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Operation Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nio, Tomomi; Saito, Susumu; Stocker, Erich; Pawloski, James H.; Murayama, Yoshifumi; Ohata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe tropical rainfall, which was launched by H-II No. 6 from Tanegashima in Japan at 6:27 JST on November 28, 1997. After the two-month commissioning of TRMM satellite and instruments, the original nominal mission lifetime was three years. In fact, the operations has continued for approximately 17.5 years. This paper provides a summary of the long term operations of TRMM.

  15. Navigation Operations for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission employs four identical spinning spacecraft flying in highly elliptical Earth orbits. These spacecraft will fly in a series of tetrahedral formations with separations of less than 10 km. MMS navigation operations use onboard navigation to satisfy the mission definitive orbit and time determination requirements and in addition to minimize operations cost and complexity. The onboard navigation subsystem consists of the Navigator GPS receiver with Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) software, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator. The four MMS spacecraft are operated from a single Mission Operations Center, which includes a Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) that supports MMS navigation operations, as well as maneuver planning, conjunction assessment and attitude ground operations. The System Manager component of the FDOA automates routine operations processes. The GEONS Ground Support System component of the FDOA provides the tools needed to support MMS navigation operations. This paper provides an overview of the MMS mission and associated navigation requirements and constraints and discusses MMS navigation operations and the associated MMS ground system components built to support navigation-related operations.

  16. Autonomous Mission Operations for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underbrink, A.; Witt, K.; Stanley, J.; Mandl, D.

    2008-12-01

    We present interim results of a 2005 ROSES AIST project entitled, "Using Intelligent Agents to Form a Sensor Web for Autonomous Mission Operations", or SWAMO. The goal of the SWAMO project is to shift the control of spacecraft missions from a ground-based, centrally controlled architecture to a collaborative, distributed set of intelligent agents. The network of intelligent agents intends to reduce management requirements by utilizing model-based system prediction and autonomic model/agent collaboration. SWAMO agents are distributed throughout the Sensor Web environment, which may include multiple spacecraft, aircraft, ground systems, and ocean systems, as well as manned operations centers. The agents monitor and manage sensor platforms, Earth sensing systems, and Earth sensing models and processes. The SWAMO agents form a Sensor Web of agents via peer-to-peer coordination. Some of the intelligent agents are mobile and able to traverse between on-orbit and ground-based systems. Other agents in the network are responsible for encapsulating system models to perform prediction of future behavior of the modeled subsystems and components to which they are assigned. The software agents use semantic web technologies to enable improved information sharing among the operational entities of the Sensor Web. The semantics include ontological conceptualizations of the Sensor Web environment, plus conceptualizations of the SWAMO agents themselves. By conceptualizations of the agents, we mean knowledge of their state, operational capabilities, current operational capacities, Web Service search and discovery results, agent collaboration rules, etc. The need for ontological conceptualizations over the agents is to enable autonomous and autonomic operations of the Sensor Web. The SWAMO ontology enables automated decision making and responses to the dynamic Sensor Web environment and to end user science requests. The current ontology is compatible with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC

  17. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  18. Achieving Operability via the Mission System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.

  19. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  20. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2006-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  1. Preparing Cassini Uplink Operations for Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Jennifer L.; McCullar, Michelle L.; Conner, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn and Titan, a joint venture between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, is conducting a four-year, prime mission exploring the Saturnian system, including its atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere, moons and icy satellites. Launched in 1997, Cassini began its prime mission in 2004. Cassini is now preparing for a new era, a two-year extended mission to revisit many of the highlights and new discoveries made during the prime mission. Because of the light time delay from Earth to Saturn, and the time needed to coordinate the complicated science and engineering activities that take place on the spacecraft, commanding on Cassini is done in approximately 40-day intervals known as sequences. The Cassini Uplink Operations team is responsible for the final development and validation of the pointing profile and instrument and spacecraft commands that are contained in a sequence. During this final analysis prior to uplink to the spacecraft, thorough and exact evaluation is necessary to ensure there are no mistakes during commanding. In order to perform this evaluation, complete and refined processes and procedures are fundamental. The Uplink Operations team is also responsible for anomaly response during sequence execution, a process in which critical decisions often are made in real-time. Recent anomalies on other spacecraft missions have highlighted two major risks in the operations process: (1) personnel turnover and the retirement of critical knowledge and (2) aging, outdated operations procedures. If other missions are a good barometer, the Cassini extended mission will be presented with a high personnel turnover of the Cassini flight team, which could lead to a loss of expertise that has been essential to the success of the prime mission. In order to prepare the Cassini Uplink Operations Team for this possibility and to continue to develop and operate safe science and

  2. Mission operations systems for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.; Wolff, Donna M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to present an overview of the processes comprising planetary mission operations as conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and (2) to present a project-specific and historical context within which this evolving process functions. In order to accomplish these objectives, the generic uplink and downlink functions are described along with their specialization to current flight projects. Also, new multimission capabilities are outlined, including prototyping of advanced-capability software for subsequent incorporation into more automated future operations. Finally, a specific historical ground is provided by listing some major operations software plus a genealogy of planetary missions beginning with Mariner 2 in 1962.

  3. Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

  4. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  5. Design of mission operations systems for scientific remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.; Ledbetter, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    The present work describes the mission operations system (MOS) design process for remote-sensing missions. A MOS is defined as the system required to perform, monitor, and control an operation, encompassing personnel, hardware, software and/or documentation. Attention is given to telecommunications and remote-sensing instrumentation, MOS definition program phases and reviews, and MOS organization, management, and staffing. Also treated are the uplink and downlink processes, anomalies and contingency plans, the illustrative case of the MOS for the Magellan radar sensing mission, and a projection of future MOSs incorporating AI.

  6. Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 3: Digital autopilots (revision 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Digital autopilots for the manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3 are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) reaction control system digital autopilot, (2) thrust vector control autopilot, (3) entry autopilot and mission control programs, (4) takeover of Saturn steering, and (5) coasting flight attitude maneuver routine.

  7. NASA Mir program: Mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Jeffrey A.

    1996-01-01

    The joint NASA/Russian Space Agency mission program is discussed, considering the lessons learned. The initial Shuttle Mir science program and the NASA Mir program are described. The NASA Mir program is organized into ten distinct working groups which are co-chaired by representatives from the two cooperating nations. The NASA component is managed from the Johnson Space Center (TX). The support provided by NASA for long-duration missions and Mir expeditions is described. The scope of the scientific research carried out within the framework of the joint program is considered. The NASA Mir training approach is discussed and the mission operations are reviewed with emphasis on the Mir 21/NASA 2 mission.

  8. Cost Analysis in a Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bornas, Nick; Botts, Dennis; Ijames, Gayleen; Montgomery, Patty; Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single mission-type support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multi-mission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and

  9. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  10. Mariner Mars 1971 project. Volume 3: Mission operations system implementation and standard mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Mariner Mars 1971 mission which was another step in the continuing program of planetary exploration in search of evidence of exobiological activity, information on the origin and evolution of the solar system, and basic science data related to the study of planetary physics, geology, planetology, and cosmology is reported. The mission plan was designed for two spacecraft, each performing a separate but complementary mission. However, a single mission plan was actually used for Mariner 9 because of failure of the launch vehicle for the first spacecraft. The implementation is described, of the Mission Operations System, including organization, training, and data processing development and operations, and Mariner 9 spacecraft cruise and orbital operations through completion of the standard mission from launch to solar occultation in April 1972 are discussed.

  11. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbina, M.; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, E.

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  12. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  13. Wind Prelaunch Mission Operations Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wind mission is the first mission of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative. The Wind laboratory will study the properties of particles and waves in the region between the Earth and the Sun. Using the Moon s gravity to save fuel, dual lunar swing-by orbits enable the spacecraft to sample regions close to and far from the Earth. During the three year mission, Wind will pass through the bow shock of Earth's magnetosphere to begin a thorough investigation of the solar wind. Mission objectives require spacecraft measurements in two orbits: lunar swing- by ellipses out to distances of 250 Earth radii (RE) and a small orbit around the Lagrangian point L-l that remains between the Earth and the Sun. Wind will be placed into an initial orbit for approximately 2 years. It will then be maneuvered into a transition orbit and ultimately into a halo orbit at the Earth-Sun L-l point where it will operate for the remainder of its lifetime. The Wind satellite development was managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center with the Martin Marietta Corporation, Astro-Space Division serving as the prime contractor. Overall programmatic direction was provided by NASA Headquarters, Office of Space Science. The spacecraft will be launched under a launch service contract with the McDonnell Douglas Corporation on a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) within a November l-l4, 1994 launch window. The Wind spacecraft carries six U.S. instruments, one French instrument, and the first Russian instrument ever to fly on an American satellite. The Wind and Polar missions are the two components of the GGS Program. Wind is also the second mission of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The first ISTP mission, Geotail, is a joint project of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan and NASA which launched in 1992. The Wind mission is planned to overlap Geotail by six months and Polar by one year

  14. Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    performed by crew and ground controllers. This experience has also identified the need for new approaches to staffing and training for both crew and ground controllers. This paper provides a brief overview of the mission capabilities provided by the 2nd Gen RLV, a description of NASA's approach to developing the 2nd Gen RLV, a discussion of operations concepts, and a list of challenges to implementing those concepts.

  15. Analyzing human errors in flight mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, Kristin J.; Welz, Linda L.; Barnes, G. Michael; Sherif, Josef

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of flight mission operations through a defect prevention/error management program. The main thrust of this program is to create an environment in which the performance of the total system, both the human operator and the computer system, is optimized. To this end, 1580 Incident Surprise Anomaly reports (ISA's) from 1977-1991 were analyzed from the Voyager and Magellan projects. A Pareto analysis revealed that 38 percent of the errors were classified as human errors. A preliminary cluster analysis based on the Magellan human errors (204 ISA's) is presented here. The resulting clusters described the underlying relationships among the ISA's. Initial models of human error in flight mission operations are presented. Next, the Voyager ISA's will be scored and included in the analysis. Eventually, these relationships will be used to derive a theoretically motivated and empirically validated model of human error in flight mission operations. Ultimately, this analysis will be used to make continuous process improvements continuous process improvements to end-user applications and training requirements. This Total Quality Management approach will enable the management and prevention of errors in the future.

  16. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  17. Mission operations and command assurance: Flight operations quality improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Kazz, Sheri L.; Potts, Sherrill S.; Witkowski, Mona M.

    1994-01-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce risk in mission operations by addressing human factors. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team, to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  18. Controlling UCAVs by JTACs in CAS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaş, A. E.

    2014-06-01

    By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.

  19. A Muli-Mission Operations Strategy for Sequencing and Commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Telecommunications and Mission Operations Directorate (TMOD) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for development, maintenance and operation of flight operations systems for several classes of science missions planned for the next several years.

  20. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  1. 2016 Mission Operations Working Group: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    EO-1 Mission Status for the Constellation Mission Operations Working Group to discuss the EO-1 flight systems, mission enhancements, debris avoidance maneuver, orbital information, 5-year outlook, and new ground stations.

  2. Interactive experimenters' planning procedures and mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The computerized mission control and planning system routinely generates a 24-hour schedule in one hour of operator time by including time dimensions into experimental planning procedures. Planning is validated interactively as it is being generated segment by segment in the frame of specific event times. The planner simply points a light pen at the time mark of interest on the time line for entering specific event times into the schedule.

  3. STS Payloads Mission Control Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Basic study tasks are described which produce documentation to meet the following objectives: (1) flight control functions, (2) NASA flight control capabilities, (3) function allocations, (4) operational communications and information processing plans, (5) alternative system concepts for STS payload flight control support, and (6) estimated additional resources for selected system concept(s).

  4. Mission operations of the handicapped FORMOSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin-Fa; Chern, Jeng-Shing; Wu, An-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Since its launch on 20 May 2004, FORMOSAT-2 (FS2, Formosa satellite ♯2) has been operated on orbit for more than 9 years. It carries two payloads: the remote sensing instrument (RSI) for Earth observations and the imager of sprites and upper atmospheric lightning instrument (ISUAL) for the purpose of scientific observations. The RSI is operating at daytime while ISUAL is active at night-time. To meet both mission objectives simultaneously, the satellite operations planning has been more complicated. In order to maximize the usage of the on-board resources, the satellite attitude maneuver activities and power charge/discharge cycles have been scheduled cautiously in every detail. Under such fully engaged operations scenario and with a design life of 5 years, it is inevitable that the satellite encountered many anomalies, either permanent or temporary. In particular, one attitude gyro (totally four) and one reaction wheel (totally four) have been failed. This paper presents the major anomalies and resolutions in the past years. Many iterations and trade-offs have been made to minimize the effect on mission operations of the handicapped FORMOSAT-2. It still can provide about 80% of the designed functions and capabilities.

  5. Operations mission planner beyond the baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric; Cooper, Lynne

    1991-01-01

    The scheduling of Space Station Freedom must satisfy four major requirements. It must ensure efficient housekeeping operations, maximize the collection of science, respond to changes in tasking and available resources, and accommodate the above changes in a manner that minimizes disruption of the ongoing operations of the station. While meeting these requirements the scheduler must cope with the complexity, scope, and flexibility of SSF operations. This requires the scheduler to deal with an astronomical number of possible schedules. The Operations Mission Planner (OMP) is centered around minimally disruptive replanning and the use of heuristics limit search in scheduling. OMP has already shown several artificial intelligence based scheduling techniques such as Interleaved Iterative Refinement and Bottleneck Identification using Process Chronologies.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission Prelaunch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a high-performance astronomical telescope system designed to operate in low-Earth orbit. It is approximately 43 feet long, with a diameter of 10 feet at the forward end and 14 feet at the aft end. Weight at launch was approximately 25,000 pounds. In principle, it is no different than the reflecting telescopes in ground-based astronomical observatories. Like ground-based telescopes, the HST was designed as a general-purpose instrument, capable of using a wide variety of scientific instruments at its focal plane. This multi-purpose characteristic allows the HST to be used as a national facility, capable of supporting the astronomical needs of an international user community. The telescope s planned useful operational lifetime is 15 years, during which it will make observations in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. The extended operational life of the HST is possible by using the capabilities of the Space Transportation System to periodically visit the HST on-orbit to replace failed or degraded components, install instruments with improved capabilities, re-boost the HST to higher altitudes compensating for gravitational effects, and to bring the HST back to Earth when the mission is terminated. The largest ground-based observatories, such as the 200-inch aperture Hale telescope at Palomar Mountain, California, can recognize detail in individual galaxies several billion light years away. However, like all earthbound devices, the Hale telescope is limited because of the blurring effect of the Earth s atmosphere. Further, the wavelength region observable from the Earth s surface is limited by the atmosphere to the visible part of the spectrum. The very important ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is lost. The HST uses a 2.4-meter reflective optics system designed to capture data over a wavelength region that reaches far into the ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum.

  7. CAPACITY: Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelder, H.; Goede, A.; van Weele, M.

    The ESA project CAPACITY refers to future Operational Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring Missions. Here operational is meant in the sense that a reliable service of specified information products can be established that satisfies user needs. Monitoring is meant in the sense that long-term continuity and consistency in the quality of the information products can be achieved. The objectives of the project are: To consult with user communities to develop high level information requirements and the form of the information products. To identify and prioritise mission objectives. To derive mission data requirements from the high level user information requirements and iterate these with the users. To set these requirements against observation systems available or approved for the future. To identify missing information products or information products of insufficient quality. To define a global observation system that would satisfy user requirements. The time frame of this operational system is projected to cover the period 2010 to 2020 concurrent with the operational satellites MetOp and NPOESS. In order to address these objectives a large European consortium has been formed consisting of approximately 30 partners from 9 ESA countries (F, D, UK, I, SW, N, DK, B, NL). The project is led by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the core team includes the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Univ Leicester, Univ Bremen and industry. Four application areas are identified: Protocol Monitoring (Montreal and Kyoto) and Policy Support Air Quality Monitoring and Policy Support (CLRTAP) Long Term Science Issues and Climate Monitoring Forecast Capacity In the derivation of data level 2/3 requirements from high level user requirements the consortium relies on a large group of modellers using satellite data, and of space research institutes with expertise in retrieval and calibration/validation of satellite data as well as Industry with experience in building space

  8. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  9. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. The Apollo 13 spacecraft, with Astronauts James Lovell, John Swigert, and Fred Haise aboard splashed down in the South Pacific at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970.

  10. An agent-oriented approach to automated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide

    1994-01-01

    As we plan for the next generation of Mission Operations Control Center (MOCC) systems, there are many opportunities for the increased utilization of innovative knowledge-based technologies. The innovative technology discussed is an advanced use of agent-oriented approaches to the automation of mission operations. The paper presents an overview of this technology and discusses applied operational scenarios currently being investigated and prototyped. A major focus of the current work is the development of a simple user mechanism that would empower operations staff members to create, in real time, software agents to assist them in common, labor intensive operations tasks. These operational tasks would include: handling routine data and information management functions; amplifying the capabilities of a spacecraft analyst/operator to rapidly identify, analyze, and correct spacecraft anomalies by correlating complex data/information sets and filtering error messages; improving routine monitoring and trend analysis by detecting common failure signatures; and serving as a sentinel for spacecraft changes during critical maneuvers enhancing the system's capabilities to support nonroutine operational conditions with minimum additional staff. An agent-based testbed is under development. This testbed will allow us to: (1) more clearly understand the intricacies of applying agent-based technology in support of the advanced automation of mission operations and (2) access the full set of benefits that can be realized by the proper application of agent-oriented technology in a mission operations environment. The testbed under development addresses some of the data management and report generation functions for the Explorer Platform (EP)/Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) Flight Operations Team (FOT). We present an overview of agent-oriented technology and a detailed report on the operation's concept for the testbed.

  11. Lean Mission Operations Systems Design - Using Agile and Lean Development Principles for Mission Operations Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The Resource Prospector Mission seeks to rove the lunar surface with an in-situ resource utilization payload in search of volatiles at a polar region. The mission operations system (MOS) will need to perform the short-duration mission while taking advantage of the near real time control that the short one-way light time to the Moon provides. To maximize our use of limited resources for the design and development of the MOS we are utilizing agile and lean methods derived from our previous experience with applying these methods to software. By using methods such as "say it then sim it" we will spend less time in meetings and more time focused on the one outcome that counts - the effective utilization of our assets on the Moon to meet mission objectives.

  12. Autonomous Satellite Operations Via Secure Virtual Mission Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Pasciuto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The science community is interested in improving their ability to respond to rapidly evolving, transient phenomena via autonomous rapid reconfiguration, which derives from the ability to assemble separate but collaborating sensors and data forecasting systems to meet a broad range of research and application needs. Current satellite systems typically require human intervention to respond to triggers from dissimilar sensor systems. Additionally, satellite ground services often need to be coordinated days or weeks in advance. Finally, the boundaries between the various sensor systems that make up such a Sensor Web are defined by such things as link delay and connectivity, data and error rate asymmetry, data reliability, quality of service provisions, and trust, complicating autonomous operations. Over the past ten years, researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), General Dynamics, Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL), Cisco, Universal Space Networks (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Naval Research Laboratory, the DoD Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office, and others have worked collaboratively to develop a virtual mission operations capability. Called VMOC (Virtual Mission Operations Center), this new capability allows cross-system queuing of dissimilar mission unique systems through the use of a common security scheme and published application programming interfaces (APIs). Collaborative VMOC demonstrations over the last several years have supported the standardization of spacecraft to ground interfaces needed to reduce costs, maximize space effects to the user, and allow the generation of new tactics, techniques and procedures that lead to responsive space employment.

  13. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), views the Apollo 13 liftoff from a console in the MSC Mission Control Center, bldg 30. Apollo 13 lifted off at 1:13 p.m., April 11, 1970 (34627); Astronaut Thomas F. Mattingly II, who was scheduled as a prime crewman for the Apollo 13 mission but was replaced in the final hours when it was discovered he had been exposed to measles, watches the liftoff phase of the mission. He is seated at a console in the Mission Control Center's Mission Operations Control Room. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, a spacecraft communicator for the mission, looks on at right (34628).

  14. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  15. Mission operations and command assurance: Instilling quality into flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Witkowski, Mona M.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Potts, Sherrill S.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  16. Mission operations and command assurance: Instilling quality into flight operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Witkowski, Mona M.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Potts, Sherrill S.

    1993-03-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA) is a Total Quality Management (TQM) task on JPL projects to instill quality in flight mission operations. From a system engineering view, MO&CA facilitates communication and problem-solving among flight teams and provides continuous process improvement to reduce the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. The MO&CA task has evolved from participating as a member of the spacecraft team to an independent team reporting directly to flight project management and providing system level assurance. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's effort to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit from previous and ongoing flight experience.

  17. Web Based Tool for Mission Operations Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyles, Carole A.; Bindschadler, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    A conventional practice for spaceflight projects is to document scenarios in a monolithic Operations Concept document. Such documents can be hundreds of pages long and may require laborious updates. Software development practice utilizes scenarios in the form of smaller, individual use cases, which are often structured and managed using UML. We have developed a process and a web-based scenario tool that utilizes a similar philosophy of smaller, more compact scenarios (but avoids the formality of UML). The need for a scenario process and tool became apparent during the authors' work on a large astrophysics mission. It was noted that every phase of the Mission (e.g., formulation, design, verification and validation, and operations) looked back to scenarios to assess completeness of requirements and design. It was also noted that terminology needed to be clarified and structured to assure communication across all levels of the project. Attempts to manage, communicate, and evolve scenarios at all levels of a project using conventional tools (e.g., Excel) and methods (Scenario Working Group meetings) were not effective given limitations on budget and staffing. The objective of this paper is to document the scenario process and tool created to offer projects a low-cost capability to create, communicate, manage, and evolve scenarios throughout project development. The process and tool have the further benefit of allowing the association of requirements with particular scenarios, establishing and viewing relationships between higher- and lower-level scenarios, and the ability to place all scenarios in a shared context. The resulting structured set of scenarios is widely visible (using a web browser), easily updated, and can be searched according to various criteria including the level (e.g., Project, System, and Team) and Mission Phase. Scenarios are maintained in a web-accessible environment that provides a structured set of scenario fields and allows for maximum

  18. Mission Analysis, Operations, and Navigation Toolkit Environment (Monte) Version 040

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Monte is a software set designed for use in mission design and spacecraft navigation operations. The system can process measurement data, design optimal trajectories and maneuvers, and do orbit determination, all in one application. For the first time, a single software set can be used for mission design and navigation operations. This eliminates problems due to different models and fidelities used in legacy mission design and navigation software. The unique features of Monte 040 include a blowdown thruster model for GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) with associated pressure models, as well as an updated, optimalsearch capability (COSMIC) that facilitated mission design for ARTEMIS. Existing legacy software lacked the capabilities necessary for these two missions. There is also a mean orbital element propagator and an osculating to mean element converter that allows long-term orbital stability analysis for the first time in compiled code. The optimized trajectory search tool COSMIC allows users to place constraints and controls on their searches without any restrictions. Constraints may be user-defined and depend on trajectory information either forward or backwards in time. In addition, a long-term orbit stability analysis tool (morbiter) existed previously as a set of scripts on top of Monte. Monte is becoming the primary tool for navigation operations, a core competency at JPL. The mission design capabilities in Monte are becoming mature enough for use in project proposals as well as post-phase A mission design. Monte has three distinct advantages over existing software. First, it is being developed in a modern paradigm: object- oriented C++ and Python. Second, the software has been developed as a toolkit, which allows users to customize their own applications and allows the development team to implement requirements quickly, efficiently, and with minimal bugs. Finally, the software is managed in accordance with the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model

  19. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  20. Hypermedia and intelligent tutoring applications in a mission operations environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Baker, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    Hypermedia, hypertext and Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) applications to support all phases of mission operations are investigated. The application of hypermedia and ITS technology to improve system performance and safety in supervisory control is described - with an emphasis on modeling operator's intentions in the form of goals, plans, tasks, and actions. Review of hypermedia and ITS technology is presented as may be applied to the tutoring of command and control languages. Hypertext based ITS is developed to train flight operation teams and System Test and Operation Language (STOL). Specific hypermedia and ITS application areas are highlighted, including: computer aided instruction of flight operation teams (STOL ITS) and control center software development tools (CHIMES and STOL Certification Tool).

  1. Lunar Precursor Missions for Human Exploration of Mars - II. Studies of Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, W. W.; Griffith, A. D.

    necessary precursor to human missions to Mars. He observed that mission parameters for Mars expeditions far exceed current and projected near-term space operations experience in categories such as duration, scale, logistics, required system reliability, time delay for communications, crew exposure to the space environment (particularly reduced gravity), lack of abort-to-Earth options, degree of crew isolation, and long-term political commitment. He demonstrated how a program of lunar exploration could be structured to expand the experience base, test operations approaches, and validate proposed technologies. In this paper, we plan to expand the discussion on the topic of mission operations, including flight and trajectory design, crew activity planning, procedure development and validation, and initialization load development. contemplating the nature of the challenges posed by a mission with a single crew lasting 3 years with no possibility of abort to Earth and at a distance where the light-time precludes conversation between with the astronauts. The brief durations of Apollo or Space Shuttle missions mandates strict scheduling of in-space tasks to maximize the productivity. On a mission to Mars, the opposite obtains. Transit times are long (~160 days), and crew time may be principally devoted to physical conditioning and repeated simulations of the landing sequence. While the physical exercise parallels the experience on the International Space Station (ISS), the remote refresher training is new. The extensive surface stay time (~500 days) implies that later phases of the surface missions will have to be planned in consultation with the crew to a large extent than is currently the case. resolve concerns over the form of new methodologies and philosophies needed. Recent proposed reductions in scope and crew size for ISS exacerbate this problem. One unknown aspect is whether any sociological pathologies will develop in the relationship of the crew to Mission

  2. Views of the mission control center during STS-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The two backup payload specialists for Drs. Byron K. Lichtenberg and Ulf Merbold huddle in the mission control center during day three activity aboard Spacelab. Seated at the Console is Dr. Michael Lampton. Leaning over Lampton's shoulder is Dutch scientist Wubbo Ockels. The two are surrounded by a few of the flight controllers in the payload operations control center (POCC) portion of JSC's mission control center.

  3. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layback, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    For planning of Mars surface missions, to be operated on a sol-by-sol basis by a team on Earth (where a "sol" is a Martian day), activities are described in terms of "sol types" that are strung together to build a surface mission scenario. Some sol types require ground decisions based on a previous sol's results to feed into the activity planning ("ground in the loop"), while others do not. Due to the differences in duration between Earth days and Mars sols, for a given Mars local solar time, the corresponding Earth time "walks" relative to the corresponding times on the prior sol/day. In particular, even if a communication window has a fixed Mars local solar time, the Earth time for that window will be approximately 40 minutes later each succeeding day. Further complexity is added for non-Mars synchronous communication relay assets, and when there are multiple control centers in different Earth time zones. The solution is the development of "ops efficiency factors" that reflect the efficiency of a given operations configuration (how many and location of control centers, types of communication windows, synchronous or non-synchronous nature of relay assets, sol types, more-or-less sustainable operations schedule choices) against a theoretical "optimal" operations configuration for the mission being studied. These factors are then incorporated into scenario models in order to determine the surface duration (and therefore minimum spacecraft surface lifetime) required to fulfill scenario objectives. The resulting model is used to perform "what-if" analyses for variations in scenario objectives. The ops efficiency factor is the ratio of the figure of merit for a given operations factor to the figure of merit for the theoretical optimal configuration. The current implementation is a pair of models in Excel. The first represents a ground operations schedule for 500 sols in each operations configuration for the mission being studied (500 sols was chosen as being a long

  4. Mission Control activities during Day 1 First TV Pass of STS-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Robert E. Castle, integrated communications officer (INCO), at a console in the JSC mission operations control room (MOCR) in the mission control center. He is responsible for ground controlled television from the orbiter on his shift for 41-B.

  5. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick

    2000-01-01

    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  6. SCOSII OL: A dedicated language for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Andrea; Elgaard, Dennis; Lynenskjold, Steen; Pecchioli, Mauro

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Control and Operations System 2 (SCOSII) is the new generation of Mission Control Systems (MCS) to be used at ESOC. The system is generic because it offers a collection of standard functions configured through a database upon which a dedicated MCS is established for a given mission. An integral component of SCOSII is the support of a dedicated Operations Language (OL). The spacecraft operation engineers edit, test, validate, and install OL scripts as part of the configuration of the system with, e.g., expressions for computing derived parameters and procedures for performing flight operations, all without involvement of software support engineers. A layered approach has been adopted for the implementation centered around the explicit representation of a data model. The data model is object-oriented defining the structure of the objects in terms of attributes (data) and services (functions) which can be accessed by the OL. SCOSII supports the creation of a mission model. System elements as, e.g., a gyro are explicit, as are the attributes which described them and the services they provide. The data model driven approach makes it possible to take immediate advantage of this higher-level of abstraction, without requiring expansion of the language. This article describes the background and context leading to the OL, concepts, language facilities, implementation, status and conclusions found so far.

  7. Mission Operations of Earth Observing-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Tran, Daniel Q.; Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Sherwood, Rob; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; VanGaasbeck, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the past mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we transferred as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE).

  8. Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Undergraduate students Kristina Wines and Dena Renzo at Rensselaer Poloytech Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY, monitor the progress of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 (USMP-4) mission (STS-87), Nov. 19 - Dec.5, 1997). Remote Operations Control Center (ROCC) like this one will become more common during operations with the International Space Station. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  9. An Architecture to Promote the Commercialization of Space Mission Command and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a command and control architecture that encompasses space mission operations centers, ground terminals, and spacecraft. This architecture is intended to promote the growth of a lucrative space mission operations command and control market through a set of open standards used by both gevernment and profit-making space mission operators.

  10. Making adaptable systems work for mission operations: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holder, Barbara E.; Levesque, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Multimission Operations System (AMMOS) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is based on a highly adaptable multimission ground data system (MGDS) for mission operations. The goal for MGDS is to support current flight project science and engineering personnel and to meet the demands of future missions while reducing associated operations and software development costs. MGDS has become a powerful and flexible mission operations system by using a network of heterogeneous workstations, emerging open system standards, and selecting an adaptable tools-based architecture. Challenges in developing adaptable systems for mission operations and the benefits of this approach are described.

  11. Mission control activity during STS-61 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Flight controller Susan P. Rainwater observes as two astronauts work through a lengthy period of extravehicular activity (EVA) in the cargo bay of the Earth-looking Space Shuttle Endeavour. Rainwater's EVA console was one of Mission Control's busiest during this eleven-day Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission in Earth orbit.

  12. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  13. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits

  14. EURECA mission control experience and messages for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, H.; Ferri, P.; Wimmer, W.

    1994-01-01

    EURECA is a retrievable space platform which can perform multi-disciplinary scientific and technological experiments in a Low Earth Orbit for a typical mission duration of six to twelve months. It is deployed and retrieved by the NASA Space Shuttle and is designed to support up to five flights. The first mission started at the end of July 1992 and was successfully completed with the retrieval in June 1993. The operations concept and the ground segment for the first EURECA mission are briefly introduced. The experiences in the preparation and the conduction of the mission from the flight control team point of view are described.

  15. Cloud Computing for Mission Design and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Juan; Attiyah, Amy; Beswick, Robert; Gerasimantos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The space mission design and operations community already recognizes the value of cloud computing and virtualization. However, natural and valid concerns, like security, privacy, up-time, and vendor lock-in, have prevented a more widespread and expedited adoption into official workflows. In the interest of alleviating these concerns, we propose a series of guidelines for internally deploying a resource-oriented hub of data and algorithms. These guidelines provide a roadmap for implementing an architecture inspired in the cloud computing model: associative, elastic, semantical, interconnected, and adaptive. The architecture can be summarized as exposing data and algorithms as resource-oriented Web services, coordinated via messaging, and running on virtual machines; it is simple, and based on widely adopted standards, protocols, and tools. The architecture may help reduce common sources of complexity intrinsic to data-driven, collaborative interactions and, most importantly, it may provide the means for teams and agencies to evaluate the cloud computing model in their specific context, with minimal infrastructure changes, and before committing to a specific cloud services provider.

  16. Vehicle management and mission planning in support of shuttle operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, W. R.; Bell, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An operational approach to shuttle mission planning during high flight frequency years (20 or more flights per year) is described wherein diverse mission planning functions interface via an interactive computer system and common data base. The Vehicle Management and Mission Planning System (VMMPS) is proposed as a means of helping to accomplish the mission planning function. The VMMPS will link together into an interactive system the major mission planning areas such as trajectory, crew, vehicle performance, and launch operations. A common data base will be an integral part of the system and the concept of standard mission types and phases will be used to minimize mission to mission uniqueness. The use of this system will eliminate much redundancy and replanning, shorten interface times between functions, and provide a means to evaluate unplanned events and modify schedules.

  17. Management of information for mission operations using automated keyword referencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Curran, Patrick S.

    1993-01-01

    Although millions of dollars have helped to improve the operability and technology of ground data systems for mission operations, almost all mission documentation remains bound in printed volumes. This form of documentation is difficult and timeconsuming to use, may be out-of-date, and is usually not cross-referenced with other related volumes of mission documentation. A more effective, automated method of mission information access is needed. A new method of information management for mission operations using automated keyword referencing is proposed. We expound on the justification for and the objectives of this concept. The results of a prototype tool for mission information access that uses a hypertextlike user interface and existing mission documentation are shared. Finally, the future directions and benefits of our proposed work are described.

  18. Avoiding Human Error in Mission Operations: Cassini Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Operating spacecraft is a never-ending challenge and the risk of human error is ever- present. Many missions have been significantly affected by human error on the part of ground controllers. The Cassini mission at Saturn has not been immune to human error, but Cassini operations engineers use tools and follow processes that find and correct most human errors before they reach the spacecraft. What is needed are skilled engineers with good technical knowledge, good interpersonal communications, quality ground software, regular peer reviews, up-to-date procedures, as well as careful attention to detail and the discipline to test and verify all commands that will be sent to the spacecraft. Two areas of special concern are changes to flight software and response to in-flight anomalies. The Cassini team has a lot of practical experience in all these areas and they have found that well-trained engineers with good tools who follow clear procedures can catch most errors before they get into command sequences to be sent to the spacecraft. Finally, having a robust and fault-tolerant spacecraft that allows ground controllers excellent visibility of its condition is the most important way to ensure human error does not compromise the mission.

  19. STS payloads mission control study continuation phase A-1. Volume 2-B: Task 2. Evaluation and refinement of implementation guidelines for the selected STS payload operator concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The functions of Payload Operations Control Centers (POCC) at JSC, GSFC, JPL, and non-NASA locations are analyzed to establish guidelines for standardization, and facilitate the development of a fully integrated NASA-wide system of ground facilities for all classes of payloads. Operational interfaces between the space transportation system operator and the payload operator elements are defined. The advantages and disadvantages of standardization are discussed.

  20. Magellan Post Launch Mission Operation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magellan was successfully launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis from the Kennedy Space Center at 2:47 p.m. EDT on May 4, 1989. The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster and attached Magellan Spacecraft were successfully deployed from Atlantis on Rev. 5 as planned, at 06:14 hrs Mission Elapsed Time (MET). The two IUS propulsion burns which began at 07:14 hrs MET and were completed at 07:22 hrs MET, placed the Magellan Spacecraft almost perfectly on its preplanned trajectory to Venus. The IUS was jettisoned at 07:40 hrs MET and Magellan telemetry was immediately acquired by the Deep Space Network (DSN). A spacecraft trajectory correction maneuver was performed on May 21 and the spacecraft is in the planned standard cruise configuration with all systems operating nominally. An initial attempt was made to launch Atlantis on April 28, 1989, but the launch was scrubbed at T-31 sec due to a failure of the liquid hydrogen recirculation pump on Space Shuttle Main Engine #1. The countdown had proceeded smoothly until T-20 min when the Magellan radio receiver "locked-on" the MIL 71 Unified S-Band (USB) transmission as the transmitter power was increased fro 2 kw to 10 kw in support of the orbiter launch. During the planned hold at T-9 min, the USB was confirmed as the source of the receiver "lock" and Magellan's launch readiness was reaffirmed. In addition a five-minute extension of the T-9 hold occurred when a range safety computer went off-line, creating a loss of redundancy in the range safety computer network. Following resumption of the countdown, both the orbiter and Magellan flows proceeded smoothly until the launch was scrubbed at T-31 sec.

  1. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  2. Current Level of Mission Control Automation at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maks, Lori; Breed, Julie; Rackley, Michael; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is particularly concerned with reducing mission operations costs through increased automation. This paper examines the operations procedures within NASA Mission Control Centers in order to uncover the level of automation that currently exists within them. Based on an assessment of mission operations procedures within three representative control centers, this paper recommends specific areas where there is potential for mission cost reduction through increased automation.

  3. Lessons Learned on Operating and Preparing Operations for a Technology Mission from the Perspective of the Earth Observing-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan; Howard, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program's first Earth-observing mission (EO-1) is a technology validation mission. It is managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland and is scheduled for launch in the summer of 2000. The purpose of this mission is to flight-validate revolutionary technologies that will contribute to the reduction of cost and increase of capabilities for future land imaging missions. In the EO-1 mission, there are five instrument, five spacecraft, and three supporting technologies to flight-validate during a year of operations. EO-1 operations and the accompanying ground system were intended to be simple in order to maintain low operational costs. For purposes of formulating operations, it was initially modeled as a small science mission. However, it quickly evolved into a more complex mission due to the difficulties in effectively integrating all of the validation plans of the individual technologies. As a consequence, more operational support was required to confidently complete the on-orbit validation of the new technologies. This paper will outline the issues and lessons learned applicable to future technology validation missions. Examples of some of these include the following: (1) operational complexity encountered in integrating all of the validation plans into a coherent operational plan, (2) initial desire to run single shift operations subsequently growing to 6 "around-the-clock" operations, (3) managing changes in the technologies that ultimately affected operations, (4) necessity for better team communications within the project to offset the effects of change on the Ground System Developers, Operations Engineers, Integration and Test Engineers, S/C Subsystem Engineers, and Scientists, and (5) the need for a more experienced Flight Operations Team to achieve the necessary operational flexibility. The discussion will conclude by providing several cost comparisons for developing operations from previous missions to EO-1 and

  4. President Reagan at Mission Control, Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan gets a laugh from NASA officials in Mission Control when he jokingly asks crew members, astronauts Joe Engle and Richard Truly if they could stop by Washington en route to their California landing site in order that he might come along. The STS-2 crew was in their next to last day on orbit when the conversation took place. From left to right standing: Terry J. Hart, NASA Deputy Administrator Dr. Hans Mark, NASA Administrator James M. Beggs, JSC Director Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr. From left to right seated: CAPCOM, Astronaut Daniel C. Brandenstein President, Ronald Reagan Directly above the President in the background: JSC Flight Operations Director, Eugene F. Kranz

  5. Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Seah, Chin; Trimble, Jay P.; Sims, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Work System analysis and design is complex and non-deterministic. In this paper we describe Brahms, a multiagent modeling and simulation environment for designing complex interactions in human-machine systems. Brahms was originally conceived as a business process design tool that simulates work practices, including social systems of work. We describe our modeling and simulation method for mission operations work systems design, based on a research case study in which we used Brahms to design mission operations for a proposed discovery mission to the Moon. We then describe the results of an actual method application project-the Brahms Mars Exploration Rover. Space mission operations are similar to operations of traditional organizations; we show that the application of Brahms for space mission operations design is relevant and transferable to other types of business processes in organizations.

  6. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  7. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  8. Computer support for cooperative tasks in Mission Operations Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey; Moore, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft management has been performed by fixed teams of operators in Mission Operations Centers. The team cooperatively: (1) ensures that payload(s) on spacecraft perform their work; and (2) maintains the health and safety of the spacecraft through commanding and monitoring the spacecraft's subsystems. In the future, the task demands will increase and overload the operators. This paper describes the traditional spacecraft management environment and describes a new concept in which groupware will be used to create a Virtual Mission Operations Center. Groupware tools will be used to better utilize available resources through increased automation and dynamic sharing of personnel among missions.

  9. Computer support for cooperative tasks in Mission Operations Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Moore, M.

    1994-10-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft management has been performed by fixed teams of operators in Mission Operations Centers. The team cooperatively (1) ensures that payload(s) on spacecraft perform their work and (2) maintains the health and safety of the spacecraft through commanding and monitoring the spacecraft`s subsystems. In the future, the task demands will increase and overload the operators. This paper describes the traditional spacecraft management environment and describes a new concept in which groupware will be used to create a Virtual Mission Operations Center. Groupware tools will be used to better utilize available resources through increased automation and dynamic sharing of personnel among missions.

  10. Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John

    The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.

  11. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  12. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Portions of the LANDSAT-D systems operation plan are presented. An overview of the data processing operations, logistics and other operations support, prelaunch and post-launch activities, thematic mapper operations during the scrounge period, and LANDSAT-D performance evaluation is given.

  13. Middleware Evaluation and Benchmarking for Use in Mission Operations Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, Rob; Waktola, Waka

    2005-01-01

    Middleware technologies have been promoted as timesaving, cost-cutting alternatives to the point-to-point communication used in traditional mission operations systems. However, missions have been slow to adopt the new technology. The lack of existing middleware-based missions has given rise to uncertainty about middleware's ability to perform in an operational setting. Most mission architects are also unfamiliar with the technology and do not know the benefits and detriments to architectural choices - or even what choices are available. We will present the findings of a study that evaluated several middleware options specifically for use in a mission operations system. We will address some common misconceptions regarding the applicability of middleware-based architectures, and we will identify the design decisions and tradeoffs that must be made when choosing a middleware solution. The Middleware Comparison and Benchmark Study was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to comprehensively evaluate candidate middleware products, compare and contrast the performance of middleware solutions with the traditional point- to-point socket approach, and assess data delivery and reliability strategies. The study focused on requirements of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, validating the potential use of middleware in the GPM mission ground system. The study was jointly funded by GPM and the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC), a virtual organization for providing mission enabling solutions and promoting the use of appropriate new technologies for mission support. The study was broken into two phases. To perform the generic middleware benchmarking and performance analysis, a network was created with data producers and consumers passing data between themselves. The benchmark monitored the delay, throughput, and reliability of the data as the characteristics were changed. Measurements were taken under a variety of topologies, data demands

  14. Reusablility in ESOC mission control systems developments - the SMART-1 mission case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignède, Max; Davies, Kevin

    2002-07-01

    The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) have a long experience in spacecraft mission control systems developments and use a large number of existing elements for the build up of control systems for new missions. The integration of such elements in a new system covers not only the direct re-use of infrastructure software but also the re-use of concepts and work methodology. Applying reusability is a major asset in ESOC's strategy, especially for low cost space missions. This paper describes re-use of existing elements in the ESOC production of the SMART-1 mission control system (S1MCS) and explores the following areas: The most significant (and major cost-saving contributors) re-used elements are the Spacecraft Control and Operations System (SCOS-2000) and the Network Control and TM/TC Router System (NCTRS) infrastructure systems. These systems are designed precisely for allowing all general mission parameters to be configured easily without any change in the software (in particular the NCTRS configuration for SMART-1 was time and cost effective). Further, large parts of the ESOC ROSETTA and INTEGRAL software systems (also SCOS-2000 based) were directly re-used, such as the on-board command schedule maintenance and modelling subsystem (OBQ), the time correlator (TCO) and the external file transfer subsystem (FTS). The INTEGRAL spacecraft database maintenance system (both the editors and configuration control mechanism) and its export facilities into the S1MCS runtime system are directly reused. A special kind of re-use concerns the ENVISAT approach to both the telemetry (TM) and telecommanding (TC) context saving in the redundant server system in order to enable smooth support of operations in case of prime server failure. In this case no software or tools can be re-used because the S1MCS is based on a much more modern technology than the ENVISAT mission control system as well as on largely differing workstations architectures but the ENVISAT validated

  15. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) mission profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. C.; Defazio, R. L.; Sauter, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The GOES mission profile used to achieve geostationary orbit following separation from the Delta launch vehicle is described. The mission profile was constrained by the solid-propellant apogee kick motor which was undersized relative to the spacecraft weight. The resulting deficiency in delivered delta-V had to be made up by the spacecraft hydrazine propulsion system. The mission profile which best utilizes the on-board hydrazine requires that the transfer orbit apogee height be biased 13,800 km above geosynchronous altitude. This maximizes the effectiveness of the apogee motor in performing the plane change necessary to achieve near-equatorial orbit. The highly eccentric drift orbit which results from the apogee motor firing has an average drift rate of 60 deg/day. Circularizing this orbit requires maneuvers designed to achieve geostationary position within a tightly constrained hydrazine allocation. The sequence takes advantage of the orbit changes resulting from attitude maneuvers and combined inplane/out-of-plane maneuvers to achieve hydrazine savings.

  16. Psychological Support Operations and the ISS One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.

  17. Telemetry packetization for improved mission operations. [instrument packages for Space Shuttle mission operations data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for mission-operations data management will accelerate sharply when the Space Transportation System (i.e., Space Shuttle) becomes the primary vehicle for research from space. These demands can be satisfied most effectively by providing a higher-level source encoding function within the spaceborne vehicle. An Instrument Telemetry Packet (ITP) concept is described which represents an alternative to the conventional multiplexed telemetry frame approach for acquiring spaceborne instrument data. By providing excellent data-integrity protection at the source and a variable instrument bandwidth capability, this ITP concept represents a significant improvement over present data acquisition procedures. Realignments in the ground telemetry processing functions are described which are intended to take advantage of the ITP concept and to make the data management system more responsive to the scientific investigators.

  18. VIew of Mission Control on first day of ASTP docking in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center on the first day of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission. The American ASTP flight controllers at JSC were monitoring the progress of the Soviet ASTP launch when this photograph was taken. The television monitor shows Cosmonaut Yuri V. Romanenko at his spacecraft communicator's console in the ASTP mission control center in the Soviet Union.

  19. Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter low cost mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    It will not be possible to support the multiple planetary missions of the magnitude and order of previous missions on the basis of foreseeable NASA funding. It is, therefore, necessary to seek innovative means for accomplishing the goals of planetary exploration with modestly allocated resources. In this connection, a Core Program set of planetary exploration missions has been recommended. Attention is given to a Mission Operations design overview which is based on the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter Phase-A study performed during spring of 1983.

  20. Activity in the Mission Control Center during Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Two individuals are examining a seismic reading in the Mission Control Center's Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) Room during the Apollo 14 S-IVB impact on the moon. Dr. Maurice Ewing (left) is the Director of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory at Columbia University. David Lammlein, a Columbia graduate student, is on the right (17609); Partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center at the time the Apollo 14 S-IVB stage impacted on the lunar surface. The flight director's console in in the foregroune. Eugene F. Kranz, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Flight Control Division, is in the right foreground. Seated at the console is Glynn S. Lunney, Head of the Flight Directors Office, Flight Control Division. Facing the camera is Gerald D. Griffin, Flight Director of the Third (Gold) team (17610).

  1. ISS Update: Astronaut Participates in Autonomous Mission Operations Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with astronaut Alvin Drew who is participating in the Autonomous Mission Operations test, which looks at how communication delays will affect future de...

  2. The SOFIA Mission Control System Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiligman, G. M.; Brock, D. R.; Culp, S. D.; Decker, P. H.; Estrada, J. C.; Graybeal, J. B.; Nichols, D. M.; Paluzzi, P. R.; Sharer, P. J.; Pampell, R. J.; Papke, B. L.; Salovich, R. D.; Schlappe, S. B.; Spriestersbach, K. K.; Webb, G. L.

    1999-05-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be delivered with a computerized mission control system (MCS). The MCS communicates with the aircraft's flight management system and coordinates the operations of the telescope assembly, mission-specific subsystems, and the science instruments. The software for the MCS must be reliable and flexible. It must be easily usable by many teams of observers with widely differing needs, and it must support non-intrusive access for education and public outreach. The technology must be appropriate for SOFIA's 20-year lifetime. The MCS software development process is an object-oriented, use case driven approach. The process is iterative: delivery will be phased over four "builds"; each build will be the result of many iterations; and each iteration will include analysis, design, implementation, and test activities. The team is geographically distributed, coordinating its work via Web pages, teleconferences, T.120 remote collaboration, and CVS (for Internet-enabled configuration management). The MCS software architectural design is derived in part from other observatories' experience. Some important features of the MCS are: * distributed computing over several UNIX and VxWorks computers * fast throughput of time-critical data * use of third-party components, such as the Adaptive Communications Environment (ACE) and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) * extensive configurability via stored, editable configuration files * use of several computer languages so developers have "the right tool for the job". C++, Java, scripting languages, Interactive Data Language (from Research Systems, Int'l.), XML, and HTML will all be used in the final deliverables. This paper reports on work in progress, with the final product scheduled for delivery in 2001. This work was performed for Universities Space Research Association for NASA under contract NAS2-97001.

  3. Ensemble: an Architecture for Mission-Operations Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Powell, Mark; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, IHsiang; McCurdy, Michael; Vera, Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Ensemble is the name of an open architecture for, and a methodology for the development of, spacecraft mission operations software. Ensemble is also potentially applicable to the development of non-spacecraft mission-operations- type software. Ensemble capitalizes on the strengths of the open-source Eclipse software and its architecture to address several issues that have arisen repeatedly in the development of mission-operations software: Heretofore, mission-operations application programs have been developed in disparate programming environments and integrated during the final stages of development of missions. The programs have been poorly integrated, and it has been costly to develop, test, and deploy them. Users of each program have been forced to interact with several different graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Also, the strategy typically used in integrating the programs has yielded serial chains of operational software tools of such a nature that during use of a given tool, it has not been possible to gain access to the capabilities afforded by other tools. In contrast, the Ensemble approach offers a low-risk path towards tighter integration of mission-operations software tools.

  4. Space-Based Space Surveillance Operational and Demonstration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escorial Olmos, Diego; Aleman Roda, Fernando E.; Middleton, Kevin; Naudet, Joris

    2013-08-01

    GMV is currently leading, under ESA contract, an assessment study to define a demonstration mission for space-based space surveillance. The project team includes QinetiQ Space as responsible for the platform and RAL Space for the payload activities. During the first phase of the study a high-level definition of a future operational mission has been carried out including the definition of user requirements for a future Space Based Space Surveillance (SBSS) service. During the second phase of the study a precursor mission to demonstrate the SBSS operational needs has been defined. The present paper presents the results of both phases, including architectures definition and expected performances.

  5. Technology development for real-time teleoperated spacecraft mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, Jan; Wilde, Markus; Fleischner, Andreas

    Upcoming space missions in the fields of on-orbit servicing and space debris removal will face highly complex tasks which require significant increases in complexity and capability of spacecraft systems, as well as increased dexterity of manipulators. In order to provide methods and technologies allowing real-time teleoperation in orbit, the Institute of Astronautics (LRT) at the Technical University Munich (TUM) is researching different technologies that will be needed for this new type of spacecraft mission operations. With the on-orbit servicing scenario as leading example mission, the main focus lies in developing technologies needed for teleoperated close-range proximity operations including inspection and docking maneuvers.

  6. Terra Mission Operations: Launch to the Present (and Beyond)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita; Moyer, Eric; Mantziaras, Dimitrios; Case, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The Terra satellite, flagship of NASA's long-term Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, continues to provide useful earth science observations well past its 5-year design lifetime. This paper describes the evolution of Terra operations, including challenges and successes and the steps taken to preserve science requirements and prolong spacecraft life. Working cooperatively with the Terra science and instrument teams, including NASA's international partners, the mission operations team has successfully kept the Terra operating continuously, resolving challenges and adjusting operations as needed. Terra retains all of its observing capabilities (except Short Wave Infrared) despite its age. The paper also describes concepts for future operations. This paper will review the Terra spacecraft mission successes and unique spacecraft component designs that provided significant benefits extending mission life and science. In addition, it discusses special activities as well as anomalies and corresponding recovery efforts. Lastly, it discusses future plans for continued operations.

  7. Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldy, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.

  8. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  9. Lessons Learned from Engineering a Multi-Mission Satellite Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Maureen; Cary, Everett, Jr.; Esposito, Timothy; Parker, Jeffrey; Bradley, David

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Small Explorers (SMEX) satellites have surpassed their designed science-lifetimes and their flight operations teams are now facing the challenge of continuing operations with reduced funding. At present, these missions are being re-engineered into a fleet-oriented ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). When completed, this ground system will provide command and control of four SMEX missions and will demonstrate fleet automation and control concepts. As a path-finder for future mission consolidation efforts, this ground system will also demonstrate new ground-based technologies that show promise of supporting longer mission lifecycles and simplifying component integration. One of the core technologies being demonstrated in the SMEX Mission Operations Center is the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture. The GMSEC architecture uses commercial Message Oriented Middleware with a common messaging standard to realize a higher level of component interoperability, allowing for interchangeable components in ground systems. Moreover, automation technologies utilizing the GMSEC architecture are being evaluated and implemented to provide extended lights-out operations. This mode of operation will provide routine monitoring and control of the heterogeneous spacecraft fleet. The operational concepts being developed will reduce the need for staffed contacts and is seen as a necessity for fleet management. This paper will describe the experiences of the integration team throughout the re-enginering effort of the SMEX ground system. Additionally, lessons learned will be presented based on the team's experiences with integrating multiple missions into a fleet-automated ground system.

  10. View of Medical Support Room in Mission Control Center during Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Dr. J.F. Zieglschmid, M.D., Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) White Team Surgeon, is seated in the Medical Support Room in the Mission Control Center as he monitors crew biomedical data being received from the Apollo 16 spacecraft on the third day of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission.

  11. Proximity operations analysis: Retrieval of the solar maximum mission observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Retrieval of the solar maximum mission (SMM) observatory is feasible in terms of orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) plume disturbance of the SMM, orbiter propellant consumed, and flight time required. Man-in-loop simulations will be required to validate these operational techniques before the verification process is complete. Candidate approach and flyaround techniques were developed that allow the orbiter to attain the proper alinement with the SMM for clear access to the grapple fixture (GF) prior grappling. Because the SMM has very little control authority (approximately 14.8 pound-foot-seconds in two axes and rate-damped in the third) it is necessary to inhibit all +Z (upfiring) PRCS jets on the orbiter to avoid tumbling the SMM. A profile involving a V-bar approach and an out-of-plane flyaround appears to be the best choice and is recommended at this time. The flyaround technique consists of alining the +X-axes of the two vehicles parallel with each other and then flying the orbiter around the SMM until the GF is in view. The out-of-plane flyaround technique is applicable to any inertially stabilized payload, and, the entire final approach profile could be considered as standard for most retrieval missions.

  12. PDX operating controls

    SciTech Connect

    Mathe, P.; Robertson, R.; Woolley, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Poloidal Divertor experiment began operation in November 1978. Some of the operating controls were in working condition a year before that date for power tests. In fact, a very similar system to the one used for PDX operated the FM-1 experiment as early as 1971. The functional block diagram of the PDX operating controls is shown. The operating console provides the man-machine interface during the experiment. Most status lights and pushbotton controls are directly interfaced to the IBM 1800 computer. This computer in conjunction with an IPC-300 programmable controller and a CAMAC serial highway system, performs the supervisory and control functions associated with the various PDX subsystems.

  13. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Dr. Donald K. Slayton (in black shirt, left of center), Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC, and Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, shake hands, while Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters (standing, near Lee), watches the large screen showing Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, during the on-board ceremonies. In the foreground, Glynn S. Lunney (extreme left) and Eugene F. Kranz (smoking a cigar), two Apollo 13 Flight Directors, view the activity from their consoles.

  14. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  15. Autonomous Data Transfer Operations for Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repaci, Max; Baker, Paul; Brosi, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Automating the data transfer operation can significantly reduce the cost of moving data from a spacecraft to a location on Earth. Automated data transfer methods have been developed for the terrestrial Internet. However, they often do not apply to the space environment, since in general they are based on assumptions about connectivity that are true on the Internet but not on space links. Automated file transfer protocols have been developed for use over space links that transfer data via store-and-forward of files or segments of files. This paper investigates some of the operational concepts made possible by these protocols.

  16. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  17. Improving the Operations of the Earth Observing One Mission via Automated Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg; Schaffer, Steve; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We describe the modeling and reasoning about operations constraints in an automated mission planning system for an earth observing satellite - EO-1. We first discuss the large number of elements that can be naturally represented in an expressive planning and scheduling framework. We then describe a number of constraints that challenge the current state of the art in automated planning systems and discuss how we modeled these constraints as well as discuss tradeoffs in representation versus efficiency. Finally we describe the challenges in efficiently generating operations plans for this mission. These discussions involve lessons learned from an operations model that has been in use since Fall 2004 (called R4) as well as a newer more accurate operations model operational since June 2009 (called R5). We present analysis of the R5 software documenting a significant (greater than 50%) increase in the number of weekly observations scheduled by the EO-1 mission. We also show that the R5 mission planning system produces schedules within 15% of an upper bound on optimal schedules. This operational enhancement has created value of millions of dollars US over the projected remaining lifetime of the EO-1 mission.

  18. Orbital Express mission operations planning and resource management using ASPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less labor-power rises. Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Like a tow-truck delivering gas to a car on the road, the "servicing" satellite of OE had to find the "client" from several kilometers away, connect directly to the client, and transfer fluid (or a battery) autonomously, while on earth-orbit. The mission met 100% of its success criteria, and proved that autonomous satellite servicing is now a reality for space operations. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. As the constraints for execution could change weekly, daily, and even hourly, the tools used create the mission execution plans needed to be flexible and adaptable to many different kinds of changes. At the same time, the hard constraints of the plans needed to be maintained and satisfied. The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, an overview of the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the NASA's Earth Observing One mission's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  19. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  20. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  1. Preliminary Report on Mission Design and Operations for Critical Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Tumer, Irem

    2005-01-01

    Mission-critical events are defined in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Flight Project Practices as those sequences of events which must succeed in order to attain mission goals. These are dependent on the particular operational concept and design reference mission, and are especially important when committing to irreversible events. Critical events include main engine cutoff (MECO) after launch; engine cutoff or parachute deployment on entry, descent, and landing (EDL); orbital insertion; separation of payload from vehicle or separation of booster segments; maintenance of pointing accuracy for power and communication; and deployment of solar arrays and communication antennas. The purpose of this paper is to report on the current practices in handling mission-critical events in design and operations at major NASA spaceflight centers. The scope of this report includes NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with staff at each center consulted on their current practices, processes, and procedures.

  2. Intelligent resources for satellite ground control operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a cooperative approach to the design of intelligent automation and describes the Mission Operations Cooperative Assistant for NASA Goddard flight operations. The cooperative problem solving approach is being explored currently in the context of providing support for human operator teams and also in the definition of future advanced automation in ground control systems.

  3. Management of Operational Support Requirements for Manned Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Instruction establishes responsibilities for managing the system whereby operational support requirements are levied for support of manned flight missions including associated payloads. This management system will ensure that support requirements are properly requested and responses are properly obtained to meet operational objectives.

  4. The MAP Autonomous Mission Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Juile; Coyle, Steven; Blahut, Kevin; Dent, Carolyn; Shendock, Robert; Rowe, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission is the second mission in NASA's Office of Space Science low-cost, Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX) program. The Explorers Program is designed to accomplish frequent, low cost, high quality space science investigations utilizing innovative, streamlined, efficient management, design and operations approaches. The MAP spacecraft will produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations with high sensitivity and angular resolution. The MAP spacecraft is planned for launch in early 2001, and will be staffed by only single-shift operations. During the rest of the time the spacecraft must be operated autonomously, with personnel available only on an on-call basis. Four (4) innovations will work cooperatively to enable a significant reduction in operations costs for the MAP spacecraft. First, the use of a common ground system for Spacecraft Integration and Test (I&T) as well as Operations. Second, the use of Finite State Modeling for intelligent autonomy. Third, the integration of a graphical planning engine to drive the autonomous systems without an intermediate manual step. And fourth, the ability for distributed operations via Web and pager access.

  5. Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  6. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  7. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  8. SpaceOps 1992: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ground Data Systems for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Second International Symposium featured 135 oral presentations in these 12 categories: Future Missions and Operations; System-Level Architectures; Mission-Specific Systems; Mission and Science Planning and Sequencing; Mission Control; Operations Automation and Emerging Technologies; Data Acquisition; Navigation; Operations Support Services; Engineering Data Analysis of Space Vehicle and Ground Systems; Telemetry Processing, Mission Data Management, and Data Archiving; and Operations Management. Topics focused on improvements in the productivity, effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of mission operations, ground systems, and data acquisition. Also emphasized were accomplishments in management of human factors; use of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations; and the use of telescience and teleoperations.

  9. MAIUS-1- Vehicle, Subsystems Design and Mission Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamminger, A.; Ettl, J.; Grosse, J.; Horschgen-Eggers, M.; Jung, W.; Kallenbach, A.; Raith, G.; Saedtler, W.; Seidel, S. T.; Turner, J.; Wittkamp, M.

    2015-09-01

    In November 2015, the DLR Mobile Rocket Base will launch the MAIUS-1 rocket vehicle at Esrange, Northern Sweden. The MAIUS-A experiment is a pathfinder atom optics experiment. The scientific objective of the mission is the first creation of a BoseEinstein Condensate in space and performing atom interferometry on a sounding rocket [3]. MAIUS-1 comprises a two-stage unguided solid propellant VSB-30 rocket motor system. The vehicle consists of a Brazilian 53 1 motor as 1 st stage, a 530 motor as 2nd stage, a conical motor adapter, a despin module, a payload adapter, the MAIUS-A experiment consisting of five experiment modules, an attitude control system module, a newly developed conical service system, and a two-staged recovery system including a nosecone. In contrast to usual payloads on VSB-30 rockets, the payload has a diameter of 500 mm due to constraints of the scientific experiment. Because of this change in design, a blunted nosecone is necessary to guarantee the required static stability during the ascent phase of the flight. This paper will give an overview on the subsystems which have been built at DLR MORABA, especially the newly developed service system. Further, it will contain a description of the MAIUS-1 vehicle, the mission and the unique requirements on operations and attitude control, which is additionally required to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector. Additionally to a usual microgravity environment, the MAIUS-l payload requires attitude control to achieve a required attitude with respect to the nadir vector.

  10. Views of the mission control center during STS-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Busy moment in the customer management room (CMR) of JSC's mission control center during Spacelab 1 day 2. Three personnel from the European Space Agency (ESA) huddle around a console along with Ralph Hoodless (seated at left), of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Others pictured are Lars Tedeman and Hildegard Binck (standing); and Frank Longhurst (seated right). Tedeman is with ESA's quality control division and Longhurst is Spacelab operations manager.

  11. Galileo mission planning for Low Gain Antenna based operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Buxbaum, K. L.; Ludwinski, J. M.; Paczkowski, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the mission planning process being developed as part of this redesign. Principal topics include a brief description of the new mission concept and anticipated science return (these have been covered more extensively in earlier papers), identification of key drivers on the mission planning process, a description of the process and its implementation schedule, a discussion of the application of automated mission planning tool to the process, and a status report on mission planning work to date. Galileo enhancements include extensive reprogramming of on-board computers and substantial hard ware and software upgrades for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The principal mode of operation will be onboard recording of science data followed by extended playback periods. A variety of techniques will be used to compress and edit the data both before recording and during playback. A highly-compressed real-time science data stream will also be important. The telemetry rate will be increased using advanced coding techniques and advanced receivers. Galileo mission planning for orbital operations now involves partitioning of several scarce resources. Particularly difficult are division of the telemetry among the many users (eleven instruments, radio science, engineering monitoring, and navigation) and allocation of space on the tape recorder at each of the ten satellite encounters. The planning process is complicated by uncertainty in forecast performance of the DSN modifications and the non-deterministic nature of the new data compression schemes. Key mission planning steps include

  12. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  13. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less man-power rises.Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. The Automated-Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN)tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the ASE project's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  14. The OSIRIS-Rex Asteroid Sample Return: Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Cheuvront, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the missions science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the SRC lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis.Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together space craft, instrument and operations scenarios. The project implemented lessons learned from other small body missions: APLNEAR, JPLDAWN and ESARosetta. The key lesson learned was expected the unexpected and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle. In preparation to PDR, the project changed the asteroid arrival date, to arrive one year earlier and provided additional time margin. STK is used for Mission Design and STKScheduler for instrument coverage analysis.

  15. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  16. An operations concept methodology to achieve low-cost mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, Kenneth W.; Wall, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, the Mission Operations System (MOS) for a space mission has been designed last because it is needed last. This has usually meant that the ground system must adjust to the flight vehicle design, sometimes at a significant cost. As newer missions have increasingly longer flight operations lifetimes, the MOS becomes proportionally more difficult and more resource-consuming. We can no longer afford to design the MOS last. The MOS concept may well drive the spacecraft, instrument, and mission designs, as well as the ground system. A method to help avoid these difficulties, responding to the changing nature of mission operations is presented. Proper development and use of an Operations Concept document results in a combined flight and ground system design yielding enhanced operability and producing increased flexibility for less cost.

  17. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  18. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  19. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) for Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julia; Chu, Kai-Dee; Baker, Paul; Starr, Cynthia; Fox, Jeffrey; Baitinger, Mick

    1998-01-01

    Today, most mission operations are geared toward lowering cost through unmanned operations. 7-day/24-hour operations are reduced to either 5-day/8-hour operations or become totally autonomous, especially for deep-space missions. Proper and effective notification during a spacecraft emergency could mean success or failure for an entire mission. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) is a tool designed for autonomous mission operations. The SERS automatically contacts on-call personnel as needed when crises occur, either on-board the spacecraft or within the automated ground systems. Plus, the SERS provides a group-ware solution to facilitate the work of the person(s) contacted. The SERS is independent of the spacecraft's automated ground system. It receives and catalogues reports for various ground system components in near real-time. Then, based on easily configurable parameters, the SERS determines whom, if anyone, should be alerted. Alerts may be issued via Sky-Tel 2-way pager, Telehony, or e-mail. The alerted personnel can then review and respond to the spacecraft anomalies through the Netscape Internet Web Browser, or directly review and respond from the Sky-Tel 2-way pager.

  20. Study 2.6 operations analysis mission characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the current operations concepts of NASA and DoD is presented to determine if alternatives exist which may improve the utilization of resources. The final product is intended to show how sensitive these ground rules and design approaches are relative to the total cost of doing business. The results are comparative in nature, and assess one concept against another as opposed to establishing an absolute cost value for program requirements. An assessment of the mission characteristics is explained to clarify the intent, scope, and direction of this effort to improve the understanding of what is to be accomplished. The characterization of missions is oriented toward grouping missions which may offer potential economic benefits by reducing overall program costs. Program costs include design, development, testing, and engineering, recurring unit costs for logistic vehicles, payload costs. and direct operating costs.

  1. GRTS operations monitor/control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrer, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    An Operations Monitor/Control System (OMCS) was developed to support remote ground station equipment. The ground station controls a Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) relocated to provide coverage in the tracking system's zone of exclusion. The relocated satellite significantly improved data recovery for the Gamma Ray Observatory mission. The OMCS implementation, performed in less than 11 months, was mission critical to TDRS drift operations. Extensive use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware and software products contributed to implementation success. The OMCS has been operational for over 9 months with no significant problems. This paper will share our experiences in OMCS development and integration.

  2. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  3. Mission Operations Centers (MOCs): Integrating key spacecraft ground data system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harbaugh, Randy; Szakal, Donna

    1994-01-01

    In an environment characterized by decreasing budgets, limited system development time, and user needs for increased capabilities, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center initiated a new, cost-effective concept in developing its spacecraft ground data systems: the Mission Operations Center (MOC). In the MOC approach, key components are integrated into a comprehensive and cohesive spacecraft planning, monitoring, command, and control system with a single, state-of-the-art graphical user interface. The MOD is currently implementing MOC's, which feature a common, reusable, and extendable system architecture, to support the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) missions. As a result of the MOC approach, mission operations are integrated, and users can, with a single system, perform real-time health and safety monitoring, real-time command and control, real-time attitude processing, real-time and predictive graphical spacecraft monitoring, trend analysis, mission planning and scheduling, command generation and management, network scheduling, guide star selection, and (using an expert system) spacecraft monitoring and fault isolation. The MOD is also implementing its test and training simulators under the new MOC management structure. This paper describes the MOC concept, the management approaches used in developing MOC systems, the technologies employed and the development process improvement initiatives applied in implementing MOC systems, and the expected benefits to both the user and the mission project in using the MOC approach.

  4. View of Mission Control following splashdown of Skylab 4 command module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An overall view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Cebter following the successful splashdown of the Skylab 4 command module in the Pacific Ocean. The three flight controllers in the foreground, left to right, are flight director Neil B. Hutchinson; flight director Donald R. Puddy; and Astronatu Robert L. Crippen, a spacecraft communicator (CAPCOM).

  5. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  6. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  7. STS payloads mission control study. Volume 2-A, Task 1: Joint products and functions for preflight planning of flight operations, training and simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Specific products and functions, and associated facility availability, applicable to preflight planning of flight operations were studied. Training and simulation activities involving joint participation of STS and payload operations organizations, are defined. The prelaunch activities required to prepare for the payload flight operations are emphasized.

  8. NASA Mission Operations Directorate Preparations for the COTS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Peek, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle looming, a series of new spacecraft is under development to assist in providing for the growing logistical needs of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of these vehicles are being built under a NASA initiative known as the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. These visiting vehicles ; Space X s Dragon and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus , are to be domestically produced in the United States and designed to add to the capabilities of the Russian Progress and Soyuz workhorses, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and the Japanese H-2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV). Most of what is known about the COTS program has focused on the work of Orbital and SpaceX in designing, building, and testing their respective launch and cargo vehicles. However, there is also a team within the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA s Johnson Space Center working with their operational counterparts in these companies to provide operational safety oversight and mission assurance via the development of operational scenarios and products needed for these missions. Ensuring that the operational aspect is addressed for the initial demonstration flights of these vehicles is the topic of this paper. Integrating Dragon and Cygnus into the ISS operational environment has posed a unique challenge to NASA and their partner companies. This is due in part to the short time span of the COTS program, as measured from initial contract award until first launch, as well as other factors that will be explored in the text. Operational scenarios and products developed for each COTS vehicle will be discussed based on the following categories: timelines, on-orbit checkout, ground documentation, crew procedures, software updates and training materials. Also addressed is an outline of the commonalities associated with the operations for each vehicle. It is the intent of the authors to provide their audience with a better

  9. Efficient mission control for the 48-satellite Globalstar Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dan

    1994-11-01

    The Globalstar system is being developed by Globalstar, Limited Partnership and will utilize 48 satellites in low earth orbit (See Figure 1) to create a world-wide mobile communications system consistent with Vice President Gore's vision of a Global Information Infrastructure. As a large long term commercial system developed by a newly formed organization, Globalstar provides an excellent opportunity to explore innovative solutions for highly efficient satellite command and control. Design and operational concepts being developed are unencumbered by existing physical and organizational infrastructures. This program really is 'starting with a clean sheet of paper'. Globalstar operations challenges can appear enormous. Clearly, assigning even a single person around the clock to monitor and control each satellite is excessive for Globalstar (it would require a staff of 200] . Even with only a single contact per orbit per satellite, data acquisitions will start or stop every 45 seconds] Although essentially identical, over time the satellites will develop their own 'personalities'and will re quire different data calibrations and levels of support. This paper discusses the Globalstar system and challenges and presents engineering concepts, system design decisions, and operations concepts which address the combined needs and concerns of satellite, ground system, and operations teams. Lessons from past missions have been applied, organizational barriers broken, partnerships formed across the mission segments, and new operations concepts developed for satellite constellation management. Control center requirements were then developed from the operations concepts.

  10. Efficient mission control for the 48-satellite Globalstar Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    1994-01-01

    The Globalstar system is being developed by Globalstar, Limited Partnership and will utilize 48 satellites in low earth orbit (See Figure 1) to create a world-wide mobile communications system consistent with Vice President Gore's vision of a Global Information Infrastructure. As a large long term commercial system developed by a newly formed organization, Globalstar provides an excellent opportunity to explore innovative solutions for highly efficient satellite command and control. Design and operational concepts being developed are unencumbered by existing physical and organizational infrastructures. This program really is 'starting with a clean sheet of paper'. Globalstar operations challenges can appear enormous. Clearly, assigning even a single person around the clock to monitor and control each satellite is excessive for Globalstar (it would require a staff of 200! . Even with only a single contact per orbit per satellite, data acquisitions will start or stop every 45 seconds! Although essentially identical, over time the satellites will develop their own 'personalities'and will re quire different data calibrations and levels of support. This paper discusses the Globalstar system and challenges and presents engineering concepts, system design decisions, and operations concepts which address the combined needs and concerns of satellite, ground system, and operations teams. Lessons from past missions have been applied, organizational barriers broken, partnerships formed across the mission segments, and new operations concepts developed for satellite constellation management. Control center requirements were then developed from the operations concepts.

  11. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  12. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  13. Standard protocol stack for mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-01-01

    It is proposed to create a fully 'open' architectural specification for standardized space mission command and control. By being open, i.e., independent for any particular implementation, diversity and competition will be encouraged among future commercial suppliers of space equipment and systems. Customers of the new standard capability are expected to include: (1) the civil space community (e.g., NASA, NOAA, international Agencies); (2) the military space community (e.g., Air Force, Navy, intelligence); and (3) the emerging commercial space community (e.g., mobile satellite service providers).

  14. Seismometer readings studied in Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The seismometer reading from the impact made by the Apollo 15 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface is studied by scientists in the Mission Control Center. Dr. Gary Latham (dark suit, wearing lapel button) of Columbia University is responsible for the design and experiment data analysis of the Passive Seismic Experiment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP). The man on the left, writing, is Nafi Toksos of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Looking on at upper left is Dave Lammlein, also with Columbia.

  15. Tracking and data system support for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars. Volume 3: Planetary operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudgway, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The support provided by the Deep Space Network to the 1975 Viking Mission from the first landing on Mars July 1976 to the end of the Prime Mission on November 15, 1976 is described and evaluated. Tracking and data acquisition support required the continuous operation of a worldwide network of tracking stations with 64-meter and 26-meter diameter antennas, together with a global communications system for the transfer of commands, telemetry, and radio metric data between the stations and the Network Operations Control Center in Pasadena, California. Performance of the deep-space communications links between Earth and Mars, and innovative new management techniques for operations and data handling are included.

  16. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 4: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Planning data are presented for the development phases of interim upper stage (IUS) and tug systems. Major project planning requirements, major event schedules, milestones, system development and operations process networks, and relevant support research and technology requirements are included. Topics discussed include: IUS flight software; tug flight software; IUS/tug ground control center facilities, personnel, data systems, software, and equipment; IUS mission events; tug mission events; tug/spacecraft rendezvous and docking; tug/orbiter operations interface, and IUS/orbiter operations interface.

  17. OTF CCSDS Mission Operations Prototype Parameter Service. Phase I: Exit Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the prototype of phase 1 of the parameter service design of the CCSDS mission operations. The project goals are to: (1) Demonstrate the use of Mission Operations standards to implement the Parameter Service (2) Demonstrate interoperability between Houston MCC and a CCSDS Mission Operations compliant mission operations center (3) Utilize Mission Operations Common Architecture. THe parameter service design, interfaces, and structures are described.

  18. The Cassini Solstice Mission: Streamlining Operations by Sequencing with PIEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Alonge, Eleanor K.; Magee, Kari; Heventhal, William

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) is the second extended mission phase of the highly successful Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn. Conducted at a much-reduced funding level, operations for the CSM have been streamlined and simplified significantly. Integration of the science timeline, which involves allocating observation time in a balanced manner to each of the five different science disciplines (with representatives from the twelve different science instruments), has long been a labor-intensive endeavor. Lessons learned from the prime mission (2004-2008) and first extended mission (Equinox mission, 2008-2010) were utilized to design a new process involving PIEs (Pre-Integrated Events) to ensure the highest priority observations for each discipline could be accomplished despite reduced work force and overall simplification of processes. Discipline-level PIE lists were managed by the Science Planning team and graphically mapped to aid timeline deconfliction meetings prior to assigning discrete segments of time to the various disciplines. Periapse segments are generally discipline-focused, with the exception of a handful of PIEs. In addition to all PIEs being documented in a spreadsheet, allocated out-of-discipline PIEs were entered into the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) well in advance of timeline integration. The disciplines were then free to work the rest of the timeline internally, without the need for frequent interaction, debate, and negotiation with representatives from other disciplines. As a result, the number of integration meetings has been cut back extensively, freeing up workforce. The sequence implementation process was streamlined as well, combining two previous processes (and teams) into one. The new Sequence Implementation Process (SIP) schedules 22 weeks to build each 10-week-long sequence, and only 3 sequence processes overlap. This differs significantly from prime mission during which 5-week-long sequences were built in 24 weeks

  19. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  20. The role of mission operations in spacecraft integration and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    The participation of mission operations personnel in the spacecraft integration and test process offers significant benefits to spacecraft programs in terms of test efficiency, staffing and training efficiency, test completeness, and subsequent cost containment. Operations personnel who have had real-time contact experience and have been responsible for the assessment of on orbit spacecraft operations bring a unique view of spacecraft operations to pre-launch spacecraft test activities. Because of the unique view of the spacecraft/ground interface that experienced operations personnel have, they can propose optimum test approaches and optimum test data analysis techniques. Additionally, the testing that is typically required to validate operations methodologies can be integrated into spacecraft performance testing scenarios.

  1. Mission Control Center enhancement opportunities in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for understanding the major enhancement opportunities for Air Force Mission Control Center/Test Support Centers (MCC's/TSC's) in the 1990's. Much of this paper is based on the findings of Study 232 and work currently underway in Study 2-6 for the Air Force Systems Command, Space System Division, Network Program Office. In this paper, we will address MCC/TSC enhancement needs primarily from the operator perspective, in terms of the increased capabilities required to improve space operations task performance.

  2. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  3. Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). [spacelab flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, D. L.; Noneman, S. R.; Terry, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    The Spacelab payload operations control center (POCC) timeline analysis program which is used to provide POCC activity and resource information as a function of mission time is described. This program is fully automated and interactive, and is equipped with tutorial displays. The tutorial displays are sufficiently detailed for use by a program analyst having no computer experience. The POCC timeline analysis program is designed to operate on the VAX/VMS version V2.1 computer system.

  4. Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

  5. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  6. Prototype Interoperability Document between NASA-JSC and DLR-GSOC Describing the CCSDS SM and C Mission Operations Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucord, Steve A.; Gully, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the PROTOTYPE INTEROPERABILITY DOCUMENT is to document the design and interfaces for the service providers and consumers of a Mission Operations prototype between JSC-OTF and DLR-GSOC. The primary goal is to test the interoperability sections of the CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor & Control (SM&C) Mission Operations (MO) specifications between both control centers. An additional goal is to provide feedback to the Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) working group through the Review Item Disposition (RID) process. This Prototype is considered a proof of concept and should increase the knowledge base of the CCSDS SM&C Mission Operations standards. No operational capabilities will be provided. The CCSDS Mission Operations (MO) initiative was previously called Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C). The specifications have been renamed to better reflect the scope and overall objectives. The working group retains the name Spacecraft Monitor and Control working group and is under the Mission Operations and Information Services Area (MOIMS) of CCSDS. This document will refer to the specifications as SM&C Mission Operations, Mission Operations or just MO.

  7. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Overall view of JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR) during Flight Day 1 of STS-26 integrated simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS).

  8. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR), astronauts John O. Creighton (right) and L. Blaine Hammond review their notes while serving as spacecraft communicators (CAPCOMs) for STS-26 simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS).

  9. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR), flight directors (FDs) Lee Briscoe (left) and Charles W. Shaw, seated at FD console, view front visual display monitors during STS-26 simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS).

  10. Data acquisition system for operational earth observation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerwester, J. M.; Alexander, D.; Arno, R. D.; Edsinger, L. E.; Norman, S. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The data acquisition system capabilities expected to be available in the 1980 time period as part of operational Earth observation missions are identified. By data acquisition system is meant the sensor platform (spacecraft or aircraft), the sensors themselves and the communication system. Future capabilities and support requirements are projected for the following sensors: film camera, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner, infrared scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave scanner, microwave radiometer, coherent side-looking radar, and scatterometer.

  11. The CONSERT operations planning process for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogez, Yves; Puget, Pascal; Zine, Sonia; Hérique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Casas, Carlos M.; Sitjà, Marc Costa; Delmas, Cédric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Geiger, Bernhard; Geurts, Koen; Grieger, Björn; Hahnel, Ronny; Hoofs, Raymond; Hubault, Armelle; Jurado, Eric; Küppers, Michael; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Souffys, Aurélie; Muñoz, Pablo; O'Rourke, Laurence; Pätz, Brigitte; Plettemeier, Dirk; Ulamec, Stephan; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission (CONSERT / Rosetta) has been designed to sound the interior of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This instrument consists of two parts: one onboard Rosetta and the other one onboard Philae. A good CONSERT science measurement sequence requires joint operations of both spacecrafts in a relevant geometry. The geometric constraints to be fulfilled involve the position and the orientation of both Rosetta and Philae. At the moment of planning the post-landing and long-term science operations for Rosetta instruments, the actual comet shape and the landing location remained largely unknown. In addition, the necessity of combining operations of Rosetta spacecraft and Philae spacecraft makes the planning process for CONSERT particularly complex. In this paper, we present the specific methods and tools we developed, in close collaboration with the mission and the science operation teams for both Rosetta and Philae, to identify, rank and plan the operations for CONSERT science measurements. The presented methods could be applied to other missions involving joint operations between two platforms, on a complex shaped object.

  12. Rosetta science operations in support of the Philae mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashman, Mike; Barthélémy, Maud; O`Rourke, Laurence; Almeida, Miguel; Altobelli, Nicolas; Costa Sitjà, Marc; García Beteta, Juan José; Geiger, Bernhard; Grieger, Björn; Heather, David; Hoofs, Raymond; Küppers, Michael; Martin, Patrick; Moissl, Richard; Múñoz Crego, Claudio; Pérez-Ayúcar, Miguel; Sanchez Suarez, Eduardo; Taylor, Matt; Vallat, Claire

    2016-08-01

    The international Rosetta mission was launched on 2nd March 2004 and after its ten year journey, arrived at its target destination of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, during 2014. Following the January 2014 exit from a two and half year hibernation period, Rosetta approached and arrived at the comet in August 2014. In November 2014, the Philae lander was deployed from Rosetta onto the comet's surface after which the orbiter continued its approximately one and a half year comet escort phase. The Rosetta Science Ground Segment's primary roles within the project are to support the Project Scientist and the Science Working Team, in order to ensure the coordination, development, validation and delivery of the desired science operations plans and their associated operational products throughout the mission., whilst also providing support to the Principle Investigator teams (including the Philae lander team) in order to ensure the provision of adequate data to the Planetary Science Archive. The lead up to, and execution of, the November 2014 Philae landing, and the subsequent Philae activities through 2015, have presented numerous unique challenges to the project teams. This paper discusses these challenges, and more specifically, their impact on the overall mission science planning activities. It details how the Rosetta Science Ground Segment has addressed these issues in collaboration with the other project teams in order to accommodate Philae operations within the continually evolving Rosetta science planning process.

  13. PC-402 Pioneer Venus orbiter spacecraft mission operational characteristics document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, F. C.; Butterworth, L. W.; Daniel, R. E.; Drean, R. J.; Filetti, K. A.; Fisher, J. N.; Nowak, L. A.; Porzucki, J.; Salvatore, J. O.; Tadler, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Orbiter spacecraft and its subsystems are described. In extensive detail. Description of the nominal phases, system interfaces, and the capabilities and limitations of system level performance are included along with functional and operational descriptions at the subsystem and unit level the subtleties of nominal operation as well as detailed capabilities and limitations beyond nominal performance are discussed. A command and telemetry logic flow diagram for each subsystem is included. Each diagram encountered along each command signal path into, and each telemetry signal path out of the subsystem. Normal operating modes that correspond to the performance of specific functions at the time of specific events in the mission are also discussed. Principal backup means of performing the normal Orbiter operating modes are included.

  14. A new systems engineering approach to streamlined science and mission operations for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Sonneborn, George; Perkins, Dorothy C.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD, Code 500), the Space Sciences Directorate (Code 600), and the Flight Projects Directorate (Code 400) have developed a new approach to combine the science and mission operations for the FUSE mission. FUSE, the last of the Delta-class Explorer missions, will obtain high resolution far ultraviolet spectra (910 - 1220 A) of stellar and extragalactic sources to study the evolution of galaxies and conditions in the early universe. FUSE will be launched in 2000 into a 24-hour highly eccentric orbit. Science operations will be conducted in real time for 16-18 hours per day, in a manner similar to the operations performed today for the International Ultraviolet Explorer. In a radical departure from previous missions, the operations concept combines spacecraft and science operations and data processing functions in a single facility to be housed in the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics (Code 680). A small missions operations team will provide the spacecraft control, telescope operations and data handling functions in a facility designated as the Science and Mission Operations Center (SMOC). This approach will utilize the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) architecture for both spacecraft and instrument commanding. Other concepts of integrated operations being developed by the Code 500 Renaissance Project will also be employed for the FUSE SMOC. The primary objective of this approach is to reduce development and mission operations costs. The operations concept, integration of mission and science operations, and extensive use of existing hardware and software tools will decrease both development and operations costs extensively. This paper describes the FUSE operations concept, discusses the systems engineering approach used for its development, and the software, hardware and management tools that will make its implementation feasible.

  15. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex combination of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. In this paper we provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  16. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging on the International Space Station (ISS) is caused by a complex mix of the low Earth orbit plasma environment, space weather events, operations of the high voltage solar arrays, and changes in the ISS configuration and orbit parameters. Measurements of the ionospheric electron density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in the ISS electric potential are obtained from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of four plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a Floating Potential Probe, and a Plasma Impedance Probe) on the ISS. These instruments provide a unique capability for monitoring the response of the ISS electric potential to variations in the space environment, changes in vehicle configuration, and operational solar array power manipulation. In particular, rapid variations in ISS potential during solar array operations on time scales of tens of milliseconds can be monitored due to the 128 Hz sample rate of the Floating Potential Probe providing an interesting insight into high voltage solar array interaction with the space plasma environment. Comparing the FPMU data with the ISS operations timeline and solar array data provides a means for correlating some of the more complex and interesting ISS electric potential variations with mission operations. In addition, recent extensions and improvements to the ISS data downlink capabilities have allowed more operating time for the FPMU than ever before. The FPMU was operated for over 200 days in 2013 resulting in the largest data set ever recorded in a single year for the ISS. This presentation will provide examples of a number of the more interesting ISS charging events observed during the 2013 operations including examples of rapid charging events due to solar array power operations, auroral charging events, and other charging behavior related to ISS mission operations.

  17. Using Natural Language to Enable Mission Managers to Control Multiple Heterogeneous UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, S. Bilal; Mcquarry, A. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for commercial activities. This research is developing methods beyond classical control-stick pilot inputs, to allow operators to manage complex missions without in-depth vehicle expertise. These missions may entail several heterogeneous UAVs flying coordinated patterns or flying multiple trajectories deconflicted in time or space to predefined locations. This paper describes the functionality and preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define a mission using speech inputs. With a defined and simple vocabulary, operators can input the vast majority of mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. Although the operator interface is simple, it is based upon autonomous algorithms that allow the mission to proceed with minimal input from the operator. This paper also describes these underlying algorithms that allow an operator to manage several UAVs.

  18. Integrated Attitude Control Strategy for the Asteroid Redirect Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Price, Hoppy; San Martin, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon using a robotic vehicle, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). In this orbit, astronauts will rendezvous with the ARV using the Orion spacecraft. The integrated attitude control concept that Orion will use for approach and docking and for mated operations will be described. Details of the ARV's attitude control system and its associated constraints for redirecting the asteroid to the distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be provided. Once Orion is docked to the ARV, an overall description of the mated stack attitude during all phases of the mission will be presented using a coordinate system that was developed for this mission. Next, the thermal and power constraints of both the ARV and Orion will be discussed as well as how they are used to define the optimal integrated stack attitude. Lastly, the lighting and communications constraints necessary for the crew's extravehicular activity planned to retrieve samples from the asteroid will be examined. Similarly, the joint attitude control strategy that employs both the Orion and the ARV attitude control assets prior, during, and after each extravehicular activity will also be thoroughly discussed.

  19. STS-26 long duration simulation in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 long duration simulation is conducted in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR). Director of Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Eugene F. Kranz (left) and Chief of the Flight Directors Office Tommy W. Holloway monitor activity during the simulation. The two are at their normal stations on the rear row of consoles. The integrated simulation involves MCC flight controllers communicating with crewmembers stationed in the fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  20. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  1. Analytic investigation of the AEM-A/HCMM attitude control system performance. [Application Explorer Missions/Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, G. M.; Huang, W.; Shuster, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM), scheduled for launch in 1978, will be three-axis stabilized relative to the earth in a 600-kilometer altitude, polar orbit. The autonomous attitude control system consists of three torquing coils and a momentum wheel driven in response to error signals computed from data received from an infrared horizon sensor and a magnetometer. This paper presents a simple model of the attitude dynamics and derives the equations that determine the stability of the system during both attitude acquisition (acquisition-mode) and mission operations (mission-mode). Modifications to the proposed mission-mode control laws which speed the system's response to transient attitude errors and reduce the steady-state attitude errors are suggested. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the results obtained with the simple model.

  2. Risk Balance: A Key Tool for Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Faris, Grant B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) discipline actively participates as a project member to achieve their common objective of full mission success while also providing an independent risk assessment to the Project Manager and Office of Safety and Mission Success staff. The cornerstone element of MOA is the independent assessment of the risks the project faces in executing its mission. Especially as the project approaches critical mission events, it becomes imperative to clearly identify and assess the risks the project faces. Quite often there are competing options for the project to select from in deciding how to execute the event. An example includes choices between proven but aging hardware components and unused but unproven components. Timing of the event with respect to visual or telecommunications visibility can be a consideration in the case of Earth reentry or hazardous maneuver events. It is in such situations that MOA is called upon for a risk balance assessment or risk trade study to support their recommendation to the Project Manager for a specific option to select. In the following paragraphs we consider two such assessments, one for the Stardust capsule Earth return and the other for the choice of telecommunications system configuration for the EPOXI flyby of the comet Hartley 2. We discuss the development of the trade space for each project's scenario and characterize the risks of each possible option. The risk characterization we consider includes a determination of the severity or consequence of each risk if realized and the likelihood of its occurrence. We then examine the assessment process to arrive at a MOA recommendation. Finally we review each flight project's decision process and the outcome of their decisions.

  3. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  4. Flight Operations for the LCROSS Lunar Impactor Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Paul D.; Hunt, Rusty; D'Ortenzio, Matt D.; Strong, James; Galal, Ken; Bresina, John L.; Foreman, Darin; Barber, Robert; Shirley, Mark; Munger, James; Drucker, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The LCROSS (Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was conceived as a low-cost means of determining the nature of hydrogen concentrated at the polar regions of the moon. Co-manifested for launch with LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter), LCROSS guided its spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater as a kinetic impactor, and observed the impact flash and resulting debris plume for signs of water and other compounds from a Shepherding Spacecraft. Led by NASA Ames Research Center, LCROSS flight operations spanned 112 days, from June 18 through October 9, 2009. This paper summarizes the experiences from the LCROSS flight, highlights the challenges faced during the mission, and examines the reasons for its ultimate success.

  5. Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital missions using program SKYLARK 1. Section 4: Operational modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The operational modes for the guidance system operations plan for Program SKYLARK 1 are presented. The procedures control the guidance and navigation system interfaces with the flight crew and the mission control center. The guidance operational concept is designed to comprise a set of manually initiated programs and functions which may be arranged by the flight crew to implement a large class of flight plans. This concept will permit both a late flight plan definition and a capability for real time flight plan changes.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A Rendezvous Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Connor, C.; Moy, E.; Smith, D.; Myslinski, M.; Markley, L.; Vernacchio, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hardware complement includes six gas bearing, pulse rebalanced rate integrating gyros, any three of which are sufficient to conduct the science mission. After the loss of three gyros between April 1997 and April 1999 due to a known corrosion mechanism, NASA decided to split the third HST servicing mission into SM3A, accelerated to October 1999, and SM3B, scheduled for November 2001. SM3A was developed as a quick turnaround 'Launch on Need' mission to replace all six gyros. Loss of a fourth gyro in November 1999 caused HST to enter Zero Gyro Sunpoint (ZGSP) safemode, which uses sun sensors and magnetometers for attitude determination and momentum bias to maintain attitude stability during orbit night. Several instances of large attitude excursions during orbit night were observed, but ZGSP performance was adequate to provide power-positive sun pointing and to support low gain antenna communications. Body rates in ZGSP were estimated to exceed the nominal 0.1 deg/sec rendezvous limit, so rendezvous operations were restructured to utilize coarse, limited life, Retrieval Mode Gyros (RMGs) under Hardware Sunpoint (HWSP) safemode. Contingency procedures were developed to conduct the rendezvous in ZGSP in the event of RMGA or HWSP computer failure. Space Shuttle Mission STS-103 launched on December 19, 1999 after a series of weather and Shuttle-related delays. After successful rendezvous and grapple under HWSP/RMGA, the crew changed out all six gyros. Following deploy and systems checkout, HST returned to full science operations.

  7. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2007-01-01

    A test battery was developed for cursor control device evaluation: four tasks were taken from ISO 9241-9, and three from previous studies conducted at NASA. The tasks focused on basic movements such as pointing, clicking, and dragging. Four cursor control devices were evaluated with and without Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves to identify desirable cursor control device characteristics for NASA missions: 1) the Kensington Expert Mouse, 2) the Hulapoint mouse, 3) the Logitech Marble Mouse, and 4) the Honeywell trackball. Results showed that: 1) the test battery is an efficient tool for differentiating among input devices, 2) gloved operations were about 1 second slower and had at least 15% more errors; 3) devices used with gloves have to be larger, and should allow good hand positioning to counteract the lack of tactile feedback, 4) none of the devices, as designed, were ideal for operation with EVA gloves.

  8. Commonality of flight control systems for support of European telecommunications missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debatin, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the presentation of mission-independent software systems that provide a common software platform to ground data systems for mission operations. The objectives of such common software platforms are to reduce the cost of the development of mission-dedicated software systems and to increase the level of reliability of the ground data systems for mission operations. In accordance with this objective, the Multi-Satellite Support System (MSSS) was developed at the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Between 1975 and 1992, the MSSS provided support to 16 European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among them very demanding science missions such as GEOS, EXOSAT, and Giotto. The successful support of these missions proved the validity of the MSSS concept with its extended mission-independent platform. This paper describes the MSSS concept and focuses on the wide use of MSSS as a flight control system for geosynchronous telecommunications satellites. Reference is made to more than 15 telecommunications missions that are operated from Western Europe using flight control systems with an underlying MSSS concept, demonstrating the benefits of a commonly used software platform. Finally, the paper outlines the design of the new generation of flight control systems, which is being developed at ESOC for this decade, following a period of more than 15 years of MSSS support.

  9. A General Mission Independent Simulator (GMIS) and Simulator Control Program (SCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul L.; Moore, J. Michael; Rosenberger, John

    1994-01-01

    GMIS is a general-purpose simulator for testing ground system software. GMIS can be adapted to any mission to simulate changes in the data state maintained by the mission's computers. GMIS was developed in Code 522 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The acronym GMIS stands for GOTT Mission Independent Simulator, where GOTT is the Ground Operations Technology Testbed. Within GOTT, GMIS is used to provide simulated data to an installation of TPOCC - the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center. TPOCC was developed by Code 510 as a reusable control center. GOTT uses GMIS and TPOCC to test new technology and new operator procedures.

  10. Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate's operational/development network (MODNET) at Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A brief, informal narrative is provided that summarizes the results of all work accomplished during the period of the contract; June 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988; in support of Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate's Operational Development Network (MODNET). It includes descriptions of work performed in each functional area and recommendations and conclusions based on the experience and results obtained.

  11. Autonomy and Sensor Webs: The Evolution of Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration of these sensor web capabilities will enable fast responding science campaigns that combine spaceborne, airborne, and ground assets. Sensor webs will also require new operations paradigms. These sensor webs will be operated directly by scientists using science goals to control their instruments. We will explore these new operations architectures through a study of existing sensor web prototypes.

  12. Dual-spin attitude control for outer planet missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, R. S.; Tauke, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of dual-spin technology to a Jupiter orbiter with probe mission was investigated. Basic mission and system level attitude control requirements were established and preliminary mechanization and control concepts developed. A comprehensive 18-degree-of-freedom digital simulation was utilized extensively to establish control laws, study dynamic interactions, and determined key sensitivities. Fundamental system/subsystem constraints were identified, and the applicability of dual-spin technology to a Jupiter orbiter with probe mission was validated.

  13. STS-26 simulation activities in JSC Mission Control Center (MCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR), flight controller Granvil A. Pennington, leaning on console, listens to communications during the STS-26 integrated simulations in progress between MCC and JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5 fixed-base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). MCC FCR visual displays are seen in background. Five veteran astronauts were in the FB-SMS rehearsing their roles for the scheduled June 1988 flight aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  14. Impingement effect of service module reaction control system engine plumes. Results of service module reaction control system plume model force field application to an inflight Skylab mission proximity operation situation with the inflight Skylab response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobb, J. D., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Plume impingement effects of the service module reaction control system thruster firings were studied to determine if previous flight experience would support the current plume impingement model for the orbiter reaction control system engines. The orbiter reaction control system is used for rotational and translational maneuvers such as those required during rendezvous, braking, docking, and station keeping. Therefore, an understanding of the characteristics and effects of the plume force fields generated by the reaction control system thruster firings were examined to develop the procedures for orbiter/payload proximity operations.

  15. Peer-to-Peer Planning for Space Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barreiro, Javier; Jones, Grailing, Jr.; Schaffer, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Planning and scheduling for space operations entails the development of applications that embed intimate domain knowledge of distinct areas of mission control, while allowing for significant collaboration among them. The separation is useful because of differences in the planning problem, solution methods, and frequencies of replanning that arise in the different disciplines. For example, planning the activities of human spaceflight crews requires some reasoning about all spacecraft resources at timescales of minutes or seconds, and is subject to considerable volatility. Detailed power planning requires managing the complex interplay of power consumption and production, involves very different classes of constraints and preferences, but once plans are generated they are relatively stable.

  16. Personnel in Mission Control examine replica of spider habitat from Skylab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Flight Director Neil B. Hutchinson, left, and Astronaut Bruce McCandless II hold up a glass enclosure - home for the spider Arachne, which is the same species as the two spiders carried on the Skylab 3 mission. The real spider is the one barely visible at the upper right corner of the square; the larger one is a projected image on the rear-screen-projected map in the front of the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC). McCandless served as backup pilot for the first manned Skylab mission and was a spacecraft-communicater (CAPCOM) for the second crew.

  17. Operating and Managing a Backup Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Angela L.; Pirani, Joseph L.; Bornas, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Due to the criticality of continuous mission operations, some control centers must plan for alternate locations in the event an emergency shuts down the primary control center. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the Mission Control Center (MCC) for the International Space Station (ISS). Due to Houston s proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, JSC is prone to threats from hurricanes which could cause flooding, wind damage, and electrical outages to the buildings supporting the MCC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the capability to be the Backup Control Center for the ISS if the situation is needed. While the MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) does house the BCC, the prime customer and operator of the ISS is still the JSC flight operations team. To satisfy the customer and maintain continuous mission operations, the BCC has critical infrastructure that hosts ISS ground systems and flight operations equipment that mirrors the prime mission control facility. However, a complete duplicate of Mission Control Center in another remote location is very expensive to recreate. The HOSC has infrastructure and services that MCC utilized for its backup control center to reduce the costs of a somewhat redundant service. While labor talents are equivalent, experiences are not. Certain operations are maintained in a redundant mode, while others are simply maintained as single string with adequate sparing levels of equipment. Personnel at the BCC facility must be trained and certified to an adequate level on primary MCC systems. Negotiations with the customer were done to match requirements with existing capabilities, and to prioritize resources for appropriate level of service. Because some of these systems are shared, an activation of the backup control center will cause a suspension of scheduled HOSC activities that may share resources needed by the BCC. For example, the MCC is monitoring a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico. As the threat to MCC

  18. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  19. Toward an automated signature recognition toolkit for mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, T.; Laird, P.; Perrine, L.; Culbert, C.; Macha, M.; Saul, R.; Hammen, D.; Moebes, T.; Shelton, R.

    1994-10-01

    Signature recognition is the problem of identifying an event or events from its time series. The generic problem has numerous applications to science and engineering. At NASA's Johnson Space Center, for example, mission control personnel, using electronic displays and strip chart recorders, monitor telemetry data from three-phase electrical buses on the Space Shuttle and maintain records of device activation and deactivation. Since few electrical devices have sensors to indicate their actual status, changes of state are inferred from characteristic current and voltage fluctuations. Controllers recognize these events both by examining the waveform signatures and by listening to audio channels between ground and crew. Recently the authors have developed a prototype system that identifies major electrical events from the telemetry and displays them on a workstation. Eventually the system will be able to identify accurately the signatures of over fifty distinct events in real time, while contending with noise, intermittent loss of signal, overlapping events, and other complications. This system is just one of many possible signature recognition applications in Mission Control. While much of the technology underlying these applications is the same, each application has unique data characteristics, and every control position has its own interface and performance requirements. There is a need, therefore, for CASE tools that can reduce the time to implement a running signature recognition application from months to weeks or days. This paper describes our work to date and our future plans.

  20. Toward an automated signature recognition toolkit for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T.; Laird, P; Perrine, L.; Culbert, C.; Macha, M.; Saul, R.; Hammen, D.; Moebes, T.; Shelton, R.

    1994-01-01

    Signature recognition is the problem of identifying an event or events from its time series. The generic problem has numerous applications to science and engineering. At NASA's Johnson Space Center, for example, mission control personnel, using electronic displays and strip chart recorders, monitor telemetry data from three-phase electrical buses on the Space Shuttle and maintain records of device activation and deactivation. Since few electrical devices have sensors to indicate their actual status, changes of state are inferred from characteristic current and voltage fluctuations. Controllers recognize these events both by examining the waveform signatures and by listening to audio channels between ground and crew. Recently the authors have developed a prototype system that identifies major electrical events from the telemetry and displays them on a workstation. Eventually the system will be able to identify accurately the signatures of over fifty distinct events in real time, while contending with noise, intermittent loss of signal, overlapping events, and other complications. This system is just one of many possible signature recognition applications in Mission Control. While much of the technology underlying these applications is the same, each application has unique data characteristics, and every control position has its own interface and performance requirements. There is a need, therefore, for CASE tools that can reduce the time to implement a running signature recognition application from months to weeks or days. This paper describes our work to date and our future plans.

  1. Disease control operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian

    1987-01-01

    Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. In mammals, individual disease outbreaks have killed hundreds to thousands of animals with, for example, hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer, distemper in raccoon, Errington's disease in muskrat, and sylvatic plague in wild rodents. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent n the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread though wildlife populations very fast, advance preparation is essential in preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully though-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Such well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and costs associated with disease control activities. Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involved general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, intended as a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.

  2. Mission Performance of the GLAS Thermal Control System - 7 Years In Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite) was launched in 2003 carrying a single science instrument - the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Its primary mission was to measure polar ice thickness. The GLAS thermal control architecture utilized propylene Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) technology to provide selectable and stable temperature control for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission thermal environment. To minimize expected degradation of the radiators, Optical Solar Reflectors (OSRs) were used for both LHP radiators to minimize degradation caused by UV exposure in the various spacecraft attitudes necessary throughout the mission. Developed as a Class C mission, with selective redundancy, the thermal architecture was single st ring, except for temperature sensors used for heater control during normal operations. Although originally planned for continuous laser operations over the nominal three year science mission, laser anomalies limited operations to discrete measurement campaigns repeated throughout the year. For trending of the science data, these periods were selected to occur at approximately the same time each year, which resulted in operations during similar attitudes and beta angles. Despite the laser life issues, the LHPs have operated nearly continuously over this time, being non-operational for only brief periods. Using mission telemetry, this paper looks at the performance of the thermal subsystem during these periods and provides an assessment of radiator degradation over the mission lifetime.

  3. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  4. Artificial intelligence for multi-mission planetary operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.; Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1990-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to an automated system called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP). SHARP is designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real-time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager II spacecraft is the initial focus for evaluation of the prototype in a real-time operations setting during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August, 1989. The preliminary results of the SHARP project and plans for future application of the technology are discussed.

  5. Operations automation using the Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Lorrine F.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1993-01-01

    The Link Monitor and Control Operator Assistant (LMC OA) is a knowledge-based prototype system which uses AI techniques to provide semiautomated monitor and control functions to support operations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (DSCC). The manual and time-consuming process of configuring the 70-m antenna and its associated communications and processing equipment, known as precalibration, is an overhead activity; the time spent in precalibration is time which cannot be spent supporting actual mission operations. Therefore, the major goal of the LMC OA task is to demonstrate techniques that reduce precalibration time, decrease operations overhead, and increase the availability of this valuable and oversubscribed NASA resource. The LMC OA prototype was tested in a parallel, experimental mode at the Goldstone DSCC performing semiautomated precalibration using the actual operational equipment. This test demonstrated that a reduction of 40 percent in precalibration time can be achieved with the LMC OA prototype.

  6. Operating the Dual-Orbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's mission to measure the Moon's gravity and determine the interior structure, from crust to core, has almost completed its 3-month science data collection phase. The twin orbiters of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission were launched from Florida on September 10, 2011, on a Delta-II launch vehicle. After traveling for nearly four months on a low energy trajectory to the Moon, they were inserted into lunar orbit on New Year's Eve and New Year's Day. In January 2012 a series of circularization maneuvers brought the orbiters into co-planar near-circular polar orbits. In February a distant (75- km) rendezvous was achieved and the science instruments were turned on. A dual- frequency (Ka and S-band) inter-orbiter radio link provides a precise orbiter-to-orbiter range measurement that enables the gravity field estimation. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, manages the GRAIL project. Mission management, mission planning and sequencing, and navigation are conducted at JPL. Lockheed Martin, the flight system manufacturer, operates the orbiters from their control center in Denver, Colorado. The orbiters together have performed 28 propulsive maneuvers to reach and maintain the science phase configuration. Execution of these maneuvers, as well as the payload checkout and calibration activities, has gone smoothly due to extensive pre-launch operations planning and testing. The key to the operations success has been detailed timelines for product interchange between the operations teams and proven procedures from previous JPL/LM planetary missions. Once in science phase, GRAIL benefitted from the payload operational heritage of the GRACE mission that measures the Earth's gravity.

  7. Programmer's manual for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutzky, D.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program known as MAESTRO is described. MAESTRO is an all FORTRAN, block style, computer program designed to perform various mission control tasks. This manual is a guide to MAESTRO, providing individuals the capability of modifying the program to suit their needs. Descriptions are presented of each of the subroutines descriptions consist of input/output description, theory, subroutine description, and a flow chart where applicable. The programmer's manual also contains a detailed description of the common blocks, a subroutine cross reference map, and a general description of the program structure.

  8. CCSDS SM and C Mission Operations Interoperability Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucord, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the prototype of the Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) Operations for interoperability among other space agencies. This particular prototype uses the German Space Agency (DLR) to test the ideas for interagency coordination.

  9. Implementation and Test of the Automatic Flight Dynamics Operations for Geostationary Satellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangwook; Lee, Young-Ran; Hwang, Yoola; Javier Santiago Noguero Galilea

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the Flight Dynamics Automation (FDA) system for COMS Flight Dynamics System (FDS) and its test result in terms of the performance of the automation jobs. FDA controls the flight dynamics functions such as orbit determination, orbit prediction, event prediction, and fuel accounting. The designed FDA is independent from the specific characteristics which are defined by spacecraft manufacturer or specific satellite missions. Therefore, FDA could easily links its autonomous job control functions to any satellite mission control system with some interface modification. By adding autonomous system along with flight dynamics system, it decreases the operator’s tedious and repeated jobs but increase the usability and reliability of the system. Therefore, FDA is used to improve the completeness of whole mission control system’s quality. The FDA is applied to the real flight dynamics system of a geostationary satellite, COMS and the experimental test is performed. The experimental result shows the stability and reliability of the mission control operations through the automatic job control.

  10. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention: Managing Knowledge for Successful Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Management is a proactive pursuit for the future success of any large organization faced with the imminent possibility that their senior managers/engineers with gained experiences and lessons learned plan to retire in the near term. Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) is proactively pursuing unique mechanism to ensure knowledge learned is retained and lessons learned captured and documented. Knowledge Capture Event/Activities/Management helps to provide a gateway between future retirees and our next generation of managers/engineers. S&MA hosted two Knowledge Capture Events during 2005 featuring three of its retiring fellows (Axel Larsen, Dave Whittle and Gary Johnson). The first Knowledge Capture Event February 24, 2005 focused on two Safety and Mission Assurance Safety Panels (Space Shuttle System Safety Review Panel (SSRP); Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) and the latter event December 15, 2005 featured lessons learned during Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle which could be applicable in the newly created Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)/Constellation development program. Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and the Space Shuttle promised and delivered exciting human advances in space and benefits of space in people s everyday lives on earth. Johnson Space Center's Safety & Mission Assurance team work over the last 20 years has been mostly focused on operations we are now beginning the Exploration development program. S&MA will promote an atmosphere of knowledge sharing in its formal and informal cultures and work processes, and reward the open dissemination and sharing of information; we are asking "Why embrace relearning the "lessons learned" in the past?" On the Exploration program the focus will be on Design, Development, Test, & Evaluation (DDT&E); therefore, it is critical to understand the lessons from these past programs during the DDT&E phase.

  11. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Mission control programmer for unmanned missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unmanned test flight program required to evaluate the command module heat shield and the structural integrity of the command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle is described. The mission control programer was developed to provide the unmanned interface between the guidance and navigation computer and the other spacecraft systems for mission event sequencing and real-time ground control during missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6. The development of this unmanned programer is traced from the initial concept through the flight test phase. Detailed discussions of hardware development problems are given with the resulting solutions. The mission control programer functioned correctly without any flight anomalies for all missions. The Apollo 4 mission control programer was reused for the Apollo 6 flight, thus being one of the first subsystems to be reflown on an Apollo space flight.

  12. Operational Experience with Long Duration Wildfire Mapping: UAS Missions Over the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Cobleigh, Brent; Buoni, Greg; Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States Forest Service, and National Interagency Fire Center have developed a partnership to develop and demonstrate technology to improve airborne wildfire imaging and data dissemination. In the summer of 2007, a multi-spectral infrared scanner was integrated into NASA's Ikhana Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) (a General Atomics Predator-B) and launched on four long duration wildfire mapping demonstration missions covering eight western states. Extensive safety analysis, contingency planning, and mission coordination were key to securing an FAA certificate of authorization (COA) to operate in the national airspace. Infrared images were autonomously geo-rectified, transmitted to the ground station by satellite communications, and networked to fire incident commanders within 15 minutes of acquisition. Close coordination with air traffic control ensured a safe operation, and allowed real-time redirection around inclement weather and other minor changes to the flight plan. All objectives of the mission demonstrations were achieved. In late October, wind-driven wildfires erupted in five southern California counties. State and national emergency operations agencies requested Ikhana to help assess and manage the wildfires. Four additional missions were launched over a 5-day period, with near realtime images delivered to multiple emergency operations centers and fire incident commands managing 10 fires.

  13. STS payloads mission control study phase A-1, volume 1, phases A and A-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) Payloads Mission Control Phase A-1 Study results are summarized. The composite resources required to accomplish Joint STS-Payload preflight preparation for joint flight operations, including flight planning, training, and simulations are presented. The Standard Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) concept was developed.

  14. LaserCom in UAS missions: benefits and operational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank; Begg, Lester L.; Du, Detao

    2013-05-01

    Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) is progressing continuously. With the successful in-orbit verification of a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT), the coherent homodyne BPSK scheme advanced to a standard for Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) which now prevails more and more. The LCT is located not only on satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with spacecrafts like ALPHASAT-TDP and the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) the LCT will also exist in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) in the near future. In other words, the LCT has reached its practical application. With existence of such space assets the time has come for other utilizations beyond that of establishing optical Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). Aeronautical applications, as for instance High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) or Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have to be addressed. Driving factors and advantages of FSOC in HALE/MALE UAS missions are highlighted. Numerous practice-related issues are described concerning the space segment, the aeronautical segment as well as the ground segment. The advantages for UAS missions are described resulting from the utilization of FSOC exclusively for wideband transmission of sensor data whereas vehicle Command and Control can be maintained as before via RF communication. Moreover, the paper discusses FSOC as enabler for the integration of air and space-based wideband Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems into existent military command and control systems.

  15. Decision Making Training in the Mission Operations Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William S.

    2013-01-01

    At JSC, we train our new flight controllers on a set of team skills that we call Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM). SFRM is akin to Crew Resource Management for the airlines and trains flight controllers to work as an effective team to reduce errors and improve safety. We have developed this training over the years with the assistance of Ames Research Center, Wyle Labs and University of Central Florida. One of the skills we teach is decision making/ problem solving (DM/PS). We teach DM/PS first in several classroom sessions, reinforce it in several part task training environments, and finally practice it in full-mission, full-team simulations. What I am proposing to talk about is this training flow: its content and how we teach it.

  16. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  17. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  18. Asteroid Redirect Mission Robotic Trajectory and Crew Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation opens with a rendering of the mission's spacecraft trajectory, rendezvous, and approach to asteroid 2008 EV5. Although the mission's target asteroid won't officially be selec...

  19. SCOS 2: ESA's new generation of mission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Head, N. C.; Keyte, K.; Howard, P.; Lynenskjold, S.

    1994-01-01

    New mission-control infrastructure is currently being developed by ESOC, which will constitute the second generation of the Spacecraft Control Operations system (SCOS 2). The financial, functional and strategic requirements lying behind the new development are explained. The SCOS 2 approach is described. The technological implications of these approaches is described: in particular it is explained how this leads to the use of object oriented techniques to provide the required 'building block' approach. The paper summarizes the way in which the financial, functional and strategic requirements have been met through this combination of solutions. Finally, the paper outlines the development process to date, noting how risk reduction was achieved in the approach to new technologies and summarizes the current status future plans.

  20. SCOSII: ESA's new generation of mission control systems: The user's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, P.; Pecchioli, M.; Shurmer, I.

    1994-01-01

    In 1974 ESOC decided to develop a reusable Mission Control System infrastructure for ESA's missions operated under its responsibility. This triggered a long and successful product development line, which started with the Multi Mission Support System (MSSS) which entered in service in 1977 and is still being used today by the MARECS and ECS missions; it was followed in 1989 by a second generation of systems known as SCOS-I, which was/is used by the Hipparcos, ERS-1 and EURECA missions and will continue to support all future ESCO controlled missions until approximately 1995. In the meantime the increasing complexity of future missions together with the emergence of new hardware and software technologies have led ESOC to go for the development of a third generation of control systems, SCOSII, which will support their future missions up to at least the middle of the next decade. The objective of the paper is to present the characteristics of the SCOSII system from the perspective of the mission control team; i.e. it will concentrate on the improvements and advances in the performance, functionality and work efficiency of the system.

  1. An intelligent position-specific training system for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) payload ground controller training program provides very good generic training; however, ground controller position-specific training can be improved by including position-specific training systems in the training program. This report explains why MSFC needs to improve payload ground controller position-specific training. The report describes a generic syllabus for position-specific training systems, a range of system designs for position-specific training systems, and a generic development process for developing position-specific training systems. The report also describes a position-specific training system prototype that was developed for the crew interface coordinator payload operations control center ground controller position. The report concludes that MSFC can improve the payload ground controller training program by incorporating position-specific training systems for each ground controller position; however, MSFC should not develop position-specific training systems unless payload ground controller position experts will be available to participate in the development process.

  2. An Empirical Model for Formulating Operational Missions for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.; Doucette, Donald S.

    A research project was conducted to develop and implement a model for community college missions. The new model would depart from existing models, which utilize a hierarchy of decreasing levels of generality beginning with institutional missions and culminating in objectives. In contrast, this research defined institutional mission in terms of…

  3. An automated environment for multiple spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Hioe, K.; Lai, J.; Imlay, E.; Schwuttke, U.; Hsu, E.; Mikes, S.

    1990-01-01

    Flight operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are now performed by teams of specialists, each team dedicated to a particular spacecraft. Certain members of each team are responsible for monitoring the performances of their respective spacecraft subsystems. Ground operations, which are very complex, are manual, labor-intensive, slow, and tedious, and therefore costly and inefficient. The challenge of the new decade is to operate a large number of spacecraft simultaneously while sharing limited human and computer resources, without compromising overall reliability. The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is an architecture that enables fewer controllers to monitor and control spacecraft engineering subsystems. A prototype of EASE has been installed in the JPL Space Flight Operations Facility for on-line testing. This article describes the underlying concept, development, testing, and benefits of the EASE prototype.

  4. View of Mission Control on first day of ASTP docking in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, JSC, on the first day of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit. This photograph was taken shortly before the American ASTP launch from the Kennedy Space Center. The television monitor in the center background shows the ASTP Apollo-Saturn 1B space vehicle on Pad B at KSC's Launch Complex 39.

  5. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 5: Mission, capture and operations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The current baseline mission model consists of the DOD Option B prepared for space transportation system mission analysis and a NASA model prepared for the integrated operations /payloads/ fleet analysis. Changes from the previous mission model are discussed, and additional benefits of the reusable space shuttle system are identified. The methodology and assumptions used in the capture analysis are described, and satellite and launch vehicle traffic models for the current and low cost expendable launch vehicle systems and the reusable space shuttle system are presented. The areas of fleet sizing, limitations and abort modes, system ground support requirements, and ground support systems assessment are covered. Current and extended launch azimuth limitations used for both ETR and WTR are presented for the current and low cost expendable vehicles and also the reusable space shuttle system. The results of a survey of launch support capability for the launch vehicle fleets are reported.

  6. Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

  7. STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.

    2001-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural dynamics interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural dynamic interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.

  8. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will

  9. Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

  10. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The

  11. Real-time science operations to support a lunar polar volatiles rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2015-05-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will likely rely on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to enable long duration lunar missions. Prior to utilizing ISRU on the Moon, the natural resources (in this case lunar volatiles) must be identified and characterized, and ISRU demonstrated on the lunar surface. To enable future uses of ISRU, NASA and the CSA are developing a lunar rover payload that can (1) locate near subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. Such investigations are important both for ISRU purposes and for understanding the scientific nature of these intriguing lunar volatile deposits. Temperature models and orbital data suggest near surface volatile concentrations may exist at briefly lit lunar polar locations outside persistently shadowed regions. A lunar rover could be remotely operated at some of these locations for the ∼ 2-14 days of expected sunlight at relatively low cost. Due to the limited operational time available, both science and rover operations decisions must be made in real time, requiring immediate situational awareness, data analysis, and decision support tools. Given these constraints, such a mission requires a new concept of operations. In this paper we outline the results and lessons learned from an analog field campaign in July 2012 which tested operations for a lunar polar rover concept. A rover was operated in the analog environment of Hawaii by an off-site Flight Control Center, a rover navigation center in Canada, a Science Backroom at NASA Ames Research Center in California, and support teams at NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas and NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. We find that this type of mission requires highly efficient, real time, remotely operated rover operations to enable low cost, scientifically relevant exploration of the distribution and nature of lunar polar volatiles. The field

  12. A Data-Based Console Logger for Mission Operations Team Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Jenks, Kenneth; Overland, David; Oliver, Patrick; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang; Zhang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Concepts and prototypes1,2 are discussed for a data-based console logger (D-Logger) to meet new challenges for coordination among flight controllers arising from new exploration mission concepts. The challenges include communication delays, increased crew autonomy, multiple concurrent missions, reduced-size flight support teams that include multidisciplinary flight controllers during quiescent periods, and migrating some flight support activities to flight controller offices. A spiral development approach has been adopted, making simple, but useful functions available early and adding more extensive support later. Evaluations have guided the development of the D-Logger from the beginning and continue to provide valuable user influence about upcoming requirements. D-Logger is part of a suite of tools designed to support future operations personnel and crew. While these tools can be used independently, when used together, they provide yet another level of support by interacting with one another. Recommendations are offered for the development of similar projects.

  13. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  14. AE-C attitude determination and control prelaunch analysis and operations plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werking, R. D.; Headrick, R. D.; Manders, C. F.; Woolley, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A description of attitude control support being supplied by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate is presented. Included are descriptions of the computer programs being used to support the missions for attitude determination, prediction, and control. In addition, descriptions of the operating procedures which will be used to accomplish mission objectives are provided.

  15. GLXP BMT: Lunar Lander Mission Definition & Opportunistic Science during Nominal Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenarejo, P.; Mammarella, M.; Zaballa, M.; Claramunt, X.; García, C.; Martínez, A.

    2012-09-01

    The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is the Barcelona Moon Team Lunar Lander and Lunar exploration mission within the GLXP initiative. GMV is the mission technical leader and is in charge of the primary mission analysis that will later derive into the different mission subsystems and elements requirements and specifications for design and manufacturing. The classical scientific missions pivot around the scientific requirement and most of the mission elements design have the final purpose of fulfilling with the scientific requirements. This has the advantage of producing a dedicated mission to cope with all the scientific objectives (design-toperformance). The main drawback being the usually high mission complexity and cost. The GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission is a low cost mission and, thus, design-to-cost approach is used instead. Even if the "MoonRaise" mission will have some dedicated scientific objectives and dedicated resources, the maximization of the scientific content of the mission is a challenge in itself, and emphasis has to be placed in the imagination and achievement of opportunistic science while in nominal (nonscientific) operational phases. This paper presents the GLXP BMT "MoonRaise" mission architecture and mission approach and will identify potential opportunistic science targets with minimum impact on the Lunar Lander module and Rover module systems and at quasi-zero cost. The first section/s will be devoted to analyse the mission aspects, while the later section/s will be devoted to identification of interesting opportunistic science.

  16. Behind the Scenes: Mission Control Practices Launching Discovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    Before every shuttle launch, the astronauts train with their ascent team in Mission Control Houston. In this episode of NASA Behind the Scenes, astronaut Mike Massimino introduces you to some of th...

  17. VMPLOT: A versatile analysis tool for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, Allen W.

    1993-01-01

    VMPLOT is a versatile analysis tool designed by the Magellan Spacecraft Team to graphically display engineering data used to support mission operations. While there is nothing revolutionary or innovative about graphical data analysis tools, VMPLOT has some distinguishing features that set it apart from other custom or commercially available software packages. These features include the ability to utilize time in a Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) or Spacecraft Clock (SCLK) format as an enumerated data type, the ability to automatically scale both axes based on the data to be displayed (including time), the ability to combine data from different files, and the ability to utilize the program either interactively or in batch mode, thereby enhancing automation. Another important feature of VMPLOT not visible to the user is the software engineering philosophies utilized. A layered approach was used to isolate program functionality to different layers. This was done to increase program portability to different platforms and to ease maintenance and enhancements due to changing requirements. The functionality of the unique features of VMPLOT as well as highlighting the algorithms that make these features possible are described. The software engineering philosophies used in the creation of the software tool are also summarized.

  18. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  19. Third International Symposium on Space Mission Operations and Ground Data Systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Under the theme of 'Opportunities in Ground Data Systems for High Efficiency Operations of Space Missions,' the SpaceOps '94 symposium included presentations of more than 150 technical papers spanning five topic areas: Mission Management, Operations, Data Management, System Development, and Systems Engineering. The papers focus on improvements in the efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, and quality of data acquisition, ground systems, and mission operations. New technology, techniques, methods, and human systems are discussed. Accomplishments are also reported in the application of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; the management of human factors; the use of telescience and teleoperations; and the design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations.

  20. Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Prelaunch Mission Operations Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Program is an endeavor to understand the origin and fate of the universe, to understand the birth and evolution of the large variety of objects in the universe, from the most benign to the most violent, and to probe the fundamental laws of physics by examining their behavior under extreme physical conditions. These goals are pursued by means of observations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and through theoretical interpretation of radiations and fields associated with astrophysical systems. Astrophysics orbital flight programs are structured under one of two operational objectives: (1) the establishment of long duration Great Observatories for viewing the universe in four major wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio/infrared/submillimeter, visible/ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray), and (2) obtaining crucial bridging and supporting measurements via missions with directed objectives of intermediate or small scope conducted within the Explorer and Spacelab programs. Under (1) in this context, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is one of NASA's four Great Observatories. The other three are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) for the X-ray band, and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for infrared wavelengths. GRO's specific mission is to study the sources and astrophysical processes that produce the highest energy electromagnetic radiation from the cosmos. The fundamental physical processes that are known to produce gamma radiation in the universe include nuclear reactions, electron bremsstrahlung, matter-antimatter annihilation, elementary particle production and decay, Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation. GRO will address a variety of questions relevant to understanding the universe, such as: the formation of the elements; the structure and dynamics of the Galaxy; the nature of pulsars; the existence

  1. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Several persons important to the Apollo 13 mission, at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center (MCC). Seated at consoles, from left to right, are Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Shift 3 spacecraft communicator; and Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 13 back-up crew. Standing, left to right, are Astronaut Tom K. Mattingly, who was replaced as Apollo 13 command module pilot after it was learned he may come down with measles, and Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Shift 2 spacecraft communicator. Several hours earlier crew members of the Apollo 13 mission reported to MCC that trouble had developed with an oxygen cell in their spacecraft.

  2. Evaluation of dual multi-mission space exploration vehicle operations during simulated planetary surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jadwick, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    IntroductionA pair of small pressurized rovers (multi-mission space exploration vehicles, or MMSEVs) is at the center of the Global Point-of-Departure architecture for future human lunar exploration. Simultaneous operation of multiple crewed surface assets should maximize productive crew time, minimize overhead, and preserve contingency return paths. MethodsA 14-day mission simulation was conducted in the Arizona desert as part of NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field test. The simulation involved two MMSEV earth-gravity prototypes performing geological exploration under varied operational modes affecting both the extent to which the MMSEVs must maintain real-time communications with the mission control center (Continuous [CC] versus Twice-a-Day [2/D]) and their proximity to each other (Lead-and-Follow [L&F] versus Divide-and-Conquer [D&C]). As part of a minimalist lunar architecture, no communication relay satellites were assumed. Two-person crews (an astronaut and a field geologist) operated each MMSEV, day and night, throughout the entire 14-day mission, only leaving via the suit ports to perform simulated extravehicular activities. Metrics and qualitative observations enabled evaluation of the extent to which the operating modes affected productivity and scientific data quality (SDQ). Results and discussionSDQ was greater during CC mode than during 2/D mode; metrics showed a marginal increase while qualitative assessments suggested a practically significant difference. For the communications architecture evaluated, significantly more crew time (14% per day) was required to maintain communications during D&C than during L&F (5%) or 2/D (2%), increasing the time required to complete all traverse objectives. Situational awareness of the other vehicle's location, activities, and contingency return constraints were qualitatively enhanced during L&F and 2/D modes due to line-of-sight and direct MMSEV-to-MMSEV communication. Future testing

  3. Correlation of ISS Electric Potential Variations with Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Orbiting approximately 400 km above the Earth, the International Space Station (ISS) is a unique research laboratory used to conduct ground-breaking science experiments in space. The ISS has eight Solar Array Wings (SAW), and each wing is 11.7 meters wide and 35.1 meters long. The SAWs are controlled individually to maximize power output, minimize stress to the ISS structure, and minimize interference with other ISS operations such as vehicle dockings and Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). The Solar Arrays are designed to operate at 160 Volts. These large, high power solar arrays are negatively grounded to the ISS and collect charged particles (predominately electrons) as they travel through the space plasma in the Earth's ionosphere. If not controlled, this collected charge causes floating potential variations which can result in arcing, causing injury to the crew during an EVA or damage to hardware [1]. The environmental catalysts for ISS floating potential variations include plasma density and temperature fluctuations and magnetic induction from the Earth's magnetic field. These alone are not enough to cause concern for ISS, but when they are coupled with the large positive potential on the solar arrays, floating potentials up to negative 95 Volts have been observed. Our goal is to differentiate the operationally induced fluctuations in floating potentials from the environmental causes. Differentiating will help to determine what charging can be controlled, and we can then design the proper operations controls for charge collection mitigation. Additionally, the knowledge of how high power solar arrays interact with the environment and what regulations or design techniques can be employed to minimize charging impacts can be applied to future programs.

  4. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  5. The Operational plans for Ptolemy during the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Andrew; Andrews, Dan; Barber, Simeon; Sheridan, Simon; Morgan, Geraint; Wright, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Ptolemy is a Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio - Mass Spectrometer (GC-IR-MS) instrument within the Philae Lander, part of ESA's Rosetta mission [1]. The primary aim of Ptolemy is to analyse the chemical and isotopic composition of solid comet samples. Samples are collected by the Sampler, Drill and Distribution (SD2) system [2] and placed into ovens for analysis by three instruments on the Lander: COSAC [3], ÇIVA[4] and/or Ptolemy. In the case of Ptolemy, the ovens can be heated with or without oxygen and the evolved gases separated by chemical and GC techniques for isotopic analysis. In addition Ptolemy can measure gaseous (i.e. coma) samples by either directly measuring the ambient environment within the mass spectrometer or by passively trapping onto an adsorbent phase in order to pre-concentrate coma species before desorbing into the mass spectrometer. At the time of this presentation the Rosetta spacecraft should have come out of hibernation and Ptolemy's Post Hibernation Commissioning phase will have been completed. During the Comet Approach phase of the mission Ptolemy will attempt to measure the coma composition both in sniffing and pre-concentration modes. Previous work has demonstrated that spacecraft outgassing is a significant component of the gaseous environment and highlighted the advantage of obtaining complementary measurements with different instruments [5]. In principle Ptolemy could study the spatial evolution of gases through the coma during the lander's descent to the comet surface, but in practice it is likely that mission resources will need to be fully directed towards ensuring a safe landing. Once on the surface of the comet the lander begins its First Science Sequence which continues until the primary batteries are exhausted after some 42 hours. SD2 will collect a sample from a depth of ~5cm and deliver it to a Ptolemy high temperature oven which will then be analysed in five temperature steps to determine the carbon isotopic

  6. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission (http://seom.esa.int/S2forScience2014 ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  7. Intelligent control for autonomous aircraft missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhoefer, James Christian

    The focus of this dissertation is the design and implementation of a full-envelope, nonlinear aircraft controller that includes stability augmentation, tracking control, and autonomous path generation. The control system was demonstrated by using a 6 degree of freedom high performance aircraft model with nonlinear kinematics, full-envelope nonlinear aerodynamics, and first-order thrust and actuator dynamics. Ideas from the emerging field of intelligent control were used in the definition of the controller architecture. More specifically, "Levels of Intelligent Control" were used to provide a systematic structure for the architecture. Several ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence were also used, including Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Adaptive Critics.

  8. Data Management Coordinators Monitor STS-78 Mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo represents Data Management Coordinators monitoring the progress of the mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC. Pictured are assistant mission scientist Dr. Dalle Kornfeld, Rick McConnel, and Ann Bathew.

  9. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  10. Proximity Operations for the Robotic Boulder Capture Option for the Asteroid Redirect Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.; Wright, Cinnamon A.; Pini, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    In September of 2013, the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) Option B team was formed to expand on NASA's previous work on the robotic boulder capture option. While the original Option A concept focuses on capturing an entire smaller Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) using an inflatable bag capture mechanism, this design seeks to land on a larger NEA and retrieve a boulder off of its surface. The Option B team has developed a detailed and feasible mission concept that preserves many aspects of Option A's vehicle design while employing a fundamentally different technique for returning a significant quantity of asteroidal material to the Earth-Moon system. As part of this effort, a point of departure proximity operations concept was developed complete with a detailed timeline, as well as DeltaV and propellant allocations. Special attention was paid to the development of the approach strategy, terminal descent to the surface, controlled ascent with the captured boulder, and control during the Enhanced Gravity Tractor planetary defense demonstration. The concept of retrieving a boulder from the surface of an asteroid and demonstrating the Enhanced Gravity Tractor planetary defense technique is found to be feasible and within the proposed capabilities of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). While this point of departure concept initially focuses on a mission to Itokawa, the proximity operations design is also shown to be extensible to wide range of asteroids.

  11. An advanced environment for spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Harris, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is under development at the JPL with a view to prospective small and large space missions. EASE is a modular multimission/multisystem architecture for spacecraft analysis that encompases monitoring and sequence support; its collection of software analysis modules is specific to a given mission, thereby easily accommodating mission scale. An EASE subsystem analysis module can be developed in modular program sets or packages, and a level of automation can then be introduced within such sets to achieve intramodule automation.

  12. Multimodal Platform Control for Robotic Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions pose unique problems for astronauts seeking to coordinate and control exploration vehicles. These include working in an environment filled with abrasive dust (e.g., regolith compositions), a desire to have effective hands-free communication, and a desire to have effective analog control of robotic platforms or end effectors. Requirements to operate in pressurized suits are particularly problematic due to the increased bulk and stiffness of gloves. As a result, researchers are considering alternative methods to perform fine movement control, for example capitalizing on higher-order voice actuation commands to perform control tasks. This paper presents current research at NASA s Neuro Engineering Laboratory that explores one method-direct bioelectric interpretation-for handling some of these problems. In this type of control system, electromyographic (EMG) signals are used both to facilitate understanding of acoustic speech in pressure-regulated suits 2nd to provide smooth analog control of a robotic platform, all without requiring fine-gained hand movement. This is accomplished through the use of non-invasive silver silver-chloride electrodes located on the forearm, throat, and lower chin, positioned so as to receive electrical activity originating from the muscles during contraction. For direct analog platform control, a small Personal Exploration Rover (PER) built by Carnegie Mellon University Robotics is controlled using forearm contraction duration and magnitudes, measured using several EMG channels. Signal processing is used to translate these signals into directional platform rotation rates and translational velocities. higher order commands were generated by differential contraction patterns called "clench codes."

  13. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Kohl, John L.

    2004-01-01

    The scientific goal of UVCS is to obtain detailed empirical descriptions of the extended solar corona as it evolves over the solar cycle and to use these descriptions to identify and understand the physical processes responsible for coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and the phenomena that establish the plasma properties of the solar wind as measured by "in situ" solar wind instruments. This report covers the period from 15 February 2003 to 14 April 2004. During that time, UVCS observations have consisted of three types: 1) standard synoptic observations comprising, primarily, the H I Lyalpha line profile and the 0 VI 103.2 and 103.7 nm intensity over a range of heights from 1.5 to about 3.0 solar radii and covering 360 degrees about the Sun, 2) sit and stare observations for major flare watches, and 3) special observations designed by the UVCS Lead Observer of the Week for a specific scientific purpose. The special observations are often coordinated with those of other space-based and ground-based instruments and they often are part of SOHO joint observation programs and campaigns. Lead observers have included UVCS Co-Investigators, scientists from the solar physics community and several graduate and undergraduate level students. UVCS has continued to achieve its purpose of using powerful spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to obtain a much more detailed description of coronal structures and dynamic phenomena than existed before the SOHO mission. The new descriptions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and coronal structures from UVCS have inspired a large number of theoretical studies aimed at identifying the physical processes responsible for CMEs and solar wind acceleration in coronal holes and streamers. UVCS has proven to be a very stable instrument. Stellar observations have demonstrated its radiometric stability. UVCS has not required any flight software modifications and all mechanisms are operational. The UVCS 0 VI

  14. SOHO Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) Mission Operations and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.; Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The scientific goal of UVCS is to obtain detailed empirical descriptions of the extended solar corona as it evolves over the solar cycle and to use these descriptions to identify and understand the physical processes responsible for coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and the phenomena that establish the plasma properties of the solar wind as measured by 'in situ' solar wind instruments. This report covers the period from 01 February 2002 to 15 February 2003. During that time, UVCS observations have consisted of three types: 1) standard synoptic observations comprising, primarily, the H I Ly alpha line profile and the O VI 103.2 and 103.7 nm intensity over a range of heights from 1.5 to about 3.0 solar radii and covering 360 degrees about the sun, 2) sit and stare watches for CMEs, and 3) special observations designed by the UVCS Lead Observer of the Week for a specific scientific purpose. The special observations are often coordinated with those of other space-based and ground-based instruments and they often are part of SOHO joint observation programs and campaigns. Lead observers have included UVCS Co-Investigators, scientists from the solar physics community and several graduate and undergraduate level students. UVCS has continued to achieve its purpose of using powerful spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to obtain a much more detailed description of coronal structures and dynamic phenomena than existed before the SOHO mission. The new descriptions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and coronal structures from UVCS have inspired a large number of theoretical studies aimed at identifying the physical processes responsible for CMEs and solar wind acceleration in coronal holes and streamers. UVCS has proven to be a very stable instrument. Stellar observations have demonstrated its stability. UVCS has required no flight software modifications and all mechanisms are operational. The UVCS O VI Channel with its redundant optical

  15. Technical Challenges and Opportunities of Centralizing Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ido, Haisam; Burns, Rich

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Science Mission Operations project (SSMO) is performing a technical cost-benefit analysis for centralizing and consolidating operations of a diverse set of missions into a unified and integrated technical infrastructure. The presentation will focus on the notion of normalizing spacecraft operations processes, workflows, and tools. It will also show the processes of creating a standardized open architecture, creating common security models and implementations, interfaces, services, automations, notifications, alerts, logging, publish, subscribe and middleware capabilities. The presentation will also discuss how to leverage traditional capabilities, along with virtualization, cloud computing services, control groups and containers, and possibly Big Data concepts.

  16. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Analytical Techniques and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Vrionis, H.; Qadi, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Ellery, A.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mann, P.; Samson, C.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Whyte, L.; Wing, B.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3) project is designed to simulate a rover-based search for, and analysis of, methane sources on Mars at a serpentinite open pit mine in Quebec, using a variety of instruments.

  17. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew; Ghosh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very diserable. This work presents such as an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  18. Enviromnental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions - Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.

  19. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technology Assessment for Future Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Pat; Cutts, James; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Wood, Lincoln J.; Riedel, Joseph E.; McHenry, Mike; Aung, MiMi; Cangahuala, Laureano A.; Volpe, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Future planetary explorations envisioned by the National Research Council's (NRC's) report titled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, developed for NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Division (PSD), seek to reach targets of broad scientific interest across the solar system. This goal requires new capabilities such as innovative interplanetary trajectories, precision landing, operation in close proximity to targets, precision pointing, multiple collaborating spacecraft, multiple target tours, and advanced robotic surface exploration. Advancements in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) and Mission Design in the areas of software, algorithm development and sensors will be necessary to accomplish these future missions. This paper summarizes the key GN&C and mission design capabilities and technologies needed for future missions pursuing SMD PSD's scientific goals.

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions: Past, present, and future operational challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochs, William R.; Barbehenn, George M.; Crabb, William G.

    1996-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to be serviced by the Space Shuttle to upgrade systems, replace failed components and boost the telescope into higher orbits. There exists many operational challenges that must be addressed in preparation for the execution of a servicing mission, including technical and managerial issues. The operational challenges faced by the Hubble operations and ground system project for the support of the first servicing mission and future servicing missions, are considered. The emphasis is on those areas that helped ensure the success of the mission, including training, testing and contingency planning.

  1. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation Approach for Design and Analysis of MER Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seah, Chin; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A space mission operations system is a complex network of human organizations, information and deep-space network systems and spacecraft hardware. As in other organizations, one of the problems in mission operations is managing the relationship of the mission information systems related to how people actually work (practices). Brahms, a multi-agent modeling and simulation tool, was used to model and simulate NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission work practice. The objective was to investigate the value of work practice modeling for mission operations design. From spring 2002 until winter 2003, a Brahms modeler participated in mission systems design sessions and operations testing for the MER mission held at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He observed how designers interacted with the Brahms tool. This paper discussed mission system designers' reactions to the simulation output during model validation and the presentation of generated work procedures. This project spurred JPL's interest in the Brahms model, but it was never included as part of the formal mission design process. We discuss why this occurred. Subsequently, we used the MER model to develop a future mission operations concept. Team members were reluctant to use the MER model, even though it appeared to be highly relevant to their effort. We describe some of the tool issues we encountered.

  2. Earth observation mission operation of COMS during in-orbit test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2011-11-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service after the In-Orbit Test (IOT) phase. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. During the IOT phase the functionality and the performance of many aspects of the COMS satellite and ground station have been checked through the Earth observation mission operation for the observation of the meteorological phenomenon over several areas of the Earth and the monitoring of marine environments around the Korean peninsula. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS during the IOT phase is introduced in terms of mission operation characteristics, mission planning, and mission operation results for the missions of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively.

  3. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  4. OTF CCSDS Mission Operations Prototype. Directory and Action Service. Phase I: Exit Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the phase I directory and action service prototype for the CCSDS system. The project goals are to: (1) Demonstrate the use of Mission Operations standards to implement Directory and Action Services (2) Investigate Mission Operations language neutrality (3) Investigate C3I XML interoperability concepts (4) Integrate applicable open source technologies in a Service Oriented Architecture

  5. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  6. PC-403: Pioneer Venus multiprobe spacecraft mission operational characteristics document, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    The data handling subsystem, command subsystem, communications subsystem, power subsystem, and mission operations of the Pioneer Venus multiprobe are presented. The multiprobe spacecraft performance in normal operating modes that correspond to the performance of specific functions at the time of specific events in the mission is described.

  7. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  8. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  9. NASA/Mir Phase 1: A Lesson Learned in Long Duration Mission Planning and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Maxwell, Theresa; Nahay, Ed

    1998-01-01

    The NASA/Mir Phase I Program is a precursor to the assembly and operations of the International Space Station (ISS). The Phase I Program covers a four-year period and encompasses over ten shuttle flights to the Mir, culminating with the flight of STS-91 in June 1998. The Mir-Orbiting Station (Mir-OS) provides an excellent environment, both onboard and on the ground, for learning and studying the characteristics associated with crew-tended operations on long duration missions. By the end of the Phase I program, NASA astronauts will have accumulated over two years of continuous operations experience working and living onboard the Mir-OS. Ground controllers, working in Russia and at remote sites in the United States, will have gained valuable experience in the generation, maintenance, and coordination of the information and products required to support the long duration crew members onboard the Mir-OS. The experience gained by the crew and ground support personnel in the area of long duration mission operations has resulted in a number of factors that need to be considered in the definition and implementation of the processes and products for the ISS. While there are many areas in which experience has been gained, this paper focuses on the lessons learned regarding the level of detail and flexibility of crew timelines. Provided in this paper is an overview of the characteristics associated with long duration mission timeline development and execution, a summary of applicable lessons learned identified and documented through participation in the NASA/Mir Phase I Program, a detailed discussion of "Gross Timelines" as implementation which addresses the lessons learned. Also discussed are the challenges that must be overcome in getting the ISS program to recognize, evaluate, and learn from the crew and ground controller experience gained through participation in the NASA/Mir Phase I Program.

  10. Expert diagnostics system as a part of analysis software for power mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jennifer A.; Bahrami, Khosrow A.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of interplanetary spacecraft at JPL has become an increasingly complex activity. This complexity is due to advanced spacecraft designs and ambitious mission objectives which lead to operations requirements that are more demanding than those of any previous mission. For this reason, several productivity enhancement measures are underway at JPL within mission operations, particularly in the spacecraft analysis area. These measures aimed at spacecraft analysis include: the development of a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment; the introduction of automated tools into this environment; and the development of an expert diagnostics system. This paper discusses an effort to integrate the above mentioned productivity enhancement measures. A prototype was developed that integrates an expert diagnostics system into a multi-mission, multi-subsystem operations environment using the Galileo Power / Pyro Subsystem as a testbed. This prototype will be discussed in addition to background information associated with it.

  11. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 emergency return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view showing some of the activity in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) during the final 24 hours of the Apollo 13 mission. Here, flight controllers and several NASA/MSC Officials confer at the flight director's console. When this picture was made, the Apollo 13 moon landing had been cancelled and the Apollo 13 crewmen were in transearth trajectory attempting to bring their crippled spacecraft back home (35368); Discussion in the MOCR dealing with the Apollo 13 crewmen during their final day in space. From left to right are Glynn S. Lunney, Shift 4 Flight Director; Gerald D. Griffin, SHift 2 Flight Director; Astronaut James A. McDivitt, Manager, APollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations, MSC; and Dr. Willard R. Hawkins, M.D., Shift 1 Flight Surgeon (35369).

  12. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  13. Planetary exploration through year 2000, a core program: Mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    In 1980 the NASA Advisory Council created the Solar System Exploratory Committee (SSEC) to formulate a long-range program of planetary missions that was consistent with likely fiscal constraints on total program cost. The SSEC had as its primary goal the establishment of a scientifically valid, affordable program that would preserve the nation's leading role in solar system exploration, capitalize on two decades of investment, and be consistent with the coordinated set of scientific stategies developed earlier by the Committe on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). The result of the SSEC effort was the design of a Core Program of planetary missions to be launched by the year 2000, together with a realistic and responsible funding plan. The Core Program Missions, subcommittee activities, science issues, transition period assumptions, and recommendations are discussed.

  14. Radiation dose estimates for typical piloted NTR lunar and Mars mission engine operations

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, B.G. ); Borowski, S.K. . Lewis Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    The natural and manmade radiation environments to be encountered during lunar and Mars missions are qualitatively summarized. The computational methods available to characterize the radiation environment produced by an operating nuclear propulsion system are discussed. Mission profiles and vehicle configurations are presented for a typical all-propulsive, fully reusable lunar mission and for a typical all-propulsive Mars mission. Estimates of crew location biological doses are developed for all propulsive maneuvers. Post-shutdown dose rates near the nuclear engine are estimated at selected mission times. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  16. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 2: Interim upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Background data and study results are presented for the interim upper stage (IUS) operations phase of the IUS/tug orbital operations study. The study was conducted to develop IUS operational concepts and an IUS baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for IUS operations. The approach used was to compile and evaluate baseline concepts, definitions, and system, and to use that data as a basis for the IUS operations phase definition, analysis, and costing analysis. Both expendable and reusable IUS configurations were analyzed and two autonomy levels were specified for each configuration. Topics discussed include on-orbit operations and interfaces with the orbiter, the tracking and data relay satellites and ground station support capability analysis, and flight control center sizing to support the IUS operations.

  17. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  18. Radio astronomy Explorer-B in-flight mission control system development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutsky, D. A.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations (MAESTRO) program to be used for the in-flight decision making process during the translunar and lunar orbit adjustment phases of the flight of the Radio Astronomy Explorer-B. THe program serves two functions: performance and evaluation of preflight mission analysis, and in-flight support for the midcourse and lunar insertion command decisions that must be made by the flight director. The topics discussed include: analysis of program and midcourse guidance capabilities; methods for on-line control; printed displays of the MAESTRO program; and in-flight operational logistics and testing.

  19. [Determine and Implement Updates to Be Made to MODEAR (Mission Operations Data Enterprise Architecture Repository)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanourakis, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    My main project was to determine and implement updates to be made to MODEAR (Mission Operations Data Enterprise Architecture Repository) process definitions to be used for CST-100 (Crew Space Transportation-100) related missions. Emphasis was placed on the scheduling aspect of the processes. In addition, I was to complete other tasks as given. Some of the additional tasks were: to create pass-through command look-up tables for the flight controllers, finish one of the MDT (Mission Operations Directorate Display Tool) displays, gather data on what is included in the CST-100 public data, develop a VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) script to create a csv (Comma-Separated Values) file with specific information from spreadsheets containing command data, create a command script for the November MCC-ASIL (Mission Control Center-Avionics System Integration Laboratory) testing, and take notes for one of the TCVB (Terminal Configured Vehicle B-737) meetings. In order to make progress in my main project I scheduled meetings with the appropriate subject matter experts, prepared material for the meetings, and assisted in the discussions in order to understand the process or processes at hand. After such discussions I made updates to various MODEAR processes and process graphics. These meetings have resulted in significant updates to the processes that were discussed. In addition, the discussions have helped the departments responsible for these processes better understand the work ahead and provided material to help document how their products are created. I completed my other tasks utilizing resources available to me and, when necessary, consulting with the subject matter experts. Outputs resulting from my other tasks were: two completed and one partially completed pass through command look-up tables for the fight controllers, significant updates to one of the MDT displays, a spreadsheet containing data on what is included in the CST-100 public data, a tool to create a csv

  20. Automated design of multiphase space missions using hybrid optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving the associated continuous optimal control problem. This strategy, however, will most likely yield a sub-optimal solution, as the problem is sophisticated for several reasons. For example, the number of events in the optimal mission structure is not known a priori and the system equations of motion change depending on what event is current. In this work a framework for the automated design of multiphase space missions is presented using hybrid optimal control (HOC). The method developed uses two nested loops: an outer-loop that handles the discrete dynamics and finds the optimal mission structure in terms of the categorical variables, and an inner-loop that performs the optimization of the corresponding continuous-time dynamical system and obtains the required control history. Genetic algorithms (GA) and direct transcription with nonlinear programming (NLP) are introduced as methods of solution for the outer-loop and inner-loop problems, respectively. Automation of the inner-loop, continuous optimal control problem solver, required two new technologies. The first is a method for the automated construction of the NLP problems resulting from the use of a direct solver for systems with different structures, including different numbers of categorical events. The method assembles modules, consisting of parameters and constraints appropriate to each event, sequentially according to the given mission structure. The other new technology is for a robust initial guess generator required by the inner-loop NLP problem solver. Two new methods were developed for cases including low-thrust trajectories. The first method, based on GA

  1. A Mission Management Application Suite for Airborne Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, H. M.; Meyer, P. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Regner, K.; Hall, J.; He, M.; Conover, H.; Garrett, M.; Harper, J.; Smith, T.; Grewe, A.; Real Time Mission Monitor Team

    2011-12-01

    Collection of data during airborne field campaigns is a critically important endeavor. It is imperative to observe the correct phenomena at the right time - at the right place to maximize the instrument observations. Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have developed an application suite known as the Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM). This suite is comprised of tools for mission design, flight planning, aircraft visualization and tracking. The mission design tool allows scientists to set mission parameters such as geographic boundaries and dates of the campaign. Based on these criteria, the tool intelligently selects potential data sets from a data resources catalog from which the scientist is able to choose the aircraft, instruments, and ancillary Earth science data sets to be provided for use in the remaining tool suite. The scientists can easily reconfigure and add data sets of their choosing for use during the campaign. The flight planning tool permits the scientist to assemble aircraft flight plans and to plan coincident observations with other aircraft, spacecraft or in situ observations. Satellite and ground-based remote sensing data and modeling data are used as background layers to aid the scientist in the flight planning process. Planning is crucial to successful collection of data and the ability to modify the plan and upload to aircraft navigators and pilots is essential for the agile collection of data. Most critical to successful and cost effective collection of data is the capability to visualize the Earth science data (airborne instruments, radiosondes, radar, dropsondes, etc.) and track the aircraft in real time. In some instances, aircraft instrument data is provided to ground support personnel in near-real time to visualize with the flight track. This visualization and tracking aspect of RTMM provides a decision support capability in conjunction with scientific collaboration portals to allow for scientists on the ground to communicate

  2. TDRSS operations control analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the remaining ground stations for the STDN (GSTDN) was investigated. The operational aspects of TDRSS concepts, GSTDN as a 14-site network, and GSTDN as a 7 site-network were compared and operations control concepts for the configurations developed. Man/machine interface, scheduling system, and hardware/software tradeoff analyses were among the factors considered in the analysis.

  3. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  4. Operations and maintenance manual for the LDUA operations control trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-08-06

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Operations Control Trailer has completed testing and is ready for operation. This document defines the requirements applicable to the operation and maintenance of the Operations Control Trailer.

  5. Operational effectiveness of a Multiple Aquila Control System (MACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Flynn, J. D.; Frey, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The operational effectiveness of a multiple aquila control system (MACS) was examined under a variety of remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission configurations. The set of assumptions and inputs used to form the rules under which a computerized simulation of MACS was run is given. The characteristics that are to govern MACS operations include: the battlefield environment that generates the requests for RPV missions, operating time-lines of the RPV-peculiar equipment, maintenance requirements, and vulnerability to enemy fire. The number of RPV missions and the number of operation days are discussed. Command, control, and communication data rates are estimated by determining how many messages are passed and what information is necessary in them to support ground coordination between MACS sections.

  6. OPALS: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) will launch to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a 90-day baseline mission, OPALS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) in Wrightwood, California. To achieve mission success, interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure are established. For OPALS, the interfaces facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes such as pointing prediction and data processing satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The tests have provided valuable insight into operational considerations on the ISS.

  7. Distributed Operations for the Cassini/Huygens Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, P.; Sarrel, M.

    1998-01-01

    The cassini project employs a concept known as distributed operations which allows independent instrument operations from diverse locations, provides full empowerment of all participants and maximizes use of limited resources.

  8. Candidate Mission from Planet Earth control and data delivery system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Phillip; Weinstein, Frank C.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Todd, Jacqueline

    1992-08-01

    Using a structured, experienced-based approach, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has assessed the generic functional requirements for a lunar mission control and data delivery (CDD) system. This analysis was based on lunar mission requirements outlined in GSFC-developed user traffic models. The CDD system will facilitate data transportation among user elements, element operations, and user teams by providing functions such as data management, fault isolation, fault correction, and link acquisition. The CDD system for the lunar missions must not only satisfy lunar requirements but also facilitate and provide early development of data system technologies for Mars. Reuse and evolution of existing data systems can help to maximize system reliability and minimize cost. This paper presents a set of existing and currently planned NASA data systems that provide the basic functionality. Reuse of such systems can have an impact on mission design and significantly reduce CDD and other system development costs.

  9. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  10. Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Future applications of artificial intelligence to Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: basic objectives of the NASA-wide AI program; inhouse research program; constraint-based scheduling; learning and performance improvement for scheduling; GEMPLAN multi-agent planner; planning, scheduling, and control; Bayesian learning; efficient learning algorithms; ICARUS (an integrated architecture for learning); design knowledge acquisition and retention; computer-integrated documentation; and some speculation on future applications.

  11. The Evolving Earth Observing System (EOS) mission operations concept: Then and now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) mission, a component of NASA's mission to planet earth program, is considered with emphasis on its evolution. The restructuration, re-scoping, re-baselining and re-shaping of the EOS mission are reviewed. The spacecraft and the ground system concepts were re-examined and adjusted in response to the need of identifying better and more cost-effective ways of conducting earth observations while fulfilling the objective of providing comprehensive data for climate change studies. The original mission concept is compared with the current configuration, considering the operation profile and the changes in the ground system.

  12. MOS 2.0: Modeling the Next Revolutionary Mission Operations System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Christopher L.; Bindschadler, Duane; Wollaeger, Ryan; Carrion, Carlos; McCullar, Michelle; Jackson, Maddalena; Sarrel, Marc; Anderson, Louise; Lam, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Designed and implemented in the 1980's, the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) was a breakthrough for deep-space NASA missions, enabling significant reductions in the cost and risk of implementing ground systems. By designing a framework for use across multiple missions and adaptability to specific mission needs, AMMOS developers created a set of applications that have operated dozens of deep-space robotic missions over the past 30 years. We seek to leverage advances in technology and practice of architecting and systems engineering, using model-based approaches to update the AMMOS. We therefore revisit fundamental aspects of the AMMOS, resulting in a major update to the Mission Operations System (MOS): MOS 2.0. This update will ensure that the MOS can support an increasing range of mission types, (such as orbiters, landers, rovers, penetrators and balloons), and that the operations systems for deep-space robotic missions can reap the benefits of an iterative multi-mission framework.12 This paper reports on the first phase of this major update. Here we describe the methods and formal semantics used to address MOS 2.0 architecture and some early results. Early benefits of this approach include improved stakeholder input and buy-in, the ability to articulate and focus effort on key, system-wide principles, and efficiency gains obtained by use of well-architected design patterns and the use of models to improve the quality of documentation and decrease the effort required to produce and maintain it. We find that such methods facilitate reasoning, simulation, analysis on the system design in terms of design impacts, generation of products (e.g., project-review and software-delivery products), and use of formal process descriptions to enable goal-based operations. This initial phase yields a forward-looking and principled MOS 2.0 architectural vision, which considers both the mission-specific context and long-term system sustainability.

  13. Astronaut John Young during final suiting operations for Apollo 10 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A technician attaches hose from test stand to spacesuit of Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 10 command module pilot, during final suiting operations for the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. Another technician makes adjustment behind Young.

  14. Third International Symposium on Space Mission Operations and Ground Data Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Under the theme of 'Opportunities in Ground Data Systems for High Efficiency Operations of Space Missions,' the SpaceOps '94 symposium included presentations of more than 150 technical papers spanning five topic areas: Mission Management, Operations, Data Management, System Development, and Systems Engineering. The symposium papers focus on improvements in the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of data acquisition, ground systems, and mission operations. New technology, methods, and human systems are discussed. Accomplishments are also reported in the application of information systems to improve data retrieval, reporting, and archiving; the management of human factors; the use of telescience and teleoperations; and the design and implementation of logistics support for mission operations. This volume covers expert systems, systems development tools and approaches, and systems engineering issues.

  15. Frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates can be high, bit rates are low, and data is unique precious.

  16. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Woods, D D

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  17. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Woods, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  18. Flight and mission operations support for Voyager spacecraft launching and Viking-Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during fiscal year 1976-1977 are summarized. Areas covered include ongoing and planned flight projects, DSN operations and development, research and advanced development in science and engineering, and civil systems projects. In addition, administrative and operational facilities and developments are described.

  19. Development and Execution of End-of-Mission Operations Case Study of the UARS and ERBS End-of-Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John; Marius, Julio L.; Montoro, Manuel; Patel, Mehul; Bludworth, David

    2006-01-01

    This Paper is a case study of the development and execution of the End-of-Mission plans for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). The goals of the End-of-Mission Plans are to minimize the time the spacecraft remains on orbit and to minimize the risk of creating orbital debris. Both of these Missions predate the NASA Management Instructions (NMI) that directs missions to provide for safe mission termination. Each spacecrafts had their own unique challenges, which required assessing End-of-Mission requirements versus spacecraft limitations. Ultimately the End-of- Mission operations were about risk mitigation. This paper will describe the operational challenges and the lessons learned executing these End-of-Mission Plans

  20. Distributed Operations for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission with the Science Activity Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Justin V.; Callas, John L.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Vona, Marsette A., III

    2005-01-01

    Due to the length of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission, most scientists were unable to stay at the central operations facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This created a need for distributed operations software, in the form of the Distributed Science Activity Planner. The distributed architecture saved a considerable amount of money and increased the number of individuals who could be actively involved in the mission, contributing to its success.

  1. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often may thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  2. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The methods is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  3. Mars methane analogue mission: Mission simulation and rover operations at Jeffrey Mine and Norbestos Mine Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadi, A.; Cloutis, E.; Samson, C.; Whyte, L.; Ellery, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Haddad, E.; Lavoie, J.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mack, A.; Mann, P.; Olsen, K.; Perrot, M.; Popa, D.; Rhind, T.; Sharma, R.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Wing, B.; Wong, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), through its Analogue Missions program, supported a microrover-based analogue mission designed to simulate a Mars rover mission geared toward identifying and characterizing methane emissions on Mars. The analogue mission included two, progressively more complex, deployments in open-pit asbestos mines where methane can be generated from the weathering of olivine into serpentine: the Jeffrey mine deployment (June 2011) and the Norbestos mine deployment (June 2012). At the Jeffrey Mine, testing was conducted over 4 days using a modified off-the-shelf Pioneer rover and scientific instruments including Raman spectrometer, Picarro methane detector, hyperspectral point spectrometer and electromagnetic induction sounder for testing rock and gas samples. At the Norbestos Mine, we used the research Kapvik microrover which features enhanced autonomous navigation capabilities and a wider array of scientific instruments. This paper describes the rover operations in terms of planning, deployment, communication and equipment setup, rover path parameters and instrument performance. Overall, the deployments suggest that a search strategy of “follow the methane” is not practical given the mechanisms of methane dispersion. Rather, identification of features related to methane sources based on image tone/color and texture from panoramic imagery is more profitable.

  4. Determining Desirable Cursor Control Device Characteristics for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will travel to the moon and Mars, and all future Exploration vehicles and habitats will be highly computerized, necessitating an accurate method of interaction with the computers. The design of a cursor control device will have to take into consideration g-forces, vibration, gloved operations, and the specific types of tasks to be performed. The study described here is being undertaken to begin identifying characteristics of cursor control devices that will work well for the unique Exploration mission environments. The objective of the study is not to identify a particular device, but to begin identifying design characteristics that are usable and desirable for space missions. Most cursor control devices have strengths and weaknesses; they are more appropriate for some tasks and less suitable for others. The purpose of this study is to collect some initial usability data on a large number of commercially available and proprietary cursor control devices. A software test battery was developed for this purpose. Once data has been collected using these low-level, basic point/click/drag tasks, higher fidelity, scenario-driven evaluations will be conducted with a reduced set of devices. The standard tasks used for testing cursor control devices are based on a model of human movement known as Fitts law. Fitts law predicts that the time to acquire a target is logarithmically related to the distance over the target size. To gather data for analysis with this law, fundamental, low-level tasks are used such as dragging or pointing at various targets of different sizes from various distances. The first four core tasks for the study were based on the ISO 9241-9:(2000) document from the International Organization for Standardization that contains the requirements for non-keyboard input devices. These include two pointing tasks, one dragging and one tracking task. The fifth task from ISO 9241-9, the circular tracking task was not used

  5. The Preparation for and Execution of Engineering Operations for the Mars Curiosity Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover mission is the most complex and scientifically packed rover that has ever been operated on the surface of Mars. The preparation leading up to the surface mission involved various tests, contingency planning and integration of plans between various teams and scientists for determining how operation of the spacecraft (s/c) would be facilitated. In addition, a focused set of initial set of health checks needed to be defined and created in order to ensure successful operation of rover subsystems before embarking on a two year science journey. This paper will define the role and responsibilities of the Engineering Operations team, the process involved in preparing the team for rover surface operations, the predefined engineering activities performed during the early portion of the mission, and the evaluation process used for initial and day to day spacecraft operational assessment.

  6. Manned Mars mission on-orbit operations FTS capabilities assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Frank G.; Jackson, Stewart W.

    1989-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the characteristics and capabilities of the flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), under development at GSFC at the time the report was prepared; the project has since been cancelled. The assessment was directed toward developing the FTS to enable assembly and servicing of the Mars vehicle at the space station; facilitate rendezvous, docking, and fluid transfer operations involving the Mars vehicle fuel tank; to perform strip-mining operations on the lunar/martian surfaces; and to construct a three-story shelter on the martian surface. The report considers the FTS' mechanical, electrical, thermal, and operational subsystems, as well as its proposed manipulator capabilities.

  7. Field Experiments using Telepresence and Virtual Reality to Control Remote Vehicles: Application to Mars Rover Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    1994-01-01

    This paper will describe a series of field experiments to develop and demonstrate file use of Telepresence and Virtual Reality systems for controlling rover vehicles on planetary surfaces. In 1993, NASA Ames deployed a Telepresence-Controlled Remotely Operated underwater Vehicle (TROV) into an ice-covered sea environment in Antarctica. The goal of the mission was to perform scientific exploration of an unknown environment using a remote vehicle with telepresence and virtual reality as a user interface. The vehicle was operated both locally, from above a dive hole in the ice through which it was launched, and remotely over a satellite communications link from a control room at NASA's Ames Research center, for over two months. Remote control used a bidirectional Internet link to the vehicle control computer. The operator viewed live stereo video from the TROV along with a computer-gene rated graphic representation of the underwater terrain showing file vehicle state and other related information. Tile actual vehicle could be driven either from within the virtual environment or through a telepresence interface. In March 1994, a second field experiment was performed in which [lie remote control system developed for the Antarctic TROV mission was used to control the Russian Marsokhod Rover, an advanced planetary surface rover intended for launch in 1998. Marsokhod consists of a 6-wheel chassis and is capable of traversing several kilometers of terrain each day, The rover can be controlled remotely, but is also capable of performing autonomous traverses. The rover was outfitted with a manipulator arm capable of deploying a small instrument, collecting soil samples, etc. The Marsokhod rover was deployed at Amboy Crater in the Mojave desert, a Mars analog site, and controlled remotely from Los Angeles. in two operating modes: (1) a Mars rover mission simulation with long time delay and (2) a Lunar rover mission simulation with live action video. A team of planetary

  8. A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

    1993-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  9. Mission Operations Center (MOC) - Precipitation Processing System (PPS) Interface Software System (MPISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, Jeffrey; Calk, William; Atwell, William; Tsui, Tina

    2013-01-01

    MPISS is an automatic file transfer system that implements a combination of standard and mission-unique transfer protocols required by the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) Precipitation Processing System (PPS) to control the flow of data between the MOC and the PPS. The primary features of MPISS are file transfers (both with and without PPS specific protocols), logging of file transfer and system events to local files and a standard messaging bus, short term storage of data files to facilitate retransmissions, and generation of file transfer accounting reports. The system includes a graphical user interface (GUI) to control the system, allow manual operations, and to display events in real time. The PPS specific protocols are an enhanced version of those that were developed for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). All file transfers between the MOC and the PPS use the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). For reports and data files generated within the MOC, no additional protocols are used when transferring files to the PPS. For observatory data files, an additional handshaking protocol of data notices and data receipts is used. MPISS generates and sends to the PPS data notices containing data start and stop times along with a checksum for the file for each observatory data file transmitted. MPISS retrieves the PPS generated data receipts that indicate the success or failure of the PPS to ingest the data file and/or notice. MPISS retransmits the appropriate files as indicated in the receipt when required. MPISS also automatically retrieves files from the PPS. The unique feature of this software is the use of both standard and PPS specific protocols in parallel. The advantage of this capability is that it supports users that require the PPS protocol as well as those that do not require it. The system is highly configurable to accommodate the needs of future users.

  10. Cultural challenges faced by American mission control personnel working with international partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.

    INTRODUCTION Operating the International Space Station ISS involves an indefinite continuous series of long-duration international missions and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites organizations and nations Both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the cultural challenges inherent in such work but neither have had systematic training in how to do so The goals of this study were to identify and evaluate the major cultural challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and the training needs identified by the junior personnel We also evaluate the extent to which the identified approaches and needs are consistent across the two samples METHODS Participants included a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior controllers All participants were mission operations specialists chosen on the basis of having worked extensively with international partners Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies RESULTS The senior respondents had substantial consensus on several cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies

  11. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  12. Program control on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, Dorothy J.; Majerowicw, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), an integral part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring tropical rainfall. TRMM will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms through which tropical rainfall influences global circulation and climate. Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate is responsible for establishing a Project Office for the TRMM to manage, coordinate, and integrate the various organizations involved in the development and operation of this complex satellite. The TRMM observatory, the largest ever developed and built inhouse at GSFC, includes state-of-the-art hardware. It will carry five scientific instruments designed to determine the rate of rainfall and the total rainfall occurring between the north and south latitudes of 35 deg. As a secondary science objective, TRMM will also measure the Earth's radiant energy budget and lightning.

  13. Utilization of Virtual Server Technology in Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Lankford, Kimberly; Pitts, R. Lee; Pruitt, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization provides the opportunity to continue to do "more with less"---more computing power with fewer physical boxes, thus reducing the overall hardware footprint, power and cooling requirements, software licenses, and their associated costs. This paper explores the tremendous advantages and any disadvantages of virtualization in all of the environments associated with software and systems development to operations flow. It includes the use and benefits of the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) specification, and identifies lessons learned concerning hardware and network configurations. Using the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an example, we demonstrate that deploying virtualized servers as a means of managing computing resources is applicable and beneficial to many areas of application, up to and including flight operations.

  14. Challenges in building intelligent systems for space mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to provide a top-level look at the stewardship functions performed in space operations, and to identify the major issues and challenges that must be addressed to build intelligent systems that can realistically support operations functions. The focus is on decision support activities involving monitoring, state assessment, goal generation, plan generation, and plan execution. The bottom line is that problem solving in the space operations domain is a very complex process. A variety of knowledge constructs, representations, and reasoning processes are necessary to support effective human problem solving. Emulating these kinds of capabilities in intelligent systems offers major technical challenges that the artificial intelligence community is only beginning to address.

  15. Research into language concepts for the mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1990-01-01

    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  16. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  17. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Space Weather Operational Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Trichas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) have carried out a study for an operational L5 space weather mission, in collaboration with RAL, the UK Met Office, UCL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for operational forecasting needs. The study focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a US mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 offers the greatest benefit for SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to address all MOSWOC/SWPC priorities using UK/US instruments, consisting of: a heliospheric imager, coronagraph, EUV imager, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform is based on extensive re-use from Airbus' past missions to minimize the cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could occur in 2020, assuming Phase A KO in 2015. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  18. Metrics for Numerical Control Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students preparing to be numerical control operators, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  19. Casualty Risk Assessment Controlled Re-Entry of EPS - Ariane 5ES - ATV Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.-H.; Laine, N.; Aussilhou, C.

    2012-01-01

    To fulfil its mission of compliance check to the French Space Operations Act, CNES has developed ELECTRA© tool in order to estimate casualty risk induced by a space activity (like rocket launch, controlled or un-controlled re-entry on Earth of a space object). This article describes the application of such a tool for the EPS controlled re-entry during the second Ariane 5E/S flight (Johannes Kepler mission has been launched in February 2011). EPS is the Ariane 5E/S upper composite which is de-orbited from a 260 km circular orbit after its main mission (release of the Automated Transfer Vehicle - ATV). After a brief description of the launcher, the ATV-mission and a description of all the failure cases taken into account in the mission design (which leads to "back-up scenarios" into the flight software program), the article will describe the steps which lead to the casualty risk assessment (in case of failure) with ELECTRA©. In particular, the presence on board of two propulsive means of de-orbiting (main engine of EPS, and 4 ACS longitudinal nozzles in case of main engine failure or exhaustion) leads to a low remaining casualty risk.

  20. Large Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in the National Airspace System - the NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Ikhana (ee-kah-nah) project executed the 2007 Western States Fire Missions over several of the western United States using an MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in partnership with the NASA Ames Research Center, the United States Forest Service, and the National Interagency Fire Center. The missions were intended to supply infrared imagery of wildfires to firefighters on the ground within 10 minutes of data acquisition. For each of the eight missions, the NASA DFRC notified the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of specific flight plans within three or fewer days of the flight. The FAA Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (commonly referred to as a COA ) process was used to obtain access to the United States National Airspace System. Significant time and resources were necessary to develop the COA application, perform mission planning, and define and approve emergency landing sites. Unique aspects of flying unmanned aircraft created challenges to mission operations. Close coordination with FAA headquarters and air traffic control resulted in safe and successful missions that assisted firefighters by providing near-real-time imagery of selected wildfires.

  1. Microbial Risk and Control During Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    As human explore space, they will be accompanied by microorganisms. Historically, the approach to microbial control on spacecraft has been to minimize the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and extensive microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for short duration missions; however, habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has reinforced the importance of inflight microbial monitoring. Current ISS inflight monitoring evaluates potable water sources and vehicle air and surfaces. The hardware uses media-based growth and is designed for microbial enumeration during spaceflight followed by microbial identification after return of samples to Earth. For future missions beyond Earth orbit, microbial monitoring capabilities will need to be improved to enable rapid inflight identification of viable microorganisms. Inflight monitoring may also need to be expanded beyond ISS targets to include food grown in the habitat, food preparation areas, and/or clinical samples. Establishing requirements for many of these samples remains a major gap in implementing this type of next-generation approach to risk assessment and control. An additional consideration in assessment of microbial risk is research that indicates that the spaceflight environment alters crewmember immune function, microbial diversity, and molecular-genetic and phenotypic responses of microorganism, including virulence and antibiotic resistance. Taken together, in preparation for long duration space exploration missions, NASA faces new challenges in microbial risk assessment, monitoring and control that must be understood and addressed to mitigate threats to crew health and mission success.

  2. Parallel CFD Supporting NASA's Space Operations Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in support of NASA's space operations. Particular attention was devoted to the development of the Space Shuttle, and the use of CFD in designing the shuttle and the work after the Columbia accident. The presentation ends with a discussion of the reasons for CFD and the use of parallel computers in the design and testing of spacecraft.

  3. Pointing Control System Architecture for the Eclipse Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kia, Tooraj; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Alexander, James W.; Li, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the high performance pointing control system used to point the Eclipse telescope. Eclipse is a new mission under study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a proposal as a discovery mission. Eclipse is a space telescope for high-contrast optical astronomy. It will be used to investigate the planetary bodies and environments. The main objective of the Eclipse mission is to study planets around nearby stars. Eclipse is designed to reveal planets or dust structures by reducing the scattered and diffracted light within a few arcseconds of a star to a level three orders of magnitude lower than any instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Eclipse achieves this high contrast using a 1.8 meter diameter telescope, a coronagraphic system for control of diffracted light, and active wavefront correction using a Precision Deformable Mirror (DM) for the suppression of scattered light. The observatory will be launched into a Sun-synchronous 690 Km, 98.2(deg) Earth Orbit in 2012.

  4. Human-in-the-Loop Operations over Time Delay: NASA Analog Missions Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, Steven N.; Reagan, Marcum L.; Janoiko, Barbara; Johnson, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Teams at NASA have conducted studies of time-delayed communications as it effects human exploration. In October 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Analog Missions project conducted a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the primary stakeholders to share information and experiences of studying time delay, to build a coherent picture of how studies are covering the problem domain, and to determine possible forward plans (including how to best communicate study results and lessons learned, how to inform future studies and mission plans, and how to drive potential development efforts). This initial meeting s participants included personnel from multiple NASA centers (HQ, JSC, KSC, ARC, and JPL), academia, and ESA. It included all of the known studies, analog missions, and tests of time delayed communications dating back to the Apollo missions including NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO), Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS/RATS), International Space Station Test-bed for Analog Research (ISTAR), Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP), Mars 520, JPL Mars Orbiters/Rovers, Advanced Mission Operations (AMO), Devon Island analog missions, and Apollo experiences. Additionally, the meeting attempted to capture all of the various functional perspectives via presentations by disciplines including mission operations (flight director and mission planning), communications, crew, Capcom, Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), Medical/Surgeon, Science, Education and Public Outreach (EPO), and data management. The paper summarizes the descriptions and results from each of the activities discussed at the TIM and includes several recommendations captured in the meeting for dealing with time delay in human exploration along with recommendations for future development and studies to address this issue.

  5. The Evolvable Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS): Making Systems Interoperable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Maldague, Pierre F.; Bui, Tung; Lam, Doris T.; McKinney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) provides a common Mission Operation System (MOS) infrastructure to NASA deep space missions. The evolution of AMMOS has been driven by two factors: increasingly challenging requirements from space missions, and the emergence of new IT technology. The work described in this paper focuses on three key tasks related to IT technology requirements: first, to eliminate duplicate functionality; second, to promote the use of loosely coupled application programming interfaces, text based file interfaces, web-based frameworks and integrated Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to connect users, data, and core functionality; and third, to build, develop, and deploy AMMOS services that are reusable, agile, adaptive to project MOS configurations, and responsive to industrially endorsed information technology standards.

  6. Statistical porcess control in Deep Space Network operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodder, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes how the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (EL) uses Statistical Process Control (SPC) to monitor performance and evaluate initiatives for improving processes on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Deep Space Network (DSN).

  7. ICE Second Halley radial: TDA mission support and DSN operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanelli, N. A.; Efron, L.; Muellerschoen, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The article documents the operations encompassing the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) second Halley radial experiment centered around March 28, 1986. The support was provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter subnetwork. Near continuous support was provided the last two weeks of March and the first two weeks of April to insure the collection of adequate background data for the Halley radial experiment. During the last week of March, plasma wave measurements indicate that ICE was within the Halley heavy ion pick-up region.

  8. The gravitational control for drag-free missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferroni, Valerio; Trenkel, Christian; Weber, William Joseph

    The suppression of the static gravitational field and field gradient due to the satellite is very important in gravitational missions that use free falling test-masses. Indeed the residual field needs to be balanced to some extent by applied electromagnetic force that invariably fluctuate in time, and both field and gradient convert the satellite motion into fluctuating forces on the test-masses. In LISA Pathfinder, the gravitational field on the test masses is estimated and balanced with sub-nano-g accuracy, by a control protocol based on measurements of the position and the mass of all parts that constitute the satellite, and on a finite element calculation tool. We describe the method, how the uncertainties on the mass and the position are propagated to the final results and the overall expected accuracy. We also discuss the relevance of the method for other gravitational missions, including space based gravitational wave observatories like eLISA.

  9. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Flight System Design and Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yuhsyen; Shaffer, Scott J.; Jordan, Rolando L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), with emphasis on flight system implementation and mission operations from systems engineering perspective. Successfully flown in February, 2000, the SRTM's primary payload consists of several subsystems to form the first spaceborne dual-frequency (C-band and X-band) fixed baseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) system, with the mission objective to acquire data sets over 80% of Earth's landmass for height reconstruction. The paper provides system architecture, unique design features, engineering budgets, design verification, in-flight checkout and data acquisition of the SRTM payload, in particular for the C-band system. Mission operation and post-mission data processing activities are also presented. The complexity of the SRTM as a system, the ambitious mission objective, the demanding requirements and the high interdependency between multi-disciplined subsystems posed many challenges. The engineering experience and the insight thus gained have important implications for future spaceborne interferometric SAR mission design and implementation.

  10. Automating the training development process for mission flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carol J.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional methods of developing training do not effectively support the changing needs of operational users in a multimission environment. The Automated Training Development System (ATDS) provides advantages over conventional methods in quality, quantity, turnaround, database maintenance, and focus on individualized instruction. The Operations System Training Group at the JPL performed a six-month study to assess the potential of ATDS to automate curriculum development and to generate and maintain course materials. To begin the study, the group acquired readily available hardware and participated in a two-week training session to introduce the process. ATDS is a building activity that combines training's traditional information-gathering with a hierarchical method for interleaving the elements. The program can be described fairly simply. A comprehensive list of candidate tasks determines the content of the database; from that database, selected critical tasks dictate which competencies of skill and knowledge to include in course material for the target audience. The training developer adds pertinent planning information about each task to the database, then ATDS generates a tailored set of instructional material, based on the specific set of selection criteria. Course material consistently leads students to a prescribed level of competency.

  11. Generic procedure for designing and implementing plan management systems for space science missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper is one of the components of a larger framework of activities whose purpose is to improve the performance and productivity of space mission systems, i.e. to increase both what can be achieved and the cost effectiveness of this achievement. Some of these activities introduced the concept of Functional Architecture Module (FAM); FAMs are basic blocks used to build the functional architecture of Plan Management Systems (PMS). They also highlighted the need to involve Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) in order to design and implement efficiently operation planning systems. We define SOPE as the expertise held by people who have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Using ESA's methodology for studying and selecting science missions we also define the MDP as the combination of the Mission Assessment and Mission Definition Phases. However, there is no generic procedure on how to use FAMs efficiently and systematically, for each new mission, in order to analyse the cost and feasibility of new missions as well as to optimise the functional design of new PMS; the purpose of such a procedure is to build more rapidly and cheaply such PMS as well as to make the latter more reliable and cheaper to run. This is why the purpose of this paper is to provide an embryo of such a generic procedure and to show that the latter needs to be applied by people with SOPE during the MDP. The procedure described here proposes some initial guidelines to identify both the various possible high level functional scenarii, for a given set of possible requirements, and the information that needs to be associated with each scenario. It also introduces the concept of catalogue of generic functional scenarii of PMS for space science missions. The information associated with each catalogued scenarii will have been identified by the above procedure and

  12. Real time data acquisition for expert systems in Unix workstations at Space Shuttle Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Gnabasik, Mark; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Bailey, Samuel A.

    1990-01-01

    A distributed system of proprietary engineering-class workstations is incorporated into NASA's Space Shuttle Mission-Control Center to increase the automation of mission control. The Real-Time Data System (RTDS) allows the operator to utilize expert knowledge in the display program for system modeling and evaluation. RTDS applications are reviewed including: (1) telemetry-animated communications schematics; (2) workstation displays of systems such as the Space Shuttle remote manipulator; and (3) a workstation emulation of shuttle flight instrumentation. The hard and soft real-time constraints are described including computer data acquisition, and the support techniques for the real-time expert systems include major frame buffers for logging and distribution as well as noise filtering. The incorporation of the workstations allows smaller programming teams to implement real-time telemetry systems that can improve operations and flight testing.

  13. Integrated approach for contamination control and verification for the Hubble Space Telescope first servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgeland, Randy J.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Hughes, David W.

    1994-10-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope is the first spacecraft designed from its conception to allow for Scientific Instrument upgrading and subsystem maintenance by using the Shuttle. Regular and contingency servicing missions preserve and broaden the scientific objectives of the HST through on-orbit maintenance. To achieve mission success for the Hubble Space Telescope First Servicing Mission, a contamination control methodology was developed and instituted by ensure that scientific instrument performance was not degraded or compromised during fabrication, build-up, ground integration and test activities, on-orbit servicing including Extravehicular Activities, or through on-orbit operational activities. The cleanliness methodology considered the effects of outgassing and surface contaminants on the degradation of the sensitive components. Through plans and procedures for handling sensitive components and the development of a detailed contamination budget extending from Goddard Space Flight Center processing through launch, the preservation of the science capabilities (as affected by contamination) was achieved.

  14. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Operational Space Weather Monitoring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichas, Markos; Gibbs, Mark; Harrison, Richard; Green, Lucie; Eastwood, Jonathan; Bentley, Bob; Bisi, Mario; Bogdanova, Yulia; Davies, Jackie; D'Arrigo, Paolo; Eyles, Chris; Fazakerley, Andrew; Hapgood, Mike; Jackson, David; Kataria, Dhiren; Monchieri, Emanuele; Windred, Phil

    2015-06-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) has carried out a study to investigate the possibilities for an operational space weather mission, in collaboration with the Met Office, RAL, MSSL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for 24/7 operational forecasting needs. We have focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 (Earth trailing) offers the greatest benefit for the earliest possible warning on hazardous SWE events and the most accurate SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to cover all UK Met Office/NOAA's users priorities for L5 using instruments with extensive UK/US heritage, consisting of: heliospheric imager, coronograph, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform and subsystems are based on extensive re-use from past Airbus Defence and Space spacecraft to minimize the development cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could be achieved by 2020, assuming Phase A kick-off in 2015-2016. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  15. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John

    2015-01-01

    DSCOVR Lissajous Orbit sized such that orbit track never extends beyond 15 degrees from Earth-Sun line (as seen from Earth). Requiring delta-V maneuvers, control orbit to obey a Solar Exclusion Zone (SEZ) cone of half-angle 4 degrees about the Earth-Sun line. Spacecraft should never be less than 4 degrees from solar center as seen from Earth. Following Lissajous Orbit Insertion (LOI), DSCOVR should be in an opening phase that just skirts the 4-degree SEZ. Maximizes time to the point where a closing Lissajous will require avoidance maneuvers to keep it out of the SEZ. Station keeping maneuvers should take no more than 15 minutes

  16. OTF Proof of Concept: CCSDS Mission Operations Alert Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walt; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Use of multiple vendor frameworks within a component creates thread lockups and fragility conflicts over the control of the main thread. Avoid closed vendor messaging frameworks. The MAL layer does isolate the data elements from the messaging framework but application work dispatch is heavily dominated by the framework chosen. API Language is a major factor in implementation. Message APIs with timeouts seem unavoidable in some environments (GUI). Language environment needs to support callbacks (or threads) from the messaging framework to deal with pub/sub management messages and status. Statusing of application communications demand a local broker agent per physical system or else the use of the AMSstyle registrar heartbeat.

  17. Space shuttle guidance, navigation and control design equations. Volume 3: Orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Revised specifications are presented of the equations necessary to perform the guidance, navigation, and control onboard computation functions for the space shuttle orbiter vehicle. The orbital operations covered include: (1) orbital coast, (2) orbital powered flight, (3) rendezvous mission phase, (4) station keeping mission phase, (5) docking and undocking, and (6) docked operations.

  18. Evolution of Science Operations after 10 years of the Mars Express Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Martin, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    The Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and has been providing great amounts of data since its arrival to Mars in Christmas 2003, covering a wide range of science objectives at all levels, from the surface and sub-surface geology, atmosphere dynamics and composition, up to the interaction with the magnetosphere and the characterization of the Martian sytem including its two moons, Phobos and Deimos. In these last 10 years, the Mars Express Science Operations Center has been responsible for the coordination of the scientific requirements and the implementation of the science plan, aiming to obtain the maximum scientific return of the mission while respecting the operational constraints. In this contribution we will show some of the operational challenges of the mission, focusing on the improvements and adaptations of the past years, not only in terms of technical and scientific requirements which have been varying with time, but also the optimization of the interfaces with all the teams involved.

  19. President Richard Nixon visits MSC to award Apollo 13 Mission Operations team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon introduces Sigurd A. Sjoberg (far right), Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and the four Apollo 13 Flight Directors during the Presidnet's post-mission visit to MSC. The Flight Directors are (l.-r.) Glynn S. Lunney, Eugene A. Kranz, Gerald D. Griffin and Milton L. Windler. Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, is seated at left. President Nixon was on the site to present the Presidential Medal of Freedom -- the nation's highest civilian honor -- to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team (35600); A wide-angle, overall view of the large crowd that was on hand to see President Richard M. Nixon present the Presidnetial Medal of Freedom to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team. A temporary speaker's platform was erected beside bldg 1 for the occasion (35601).

  20. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance during these missions. Also, inherent to the proposed aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations impacting crew health and/or performance during a lunar mission. The goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with various working groups participating in the exploration effort. Methods: A review of medical operations during Apollo missions 7-17 was conducted. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified during preliminary data review generating 655 data records which were captured in an Access® database. The preliminary review resulted in 285 questions. The questions were posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers using mail, face-to-face meetings, phone communications, or online interactions. Results: Fourteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (64%) participated in the project. This effort yielded 107 recommendations for future vehicles, habitats, EVA suits, and lunar surface operations. Conclusions: To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmember's input has proved to be an invaluable resource. We will continue

  1. Smart Structures for Vibration Control on Long-Term Space Exploration and Habitation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gattis, Christy B.; Shepard, W. Steve, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The current vision for space exploration focuses on human missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support these goals, it is certain that new vehicles and intermediate bases will be developed, whether that means simply re-direction of the ISS as a "mission research facility" or construction of a lunar base. Since these facilities are expected to be constructed from inherently light-weight materials, this work examines some of the potential sources of vibration and noise as well as means for controlling these vibrations. Many of the operating components within these facilities, such as pumps, fans, and motors, will produce vibrations during operation. These vibrations become structure in which they are housed. Resonances can impact acoustic noise levels and noise quality within the environment, possibly affecting crew health and productivity. For long-term missions in particular, it is expected that crew members will spend significant portions of their time restrained in the structure, such as in seats. As a result, the general health and well-being of the crew can be improved by limiting the harmful effects of human exposure to long-term audible and tactile vibration input. Besides the human factor, this work also examines some operational considerations in which vibrations play an important role. Vibrations can impact the environment for science and in-situ manufacturing research within these vehicles. Since a benign vibratory environment is beneficial for most types of science experiments, there is a need for various forms of vibration control. Because the operational characteristics of a vehicle can change during a long-term mission, it is further expected that the characteristics of many of the vibratory excitations will change with time. Consequently, the form of vibration control needed to improve overall habitability and usefulness of the vehicle or element for exploration missions will rely to some degree on the vibration control system's ability to

  2. Manned Mars mission environmental control and life support subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    1986-01-01

    A specific design is not presented, but the general philosophy regarding potential Environmental Control/Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements, concepts, issues, and technology needs are discussed. The focus is on a manned Mars mission occurring in the late 1990's. Discussions on the Trans-Mars Vehicle, the Mars Excursion Module (MEM), and a Martian base facility are covered. The functions, performance requirements, and design loads of a typical ECLSS are listed, and the issues and technology briefly discussed. Several ECLSS concepts and options are identified, and comparative weights and volumes are provided for these. Several aspects of the space station ECLSS are contrasted with the Mars element ECLSS.

  3. The CYGNSS ground segment; innovative mission operations concepts to support a micro-satellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D.; Vincent, M.; Rose, R.; Ruf, C.

    Hurricane track forecasts have improved in accuracy by ~50% since 1990, while in that same period there has been essentially no improvement in the accuracy of intensity prediction. One of the main problems in addressing intensity occurs because the rapidly evolving stages of the tropical cyclone (TC) life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. NASA's most recently awarded Earth science mission, the NASA EV-2 Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) has been designed to address this deficiency by using a constellation of micro-satellite-class Observatories designed to provide improved sampling of the TC during its life cycle. Managing a constellation of Observatories has classically resulted in an increased load on the ground operations team as they work to create and maintain schedules and command loads for multiple Observatories. Using modern tools and technologies at the Mission Operations Center (MOC) in conjunction with key components implemented in the flight system and an innovative strategy for pass execution coordinated with the ground network operator, the CYGNSS mission reduces the burden of constellation operations to a level commensurate with the low-cost mission concept. This paper focuses on the concept of operations for the CYGNSS constellation as planned for implementation at the CYGNSS MOC in conjunction with the selected ground network operator.

  4. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  5. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  6. Cyber Threat Assessment of Uplink and Commanding System for Mission Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Adans Y.; Tan, Kymie M. C.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner; Faris, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Most of today's Mission Operations Systems (MOS) rely on Ground Data System (GDS) segment to mitigate cyber security risks. Unfortunately, IT security design is done separately from the design of GDS' mission operational capabilities. This incoherent practice leaves many security vulnerabilities in the system without any notice. This paper describes a new way to system engineering MOS, to include cyber threat risk assessments throughout the MOS development cycle, without this, it is impossible to design a dependable and reliable MOS to meet today's rapid changing cyber threat environment.

  7. A Potential Operational CryoSat Follow-on Mission Concept and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    CryoSat was a planned as a 3 year mission with clear mission objectives to allow the assessment rates of change of thickness in the land and marine ice fields with reduced uncertainties with relation to other non-dedicated missions. Although CryoSat suffered a launch failure in Oct 2005, the mission was recovered with a launch in April 2010 of CryoSat-2. The nominal mission has now been completed, all mission requirements have been fulfilled and CryoSat has been shown to be most successful as a dedicated polar ice sheet measurement system demonstrated by nearly 200 peer reviewed publications within the first four years of launch. Following the completion of the nominal mission in Oct 2013 the platform was shown to be in good health and with a scientific backing provided by the ESA Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) the mission has been extended until Feb 2017 by the ESA Programme Board for Earth Observation. Though not designed to provide data for science and operational services beyond its original mission requirements, a number of services have been developed for exploitation and these are expected to increase over the next few years. Services cover a number of aspects of land and marine ice fields in addition to complementary activities covering glacial monitoring, inland water in addition to coastal and open ocean surface topography science that CryoSat has demonstrated world leading advances with. This paper will present the overall concept for a potential low-cost follow-on to the CryoSat mission with the objective to provide both continuity of the existing CryoSat based data sets, i.e., longer term science and operational services that cannot be provided by the existing Copernicus complement of satellites. This is, in part, due to the high inclination (92°) drifting orbit and state of the art Synthetic Aperture Interferometer Radar Altimeter (SIRAL). In addition, further improvements in performance are expected by use of the instrument timing and

  8. A Multi-Function Guidance, Navigation and Control System for Future Earth and Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambino, Joel; Dennehy, Neil; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past several years the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center (GNCC) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has actively engaged in the development of advanced GN&C technology to enable future Earth and Space science missions. The Multi-Function GN&C System (MFGS) design presented in this paper represents the successful coalescence of several discrete GNCC hardware and software technology innovations into one single highly integrated, compact, low power and low cost unit that simultaneously provides autonomous real time on-board attitude determination solutions and navigation solutions with accuracies that satisfy many future GSFC mission requirements. The MFGS is intended to operate as a single self-contained multifunction unit combining the functions now typically performed by a number of hardware units on a spacecraft. However, recognizing the need to satisfy a variety of future mission requirements, design provisions have been included to permit the unit to interface with a number of external remotely mounted sensors and actuators such as magnetometers, sun sensors, star cameras, reaction wheels and thrusters. The result is a highly versatile MFGS that can be configured in multiple ways to suit a realm of mission-specific GN&C requirements. It is envisioned that the MFGS will perform a mission enabling role by filling the microsat GN&C technology gap. In addition, GSFC believes that the MFGS could be employed to significantly reduce volume, power and mass requirements on conventional satellites.

  9. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  10. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  11. Autonomous NanoTechnology Swarm (ANTS) Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM), Asteroid Proximity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Greg; Cooley, Steve; Roithmayr, Carlos; Kay-Bunnell, Linda; Williams, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    The Autonomous NanoTechnology Swarm (ANTS) is a generic mission architecture based on spatially distributed spacecraft, autonomous and redundant components, and hierarchical organization. The ANTS Prospecting Asteroid Mission (PAM) is an ANTS application which will nominally use a swarm of 1000 spacecraft. There would be 10 types of "specialists" with common spacecraft buses. There would be 10 subswarms of approximately 100 spacecraft each or approximately 10 of each specialist in each swarm. The ANTS PAM primary objective is the exploration of the asteroid belt in search of resources and material with astrobiologically relevant origins and signatures. The ANTS PAM spacecraft will nominally be released from a station in an Earth-Moon L1 libration point orbit, and they will use Solar sails for propulsion. The sail structure would be highly flexible, capable of changing morphology to change cross-section for capture of sunlight or to form effective "tip vanes" for attitude control. ANTS PAM sails would be capable of full to partial deployment, to change effective sail area and center of pressure, and thus allow attitude control. Results of analysis of a transfer trajectory from Earth to a sample target asteroid will be presented. ANTS PAM will require continuous coverage of different asteroid locations as close as one to two asteroid "diameters" from the surface of the asteroid for periods of science data collection during asteroid proximity operations. Hovering spacecraft could meet the science data collection objectives. The results of hovering analysis will be presented. There are locations for which hovering is not possible, for example on the illuminated side of the asteroid. For cases where hovering is not possible, the results of utilizing asteroid formations to orbit the asteroid and achieve the desired asteroid viewing will be presented for sample asteroids. The ability of ANTS PAM to reduce the area of the solar sail during asteroid proximity operations is

  12. Alternative Approaches to Mission Control Automation at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackley, Michael; Cooter, Miranda; Davis, George; Mackey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    To meet its objective of reducing operations costs without incurring a corresponding increase in risk, NASA is seeking new methods to automate mission operations. This paper examines the state of the art in automating ground operations for space missions. A summary of available technologies and methods for automating mission operations is provided. Responses from interviews with several space mission FOTs (Flight Operations Teams) to assess the degree and success of those technologies and methods implemented are presented. Mission operators that were interviewed approached automation using different tools and methods resulting in varying degrees of success - from nearly completely automated to nearly completely manual. Two key criteria for successful automation are the active participation of the FOT in the planning, designing, testing, and implementation of the system and the relative degree of complexity of the mission.

  13. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system....

  14. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system....

  15. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system....

  16. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system....

  17. Design Considerations for Spacecraft Operations During Uncrewed Dormant Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Antol, Jeff; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; Williams, Phillip; Ambrose, Rob; Sylvester, Andre; Anderson, Molly; Dinsmore, Craig; Hoffman, Stephen; Lawrence, James; Seibert, Marc; Schier, Jim; Frank, Jeremy; Alexander, Leslie; Ruff, Gary; Soeder, Jim; Guinn, Joseph; Stafford, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Subject matter experts from NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) are currently studying a human exploration campaign that involves deployment of assets for planetary exploration. This study, called the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, explores options with solar electric propulsion as a central component of the transportation architecture. This particular in-space transportation option often results in long duration transit to destinations. The EMC study is also investigating deployed human rated systems like landers, habitats, rovers, power systems and ISRU system to the surface of Mars, which also will involve long dormant periods when these systems are staged on the surface. In order to enable the EMC architecture, campaign and element design leads along with system and capability development experts from HEOMD's System Maturation Team (SMT) have identified additional capabilities, systems and operation modes that will sustain these systems especially during these dormant phases of the mission. Dormancy is defined by the absence of crew and relative inactivity of the systems. For EMC missions, dormant periods could range from several months to several years. Two aspects of uncrewed dormant operations are considered herein: (1) the vehicle systems that are placed in a dormant state and (2) the autonomous vehicle systems and robotic capabilities that monitor, maintain, and repair the vehicle and systems. This paper describes the mission stages of dormancy operations, phases of dormant

  18. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drusch, M.; Gascon, F.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2009-12-01

    near-infrared (VNIR) focal plane is based on monolithic CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) detectors while the shortwave infrared (SWIR) focal plane is based on a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector hybridised on a CMOS read-out circuit. A dichroic beam-splitter provides the spectral separation of VNIR and SWIR channels. A combination of partial on-board calibration with a sun diffuser and vicarious calibration with ground targets is foreseen to guarantee a high quality radiometric performance. The observation data are digitized on 12 bit. State-of-the-art lossy compression based on wavelet transform is applied to reduce the data volume. The compression ratio will be fine tuned for each spectral band to ensure that there is no significant impact on image quality. The ground segment includes the FOS (Flight Operations Segment), for satellite command, monitoring and control, and the PDGS (Payload Data Ground Segment), for mission planning, payload data reception, processing, archiving, quality control and dissemination.

  19. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  20. Mission operation center of the Lavochkin scientific production association: Work with the interorbital space booster "Fregat"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakevich, Yu. V.; Zefirov, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the history of the Lavochkin Association Mission Operation Center (Laspace MOC), the reasons for its building, purposes and objectives to support Fregat multipurpose rocket booster (FMRB) launch tracking, as well as the basic principles of information exchange. Hardware and software are described in detail.

  1. 12 CFR 900.2 - Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supervision. 900.2 Section 900.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GENERAL DEFINITIONS GENERAL DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO ALL FINANCE BOARD REGULATIONS § 900.2 Terms relating to Bank operations, mission and... U.S.C. 1426(b)), and part 933 of this chapter, as approved by the Finance Board, unless the...

  2. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  3. SSRPT (SSR Pointer Trackeer) for Cassini Mission Operations - A Ground Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Tracking the resources of the two redundant Solid State Recorders (SSR) is a necessary routine for Cassini spacecraft mission operations. Instead of relying on a full-fledged spacecraft hardware/software simulator to track and predict the SSR recording and playback pointer positions, a stand-alone SSR Pointer Tracker tool was developed as part of JPL's Multimission Spacecraft Analysis system.

  4. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  5. Application of State Analysis and Goal-Based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the behavior of states and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  6. Lessons Learned from Daily Uplink Operations during the Deep Impact Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stehly, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    The daily preparation of uplink products (commands and files) for Deep Impact was as problematic as the final encounter images were spectacular. The operations team was faced with many challenges during the six-month mission to comet Tempel One of the biggest difficulties was that the Deep Impact Flyby and Impactor vehicles necessitated a high volume of uplink products while also utilizing a new uplink file transfer capability. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) Mission Planning and Sequence Team (MPST) had the responsibility of preparing the uplink products for use on the two spacecraft. These responsibilities included processing nearly 15,000 flight products, modeling the states of the spacecraft during all activities for subsystem review, and ensuring that the proper commands and files were uplinked to the spacecraft. To guarantee this transpired and the health and safety of the two spacecraft were not jeopardized several new ground scripts and procedures were developed while the Deep Impact Flyby and Impactor spacecraft were en route to their encounter with Tempel-1. These scripts underwent several adaptations throughout the entire mission up until three days before the separation of the Flyby and Impactor vehicles. The problems presented by Deep Impact's daily operations and the development of scripts and procedures to ease those challenges resulted in several valuable lessons learned. These lessons are now being integrated into the design of current and future MGSS missions at JPL.

  7. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  8. Issues in developing control zones for international space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nader, Blair A.; Krishen, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Cooperative missions in earth orbit can be facilitated by developing a strategy to regulate the manner in which vehicles interact in orbit. One means of implementing such a strategy is to utilize a control zones technique that assigns different types of orbital operations to specific regions of space surrounding a vehicle. Considered here are issues associated with developing a control zones technique to regulate the interactions of spacecraft in proximity to a manned vehicle. Technical and planning issues, flight hardware and software issues, mission management parameter, and other constraints are discussed. Also covered are manned and unmanned vehicle operations, and manual versus automated flight control. A review of the strategies utilized by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Space Station Freedom Program is also presented.

  9. Issues associated with establishing control zones for international space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nader, Blair A.; Krishen, Kumar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative missions in Earth orbit can be facilitated by developing a strategy to regulate the manner in which vehicles interact in orbit. One means of implementing such a strategy is to utilize a control zones technique that assigns different types of orbital operations to specific regions of space surrounding a vehicle. Considered here are issues associated with developing a control zones technique to regulate the interactions of spacecraft in proximity to a manned vehicle. Technical and planning issues, flight hardware and software issues, mission management parameter, and other constraints are discussed. Also covered are manned and unmanned vehicle operations, and manual versus automated flight control. A review of the strategies utilized by the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Space Station Freedom Program is also presented.

  10. Mission management - Lessons learned from early Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The concept and the responsibilities of a mission manager approach are reviewed, and some of the associated problems in implementing Spacelab mission are discussed. Consideration is given to program control, science management, integrated payload mission planning, and integration requirements. Payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities are outlined.

  11. Desert Rats 2011 Mission Simulation: Effects of Microgravity Operational Modes on Fields Geology Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Meyer, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) is a multi-year series of NASA tests that deploy planetary surface hardware and exercise mission and science operations in difficult conditions to advance human and robotic exploration capabilities. DRATS 2011 (Aug. 30-Sept. 9, 2011) tested strategies for human exploration of microgravity targets such as near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Here we report the crew perspective on the impact of simulated microgravity operations on our capability to conduct field geology.

  12. The feasibility study and evaluation of applying expert system techniques to the mission operations for the AXAF-I spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kai H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-I) is a spacecraft for X-ray emitting sources observation and has been tentatively scheduled for a space shuttle launch in late 1998 at the Kennedy Space Center. Its main objectives are 'to determine the nature of astronomical objects ranging from normal stars to quasars, to understand the nature of the physical processes which take place in and between astronomical objects, and to add to our understanding of the history and evolution of the universe.' The AXAF-I will have an expected five year life time for the science mission phase. During the science mission phase, the monitoring and management operation of the flight and ground systems is personnel intensive, requiring system experts on duty around the clock. The purpose of the expert system presented in this report is intended to reduce the level of expertise, training, and personnel requirement for the mission operation. The telemetry data from the spacecraft can be divided into two categories: the science observation data and the engineering status data. The science data contains the outputs from the X-ray sensing devices and will be forwarded to the AXAF-I Science Center for interpretation; while the engineering status data will be monitored by the Operation Control Center (OCC) for the operation diagnosis of the spacecraft. The expert system is designed to assist the operation controllers at the OCC to perform the daily mission operations. Since there are hundreds of engineering telemetry data points and the interpretation of the telemetry depends on many factors, e.g., sun or eclipse, the monitoring of the AXAF-I is not a trivial task. In this phase of expert system development, the focus has been limited to the engineering data interpretation, i.e., warnings will be provided to the operation controllers to signal any anomaly. The system is hosted in a Silicon Graphics Indigo-2 workstation running the IRIX operating system. The expert system tool used

  13. 3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES INCREASINGLY AUTOMATED, EAGLE ROCK WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE THE CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  15. Navigation and control of an UAV quadrotor in search and surveillance missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederico, L. A.; Martins-Filho, L. S.; da Silva, A. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study addresses the problem of exploration of areas for surveillance and searching using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle quadrotor (UAV). Their agility provides them operational flexibility, as required by such applications. Other desirable characteristics are unpredictable motion path (from the point of view of intruders) and fast scan of the area. Random trajectories have been studied in these cases. Here, we study trajectories based on a specific random motions, known as Levy flights. In addition, this work concerns the study of the flight dynamics and the control to achieve the mission objectives. The backstepping control developed was implemented in simulation model, and tested together the Levy flight path generator. A procedure to determine the control gains in order to satisfy the Levy flight requirements and quadrotor constraints was proposed. Results show this control is adequate for the execution of the Levy flight respecting the operational and dynamic constraints.

  16. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Extended Duration Transit Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Capability-Driven Framework (CDF) describes an approach for progressively extending human exploration missions farther into the Solar System for longer periods of time as allowed by developments in technology and spacecraft systems. Within this framework design reference missions (DRMs) targeted for several specific destinations are being used to assess different combinations of vehicles, operations, and advanced technologies to help understand which combination will best support expanded human exploration both efficiently and sustainably. Several of the identified destinations have been found to require missions with a round trip duration exceeding one year. These mission durations exceed the capabilities of current human-rated spacecraft if resupply from Earth is not possible. This makes the design of an efficient and reliable Deep Space Habitat (DSH) critical for reaching these destinations. The paper will describe the current understanding of DSH capabilities and functions that must be exhibited by any future habitat design for these missions. This description of the DSH is presented in the form of a concept of operation, which focuses on the functions that any DSH must provide, as opposed to a specific DSH design concept. Development of a concept of operations, based on DRM features, provides a common basis for assessing the viability of design concepts incorporating differing configurations and technologies. A study team with representation from several NASA Centers and relevant engineering and scientific disciplines collaborated to develop this DSH concept of operations for the transit phases of these missions. The transit phase of a mission is defined as the time after leaving Earth but before arrival at the destination and the time after leaving the destination but before arriving back at Earth. These transit phases were found to have many common features across all of the destinations being assessed for the CDF and thus arguing for a common concept

  17. Multiagent Modeling and Simulation in Human-Robot Mission Operations Work System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Sims, Michael H.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing work systems. The Brahms environment is used to model mission operations for a semi-autonomous robot mission to the Moon at the work practice level. It shows the impact of human-decision making on the activities and energy consumption of a robot. A collaborative work systems design methodology is described that allows informal models, created with users and stakeholders, to be used as input to the development of formal computational models.

  18. OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) mission operations planning and initial operations experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Pollock, H. Randy; Hunyadi-Lay, Sarah L.

    2014-10-01

    OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) is the first NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) mission dedicated to studying atmospheric carbon dioxide, specifically to identify sources (emitters) and sinks (absorbers) on a regional (1000 km x 1000 km) scale. The mission is designed to meet a science imperative by providing critical and urgent measurements needed to improve understanding of the carbon cycle and global climate change processes. The single instrument consisting of three grating spectrometers was built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, but is based on the design co-developed with Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation for the original OCO mission. The instrument underwent an extensive ground test program. This was generally made possible through the use of a thermal vacuum chamber with a window/port that allowed optical ground support equipment to stimulate the instrument. The instrument was later delivered to Orbital Sciences Corporation for integration and test with the LEOStar-2 spacecraft. During the overall ground test campaign, proper function and performance in simulated launch, ascent, and space environments were verified. The observatory was launched into space on 02 July 2014. Initial indications are that the instrument is meeting functional and performance specifications, and there is every expectation that the spatially-order, geo-located, calibrated spectra of reflected sunlight and the science retrievals will meet the Level 1 science requirements.

  19. 16. INTERIOR, BRIDGE OPERATING CONTROLS IN OPERATOR'S HOUSE New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR, BRIDGE OPERATING CONTROLS IN OPERATOR'S HOUSE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Niantic Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  20. Software for Automated Testing of Mission-Control Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OHagan, Brian

    2004-01-01

    MCC Display Cert Tool is a set of software tools for automated testing of computerterminal displays in spacecraft mission-control centers, including those of the space shuttle and the International Space Station. This software makes it possible to perform tests that are more thorough, take less time, and are less likely to lead to erroneous results, relative to tests performed manually. This software enables comparison of two sets of displays to report command and telemetry differences, generates test scripts for verifying telemetry and commands, and generates a documentary record containing display information, including version and corrective-maintenance data. At the time of reporting the information for this article, work was continuing to add a capability for validation of display parameters against a reconfiguration file.

  1. Spacecraft Autonomy and Automation: A Comparative Analysis of Strategies for Cost Effective Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Nathaniel, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of satellite operations over the last 40 years has drastically changed. October 4, 1957 (during the cold war) the Soviet Union launched the world's first spacecraft into orbit. The Sputnik satellite orbited Earth for three months and catapulted the United States into a race for dominance in space. A year after Sputnik, President Dwight Eisenhower formed the National Space and Aeronautics Administration (NASA). With a team of scientists and engineers, NASA successfully launched Explorer 1, the first US satellite to orbit Earth. During these early years, massive amounts of ground support equipment and operators were required to successfully operate spacecraft vehicles. Today, budget reductions and technological advances have forced new approaches to spacecraft operations. These approaches require increasingly complex, on board spacecraft systems, that enable autonomous operations, resulting in more cost-effective mission operations. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, considered world class in satellite development and operations, has developed and operated over 200 satellites during its 40 years of existence. NASA Goddard is adopting several new millennium initiatives that lower operational costs through the spacecraft autonomy and automation. This paper examines NASA's approach to spacecraft autonomy and ground system automation through a comparative analysis of satellite missions for Hubble Space Telescope-HST, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous-NEAR, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory-SoHO, with emphasis on cost reduction methods, risk analysis and anomalies and strategies employed for mitigating risk.

  2. Mars 2001 Lander Mission: Measurement Synergy Through Coordinated Operations Planning And Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Kaplan, D.; Marshall, J.; Mishkin, A.; Saunders, S.; Smith, P.; Squyres, S.

    1999-01-01

    , together with quantitative information on material mineralogy, chemistry, and physical properties (rock textures; soil grain size and shape distributions; degree and nature of soil induration; soil magnetic properties). The calibration targets provide radiometric and mineralogical control surfaces. The magnets allow observations of magnetic phases. Patch plates are imaged to determine adhesive and abrasive properties of soils. Coordinated mission planning is crucial for optimizing the measurement synergy among the packages included on the lander. This planning has already begun through generation of multi-sol detailed operations activities. One focus has been to develop a scenario to use the arm to dig a soil trench to a depth of tens of centimeters. The activity will be monitored through use of Pancam and RAC to ensure nominal operations and to acquire data to determine subsurface physical properties (e.g., angle of repose of trench walls). Pancam and Mini-TES observations would also provide constraints on mineralogy and texture for the walls and bottom of the trench during excavation. If desired, soils excavated at depth could be deposited on the surface and Mossbauer and APXS measurements could be acquired for these materials. Soil samples from various depths would be delivered to MECA for characterization of aqueous geochemistry and physical properties of soil grains, particularly size, shape, and hardness. These physical properties would be determined by optical and atomic force microscopy. When completed, detailed information of soil properties as a function of depth would be obtained. These various data sets would constrain our understanding of whether or not there are systematic variations in soil characteristics as a function of depth. These variations might be related, for example, to evaporative moisture losses and formation of salt deposits, thereby indicating water transport processes occurred fairly recently. Many other value-added measurement scenarios are

  3. Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Valling, Simo; Cornish, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition within the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The FTIR monitored up to 20 gases in near- real time. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful and data was collected with the FTIR at 5 minute intervals. Not all the 20 gases sampled were detected in all the modules and it was possible to measure dynamic changes in trace contaminant concentrations that were related to crew activities involving exercise and meal preparation.

  4. Dynamic Sampling of Cabin VOCs during the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft is dynamic due to changes in crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition of four modules (Core lab, Veggie Plant Atrium, Hygiene module, and Xhab loft) within the Deep Space Habitat '(DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center. The FTIR was either physically relocated to a new location or the plumbing was changed so that a different location was monitored. An application composed of 20 gases was used and the FTIR was zeroed using N2 gas every time it was relocated. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful as all data was collected and the FTIR worked during the entire MOT mission. Not all the 20 gases in the application sampled were detected and it was possible to measure dynamic VOC concentrations in each DSH location.

  5. 16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OPERATOR STAND. OPERATOR STOOD BETWEEN RAILINGS AND CONTROLLED DREDGING OPERATIONS USING TWO LEVERS FROM CEILING, THREE LEVELS ON THE FLOOR, AND TWO FLOOR PEDDLES. RIGHT HAND CONTROLLED SHOT GUN SWINGER (BOOM MOVE TO RIGHT WHEN PUSHED FORWARD, LEFT WHEN PULLED BACK, AND, IF LUCKY, STOPPED WHEN IN CENTER POSITION). LEFT HAND CONTROLLED THROTTLE. FLOOR LEVER AND FLOOR PEDDLE ON LEFT CONTROLLED THE BACKING LINE FRICTION. MIDDLE LEVER AND PEDDLE, STUCK IN FLOOR CONTROLLED THE MAIN HOIST FRICTION. LEVER ON RIGHT CONTROLLED THE CYLINDER DRAIN VALVE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Understanding cost growth during operations of planetary missions: An explanation of changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, J. F.; Chapman, E. L.; Sklar, M. E.

    In the development of project cost estimates for interplanetary missions, considerable focus is generally given to the development of cost estimates for the development of ground, flight, and launch systems, i.e., Phases B, C, and D. Depending on the project team, efforts expended to develop cost estimates for operations (Phase E) may be relatively less rigorous than that devoted to estimates for ground and flight systems development. Furthermore, the project team may be challenged to develop a solid estimate of operations cost in the early stages of mission development, e.g., Concept Study Report or Systems Requirement Review (CSR/SRR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), as mission specific peculiarities that impact cost may not be well understood. In addition, a methodology generally used to develop Phase E cost is engineering build-up, also known as “ grass roots” . Phase E can include cost and schedule risks that are not anticipated at the time of the major milestone reviews prior to launch. If not incorporated into the engineering build-up cost method for Phase E, this may translate into an estimation of the complexity of operations and overall cost estimates that are not mature and at worse, insufficient. As a result, projects may find themselves with thin reserves during cruise and on-orbit operations or project overruns prior to the end of mission. This paper examines a set of interplanetary missions in an effort to better understand the reasons for cost and staffing growth in Phase E. The method used in the study is discussed as well as the major findings summarized as the Phase E Explanation of Change (EoC). Research for the study entailed the review of project materials, including Estimates at Completion (EAC) for Phase E and staffing profiles, major project milestone reviews, e.g., CSR, PDR, Critical Design Review (CDR), the interviewing of select project and mission management, and review of Phase E replan materials. From this work, a detai- ed

  7. Utilizing the EUVE Innovative Technology Testbed to Reduce Operations Cost for Present and Future Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under Cooperative Agreement (CA) on the following testbed projects: TERRIERS - The development of the ground systems to support the TERRIERS satellite mission at Boston University (BU). HSTS - The application of ARC's Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to the EUVE satellite mission. SELMON - The application of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Selective Monitoring (SELMON) system to the EUVE satellite mission. EVE - The development of the EUVE Virtual Environment (EVE), a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) visualization environment for the EUVE satellite and its sensors, instruments, and communications antennae. FIDO - The development of the Fault-Induced Document Officer (FIDO) system, a prototype application to respond to anomalous conditions by automatically searching for, retrieving, and displaying relevant documentation for an operators use.

  8. Expert mission planning and replanning scheduling system for NASA KSC payload operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Roger

    1987-01-01

    EMPRESS (Expert Mission Planning and REplanning Scheduling System) is an expert system created to assist payload mission planners at Kennedy in the long range planning and scheduling of horizontal payloads for space shuttle flights. Using the current flight manifest, these planners develop mission and payload schedules detailing all processing to be performed in the Operations and Checkout building at Kennedy. With the EMPRESS system, schedules are generated quickly using standard flows that represent the tasks and resources required to process a specific horizontal carrier. Resources can be tracked and resource conflicts can be determined and resolved interactively. Constraint relationships between tasks are maintained and can be enforced when a task is moved or rescheduled. The domain, structure, and functionality of the EMPRESS system is briefly designed. The limitations of the EMPRESS system are described as well as improvements expected with the EMPRESS-2 development.

  9. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  10. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  11. The Skylab Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Williams, Richard S.; Lindgren, Kjell N.; Mathes, Karen L.; Gillis, David B.; Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    From May of 1973 to February of 1974, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of three manned missions to the Skylab space station, a voluminous vehicle largely descendant of Apollo hardware, and America s first space station. The crewmembers of these three manned missions spent record breaking durations of time in microgravity (28 days, 59 days and 84 days, respectively) and gave the U.S. space program its first experiences with long-duration space flight. The program overcame a number of obstacles (including a significant crippling of the Skylab vehicle) to conduct a lauded scientific program that encompassed life sciences, astronomy, solar physics, materials sciences and Earth observation. Skylab has more to offer than the results of its scientific efforts. The operations conducted by the Skylab crews and ground personnel represent a rich legacy of operational experience. As we plan for our return to the moon and the subsequent manned exploration of Mars, it is essential to utilize the experiences and insights of those involved in previous programs. Skylab and SMEAT (Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test) personnel have unique insight into operations being planned for the Constellation Program, such as umbilical extra-vehicular activity and water landing/recovery of long-duration crewmembers. Skylab was also well known for its habitability and extensive medical suite; topics which deserve further reflection as we prepare for lunar habitation and missions beyond Earth s immediate sphere of influence. The Skylab Medical Operations Summit was held in January 2008. Crewmembers and medical personnel from the Skylab missions and SMEAT were invited to participate in a two day summit with representatives from the Constellation Program medical operations community. The purpose of the summit was to discuss issues pertinent to future Constellation operations. The purpose of this document is to formally present the recommendations of the

  12. STS-33 MS Carter operates translation hand control (THC) on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr operates translation hand control (THC) at the aft flight deck onorbit station while peering out overhead window W7. Carter's communications kit assembly headset microphone extends across his face.

  13. SCOS2: ESA's new generation of mission control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J. F.; Head, N. C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the next generation Spacecraft Control System infrastructure (SCOSII) which is being developed at the Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objectives of the new system and selected areas of the proposed hardware and software approach are described.

  14. [Military psychiatry in a theatre of operations: on mission in Mali].

    PubMed

    Colas, Marie-Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The recent missions of military psychiatrists in the theatres of operation underline the reactivity of the French healthcare system, focused on the expertise of the combat unit doctor. Operation Serval in Mali illustrates in particular the methods of medical-psychological support in exceptional situations, across a vast geographical area and in very difficult climatic conditions. The concept of "forward psychiatry" has a particularly important role to play in the early screening and treatment of psychological disorders in order to preserve the operational capacity of the deployed personnel. PMID:25975168

  15. Use of Virtual Mission Operations Center Technology to Achieve JPDO's Virtual Tower Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip E.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Program Development Office has proposed that the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) consolidate control centers. NGATS would be managed from a few strategically located facilities with virtual towers and TRACONS. This consolidation is about combining the delivery locations for these services not about decreasing service. By consolidating these locations, cost savings in the order of $500 million have been projected. Evolving to spaced-based communication, navigation, and surveillance offers the opportunity to reduce or eliminate much of the ground-based infrastructure cost. Dynamically adjusted airspace offers the opportunity to reduce the number of sectors and boundary inconsistencies; eliminate or reduce "handoffs;" and eliminate the distinction between Towers, TRACONS, and Enroute Centers. To realize a consolidation vision for air traffic management there must be investment in networking. One technology that holds great potential is the use of Virtual Mission Operations Centers to provide secure, automated, intelligent management of the NGATS. This paper provides a conceptual framework for incorporating VMOC into the NGATS.

  16. Managing Risk for Cassini During Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MOandDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona M.

    2002-01-01

    A Risk Management Process has been tailored for Cassini that not only satisfies the requirements of NASA and JPL, but also allows the Program to proactively identify and assess risks that threaten mission objectives. Cassini Risk Management is a team effort that involves both management and engineering staff. The process is managed and facilitated by the Mission Assurance Manager (MAM), but requires regular interactions with Program Staff and team members to instill the risk management philosophy into the day to day mission operations. While Risk Management is well defined for projects in the development phase, it is a relatively new concept for Mission Operations. The Cassini team has embraced this process and has begun using it in an effective, proactive manner, to ensure mission success. It is hoped that the Cassini Risk Management Process will form the basis by which risk management is conducted during MO&DA on future projects. proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully implemented a Risk Management Process for mission operations, The initial SRL has been developed and input into he online tool. The Risk Management webbased system has been rolled out for use by the flight team and risk owners we working proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully

  17. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  18. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  19. Coordinated ground system for joint science operations for the ExoMars2016 TGO mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Vladimir; Heather, David; Frew, David; Eismont, Natan; Manaud, Nicolas; Ledkov, Anton; Nazirov, Ravil; Metcalfe, Leo; Cardesin, Alejandro; Konoplev, Veniamin; Korotkov, Fedor; Batanov, Oleg; Brumfitt, Jon; Alvarez, Rub; Martin, Patrick; Melnik, Anton; Tretiakov, Alexey; Villacorta, Antonio

    International collaboration is increasingly important for space science missions, often requiring joint operations activity. Such an approach is extremely important for studies of planets and other bodies of the Solar system that usually require high budget for their realization. In addition, as the development of international payloads for such missions is a well-established practice, the establishment of common ground systems for joint science operations is an important feature. Benefits of such an approach are evident: • More science return • Reduced the cost • More redundancy • Technology exchange But on the other hand, common systems for joint operations pose some specific difficulties, such as: • Different review procedures in the developing organisations • Incompatible documentation structures (“document tree”) • A risk of producing a “multiheaded dragon” (inefficient/duplicated task distributions) • Different base technologies • Language problems This article describes approaches for resolving these problems on the basis of the coordinated system for joint science operations for the ExoMars2016 mission, which is at the design stage now. The architecture of the system, the scenario of distributed but joint data management, as well as some methodological and technological aspects, will be discussed

  20. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  1. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  2. Orbit Operations at 433 Eros: Navigation for the NEAR Shoemaker Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.; Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. G.; Bordi, J. J.; Carranza, E.; Chesley, S. R.; Helfrich, C. E.; Owen, W. M.; Wang, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    mission, NASA has approved a controlled descent and hovering phase that will culminate with the spacecraft impacting the surface. The maneuver planning for this final phase will also be presented.

  3. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission: Science Proximity Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnouin, Olivier; Bellerose, Julie; Carnelli, Ian; Carrol, Kieran; Ciarletti, Valérie; Cheng, Andrew F.; Galvez, Andres; Green, Simon F.; Grieger, Bjorn; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Herique, Alain; Kueppers, Michael; Minton, David A.; Mellab, Karim; Michel, Patrick; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Tortora, Paolo; Ulamec, Stephan; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Zannoni, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The moon of the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos is the target of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission. This mission is a joint effort between NASA and ESA to investigate the effectiveness of a kinetic impactor in deflecting an asteroid. The mission is composed of two components: the NASA-led Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) that will impact Didymos' moon (henceforth Didymos B), and the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) that will survey the Didymos system. Both will undertake proximity operations to characterize the physical and dynamical properties of the Didymos system that are of maximum importance in the joint AIDA mission to understand the factors at play when assessing the mometum transfer that follows DART's impact into Didymos B. Using much of ESA's Rosetta experience, the AIM mission will undertake proximity operations both before and after DART's impact. AIM's chracterization includes measuring the precise orbital configuration, masses, internal properties, surface geology and regolith properties of the primary and secondary, using visible and thermal imaging, radar measurements and radio science data. AIM will also release the small MASCOT-2 lander, as well as a suite of a CubeSats to help achieve these objectives. DART proximity observations include two phases of imaging. The first makes use of a suite of long range images that will add light curve data to what will be collected from Earth. These data will refine the orbit period of Didymos B, and provide constraints for modeling the shape of both Didymos A and B. The second phase begins just under an hour before impact when resolved imaging of the Didymos system provides further shape model constraints for the visble parts of both Didymos A and B, some possible constraints on the mass of Didymos B and key geological information of both objects and the impact site. In this presentation, we will summarize the proximity operations undertaken by both DART and AIM

  4. Applications for Mission Operations Using Multi-agent Model-based Instructional Systems with Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of past and possible future applications for artifical intelligence (AI) in astronaut instruction and training. AI systems have been used in training simulation for the Hubble Space Telescope repair, the International Space Station, and operations simulation for the Mars Exploration Rovers. In the future, robots such as may work as partners with astronauts on missions such as planetary exploration and extravehicular activities.

  5. Control of the Soft X-ray Polychromator on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, L. A.; Levay, M.; Gilbreth, C. W.; Finch, M. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Firth, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Polychromator on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite consists of two largely independent instruments: the Flat Crystal Spectrometer, a highly collimated scanning spectrometer mounted on a raster platform, and the Bent Crystal Spectrometer, a broadly collimated spectrometer providing high time-resolution (128 ms) spectra for the study of rapidly evolving phenomena. Each instrument is controlled by a microcomputer system built around an RCA 1802 microprocessor. This paper presents a discussion of the motivation for using a microprocessor in this application, and the design concepts that were implemented. The effectiveness of the approach as seen after several months of operation will also be discussed.

  6. Mission Control Center/Building 30. Historical Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    As part of this nation-wide study, in September 2006, historical survey and evaluation of NASA-owned and managed facilities was conducted by NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The results of this study are presented in a report entitled, Survey and Evaluation of NASA-owned Historic Facilities and Properties in the Context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, prepared in November 2007 by NASA JSC s contractor, Archaeological Consultants, Inc. As a result of this survey, the Mission Control Center (Building 30) was determined eligible for listing in the NRHP, with concurrence by the Texas State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO). The survey concluded that Building 30 is eligible for the NRHP under Criteria A and C in the context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program (1969-2010). Because it has achieved significance within the past 50 years, Criteria Consideration G applies. It should be noted that the Mission Control Center was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985 for its role in the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing. At the time of this documentation, Building 30 was still used to support the SSP as an engineering research facility, which is also sometimes used for astronaut training. This documentation package precedes any undertaking as defined by Section 106 of the NHPA, as amended, and implemented in 36 CFR Part 800, as NASA JSC has decided to proactively pursue efforts to mitigate the potential adverse affects of any future modifications to the facility. It includes a historical summary of the Space Shuttle program; the history of JSC in relation to the SSP; a narrative of the history of Building 30 and how it supported the SSP; and a physical description of the structure. In addition, photographs documenting the construction and historical use of Building 30 in support of the SSP, as well as photographs of the facility documenting the existing conditions, special technological features

  7. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  8. Pointing and control system enabling technology for future automated space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Future automated space missions present challenging opportunities in the pointing-and-control technology disciplines. The enabling pointing-and-control system technologies for missions from 1985 to the year 2000 were identified and assessed. A generic mission set including Earth orbiter, planetary, and other missions which predominantly drive the pointing-and-control requirements was selected for detailed evaluation. Technology candidates identified were prioritized as planning options for future NASA-OAST advanced development programs. The primary technology thrusts in each candidate program were cited, and advanced development programs in pointing-and-control were recommended for the FY 80 to FY 87 period, based on these technology thrusts.

  9. Multi-objective optimization to support rapid air operations mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul G.; Burge, Janet E.

    2005-05-01

    Within the context of military air operations, Time-sensitive targets (TSTs) are targets where modifiers such, "emerging, perishable, high-payoff, short dwell, or highly mobile" can be used. Time-critical targets (TCTs) further the criticality of TSTs with respect to achievement of mission objectives and a limited window of opportunity for attack. The importance of TST/TCTs within military air operations has been met with a significant investment in advanced technologies and platforms to meet these challenges. Developments in ISR systems, manned and unmanned air platforms, precision guided munitions, and network-centric warfare have made significant strides for ensuring timely prosecution of TSTs/TCTs. However, additional investments are needed to further decrease the targeting decision cycle. Given the operational needs for decision support systems to enable time-sensitive/time-critical targeting, we present a tool for the rapid generation and analysis of mission plan solutions to address TSTs/TCTs. Our system employs a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization scheme that is well suited to the rapid generation of approximate solutions in a dynamic environment. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) allow for the effective exploration of the search space for potentially novel solutions, while addressing the multiple conflicting objectives that characterize the prosecution of TSTs/TCTs (e.g. probability of target destruction, time to accomplish task, level of disruption to other mission priorities, level of risk to friendly assets, etc.).

  10. Lunar Communication Terminals for NASA Exploration Missions: Needs, Operations Concepts and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Anderson, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is conducting architecture studies prior to deploying a series of short- and long-duration human and robotic missions for the exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Vision for Space Exploration Initiative. A key objective of these missions is to establish and expand, through a series of launches, a system of systems approach to exploration capabilities and science return. The systems identified were Crew Exploration Vehicles, crew and cargo launch vehicles, crew EVA suits, crew and cargo landers, habitats, mobility carriers, and small, pressurized rovers. Multiple space communication networks and systems, deployed over time, will support these space exploration systems of systems. Each deployment phase will support interoperability of components and provide 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper, we describe the modular lunar communications terminals needed for the emerging lunar mission operational scenarios. These lunar communication terminals require flexibility for use in stationary, integrated, and mobile environments. They will support links directly to Earth, to lunar relay satellites, to astronauts and to fixed and mobile lunar surface systems. The operating concepts and traffic models are presented for these terminals within variety of lunar scenarios. A preliminary architecture is outlined, providing for suitable long-duration operations in the harsh lunar environment.

  11. Mission Concepts and Operations for Asteroid Mitigation Involving Multiple Gravity Tractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Jaroux, Belgacem; Mauro, David

    2012-01-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  12. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  13. The Sequence of Events generator: A powerful tool for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobbe, Hubertus; Braun, Armin

    1994-01-01

    The functions and features of the sequence of events (SOE) and flight operations procedures (FOP) generator developed and used at DLR/GSOC for the positioning of EUTELSAT 2 satellites are presented. The SOE and FOP are the main operational documents that are prepared for nominal as well as for non-nominal mission execution. Their structure and application are described. Both of these documents are generated, validated, and maintained by a common software tool. Its main features and advantages are demonstrated. The tool has been improved continuously over the last 5 years. Due to its flexibility it can easily be applied to other projects and new features may be added.

  14. Summary of the operational land imager focal plane array for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Kirk A.; Burmester, William; Malone, Kevin; Schrein, Ronald J.; Irwin, Ronda; Donley, Eric; Collins, Sandra R.

    2011-10-01

    The Landsat missions are the longest continuous record of changes in the Earth's surface as seen from space. The next follow-on activity is the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The LDCM objective is to extend the ability to detect and quantitatively characterize changes on the global land surface at a scale where natural and man-made causes of change can be detected and differentiated. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments on the LDCM spacecraft. OLI will produce science data for the reflective bands, which include 6 visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and 3 short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands. The OLI instrument utilizes a pushbroom design with 15.5 degree field of view. As a result, the OLI Focal Plane Array (FPA) cross track dimension is large, and the FPA is a critical technology for the success of the mission. The FPA contains 14 critically aligned Focal Plane Modules (FPM) and consists of 6916 imaging pixels in each of the 8 multi-spectral bands, and 13,832 imaging pixels in the panchromatic band. Prior to integration into the FPA, the FPMs were characterized for radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. The Flight FPA has been built and its performance has also been characterized. In this paper, the critical attributes of the FPMs and FPA are highlighted. Detailed description of the FPM and FPA test sets are provided. The performance results that demonstrate compliance to the science mission requirements are presented.

  15. Philae: Operations on Comet 67P/Churyumoc-Gerasimenko. Lessons learned for future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Witte, Lars; Fantinati, Cinzia; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Maibaum, Michael; Delmas, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    Philae a comet Lander which is part of the ESA Rosetta mission successfully landed on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12th, 2014. After several (unplanned) bounces it performed a First Scientific Sequence (FSS), based on the energy stored in it's on board batteries. All ten instruments of the Philae payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the final landing site was poorly illuminated, Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, but signals from the Lander were received again in June and July 2015. However, attempts to re-establish reliable and stable communications links, unfortunately, failed. Analysis of the data gained during FSS, including housekeeping and interpretation of the bouncing trajectory allow conclusions on the comet surface properties. Together with the rich data gained from the orbiter this information will help optimizing future missions to comets and other small bodies in the Solar System. The paper gives an overview on the implications of Philae results for future engineering comet models, required particularly for the design of in-situ (landing) or sample return missions. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae Lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  16. Stardust Entry: Landing and Population Hazards in Mission Planning and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P.; Wawrzyniak, G.

    2006-01-01

    The 385 kg Stardust mission was launched on Feb 7, 1999 on a mission to collect samples from the tail of comet Wild 2 and from interplanetary space. Stardust returned to Earth in the early morning of January 15, 2006. The sample return capsule landed in the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) southwest of Salt Lake City. Because Stardust was landing on Earth, hazard analysis was required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, UTTR, and the Stardust Project to ensure the safe return of the landing capsule along with the safety of people, ground assets, and aircraft. This paper focuses on the requirements affecting safe return of the capsule and safety of people on the ground by investigating parameters such as probability of impacting on UTTR, casualty expectation, and probability of casualty. This paper introduces the methods for the calculation of these requirements and shows how they affected mission planning, site selection, and mission operations. By analyzing these requirements before and during entry it allowed for the selection of a robust landing point that met all of the requirements during the actual landing event.

  17. Mission analysis and guidance, navigation, and control design for rendezvous and docking phase of advanced reentry vehicle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strippoli, L.; Colmenarejo, P.; Strauch, H.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV) belongs to the family of vehicles designed to perform rendezvous and docking (RvD) with the International space station (ISS) [1]. Differently from its predecessor ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle), the ARV will transport a reentry capsule, equipped with a heatshield and able to bring back cargo, experiments, or, as a possible future development, even crew, being this latter scenario very attracting in view of the Space Shuttle retirement. GMV, as subcontractor of EADS-Astrium Germany, is in charge of the RvD and departure mission analysis and GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) design of ARV mission. This paper will present the main outcomes of the study.

  18. 1-Bit processing based model predictive control for fractionated satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xueliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2014-02-01

    The model predictive control (MPC) has great advantages in dealing with complex control constraints. However, traditional MPCs are too complex to implement in real-time embedded systems. This is especially true for nano-satellites due to limited on-board resources. This paper introduces a novel 1-bit processing based MPC (OBMPC) algorithm for a fractionated satellite mission, which can significantly reduce online calculations by removing multiply operations. The resulted pulse signals can be used to drive the actuator directly. The quantized state feedback fits the OBMPC in the frame work of quantized MPC. The stability issues and the design criterion are discussed in this paper. The simulation is based on a 2U CubeSat model in a fractionated satellite structure, in which the payload and actuators are separated from the controller and controlled via wireless inter-satellite link (ISL). Compared to the equivalent traditional MPC controller, FPGA implementation based performance analysis shows that OBMPC is feasible for fractionated satellite missions.

  19. Flight controller alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Dinges, David F.; Miller, Donna L.; Gillen, Kelly A.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Aguilar, Ronald D.; Smith, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations. During STS operations, MOD personnel provide 24 hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint JSC and ARC project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during STS-53 in Dec. 1992. The study measures included a background questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24 hr. basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen Flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further extended duration orbiters, timelines and planning for 24 circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment.

  20. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  1. Flight Path Control Design for the Cassini Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Christopher G.; Ionasescu, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn for just over 7 years, with a planned 7-year extension, called the Solstice Mission, which started on September 27, 2010. The Solstice Mission includes 205 maneuvers and 70 flybys which consist of the moons Titan, Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. This mission is designed to use all available propellant with a statistical margin averaging 0.6 m/s per encounter, and the work done to prove and ensure the viability of this margin is highlighted in this paper.

  2. Spacecraft active thermal control subsystem design and operation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Lehtinen, A. M.; Nguyen, H. T.; Parish, R.

    1986-01-01

    Future spacecraft missions will be characterized by high electrical power requiring active thermal control subsystems for acquisition, transport, and rejection of waste heat. These systems will be designed to operate with minimum maintenance for up to 10 years, with widely varying externally-imposed environments, as well as the spacecraft waste heat rejection loads. This paper presents the design considerations and idealized performance analysis of a typical thermal control subsystem with emphasis on the temperature control aspects during off-design operation. The selected thermal management subsystem is a cooling loop for a 75-kWe fuel cell subsystem, consisting of a fuel cell heat exchanger, thermal storage, pumps, and radiator. Both pumped-liquid transport and two-phase (liquid/vapor) transport options are presented with examination of similarities and differences of the control requirements for these representative thermal control options.

  3. Assessment and control of electrostatic charges. [hazards to space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, M.

    1974-01-01

    The experience is described of NASA and DOD with electrostatic problems, generation mechanisms, and type of electrostatic hazards. Guidelines for judging possible effects of electrostatic charges on space missions are presented along with mathematical formulas and definitions.

  4. An operational approach to long-duration mission behavioral health and performance factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's participation in nearly 10 yr of long-duration mission (LDM) training and flight confirms that these missions remain a difficult challenge for astronauts and their medical care providers. The role of the astronaut's crew surgeon is to maximize the astronaut's health throughout all phases of the LDM: preflight, in flight, and postflight. In support of the crew surgeon, the NASA-Johnson Space Center Behavioral Health and Performance Group (JSC-BHPG) has focused on four key factors that can reduce the astronaut's behavioral health and performance. These factors are defined as: sleep and circadian factors; behavioral health factors; psychological adaptation factors; and human-to-system interface (the interface between the astronaut and the mission workplace) factors. Both the crew surgeon and the JSC-BHPG must earn the crewmember's trust preflight to encourage problem identification and problem solving in these four areas. Once on orbit, the crew medical officer becomes a valuable extension of the crew surgeon and BHPG on the ground due to the crew medical officer's constant interaction with crewmembers and preflight training in these four factors. However, the crew surgeon, BHPG, and the crew medical officer need tools that will help predict, prevent, monitor, and respond to developing problems. Objective data become essential when difficult mission termination decisions must be made. The need for behavioral health and performance tool development creates an environment rich for collaboration between operational healthcare providers and researchers. These tools are also a necessary step to safely complete future, more autonomous exploration-class space missions.

  5. A Globally Stable Lyapunov Pointing and Rate Controller for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) is scheduled to launch in late 2014. Its primary goal is to discover the fundamental plasma physics processes of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Each of the four MMS spacecraft is spin-stabilized at a nominal rate of 3 RPM. Traditional spin-stabilized spacecraft have used a number of separate modes to control nutation, spin rate, and precession. To reduce the number of modes and simplify operations, the Delta-H control mode is designed to accomplish nutation control, spin rate control, and precession control simultaneously. A nonlinear design technique, Lyapunov's method, is used to design the Delta-H control mode. A global spin rate controller selected as the baseline controller for MMS, proved to be insufficient due to an ambiguity in the attitude. Lyapunov's design method was used to solve this ambiguity, resulting in a controller that meets the design goals. Simulation results show the advantage of the pointing and rate controller for maneuvers larger than 90 deg and provide insight into the performance of this controller.

  6. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053.

  7. Reverse osmosis filtration for space mission wastewater: membrane properties and operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Lueptow, R M

    2001-02-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has potential for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants for recycling space mission wastewater. Seven candidate RO membranes were compared using a batch stirred cell to determine the membrane flux and the solute rejection for synthetic space mission wastewaters. Even though the urea molecule is larger than ions such as Na+, Cl-, and NH4+, the rejection of urea is lower. This indicates that the chemical interaction between solutes and the membrane is more important than the size exclusion effect. Low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes appear to be most desirable because of their high permeate flux and rejection. Solute rejection is dependent on the shear rate, indicating the importance of concentration polarization. A simple transport model based on the solution-diffusion model incorporating concentration polarization is used to interpret the experimental results and predict rejection over a range of operating conditions. Grant numbers: NAG 9-1053. PMID:11594378

  8. Application of State Analysis and Goal-based Operations to a MER Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, John Richard; Ingham, Michel D.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Starbird, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    State Analysis is a model-based systems engineering methodology employing a rigorous discovery process which articulates operations concepts and operability needs as an integrated part of system design. The process produces requirements on system and software design in the form of explicit models which describe the system behavior in terms of state variables and the relationships among them. By applying State Analysis to an actual MER flight mission scenario, this study addresses the specific real world challenges of complex space operations and explores technologies that can be brought to bear on future missions. The paper first describes the tools currently used on a daily basis for MER operations planning and provides an in-depth description of the planning process, in the context of a Martian day's worth of rover engineering activities, resource modeling, flight rules, science observations, and more. It then describes how State Analysis allows for the specification of a corresponding goal-based sequence that accomplishes the same objectives, with several important additional benefits.

  9. Adaptable Single Active Loop Thermal Control System (TCS) for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mudawar, Issam; Lee, Seunghyun; Hasan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will examine the development of a thermal control system (TCS) for future space missions utilizing a single active cooling loop. The system architecture enables the TCS to be reconfigured during the various mission phases to respond, not only to varying heat load, but to heat rejection temperature as well. The system will consist of an accumulator, pump, cold plates (evaporators), condenser radiator, and compressor, in addition to control, bypass and throttling valves. For cold environments, the heat will be rejected by radiation, during which the compressor will be bypassed, reducing the system to a simple pumped loop that, depending on heat load, can operate in either a single-phase liquid mode or two-phase mode. For warmer environments, the pump will be bypassed, enabling the TCS to operate as a heat pump. This presentation will focus on recent findings concerning two-phase flow regimes, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient trends in the cabin and avionics micro-channel heat exchangers when using the heat pump mode. Also discussed will be practical implications of using micro-channel evaporators for the heat pump.

  10. Internet Protocol Display Sharing Solution for Mission Control Center Video System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of broadcast television as a constant source of information throughout the NASA manned space flight Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the current Video Transport System (VTS) characteristics provides the ability to visually enhance real-time applications as a broadcast channel that decision making flight controllers come to rely on, but can be difficult to maintain and costly. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) of the Mission Operations Facility Division (MOFD) has been tasked to provide insight to new innovative technological solutions for the MCC environment focusing on alternative architectures for a VTS. New technology will be provided to enable sharing of all imagery from one specific computer display, better known as Display Sharing (DS), to other computer displays and display systems such as; large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and other offsite centers using IP networks. It has been stated that Internet Protocol (IP) applications are easily readied to substitute for the current visual architecture, but quality and speed may need to be forfeited for reducing cost and maintainability. Although the IP infrastructure can support many technologies, the simple task of sharing ones computer display can be rather clumsy and difficult to configure and manage to the many operators and products. The DS process shall invest in collectively automating the sharing of images while focusing on such characteristics as; managing bandwidth, encrypting security measures, synchronizing disconnections from loss of signal / loss of acquisitions, performance latency, and provide functions like, scalability, multi-sharing, ease of initial integration / sustained configuration, integration with video adjustments packages, collaborative tools, host / recipient controllability, and the utmost paramount priority, an enterprise solution that provides ownership to the whole

  11. Alpha: A real-time decentralized operating system for mission-oriented system integration and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Alpha is a new kind of operating system that is unique in two highly significant ways. First, it is decentralized transparently providing reliable resource management across physically dispersed nodes, so that distributed applications programming can be done largely as though it were centralized. And second, it provides comprehensive, high technology support for real-time system integration and operation, an application area which consists predominately of aperiodic activities having critical time constraints such as deadlines. Alpha is extremely adaptable so that it can be easily optimized for a wide range of problem-specific functionality, performance, and cost. Alpha is the first systems effort of the Archons Project, and the prototype was created at Carnegie-Mellon University directly on modified Sun multiprocessor workstation hardware. It has been demonstrated with a real-time C(sup 2) application. Continuing research is leading to a series of enhanced follow-ons to Alpha; these are portable but initially hosted on Concurrent's MASSCOMP line of multiprocessor products.

  12. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  13. Joint operations planning for space surveillance missions on the MSX satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Grant; Good, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, sponsored by BMDO, is intended to gather broad-band phenomenology data on missiles, plumes, naturally occurring earthlimb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds. In addition the MSX will be used to conduct functional demonstrations of space-based space surveillance. The JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), located in Laurel, MD, is the integrator and operator of the MSX satellite. APL will conduct all operations related to the MSX and is charged with the detailed operations planning required to implement all of the experiments run on the MSX except the space surveillance experiments. The non-surveillance operations are generally amenable to being defined months ahead of time and being scheduled on a monthly basis. Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL), located in Lexington, MA, is the provider of one of the principle MSX instruments, the Space-Based Visible (SBV) sensor, and the agency charged with implementing the space surveillance demonstrations on the MSX. The planning timelines for the space surveillance demonstrations are fundamentally different from those for the other experiments. They are generally amenable to being scheduled on a monthly basis, but the specific experiment sequence and pointing must be refined shortly before execution. This allocation of responsibilities to different organizations implies the need for a joint mission planning system for conducting space surveillance demonstrations. This paper details the iterative, joint planning system, based on passing responsibility for generating MSX commands for surveillance operations from APL to LL for specific scheduled operations. The joint planning system, including the generation of a budget for spacecraft resources to be used for surveillance events, has been successfully demonstrated during ground testing of the MSX and is being validated for MSX launch within the year. The planning system developed for the MSX forms a

  14. A compiler and validator for flight operations on NASA space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, Sergio; Politi, Romolo; Capria, Maria Teresa; Giardino, Marco; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina

    2016-07-01

    In NASA missions the management and the programming of the flight systems is performed by a specific scripting language, the SASF (Spacecraft Activity Sequence File). In order to perform a check on the syntax and grammar it is necessary a compiler that stress the errors (eventually) found in the sequence file produced for an instrument on board the flight system. In our experience on Dawn mission, we developed VIRV (VIR Validator), a tool that performs checks on the syntax and grammar of SASF, runs a simulations of VIR acquisitions and eventually finds violation of the flight rules of the sequences produced. The project of a SASF compiler (SSC - Spacecraft Sequence Compiler) is ready to have a new implementation: the generalization for different NASA mission. In fact, VIRV is a compiler for a dialect of SASF; it includes VIR commands as part of SASF language. Our goal is to produce a general compiler for the SASF, in which every instrument has a library to be introduced into the compiler. The SSC can analyze a SASF, produce a log of events, perform a simulation of the instrument acquisition and check the flight rules for the instrument selected. The output of the program can be produced in GRASS GIS format and may help the operator to analyze the geometry of the acquisition.

  15. Orbit Transfers for Dawn's Vesta Operations : Navigation and Mission Design Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Dongsuk

    2012-01-01

    Dawn, a mission belonging to NASA's Discovery Program, was launched on September 27, 2007 to explore main belt asteroids in order to yield insights into important questions about the formation and evolution of the solar system. From July of 2011 to August of 2012, the Dawn spacecraft successfully returned valuable science data, collected during the four planned mapping orbits at its first target asteroid, Vesta. Each mapping orbit was designed to enable a different set of scientific observations. Such a mission would have been impossible without the low thrust ion propulsion system (IPS). Maneuvering a spacecraft using only the IPS for the transfers between the mapping orbits posed many technical challenges to Dawn's flight team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Each transfer needs a robust plan that accounts for uncertainties in maneuver execution, orbit determination, and physical characteristics of Vesta. This paper discusses the mission design and navigational experience during Dawn's Vesta operations. Topics include requirements and constraints from Dawn's science and spacecraft teams, orbit determination and maneuver design and building process for transfers, developing timelines for thrust sequence build cycles, and the process of scheduling very demanding coverage with ground antennae at NASA's Deep Space Network.

  16. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  17. NASA future mission needs and benefits of controls-structures interaction technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Two questions are addressed: (1) which future missions need Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology for implementing large spacecraft in orbit; and (2) what specific benefits are to be derived if the technology is available? The answers to these questions were used to help formulate and direct the CSI technology development program. Many future NASA missions have common CSI technology needs which can best be developed in a broad-based, but focused, technology program to provide the greatest benefit to the largest number of users. Three CSI benefit studies were completed to date as part of ongoing assessment process: (1) missions requiring large antennas; (2) missions requiring large optical systems; and (3) missions requiring the use of closed-loop controlled, flexible, remote manipulator systems (RMS) for in-space assembly. The large antenna and flexible RMS mission benefits are discussed.

  18. SILEX ground segment control facilities and flight operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demelenne, Benoit; Tolker-Nielsen, Toni; Guillen, Jean-Claude

    1999-04-01

    The European Space Agency is going to conduct an inter orbit link experiment which will connect a low Earth orbiting satellite and a Geostationary satellite via optical terminals. This experiment has been called SILEX (Semiconductor Inter satellite Link Experiment). Two payloads have been built. One called PASTEL (PASsager de TELecommunication) has been embarked on the French Earth observation satellite SPOT4 which has been launched successfully in March 1998. The future European experimental data relay satellite ARTEMIS (Advanced Relay and TEchnology MISsion), which will route the data to ground, will carry the OPALE terminal (Optical Payload Experiment). The European Space Agency is responsible for the operation of both terminals. Due to the complexity and experimental character of this new optical technology, the development, preparation and validation of the ground segment control facilities required a long series of technical and operational qualification tests. This paper is presenting the operations concept and the early results of the PASTEL in orbit operations.

  19. Computer control for remote wind turbine operation

    SciTech Connect

    Manwell, J.F.; Rogers, A.L.; Abdulwahid, U.; Driscoll, J.

    1997-12-31

    Light weight wind turbines located in harsh, remote sites require particularly capable controllers. Based on extensive operation of the original ESI-807 moved to such a location, a much more sophisticated controller than the original one has been developed. This paper describes the design, development and testing of that new controller. The complete control and monitoring system consists of sensor and control inputs, the control computer, control outputs, and additional equipment. The control code was written in Microsoft Visual Basic on a PC type computer. The control code monitors potential faults and allows the turbine to operate in one of eight states: off, start, run, freewheel, low wind shut down, normal wind shutdown, emergency shutdown, and blade parking. The controller also incorporates two {open_quotes}virtual wind turbines,{close_quotes} including a dynamic model of the machine, for code testing. The controller can handle numerous situations for which the original controller was unequipped.

  20. Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Concept Simulation of Operations in Proximity to a Near Earth Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper details a project to simulate the dynamics of a proposed Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and modeling the control of this spacecraft. A potential mission of the MMSEV would be to collect samples from a Near-Earth Object (NEO), a mission which would require the spacecraft to be able to navigate to an orbit keeping it stationary over an area of a spinning asteroid while a robotic arm interacts with the surface.