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Sample records for control rod calibration

  1. Control rod calibration and reactivity effects at the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Letícia Negrão; Gonnelli, Eduardo; dos Santos, Adimir

    2014-11-01

    Researches that aim to improve the performance of neutron transport codes and quality of nuclear cross section databases are very important to increase the accuracy of simulations and the quality of the analysis and prediction of phenomena in the nuclear field. In this context, relevant experimental data such as reactivity worth measurements are needed. Control rods may be made of several neutron absorbing materials that are used to adjust the reactivity of the core. For the reactor operation, these experimental data are also extremely important: with them it is possible to estimate the reactivity worth by the movement of the control rod, understand the reactor response at each rod position and to operate the reactor safely. This work presents a temperature correction approach for the control rod calibration problem. It is shown the control rod calibration data of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, the integral and differential reactivity curves and a theoretical analysis, performed by the MCNP-5 reactor physics code, developed and maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory, using the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library.

  2. Control rod calibration and reactivity effects at the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Letícia Negrão; Gonnelli, Eduardo; Santos, Adimir dos

    2014-11-11

    Researches that aim to improve the performance of neutron transport codes and quality of nuclear cross section databases are very important to increase the accuracy of simulations and the quality of the analysis and prediction of phenomena in the nuclear field. In this context, relevant experimental data such as reactivity worth measurements are needed. Control rods may be made of several neutron absorbing materials that are used to adjust the reactivity of the core. For the reactor operation, these experimental data are also extremely important: with them it is possible to estimate the reactivity worth by the movement of the control rod, understand the reactor response at each rod position and to operate the reactor safely. This work presents a temperature correction approach for the control rod calibration problem. It is shown the control rod calibration data of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, the integral and differential reactivity curves and a theoretical analysis, performed by the MCNP-5 reactor physics code, developed and maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory, using the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library.

  3. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  4. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.; Ross, H.V.

    1958-11-18

    A control rod is described for a nuclear reactor. In certaln reactor designs it becomes desirable to use a control rod having great width but relatively llttle thickness. This patent is addressed to such a need. The neutron absorbing material is inserted in a triangular tube, leaving volds between the circular insert and the corners of the triangular tube. The material is positioned within the tube by the use of dummy spacers to achleve the desired absorption pattern, then the ends of the tubes are sealed with suitable plugs. The tubes may be welded or soldered together to form two flat surfaces of any desired width, and covered with sheetmetal to protect the tubes from damage. This design provides a control member that will not distort under the action of outside forces or be ruptured by gases generated within the jacketed control member.

  5. Control rod

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Cearley, J.E.; VanDiemen, P.; Sayre, E.D.; Gordon, G.M.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes in a nuclear reactor control rod having elongate planar members for absorption of neutrons within a nuclear reactor for control of the nuclear reaction, the elongate planar members being formed of a plurality of tubes arranged side-by-side in abutting contact and joined together. The tube comprises: a tube defining a cylindrical pressure vessel for containment of neutron absorbing poisons. The tube defining constant side wall thickness sufficient to define there within a cylindrical volume for the containment of neutron absorbing poisons and having sufficient side wall thickness to retain the poisons under all anticipated pressures from decomposition of the neutron absorbing poisons; and the tube integrally defining in addition to the cylindrical pressure vessel four discrete right angle corner sections placed at 90{degree} intervals to the side wall of the constant side wall thickness tube; and neutron absorbing poisons confined within the tube for absorption of neutrons for control of the nuclear reaction.

  6. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  7. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  8. CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT

    DOEpatents

    Thorp, A.G. II

    1962-08-01

    An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

  9. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  10. Control rod driveline and grapple

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A control rod driveline and grapple is disclosed for placement between a control rod drive and a nuclear reactor control rod containing poison for parasitic neutron absorption required for reactor shutdown. The control rod is provided with an enlarged cylindrical handle which terminates in an upwardly extending rod to provide a grapple point for the driveline. The grapple mechanism includes a tension rod which receives the upwardly extending handle and is provided with a lower annular flange. A plurality of preferably six grapple segments surround and grip the control rod handle. Each grapple rod segment grips the flange on the tension rod at an interior upper annular indentation, bears against the enlarged cylindrical handle at an intermediate annulus and captures the upwardly flaring frustum shaped handle at a lower and complementary female segment. The tension rods and grapple segments are surrounded by and encased within a cylinder. The cylinder terminates immediately and outward extending annulus at the lower portion of the grapple segments. Excursion of the tension rod relative to the encasing cylinder causes rod release at the handle by permitting the grapple segments to pivot outwardly and about the annulus on the tension rod so as to open the lower defined frustum shaped annulus and drop the rod. Relative movement between the tension rod and cylinder can occur either due to electromagnetic release of the tension rod within defined limits of travel or differential thermal expansion as between the tension rod and cylinder as where the reactor exceeds design thermal limits.

  11. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  12. SAFETY SYSTEM FOR CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.

    1963-05-14

    A structure for monitoring the structural continuity of a control rod foi a neutron reactor is presented. A electric conductor readily breakable under mechanical stress is fastened along the length of the control rod at a plurality of positions and forms a closed circuit with remote electrical components responsive to an open circuit. A portion of the conductor between the control rod and said components is helically wound to allow free and normally unrestricted movement of the segment of conductor secured to the control rod relative to the remote components. Any break in the circuit is indicative of control rod breakage. (AEC)

  13. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  14. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

    1959-12-15

    ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

  16. Control of Rod-Rod Interactions in Poly(3-alkylthiophenes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Victor; Boudouris, Bryan W.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2010-03-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) is a commonly used semiconducting polymer because of its relatively high charge transport ability, low band gap, and solution processiblity. Strong intermolecular interactions lead to the formation of nanofibers during crystallization, which prevents long-range microstructural ordering. We show rod-rod interactions, parameterized by the Maier-Saupe parameter, can be controlled by rational polythiophene side chain design. Effects of side chain passivation are evidenced by a depressed melting temperature and the presence of a liquid crystalline region. Additionally, the Maier-Saupe parameters are estimated for poly(3-dodecylthiophene) and poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene); the relative magnitudes of each are related to the interchain spacings obtained by x-ray diffraction experiments. The systematic tuning of the rod-rod interactions in polythiophenes allows for manipulation of the ratio of Maier-Saupe to the Flory-Huggins parameter, a crucial value in obtaining long-range order in rod-coil block copolymer morphologies.

  17. Inverted Control Rod Lock-In Device

    DOEpatents

    Brussalis, W. G.; Bost, G. E.

    1962-12-01

    A mechanism which prevents control rods from dropping out of the reactor core in the event the vessel in which the reactor is mounted should capsize is described. The mechanism includes a pivoted toothed armature which engages the threaded control rod lead screw and prevents removal of the rod whenever the armature is not attracted by the provided electromagnetic means. (AEC)

  18. Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

  19. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  20. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  1. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  2. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  3. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  4. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing.

  5. Magnetically controlled growing rods for scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Metkar, Umesh; Kurra, Swamy; Quinzi, David; Albanese, Stephen; Lavelle, William F

    2017-02-01

    Early onset scoliosis can be both a disfiguring as well as a life threatening condition. When more conservative treatments fail, pediatric spinal surgeons are forced to consider operative interventions. Traditionally, these interventions have involved the insertion of a variety of implants into the patient with a limited number of anchor points controlling the spine. In the past, these pediatric patients have had multiple surgeries for elective lengthening of these devices to facilitate their growth while attempting to control the scoliosis. These patients often experience a physical and emotional toll from their multiple repeated surgeries. Growing spine techniques have also had a noted high complication rate due to implant dislodgement and infections. Recently, the development of non-invasively, self-lengthening growing rods has occurred. These devices have the potential to allow for the devices to be lengthened magnetically in a conscious patient in the surgeon's office. Areas covered: This review summarized previously published articles in the English literature using a key word search in PubMed for: 'magnetically controlled growing rods', 'Magec rods', 'magnetic growing rods' and 'growing rods'. Expert commentary: Magnetically controlled growing rods have an advantage over growing rods in lengthening the growing spine in the absence of repetitive surgeries.

  6. VARIABLE AREA CONTROL ROD FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Huston, N.E.

    1960-05-01

    A control rod is described which permits continual variation of its absorbing strength uniformly along the length of the rod. The rod is fail safe and is fully inserted into the core but changes in its absorbing strength do not produce axial flux distortion. The control device comprises a sheet containing a material having a high thermal-neutron absorption cross section. A pair of shafts engage the sheet along the longitudinal axis of the shafts and gears associated with the shafts permit winding and unwinding of the sheet around the shafts.

  7. Variable flow control for a nuclear reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, Richard D.; Bhattacharyya, Ajay

    1978-01-01

    A variable flow control for a control rod assembly of a nuclear reactor that depends on turbulent friction though an annulus. The annulus is formed by a piston attached to the control rod drive shaft and a housing or sleeve fitted to the enclosure housing the control rod. As the nuclear fuel is burned up and the need exists for increased reactivity, the control rods are withdrawn, which increases the length of the annulus and decreases the rate of coolant flow through the control rod assembly.

  8. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Roman, Walter G.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1979-01-01

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod.

  9. Substitute safety rods: Physics design and NTG calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, N.P.

    1991-07-01

    Under certain assumed accident conditions, an SRS reactor may loose most of its bulk moderator while maintaining flow to fuel assemblies. If this occurs immediately after operation at power, components normally dependent on convective heat transfer to the moderator will heat up with the possibility of melting that component. One component at risk is the safety rod. Tests have shown that the current cadmium safety rod, which contains aluminum as well as cadmium, can fail at temperatures only slightly in excess of 500 deg C. Computations indicate that such temperatures can be reached with operating powers well below the 50% power limit now imposed by other accident scenarios. Safety rod melting would thus establish a new lower operating limit. A substitute safety rod that could tolerate much higher temperatures would eliminate this limit. This memorandum details the physics characteristics of a suitable replacement rod. 7 refs.

  10. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  11. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1986-01-01

    A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  12. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  13. Nuclear reactor remote disconnect control rod coupling indicator

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael

    1977-01-01

    A coupling indicator for use with nuclear reactor control rod assemblies which have remotely disengageable couplings between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling indicator indicates whether the control rod and the control rod drive shaft are engaged or disengaged. A resistive network, utilizing magnetic reed switches, senses the position of the control rod drive mechanism lead screw and the control rod position indicating tube, and the relative position of these two elements with respect to each other is compared to determine whether the coupling is engaged or disengaged.

  14. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  15. Control rod drive for reactor shutdown

    DOEpatents

    McKeehan, Ernest R.; Shawver, Bruce M.; Schiro, Donald J.; Taft, William E.

    1976-01-20

    A means for rapidly shutting down or scramming a nuclear reactor, such as a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, and serves as a backup to the primary shutdown system. The control rod drive consists basically of an in-core assembly, a drive shaft and seal assembly, and a control drive mechanism. The control rod is driven into the core region of the reactor by gravity and hydraulic pressure forces supplied by the reactor coolant, thus assuring that common mode failures will not interfere with or prohibit scramming the reactor when necessary.

  16. HIGH STRENGTH CONTROL RODS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Lustman, B.; Losco, E.F.; Cohen, I.

    1961-07-11

    Nuclear reactor control rods comprised of highly compressed and sintered finely divided metal alloy panticles and fine metal oxide panticles substantially uniformly distributed theretbrough are described. The metal alloy consists essentially of silver, indium, cadmium, tin, and aluminum, the amount of each being present in centain percentages by weight. The oxide particles are metal oxides of the metal alloy composition, the amount of oxygen being present in certain percentages by weight and all the oxygen present being substantially in the form of metal oxide. This control rod is characterized by its high strength and resistance to creep at elevated temperatures.

  17. Extending calibration-free force measurements to optically-trapped rod-shaped samples.

    PubMed

    Català, Frederic; Marsà, Ferran; Montes-Usategui, Mario; Farré, Arnau; Martín-Badosa, Estela

    2017-02-21

    Optical trapping has become an optimal choice for biological research at the microscale due to its non-invasive performance and accessibility for quantitative studies, especially on the forces involved in biological processes. However, reliable force measurements depend on the calibration of the optical traps, which is different for each experiment and hence requires high control of the local variables, especially of the trapped object geometry. Many biological samples have an elongated, rod-like shape, such as chromosomes, intracellular organelles (e.g., peroxisomes), membrane tubules, certain microalgae, and a wide variety of bacteria and parasites. This type of samples often requires several optical traps to stabilize and orient them in the correct spatial direction, making it more difficult to determine the total force applied. Here, we manipulate glass microcylinders with holographic optical tweezers and show the accurate measurement of drag forces by calibration-free direct detection of beam momentum. The agreement between our results and slender-body hydrodynamic theoretical calculations indicates potential for this force-sensing method in studying protracted, rod-shaped specimens.

  18. Extending calibration-free force measurements to optically-trapped rod-shaped samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Català, Frederic; Marsà, Ferran; Montes-Usategui, Mario; Farré, Arnau; Martín-Badosa, Estela

    2017-02-01

    Optical trapping has become an optimal choice for biological research at the microscale due to its non-invasive performance and accessibility for quantitative studies, especially on the forces involved in biological processes. However, reliable force measurements depend on the calibration of the optical traps, which is different for each experiment and hence requires high control of the local variables, especially of the trapped object geometry. Many biological samples have an elongated, rod-like shape, such as chromosomes, intracellular organelles (e.g., peroxisomes), membrane tubules, certain microalgae, and a wide variety of bacteria and parasites. This type of samples often requires several optical traps to stabilize and orient them in the correct spatial direction, making it more difficult to determine the total force applied. Here, we manipulate glass microcylinders with holographic optical tweezers and show the accurate measurement of drag forces by calibration-free direct detection of beam momentum. The agreement between our results and slender-body hydrodynamic theoretical calculations indicates potential for this force-sensing method in studying protracted, rod-shaped specimens.

  19. Extending calibration-free force measurements to optically-trapped rod-shaped samples

    PubMed Central

    Català, Frederic; Marsà, Ferran; Montes-Usategui, Mario; Farré, Arnau; Martín-Badosa, Estela

    2017-01-01

    Optical trapping has become an optimal choice for biological research at the microscale due to its non-invasive performance and accessibility for quantitative studies, especially on the forces involved in biological processes. However, reliable force measurements depend on the calibration of the optical traps, which is different for each experiment and hence requires high control of the local variables, especially of the trapped object geometry. Many biological samples have an elongated, rod-like shape, such as chromosomes, intracellular organelles (e.g., peroxisomes), membrane tubules, certain microalgae, and a wide variety of bacteria and parasites. This type of samples often requires several optical traps to stabilize and orient them in the correct spatial direction, making it more difficult to determine the total force applied. Here, we manipulate glass microcylinders with holographic optical tweezers and show the accurate measurement of drag forces by calibration-free direct detection of beam momentum. The agreement between our results and slender-body hydrodynamic theoretical calculations indicates potential for this force-sensing method in studying protracted, rod-shaped specimens. PMID:28220855

  20. CONTROL ROD ALLOY CONTAINING NOBLE METAL ADDITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.K.; Ray, W.E.

    1960-05-01

    Silver-base alloys suitable for use in the fabrication of control rods for neutronic reactors are given. The alloy consists of from 0.5 wt.% to about 1.5 wt.% of a noble metal of platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, or palladium, up to 10 wt.% of cadmium, from 2 to 20 wt.% indium, the balance being silver.

  1. Need and procedure for calibration of fuel rod simulators. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, R.D.; Ott, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental thermocouple calibration procedure and four-part calibration program, ORTCAL (ORNL Thermocouple Calibration), have been developed to supply FRS performance information to the inverse heat conduction model and program ORINC. Case studies have shown that failure to fully classify FRSs with regard to component physical properties, gaps, etc., can result in severe errors during inverse calculations of the driving potential at the surface of the FRS (..delta..T), the spatial and temporal history of the heat flow within the FRS, and the surface heat flux.

  2. Rod lengthening with the magnetically controlled growing rod: factors influencing rod slippage and reduced gains during distractions.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Yiu, Karen Kar Lum; Samartzis, Dino; Kwan, Kenny; Tan, Boon-Beng; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2017-08-01

    Prospective study OBJECTIVE.: To identify the factors that are associated with rod slippage and to study the pattern of achieved length gain with a standard distraction methodology. Ability to achieve successful magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) distraction is crucial for gradual spine lengthening. Rod slippage has been described as a failure of internal magnet rotation leading to a slippage and an inability to distract the rod. However, its onset, significance and risk factors are currently unknown. In addition, how this phenomenon pertains to actual distracted lengths is unknown. A total of 22 patients with MCGR and at least 6 distraction episodes were prospectively studied. Patients with rod slippage occurring ≤6 distraction episodes were considered early rod slippage while those >6 or have yet not slipped were grouped as late rod slippage. The association of parameters including body habitus, maturity status, age of implantation, total number of distractions, months of distraction from initial implantation, initial and postoperative Cobb angle, T1-T12, T1-S1, T5-T12 kyphosis, curve flexibility, fusion block length, and distance between magnets in dual rods and between the magnets and apex of the curve with early or late onset of rod slippage was studied. Differences between expected and achieved distraction lengths were assessed with reference to rod slippage episodes and rod exchanges to determine any patterns of diminishing returns. Patients had mean age of 7.1 years at diagnosis with mean follow-up of 49.8 months. A mean 32.4 distractions were performed per patient. Early rod slippage occurred in 14 patients and late rod slippage occurred in 8 patients. Increased height, weight, body mass index, older age, increased T1-12 and T1-S1 lengths, and less distance between magnets were significantly associated with early rod slippage. Expected distraction lengths did not translate to achieved distraction lengths and reduced gains were only observed after

  3. Analysis of some compliance calibration data for chevron-notch bar and rod specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.; Bubsey, Raymond T.; Pierce, William S.; Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A set of equations describing certain fracture mechanics parameters for chevron-notch bar and rod specimens are presented. They are developed by fitting earlier compliance calibration data. The difficulty in determining the minimum stress intensity coefficient and the critical crack length is discussed.

  4. CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.; Liederbach, F.J.; Lones, W.

    1963-05-14

    A lead-screw-type control rod drive featuring an electric motor and a fluid motor arranged to provide a selectably alternative driving means is described. The electric motor serves to drive the control rod slowly during normal operation, while the fluid motor, assisted by an automatic declutching of the electric motor, affords high-speed rod insertion during a scram. (AEC)

  5. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitarev, V. E.; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  6. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitarev, V. E. Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V.

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  7. Rebirth of a control rod at the Phenix power plant

    SciTech Connect

    De Carvalho, Corinne; Vignau, Bernard; Masson, Marc

    2007-07-01

    This paper outlines the operations involved in cleaning the control rod for the complementary shutdown system in the Phenix Power Plant, the French sodium-cooled fast reactor. The Phenix reactor is controlled by six control rods and a complementary shutdown system. The latter comprises a control rod and a mechanism maintaining the rod in position by means of an electromagnet. The electromagnet is continuously supplied with power and holds the rod control assembly in position by magnetisation on a plane circular surface made from pure iron. The bearing capacity of the mechanism on the rod was initially 80 daN with a rod weight of 26.3 daN. This deteriorated progressively over time. The bearing surface of the rod and the electromagnet became contaminated with a deposit of sodium oxides and metallic particles, thus creating an air gap. This reached a figure of 36 daN in 2005 and was deemed not to be sufficient to prevent the rod from dropping at the wrong time during reactor operation. The Power Plant thus decided to replace the rod mechanism in the reactor in an initial phase, followed by the control rod itself. As the Phenix Power Plant had no spare control rods left, they initiated a 'salvage' plan, over two stages, for the rod removed from the reactor and placed in the fuel storage drum: - Inspection of the bearing surface of the rod by means of a borescope to check whether the rod could be salvaged, - A cleaning operation on the bearing face and checks on the bearing capacity of the rod. The operation is subject to very stringent requirements: the rod must not be taken out of the sodium to ensure that it can be reused in the reactor. The operation must thus take place in the fuel storage drum where there are no facilities for such an operation and where operating conditions are very hostile: high temperatures (the sodium in the fuel storage drum is at a temperature of 150 deg. C, high dose rate (3 mGy/h on the bearing surface) and the bearing surface is submerged

  8. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bilibin, Konstantin

    1988-01-01

    A temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly 10. The upper end 18 of a lower drive line 17 fits within the lower end of an upper drive line 12. The lower end (not shown) of the lower drive line 17 is connected to a neutron absorber. During normal temperature conditions the lower drive line 17 is supported by detent means 22,26. When an overtemperature condition occurs thermal actuation means 34 urges ring 26 upwardly sufficiently to allow balls 22 to move radially outwardly thereby allowing lower drive line 17 to move downwardly toward the core of the nuclear reactor resulting in automatic reduction of the reactor powder.

  9. Approximation in LQG control of a thermoelastic rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.; Tao, G.

    1989-01-01

    Control and estimator gains are computed for linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) optimal control of the axial vibrations of a thermoelastic rod. The computations are based on a modal approximation of the partial differential equations representing the rod, and convergence of the approximations to control and estimator gains is the main issue.

  10. CONTROL ROD FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Hausner, H.H.

    1958-12-30

    BS>An improved control rod is presented for a nuclear reactor. This control rod is comprised of a rare earth metal oxide or rare earth metal carbide such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium carbide, uniformly distributed in a metal matrix having a low cross sectional area of absorption for thermal neutrons, such as aluminum, beryllium, and zirconium.

  11. Regulation of nuclear reactors by duplexed control rods; Linearized analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, N.H.S. ); Diab, H.B. )

    1991-10-01

    In this paper the dynamic behavior of a duplex control rod for a nuclear reactor is analyzed by linearized modeling. A simulation-aided design for this duplex, which has performance and safety characteristics that are improved over those of conventional single control rods with the same stability margins, is reported.

  12. DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING INSERTION OF ROD

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, B.J.

    1958-10-14

    A device for rapidly inserting a safety rod into a nuclear reactor upon a given signal or in the event of a power failure in order to prevent the possibility of extensive damage caused by a power excursion is described. A piston is slidably mounted within a vertical cylinder with provision for an electromagnetic latch at the top of the cylinder. This assembly, with a safety rod attached to the piston, is mounted over an access port to the core region of the reactor. The piston is normally latched at the top of the cylinder with the safety rod clear of the core area, however, when the latch is released, the piston and rod drop by their own weight to insert the rod. Vents along the side of the cylinder permit the escape of the air entrapped under the piston over the greater part of the distance, however, at the end of the fall the entrapped air is compressed thereby bringing the safety rod gently to rest, thus providing for a rapid automatic insertion of the rod with a minimum of structural shock.

  13. Do rod signals control stimulus field prevalence in binocular rivalry?

    PubMed

    Young, R S; Young, G A

    1979-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that rod signals mediate the effect of luminance on field prevalence in binocular rivalry. Results show that (1) field prevalence saturates at a luminance that is less than 0.001 that of the value reported for rod saturation, (2) the spectral sensitivity inferred from the prevalence-luminance relationship is not scotopic, and (3) the prevalence-luminance relationship does not behave univariantly under all chromatic conditions. We conclude that rod signals alone do not control field prevalence.

  14. VIEW OF CABLES AND TAPES ASSOCIATED WITH ADRIVE CONTROL ROD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CABLES AND TAPES ASSOCIATED WITH A-DRIVE CONTROL ROD SYSTEM, AT LEVEL +15’, DIRECTLY ABOVE PDP CONTROL ROOM, LOOKING NORTH - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  15. COAXIAL CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-04-14

    A drive mechanism is presented for the control rod or a nuclear reactor. In this device the control rod is coupled to a drive shaft which extends coaxially through the rotor of an electric motor for relative rotation with respect thereto. A gear reduction mehanism is coupled between the rotor and the drive shaft to convert the rotary motion of the motor into linear motion of the shaft with a comparatively great reduction in speed, thereby providing relatively glow linear movement of the shaft and control rod for control purposes.

  16. Compliance calibration of the short rod chevron-notch specimen for fracture toughness testing of brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubsey, R. T.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Munz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The short rod chevron-notch specimen has the advantages of (1) crack development at the chevron tip during the early stage of test loading, and (2) convenient calculation of plane-strain fracture toughness from the maximum test load and from a calibration factor which depends only on the specimen geometry and manner of loading. For generalized application, calibration of the specimen over a range of specimen proportions and chevron-notch configurations is necessary. Such was the objective of this investigation, wherein calibration of the short rod specimen was made by means of experimental compliance measurements converted into dimensionless stress intensity factor coefficients.

  17. Compliance calibration of the short rod chevron-notch specimen for fracture toughness testing of brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubsey, R. T.; Pierce, W. S.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Munz, D.

    1982-01-01

    The short rod chevron-notch specimen has the advantages of (1) crack development at the chevron tip during the early stage of test loading, and (2) convenient calculation of plane-strain fracture toughness from the maximum test load and from a calibration factor which depends only on the specimen geometry and manner of loading. For generalized application, calibration of the specimen over a range of specimen proportions and chevron-notch configurations is necessary. Such was the objective of this investigation, wherein calibration of the short rod specimen was made by means of experimental compliance measurements converted into dimensionless stress intensity factor coefficients.

  18. Control wetting state transition by micro-rod geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang; Jiang, Chengyu; Wang, Shengkun; Yin, Hengxu; Yuan, Weizheng

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the effect of micro-structure geometry on wetting state transition is important to design and control surface wettability. Micro-rod model was proposed and the relationship between micro-rod geometry and wetting state was investigated in the paper taking into account only the surface roughness and neglecting the chemistry interaction. Micro-rods with different geometric parameters were fabricated using micro-fabrication technology. Their contact angles were measured and compared with theoretical ones. The experimental results indicated that increasing the height and decreasing the space of micro-rod may result in Cassie wetting state, while decreasing the height and increasing the space may result in Wenzel wetting state. A suspended wetting state model due to scallops was proposed. The wetting state transition was interpreted by intruding height, de-pinning and sag mechanism. It may offer a facile way to control the surface wetting state transition by changing the geometry of micro-rod.

  19. Simplified modeling of the EBR-II control rods

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, P.L.

    1995-06-25

    Simplified models of EBR-II control and safety rods have been developed for core modeling under various operational and shutdown conditions. A parametric study was performed on normal worth, high worth, and safety rod type control rods. A summary of worth changes due to individual modeling approximations is tabulated. Worth effects due to structural modeling simplification are negligible. Fuel region homogenization and burnup compression contributes more than any other factor. Reference case C/E values (ratio of calculated worth from detailed model to measured worth) of 1.072 and 1.142 for safety and normal worth rods indicate acceptable errors when the approximations are used. Fuel burnup effect illustrates rod worth sensitivity to the modeling approximation. Aggregate effects are calculated under a reduced mesh.

  20. Cleaning and excavating tool for control rod canopy seals

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, R.A.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a device for servicing a weld site about the periphery of a control rod drive mechanism. It comprises a housing adapted to be rotated about the periphery of the control rod drive mechanism; a carriage reciprocably received within the housing; first movement means for reciprocating the carriage in a first direction; a tool attachment reciprocably received within the carriage; and second movement means for reciprocating the tool in a second direction; wherein the tool attachment is positioned relative to the control rod drive mechanism by the first and second movement means.

  1. Fatigue Life Improving of Drill Rod by Inclusion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yinghao

    2016-08-01

    Large and hard inclusions often deteriorate the service performance and reduce the fatigue lifetime of drill rods. In this paper, the main reasons of the rupture of drill rods were analyzed by the examination of their fracture and it is found that the large inclusions were the main reason of breakage of rod drill. The inclusions were high of Ca content or Al2O3 rich. Smaller and better deformability inclusions were obtained by the optimization of refining slag, calcium treatment process and the flow control devices of tundish. Results of industrial experiment after optimization show that total oxygen content of drill rods decreased by more than 50%, macro-inclusions weight fraction decreased from about 4 mg/10 kg to about 0.3 mg/10 kg and the micro-inclusions average size decreased from 6 to 3.6 μm. The average using times of drill rods after optimization were increased by about 60%.

  2. Sediment Core Extrusion Method at Millimeter Resolution Using a Calibrated, Threaded-rod.

    PubMed

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Larson, Rebekka A; O'Malley, Bryan J; Fridrik, Erika E; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Rosenheim, Brad E; Hollander, David J; Grant, Guy; Mulhollan, Jim

    2016-08-17

    Aquatic sediment core subsampling is commonly performed at cm or half-cm resolution. Depending on the sedimentation rate and depositional environment, this resolution provides records at the annual to decadal scale, at best. An extrusion method, using a calibrated, threaded-rod is presented here, which allows for millimeter-scale subsampling of aquatic sediment cores of varying diameters. Millimeter scale subsampling allows for sub-annual to monthly analysis of the sedimentary record, an order of magnitude higher than typical sampling schemes. The extruder consists of a 2 m aluminum frame and base, two core tube clamps, a threaded-rod, and a 1 m piston. The sediment core is placed above the piston and clamped to the frame. An acrylic sampling collar is affixed to the upper 5 cm of the core tube and provides a platform from which to extract sub-samples. The piston is rotated around the threaded-rod at calibrated intervals and gently pushes the sediment out the top of the core tube. The sediment is then isolated into the sampling collar and placed into an appropriate sampling vessel (e.g., jar or bag). This method also preserves the unconsolidated samples (i.e., high pore water content) at the surface, providing a consistent sampling volume. This mm scale extrusion method was applied to cores collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon submarine oil release. Evidence suggests that it is necessary to sample at the mm scale to fully characterize events that occur on the monthly time-scale for continental slope sediments.

  3. Sediment Core Extrusion Method at Millimeter Resolution Using a Calibrated, Threaded-rod

    PubMed Central

    Schwing, Patrick T.; Romero, Isabel C.; Larson, Rebekka A.; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Fridrik, Erika E.; Goddard, Ethan A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Hastings, David W.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Hollander, David J.; Grant, Guy; Mulhollan, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic sediment core subsampling is commonly performed at cm or half-cm resolution. Depending on the sedimentation rate and depositional environment, this resolution provides records at the annual to decadal scale, at best. An extrusion method, using a calibrated, threaded-rod is presented here, which allows for millimeter-scale subsampling of aquatic sediment cores of varying diameters. Millimeter scale subsampling allows for sub-annual to monthly analysis of the sedimentary record, an order of magnitude higher than typical sampling schemes. The extruder consists of a 2 m aluminum frame and base, two core tube clamps, a threaded-rod, and a 1 m piston. The sediment core is placed above the piston and clamped to the frame. An acrylic sampling collar is affixed to the upper 5 cm of the core tube and provides a platform from which to extract sub-samples. The piston is rotated around the threaded-rod at calibrated intervals and gently pushes the sediment out the top of the core tube. The sediment is then isolated into the sampling collar and placed into an appropriate sampling vessel (e.g., jar or bag). This method also preserves the unconsolidated samples (i.e., high pore water content) at the surface, providing a consistent sampling volume. This mm scale extrusion method was applied to cores collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon submarine oil release. Evidence suggests that it is necessary to sample at the mm scale to fully characterize events that occur on the monthly time-scale for continental slope sediments. PMID:27585268

  4. Remotely operated gripper provides vertical control rod movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutter, E.; Koch, L. J.

    1968-01-01

    Remote actuation of a gripper shaft affects vertical engagement between a drive shaft and control rod. A secondary function of the gripper is to provide remote indication of positive completion of the gripping or ungripping operation.

  5. Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

  6. Safety analysis forseismic motion of control rods accounting for rod misalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Osmin, W.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of three safety analyses performed by the SRL Safety Analysis Group (SAG) to assess the safety impact of control rod motion induced by a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

  7. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear motion device, more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core, is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  8. ALLOY COMPOSITION FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL RODS

    DOEpatents

    Lustman, B.; Losco, E.F.; Snyder, H.J.; Eggleston, R.R.

    1963-01-22

    This invention relates to alloy compositons suitable as cortrol rod material consisting of, by weight, from 85% to 85% Ag, from 2% to 20% In, from up to 10% of Cd, from up to 5% Sn, and from up to 1.5% Al, the amount of each element employed being determined by the equation X + 2Y + 3Z + 3W + 4V = 1.4 and less, where X, Y, Z, W, and V represent the atom fractions of the elements Ag, Cd, In, Al and Sn. (AEC)

  9. Control of rod shedding in the frog retina.

    PubMed

    Basinger, S F; Hollyfield, J G

    1980-01-01

    In all vertebrate species examined thus far, rod outer segment shedding follows a cyclic pattern in which the outer segment tips are shed shortly after the onset of light. Work in the rat retina suggests that rod shedding may follow a circadian rhythm which is controlled by one or more circadian oscillators. Our results in the frog retina are significantly different in that: rod shedding can be driven by the onset of light or other environmental cues; shedding does not persist in constant darkness; shedding is unaffected in frogs with chronic unilateral or bilateral optic nerve section; and shedding will rapidly phase shift to the time of light onset on a wide variety of diurnal cycles. Thus, rod shedding in the frog retina does not appear to be a classical circadian rhythm.

  10. Dysprosium titanate as an absorber material for control rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risovany, V. D.; Varlashova, E. E.; Suslov, D. N.

    2000-09-01

    Disprosium titanate is an attractive control rod material for the thermal neutron reactors. Its main advantages are: insignificant swelling, no out-gassing under neutron irradiation, rather high neutron efficiency, a high melting point (˜1870°C), non-interaction with the cladding at temperatures above 1000°C, simple fabrication and easily reprocessed non-radioactive waste. It can be used in control rods as pellets and powder. The disprosium titanate control rods have worked off in the MIR reactor for 17 years, in VVER-1000 - for 4 years without any operating problems. After post-irradiation examinations this type of control rod having high lifetime was recommended for the VVER and RBMK. The paper presents the examination results of absorber element dummies containing dysprosium titanate, irradiated in the SM reactor to the neutron fluence of 3.4×10 22 cm -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) and, also, the data on structure, thermal-physical properties of dysprosium titanate, efficiency of dysprosium titanate control rods.

  11. Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Rolf; Heflin, Stephanie J; Hammond, Timothy; Lee, Bowa; Wang, Jing; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Eggers, Erika D; Frishman, Laura J; McCall, Maureen A; Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2011-10-06

    Dark and light adaptation of retinal neurons allow our vision to operate over an enormous light intensity range. Here we report a mechanism that controls the light sensitivity and operational range of rod-driven bipolar cells that mediate dim-light vision. Our data indicate that the light responses of these cells are enhanced by sustained chloride currents via GABA(C) receptor channels. This sensitizing GABAergic input is controlled by dopamine D1 receptors, with horizontal cells serving as a plausible source of GABA release. Our findings expand the role of dopamine in vision from its well-established function of suppressing rod-driven signals in bright light to enhancing the same signals under dim illumination. They further reveal a role for GABA in sensitizing the circuitry for dim-light vision, thereby complementing GABA's traditional role in providing dynamic feedforward and feedback inhibition in the retina.

  12. Feasibility study of the University of Utah TRIGA reactor power upgrade in respect to control rod system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutic, Avdo

    The objectives of this thesis are twofold: to determine the highest achievable power levels of the current University of Utah TRIG Reactor (UUTR) core configuration with the existing three control rods, and to design the core for higher reactor power by optimizing the control rod worth. For the current core configuration, the maximum reactor power, eigenvalue keff, shutdown margin, and excess reactivity have been measured and calculated. These calculated estimates resulted from thermal power calibrations, and the control rod worth measurements at various power levels. The results were then used as a benchmark to verify the MCNP5 core simulations for the current core and then to design a core for higher reactor power. This study showed that the maximum achievable power with the current core configuration and control rod system is 150kW, which is 50kW higher than the licensed power of the UUTR. The maximum achievable UUTR core power with the existing fuel is determined by optimizing the core configuration and control rod worth, showing that a power upgrade of 500 kW is achievable. However, it requires a new control rod system consisting of a total of four control rods. The cost of such an upgrade is $115,000.

  13. Control Rod Reactivity Curves for the Annular Core Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depriest, K. Russell; Kajder, Karen C.; Frye, Jason N.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2009-08-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) to increase the fidelity of the control rod integral reactivity worth curve. This experiment series was designed to refine the integral reactivity curve used for pulse yield prediction and eliminate the need for operator compensation in the pulse setup. The experiment series consisted of delayed critical and positive period measurements with various ACRR cavity configurations. An improved integral reactivity worth curve for the ACRR control rods has been constructed using the positive period measurements, the delayed critical measurements, and radiation transport modeling of the reactor. A series of prompt period measurements is used to validate that the new control rod curve more accurately predicts the energy yield of the pulse operations. The new reactivity worth curve is compared with the current curve that was developed using traditional approaches.

  14. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD AND METHOD OF FABRICATION

    DOEpatents

    Porembka, S.W. Jr.

    1961-06-27

    A reactor control rod formed from a compacted powder dispersion is patented. The rod consists of titanium sheathed with a cladding alloy. The cladding alloy contains 1.3% to 1.6% by weight of tin, 0.07% to 0.12% by weight of chromium, 0.04% to 0.08% by weight of nickel, 0.09% to 0.16% by weight of iron, carbon not exceeding 0.05%, less than 0.5% by weight of incidental impurities, and the balance zirconium.

  16. VIEW OF CABLES AND TAPES ASSOCIATED WITH ADRIVE CONTROL ROD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CABLES AND TAPES ASSOCIATED WITH A-DRIVE CONTROL ROD SYSTEM, AT LEVEL +15’, DIRECTLY ABOVE PDP CONTROL ROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE CABLES FROM THE PDP ROOM GO THROUGH THE CONCRETE WALL, MAKE A RIGHT ANGLE TURN DOWNWARD, AND DESCEND INTO THE PDP CONTROL ROOM AS VERTICAL TAPES - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  17. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclear overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.

  18. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    Disclosed is a linear motion device and more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core. The CRDM and method disclosed is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  19. A measurement of a control rod drop using an LVDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Ho; Huh, Hyung; Yu, Je-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2010-03-01

    A control element drive mechanism is a reactor regulating system, which is to insert, withdraw, or maintain a control rod containing neutron-absorbing material within a reactor core to control the reactivity of the reactor. The ball-screw type CEDM for the small and medium research reactor has a spring-hydraulic damper to reduce the impact force due to the free drop of the CEDM. This paper describes the experimental results to obtain the drop characteristics of the CEDM. The tests are performed by using a full-scale structure except the control element assembly, and a drop time and displacement after an impact are measured by using an LVDT. The influences of the rod weight and the drop height on the drop behavior are also estimated on the basis of test results. In case of the longest stroke, the drop time of the control rod is within 4.5 seconds to meet the design requirement. The behavior after the impact shows a general damping motion of the spring-damper system, and the maximum displacement is measured as 15.6 mm.

  20. A measurement of a control rod drop using an LVDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Ho; Huh, Hyung; Yu, Je-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2009-12-01

    A control element drive mechanism is a reactor regulating system, which is to insert, withdraw, or maintain a control rod containing neutron-absorbing material within a reactor core to control the reactivity of the reactor. The ball-screw type CEDM for the small and medium research reactor has a spring-hydraulic damper to reduce the impact force due to the free drop of the CEDM. This paper describes the experimental results to obtain the drop characteristics of the CEDM. The tests are performed by using a full-scale structure except the control element assembly, and a drop time and displacement after an impact are measured by using an LVDT. The influences of the rod weight and the drop height on the drop behavior are also estimated on the basis of test results. In case of the longest stroke, the drop time of the control rod is within 4.5 seconds to meet the design requirement. The behavior after the impact shows a general damping motion of the spring-damper system, and the maximum displacement is measured as 15.6 mm.

  1. Measurements of control rod worth by modified inverse kinetic method

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrov, A. A.; Lebedev, G. V. Nechaev, Yu. A.

    2011-12-15

    Results of control rod worth measurements on the Astra critical assembly at the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute are presented. The measurements were carried out by the modified inverse kinetics method, which is based on the use of experimental information about the variation of neutron detector readings only after introducing a reactivity perturbation. Calculated corrections are not required. The results of measurements do not depend on the neutron detector position.

  2. Control of guanylate cyclase activity in the rod outer segment.

    PubMed

    Pannbacker, R G

    1973-12-14

    Mammalian photoreceptors contain a guanylate cyclase which has a high specific activity and is inhibited by exposure of the rod outer segment to light. Several minutes are required for this inhibition to take effect, indicating that it is not a step in visual excitation. The activity of the enzyme is sensitive to the concentration of calcium ion in the medium, suggesting that light-induced changes in calcium distribution in the photoreceptor could control guanylate cyclase activity.

  3. Implementation of CTRLPOS, a VENTURE module for control rod position criticality searches, control rod worth curve calculations, and general criticality searches

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    A module in the VENTURE reactor analysis code system, CTRLPOS, is developed to position control rods and perform control rod position criticality searches. The module is variably dimensioned so that calculations can be performed with any number of control rod banks each having any number of control rods. CTRLPOS can also calculate control rod worth curves for a single control rod or a bank of control rods. Control rod depletion can be calculated to provide radiation source terms. These radiation source terms can be used to predict radiation doses to personnel and estimate the shielding and long-term storage requirements for spent control rods. All of these operations are completely automated. The numerous features of the module are discussed in detail. The necessary input data for the CTRLPOS module is explained. Several sample problems are presented to show the flexibility of the module. The results presented with the sample problems show that the CTRLPOS module is a powerful tool which allows a wide variety of calculations to be easily performed.

  4. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    SciTech Connect

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes, in a reconstitutable control assembly for use with a nuclear fuel assembly, the control assembly including a spider structure and at least one control rod, an attachment joint for detachable fastening the control rod to the spider structure. The attachment joint comprising: a hollow connecting finger on the spider structure; and an elongated detachable split upper end plug on the control rod having a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions, the upper plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly- arranged upper, middle and lower sections. The lower plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly-arranged upper, middle and lower segments.

  5. Control rod system useable for fuel handling in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1976-11-30

    A control rod and its associated drive are used to elevate a complete stack of fuel blocks to a position above the core of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. A fuel-handling machine grasps the control rod and the drive is unlatched from the rod. The stack and rod are transferred out of the reactor, or to a new location in the reactor, by the fuel-handling machine.

  6. Internal Control Rod Drive Mechanisms, Design Options for IRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2004-07-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a medium-power (335 MWe) PWR with an integral, primary circuit configuration, where all the reactor coolant system components are contained within the reactor vessel. This integral configuration is a key reason for the success of IRIS' 'safety-by-design' approach, whereby accident initiators are eliminated or the accident consequences and/or frequency are reduced. The most obvious example of the IRIS safety by design approach is the elimination of large LOCA's, since the integral reactor coolant system has no large loop piping. Another serious accident scenario that is being addressed in IRIS is the postulated ejection of a reactor control cluster assembly (RCCA). This accident initiator can be eliminated by locating the RCCA drive mechanisms (CRDMs) inside the reactor vessel. This eliminates the mechanical drive rod penetration between the RCCA and the external CRDM, eliminating the potential for differential pressure across the pressure boundary, and thus eliminating 'by design' the possibility for rod ejection accident. Moreover, the elimination of the 'large' drive-rod penetrations and the external CRDM pressure housings decreases the likelihood of boric acid leakage and subsequent corrosion of the reactor pressure boundary (like the Davis-Besse incident). This paper will discuss the IRIS top level design requirements and objectives for internal CRDMs, and provide examples candidate designs and their specific performance characteristics. (authors)

  7. Cavity flow control using a rod in cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarpotdar, Shekhar

    For a variety of aerodynamic conditions and geometric configurations fluid structure interactions give rise to a reverberant field. This phenomenon, referred to as resonant acoustics, has practical importance due to its undesirable effects such as noise, structural loading, and unsteady flow field. Several flow control technologies exist but they lose efficacy at off-design conditions. With the focus on expanding their operating envelope, the present work investigates the physics of the flow control using a combination of detailed experimental measurements and theoretical analysis. The model resonant acoustic flow problem that we chose for our study is cavity tones, i.e., the high intensity acoustic tones produced by high speed air moving over rectangular cavity. The flow control actuator is a rod in cross flow, i.e., a thin horizontal rod placed upstream of the cavity. In the present work, a detailed experimental study has been undertaken to characterize the acoustics, mean velocity field as well as the pressure perturbation field both inside and outside of the cavity. Control cases with contrasting suppression results are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the mean flow field. To investigate whether the cylinder, through its wake, changes the stability characteristics of the shear layer that develops over the cavity, stability analysis of the shear layer is undertaken. First, stability of artificial velocity profiles that are prototypical of the experimentally measured velocity profiles is investigated; in order to determine what parameters of the velocity profiles influence the stability of the shear layer the most. Next stability of experimentally measured velocity profiles is evaluated to calculate integrated growth rates along the length of the cavity. Mean velocity data is also used to elucidate the shear layer lift off mechanism of the rod. Both integrated growth range and shear layer lift off data are compared with the acoustic suppression results

  8. Comparison of a center and off-center BWR control rod drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.M.; Neogy, P.; Carew, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    A BWR control rod drop accident (RDA) induces a rapid core power transient involving strong neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupling, which requires a detailed multi-dimensional spatial kinetics analysis. Typical two-dimensional (r,z) RDA calculations require that the dropped rod be a center rod, as a result of geometric limitations, while in three-dimensional (x,y,z) calculations the dropped rod is generally taken to be the center rod in order to allow a quarter-core representation and limit computer running times. However, for typical BWR core loadings, the highest worth rod is not necessarily the center rod and it is not known, a priori, what effect this difference in spatial location has on the RDA dynamics. In order to evaluate the effects of this simplification, three-dimensional RAMONA-3B calculations have been performed for both a center and off-center control rod drop accident.

  9. Calibration and control in haemoglobinometry.

    PubMed

    van Assendelft, O W; Horton, B R; Parvin, R M

    1990-01-01

    In assigning values to fresh blood specimens used for calibrating automated blood cell analysers, haemoglobin concentration should be determined by the ICSH recommended hemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method. Errors in the reference method may be caused by inadequate blood collection, e.g. incorrect anticoagulation; inadequate dilution, e.g. use of inadequately calibrated pipettes; incomplete conversion of haemoglobins to HiCN, e.g. insufficient time for reactions to come to completion; during measurement, e.g. due to turbidity of the HiCN solution to be measured; or by transcription error. Readily available commercial reagent systems and secondary standards are compared with ICSH standards as to their compliance with these standards.

  10. Autonomous and FliK-dependent length control of the flagellar rod in Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F V; Hughes, Kelly T; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-10-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism.

  11. Autonomous and FliK-Dependent Length Control of the Flagellar Rod in Salmonella enterica▿

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Noriko; Mizuno, Shino; Hirano, Takanori; Chevance, Fabienne F. V.; Hughes, Kelly T.; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella flgG point mutations produce filamentous rod structures whose lengths are determined by FliK. FliK length variants produce rods with lengths proportional to the corresponding FliK molecular size, suggesting that FliK controls the length of not only the hook but also the rod by the same molecular mechanism. PMID:19666714

  12. Method for depleting BWRs using optimal control rod patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H. ); Hsiao, M.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    Control rod (CR) programming is an essential core management activity for boiling water reactors (BWRs). After establishing a core reload design for a BWR, CR programming is performed to develop a sequence of exposure-dependent CR patterns that assure the safe and effective depletion of the core through a reactor cycle. A time-variant target power distribution approach has been assumed in this study. The authors have developed OCTOPUS to implement a new two-step method for designing semioptimal CR programs for BWRs. The optimization procedure of OCTOPUS is based on the method of approximation programming and uses the SIMULATE-E code for nucleonics calculations.

  13. Calibrators and control samples for bilirubinometers.

    PubMed

    Blijenberg, B G; Brügmann, G; Geilenkeuser, W J; Kusyschyn, R; Röhle, G; Schlebusch, H; Schneider, C

    1993-06-01

    The different matrix properties of neonatal serum and commercial control samples can lead to considerable errors in the calibration and control of bilirubinometers. These difficulties can be avoided by calibration with serum from healthy adults which is supplemented with unconjugated bilirubin. But this procedure is impracticable for most routine laboratories. Under certain preconditions, control samples, with bilirubin concentrations determined with correctly calibrated bilirubinometers or spectrophotometers, are also suitable as calibrators. This was established by determination of the bilirubin concentration of 16 different control samples, using both the reference method and correctly calibrated bilirubinometers or spectrophotometers in three or four specialist laboratories. This was also confirmed in several interlaboratory surveys, some involving up to 72 laboratories. The results of these investigations show that a control sample should be used for the calibration of a bilirubinometer only if it meets the following preconditions: 1. There should be no significant difference between the bilirubin values determined with the reference method and with a correctly calibrated spectrophotometer or bilirubinometer. 2. The bilirubin concentration should lie in the range 230-300 mumol/l. The photometric response of bilirubinometers has a limited linear range, so that analytical results greater than 300 mumol/l must be rated as basically unreliable.

  14. Analysis of High Temperature Reactor Control Rod Worth for the Initial and Full Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktajianto, Hammam; Setiawati, Evi; Anam, Khoirul; Sugito, Heri

    2017-01-01

    Control rod is one important component in a nuclear reactor. In nuclear reactor operations the control rod functions to shut down the reactor. This research analyses ten control rods worth of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) at initial and full core. The HTR in this research adopts HTR-10 China and HTR- of pebble bed. Core calculations are performed by using MCNPX code after modelling the entire parts of core in condition of ten control rods fully withdrawn, all control rods in with 20 cm ranges of depth and the use of one control rod. Pebble bed and moderator balls are distributed in the core zone using a Body Centred Cubic (BCC) lattice by ratio of 57:43. The research results are obtained that the use of one control rod will decrease the reactor criticality of 2.04±0.12 %Δk/k at initial core and 1.57±0.10 %Δk/k at full core. The deeper control rods are in, the lesser criticality of reactor is with reactivity of ten control rods of 16.41±0.11 %Δk/k at initial core and 15.43±0.11 %Δk/k at full core. The results show that the use of ten control rods at full core will keep achieving subcritical condition even though the reactivity is smaller than reactivity at initial core.

  15. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  16. Underwater characterization of control rods for waste disposal using SMOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Gallozzi-Ulmann, A.; Couturier, P.; Amgarou, K.; Rothan, D.; Menaa, N.; Chard, P.

    2015-07-01

    Storage of spent fuel assemblies in cooling ponds requires careful control of the geometry and proximity of adjacent assemblies. Measurement of the fuel burnup makes it possible to optimise the storage arrangement of assemblies taking into account the effect of the burnup on the criticality safety margins ('burnup credit'). Canberra has developed a measurement system for underwater measurement of spent fuel assemblies. This system, known as 'SMOPY', performs burnup measurements based on gamma spectroscopy (collimated CZT detector) and neutron counting (fission chamber). The SMOPY system offers a robust and waterproof detection system as well as the needed capability of performing radiometric measurements in the harsh high dose - rate environments of the cooling ponds. The gamma spectroscopy functionality allows powerful characterization measurements to be performed, in addition to burnup measurement. Canberra has recently performed waste characterisation measurements at a Nuclear Power Plant. Waste activity assessment is important to control costs and risks of shipment and storage, to ensure that the activity level remains in the range allowed by the facility, and to declare activity data to authorities. This paper describes the methodology used for the SMOPY measurements and some preliminary results of a radiological characterisation of AIC control rods. After describing the features and normal operation of the SMOPY system, we describe the approach used for establishing an optimum control rod geometric scanning approach (optimum count time and speed) and the method of the gamma spectrometry measurements as well as neutron check measurements used to verify the absence of neutron sources in the waste. We discuss the results obtained including {sup 60}Co, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 108m}Ag activity profiles (along the length of the control rods) and neutron results including Total Measurement Uncertainty evaluations. Full self-consistency checks were performed and these

  17. Standardization, Calibration, and Control in Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Hoffman, Robert A

    2017-01-05

    Because flow cytometers are designed to measure particle characteristics, particles are the most common materials used to calibrate, control, and standardize the instruments. Definitions and cautions are provided for common terms to alert the reader to critical distinctions in meaning. This unit presents extensive background on particle types and cautions and describes practical aspects of methods to standardize and calibrate instruments. Procedures are provided to characterize performance in terms of optical alignment, fluorescence and light scatter resolution, and sensitivity. Finally, suggestions follow for analyzing particles used for calibration. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Joel; Smithson, Hannah; Quinlan, Jules

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a second-generation photostimulator with four primary lights that allows independent control of the stimulation of the four receptor types in the human eye. The new design uses LEDs (with light levels controlled by eight drivers that include voltage-to-frequency converters that provide 1-micros pulses at frequencies up to 250 kHz), with four center channels being combined by use of a fiber optic assembly, and likewise for four surround channels. Four fiber optic bundles are merged into a single bundle whose output is fed into a spatial homogenizer terminated by a diffuser. An interference filter is sandwiched between each LED and the fiber optic bundle. Two camera lenses collimate light from the diffusers, one for center and one for surround. The center-surround field configuration is formed by a photometric cube with a mirrored ellipse on the hypotenuse. A field lens places images of the diffusers in the plane of an artificial pupil. The fields are highly uniform. Following alignment and calibration, the center and surround fields are indistinguishable. An observer calibration procedure, designed to compensate for prereceptoral filtering, is shown by calculation to correct also for normal observer receptoral spectral sensitivity variation. With the instrument calibrated for the individual observer, a peripherally fixated 200-ms 40% contrast rod center field pulse, highly conspicuous under dark adaptation, is invisible following light adaptation.

  19. Final Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Rowsell, David Leon

    2015-06-01

    This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and fuel element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move fuel elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.

  20. A new automated and precise calibration method for gamma level gauges with rod detector arrangement.

    PubMed

    Peyvandi, Reza Gholipour; Taheri, Ali; Olfateh, Ali; Islami, Seyyedeh Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Gamma-ray liquid level gauging is of particular importance in several industries. Industrial vessels, tanks, and reactors, which work at high temperatures and pressures, usually have thick metal walls up to 20cm. These factors make it impossible to know the exact level of liquid or fluid while the system is operating. For this reason, the calibration process of the gamma level gauges is difficult as it is impossible to gain access to the inside of the vessels, which is important during the calibration process. In this study, a new auto-calibration method was proposed for the aforementioned situations.

  1. Control rod heterogeneity effects in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors: Method developments and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, M.; Granget, G.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Soule, R.

    1988-11-01

    The control rod worth assessment in a large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is strongly dependent on the actual arrangement of the absorber pins inside the control rod subassemblies. The so-called heterogeneity effects (i.e., the effects on the rod reactivity of the actual rod internal geometry versus homogenization of the absorber atoms over all the subassembly volume) have been evaluated, using explicit and variational methods to derive appropriate cross sections. An experimental program performed at the MASURCA facility has been used to validate these methods.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Insertion of Control Rod of BWR under Seismic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Masaki; Fukushi, Naoki; Ishigaki, Hirokuni; Okumura, Kazue

    The dynamic characteristics of control rod for boiling water reactor being inserted under seismic excitation were investigated using non-linear analytical models. The capability of managing the insertion of control rod is one of the most important factors affecting the safety of nuclear power plant undergoing seismic events. Predicting the behavior of control rod being inserted during earthquakes is important when designing how rod should be controlled during seismic events. We developed analytical models using the finite element method (FEM). The effect of the interaction force between the control rod and the fuel assemblies is considered in non-linear analysis. This interaction force causes resistance force to be applied to the control rod when they are being inserted. The validity of the analytical models was confirmed by comparing the analytical results with the experimental ones. The effects of input seismic motion and structural parameters on the insertion time ware investigated using the analytical models. These analytical methods can be used to predict the time to insert the control rod into the core region of reactor, and are useful for designing control rod system that can survive seismic events.

  3. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    SciTech Connect

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes, for use in facilitating replacement of a neutron absorber control rod on a control assembly spider structure, an end plug. It comprises a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions; the upper section of the upper plug portion being configured for rigid attachment; the middle section of the upper plug portion having angularly displaced flat surfaces formed on the exterior.

  4. Optimization of boiling water reactor control rod patterns using linear search

    SciTech Connect

    Kiguchi, T.; Doi, K.; Fikuzaki, T.; Frogner, B.; Lin, C.; Long, A.B.

    1984-10-01

    A computer program for searching the optimal control rod pattern has been developed. The program is able to find a control rod pattern where the resulting power distribution is optimal in the sense that it is the closest to the desired power distribution, and it satisfies all operational constraints. The search procedure consists of iterative uses of two steps: sensitivity analyses of local power and thermal margins using a three-dimensional reactor simulator for a simplified prediction model; linear search for the optimal control rod pattern with the simplified model. The optimal control rod pattern is found along the direction where the performance index gradient is the steepest. This program has been verified to find the optimal control rod pattern through simulations using operational data from the Oyster Creek Reactor.

  5. Independent safety evaluation of the CR562 (CR6) control rod test

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    This report documents the Independent Safety Evaluation performed for the CR562 control rod. CR562 is a reference Series II control rod which has been designated as an experiment (CR-6) since post- irradiation examination has been planned as part of the surveillance program for FFTF control rods. Prior analysis as an experiment has not been required since the test operated within the Technical Specification Limits up to this time. The control rod will be operated beyond the Technical Specification fluence limit during the last 30 days of Cycle 10B. A TDD-1A has been written to support this extension, and this ISE documents the independent review. A similar procedure was used for the CR544 control rod. 9 refs.

  6. Diurnal control of rod function in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Schaeffel, F; Rohrer, B; Lemmer, T; Zrenner, E

    1991-06-01

    We studied rod function in the chicken by recording corneal electroretinograms (ERGs). The following experiments were performed to demonstrate rod function during daytime: (1) determining the dark-adaptation function; (2) measuring the spectral sensitivity by a a-b-wave amplitude criterion in response to monochromatic flickering light of different frequencies ranging from 6.5-40.8 Hz (duty cycle 1:1); (3) analyzing the response vs. log stimulus intensity (V-log I) function in order to reveal a possible two phase process; and (4) determining the spectral sensitivity function either in a non-dark adapted state or after dark adaptation of the animals for 1 and 24 h. None of these experiments demonstrated clear evidence of rod function during daytime. On the other hand, we found rods histologically by light- and electron microscopy. Therefore, we repeated our ERG recordings during the night (between midnight and 3:00 A.M.). Without previous dark adaptation, rod function could be seen immediately in the same experiments described above. The result shows that, in the chicken, rods are turned on endogenously during the night but are scarcely functional during the day.

  7. Effect of component aging on PWR control rod drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.; Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of PWR control rod drive (CRD) systems has been completed as part of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the Babcock Wilcox (B W), Combustion Engineering (CE), and Westinghouse (W) systems were evaluated to determine the potential for degradation as each system ages. Operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. This, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and operating environment, demonstrate that each design is subject to degradation, which if left unchecked, could affect its safety function as the plant ages. An industry survey, conducted with the assistance of EPRI and NUMARC, identified current CRD system maintenance and inspection practices. The results of this survey indicate that some plants have performed system modifications, replaced components, or augmented existing preventive maintenance practices in response to system aging. The survey results also supported the operating experience data, which concluded that the timely replacement of degraded components, prior to failure, was not always possible using existing condition monitoring techniques. The recommendations presented in this study also include a discussion of more advanced monitoring techniques, which provide trendable results capable of detecting aging.

  8. Effect of component aging on PWR control rod drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.; Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1992-06-01

    An aging assessment of PWR control rod drive (CRD) systems has been completed as part of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the Babcock & Wilcox (B & W), Combustion Engineering (CE), and Westinghouse (W) systems were evaluated to determine the potential for degradation as each system ages. Operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. This, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and operating environment, demonstrate that each design is subject to degradation, which if left unchecked, could affect its safety function as the plant ages. An industry survey, conducted with the assistance of EPRI and NUMARC, identified current CRD system maintenance and inspection practices. The results of this survey indicate that some plants have performed system modifications, replaced components, or augmented existing preventive maintenance practices in response to system aging. The survey results also supported the operating experience data, which concluded that the timely replacement of degraded components, prior to failure, was not always possible using existing condition monitoring techniques. The recommendations presented in this study also include a discussion of more advanced monitoring techniques, which provide trendable results capable of detecting aging.

  9. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods.

  10. Failure of latch mechanism for motion control of safety rods

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.; Leader, D.R.

    1992-01-16

    During safety rod tests in K-reactor prior to startup, one safety rod could not be lifted because the ``button`` broke off and became lodged in the mechanism. Examination of the failed latch assembly along with other assemblies from both K-Area and L-Area revealed several missing buttons as well as severely deformed ``jaw hanger extensions.`` We participated in the investigation of the damage by request of the Reactor Restart Section. Based on our study of the latch mechanism, the modifications to the ``safety rod extension,`` and the operating history of the machine, this memorandum describes the causes of the observed damage with experimental evidence and calculations to support the findings. 3 refs.

  11. Failure of latch mechanism for motion control of safety rods

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.; Leader, D.R.

    1992-01-16

    During safety rod tests in K-reactor prior to startup, one safety rod could not be lifted because the button'' broke off and became lodged in the mechanism. Examination of the failed latch assembly along with other assemblies from both K-Area and L-Area revealed several missing buttons as well as severely deformed jaw hanger extensions.'' We participated in the investigation of the damage by request of the Reactor Restart Section. Based on our study of the latch mechanism, the modifications to the safety rod extension,'' and the operating history of the machine, this memorandum describes the causes of the observed damage with experimental evidence and calculations to support the findings. 3 refs.

  12. Submicron calibration strategy for CD control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Elizabeth E.; Kulkens, Loma; Harris, Thomas A.

    1996-09-01

    In the modern semiconductor processing facility CD (critical dimension) measurements on 200-mm diameter wafers proceed in a fully automated mode requiring only wafer loading, measurement recipe loading, and a 'run' command for processing. To provide effective metrology support to this facility the scope of CD measurement automation has been extended to the entire metrology scheme, from job file generation to CD measurement and data collection. Upon completion of all sample measurements, data is uploaded to the factory's data collection software system via a SECS II interface, eliminating the requirement of manual data entry. This paper presents the methodology used to perform calibration of the automated CD metrology scanning electron microscope (SEM) for sub-0.5 micrometer process control. A commercially available SEM pitch standard, traceable to JQA (Japan Quality Assurance) has been characterized and incorporated into a standard, automated calibration procedure performed as part of the regular tool qualification. This standard contains lines with pitch on order of 0.240 micrometer over a 4 mm2 area and is useful at low accelerating voltage. Since the low accelerating voltage CD measurement SEM has assumed an important role in modern semiconductor process control, we investigate the use and performance of the standard in a representative instrument. Evaluation of this reference by SEM CD measurements shows suitable performance for submicron dimension calibration.

  13. Controlling growth of ZnO rods by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S. F.; Lian, J. S.; Jiang, Q.

    2009-05-01

    ZnO rods with different morphologies were synthesized through a wet chemical method by addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). By adjusting the concentration of the additive in the growth solution, we can control the diameter, ratio of length to diameter and density of ZnO rods. FESEM images showed that the rods in nanoscale could be obtained at the polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration of 1.0 mM. Meanwhile, the resonant Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectra showed that the crystalline quality and the optical property of ZnO rods were improved through moderate addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (concentration of 1.0 mM) in the growth solution. In addition, the possible mechanism of the PVP effect on the growth of ZnO rods was discussed based on the FT-IR spectra.

  14. A survey of control rod measurements in ZPPR and their analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accurate prediction of control rod worths has been of great concern in the United States. Optimum control configurations need to balance several often conflicting requirements of control through the operating cycle, while maintaining acceptable power shapes, safety considerations of overriding importance, together with seeking economy by minimizing the number of rods, reducing boron enrichment and lengthening replacement intervals. After control and shutdown requirements have been met, the most important safety concern is the transient overpower condition (TOP) which may be initiated by uncontrolled run-out of a primary rod. Stringent criteria for the primary and secondary systems may be that they are independently capable of shutting down the reactor even with one rod stuck. The TOP initiator may be greatly enhanced by control rod interaction effects. Control rod effects may have a strong impact on core design. For example, work on the integral fast reactor with metallic fuel at ANL has studied core designs which minimize the TOP reactivity by maintaining a minimum primary control bank insertion through tailoring the internal breeding gain. The predicted control rod worths are very sensitive to the calculation methods used and to the accuracy of the basic nuclear data files. Required accuracies have been achieved only through the use of critical experiments on the ZPR and ZPPR facilities. Experiments on ZPR-3 and ZPR-9 produced satisfactory control predictions for the SEFOR, EBR-II and FFTF reactors. This document provides a survey of control rod measurements and compares calculated and experimental results. 16 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system.

  16. Full 3D translational and rotational optical control of multiple rod-shaped bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hörner, Florian; Woerdemann, Mike; Müller, Stephanie; Maier, Berenike; Denz, Cornelia

    2010-07-01

    The class of rod-shaped bacteria is an important example of non-spherical objects where defined alignment is desired for the observation of intracellular processes or studies of the flagella. However, all available methods for orientational control of rod-shaped bacteria are either limited with respect to the accessible rotational axes or feasible angles or restricted to one single bacterium. In this paper we demonstrate a scheme to orientate rod-shaped bacteria with holographic optical tweezers (HOT) in any direction. While these bacteria have a strong preference to align along the direction of the incident laser beam, our scheme provides for the first time full rotational control of multiple bacteria with respect to any arbitrary axis. In combination with the translational control HOT inherently provide, this enables full control of all three translational and the two important rotational degrees of freedom of multiple rod-shaped bacteria and allows one to arrange them in any desired configuration.

  17. Coolability of a control rod which has melted and foamed in its septifoil channel

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowiak, D.A.

    1991-10-01

    During a Loss of Control Rod Cooling (LCRC) event, the control rods which are in the affected septifoil can be postulated to melt. Melting of a control rod which has been irradiated creates a special concern since the entrapped gases expand rapidly and cause the melt to manifest itself initially in a foamed state. The foamed material then contacts the septifoil outer housing and the inner septifoil web material, where heat is conducted out of the foamed material. A second concern relating to the foamed melt is that its thermal conductivity is greatly reduced from that of the solid material, and also that of the non-foamed liquid. The purpose of this report is to address how, even in the presence of decreased thermal conductivity, the foamed melt may aid in cooling the control rod material.

  18. Sample Federal Facility Land Use Control ROD Checklist and Suggested Language (LUC Checklist)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The LUC Checklist provides direction on describing and documenting land use controls (LUCs) in federal facility actrions under CERCLA in Records of Decision (RODs), remedial designs (RDs), and remedial action work plans (RAWPs).

  19. A hybrid attitude controller consisting of electromagnetic torque rods and an active fluid ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobari, Nona A.; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid actuation system for satellite attitude stabilization is proposed along with its feasibility analysis. The system considered consists of two magnetic torque rods and one fluid ring to produce the control torque required in the direction in which magnetic torque rods cannot produce torque. A mathematical model of the system dynamics is derived first. Then a controller is developed to stabilize the attitude angles of a satellite equipped with the abovementioned set of actuators. The effect of failure of the fluid ring or a magnetic torque rod is examined as well. It is noted that the case of failure of the magnetic torque rod whose torque is along the pitch axis is the most critical, since the coupling between the roll or yaw motion and the pitch motion is quite weak. The simulation results show that the control system proposed is quite fault tolerant.

  20. Assessment of biodegradable controlled release rod systems for pain relief applications.

    PubMed

    Sendil, Dilek; Wise, Donald L; Hasirci, Vasif

    2002-01-01

    Control of chronic, severe pain is a difficult and important clinical problem for most patients, especially those with cancer. Although current applications are insufficient for a satisfactory solution to this problem, the rate of disease incidence is increasing worldwide, thus making the problem more apparent. Based on this fact, this study was designed with the ultimate goal of formulating a controlled release system of pain relievers, mainly opioids, for the local treatment of pain to achieve satisfactory, fast, and less side effect-related relief and to provide a better life status for chronic pain patients. Two copolymers of a biodegradable polymer poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were used to prepare an implantable rod type drug release system containing either an analgesic or anesthetic type of pain reliever. In vitro drug release kinetics of these systems were studied. It was observed that release from PLGA 85 : 15 was more zero-order than it was from PLGA 50 : 50. A zero-order release rate was obtained for codeine, hydromorphone, and bupivacaine from PLGA (85 : 15) rods. They, however, were released from PLGA (50 : 50) rods with Higuchi kinetics. The drug solubility was also influential on release rate, as shown by the zero-order morphine release from PLGA (50 : 50) rods. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of the monolithic rods revealed erosion of the rods and the removal of drug crystals from the rod structure.

  1. Control of vortex breakdown in a closed cylinder with a small rotating rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Jacono, D.; Sørensen, J. N.; Thompson, M. C.; Hourigan, K.

    2008-11-01

    Effective control of vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating lid was achieved with small rotating rods positioned on the stationary lid. After validation with accurate measurements using a novel stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) technique, analysis of numerical simulations using a high-order spectral element method has been undertaken. The effect of a finite length rod creates additional source terms of vorticity as the rod rotates. These additional source terms and their spatial locations influence the occurrence of the vortex breakdown.

  2. Weed Control Sprayers: Calibration and Maintenance. Special Circular 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Arthur L.

    This manual covers aspects of calibration and maintenance of weed control sprayers including variables affecting application rate, the pre-calibration check, calculations, band spraying, nozzle tip selection, agitation, and cleaning. (BB)

  3. Weed Control Sprayers: Calibration and Maintenance. Special Circular 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Arthur L.

    This manual covers aspects of calibration and maintenance of weed control sprayers including variables affecting application rate, the pre-calibration check, calculations, band spraying, nozzle tip selection, agitation, and cleaning. (BB)

  4. Controlling dielectric and pyroelectric properties of compositionally graded ferroelectric rods by an applied pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue; Woo, C. H.; Wang, Biao

    2007-06-01

    The polarization, charge offset, dielectric, and pyroelectric properties of a compositionally graded ferroelectric rod inside a high-pressure polyethylene tube are studied using a thermodynamic model based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire formulation. The calculated distribution of the polarization in the rod is nonuniform, and the corresponding charge offset, dielectric, and pyroelectric properties vary according to the applied pressure. This behavior may be used as a convenient means to control these properties for design optimization.

  5. Estimation of the activity generated by neutron activation in control rods of a BWR.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, José; Gallardo, Sergio; Abarca, Agustín; Juan, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    Control rods are activated by neutron reactions into the reactor. The activation is produced mainly in stainless steel and its impurities. The dose produced by this activity is not important inside the reactor, but it has to be taken into account when the rod is withdrawn from the reactor. Activation reactions produced have been modelled by the MCNP5 code based on the Monte Carlo method. The code gives the number of reactions that can be converted into activity.

  6. Experimental investigations on a tapered ferrite rod antenna with magnetic phase control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petosa, A.; Wight, J. S.; Ittipiboon, A.

    1994-08-01

    Experimental investigations were performed on a tapered ferrite rod antenna at 20 GHz. By inserting a section of the rod into a solenoid, phase control was achieved by varying the applied DC solenoid current. Phase shifts of greater than 100 deg/lambda(0) were attained. The gain and radiation patterns did not change significantly with the applied bias. The return loss was somewhat more sensitive, but a better than 10dB return loss was obtained over the complete bias range.

  7. Aerosol behavior during SIC control rod failure in QUENCH-13 test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Csordás, Anna Pintér; Nagy, Imre; Stuckert, Juri

    2010-02-01

    In a nuclear reactor severe accident, radioactive fission products as well as structural materials are released from the core by evaporation, and the released gases form particles by nucleation and condensation. In addition, aerosol particles may be generated by droplet formation and fragmentation of the core. In pressurized water reactors (PWR), a commonly used control rod material is silver-indium-cadmium (SIC) covered with stainless steel cladding. The control rod elements, Cd, In and Ag, have relatively low melting temperatures, and especially Cd has also a very low boiling point. Control rods are likely to fail early on in the accident due to melting of the stainless steel cladding which can be accelerated by eutectic interaction between stainless steel and the surrounding Zircaloy guide tube. The release of the control rod materials would follow the cladding failure thus affecting aerosol source term as well as fuel rod degradation. The QUENCH experimental program at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe investigates phenomena associated with reflood of a degrading core under postulated severe accident conditions. QUENCH-13 test was the first in this program to include a silver-indium-cadmium control rod of prototypic PWR design. To characterize the extent of aerosol release during the control rod failure, aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements in the off-gas pipe of the QUENCH facility were carried out. For the first time, it was possible to determine on-line the aerosol concentration and size distribution released from the core. These results are of prime importance for model development for the proper calculation of the source term resulting from control rod failure. The on-line measurement showed that the main aerosol release started at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1570 K at hottest bundle elevation. A very large burst of aerosols was detected 660 s later at the bundle temperature maximum of T ˜ 1650 K, followed by a relatively

  8. On-line monitoring of control rod integrity in BWRs using a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, I.; Loner, H.; Ammon, K.; Sihver, L.; Ledergerber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of fuel and control rod integrity in the core of a boiling water reactor is essential for maintaining a safe and reliable operation. Control rods of a boiling water reactor are mainly filled with boron carbide as a neutron absorber. Due to the irradiation of boron with neutrons, a continuous production of lithium and helium will occur inside a control rod. Most of the created helium will be retained in the boron carbide lattice; however a small part will escape into the void volume of the control blade. Therefore the integrity of control rods during operation can efficiently be followed by on-line measurements of helium concentration in the reactor off-gas system using a mass spectrometer. Since helium is a fill gas in fuel rods, the same method is a useful early warning system for primary fuel failures. In this paper, we introduce an on-line helium detector system which is installed at the nuclear power plant in Leibstadt. Furthermore the measuring experiences of control rod failure detection at the plant are presented. Different causes of increased helium levels in the off-gas system have been distinguished. There are spontaneous helium releases as well as helium releases caused by changed conditions in the reactor (power reduction, control rod movement, etc.). Helium peaks can also be characterized according to the released amount of helium, the peak shape and the duration of the release, which leads to different interpretations of the release mechanisms. In addition, the measured amount of released helium from a 50 days period (280 l) is also compared to the calculated amount of produced helium from the washed out boron during the same time period (190 l).

  9. Rod electrical coupling is controlled by a circadian clock and dopamine in mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nan Ge; Chuang, Alice Z; Masson, Philippe J; Ribelayga, Christophe P

    2015-01-01

    Key points Rod photoreceptors play a key role in vision in dim light; in the mammalian retina, although rods are anatomically connected or coupled by gap junctions, a type of electrical synapse, the functional importance and regulation of rod coupling has remained elusive. We have developed a new technique in the mouse: perforated patch-clamp recording of rod inner segments in isolated intact retinae maintained by superfusion. We find that rod electrical coupling is controlled by a circadian clock and dopamine, and is weak during the day and stronger at night. The results also indicate that the signal-to-noise ratio for a dim light response is increased at night because of coupling. Our observations will provide a framework for understanding the daily variations in human vision as well as the basis of specific retinal malfunctions. Abstract Rod single-photon responses are critical for vision in dim light. Electrical coupling via gap junction channels shapes the light response properties of vertebrate photoreceptors, but the regulation of rod coupling and its impact on the single-photon response have remained unclear. To directly address these questions, we developed a perforated patch-clamp recording technique and recorded from single rod inner segments in isolated intact neural mouse retinae, maintained by superfusion. Experiments were conducted at different times of the day or under constant environmental conditions, at different times across the circadian cycle. We show that rod electrical coupling is regulated by a circadian clock and dopamine, so that coupling is weak during the day and strong at night. Altogether, patch-clamp recordings of single-photon responses in mouse rods, tracer coupling, receptive field measurements and pharmacological manipulations of gap junction and dopamine receptor activity provide compelling evidence that rod coupling is modulated in a circadian manner. These data are consistent with computer modelling. At night, single

  10. SPRT Calibration Uncertainties and Internal Quality Control at a Commercial SPRT Calibration Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiandt, T. J.

    2008-06-01

    The Hart Scientific Division of the Fluke Corporation operates two accredited standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibration facilities, one at the Hart Scientific factory in Utah, USA, and the other at a service facility in Norwich, UK. The US facility is accredited through National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and the UK facility is accredited through UKAS. Both provide SPRT calibrations using similar equipment and procedures, and at similar levels of uncertainty. These uncertainties are among the lowest available commercially. To achieve and maintain low uncertainties, it is required that the calibration procedures be thorough and optimized. However, to minimize customer downtime, it is also important that the instruments be calibrated in a timely manner and returned to the customer. Consequently, subjecting the instrument to repeated calibrations or extensive repeated measurements is not a viable approach. Additionally, these laboratories provide SPRT calibration services involving a wide variety of SPRT designs. These designs behave differently, yet predictably, when subjected to calibration measurements. To this end, an evaluation strategy involving both statistical process control and internal consistency measures is utilized to provide confidence in both the instrument calibration and the calibration process. This article describes the calibration facilities, procedure, uncertainty analysis, and internal quality assurance measures employed in the calibration of SPRTs. Data will be reviewed and generalities will be presented. Finally, challenges and considerations for future improvements will be discussed.

  11. Rodding Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... operation; anesthesia issues,  Reason for the choice of rod,  Time in the hospital,  Length of recovery time at home,  Pain management including control of muscle spasms,  The rehabilitation plan. It is ...

  12. Control of Ca2+ in rod outer segment disks by light and cyclic GMP.

    PubMed

    George, J S; Hagins, W A

    1983-05-26

    Photons absorbed in vertebrate rods and cones probably cause electrochemical changes at the photoreceptor plasma membrane by changing the cytoplasmic concentration of a diffusible transmitter substance, reducing the Na+ current flowing into the outer segment of the cell in the dark, to produce the observed membrane hyperpolarization that is the initial excitatory response. Cyclic GMP has been proposed as the transmitter because a light-activated cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) has been found in rod disk membranes and because intracellularly injected cyclic GMP reduces rod membrane potentials. Free Ca2+ has also been proposed because increasing external [Ca2+] quickly and reversibly reduces the dark current and divalent cationophores increase the Ca2+ sensitivity. Ca2+ efflux from rod outer segments (ROS) of intact retinas occurs simultaneously with light responses. Vesicles prepared from ROS disk membranes become more permeable on illumination, releasing trapped ions or molecules, but intact outer segment disks have not previously been found to store sufficient Ca2+ in darkness and to release enough in light to meet the theoretical requirements for control of the dark current by varying cytoplasmic Ca2+ (refs 14-18). We now report experiments that show the required Ca2+ storage and release from rod disk membranes suspended in media containing high-energy phosphate esters and electrolytes approximating the cytoplasmic composition of live rod cells. Cyclic GMP stimulates Ca2+ uptake by ROS disks in such media.

  13. Experience with incomplete control rod insertion in fuel with burnup exceeding approximately 40 GWD/MTU

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, E.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis and measurement experience with fuel assemblies having incomplete control rod insertion at burnups of approximately 40 GWD/MTU is presented. Control rod motion dynamics and simplified structural analyses are presented and compared to measurement data. Fuel assembly growth measurements taken with the plant Refueling Machine Z-Tape are described and presented. Bow measurements (including plug gauging) are described and potential improvements are suggested. The measurements described and analysis performed show that sufficient guide tube bow (either from creep or yield buckling) is present in some high burnup assemblies to stop the control rods before they reach their full limit of travel. Recommendations are made that, if implemented, could improve cost performance related to testing and analysis activities.

  14. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  15. Verification of heat flux and temperature calculation on the control rod outer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Cebula, Artur

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents heat transfer calculation results concerning a control rod of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The part of the control rod, which is the object of interest, is surrounded by a mixing region of hot and cold flows and, as a consequence, is subjected to thermal fluctuations. The paper describes a numerical test which validates the method based on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). The comparison of the results achieved by two methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and IHCP, including a description of the IHCP method used in the calculation process, shows a very good agreement between the methods.

  16. Learning Curve in Monitoring Magnetically Controlled Growing Rod Distractions With Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jason P Y; Yiu, Karen K L; Bow, Cora; Cheung, Prudence W H; Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2017-09-01

    Prospective study. To determine whether a learning curve exists for ultrasound measurement of magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) distractions. For patients managed by MCGRs, close monitoring of interval distraction length gains is important to determine whether the distractions are translating into actual spine growth. Radiographs are the criterion standard for measuring length gains, but ultrasound has been shown to be effective in monitoring distraction lengths without radiation exposure. It is, however, an operator-dependent tool and thus the accuracy of ultrasound measurement of distracted length may improve with experience. This is a prospective correlation analysis of patients who underwent MCGR treatment for scoliosis. The study period was inclusive of 19th February 2013 to 31st March 2015. All subjects were consecutively recruited in a prospective manner. Data regarding date of the distraction visit, and the interval radiograph and ultrasound measurements of the distracted lengths were collected. Only those episodes with both radiograph and ultrasound performed were used for analysis. The mean differences in change of radiograph and ultrasound measurements were plotted to determine correlation differences and to observe for a learning curve. A total of 379 distraction episodes were analyzed. The mean differences between ultrasound and radiograph measurements per distraction episode were -0.3 mm for the right rod and -0.1 mm for the left rod. For learning curve analysis, there were three distinct timepoints in which the difference of correlation became significantly better and were described as clusters. The correlation in the first cluster (19th February 2013 to 15th October 2013) was 0.612 (right rod) and 0.795 (left rod), the second cluster (16th October 2013 to 20th May 2014) was 0.879 (right rod) and 0.918 (left rod), and the third cluster (21st May 2014 to 31st March 2015) was 0.956 (right rod) and 0.932 (left rod). Thus, a plateau was observed

  17. Subplane-based Control Rod Decusping Techniques for the 2D/1D Method in MPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Aaron M; Collins, Benjamin S; Downar, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The MPACT transport code is being jointly developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Michigan to serve as the primary neutron transport code for the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator. MPACT uses the 2D/1D method to solve the transport equation by decomposing the reactor model into a stack of 2D planes. A fine mesh flux distribution is calculated in each 2D plane using the Method of Characteristics (MOC), then the planes are coupled axially through a 1D NEM-P$_3$ calculation. This iterative calculation is then accelerated using the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference method. One problem that arises frequently when using the 2D/1D method is that of control rod cusping. This occurs when the tip of a control rod falls between the boundaries of an MOC plane, requiring that the rodded and unrodded regions be axially homogenized for the 2D MOC calculations. Performing a volume homogenization does not properly preserve the reaction rates, causing an error known as cusping. The most straightforward way of resolving this problem is by refining the axial mesh, but this can significantly increase the computational expense of the calculation. The other way of resolving the partially inserted rod is through the use of a decusping method. This paper presents new decusping methods implemented in MPACT that can dynamically correct the rod cusping behavior for a variety of problems.

  18. Degradation in steam of 60 cm-long B4C control rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, C.; Drouan, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the framework of nuclear reactor core meltdown accident studies, the degradation of boron carbide control rod segments exposed to argon/steam atmospheres was investigated up to about 2000 °C in IRSN laboratories. The sequence of the phenomena involved in the degradation has been found to take place as expected. Nevertheless, the ZrO2 oxide layer formed on the outer surface of the guide tube was very protective, significantly delaying and limiting the guide tube failure and therefore the boron carbide pellet oxidation. Contrary to what was expected, the presence of the control rod decreases the hydrogen release instead of increasing it by additional oxidation of boron compounds. Boron contents up to 20 wt.% were measured in metallic mixtures formed during degradation. It was observed that these metallic melts are able to attack the surrounding fuel rods, which could have consequences on fuel degradation and fission product release kinetics during severe accidents.

  19. Analysis of dose rates received around the storage pool for irradiated control rods in a BWR nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Abarca, A; Gallardo, S

    2011-08-01

    BWR control rods are activated by neutron reactions in the reactor. The dose produced by this activity can affect workers in the area surrounding the storage pool, where activated rods are stored. Monte Carlo (MC) models for neutron activation and dose assessment around the storage pool have been developed and validated. In this work, the MC models are applied to verify the expected reduction of dose when the irradiated control rod is hanged in an inverted position into the pool.

  20. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  1. Special article: Update on the magnetically controlled growing rod: tips and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cahill, Patrick; Yaszay, Burt; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2015-12-01

    Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) have become an important treatment option in young patients with spinal deformities. This device allows for gradual lengthening on an outpatient setting with continuous neurological monitoring in an awake patient. With its growing popularity and interest, this study reports the tips, pitfalls, and complications of the MCGR for management of scoliosis. On 3 June 2015 at the University of Hong Kong, 32 participants from 16 regions shared their experience with MCGR. Current indications for surgery include early-onset scoliosis patients. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and congenital scoliosis patients have less favourable outcomes. The number of instrumented levels should be minimised, as all instrumented levels must be included in the definitive fusion surgery. Rod contouring is important and owing to the straight portion of the rod housing the magnet, there is limited proximal rod portion for proper contouring, which may predispose to proximal junctional kyphosis. There is currently no consensus on the rod configuration, timing, frequency, technique, and amount of distraction. Risk factors for distraction failure include larger patients, internal magnets too close to each other, and magnets too close to the apex of the major curve. Future studies should resolve the issues regarding the technique of distraction, optimal frequency and amount of distraction per session. More comprehensive cost analyses should be performed.

  2. Prediction of the lifetime of the elements of the safety and control rods of nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Voskoboinikov, V.V.; Emel'yanov, I. Ya.; Lineva, A.F.; Pushkin, S.N.; Semchenko, E.L.; Usov, P.P.

    1987-07-01

    The authors construct a mathematical model based on the analytical solution to such parameters as magnetic flux, alignment, sliding friction, erosion, abrasion, corrosion, and irradiation for the purpose of predicting the service life of electromagnetically driven control rods and their drives. The analytical solution was verified experimentally on a bench simulation where it was found that incorrect assembly and alignment not only serve as the largest contributors to shortened service life of the rods and drives but also render the calculations of the model invalid.

  3. Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a PWR control rod ejection accident

    SciTech Connect

    Pasichnyk, I.; Perin, Y.; Velkov, K.

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes the results of the quantitative Uncertainty and Sensitivity (U/S) Analysis of a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which is simulated by the coupled system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX applying the GRS tool for U/S analysis SUSA/XSUSA. For the present study, a UOX/MOX mixed core loading based on a generic PWR is modeled. A control rod ejection is calculated for two reactor states: Hot Zero Power (HZP) and 30% of nominal power. The worst cases for the rod ejection are determined by steady-state neutronic simulations taking into account the maximum reactivity insertion in the system and the power peaking factor. For the U/S analysis 378 uncertain parameters are identified and quantified (thermal-hydraulic initial and boundary conditions, input parameters and variations of the two-group cross sections). Results for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are presented for safety important global and local parameters. (authors)

  4. A new control valve with a push rod for intermediate-pressure cylinders of steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaryankin, A. E.; Arianov, S. V.; Paramonov, A. N.; Gotovtsev, A. M.; Storozhuk, S. K.

    2007-11-01

    We describe a new design of a control valve for intermediate-pressure cylinders with a perforated cup and a push rod that ensures smaller loss under rated operating conditions and features better reliability. Model tests were carried out to check the main design solutions.

  5. Parallel Magnetic Flow Electromagnet for Movable Coil Control-rod Driving Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Jige, Zhang

    2006-07-01

    The parallel magnetic flow electromagnet can effectively relax the saturation, which easily takes place in the single magnetic flow electromagnet, and accordingly can improve the drive capacity of the movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism for a mobile reactor control rod. (authors)

  6. Development and control of the process for the manufacture of zircaloy-4 tubing for LWBR fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical requirements for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel elements (fuel rods) imposed certain unique requirements for the low hafnium Zircaloy-4 tubing used as fuel rod cladding. This report describes, in detail, the tube manufacturing process, the product and process controls used, the inspections and tests performed, and the efforts involved in refining a commercial tube reducing process to produce tubes that would satisfy the requirements for LWBR fuel rod cladding.

  7. Maintaining a Critical Spectra within Monteburns for a Gas-Cooled Reactor Array by Way of Control Rod Manipulation

    DOE PAGES

    Adigun, Babatunde John; Fensin, Michael Lorne; Galloway, Jack D.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Our burnup study examined the effect of a predicted critical control rod position on the nuclide predictability of several axial and radial locations within a 4×4 graphite moderated gas cooled reactor fuel cluster geometry. To achieve this, a control rod position estimator (CRPE) tool was developed within the framework of the linkage code Monteburns between the transport code MCNP and depletion code CINDER90, and four methodologies were proposed within the tool for maintaining criticality. Two of the proposed methods used an inverse multiplication approach - where the amount of fissile material in a set configuration is slowly altered until criticalitymore » is attained - in estimating the critical control rod position. Another method carried out several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions, then used a linear fit to estimate the critical rod position. The final method used a second-order polynomial fit of several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions to guess the critical rod position. The results showed that consistency in prediction of power densities as well as uranium and plutonium isotopics was mutual among methods within the CRPE tool that predicted critical position consistently well. Finall, while the CRPE tool is currently limited to manipulating a single control rod, future work could be geared toward implementing additional criticality search methodologies along with additional features.« less

  8. Maintaining a Critical Spectra within Monteburns for a Gas-Cooled Reactor Array by Way of Control Rod Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Adigun, Babatunde John; Fensin, Michael Lorne; Galloway, Jack D.; Trellue, Holly Renee

    2016-10-01

    Our burnup study examined the effect of a predicted critical control rod position on the nuclide predictability of several axial and radial locations within a 4×4 graphite moderated gas cooled reactor fuel cluster geometry. To achieve this, a control rod position estimator (CRPE) tool was developed within the framework of the linkage code Monteburns between the transport code MCNP and depletion code CINDER90, and four methodologies were proposed within the tool for maintaining criticality. Two of the proposed methods used an inverse multiplication approach - where the amount of fissile material in a set configuration is slowly altered until criticality is attained - in estimating the critical control rod position. Another method carried out several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions, then used a linear fit to estimate the critical rod position. The final method used a second-order polynomial fit of several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions to guess the critical rod position. The results showed that consistency in prediction of power densities as well as uranium and plutonium isotopics was mutual among methods within the CRPE tool that predicted critical position consistently well. Finall, while the CRPE tool is currently limited to manipulating a single control rod, future work could be geared toward implementing additional criticality search methodologies along with additional features.

  9. Maintaining a Critical Spectra within Monteburns for a Gas-Cooled Reactor Array by Way of Control Rod Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Adigun, Babatunde John; Fensin, Michael Lorne; Galloway, Jack D.; Trellue, Holly Renee

    2016-10-01

    Our burnup study examined the effect of a predicted critical control rod position on the nuclide predictability of several axial and radial locations within a 4×4 graphite moderated gas cooled reactor fuel cluster geometry. To achieve this, a control rod position estimator (CRPE) tool was developed within the framework of the linkage code Monteburns between the transport code MCNP and depletion code CINDER90, and four methodologies were proposed within the tool for maintaining criticality. Two of the proposed methods used an inverse multiplication approach - where the amount of fissile material in a set configuration is slowly altered until criticality is attained - in estimating the critical control rod position. Another method carried out several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions, then used a linear fit to estimate the critical rod position. The final method used a second-order polynomial fit of several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions to guess the critical rod position. The results showed that consistency in prediction of power densities as well as uranium and plutonium isotopics was mutual among methods within the CRPE tool that predicted critical position consistently well. Finall, while the CRPE tool is currently limited to manipulating a single control rod, future work could be geared toward implementing additional criticality search methodologies along with additional features.

  10. Controlled self-assembly of conjugated rod-coil block copolymers for applications in organic optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yuefei

    Organic electronics are of great interest in manufacturing light weight, mechanical flexible, and inexpensive large area devices. While significant improvements have been made over the last several years and it is now clear that morphology on the lengthscale of exciton diffusion (10nm) is of crucial importance, a clear relationship between structure and device properties has not emerged. This lack of understanding largely emerges from an inability to control morphology on this lengthscale. This thesis will center around an approach, based on block copolymer self-assembly, to generate equilibrium nanostructures on the 10 nm lengthscale of exciton diffusion and study their effects on device performance. Self-assembly of semiconducting block copolymers is complicated by the non-classical chain shape of conjugated polymers. Unlike classical polymers, the chains do not assume a Gaussian coil shape which is stretched near block copolymer interfaces, instead the chains are elongated and liquid crystalline. Previous work has demonstrated how these new molecular interactions and shapes control the phase diagram of so-called rod-coil block copolymers. Here, we will focus on controlling domain size, orientation, and chemical structure. While domain size can be controlled directly through molecular weight, this requires significant additional synthesis of domain size is to be varied. Here, the domain size is controlled by blending homopolymers into a self-assembling rod-coil block copolymer. When coil-like blocks are incorporated, the domains swell, as expected. When rod-like blocks are incorporated, they interdigitate with the rods of the block copolymers. This results in an increase in interfacial area which forces the coils to rearrange and an overall decrease in domain size with increasing rod content. Control over lamellar orientation is crucial in order to design and control charge transport pathways and exciton recombination or separation interfaces. While numerous

  11. Simulation and operation of the EBR-2 automatic control rod drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehto, W. K.; Larson, H. A.; Dean, E. M.; Christensen, L. J.

    An automatic control rod drive system (ACRDS) installed at EBR-II produces shaped power transients from 40% to full reactor power at a linear ramp rate of 4 MWt/s. A digital computer and modified control rod drive provides this capability. Simulation and analysis of ACRDS experiments establish the safety envelope for reactor transient operation. Tailored transients are required as part of USDOE operational reliability testing program for prototypic fast reactor fuel cladding breach behavior studies. After initial EBR-II driver fuel testing and system checkout, test subassemblies were subjected to both slow and fast transients. In addition, the ACRDS is used for steady state operation and will be qualified to control power ascent from initial critical to full power.

  12. Birth control in India: the carrot and the rod?

    PubMed

    Landman, L C

    1977-01-01

    The fall of the Indira Gandhi government seems to validate the prediction made six years ago by demographer Frank Notestein that any attempt by a developing country to force its people to use birth control methods "would be more likely to bring down the government than the birthrate." This author, however, interviewing couples seeking sterilization, contraception and abortion, as well as the doctors, nurses and administrators who provided the service, just weeks before the upset election, found that family planning was very much wanted and needed by the people, and was being provided in an efficient and humane way. Thus, pressing the population panic button was probably not only unnecessary, but a tragic mistake on the part of the Gandhi government.

  13. Synthesis of iron oxide rods coated with polymer brushes and control of their assembly in thin films.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Ishige, Ryohei; Tsujii, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Kohji

    2015-01-27

    We investigated the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using monodisperse rod-type particles of iron oxide, β-FeOOH. The slow hydrolysis of iron(III) chloride yielded monodisperse β-FeOOH rods with an average length-to-width ratio, L/W, of 6 (L = 210 nm and W = 35 nm on average). The surfaces of the β-FeOOH rods were modified with a triethoxysilane derivative as an ATRP-initiating site, namely, (2-bromo-2-methyl)propionyloxypropyl triethoxysilane. The SI-ATRP of MMA, mediated by a copper complex, was performed using the initiator-coated β-FeOOH rods in the presence of a "sacrificial" free initiator. Well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes with molecular weights of up to 700,000 could be grafted on the β-FeOOH rods with a surface density as high as 0.3 chains/nm(2). The resultant polymer-brush-afforded hybrid rods exhibited high dispersibility in various solvents for PMMA without forming aggregates. Thin films were prepared by dip-coating from a suspension of the hybrid rods, and the rods were oriented in a specific direction in the films. The arrangement of the rods could be controlled by varying the chain length of the polymer brush and the withdrawal speed during the dip-coating process.

  14. Control of rod retinomotor movements in teleost retinae: the role of dopamine in mediating light-dependent and circadian signals.

    PubMed

    Kolbinger, W; Wagner, D; Wagner, H J

    1996-09-01

    In the retinae of lower vertebrates, several morphological changes, including photomechanical movements of rods, cones and pigment epithelium, occur during light and dark adaptation. We studied the contribution of exogenous and endogenous circadian control mechanisms to rod retinomotor movements in the teleost retina and their dependence on an intact dopaminergic system. Blue acara (Aequidens pulcher) were kept under a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. One population of fish remained untreated; another population was treated with 6-hydroxy-dopamine, selectively to destroy dopaminergic cells. Rod positions were determined in semi-thin radial sections. During the normal light/dark cycle, rods were elongated during the day and contracted at night. Rod retinomotor movements persisted during two cycles of continuous darkness. Expected light levels of rod positions were reduced by about 40% in comparison with normal light phases. Adaptation-dependent retinomotor movements and movements driven by an endogenous circadian clock also occurred in dopamine-depleted retinae. No statistically significant differences were observed between dopamine-containing and dopamine-depleted retinae. We conclude that rod retinomotor movements in teleost retinae are controlled by light and by an endogenous circadian clock. Dopamine plays no essential role in the light-dependent and endogenous control of rod retinomotor movements.

  15. Controlling the Self-Assembly of Semiconducting Nanocrystals within Conjugated Rod-Coil Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Bryan L.; Urban, Jeff J.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2010-03-01

    Blends of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanoparticles have been investigated for numerous optoelectronic applications however optimization relies on precise control over the nanoscale morphologies. Here, we show that conjugated rod-coil block copolymers can be designed to self assemble into controllable morphologies with the coil block templating nanocrystal location. We have constructed a model system where nanocrystals are blended with poly(alkoxy-phenylene vinylene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PPV-b-P2VP), which self assembles into tunable morphologies. Semiconducting nanocrystals reside within the P2VP domain, due to the favorable interactions between P2VP and the nanoparticle surface as well as the exclusionary effects of the liquid crystalline PPV. The placement of the nanoparticles can be tuned by altering domain size, nanocrystal diameter and nanocrystal surface chemistry. These findings are used to develop a comprehensive understanding of the self assembly processes in conjugated rod-coil block copolymer nanocomposites.

  16. Controlling the Self-Assembly of Inorganic Nanoparticles within Conjugated Rod-Coil Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, Bryan; Segalman, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Blends of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanoparticles have been investigated for numerous applications however optimization relies on precise control over the nanoscale morphology. We have designed a conjugated rod-coil block copolymer consisting of poly(3-(2'-ethyl)hexylthiophene)-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P3EHT-b-P2VP) which self assembles into controllable morphologies. Inorganic nanoparticles reside within the P2VP domain due to the favorable interactions between P2VP and the nanoparticle surface as well as the exclusionary effects of the liquid crystalline P3EHT. The nanoparticle location can be tuned by altering nanocrystal surface chemistry. These findings are used to develop a comprehensive understanding of the self assembly processes in conjugated rod-coil block copolymer nanocomposites.

  17. A model of the control rod housing overflow incident in a Savannah River Production Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.; Flach, G.P.; Steimke, J.L.; Koffman, L.D.; Askew, N.M.

    1993-05-01

    On May 25, 1992, K-reactor at the Savannah River Site was being configured for start up when a D20 leak of unknown origin was detected on the top of the reactor. The reactor was immediately shutdown, and reactor start up was put on hold until the cause of the leak was determined and the problem eliminated. The source of the leak was suspected to be overflow of the control rod guide tubes, and on May 27 hydraulic tests in the laboratory confirmed this and identified the cause to be unanticipated secondary circulations in the control rod housings. The modelling effort, that in conjunction with the experimental program, identified a temporary fix that allowed K-reactor to be restarted two weeks after the initial overflow incident is herein described.

  18. Cadmium control/safety rod disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, S.H.

    1995-05-01

    Four heavy-water-moderated reactors at the Savannah River Site will undergo the removal of 862 activated cadmium control/safety rods. Although these reactors are 40 years old, they offer 4 basic advantages for decommissioning: the equipment is still in some sort of operable state; the reactor is blow the floor in a large process room, allowing access; Control/safety rods can be handled remotely by existing equipment; a radiologically shielded removal path exists. Drawbacks include the following: age of reactors; improvements in technology have caused incompatibility problems; more strigent standards; compliance with environmental regulations. This article details how the removal was carried out and the current status of the project, keeping in mind the above considerations.

  19. Factors influencing helium measurements for detection of control rod failures in BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Loner, H.; Ledergerber, G.; Schnurr, B.

    2012-07-01

    Much effort has been made to minimize the number and consequences of fuel failures at nuclear power plants. The consequences of control rod failures have also gained an increased attention. In this paper we introduce a system for on-line surveillance of control rod integrity which has several advantages comparing to the surveillance methods available today in boiling water reactors (BWRs). This system measures the helium released from failed control rods containing boron carbide (B4C). However, there are a number of factors that might influence measurements, which have to be taken into consideration when evaluating the measured data. These factors can be separated into two groups: 1) local adjustments, made on the sampling line connecting the detector to the off-gas system, and 2) plant operational parameters. The adjustments of the sample line conditions include variation of gas flow rate and gas pressure in the line. Plant operational factors that may influence helium measurements can vary from plant to plant. The factors studied at Leibstadt nuclear power plant (KKL) were helium impurities in injected hydrogen gas, variation of the total off-gas flow and regular water refill. In this paper we discuss these factors and their significance and present experimental results of measurements at KKL. (authors)

  20. A two-step method for developing a control rod program for boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H. ); Hsiao, M.Y. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a two-step method that is established for the generation of a long-term control rod program for boiling water reactors (BWRs). The new method assumes a time-variant target power distribution in core depletion. In the new method, the BWR control rod programming is divided into two steps. In step 1, a sequence of optimal, exposure-dependent Haling power distribution profiles is generated, utilizing the spectral shift concept. In step 2, a set of exposure-dependent control rod patterns is developed by using the Haling profiles generated at step 1 as a target. The new method is implemented in a computer program named OCTOPUS. The optimization procedure of OCTOPUS is based on the method of approximation programming, in which the SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonics characteristics of the reactor core state. In a test in cycle length over a time-invariant, target Haling power distribution case because of a moderate application of spectral shift. No thermal limits of the core were violated. The gain in cycle length could be increased further by broadening the extent of the spetral shift.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of a research reactor with nominal power of 7 MW to design new control safety rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoushtari, M. K.; Kakavand, T.; Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Ghaforian, H.

    2010-03-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation has been established for a research reactor with nominal power of 7 MW. A detailed model of the reactor core was employed including standard and control fuel elements, reflectors, irradiation channels, control rods, reactor pool and thermal column. The following physical parameters of reactor core were calculated for the present LEU core: core reactivity ( ρ), control rod (CR) worth, thermal and epithermal neutron flux distributions, shutdown margin and delayed neutron fraction. Reduction of unfavorable effects of blockage probability of control safety rod (CSR)s in their interiors because of not enough space in their sites, and lack of suitable capabilities to fabricate very thin plates for CSR cladding, is the main aim of the present study. Making the absorber rod thinner and CSR cladding thicker by introducing a better blackness absorbing material and a new stainless steel alloy, respectively, are two studied ways to reduce the effects of mentioned problems.

  2. Measurements of /sup 10/B(n,He) reaction rates in a mockup control rod in ZPPR

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, S.B.; Collins, P.J.; Oliver, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the first direct measurement of /sup 10/B capture rate in a mockup control rod in a critical assembly. The experiment used the helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) technique. 13 refs.

  3. Control of cell morphogenesis in bacteria: two distinct ways to make a rod-shaped cell.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Richard A; Errington, Jeff

    2003-06-13

    Cell shape in most eubacteria is maintained by a tough external peptidoglycan cell wall. Recently, cell shape determining proteins of the MreB family were shown to form helical, actin-like cables in the cell. We used a fluorescent derivative of the antibiotic vancomycin as a probe for nascent peptidoglycan synthesis in unfixed cells of various Gram-positive bacteria. In the rod-shaped bacterium B. subtilis, synthesis of the cylindrical part of the cell wall occurs in a helical pattern governed by an MreB homolog, Mbl. However, a few rod-shaped bacteria have no MreB system. Here, a rod-like shape can be achieved by a completely different mechanism based on use of polar growth zones derived from the division machinery. These results provide insights into the diverse molecular strategies used by bacteria to control their cellular morphology, as well as suggesting ways in which these strategies may impact on growth rates and cell envelope structure.

  4. The use of magnetically controlled growing rod device for pediatric scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Nicandro; Kananeh, Salman F.; Siqueira, Heloise H.; Figueiredo, Rita C.; Al Sebai, Mohamed W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of an innovative device using distraction-based magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) for the treatment of pediatric scoliosis. Methods: This is an evidence-based systematic review of literature for the surgical management of patients with pediatric scoliosis using MCGR technique. Six clinical studies regarding the use of MCGR were included in this review, with a total of 68 patients, and mean age of 8.38 years. The dual-rod (DR) technique of rod construct with MCGR was used in 33.85% and the single-rod (SR) in 66.15% of the patients. Results: The mean preoperative main coronal curve for the DR was 65.9°, and for the SR was 69.6° (p>0.05). At the latest follow-up, it was 36.8° for DR and 43.0° for SR (p<0.05). The mean preoperative T1-S1 spinal length was 298.7 mm for the DR and 303.5 mm for the SR group (p<0.05). According to the latest follow-up, using the DR construct, the spinal length increased to 347 mm with 13.92% of total lengthening; and using the SR construct, the average lengthening was 339 mm, with 10.48% of total lengthening (p<0.05). Postoperative complications were similar, 25% in DR and 31.57% in the SR group (p>0.05). Conclusion: Level IV of medical evidence supports the use of MCGR as a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of severe pediatric scoliosis. Recommendation Grade C supports the role of MCGR with DR construct as an option to achieve a better correction of the scoliotic curve and to maximize the postoperative T1-S1 spinal length. PMID:26818162

  5. A benchmark for investigating the radial dependence of C/E for control rod worths in large decoupled cores

    SciTech Connect

    Salvatores, M. ); Orechwa, Y. ); Collins, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The first physics measurements of a heterogeneous core on the critical assembly ZPPR-7 at ANL showed that the C/E ratios with ENDF/B data for the worths of the control rods in the outer bank were several percent higher than those at the inner bank positions. This radial variation in the C/E for the rod worths was further confirmed in the analysis of the large conventional core ZPPR-10, and again in the analysis of the large heterogeneous core series ZPPR-13. In the design of a power reactor, the number of control rods, and their disposition, are determined by calculations. Misprediction of the worth of the control rods can lead to serious economic penalties by restricting the operation of the core. Retrofitting a core to accommodate more worth will be costly and is likely to lead to a non-optimized core. This document provides a discussion of these calculations. 7 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow, austenite decomposition kinetics, microstructure and mechanical properties, and industrial trials to determine heat transfer and obtain rod samples under known conditions. Owing to the length and diversity of the study, it is reported in three parts,[8191]the first of which is concerned with the heat flow measurements. A relatively simple and reliable technique, involving a preheated steel rod instrumented with a thermocouple secured at its centerline, has been devised to determine the cooling rate in different regions of the moving bed of rod loops on an operating Stelmor line. The measured thermal response of the rod has been analyzed by two transient conduction models (lumped and distributed parameter, respectively) to yield overall heat-transfer coefficients for radiation and convection. The adequacy of the technique has been checked by cooling instrumented rods under well-defined, air crossflow conditions in the laboratory and comparing measured heat-transfer coefficients to values predicted from well-established equations. The industrial thermal measurements have permitted the characterization of a coefficient to account for radiative interaction among adjacent rod loops near the edge and at the center of the bed.

  7. Analyses of eigenvalue bias and control rod worths in FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Wootan, D.W.; Campbell, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core loading during its ninth operating cycle was significantly different from that of previous cycles because of the presence of the Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE). The CDE consists of a number of axially blanketed fuel assemblies and internal blankets prototypic of advanced oxide cores in Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In preparation for the Cycle 9 reload design effort, a careful assessment of control rod worth and reactivity calculations for Cycles 1 through 8 was made. The goal of this study was to establish calculational biases and reduce uncertainties factored into the reload design calculations. These analyses helped assure that the operational objectives for Cycle 9 were met.

  8. Validation of the Monte Carlo model developed to assess the activity generated in control rods of a BWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ródenas, José; Abarca, Agustín; Gallardo, Sergio; Sollet, Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    Control rods are activated by neutron reactions into the reactor. The activation is produced mainly in stainless steel and its impurities. The dose produced by this activity is not important inside the reactor, but it has to be taken into account when the rod is withdrawn from it. The neutron activation has been modeled with the MCNP5 code based on the Monte Carlo method. The number of reactions obtained with the code can be converted into activity. In this work, a detailed model of the control rod has been developed considering all its components: handle, tubes, gain, and central core. On the other hand, the rod has been divided into 5 zones in order to consider the different axial exposition to neutron flux into the reactor. Results of the Monte Carlo simulation for the neutron activation constitute a gamma source in the control rod. With this source, applying again the Monte Carlo method, doses at certain distance of the rod have been calculated. Comparison of calculated doses with experimental measurements leads to the validation of the model developed.

  9. USE OF THE SDO POINTING CONTROLLERS FOR INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION MANEUVERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vess, Melissa F.; Starin, Scott R.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    During the science phase of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, the three science instruments require periodic instrument calibration maneuvers with a frequency of up to once per month. The command sequences for these maneuvers vary in length from a handful of steps to over 200 steps, and individual steps vary in size from 5 arcsec per step to 22.5 degrees per step. Early in the calibration maneuver development, it was determined that the original attitude sensor complement could not meet the knowledge requirements for the instrument calibration maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. Because the mission must be single fault tolerant, an attitude determination trade study was undertaken to determine the impact of adding an additional attitude sensor versus developing alternative, potentially complex, methods of performing the maneuvers in the event of a sensor failure. To limit the impact to the science data capture budget, these instrument calibration maneuvers must be performed as quickly as possible while maintaining the tight pointing and knowledge required to obtain valid data during the calibration. To this end, the decision was made to adapt a linear pointing controller by adjusting gains and adding an attitude limiter so that it would be able to slew quickly and still achieve steady pointing once on target. During the analysis of this controller, questions arose about the stability of the controller during slewing maneuvers due to the combination of the integral gain, attitude limit, and actuator saturation. Analysis was performed and a method for disabling the integral action while slewing was incorporated to ensure stability. A high fidelity simulation is used to simulate the various instrument calibration maneuvers.

  10. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part III. Mathematical model-formulation and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural evolution, and strength of the rods, has been tested by comparison to measurements from an extensive set of laboratory and plant trials. Thus, the model has been shown to simulate the complex heat flow and microstructural phenomena in the steel rod very well, although improvements need to be sought in the characterization of the austenite-ferrite transformation kinetics and of pearlite interlamellar spacing. The latter variable has a significant influence on the strength of eutectoid steels. Nonetheless, the model consistently is capable of predicting the strengths of plain-carbon steel rods ranging from 1020 to 1080 to within ± 10 pet.

  11. Detection and sizing of defects in control rod drive mechanism penetrations using eddy current and ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Light, G.M.; Fisher, J.L.; Tennis, R.F.; Stolte, J.S.; Hendrix, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Over the last two years, concern has been generated about the capabilities of performing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the closure-head penetrations in nuclear-reactor pressure vessels. These penetrations are primarily for instrumentation and control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) and are usually thick-walled Inconel tubes, which are shrink-fitted into the steel closure head. The penetrations are then welded between the outside surface of the penetration and the inside surface of the closure head. Stress corrosion cracks initiating at the inner surface of the penetration have been reported at several plants. Through-wall cracks in the CRDM penetration or CRDM weld could lead to loss of coolant in the reactor vessel. The CRDM penetration presents a complex inspection geometry for conventional NDE techniques. A thermal sleeve, through which pass the mechanical linkages for operating the control rods, is inserted into the penetration in such a way that only a small annulus (nominally 3 mm) exists between the thermal sleeve and inside surface of the penetration. Ultrasonic (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) techniques that could be used to provide defect detection and sizing capability were investigated. This paper describes the ET and UT techniques, the probes developed, and the results obtained using these probes and techniques on CRDM penetration mock-ups.

  12. Aging mechanisms in the Westinghouse PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) Control Rod Drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1991-01-01

    An aging assessment of the Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Control Rod System (CRD) has been completed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research, (NPAR) Program. This study examined the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the system to determine its potential for degradation as the plant ages. Selected results from this study are presented in this paper. The operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. From our evaluation of the data, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and the operating environment, we conclude that the Westinghouse CRD system is subject to degradation which, if unchecked, could affect its safety function as a plant ages. Ways to detect and mitigate the effects of aging are included in this paper. The current maintenance for the control rod drive system at fifteen Westinghouse PWRs was obtained through a survey conducted in cooperation with EPRI and NUMARC. The results of the survey indicate that some plants have modified the system, replaced components, or expanded preventive maintenance. Several of these activities have effectively addressed the aging issue. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Highly cooperative feedback control of retinal rod guanylate cyclase by calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Koch, K W; Stryer, L

    1988-07-07

    Visual excitation in retinal rod cells is mediated by a cascade that leads to the amplified hydrolysis of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and the consequent closure of cGMP-activated cation-specific channels in the plasma membrane. Recovery of the dark state requires the resynthesis of cGMP, which is catalysed by guanylate cyclase, an axoneme-associated enzyme. The lowering of the cytosolic calcium concentration (Cai) following illumination is thought to be important in stimulating cyclase activity. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the cGMP content of rod outer segments increases several-fold when Cai is lowered to less than 10 nM. It is evident that cGMP and Cai levels are reciprocally controlled by negative feedback. Guanylate cyclase from toad ROS is strongly stimulated when the calcium level is lowered from 10 microM to 10 nM, but only if they are excited by light. We show here that the guanylate cyclase activity of unilluminated bovine rod outer segments increases markedly (5 to 20-fold) when the calcium level is lowered from 200 nM to 50 nM. This steep dependence of guanylate cyclase activity on the calcium level in the physiological range has a Hill coefficient of 3.9. Stimulation at low calcium levels is mediated by a protein that can be released from the outer segment membranes by washing with a low salt buffer. Calcium sensitivity is partially restored by adding the soluble extract back to the washed membranes. The highly cooperative activation of guanylate cyclase by the light-induced lowering of Cai is likely to be a key event in restoring the dark current after excitation.

  14. In-situ calibration: migrating control system IP module calibration from the bench to the storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Jonah M.; Chin, Michael

    2002-04-30

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) uses in-house designed IndustryPack(registered trademark) (IP) modules contained in compact PCI (cPCI) crates with 16-bit analog I/O to control instrumentation. To make the IP modules interchangeable, each module is calibrated for gain and offset compensation. We initially developed a method of verifying and calibrating the IP modules in a lab bench test environment using a PC with LabVIEW. The subsequent discovery that the ADCs have significant drift characteristics over periods of days of installed operation prompted development of an ''in-situ'' calibration process--one in which the IP modules can be calibrated without removing them from the cPCI crates in the storage ring. This paper discusses the original LabVIEW PC calibration and the migration to the proposed in-situ EPICS control system calibration.

  15. Cost analysis of magnetically controlled growing rods compared with traditional growing rods for early-onset scoliosis in the US: an integrated health care delivery system perspective

    PubMed Central

    Polly, David W; Ackerman, Stacey J; Schneider, Karen; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Traditional growing rod (TGR) for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is effective but requires repeated invasive surgical lengthenings under general anesthesia. Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) is lengthened noninvasively using a hand-held magnetic external remote controller in a physician office; however, the MCGR implant is expensive, and the cumulative cost savings have not been well studied. We compared direct medical costs of MCGR and TGR for EOS from the US integrated health care delivery system perspective. We hypothesized that over time, the MCGR implant cost will be offset by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. Methods For both TGR and MCGR, the economic model estimated the cumulative costs for initial implantation, lengthenings, revisions due to device failure, surgical-site infections, device exchanges (at 3.8 years), and final fusion, over a 6-year episode of care. Model parameters were estimated from published literature, a multicenter EOS database of US institutions, and interviews. Costs were discounted at 3.0% annually and represent 2015 US dollars. Results Of 1,000 simulated patients over 6 years, MCGR was associated with an estimated 270 fewer deep surgical-site infections and 197 fewer revisions due to device failure compared with TGR. MCGR was projected to cost an additional $61 per patient over the 6-year episode of care compared with TGR. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were sensitive to changes in the percentage of MCGR dual rod use, months between TGR lengthenings, percentage of hospital inpatient (vs outpatient) TGR lengthenings, and MCGR implant cost. Conclusion Cost neutrality of MCGR to TGR was achieved over the 6-year episode of care by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis comparing MCGR to TGR – from the US provider perspective – which demonstrates the efficient provision of care with MCGR. PMID:27695352

  16. Controllable end shape modification of ZnO nano-arrays/rods by a simple wet chemical etching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingchang; Zhao, Ting; Ma, Zhangwei; Li, Ming; Chang, Cheng; Liang, Hongwei; Bian, Jiming; Li, Chengren

    2015-09-01

    The well-aligned ZnO nano-arrays/rods synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method on a highly conductive Si substrate were chemically etched in an ammonia chloride aqueous solution. An obvious end shape modification of ZnO nano-arrays/rods was realized in this report. The hexagonal frustum end of ZnO nano-arrays/rods changed into a pyramid and the diameter of ZnO nano-arrays/rods decreased gradually with the increasing etching time. The evolution mechanism of the wet etching process was discussed based on a proposed evolution model. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the near band edge emissions of ZnO nano-arrays/rods increased greatly after wet etching. The controllable end shape modification of ZnO nano-arrays/rods on a highly conductive Si substrate by this simple wet etching technique will further explore the application of ZnO in field emission devices and 1D based nano-devices with various end shapes.

  17. Degradation and oxidation of B 4C control rod segments at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, M.

    2010-05-01

    Extensive series of test were performed of the degradation of boron carbide absorber rods and the oxidation of the resultant absorber melts. Various types of control rod segments made of commercial materials used in French 1300 MW PWRs were investigated in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1700 °C in a steam atmosphere. The gaseous reaction products were analyzed quantitatively by mass spectroscopy for evaluation of the oxidation rates. Extensive post-test examinations were performed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy as well as EDX and Auger spectroscopy. Rapid melt formation due to eutectic interactions of stainless steel (cladding tube) and B 4C, on the one hand, and steel and Zircaloy-4 (guide tube), on the other hand, was observed at temperatures above 1250 °C. Complex multi-component, multi-phase melts were produced. ZrO 2 oxide scale on the outside kept the melt within the guide tube, thus preventing its early relocation and oxidation. Rapid oxidation of the absorber melts and remaining boron carbide pellets took place after failure of the protective oxide shell above 1450 °C. Only very little methane was produced in these tests which is of interest in fission product gas chemistry because of the production of organic iodine.

  18. The co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 facilitates rod opsin biogenesis and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Aguila, Monica; McCulley, Caroline; Kanuga, Naheed; Iwawaki, Takao; Paul Chapple, J.; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensitive protein of rod cells, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Many rod opsin mutations, such as P23H, lead to misfolding of rod opsin with detrimental effects on photoreceptor function and viability. Misfolded P23H rod opsin and other mutations in the intradiscal domain are characterized by the formation of an incorrect disulphide bond between C185 and C187, as opposed to the correct and highly conserved C110–C187 disulphide bond. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that incorrect disulphide bond formation might be a factor that affects the biogenesis of rod opsin by studying wild-type (WT) or P23H rod opsin in combination with amino acid substitutions that prevent the formation of incorrect disulphide bonds involving C185. These mutants had altered traffic dynamics, suggesting a requirement for regulation of disulphide bond formation/reduction during rod opsin biogenesis. Here, we show that the BiP co-chaperone and reductase protein ERdj5 (DNAJC10) regulates this process. ERdj5 overexpression promoted the degradation, improved the endoplasmic reticulum mobility and prevented the aggregation of P23H rod opsin. ERdj5 reduction by shRNA delayed rod opsin degradation and promoted aggregation. The reductase and co-chaperone activity of ERdj5 were both required for these effects on P23H rod opsin. Furthermore, mutations in these functional domains acted as dominant negatives that affected WT rod opsin biogenesis. Collectively, these data identify ERdj5 as a member of the proteostasis network that regulates rod opsin biogenesis and supports a role for disulphide bond formation/reduction in rod opsin biogenesis and disease. PMID:25055872

  19. The co-chaperone and reductase ERdj5 facilitates rod opsin biogenesis and quality control.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Aguila, Monica; McCulley, Caroline; Kanuga, Naheed; Iwawaki, Takao; Chapple, J Paul; Cheetham, Michael E

    2014-12-15

    Mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensitive protein of rod cells, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Many rod opsin mutations, such as P23H, lead to misfolding of rod opsin with detrimental effects on photoreceptor function and viability. Misfolded P23H rod opsin and other mutations in the intradiscal domain are characterized by the formation of an incorrect disulphide bond between C185 and C187, as opposed to the correct and highly conserved C110-C187 disulphide bond. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that incorrect disulphide bond formation might be a factor that affects the biogenesis of rod opsin by studying wild-type (WT) or P23H rod opsin in combination with amino acid substitutions that prevent the formation of incorrect disulphide bonds involving C185. These mutants had altered traffic dynamics, suggesting a requirement for regulation of disulphide bond formation/reduction during rod opsin biogenesis. Here, we show that the BiP co-chaperone and reductase protein ERdj5 (DNAJC10) regulates this process. ERdj5 overexpression promoted the degradation, improved the endoplasmic reticulum mobility and prevented the aggregation of P23H rod opsin. ERdj5 reduction by shRNA delayed rod opsin degradation and promoted aggregation. The reductase and co-chaperone activity of ERdj5 were both required for these effects on P23H rod opsin. Furthermore, mutations in these functional domains acted as dominant negatives that affected WT rod opsin biogenesis. Collectively, these data identify ERdj5 as a member of the proteostasis network that regulates rod opsin biogenesis and supports a role for disulphide bond formation/reduction in rod opsin biogenesis and disease.

  20. Calibrating automatic exposure control devices for digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Doyle, P; Martin, C J

    2006-11-07

    The energy responses of digital radiography detectors differ from those of screen-film systems. To provide a consistent level of image quality at different tube potentials automatic exposure control (AEC) devices must be calibrated to suit the energy response of the image receptor with which they are intended for use. AEC calibration for digital radiography systems requires an alternative parameter to optical density, ideally one related to the quality of a digital image. Energy responses of computed radiography (CR) and indirect digital radiography (IDR) image receptors have been calculated, and compared with those for screen-film systems. Practical assessments of the relative sensitivities of a CR detector made using the detector dose indicator (DDI), pixel value and signal-to-noise ratio showed similar variations with tube potential. The DDI has been used to determine the correct kV compensation curve required to calibrate the AECs for the loss in detector sensitivity with tube potential. AECs are set up relative to a predetermined air kerma incident on the detector at 80 kV for CR and IDR systems using this curve and the method used is described. Factors influencing the calibration of AECs for digital radiography including techniques, types of phantom and contributions from scatter are reviewed, and practical methods recommended for use.

  1. The differential characteristics of control rods of VVER-1000 core simulator at a low number of axial mesh points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsunov, A. A.; Karpov, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    An algorithm for refining the differential characteristics of the control rods (CRs) of the control and protection system (CPS) for a neutronics model of the VVER-1000 simulator at a low number of axial mesh points of the core is described. The problem of determining the constants for a cell with a partially inserted CR is solved. The cell constants obtained using the proposed approach ensure smoothing of the differential characteristics of an absorbing rod. The algorithm was used in the VVER-1000 simulators (Bushehr NPP, unit no. 1; Rostov NPP, unit no. 1; and Balakovo NPP, unit no. 4).

  2. Controlled fabrication of individual silicon quantum rods yielding high intensity, polarized light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, Benjamin; Valenta, Jan; Linnros, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Elongated silicon quantum dots (also referred to as rods) were fabricated using a lithographic process which reliably yields sufficient numbers of emitters. These quantum rods are perfectly aligned and the vast majority are spatially separated well enough to enable single-dot spectroscopy. Not only do they exhibit extraordinarily high linear polarization with respect to both absorption and emission, but the silicon rods also appear to luminesce much more brightly than their spherical counterparts. Significantly increased quantum efficiency and almost unity degree of linear polarization render these quantum rods perfect candidates for numerous applications.

  3. Control of Prestressing Force in Rod for Reducing Bending in Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a method to determine the prestressing force required in a rod for reducing the bending effects in a beam. The rod is positioned underneath the beam such that the prestressing force is counteracting the effects of beam bending. It has been found that the prestressing force may also increase the bending as a result of P-δ effect. Therefore, the choice of both the prestressing force and the rod eccentricity from the beam axis is important in determining the appropriate actions to resist the bending of the beam. Over-prestressing the rod may even induce bending or buckling failure in the beam in the reverse direction.

  4. Research relative to an advanced rod control system for quadrupole mass spectrometry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, George R.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a suitable amplifier output stage using available transistors and passive components is summarized. All of the analysis and calculation confirm that it is feasible to design the amplifier and quadrupole coupling circuit needed for the Advanced Rod Control System. The progress obtained so far concerning the three frequency tank circuits to be used in the oscillator for the mass spectrometer of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) project is presented. Results from this study look promising. However, it is not known what minimum impedance levels are required to make it possible for the oscillator to work properly. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a prototype circuit in the laboratory which can be measured and tested in an oscillator circuit. Continued attempts will be made to develop a useful inductor motor with better characteristics than the one being used at the moment. It is important that such a model be found if computer simulation is to reflect reality more closely.

  5. STABILIZED RARE EARTH OXIDES FOR A CONTROL ROD AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A.; Potter, R.A.

    1964-01-14

    A method is given for preparing mixed oxides of the formula MR/sub x/O/ sub 12/ wherein M is tungsten or molybdenum and R is a rare earth in the group consisting of samarium, europium, dysprosium, and gadolinium and x is 4 to 5. Oxides of this formula, and particularly the europiumcontaining species, are useful as control rod material for water-cooled nuclear reactors owing to their stability, favorable nuclear properties, and resistance to hydration. These oxides may be utilized as a dispersion in a stainlesssteel matrix. Preparation of these oxides is effected by blending tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide with a rare earth oxide, compressing the mixture, and firing at an elevated temperature in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. (AEC)

  6. Nuclear Data Library Effects on Fast to Thermal Flux Shapes Around PWR Control Rod Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Zhu, T.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    The development of a high-fidelity computational scheme to estimate the accumulated fluence at the tips of PWR control rods (CR) has been initiated at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Both the fluence from high-energy (E>1 MeV) neutrons as well as for the thermal range (E<0.625 eV) are required as these affect the CR integrity through stresses/strains induced by coupled clad embrittlement / absorber swelling phenomena. The concept of the PSI scheme under development is to provide from validated core analysis models, the volumetric neutron source to a full core MCNPX model that is then used to compute the neutron fluxes. A particular aspect that needs scrutiny is the ability of the MCNPX-based calculation methodology to accurately predict the flux shapes along the control rod surfaces, especially for fully withdrawn CRs. In that case, the tip is located a short distance above the core/reflector interface and since this situation corresponds to a large part of reactor operation, the accumulated fluence will highly depend on the achieved calculation accuracy and precision in this non-fueled zone. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to quantify the influence of nuclear data on the calculated fluxes at the CR tips by (1) conducting a systematic comparison of modern neutron cross-section libraries, including JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0, and (2) by quantifying the uncertainties in the neutron flux calculations with the help of available neutron cross-section variances/covariances data. For completeness, the magnitude of these nuclear data-based uncertainties is also assessed in relation to the influence from other typical sources of modeling uncertainties/biases.

  7. The DBA Analysis of One Control Rod Withdrawal Out of the HTR-10GT Core

    SciTech Connect

    Mingang Lang; Yujie Dong

    2006-07-01

    The 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Test Reactor (HTR-10) has been built in Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) and has been operating successfully since the beginning of 2003. The core outlet temperature of HTR-10 is 700 deg. C. To verify the technology of gas-turbine direct cycle, INET has planned to increase its core outlet temperature to 750 deg. C and use a helium gas turbine instead of the steam generator (then the reactor is called HTR-10GT). Though HTR-10 has good intrinsic safety, the design basic accidents and beyond design basic accidents of HTR10-GT must be analyzed according to China's nuclear regulations due to changed operation parameters. THERMIX code system is used to study the accident on one control rod withdrawal out of the core by a mistake. After a control rod in the side reflector was withdrawn out at a speed of 1 cm/s by a mistake, a positive reactivity was inserted and the reactor power increased and the temperature of the core increased. When the neutron flux of power measuring range exceeded 123% and the core outlet temperature was lager than 800 deg. C, the reactor was scrammed. During the accident sequence the maximum fuel temperature was 1200.9 deg. C. It was lower than the fuel temperature limitation of 1230 deg. C. The paper compares the analysis result of HTR10-GT to those of HTR-10. The results shows that the HTR-10GT is still safe during the accident though its operating temperature is higher than HTR-10 when the fuel safety limits are the same. (authors)

  8. ISS Payload Racks Automated Flow Control Calibration Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, Boris G.

    2003-01-01

    Payload Racks utilize MTL and/or LTL station water for cooling of payloads and avionics. Flow control range from valves of fully closed, to up to 300 Ibmhr. Instrument accuracies are as high as f 7.5 Ibm/hr for flow sensors and f 3 Ibm/hr for valve controller, for a total system accuracy of f 10.5 Ibm/hr. Improved methodology was developed, tested and proven that reduces accuracy of the commanded flows to less than f 1 Ibmhr. Uethodology could be packed in a "calibration kit" for on- orbit flow sensor checkout and recalibration, extending the rack operations before return to earth. -

  9. General shape control of colloidal CdS, CdSe, CdTe quantum rods and quantum rod heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Felice; Saunders, Aaron E; Korgel, Brian A

    2005-05-12

    We report a general synthetic method for the formation of shape-controlled CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanocrystals and mixed-semiconductor heterostructures. The crystal growth kinetics can be manipulated by changing the injection rate of the chalcogen precursor, allowing the particle shape-spherical or rodlike-to be tuned without changing the underlying chemistry. A single injection of precursor leads to isotropic spherical growth, whereas multiple injections promote epitaxial growth along the length of the c-axis. This method was extended to produce linear type I and type II semiconductor nanocrystal heterostructures.

  10. Temporal control of drug release from biodegradable polymer: multicomponent diclofenac sodium releasing PLGA 80/20 rod.

    PubMed

    Nikkola, Lila; Viitanen, Petrus; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2009-05-01

    In our previous studies we have reported on the development of diclofenac sodium (DS) releasing rods. However, their drug release profiles were unsatisfactory. To enhance the drug release properties of the implant, we have developed a system whereby various elements can be combined into one implant. Melt extruded, self-reinforced (SR), and sterilized (S) DS-containing SR-PLGA 80/20 billets were combined to produce multicomponent implants with various compositions. These components were basically heat pressed together to form multicomponent rods. Drug release from single component and multicomponent rods was defined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. DS was released from individual components within 82-111 days and from multicomponent rods within 50-70 days. Thermal properties were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The melting temperature (T(m)) of multicomponent implants was about 157 degrees C, change in heat fusion (DeltaH) was 13.3 J/g, and the glass transition temperature (T(g)) was 55.4 degrees C. Mechanical strength was measured for 2 weeks and it decreased from 55 to 15 MPa. In conclusion, by compression molding three components with different release rates it is possible to control the temporal release from multicomponent rods. Released DS concentrations were within range for 49-74 days depending on the fractions of individual components used.

  11. Growth control of ZnO nano-rod with various seeds and photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Wang, Yuting; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2013-06-01

    ZnO has attracted much interesting as one of unique materials. Especially, it is suitable for the easy fabrication of nano-structures such as rod, wire and tube as well as particles. ZnO nano-rod is one of good sensitized electrodes because it has good electron transfer and is easily fabricated. In the chemical bath deposition process, seed layer plays an important role in the growth of nano-rod. This work investigated and analyzed the effect of seed layer on the growth of ZnO nano-rod. Fabricated nano-rods were applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. For better performance, ZnO was surface-modified by TiO2. Surface-modified ZnO had improved electron transfer and wider surface area. Consequently, the current and fill factor were much improved and overall performance was also enhanced with them.

  12. Implementation and tests of FPGA-embedded PowerPC in the control system of the ATLAS IBL ROD card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Falchieri, D.; Furini, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Kugel, A.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Insertable B-layer project is planned for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. A silicon layer will be inserted into the existing Pixel Detector together with new electronics. The readout off-detector system is implemented with a Back-Of-Crate module implementing I/O functionality and a Readout-Driver card (ROD) for data processing. The ROD hosts the electronics devoted to control operations implemented both with a back-compatible solution (using a Digital Signal Processor) and with a PowerPC embedded into an FPGA. In this document major firmware and software achievements concerning the PowerPC implementation, tested on ROD prototypes, will be reported.

  13. Experimental investigation on the suppression of vortex-induced vibration of long flexible riser by multiple control rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Sun, D. P.; Lu, L.; Teng, B.; Tang, G. Q.; Song, J. N.

    2012-04-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) suppression for slender riser (length to diameter ratio L/D=1750) using multiple control rods. The uniform current was obtained by towing the riser model running in a wave basin, giving the Reynolds numbers ranging from 2400 to 7600. Four control rods with diameter d=0.25D were placed parallel to the riser model with uniform angle interval of 90°. Different spacing ratios δ/D=0.187, 0.375 and 0.562 and coverage rates Lc/L=80%, 60%, 40% and 20% were considered, where δ is the spacing distance, Lc is the covered length. The strain responses in both cross-flow (CF) and in-line (IL) directions were measured by 56 Fiber Bragg Grating sensors. The experimental results show that the multiple control rods perform well in mitigating the VIV. In general the smaller spacing ratio and the larger coverage rates give rise to the better VIV suppression for the CF response, while the IL response is not sensitive to the δ/D and Lc/L. The optimal parameters are suggested to be δ/D≤0.375 and Lc/L≈60%. The monitored end tension of the riser model was observed to increase slightly due to the presence of control rods.

  14. Rod Contributions to Color Perception: Linear with Rod Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Pokorny, Joel; Smith, Vivianne C.; Zele, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    At mesopic light levels, an incremental change in rod activation causes changes in color appearance. In this study, we investigated how rod mediated changes in color perception varied as a function of the magnitude of the rod contrast. Rod-mediated changes in color appearance were assessed by matching them with cone-mediated color changes. A two-channel four-primary colorimeter allowed independent control of the rods and each of the L-, M- and S-cone photoreceptor types. At all light levels, rod contributions to inferred PC, KC and MC pathway mediated vision were linearly related to the rod incremental contrast. This linear relationship could be described by a model based on primate ganglion cell responses with the assumption that rod signals were conveyed via rod-cone gap junctions at mesopic light levels. PMID:18561973

  15. Effective parameter study for the facile and controlled growth of silver molybdate nano/micro rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Javier Esteban Enríquez; Singh, Dinesh Pratap

    2016-11-01

    Controlled growth of nano/micro structures by controlling the effective parameters is the basic requirement for the application point of view in various areas. Here we report the facile growth of silver molybdate nano/micro rods by mixing the solution of silver nitrate and ammonium molybdate at ambient condition followed by hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures for 12 h. To achieve the goal for the synthesis of long, high yield and homogeneous nanorods various effective parameters have been studied to set the most effective conditions for the growth. Among possible effective parameters first the temperature of the furnace was set by warring the temperature and then at the set temperature the concentration of reactants (NH4)6Mo7O24 and silver nitrate are varied respect to each other. The pH and temperature values were monitored during the mixing of the reactants. Structural/microstructural characterization revealed the optimum condition of 150°C of the furnace and the concentration of (NH4)6Mo7O24 and silver nitrate as described in various tables.

  16. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel Experiencing a Fast Control Rod Ejection Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Ortensi, J.; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-10-01

    A rapid increase of the temperature and the mechanical stress is expected in TRISO coated particle fuel that experiences a fast Total Control Rod Ejection (CRE) transient event. During this event the reactor power in the pebble bed core increases significantly for a short time interval. The power is deposited instantly and locally in the fuel kernel. This could result in a rapid increase of the pressure in the buffer layer of the coated fuel particle and, consequently, in an increase of the coating stresses. These stresses determine the mechanical failure probability of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). A new calculation procedure has been implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which analyzes the transient fuel performance behavior of TRISO fuel particles in PBRs. This early capability can easily be extended to prismatic designs, given the availability of neutronic and thermal-fluid solvers. The full-core coupled neutronic and thermal-fluid analysis has been modeled with CYNOD-THERMIX. The temperature fields for the fuel kernel and the particle coatings, as well as the gas pressures in the buffer layer, are calculated with the THETRIS module explicitly during the transient calculation. Results from this module are part of the feedback loop within the neutronic-thermal fluid iterations performed for each time step. The temperature and internal pressure values for each pebble type in each region of the core are then input to the PArticle STress Analysis (PASTA) code, which determines the particle coating stresses and the fraction of failed particles. This paper presents an investigation of a Total Control Rod Ejection (TCRE) incident in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular reactor design using the above described calculation procedure. The transient corresponds to a reactivity insertion of $3 (~2000 pcm) reaching 35 times the nominal power in 0.5 seconds. For each position in the core

  17. Some aspects of robotics calibration, design and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawfik, Hazem

    1990-01-01

    The main objective is to introduce techniques in the areas of testing and calibration, design, and control of robotic systems. A statistical technique is described that analyzes a robot's performance and provides quantitative three-dimensional evaluation of its repeatability, accuracy, and linearity. Based on this analysis, a corrective action should be taken to compensate for any existing errors and enhance the robot's overall accuracy and performance. A comparison between robotics simulation software packages that were commercially available (SILMA, IGRIP) and that of Kennedy Space Center (ROBSIM) is also included. These computer codes simulate the kinematics and dynamics patterns of various robot arm geometries to help the design engineer in sizing and building the robot manipulator and control system. A brief discussion on an adaptive control algorithm is provided.

  18. Field dependence and verbalized strategies on the portable rod-and-frame test by depressed outpatients and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Calamari, E; Pini, M; Puleggio, A

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between scores on the cognitive style of field dependence-independence and verbalized strategies on the Portable Rod-and-Frame Test for normal and psychopathological outpatients. We attempted to verify (a) Manning's hypothesis (1991) of a correspondence between scores on field dependence and external strategies (reference to the visual field) and scores on field independence and internal strategies (reference to the body) on perceptual tasks, and (b) a tendency of depressed persons to score as field dependent, and (c) use of external verbalized strategies. A total of 50 depressed outpatients and 50 normal controls were administered the test and requested to report the strategy they had employed to solve the problem. Contrary to Manning's findings, no significant relationship was found between cognitive style and verbalized strategies in the total sample. Depressed outpatients classified as internal scored significantly higher on the Group Embedded Figures Test but appeared more field dependent on the Rod-and-Frame Test. Moreover, only for the former test did depressed outpatients score more field-dependent than controls. Finally, no significant relationship was found between the diagnosis of depression and use of external strategies; however, field dependence and the use of external strategies on the Rod-and-Frame Test were associated with more severe depressive symptoms measured by the D scale of the MMPI-2. Further research is needed to assess the role of premorbid personality structures of depression in subjective and objective aspects of Rod-and-Frame Test performance.

  19. A tetrachromatic display for the spatiotemporal control of rod and cone stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Florian S; Paulun, Vivian C; Weiss, David; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-08-01

    We present an apparatus that allows independent stimulation of rods and short (S)-, middle (M)-, and long (L)-wavelength-sensitive cones. Previously presented devices allow rod and cone stimulation independently, but only for a spatially invariant stimulus design (Pokorny, Smithson, & Quinlan, 2004; Sun, Pokorny, & Smith, 2001b). We overcame this limitation by using two spectrally filtered projectors with overlapping projections. This approach allows independent rod and cone stimulation in a dynamic two-dimensional scene with appropriate resolution in the spatial, temporal, and receptor domains. Modulation depths were ±15% for M-cones and L-cones, ±20% for rods, and ±50% for S-cones, all with respect to an equal-energy mesopic background at 3.4 cd/m2. Validation was provided by radiometric measures and behavioral data from two trichromats, one protanope, one deuteranope, and one night-blind observer.

  20. Hierarchical nanostructure control in rod-coil block copolymers with magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuefei; Zohar, Hagar; Olsen, Bradley D; Segalman, Rachel A

    2007-09-01

    Magnetic field alignment of rod-coil block copolymers is shown to proceed through coupling to the diamagnetic moment of individual rod blocks. Block copolymer self-assembly then leads to alignment of the interfaces perpendicular to the field lines and long range order on a 10 nm lengthscale. This is in contrast to previously demonstrated alignment techniques, which couple to the block copolymer interfaces rather than individual molecules. Furthermore, alignment occurs without direct physical contact to samples millimeters in size.

  1. Assessment of the mechanical performance of the Westinghouse BWR control rod CR 99 at high depletion levels

    SciTech Connect

    Seltborg, P.; Jinnestrand, M.

    2012-07-01

    A long-term program assessing the mechanical performance of the Westinghouse BWR control rod CR 99 at high depletion levels has been performed. The scope of the program has mainly been based on the operation of four CR 99 Generation 2 control rods in demanding positions during 6 and 7 cycles in the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL) and on the detailed visual inspections and blade wing thickness measurements that were performed after the rods were discharged. By correlating statistically the blade wing thickness measurements to the appearance of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), the probability of IASCC appearance as function of the blade wing swelling was estimated. In order to correlate the IASCC probability of a CR 99 to its depletion, the {sup 10}B depletion of the studied rods was calculated in detail on a local level with the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP in combination with the Westinghouse nodal code system PHOENIX4/POLCA7. Using this information coupled to the blade wing measurement data, a finite element model describing the blade wing swelling of an arbitrary CR 99 design as function of {sup 10}B depletion could then be generated. In the final step, these relationships were used to quantify the probability of IASCC appearance as function of the {sup 10}B depletion of the CR 99 Generations 2 and 3. Applying this detailed mapping of the CR 99 behavior at high depletion levels and using an on-line core monitoring system with explicit {sup 10}B depletion tracking capabilities will enable a reliable prediction of the probability for IASCC appearance, thus enhancing the optimized design and the sound operation of the CR 99 control rod. Another important outcome of the program was that it was clearly shown that no significant amount of boron leakage did occur through any of the detected IASCC cracks, despite the very high depletion levels achieved. (authors)

  2. Development of a HTSMA-Actuated Surge Control Rod for High-Temperature Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II; Noebe, Ronald; Bigelow, Glen; Culley, Dennis; Stevens, Mark; Penney, Nicholas; Gaydosh, Darrell; Quackenbush, Todd; Carpenter, Bernie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a demand for compact, lightweight, solid-state actuation systems has emerged, driven in part by the needs of the aeronautics industry. However, most actuation systems used in turbomachinery require not only elevated temperature but high-force capability. As a result, shape memory alloy (SMA) based systems have worked their way to the forefront of a short list of viable options to meet such a technological challenge. Most of the effort centered on shape memory systems to date has involved binary NiTi alloys but the working temperatures required in many aeronautics applications dictate significantly higher transformation temperatures than the binary systems can provide. Hence, a high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) based on NiTiPdPt, having a transformation temperature near 300 C, was developed. Various thermo-mechanical processing schemes were utilized to further improve the dimensional stability of the alloy and it was later extruded/drawn into wire form to be more compatible with envisioned applications. Mechanical testing on the finished wire form showed reasonable work output capability with excellent dimensional stability. Subsequently, the wire form of the alloy was incorporated into a benchtop system, which was shown to provide the necessary stroke requirements of approx.0.125 inches for the targeted surge-control application. Cycle times for the actuator were limited to 4 seconds due to control and cooling constraints but this cycle time was determined to be adequate for the surge control application targeted as the primary requirement was initial actuation of a surge control rod, which could be completed in approximately one second.

  3. Control Program for an Optical-Calibration Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A computer program provides semiautomatic control of a moveable robot used to perform optical calibration of video-camera-based optoelectronic sensor systems that will be used to guide automated rendezvous maneuvers of spacecraft. The function of the robot is to move a target and hold it at specified positions. With the help of limit switches, the software first centers or finds the target. Then the target is moved to a starting position. Thereafter, with the help of an intuitive graphical user interface, an operator types in coordinates of specified positions, and the software responds by commanding the robot to move the target to the positions. The software has capabilities for correcting errors and for recording data from the guidance-sensor system being calibrated. The software can also command that the target be moved in a predetermined sequence of motions between specified positions and can be run in an advanced control mode in which, among other things, the target can be moved beyond the limits set by the limit switches.

  4. Disposal Of Irradiated Cadmium Control Rods From The Plumbrook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Posivak, E.J.; Berger, S.R.; Freitag, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    Innovative mixed waste disposition from NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility was accomplished without costly repackaging. Irradiated characteristic hardware with contact dose rates as high as 8 Sv/hr was packaged in a HDPE overpack and stored in a Secure Environmental Container during earlier decommissioning efforts, awaiting identification of a suitable pathway. WMG obtained regulatory concurrence that the existing overpack would serve as the macro-encapsulant per 40CFR268.45 Table 1.C. The overpack vent was disabled and the overpack was placed in a stainless steel liner to satisfy overburden slumping requirements. The liner was sealed and placed in shielded shoring for transport to the disposal site in a US DOT Type A cask. Disposition via this innovative method avoided cost, risk, and dose associated with repackaging the high dose irradiated characteristic hardware. In conclusion: WMG accomplished what others said could not be done. Large D and D contractors advised NASA that the cadmium control rods could only be shipped to the proposed Yucca mountain repository. NASA management challenged MOTA to find a more realistic alternative. NASA and MOTA turned to WMG to develop a methodology to disposition the 'hot and nasty' waste that presumably had no path forward. Although WMG lead a team that accomplished the 'impossible', the project could not have been completed with out the patient, supportive management by DOE-EM, NASA, and MOTA. (authors)

  5. Dynamic Simulation of Trapping and Controlled Rotation of a Microscale Rod Driven by Line Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas-Jaryani, Mahdi; Bowling, Alan; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2013-03-01

    Since the invention of optical tweezers, several biological and engineering applications, especially in micro-nanofluid, have been developed. For example, development of optically driven micromotors, which has an important role in microfluidic applications, has vastly been considered. Despite extensive experimental studies in this field, there is a lack of theoretical work that can verify and analyze these observations. This work develops a dynamic model to simulate trapping and controlled rotation of a microscale rod under influence of the optical trapping forces. The laser beam, used in line optical tweezers with a varying trap's length, was modeled based on a ray-optics approach. Herein, the effects of viscosity of the surrounding fluid (water), gravity, and buoyancy were included in the proposed model. The predicted results are in overall agreement with the experimental observation, which make the theoretical model be a viable tool for investigating the dynamic behavior of small size objects manipulated by optical tweezers in fluid environments. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MCB-1148541.

  6. Thermal control of rod outer segment length and shedding in a fish, Fundulus zebrinus.

    PubMed

    Allen, D M

    1995-08-01

    The effects of temperature on rod outer segment (ROS) length and membrane shedding were studied in a cyprinodont fish, Fundulus zebrinus. After 30 days in 14L/10D cyclic light and 17 degrees C, ROS length averaged 41.2 microns. Fish were then exposed to 7, 17 or 27 degrees C for 10 and 25 days before being sampled 5 hr before and 1-4 hr after light onset. In 7 degrees C ROS shortened to 83.5% of initial controls within 10 days, then only 4.1% further, to 79.4% by day 25 (34.4, 32.7 microns). ROS length did not change significantly in fish remaining at 17 degrees C (39.7 and 40.7 microns at day 10 and 25) or in fish moved to 27 degrees C (41.7 and 41.6 microns). Phagosomes were most numerous in 7 degrees C and least numerous in 17 degrees C, but varied in overall size among the largest phagosomes being more common after light onset. After light onset at day 25, the estimated volume per phagosome was 1.14, 4.73 and 5.75 microns 3 in 7, 17 and 27 degrees C. Total phagosome volume per 100 microns RPE at 27 degrees C was generally double that at 17 degrees C. Apparently, in F. zebrinus, the number of disks shed from ROS is adjusted during thermal acclimation to stabilize ROS length.

  7. Gas cooled fast reactor control rod drive mechanism deceleration unit. Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, T.H.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of the airtesting portion of the proof-of-principle testing of a Control Rod Scram Deceleration Device developed for use in the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). The device utilizes a grooved flywheel to decelerate the translating assembly (T/A). Two cam followers on the translating assembly travel in the flywheel grooves and transfer the energy of the T/A to the flywheel. The grooves in the flywheel are straight for most of the flywheel length. Near the bottom of the T/A stroke the grooves are spiraled in a decreasing slope helix so that the cam followers accelerate the flywheel as they transfer the energy of the falling T/A. To expedite proof-of-principle testing, some of the materials used in the fabrication of certain test article components were not prototypic. With these exceptions the concept appears to be acceptable. The initial test of 300 scrams was completed with only one failure and the failure was that of a non-prototypic cam follower outer sleeve material.

  8. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

    2012-05-01

    A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

  9. Controlling chaos based on a novel intelligent integral terminal sliding mode control in a rod-type plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, Khari; Zahra, Rahmani; Behrooz, Rezaie

    2016-05-01

    An integral terminal sliding mode controller is proposed in order to control chaos in a rod-type plasma torch system. In this method, a new sliding surface is defined based on a combination of the conventional sliding surface in terminal sliding mode control and a nonlinear function of the integral of the system states. It is assumed that the dynamics of a chaotic system are unknown and also the system is exposed to disturbance and unstructured uncertainty. To achieve a chattering-free and high-speed response for such an unknown system, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is utilized in the next step to approximate the unknown part of the nonlinear dynamics. Then, the proposed integral terminal sliding mode controller stabilizes the approximated system based on Lyapunov’s stability theory. In addition, a Bee algorithm is used to select the coefficients of integral terminal sliding mode controller to improve the performance of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the response speed, chattering rejection, transient response, and robustness against uncertainties.

  10. Measuring the efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly using a model of RKI-1 reactimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitarev, V. E.; Lebedev, G. V.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of control rods of the RBMK critical assembly is measured in a series of experiments. The aim of measurements is to determine the characteristics of the model of an RKI-1 reactimeter. The RKI-1 reactimeter is intended for measuring the efficiency of control rods when, according to conditions of operation, the metrological certification of results of an experiment is required. Complications with the metrological certification of reactimeters arise owing to the fact that usually calculated corrections to the results of measurements are required. When the RKI-1 reactimeter is used, there is no need to introduce calculated corrections; the result of measurements is given with the indication of substantiated errors. In connection with this, the metrological certification of the results of measurements using the RKI-1 reactimeter is simplified.

  11. Measuring the efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly using a model of RKI-1 reactimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitarev, V. E. Lebedev, G. V.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.

    2016-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods of the RBMK critical assembly is measured in a series of experiments. The aim of measurements is to determine the characteristics of the model of an RKI-1 reactimeter. The RKI-1 reactimeter is intended for measuring the efficiency of control rods when, according to conditions of operation, the metrological certification of results of an experiment is required. Complications with the metrological certification of reactimeters arise owing to the fact that usually calculated corrections to the results of measurements are required. When the RKI-1 reactimeter is used, there is no need to introduce calculated corrections; the result of measurements is given with the indication of substantiated errors. In connection with this, the metrological certification of the results of measurements using the RKI-1 reactimeter is simplified.

  12. A Self Calibrating Remote Controllable Water Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, J. E.; Heath, G. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been asked to support Mountain States Environmental (MSE) by providing an automated remote monitoring system for a treatment process of acid mine discharge from the Susie mine, which is located outside of Rimini near Helena, Montana. The mine, now abandoned, produces water year around that is contaminated with lead, zinc, cadmium and arsenic (Pb, Zn, Cd, and As). MSE is managing a project to install and test a pilot scale treatment system that will operate year around treating the discharge water to remove the metal contaminants of concern. The treatment system employs a combination of lime addition, iron addition, settling chambers, sand filters and polishing to treat the contaminated water. The system requires routine monitoring to ensure that process controls remain functional. The INL is developing a monitoring system capable of self calibrating, with two way communication, in a remote location that will provide physical and chemical water quality measurements throughout the treatment system.

  13. Analysis of the dose rate produced by control rods discharged from a BWR into the irradiated fuel pool.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Gallardo, S; Abarca, A; Juan, V

    2010-01-01

    BWR control rods become activated by neutron reactions into the reactor. Therefore, when they are withdrawn from the reactor, they must be stored into the storage pool for irradiated fuel at a certain depth under water. Dose rates on the pool surface and the area surrounding the pool should be lower than limits for workers. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to model this situation and to calculate dose rates at points of interest.

  14. Calculation of the Phenix end-of-life test 'Control Rod Withdrawal' with the ERANOS code

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberi, V.

    2012-07-01

    The Inst. of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) acts as technical support to French public authorities. As such, IRSN is in charge of safety assessment of operating and under construction reactors, as well as future projects. In this framework, one current objective of IRSN is to evaluate the ability and accuracy of numerical tools to foresee consequences of accidents. Neutronic studies step in the safety assessment from different points of view among which the core design and its protection system. They are necessary to evaluate the core behavior in case of accident in order to assess the integrity of the first barrier and the absence of a prompt criticality risk. To reach this objective one main physical quantity has to be evaluated accurately: the neutronic power distribution in core during whole reactor lifetime. Phenix end of life tests, carried out in 2009, aim at increasing the experience feedback on sodium cooled fast reactors. These experiments have been done in the framework of the development of the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. Ten tests have been carried out: 6 on neutronic and fuel aspects, 2 on thermal hydraulics and 2 for the emergency shutdown. Two of them have been chosen for an international exercise on thermal hydraulics and neutronics in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project. Concerning neutronics, the Control Rod Withdrawal test is relevant for safety because it allows evaluating the capability of calculation tools to compute the radial power distribution on fast reactors core configurations in which the flux field is very deformed. IRSN participated to this benchmark with the ERANOS code developed by CEA for fast reactors studies. This paper presents the results obtained in the framework of the benchmark activity. A relatively good agreement was found with available measures considering the approximations done in the modeling. The work underlines the importance of burn-up calculations in order to have a fine

  15. Comparison of Intended Lengthening of Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods: Ultrasound Versus X-Ray.

    PubMed

    Cobanoglu, Mutlu; Shah, Suken A; Gabos, Peter; Rogers, Kenneth; Yorgova, Petya; Neiss, Geraldine; Grissom, Leslie; Mackenzie, William G

    2017-10-09

    In the treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS), there has been a trend to use magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) in order to reduce the number of surgeries. To confirm the amount of lengthening, spine radiographs were required. Recently, ultrasound (US) has been added to monitor lengthening of MCGR to avoid radiation exposure. Our aim was to determine whether US is as accurate as plain radiography (x-ray) in determining the amount of length achieved at individual MCGR lengthening episodes. Retrospective study; inclusion criteria: EOS cases with dual MCGR with minimum 12 months follow-up. Intended lengthening IL (mm), lengthening on US (mm) and x-ray (mm) were documented from medical records for both right and left rods. Primary (no surgery before MCGR) and conversion (other types of instrumentation were replaced with MCGR) cases were reviewed separately. P-values determined with analysis of variance. Sixteen cases with 100 lengthening episodes met the inclusion criteria. Eleven were primary MCGR cases with 67 episodes. Mean follow-up was 19±5 months. Significant differences were found between IL (3.4±1 mm), US (2.7±1.9 mm), and x-ray (4.1±2.2 mm) (P<0.001). The difference between IL and x-ray was minimal, but statistically significant (P=0.046). US showed statistically lower values than both IL (P=0.001) and x-ray (P<0.001). The mean ratio of x-ray/IL, US/IL, and US/x-ray were 1.1, 0.75, and 0.84, respectively. Five conversion cases had 33 episodes. Mean follow-up was 21±2 months. Significant differences were found between IL (3.4±0.8 mm), US (1.3±0.8 mm), and x-ray (1.7±0.9 mm) (P<0.001) but there was no significant difference between US and x-ray (P=0.283). IL was significantly higher than both US (P< 0.001) and x-ray (P<0.001). The mean ratio of x-ray/IL, US/IL, and US/x-ray were 0.64, 0.41, and 1.1, respectively. US can provide confirmatory information of noninvasive lengthening of MCGR. However, US tended to underestimate the

  16. Realization of wide size range 1D ZnO micro/nano rods for versatile micro/nano devices by controlled seed layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingchang; Bian, Jiming; Chen, Liansong; Wang, Yuxin; Gong, Yu; Li, Yang; Liu, Kuichao; Chang, Cheng; Li, Ming; Du, Guotong

    2013-07-01

    We report on the effect of seed layers thickness on the synthesis of one dimensional (1D) ZnO rods using chemical bath deposition method. This procedure allows us to control the length and diameter of 1D ZnO rods in a large size range by modifying the ZnO seed layer thickness. With the increase in thickness of the seed layer, the length of the 1D ZnO rods ranges from 13.1 μm to 2.1 μm, and the diameter varies from 2.4 μm to 102 nm, meanwhile the laying 1D ZnO rods standup gradually. Photoluminescence measurements indicate that the near band edge emission of the 1D ZnO rods blueshift to higher energy direction with the increasing seed layers thickness.

  17. A Self-Calibrating Remote Control Chemical Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Jessica Croft

    2007-06-01

    The Susie Mine, part of the Upper Tenmile Mining Area, is located in Rimini, MT about 15 miles southwest of Helena, MT. The Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area is an EPA Superfund site with 70 abandoned hard rock mines and several residential yards prioritized for clean up. Water from the Susie mine flows into Tenmile Creek from which the city of Helena draws part of its water supply. MSE Technology Applications in Butte, Montana was contracted by the EPA to build a treatment system for the Susie mine effluent and demonstrate a system capable of treating mine waste water in remote locations. The Idaho National Lab was contracted to design, build and demonstrate a low maintenance self-calibrating monitoring system that would monitor multiple sample points, allow remote two-way communications with the control software and allow access to the collected data through a web site. The Automated Chemical Analysis Monitoring (ACAM) system was installed in December 2006. This thesis documents the overall design of the hardware, control software and website, the data collected while MSE-TA’s system was operational, the data collected after MSE-TA’s system was shut down and suggested improvements to the existing system.

  18. Asynchronous transmitter release: control of exocytosis and endocytosis at the salamander rod synapse.

    PubMed Central

    Rieke, F; Schwartz, E A

    1996-01-01

    1. We have studied exocytosis and endocytosis in the synaptic terminal of salamander rods using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, capacitance measurement and the photolysis of Ca2+ buffers. 2. The average cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration at the dark resting potential was 2-4 microM. 3. An average cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of 2-4 microM maintained a high rate of continuous exocytosis and endocytosis. 4. Changes in the rate of exocytosis were followed in less than 0.7 s by compensatory changes in the rate of endocytosis. 5. Vesicle cycling in the rod synapse is specialized for graded transmission and differs from that previously described for synapses that release synchronized bursts of transmitter. Images Figure 3 PMID:8735690

  19. Development of thermal protective seal for hot structure control surface actuator rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infed, F.; Handrick, K.; Lange, H.; Steinacher, A.; Weiland, S.; Wegmann, C.

    2012-01-01

    For the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) the deflection of the highly loaded body flap is performed by an actuator system which is connected to the body flap by a rod. Besides the thermal and mechanical loads the sealing of the inner vehicle against the possible leaking hot plasma is an important issue whereby the special challenge for the design results from the spatial movement of the rod. This requires a design consisting of different parts and various materials in order to satisfy the mechanical flexibility and the resistance to the thermal and mechanical loads under the aspect of reusability. This paper describes the MT Aerospace approach for the thermal protection system for the actuator as presented for the critical design review of IXV. The design is presented and described including all necessary performed analysis steps toward such a design.

  20. Getting into shape: How do rod-like bacteria control their geometry?

    PubMed

    Amir, Ariel; van Teeffelen, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Rod-like bacteria maintain their cylindrical shapes with remarkable precision during growth. However, they are also capable to adapt their shapes to external forces and constraints, for example by growing into narrow or curved confinements. Despite being one of the simplest morphologies, we are still far from a full understanding of how shape is robustly regulated, and how bacteria obtain their near-perfect cylindrical shapes with excellent precision. However, recent experimental and theoretical findings suggest that cell-wall geometry and mechanical stress play important roles in regulating cell shape in rod-like bacteria. We review our current understanding of the cell wall architecture and the growth dynamics, and discuss possible candidates for regulatory cues of shape regulation in the absence or presence of external constraints. Finally, we suggest further future experimental and theoretical directions which may help to shed light on this fundamental problem.

  1. Asynchronous transmitter release: control of exocytosis and endocytosis at the salamander rod synapse.

    PubMed

    Rieke, F; Schwartz, E A

    1996-05-15

    1. We have studied exocytosis and endocytosis in the synaptic terminal of salamander rods using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, capacitance measurement and the photolysis of Ca2+ buffers. 2. The average cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration at the dark resting potential was 2-4 microM. 3. An average cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of 2-4 microM maintained a high rate of continuous exocytosis and endocytosis. 4. Changes in the rate of exocytosis were followed in less than 0.7 s by compensatory changes in the rate of endocytosis. 5. Vesicle cycling in the rod synapse is specialized for graded transmission and differs from that previously described for synapses that release synchronized bursts of transmitter.

  2. Evaluation of the tritium content in light water reactor control and absorber rods to obtain data for the fuel cycle backend

    SciTech Connect

    Bleier, A.; Neeb, K.H.; Gelfort, E.; Mischke, J.

    1986-08-01

    Tritium inventories and tritium distribution have been determined in boron glass absorber rods discharged from a pressurized water reactor first-cycle core and in spent boron carbide (B/sub 4/C) control rods from a boiling water reactor. The total tritium inventory in the boron glass absorber rods from the Stade nuclear reactor amounts to approx. =8.0 x 10/sup 10/ Bq (2.2 Ci) per rod. Of this, 99.6% was fixed in the boron glass itself and 0.4% in the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ pellets. The 4 x 10/sup -3/% fractions in the tube cladding and support pipe and the 1 x 10/sup -2/% fraction in the fill gas accounted for an insignificant part of the total tritium inventory of the rod. This experimentally determined tritium inventory was a factor of 5 larger than that suggested by the calculated estimate. The discrepancy between analyzed and calculated values can be explained by tritium formation from lithium impurities in the boron glass, where a 30-ppm lithium content would be adequate for this tritium inventory to be generated by the reaction /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 3/H. Evaluation of the B/sub 4/C control rods from the Lingen nuclear reactor after 3 yr of operation gave a 3.2 x 10/sup 10/Bq(0.85-Ci)tritium inventory per B/sub 4/C rod, while the total tritium inventory for a control rod assembly containing 60 B/sub 4/C rods was approx. =1.9 x 10/sup 12/ Bq (50 Ci). The tritium generated was essentially bound 100% in the B/sub 4/C, since the hulls contained only 6 x 10/sup -3/% and the fill gas only 2 x 10/sup -4/%.

  3. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  4. Enhancement of the 77 K critical currents on thin textured Bi-2212 rods by controlled distribution of secondary phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natividad, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Díez, J. C.; Navarro, R.; Martínez, E.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.

    2002-08-01

    Long and thin Bi-2212 rods textured by laser induced zone melting show inhomogeneous radial distribution of secondary phases and Bi concentration in transverse cross-sections. The microstructure inhomogeneity, which depends on the growth conditions, is reflected in the physical properties of the samples. We have estimated the radial distribution of Jc (77 K) in different samples using destructive and non-destructive approaches, correlating these results with the microstructure variations. Using this knowledge, the conductor performance at 77 K has been optimised by controlling the distribution of secondary phases.

  5. Control of ligand specificity in cyclic nucleotide-gated channels from rod photoreceptors and olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Altenhofen, W; Ludwig, J; Eismann, E; Kraus, W; Bönigk, W; Kaupp, U B

    1991-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated ionic channels in photoreceptors and olfactory sensory neurons are activated by binding of cGMP or cAMP to a receptor site on the channel polypeptide. By site-directed mutagenesis and functional expression of bovine wild-type and mutant channels in Xenopus oocytes, we have tested the hypothesis that an alanine/threonine difference in the cyclic nucleotide-binding site determines the specificity of ligand binding, as has been proposed for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases [Weber, I.T., Shabb, J.B. & Corbin, J.D. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 6122-6127]. The wild-type olfactory channel is approximately 25-fold more sensitive to both cAMP and cGMP than the wild-type rod photoreceptor channel, and both channels are 30- to 40-fold more sensitive to cGMP than to cAMP. Substitution of the respective threonine by alanine in the rod photoreceptor and olfactory channels decreases the cGMP sensitivity of channel activation 30-fold but little affects activation by cAMP. Substitution of threonine by serine, an amino acid that also carries a hydroxyl group, even improves cGMP sensitivity of the wild-type channels 2- to 5-fold. We conclude that the hydroxyl group of Thr-560 (rod) and Thr-537 (olfactory) forms an additional hydrogen bond with cGMP, but not cAMP, and thereby provides the structural basis for ligand discrimination in cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. PMID:1719541

  6. Control of ligand specificity in cyclic nucleotide-gated channels from rod photoreceptors and olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Altenhofen, W; Ludwig, J; Eismann, E; Kraus, W; Bönigk, W; Kaupp, U B

    1991-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated ionic channels in photoreceptors and olfactory sensory neurons are activated by binding of cGMP or cAMP to a receptor site on the channel polypeptide. By site-directed mutagenesis and functional expression of bovine wild-type and mutant channels in Xenopus oocytes, we have tested the hypothesis that an alanine/threonine difference in the cyclic nucleotide-binding site determines the specificity of ligand binding, as has been proposed for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases [Weber, I.T., Shabb, J.B. & Corbin, J.D. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 6122-6127]. The wild-type olfactory channel is approximately 25-fold more sensitive to both cAMP and cGMP than the wild-type rod photoreceptor channel, and both channels are 30- to 40-fold more sensitive to cGMP than to cAMP. Substitution of the respective threonine by alanine in the rod photoreceptor and olfactory channels decreases the cGMP sensitivity of channel activation 30-fold but little affects activation by cAMP. Substitution of threonine by serine, an amino acid that also carries a hydroxyl group, even improves cGMP sensitivity of the wild-type channels 2- to 5-fold. We conclude that the hydroxyl group of Thr-560 (rod) and Thr-537 (olfactory) forms an additional hydrogen bond with cGMP, but not cAMP, and thereby provides the structural basis for ligand discrimination in cyclic nucleotide-gated channels.

  7. Nondestructive and Destructive Examination Studies on Removed-from-Service Control Rod Drive Mechanism Penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Seffens, Rob J.; Schuster, George J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Harris, Robert V.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2007-06-07

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objectives of this work are to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies. Two CRDM assemblies were removed from service, decontaminated, and then used in a series of NDE and destructive examination (DE) measurements; this report addresses the following questions: 1) What did each NDE technique detect? 2) What did each NDE technique miss? 3) How accurately did each NDE technique characterize the detected flaws? 4) Why did the NDE techniques perform or not perform? Two CRDM assemblies including the CRDM nozzle, the J-groove weld, buttering, and a portion of the ferritic head material were selected for this study. This report focuses on a CRDM assembly that contained suspected PWSCC, based on in-service inspection data and through-wall leakage. The NDE measurements used to examine the CRDM assembly followed standard industry techniques for conducting in-service inspections of CRDM nozzles and the crown of the J-groove welds and buttering. These techniques included eddy current testing (ET), time-of-flight diffraction ultrasound, and penetrant testing. In addition, laboratory-based NDE methods were employed to conduct inspections of the CRDM assembly with particular emphasis on inspecting the J-groove weld and buttering. These techniques included volumetric ultrasonic inspection of the J-groove weld metal and visual testing via replicant material of the J-groove weld. The results from these NDE studies were used to

  8. Nucleotide Bound to rab11a Controls Localization in Rod Cells But Not Interaction with Rhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Reish, Nicholas J.; Boitet, Evan R.; Bales, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Precise vectorial transport of rhodopsin is essential for rod photoreceptor health and function. Mutations that truncate or extend the C terminus of rhodopsin disrupt this transport, and lead to retinal degeneration and blindness in human patients and in mouse models. Here we show that such mutations disrupt the binding of rhodopsin to the small GTPase rab11a. The rhodopsin–rab11a interaction is a direct binding interaction that does not depend on the nucleotide binding state of rab11a. Expression of EGFP-rab11a fusion proteins in Xenopus laevis photoreceptors revealed that the nucleotide binding status of rab11a affects its subcellular localization, with GTP-locked mutants concentrated in the inner segment and GDP-locked mutants concentrated in the outer segment. shRNA-mediated knockdown of rab11a in rods led to shortened outer segments and retinal degeneration. Together, our results show the critical importance of direct rhodopsin–rab11a interactions for the formation and maintenance of vertebrate photoreceptors. PMID:25378153

  9. Reciprocal control of retinal rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase by its gamma subunit and transducin.

    PubMed

    Wensel, T G; Stryer, L

    1986-09-01

    The switching on of the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) in retinal rod outer segments by activated transducin (T alpha-GTP) is a key step in visual excitation. The finding that trypsin activates PDE (alpha beta gamma) by degrading its gamma subunit and the reversal of this activation by gamma led to the proposal that T alpha-GTP activates PDE by relieving an inhibitory constraint imposed by gamma (Hurley and Stryer: J. Biol. Chem. 257:11094-11099, 1982). We report here studies showing that the addition of gamma subunit also reverses the activation of PDE by T alpha-GTP-gamma S. A procedure for preparing gamma in high yield (50-80%) is presented. Analyses of SDS polyacrylamide gel slices confirmed that inhibitory activity resides in the gamma subunit. Nanomolar gamma blocks the activation of PDE by micromolar T alpha-GTP gamma S. The degree of activation of PDE depends reciprocally on the concentrations of gamma and T alpha-GTP gamma S. gamma remains bound to the disk membrane during the activation of PDE by transducin. The binding of gamma to the alpha beta subunits of native PDE is very tight; the dissociation constant is less than 10 pM, indicating that fewer than 1 in 1,700 PDE molecules in rod outer segments are activated in the absence of T alpha-GTP.

  10. Improving plasma shaping accuracy through consolidation of control model maintenance, diagnostic calibration, and hardware change control

    SciTech Connect

    Baggest, D.S.; Rothweil, D.A.; Pang, S.

    1995-12-01

    With the advent of more sophisticated techniques for control of tokamak plasmas comes the requirement for increasingly more accurate models of plasma processes and tokamak systems. Development of accurate models for DIII-D power systems, vessel, and poloidal coils is already complete, while work continues in development of general plasma response modeling techniques. Increased accuracy in estimates of parameters to be controlled is also required. It is important to ensure that errors in supporting systems such as diagnostic and command circuits do not limit the accuracy of plasma parameter estimates or inhibit the ability to derive accurate plasma/tokamak system models. To address this issue, we have developed more formal power systems change control and power system/magnetic diagnostics calibration procedures. This paper discusses our approach to consolidating the tasks in these closely related areas. This includes, for example, defining criteria for when diagnostics should be re-calibrated along with required calibration tolerances, and implementing methods for tracking power systems hardware modifications and the resultant changes to control models.

  11. Making Highly Pure Glass Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed quasi-containerless method for making glass rods or fibers minimizes contact between processing equipment and product. Method allows greater range of product sizes and shapes than achieved in experiments on containerless processing. Molten zone established in polycrystalline rod. Furnace sections separated, and glass rod solidifies between them. Clamp supports solid glass as it grows in length. Pulling clamp rapidly away from melt draws glass fiber. Fiber diameter controlled by adjustment of pulling rate.

  12. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  13. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  14. Polarimeter calibration error gets far out of control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-09-01

    This is a sad story about a polarization calibration error gone amuck. A simple laboratory mistake was mistaken for a new phenomena. Aggressive management did their job and sold the flawed idea very effectively and substantial funding followed. Questions were raised and a Government lab tried but couldn't to recreate the breakthrough. The results were unpleasant and the field of infrared polarimetry developed a bad reputation for several years.

  15. Wavelength dependent neutron transmission and radiography investigations of the high temperature behaviour of materials applied in nuclear fuel and control rod claddings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, M.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.

    2011-09-01

    Neutron radiography was used for the investigation of the nuclear fuel and control rod cladding behaviour during steam oxidation under severe nuclear accident conditions. In order to verify the hypothesis that the unexpectedly high neutron cross-section found after oxidation of Zircaloy-4 in wet air containing 10% steam is caused by a strong hydrogen uptake, the wavelength dependence of the total macroscopic neutron cross-section of the specimens was measured. The characteristic dependence for hydrogen was not found, which is a proof that hydrogen is not absorbed significantly. The data agree mostly with the behaviour expected for β-Zr. Examinations of control rod simulators annealed until the failure in single-rod tests were performed. In order to separate the effect of the neutron absorber and control rod structure materials, radiographs taken with different neutron spectra were combined. This procedure clearly showed that the local melting resulting from the eutectic reaction between the stainless steel control rod cladding and the Zircaloy-4 guide tube is the reason for the failure.

  16. Evaluating Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques and computing the uncertainty of force calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navard, Sharon E.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years there has been a push within NASA to use statistical techniques to improve the quality of production. Two areas where statistics are used are in establishing product and process quality control of flight hardware and in evaluating the uncertainty of calibration of instruments. The Flight Systems Quality Engineering branch is responsible for developing and assuring the quality of all flight hardware; the statistical process control methods employed are reviewed and evaluated. The Measurement Standards and Calibration Laboratory performs the calibration of all instruments used on-site at JSC as well as those used by all off-site contractors. These calibrations must be performed in such a way as to be traceable to national standards maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and they must meet a four-to-one ratio of the instrument specifications to calibrating standard uncertainty. In some instances this ratio is not met, and in these cases it is desirable to compute the exact uncertainty of the calibration and determine ways of reducing it. A particular example where this problem is encountered is with a machine which does automatic calibrations of force. The process of force calibration using the United Force Machine is described in detail. The sources of error are identified and quantified when possible. Suggestions for improvement are made.

  17. Geometric Calibration of ZIYUAN-3 Three-Line Cameras Combining Ground Control Points and Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinshan; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Gong, Jianya

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large biases between the laboratory-calibrated values of the orientation parameters and their in-orbit true values, the initial direct georeferencing accuracy of the Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3) three-line camera (TLC) images can only reach the kilometre level. In this paper, a point-based geometric calibration model of the ZY-3 TLCs is firstly established by using the collinearity constraint, and then a line-based geometric calibration model is established by using the coplanarity constraint. With the help of both the point-based and the line-based models, a feasible in-orbit geometric calibration approach for the ZY-3 TLCs combining ground control points (GCPs) and ground control lines (GCLs) is presented. Experimental results show that like GCPs, GCLs can also provide effective ground control information for the geometric calibration of the ZY-3 TLCs. The calibration accuracy of the look angles of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors achieved by using the presented approach reached up to about 1.0''. After the geometric calibration, the direct georeferencing accuracy of the ZY-3 TLC images without ground controls was significantly improved from the kilometre level to better than 11 m in planimetry and 9 m in height. A more satisfactory georeferencing accuracy of better than 3.5 m in planimetry and 3.0 m in height was achieved after the block adjustment with four GCPs.

  18. A controlled experiment in ground water flow model calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.; Cooley, R.L.; Pollock, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear regression was introduced to ground water modeling in the 1970s, but has been used very little to calibrate numerical models of complicated ground water systems. Apparently, nonlinear regression is thought by many to be incapable of addressing such complex problems. With what we believe to be the most complicated synthetic test case used for such a study, this work investigates using nonlinear regression in ground water model calibration. Results of the study fall into two categories. First, the study demonstrates how systematic use of a well designed nonlinear regression method can indicate the importance of different types of data and can lead to successive improvement of models and their parameterizations. Our method differs from previous methods presented in the ground water literature in that (1) weighting is more closely related to expected data errors than is usually the case; (2) defined diagnostic statistics allow for more effective evaluation of the available data, the model, and their interaction; and (3) prior information is used more cautiously. Second, our results challenge some commonly held beliefs about model calibration. For the test case considered, we show that (1) field measured values of hydraulic conductivity are not as directly applicable to models as their use in some geostatistical methods imply; (2) a unique model does not necessarily need to be identified to obtain accurate predictions; and (3) in the absence of obvious model bias, model error was normally distributed. The complexity of the test case involved implies that the methods used and conclusions drawn are likely to be powerful in practice.Nonlinear regression was introduced to ground water modeling in the 1970s, but has been used very little to calibrate numerical models of complicated ground water systems. Apparently, nonlinear regression is thought by many to be incapable of addressing such complex problems. With what we believe to be the most complicated synthetic

  19. Size-controlled synthesis of rod-like α-FeOOH nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chengzhen; Qiao, Penghui; Nan, Zhaodong

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods were successfully fabricated by a hydrothermal route without any template. Experimental results reveal that concentrations of Fe(3+) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic disodium salt (Na2EDTA) affect the phase composition and size of the as-synthesized products. The size of the rod-like α-FeOOH increased when the concentration of Na2EDTA was increased, where Na2EDTA acts as a nucleation inhibitor. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were produced when the concentration of Fe(3+) was increased from 0.02 to 0.08 and 0.40 M. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the results of the time dependent experiments. Different electrolytes and surfactants can affect the size and the aspect ratio of the as-prepared nanorod-like α-FeOOH. Na2SO4 induced the decreasing of the size of the as-prepared sample. KCl and PVP affected the aspect ratio of the nanorods.

  20. Flavor Tagging at Tevatron incl. calibration and control

    SciTech Connect

    Moulik, T.; /Kansas U.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D0 experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor at production, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B{sup 0} and B{sub S} system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from b decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B{sup 0} mixing, as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  1. Temperature control and calibration issues in the growth, processing and characterization of electronic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature control and calibration issues encountered in the growth, processing, and characterization of electronic materials are summarized. The primary problem area is identified as temperature control during epitaxial materials growth. While qualitative thermal measurements are feasible and reproducibility is often achievable within a given system, absolute calibration is essentially impossible in many cases, precluding the possibility of portability from one system to another. The procedures utilized for thermal measurements during epitaxial growth are described, and their limitations discussed.

  2. Benchmark of Atucha-2 PHWR RELAP5-3D control rod model by Monte Carlo MCNP5 core calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Pecchia, M.; D'Auria, F.; Mazzantini, O.

    2012-07-01

    Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and peculiarities require the adoption of advanced Monte Carlo codes for performing realistic neutronic simulations. Therefore core models of Atucha-2 PHWR were developed using MCNP5. In this work a methodology was set up to collect the flux in the hexagonal mesh by which the Atucha-2 core is represented. The scope of this activity is to evaluate the effect of obliquely inserted control rod on neutron flux in order to validate the RELAP5-3D{sup C}/NESTLE three dimensional neutron kinetic coupled thermal-hydraulic model, applied by GRNSPG/UNIPI for performing selected transients of Chapter 15 FSAR of Atucha-2. (authors)

  3. Heterostructure of Au nanocluster tipping on a ZnS quantum rod: controlled synthesis and novel luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yang; Wang, Ligang; Yu, Shanshan; Zhou, Weiwei

    2015-08-01

    Heterostructures of metal nanoparticles and semiconductors are widely studied for their unique properties. However, few reports are available on the heterostructure of metal nanoclusters and semiconductors. In the present study, a heterostructure, in which gold nanoclusters selectively locate at ZnS quantum rod (QR) tips, was fabricated using a two-step solvothermal route. The composition, intrinsic crystallography, and junction of the prepared heterostructure were thoroughly investigated, and it was observed to exhibit novel luminescent behaviours. By comparison with the individual components of ZnS QRs and gold clusters, the resultant heterostructure shows an enhanced exciton emission and complete depression of defect emission for the ZnS component, and a pronounced red emission for the gold nanocluster component. The mechanism of these properties and the charge transfer between gold nanoclusters and ZnS QRs were also explored. The size and location of gold in the heterostructure were also controlled during synthesis to study their effects on the luminescence.

  4. Controllable synthesis of novel zinc molybdate rod-like nanostructures via simple surfactant-free precipitation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahri, Zahra; Bazarganipour, Mehdi; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2013-11-01

    Zinc molybdate rod-like nanostructures have been successfully synthesized by precipitation method process and using a solid organometallic molecular precursor [bis(salicylaldehydato)zinc(II)], Zn(sal)2, and (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O as starting materials. Some parameters including time effect, temperature effect, and surfactant effect were investigated to reach the optimum conditions. The as synthesized nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Facile preparation and separation are important features of this route. This work has provided a general, simple, and effective method to control the composition and morphology of zinc molybdate in aqueous solution, which will be important for inorganic synthesis methodology.

  5. Evaluation and Repair of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in Alloy 600/182 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Charles R.; Arey, Melvin L. Jr.; Robinson, Michael R.; Whitaker, David E.

    2002-07-01

    In February 2001, a routine visual inspection of the reactor vessel head of Oconee Nuclear Station Unit 3 identified boric acid crystals at nine of sixty-nine locations where control rod drive mechanism housings (CRDM nozzles) penetrate the head. The boric acid deposits resulted from primary coolant leaking from cracks in the nozzle attachment weld and from through-thickness cracks in the nozzle wall. A general overview of the inspection and repair process is presented and results of the metallurgical analysis are discussed in more detail. The analysis confirmed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is the mechanism of failure of both the Alloy 182 weld filler material and the alloy 600 wrought base material. (authors)

  6. Condensate microdrop self-propelling aluminum surfaces based on controllable fabrication of alumina rod-capped nanopores.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Luo, Yuting; Li, Juan; Yin, Fei; Zhu, Jie; Gao, Xuefeng

    2015-06-03

    Here, we report a type of aluminum-based condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) functional films based on the controllable fabrication of anodic alumina rod-capped nanopores, which can be realized by a three-step method based on the skillful combinations of well-established hard anodization, mild anodization and chemical etching techniques. Such a surface nanoengineering strategy is verified to be feasible via our exemplified experiments and scanning electronic microscopy characterizations. After fluorosilane modification, the surface nanostructure can induce the efficient self-jumping of small-scale condensate microdrops, especially below 50 μm. This work offers an avenue for developing CMDSP aluminum surfaces with self-cleaning, antifrosting, and antidewing functions.

  7. Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluation of Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) Nozzle Interference Fit and Weld Region

    SciTech Connect

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mathews, Royce; Hanson, Brady D.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2011-10-01

    In this investigation, non-destructive and destructive testing were used to evaluate potential boric acid leakage paths around an Alloy 600 CRDM penetration (Nozzle 63) from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor pressure vessel head that was removed from service in 2003. For this investigation, Nozzle 63 was examined using phased array ultrasonic testing. Prior to examining Nozzle 63, a CRDM penetration mockup with known notches and boric acid deposits was used to assess probe sensitivity, resolution and calibration. Following the non-destructive testing of Nozzle 63, the nozzle was destructively examined to visually assess the leak paths. These destructive and nondestructive results are compared and results are presented. The results of this investigation may be used by NRC to evaluate licensees’ volumetric leak path assessment methodologies and to support regulatory inspection requirements.

  8. Calibration and control for range imaging in mobile robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Dorum, O.H.; Hoover, A.; Jones, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper addresses some issues in the development of sensor-based systems for mobile robot navigation which use range imaging sensors as the primary source for geometric information about the environment. In particular, we describe a model of scanning laser range cameras which takes into account the properties of the mechanical system responsible for image formation and a calibration procedure which yields improved accuracy over previous models. In addition, we describe an algorithm which takes the limitations of these sensors into account in path planning and path execution. In particular, range imaging sensors are characterized by a limited field of view and a standoff distance -- a minimum distance nearer than which surfaces cannot be sensed. These limitations can be addressed by enriching the concept of configuration space to include information about what can be sensed from a given configuration, and using this information to guide path planning and path following.

  9. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods

    PubMed Central

    Nymark, Soile; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Berry, Justin D.; Adler, Leopold; Koutalos, Yiannis; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Cornwall, M. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Photoactivation of vertebrate rhodopsin converts it to the physiologically active Meta II (R*) state, which triggers the rod light response. Meta II is rapidly inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1). Meta II exists in equilibrium with the more stable inactive form of rhodopsin, Meta III. Dark adaptation of rods requires the complete thermal decay of Meta II/Meta III into opsin and all-trans retinal and the subsequent regeneration of rhodopsin with 11-cis retinal chromophore. In this study, we examine the regulation of Meta III decay by Grk1 and Arr1 in intact mouse rods and their effect on rod dark adaptation. We measure the rates of Meta III decay in isolated retinas of wild-type (WT), Grk1-deficient (Grk1−/−), Arr1-deficient (Arr1−/−), and Arr1-overexpressing (Arr1ox) mice. We find that in WT mouse rods, Meta III peaks ∼6 min after rhodopsin activation and decays with a time constant (τ) of 17 min. Meta III decay slows in Arr1−/− rods (τ of ∼27 min), whereas it accelerates in Arr1ox rods (τ of ∼8 min) and Grk1−/− rods (τ of ∼13 min). In all cases, regeneration of rhodopsin with exogenous 11-cis retinal is rate limited by the decay of Meta III. Notably, the kinetics of rod dark adaptation in vivo is also modulated by the levels of Arr1 and Grk1. We conclude that, in addition to their well-established roles in Meta II inactivation, Grk1 and Arr1 can modulate the kinetics of Meta III decay and rod dark adaptation in vivo. PMID:27353443

  10. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Nymark, Soile; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Berry, Justin D; Adler, Leopold; Koutalos, Yiannis; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Cornwall, M Carter

    2016-07-01

    Photoactivation of vertebrate rhodopsin converts it to the physiologically active Meta II (R*) state, which triggers the rod light response. Meta II is rapidly inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1). Meta II exists in equilibrium with the more stable inactive form of rhodopsin, Meta III. Dark adaptation of rods requires the complete thermal decay of Meta II/Meta III into opsin and all-trans retinal and the subsequent regeneration of rhodopsin with 11-cis retinal chromophore. In this study, we examine the regulation of Meta III decay by Grk1 and Arr1 in intact mouse rods and their effect on rod dark adaptation. We measure the rates of Meta III decay in isolated retinas of wild-type (WT), Grk1-deficient (Grk1(-/-)), Arr1-deficient (Arr1(-/-)), and Arr1-overexpressing (Arr1(ox)) mice. We find that in WT mouse rods, Meta III peaks ∼6 min after rhodopsin activation and decays with a time constant (τ) of 17 min. Meta III decay slows in Arr1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼27 min), whereas it accelerates in Arr1(ox) rods (τ of ∼8 min) and Grk1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼13 min). In all cases, regeneration of rhodopsin with exogenous 11-cis retinal is rate limited by the decay of Meta III. Notably, the kinetics of rod dark adaptation in vivo is also modulated by the levels of Arr1 and Grk1. We conclude that, in addition to their well-established roles in Meta II inactivation, Grk1 and Arr1 can modulate the kinetics of Meta III decay and rod dark adaptation in vivo. © 2016 Frederiksen et al.

  11. Instrumentation for calibration and control of a continuous-flow cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladson, C. L.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Those aspects of selection and application of calibration and control instrumentation that are influenced by the extremes in the temperature environment to be found in cryogenic tunnels are described with emphasis on the instrumentation and data acquisition system used in the Langley 0.3 m transonic cryogenic tunnel. Typical calibration results obtained in a 20 by 60 cm two dimensional test section are included.

  12. Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluation of Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) Nozzle Interference Fit and Weld Region

    SciTech Connect

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mathews, Royce; Hanson, Brady D.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2011-07-31

    Ultrasonic phased array data were collected on a removed-from-service CRDM nozzle specimen to assess a previously reported leak path. First a mock-up CRDM specimen was evaluated that contained two 0.076-mm (3.0-mil) interference fit regions formed from an actual Inconel CRDM tube and two 152.4-mm (6.0-in.) thick carbon steel blocks. One interference fit region has a series of precision crafted electric discharge machining (EDM) notches at various lengths, widths, depths, and spatial separations for establishing probe sensitivity, resolution and calibration. The other interference fit has zones of boric acid (crystal form) spaced periodically between the tube and block to represent an actively leaking CRDM nozzle assembly in the field. Ultrasonic phased-array evaluations were conducted using an immersion 8-element annular 5.0-MHz probe from the tube inner diameter (ID). A variety of focal laws were employed to evaluate the interference fit regions and J grove weld, where applicable. Responses from the mock-up specimen were evaluated to determine detection limits and characterization ability as well as contrast the ultrasonic response differences with the presence of boric acid in the fit region. Nozzle 63, from the North Anna Unit-2 nuclear power plant, was evaluated to assess leakage path(s) and was destructively dismantled to allow a visual verification of the leak path(s).

  13. Precision Control of Multiple Quantum Cascade Lasers for Calibration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2014-01-15

    We present a precision, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated DC and modulated temperature coefficients of 1- 2 ppm/ºC and 15 ppm/ºC respectively. High linearity digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference, produce highly stable, precision voltages. These are in turn selected by a low charge-injection multiplexer (MUX) chip, which are then used to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.

  14. Precision control of multiple quantum cascade lasers for calibration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S. Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2014-01-15

    We present a precision, 1-A, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated temperature coefficients for continuous and 40-kHz full-depth square-wave modulated operation, of 1–2 ppm/ °C and 15 ppm/ °C, respectively. High precision digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference produce highly stable, precision voltages, which are selected by a multiplexer (MUX) chip to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller, while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby, and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.

  15. On the calibration and commissioning of lighting controls

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.; Avery, D.; Jennings, J.; Blanc, S.

    1997-10-01

    Lighting controls have the potential to capture significant energy savings in commercial buildings if properly specified, installed, commissioned and maintained. Proper commissioning is often absent in lighting projects and the lack of commissioning can significantly reduce a project`s energy savings potential. The paper focuses on the importance of good commissioning practice for obtaining satisfactory performance from lighting control systems and discusses the difficulties of commissioning today`s systems. Some practical suggestions for commissioning lighting controls is offered as well as advice to specifiers and early adopters to aid them in selecting controls that are most appropriate to their requirements.

  16. Adaptive Wavefront Calibration and Control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-02-02

    Quasi-static errors in the science leg and internal AO flexure will be corrected. Wavefront control will adapt to current atmospheric conditions through Fourier modal gain optimization, or the prediction of atmospheric layers with Kalman filtering.

  17. Residual mode correction in calibrating nonlinear damper for vibration control of flexible structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Limin; Chen, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Residual mode correction is found crucial in calibrating linear resonant absorbers for flexible structures. The classic modal representation augmented with stiffness and inertia correction terms accounting for non-resonant modes improves the calibration accuracy and meanwhile avoids complex modal analysis of the full system. This paper explores the augmented modal representation in calibrating control devices with nonlinearity, by studying a taut cable attached with a general viscous damper and its Equivalent Dynamic Systems (EDSs), i.e. the augmented modal representations connected to the same damper. As nonlinearity is concerned, Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of the EDSs are investigated in detail for parameter calibration, using the harmonic balance method in combination with numerical continuation. The FRFs of the EDSs and corresponding calibration results are then compared with those of the full system documented in the literature for varied structural modes, damper locations and nonlinearity. General agreement is found and in particular the EDS with both stiffness and inertia corrections (quasi-dynamic correction) performs best among available approximate methods. This indicates that the augmented modal representation although derived from linear cases is applicable to a relatively wide range of damper nonlinearity. Calibration of nonlinear devices by this means still requires numerical analysis while the efficiency is largely improved owing to the system order reduction.

  18. Controlled synthesis of rod-like LiVMoO6 nanocrystals for application in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yongguang; Han, Xiaoyan; Cong, Changjie; Yi, Zonghui; Zhou, Liqun; Sun, Jutang; Zhang, Keli; Zhou, Yunhong

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports a newly developed method for the shape and size control of transition metal composite oxides, such as LiVMoO6, to obtain significantly enhanced electrode properties for lithium-ion batteries. Rod-like LiVMoO6 nanocrystals were synthesized through a designed route of partial reduction, self-assembly and re-oxidation. V5+ and Mo6+ ions were used with low-grade starting materials to get a mixed valence of V and Mo. It is believed that ion pairs of V5+/V4+ or Mo6+/Mo5+ in the resultant mixture play an important role in the formation of a template precursor by self-assembly during a rheological phase reaction, although further explanation is required. The electrochemical performance of the LiVMoO6 obtained has been much improved due to the increased crystallinity and reduced particle size of this material. 176 mA h g-1 and 166 mA h g-1 capacity was delivered in the initial discharge with a reversible capacity retention of 94.8% and 95.3% after 100 cycles in the range of 3.6-1.80 V versus metallic Li at 1 and 3 C current rate, respectively.

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  20. Nematic liquid crystals on spherical surfaces: control of defect configurations by temperature, density, and rod shape.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Subas; Solis, Francisco J; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments have shown that defect conformations in spherical nematic liquid crystals can be controlled through variations of temperature, shell thickness, and other environmental parameters. These modifications can be understood as a result of the induced changes in the effective elastic constants of the system. To characterize the relation between defect conformations and elastic anisotropy, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations of a nematic on a spherical surface. As the anisotropy is increased, the defects flow from a tetrahedral arrangement to two coalescing pairs and then to a great circle configuration. We also analyze this flow using a variational method based on harmonic configurations.

  1. Nematic liquid crystals on spherical surfaces: Control of defect configurations by temperature, density, and rod shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Subas; Solis, Francisco J.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments have shown that defect conformations in spherical nematic liquid crystals can be controlled through variations of temperature, shell thickness, and other environmental parameters. These modifications can be understood as a result of the induced changes in the effective elastic constants of the system. To characterize the relation between defect conformations and elastic anisotropy, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations of a nematic on a spherical surface. As the anisotropy is increased, the defects flow from a tetrahedral arrangement to two coalescing pairs and then to a great circle configuration. We also analyze this flow using a variational method based on harmonic configurations.

  2. Calibration and quality control of cherries by artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupeau, F.; Rosenberger, Christophe; Laurent, H.; Emile, B.; Fachaux, J.

    2003-04-01

    This article describes an artificial vision system for the quality control of cherries. It allows to obtain three types of information describing the fruit: the color as indicator of ripeness, the presence of defects such as cracking and lastly the size. The sorting of cherries conditioned by all these criteria is carried out at a high cadence (twenty cherries per second). Optimized algorithms of image processing are then necessary. We present in this paper the architecture of the developed system and we show the efficiency through experimental results.

  3. Retinal rod GTPase turnover rate increases with concentration: a key to the control of visual excitation?

    PubMed

    Dratz, E A; Lewis, J W; Schaechter, L E; Parker, K R; Kliger, D S

    1987-07-31

    Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins mediate cellular responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors and light. Activated GTP binding proteins are shut off by GTPase mediated hydrolysis of GTP. Photoreceptor GTPase rates are reported to be 10-50 times too slow to account for electrophysiological recovery time after light stimulus. Recovery rates of other parts of the system, however, appear fast enough. We present evidence that the GTPase rate increases markedly with photoreceptor membrane concentration implying the existence of a diffusible factor controlling the GTPase. When extrapolated to physiological concentrations, the GTPase turnover rate is fast enough (0.25-1.5 sec) to account for the recovery rate of the light stimulated signal of the photoreceptor cells.

  4. Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    BWR off-center RDA calculations have been performed for selected rod worths and drop speeds. While in all cases the peak fuel enthalpy was well below the 280 cal/g fuel criterion, a substantial sensitivity to control rod worth and rod drop speed was observed.

  5. Sino-implant (II) - a levonorgestrel-releasing two-rod implant: systematic review of the randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Markus J.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Grimes, David A.; Cheng, Linan; Shelton, Jim; Trussell, James; Farley, Timothy M.M.; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2013-01-01

    Background Sino-implant (II) is a subdermal contraceptive implant manufactured in China. This two-rod levonorgestrel-releasing implant has the same amount of active ingredient (150 mg levonorgestrel) and mechanism of action as the widely available contraceptive implant Jadelle. We examined randomized controlled trials of Sino-implant (II) for effectiveness and side effects. Study design We searched electronic databases for studies of Sino-implant (II), and then restricted our review to randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome of this review was pregnancy. Results Four randomized trials with a total of 15,943 women assigned to Sino-implant (II) had first-year probabilities of pregnancy ranging from 0.0% to 0.1%. Cumulative probabilities of pregnancy during the four years of the product's approved duration of use were 0.9% and 1.06% in the two trials that presented date for four-year use. Five-year cumulative probabilities of pregnancy ranged from 0.7% to 2.1%. In one trial, the cumulative probability of pregnancy more than doubled during the fifth year (from 0.9% to 2.1%), which may be why the implant is approved for four years of use in China. Five-year cumulative probabilities of discontinuation due to menstrual problems ranged from 12.5% to 15.5% for Sino-implant (II). Conclusions Sino-implant (II) is one of the most effective contraceptives available today. These available clinical data, combined with independent laboratory testing, and the knowledge that 7 million women have used this method since 1994, support the safety and effectiveness of Sino-implant (II). The lower cost of Sino-implant (II) compared with other subdermal implants could improve access to implants in resource-constrained settings. PMID:20159174

  6. The inner rod protein controls substrate switching and needle length in a Salmonella type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Lefebre, Matthew D; Galán, Jorge E

    2014-01-14

    Type III secretion machines are essential for the biology of many bacteria that are pathogenic or symbiotic for animals, plants, or insects. They exert their function by delivering bacterial effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core component of these machines is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that spans the bacterial envelope and serves as a conduit for proteins that transit this secretion pathway. The needle complex is composed of a multiring base embedded in the bacterial envelope and a filament-like structure, the needle, that projects from the bacterial surface and is linked to the base by the inner rod. Assembly of the needle complex proceeds in a step-wise fashion that is initiated by the assembly of the base and is followed by the export of the building subunits for the needle and inner rod substructures. Once assembled, the needle complex reprograms its specificity and becomes competent for the secretion of effector proteins. Here through genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopy analyses of the Salmonella inner rod protein subunit PrgJ we present evidence that the assembly of the inner rod dictates the timing of substrate switching and needle length. Furthermore, the identification of mutations in PrgJ that specifically alter the hierarchy of protein secretion provides additional support for a complex role of the inner rod substructure in type III secretion.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calibrations, Adjustments and Quality Control A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 51...

  12. Chemical State Mapping of Degraded B4C Control Rod Investigated with Soft X-ray Emission Spectrometer in Electron Probe Micro-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasada, R.; Ha, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-05-01

    B4C is widely used as control rods in light water reactors, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, because it shows excellent neutron absorption and has a high melting point. However, B4C can melt at lower temperatures owing to eutectic interactions with stainless steel and can even evaporate by reacting with high-temperature steam under severe accident conditions. To reduce the risk of recriticality, a precise understanding of the location and chemical state of B in the melt core is necessary. Here we show that a novel soft X-ray emission spectrometer in electron probe microanalysis can help to obtain a chemical state map of B in a modeled control rod after a high-temperature steam oxidation test.

  13. Chemical State Mapping of Degraded B4C Control Rod Investigated with Soft X-ray Emission Spectrometer in Electron Probe Micro-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kasada, R; Ha, Y; Higuchi, T; Sakamoto, K

    2016-05-10

    B4C is widely used as control rods in light water reactors, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, because it shows excellent neutron absorption and has a high melting point. However, B4C can melt at lower temperatures owing to eutectic interactions with stainless steel and can even evaporate by reacting with high-temperature steam under severe accident conditions. To reduce the risk of recriticality, a precise understanding of the location and chemical state of B in the melt core is necessary. Here we show that a novel soft X-ray emission spectrometer in electron probe microanalysis can help to obtain a chemical state map of B in a modeled control rod after a high-temperature steam oxidation test.

  14. Chemical State Mapping of Degraded B4C Control Rod Investigated with Soft X-ray Emission Spectrometer in Electron Probe Micro-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kasada, R.; Ha, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-01-01

    B4C is widely used as control rods in light water reactors, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, because it shows excellent neutron absorption and has a high melting point. However, B4C can melt at lower temperatures owing to eutectic interactions with stainless steel and can even evaporate by reacting with high-temperature steam under severe accident conditions. To reduce the risk of recriticality, a precise understanding of the location and chemical state of B in the melt core is necessary. Here we show that a novel soft X-ray emission spectrometer in electron probe microanalysis can help to obtain a chemical state map of B in a modeled control rod after a high-temperature steam oxidation test. PMID:27161666

  15. FUEL ROD ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1959-09-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods aod a tubular casing through which a coolant flows in heat-change contact with the ruel rods are described. The casting is of trefoil section and carries the fuel rods, each of which has two fin engaging the serrated fins of the other two fuel rods, whereby the fuel rods are held in the casing and are interlocked against relative longitudinal movement.

  16. Calibration of a computer-controlled precision wavemeter for use with pulsed lasers.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, P S; McCluskey, C W; Keto, J W

    1999-04-20

    The design of a pulsed wavemeter to monitor the high-precision tuning of pulsed (as well as cw) laser sources is presented. This device is developed from a combination of silver-coated Fabry-Perot etalons with various plate spacings. These etalons provide stepwise refinement of the wavelength to be measured. The wavemeter is controlled by a computer through a CAMAC interface, which measures the absolute wavelength in the visible with an accuracy of 2 parts in 10(8). The time required for data acquisition and computation to measure the refined wavelength with a single 2-MHz CPU is less than 100 ms. We describe the calibration of the instrument over the wavelength range 400-850 nm. We obtain the required calibration lines by locking lasers on hyperfine transitions of iodine, uranium, rubidium, and cesium. Methods to reduce the number of calibration lines required for calibration of the system are described. The expected wavelength-dependent phase shift of the silver coatings is compared with that measured for the etalon following calibration. The differences are larger than expected because of either optical aberations or the use of centroids to measure the fringe position.

  17. Calibration of a computer-controlled precision wavemeter for use with pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, P.S.; McCluskey, C.W.; Keto, J.W.

    1999-04-01

    The design of a pulsed wavemeter to monitor the high-precision tuning of pulsed (as well as cw) laser sources is presented. This device is developed from a combination of silver-coated Fabry{endash}Perot etalons with various plate spacings. These etalons provide stepwise refinement of the wavelength to be measured. The wavemeter is controlled by a computer through a CAMAC interface, which measures the absolute wavelength in the visible with an accuracy of 2 parts in 10{sup 8}. The time required for data acquisition and computation to measure the refined wavelength with a single 2-MHz CPU is less than 100 ms. We describe the calibration of the instrument over the wavelength range 400{endash}850 nm. We obtain the required calibration lines by locking lasers on hyperfine transitions of iodine, uranium, rubidium, and cesium. Methods to reduce the number of calibration lines required for calibration of the system are described. The expected wavelength-dependent phase shift of the silver coatings is compared with that measured for the etalon flowing calibration. The differences are larger than expected because of either optical aberations or the use of centroids to measure the fringe position. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  18. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  19. Position calibration of a 3-DOF hand-controller with hybrid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Song, Aiguo

    2017-09-01

    A hand-controller is a human-robot interactive device, which measures the 3-DOF (Degree of Freedom) position of the human hand and sends it as a command to control robot movement. The device also receives 3-DOF force feedback from the robot and applies it to the human hand. Thus, the precision of 3-DOF position measurements is a key performance factor for hand-controllers. However, when using a hybrid type 3-DOF hand controller, various errors occur and are considered originating from machining and assembly variations within the device. This paper presents a calibration method to improve the position tracking accuracy of hybrid type hand-controllers by determining the actual size of the hand-controller parts. By re-measuring and re-calibrating this kind of hand-controller, the actual size of the key parts that cause errors is determined. Modifying the formula parameters with the actual sizes, which are obtained in the calibrating process, improves the end position tracking accuracy of the device.

  20. Position calibration of a 3-DOF hand-controller with hybrid structure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengcheng; Song, Aiguo

    2017-09-01

    A hand-controller is a human-robot interactive device, which measures the 3-DOF (Degree of Freedom) position of the human hand and sends it as a command to control robot movement. The device also receives 3-DOF force feedback from the robot and applies it to the human hand. Thus, the precision of 3-DOF position measurements is a key performance factor for hand-controllers. However, when using a hybrid type 3-DOF hand controller, various errors occur and are considered originating from machining and assembly variations within the device. This paper presents a calibration method to improve the position tracking accuracy of hybrid type hand-controllers by determining the actual size of the hand-controller parts. By re-measuring and re-calibrating this kind of hand-controller, the actual size of the key parts that cause errors is determined. Modifying the formula parameters with the actual sizes, which are obtained in the calibrating process, improves the end position tracking accuracy of the device.

  1. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  2. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  3. Control of the light-regulated current in rod photoreceptors by cyclic GMP, calcium, and l-cis-diltiazem.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J H; Kaupp, U B; MacLeish, P R

    1986-01-01

    The effect of calcium ions on the cGMP-activated current of outer segment membrane was examined by the excised-patch technique. Changes in the extracellular calcium concentration had marked effects on the cGMP-activated current, while changes in intracellular calcium concentration were ineffective. Changes in calcium concentration in the absence of cGMP had little, if any, effect on membrane conductance. These results suggest that both intracellular cGMP and extracellular calcium can directly affect the conductance underlying the light response in rod cells. The pharmacological agent l-cis-diltiazem reversibly inhibited the cGMP-activated current when applied to the intracellular side of an excised patch. When superfused over intact rod cells, l-cis-diltiazem reversibly blocked much of the normal light response. The isomer, d-cis-diltiazem, did not significantly affect either patches or intact rod cells. Thus, the light-regulated conductance has binding sites for both calcium and cGMP that may interact during the normal light response in rod cells and a site specific for l-cis-diltiazem that can be used to identify and further study the conductance mechanism. PMID:3006029

  4. Control of the light-regulated current in rod photoreceptors by cyclic GMP, calcium, and l-cis-diltiazem.

    PubMed

    Stern, J H; Kaupp, U B; MacLeish, P R

    1986-02-01

    The effect of calcium ions on the cGMP-activated current of outer segment membrane was examined by the excised-patch technique. Changes in the extracellular calcium concentration had marked effects on the cGMP-activated current, while changes in intracellular calcium concentration were ineffective. Changes in calcium concentration in the absence of cGMP had little, if any, effect on membrane conductance. These results suggest that both intracellular cGMP and extracellular calcium can directly affect the conductance underlying the light response in rod cells. The pharmacological agent l-cis-diltiazem reversibly inhibited the cGMP-activated current when applied to the intracellular side of an excised patch. When superfused over intact rod cells, l-cis-diltiazem reversibly blocked much of the normal light response. The isomer, d-cis-diltiazem, did not significantly affect either patches or intact rod cells. Thus, the light-regulated conductance has binding sites for both calcium and cGMP that may interact during the normal light response in rod cells and a site specific for l-cis-diltiazem that can be used to identify and further study the conductance mechanism.

  5. Method for pan-tilt camera calibration using single control point.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Wenwen; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    The pan-tilt (PT) camera is widely used in video surveillance systems due to its rotatable property and low cost. The rough output of a PT camera may not satisfy the demand of practical applications; hence an accurate calibration method of a PT camera is desired. However, high-precision camera calibration methods usually require sufficient control points not guaranteed in some practical cases of a PT camera. In this paper, we present a novel method to online calibrate the rotation angles of a PT camera by using only one control point. This is achieved by assuming that the intrinsic parameters and position of the camera are known in advance. More specifically, we first build a nonlinear PT camera model with respect to two parameters Pan and Tilt. We then convert the nonlinear model into a linear model according to sine and cosine of Tilt, where each element in the augmented coefficient matrix is a function of the single variable Pan. A closed-form solution of Pan and Tilt can then be derived by solving a quadratic equation of tangent of Pan. Our method is noniterative and does not need features matching; thus its time efficiency is better. We evaluate our calibration method on various synthetic and real data. The quantitative results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods if the intrinsic parameters and position of the camera are known in advance.

  6. A model for open-close control of cation channels in the plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segments.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, K

    1989-06-01

    A model for open-close control of cation channels in the plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segments is presented. A channel is assumed to open when 3 cGMP molecules bind to it and close as soon as one of the 3 cGMP molecules is released from it. The calcium ion (divalent cation) is a modulator of the channel conductance. The channel conductance is low when Ca2+ binds to it, while it is high when it is free from Ca2+. From the above assumptions, the reaction scheme of channels with cGMP and Ca2+ is created and the fraction of channels in the open and closed states was calculated using equations for this scheme. The kinetic constants used in the model are estimated from the experimental results of many studies and from the theories. From this estimation, it was found that at the physiological concentrations of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+, almost all channels are bound with Ca2+ and are in the low conductance state. The present model accounts for the reported dose(cGMP)-response(membrane current or conductance) relationship, where the Hill coefficient decreases as the cGMP concentration increases. The dark-level cGMP concentration of 8.13 microM is estimated from the model. This is in good agreement with the reported values. Moreover, the model predicts the invariance of current noise at relatively low Ca2+ concentrations when the cGMP concentration is raised from the dark level to a saturation level. The dynamic properties (opening and closing actions) of the channels in the present model are also in good agreement with the reported observations. The burst mode opening and closing of a channel is predicted by the present model, and it was found that the number of openings in a burst is controlled by the forward and backward rate constants between a channel protein and cGMP molecules. The simulated waveform of a single channel is similar to the reported observations.

  7. Connexin 36 and Rod Bipolar Cell Independent Rod Pathways Drive Retinal Ganglion Cells and Optokinetic Reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cameron S.; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad; van der Heijden, Meike; Lo, Eric M.; Paul, David; Bramblett, Debra E.; Lem, Janis; Simons, David L.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Rod pathways are a parallel set of synaptic connections which enable night vision by relaying and processing rod photoreceptor light responses. We use dim light stimuli to isolate rod pathway contributions to downstream light responses then characterize these contributions in knockout mice lacking rod transducin-α (Trα), or certain pathway components associated with subsets of rod pathways. These comparisons reveal that rod pathway driven light sensitivity in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is entirely dependent on Trα, but partially independent of connexin 36 (Cx36) and rod bipolar cells. Pharmacological experiments show that rod pathway-driven and Cx36-independent RGC ON responses are also metabotropic glutamate receptor 6-dependent. To validate the RGC findings in awake, behaving animals we measured optokinetic reflexes (OKRs), which are sensitive to changes in ON pathways. Scotopic OKR contrast sensitivity was lost in Trα−/− mice, but indistinguishable from controls in Cx36−/− and rod bipolar cell knockout mice. Mesopic OKRs were also altered in mutant mice: Trα−/− mice had decreased spatial acuity, rod BC knockouts had decreased sensitivity, and Cx36−/− mice had increased sensitivity. These results provide compelling evidence against the complete Cx36 or rod BC dependence of night vision's ON component. Further, the findings suggest the parallel nature of rod pathways provides considerable redundancy to scotopic light sensitivity but distinct contributions to mesopic responses through complicated interactions with cone pathways. PMID:26718442

  8. Calibration of sonic valves for the laminar flow control, leading-edge flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, D. H.; Alexander, W., Jr.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Vallas, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sonic needle valves were calibrated to measure and control airflow in the suction system for the leading-edge flight test. The procedure and results for the calibration flow test of 4:41 flight valves are given. Mass-flow rates, which ranged from 0.001 to 0.012 lbm/sec, and maximum back pressure were measured for total temperatures from -30 F to 75 F and total pressures from 120 to 540 psf. Correlating equations are obtained for mass-flow rate as a function of total pressure, total temperature, and valve opening length. The most important aspect of flow measurement and control is found to be the measurement of valve opening length.

  9. Commercialization of JPL Virtual Reality calibration and redundant manipulator control technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Seraji, Homayoun; Fiorini, Paolo; Brown, Robert; Christensen, Brian; Beale, Chris; Karlen, James; Eismann, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA's recent thrust for industrial collaboration, JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has recently established two technology cooperation agreements in the robotics area: one on virtual reality (VR) calibration with Deneb Robotics, Inc., and the other on redundant manipulator control with Robotics Research Corporation (RRC). These technology transfer cooperation tasks will enable both Deneb and RRC to commercialize enhanced versions of their products that will greatly benefit both space and terrestrial telerobotic applications.

  10. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration Coupled with a Nonlinear Control Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The observers are then combined. The convergence properties of all three observers, and the combined observers, are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.

  11. The control outcome calibration approach for causal inference with unobserved confounding.

    PubMed

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Unobserved confounding can seldom be ruled out with certainty in nonexperimental studies. Negative controls are sometimes used in epidemiologic practice to detect the presence of unobserved confounding. An outcome is said to be a valid negative control variable to the extent that it is influenced by unobserved confounders of the exposure effects on the outcome in view, although not directly influenced by the exposure. Thus, a negative control outcome found to be empirically associated with the exposure after adjustment for observed confounders indicates that unobserved confounding may be present. In this paper, we go beyond the use of control outcomes to detect possible unobserved confounding and propose to use control outcomes in a simple but formal counterfactual-based approach to correct causal effect estimates for bias due to unobserved confounding. The proposed control outcome calibration approach is developed in the context of a continuous or binary outcome, and the control outcome and the exposure can be discrete or continuous. A sensitivity analysis technique is also developed, which can be used to assess the degree to which a violation of the main identifying assumption of the control outcome calibration approach might impact inference about the effect of the exposure on the outcome in view.

  12. Effect of a protruding rod-supported disk on the drag of a nose-controlled cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, A. N.; Podlaskin, A. B.; Tomson, S. G.

    2008-04-01

    The drag C x of a cylinder of diameter D with a front protruding disk supported on a rod of length l has been studied as a function of the relative distance l/D under the conditions of high (supersonic) flight velocities. It is established that the optimum (minimum) drug C x exists, the value of which agrees with the results of numerical simulations.

  13. Piston rod seal

    DOEpatents

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

  14. A novel target LOS calibration method for IR scanning sensor based on control points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yong-Hong; An, Wei; Zhang, Yin-Sheng; Zhang, Tao

    2012-12-01

    Space based IR system uses the information of target LOS (line of sight) for target location. Recent researches show that the measuring precision of target LOS is usually determined by measuring precision of platform's position and attitude, and deformation of sensor etc. Most methods for improving target location precision are either through improving platform's position and attitude measuring precision or through calib rating the whole image obtained by IR sensor. With the development of measuring technology, it is harder to make a further improvement on the measuring precision of position and attitude of the platform and the expansion of the sensor view make calibrat ion of the whole image with a larger computation cost. In this paper, a method using control points to calibrate target LOS was proposed. Based on the analysis of the imaging process of the scanning sensor of space based IR system, this paper established a modify model of target LOS based on control points, used a bias filter to estimate the bias value of sensor boresight, and finally achieved the mission of target LOS calibrat ion. Different from the traditional calibration method of remote sensing image, the proposed method only made a correct ion on the LOS of suspicious target, but not established the accurate relationship between the all pixels and their real location, and has a similar calibration performance, but more lower computational complexity.

  15. Design of an expert system to automatically calibrate impedance control for powered knee prostheses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Fan; Huang, He

    2013-06-01

    Many currently available powered knee prostheses (PKP) use finite state impedance control to operate a prosthetic knee joint. The desired impedance values were usually manually calibrated with trial-and-error in order to enable near-normal walking pattern. However, such a manual approach is inaccurate, time consuming, and impractical. This paper aimed to design an expert system that can tune the control impedance for powered knee prostheses automatically and quickly. The expert system was designed based on fuzzy logic inference (FLI) to match the desired knee motion and gait timing while walking. The developed system was validated on an able-bodied subject wearing a powered prosthesis. Preliminary experimental results demonstrated that the developed expert system can converge the user's knee profile and gait timing to the desired values within 2 minutes. Additionally, after the auto-tuning procedure, the user produced more symmetrical gait. These preliminary results indicate the promise of the designed expert system for quick and accuracy impedance calibration, which can significantly improve the practical value of powered lower limb prosthesis. Continuous engineering efforts are still needed to determine the calibration objectives and validate the expert system.

  16. Design of self-calibrating controllers for heliostats in a solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baheti, R. S.; Scott, P. F.

    1980-12-01

    A self-calibrating controller is developed for reducing installation and drive errors in a heliostat (steerable mirror used in solar/electric energy conversion). In this scheme, the heliostat periodically tracks the sun, which serves as a precision position reference. The difference between commanded and actual drive angles is used to estimate the coefficients of a model representing installation and drive errors. The calibrated model is then used to correct the drive actuator commands for these error sources when the heliostat is in a tracking mode (its principle mode of operation). Simulation results are given for a typical heliostat configuration with realistic errors. The algorithm is very effective in reducing beam steering errors. The concept is demonstrated using a prototype test apparatus and is shown to achieve an error reduction of more than 5:1.

  17. Noncatalytic cGMP-binding sites of amphibian rod cGMP phosphodiesterase control interaction with its inhibitory gamma-subunits. A putative regulatory mechanism of the rod photoresponse.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, V Y; Dumke, C L; Bownds, M D

    1992-12-05

    The cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) of retinal rods plays a central role in phototransduction. Illumination leads to its activation by a rod G-protein (Gt, transducin), thus causing a decrease in intracellular cGMP concentration, closure of plasma membrane cationic channels gated by cGMP, and development of the photoresponse. The PDE holoenzyme is an alpha beta gamma 2 tetramer. The alpha- and beta-subunits each contain one catalytic and one, or possibly two, noncatalytic cGMP-binding sites. Two identical gamma-subunits serve as protein inhibitors of the enzyme. Their inhibition is removed when they bind to Gt-GTP during PDE activation. Here we report that the noncatalytic cGMP-binding sites regulate the binding of PDE alpha beta with PDE gamma and as a result determine the mechanism of PDE activation by Gt. If the noncatalytic sites are empty, Gt-GTP physically removes PDE gamma from PDE alpha beta upon activation. Alternatively, if the noncatalytic sites are occupied by cGMP, Gt-GTP releases PDE gamma inhibitory action but remains bound in a complex with the PDE heterotetramer. The kinetic parameters of activated PDE in these two cases are indistinguishable. This mechanism appears to have two implications for the physiology of photoreceptor cells. First, the tight binding of PDE gamma with PDE alpha beta when the noncatalytic sites are occupied by cGMP may be responsible for the low level of basal PDE activity observed in dark-adapted cells. Second, occupancy of the noncatalytic sites ultimately controls the rate of PDE inactivation (cf. Arshavsky, V. Yu., and Bownds, M. D. (1992) Nature 357, 416-417), for the GTPase activity that terminates PDE activity is slower when these sites are occupied and Gt stays in a complex with PDE holoenzyme. In contrast GTPase acceleration is maximal when the noncatalytic sites are empty and Gt-PDE gamma dissociates from PDE alpha beta. Because cGMP levels are known to decrease upon illumination over a concentration range

  18. Sucker rod construction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Goodman, J.L.; Tickle, J.D.; Liskey, A.K.

    1987-03-31

    A sucker rod construction is described comprising: a connector member being formed to define a rod receptacle having a closed axially inner end and an open axially outer end, the rod receptacle having axially spaced, tapered annular surfaces, a cylindrical fiberglass rod having an end having an outer surface being received within the rod receptacle through the outer end and cooperating therewith to define an annular chamber between the outer surface of the end of the rod and the tapered annular surfaces, and a bonding means positioned in the annular chamber for bonding to the outer surface of the end of the rod to confront the tapered annular surfaces, each annular surface having an angle of taper with respect to the outer surface of the fiberglass rod, and each angle of taper being progressively and uniformly less toward the open end by an amount between one and one-half degrees and two degrees, inclusive, and a collet connected to the connector member adjacent the open axially outer end of the rod receptacle and having an axial bore therethrough retaining the end of the rod in coaxial position within the rod receptacle.

  19. Exploiting Task Constraints for Self-Calibrated Brain-Machine Interface Control Using Error-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Iturrate, Iñaki; Grizou, Jonathan; Omedes, Jason; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Lopes, Manuel; Montesano, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for self-calibration BCI for reaching tasks using error-related potentials. The proposed method exploits task constraints to simultaneously calibrate the decoder and control the device, by using a robust likelihood function and an ad-hoc planner to cope with the large uncertainty resulting from the unknown task and decoder. The method has been evaluated in closed-loop online experiments with 8 users using a previously proposed BCI protocol for reaching tasks over a grid. The results show that it is possible to have a usable BCI control from the beginning of the experiment without any prior calibration. Furthermore, comparisons with simulations and previous results obtained using standard calibration hint that both the quality of recorded signals and the performance of the system were comparable to those obtained with a standard calibration approach. PMID:26131890

  20. Controllable synthesis of flower- and rod-like ZnO nanostructures by simply tuning the ratio of sodium hydroxide to zinc acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Mu, Jin

    2007-02-01

    A controlled synthesis of flower- and rod-like ZnO nanostructures in a hydrothermal phase has been realized in the absence of an additional template. The well-defined morphologies are obtained by simply tuning the ratio of sodium hydroxide to zinc acetate in a narrow range. The products are characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The growth mechanism is suggested to be that the supersaturation of the precursor Zn(OH)42- results in various nucleation habits, which induce the ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies.

  1. Control and Interpretation of Finite-Size Effects and Initial Morphology in Directional Solidification of a Rod-Type Eutectic Transparent Metal-Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, R. E.; Şerefoğlu, Melis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent metal-analog materials offer a great opportunity for in situ investigation of the morphological dynamics that govern the formation of microstructure in metallic alloys. There are, however, several experimental factors that must be controlled or considered for proper and reproducible interpretation. We examine some of these issues here, summarizing our recent findings related to the case of rod-type eutectic solidification, for which we examine the importance of ampoule geometry and initial conditions. Employing directional solidification experiments with thin-slab specimens, we look specifically at finite-size effects on growth morphology and the influence of initial structure on the mechanisms of eutectic onset.

  2. A Destructive Validation of NDE Responses of Service-Induced PWSCC Found in North Anna 2 Control Rod Drive Nozzle 31

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Harris, Robert V.; Crawford, Susan L.; Seffens, Rob J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Moyer, C.

    2009-07-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments, and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies.

  3. Investigation of combined free and forced convection in a 2 x 6 rod bundle during controlled flow transients

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.M.; Khan, E.U.

    1980-10-01

    An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program (a modified version of the COBRA-IV code).

  4. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Control Dewar Venturi Calibration Explanation for Toshiba

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

    1997-01-24

    This document is intended to explain the calibration data for the venturi, FE-3253H, which is installed in the control dewar. Further, this document will help explain how to use the venturi to make mass flow measurements during typical operating conditions. The purpose of the calibration data enclosed from the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. is to experimentally show that the venturi follows the flow equation which is enclosed as Eq. 7-36 on page 155, from the Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook. The calibration data serves to show that the Subsonic Venturi, Serial Number 611980-18, produces results predicted by the compressible subsonic flow mass flow rate equation above and to experimentally determine the discharge coefficient C. Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. ran tests at 15 independent differential pressures to conclude that use of this venturi will perform according to the mass flow rate equation. In order to verify the results from the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. we have provided you with a step-by-step procedure using the values they have chosen.

  5. The Laser Control System for a Calibration Facility of a Light-Based Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, S.; Di Stefano, R.; Escalante, O.; Iacovacci, M.; Marignetti, F.

    2017-06-01

    Laser calibration facilities play a key role in the study and characterization of detectors like electromagnetic or hadronic calorimeters. They can be operated both during physics data taking and off runs. Typically, these facilities are based on a laser source which delivers light to each detector element via a light distribution system. The laser control (LC) system typically manages the interface between the experiment and the laser source, allowing the generation of light pulses according to specific needs such as detector calibration, study of detector performance in running conditions, and evaluation of data acquisition performance. Any specific implementation depends on hardware features. As an example, light pulses could be generated according to a physics distribution during physics runs or real data taking. In this case, light pulses should be generated according to a pattern that follows a programmable function and changes on a statistical base event by event. In this paper, we present a LC system for calibration of a calorimeter. It is a custom solution based on a hybrid platform hosting a field-programmable gate array and an ARM processor. We present the system architecture and the performances of a preliminary implementation. This system, in a more specific and specialized version, will be used in the Muon g-2 experiment (E989) at Fermilab.

  6. 78 FR 3906 - Prospective Grant of a Co-Exclusive License: Adenovirus-Based Controls and Calibrators for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... October 24, 2000, and entitled ``Replication Deficient Recombinant Adenovirus Vector'' to Life... recombinant constructs as controls and calibrators for molecular diagnostics for infectious disease agents...-0220; Email: Reichmau@mail.nih.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The invention relates to...

  7. The use of magnetically-controlled growing rods to treat children with early-onset scoliosis: early radiological results in 19 children.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W; Thakar, C; Rolton, D J; Wilson-MacDonald, J; Nnadi, C

    2016-09-01

    We undertook a prospective non-randomised radiological study to evaluate the preliminary results of using magnetically-controlled growing rods (MAGEC System, Ellipse technology) to treat children with early-onset scoliosis. Between January 2011 and January 2015, 19 children were treated with magnetically-controlled growing rods (MCGRs) and underwent distraction at three-monthly intervals. The mean age of our cohort was 9.1 years (4 to 14) and the mean follow-up 22.4 months (5.1 to 35.2). Of the 19 children, eight underwent conversion from traditional growing rods. Whole spine radiographs were carried out pre- and post-operatively: image intensification was used during each lengthening in the outpatient department. The measurements evaluated were Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis, proximal junctional kyphosis and spinal growth from T1 to S1. The mean pre-, post-operative and latest follow-up Cobb angles were 62° (37.4 to 95.8), 45.1° (16.6 to 96.2) and 43.2° (11.9 to 90.5), respectively (p < 0.05). The mean pre-, post-operative and latest follow-up T1-S1 lengths were 288.1 mm (223.2 to 351.7), 298.8 mm (251 to 355.7) and 331.1 mm (275 to 391.9), respectively (p < 0.05). In all, three patients developed proximal pull-out of their fixation and required revision surgery: there were no subsequent complications. There were no complications of outpatient distraction. Our study shows that MCGRs provide stable correction of the deformity in early-onset scoliosis in both primary and revision procedures. They have the potential to reduce the need for multiple operations and thereby minimise the potential complications associated with traditional growing rod systems. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1240-47. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Control and Calibration of a Staubli RX130 Robotic Arm for Construction of Surface Current Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmeter, Patrick; Crawford, Christopher; Guler, Emre; Fugal, Mario; Irvin, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Precision low energy neutron experiments require extremely uniform magnetic fields for manipulating the neutron spin. Such fields can be generated with surface current coils-precision 3-dimensional printed circuits. We are developing a facility to etch out these circuits on copper-plated curved forms using a high-speed spindle attached to the end-effector of a Staubli RX130 six-axis robotic arm. We describe our mathematical model of the robotic links and the software system we designed to control the motion of the arm and to prevent collisions during actuations. We developed a calibration procedure to achieve accuracy of 30 microns in the position of drill.

  9. Spatially confined synthesis of SiOx nano-rod with size-controlled Si quantum dots in nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide membrane.

    PubMed

    Pai, Yi-Hao; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2011-01-17

    By depositing Si-rich SiOx nano-rod in nano-porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using PECVD, the spatially confined synthesis of Si quantum-dots (Si-QDs) with ultra-bright photoluminescence spectra are demonstrated after low-temperature annealing. Spatially confined SiOx nano-rod in nano-porous AAO membrane greatly increases the density of nucleated positions for Si-QD precursors, which essentially impedes the route of thermally diffused Si atoms and confines the degree of atomic self-aggregation. The diffusion controlled growth mechanism is employed to determine the activation energy of 6.284 kJ mole(-1) and diffusion length of 2.84 nm for SiO1.5 nano-rod in nano-porous AAO membrane. HRTEM results verify that the reduced geometric dimension of the SiOx host matrix effectively constrain the buried Si-QD size at even lower annealing temperature. The spatially confined synthesis of Si-QD essentially contributes the intense PL with its spectral linewidth shrinking from 210 to 140 nm and its peak intensity enhancing by two orders of magnitude, corresponding to the reduction on both the average Si-QD size and its standard deviation from 2.6 to 2.0 nm and from 25% to 12.5%, respectively. The red-shifted PL wavelength of the Si-QD reveals an inverse exponential trend with increasing temperature of annealing, which is in good agree with the Si-QD size simulation via the atomic diffusion theory.

  10. Thermal management, beam control, and packaging designs for high power diode laser arrays and pump cavity designs for diode laser array pumped rod shaped lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Te-Yuan

    Several novel techniques for controlling, managing and utilizing high power diode lasers are described. Low pressure water spray cooling for a high heat flux system is developed and proven to be an ideal cooling method for high power diode laser arrays. In order to enable better thermal and optical performance of diode laser arrays, a new and simple optical element, the beam control prism, is invented. It provides the ability to accomplish beam shaping and beam tilting at the same time. Several low thermal resistance diode packaging designs using beam control prisms are proposed, studied and produced. Two pump cavity designs using a diode laser array to uniformly pump rod shape gain media are also investigated.

  11. Improved fMRI calibration: precisely controlled hyperoxic versus hypercapnic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mark, Clarisse I; Fisher, Joseph A; Pike, G Bruce

    2011-01-15

    The calibration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the estimation of neuronal activation-induced changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) has been achieved through hypercapnic-induced iso-metabolic increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Hypercapnia (HC) has been traditionally implemented through alterations in the fixed inspired fractional concentrations of carbon dioxide (F(I)CO(2)) without otherwise controlling end-tidal partial pressures of carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) or oxygen (P(ET)O(2)). There are several shortcomings to the use of this manual HC method that may be improved by using precise targeting of P(ET)CO(2) while maintaining iso-oxia. Similarly, precise control of blood gases can be used to induce isocapnic hyperoxia (HO) to reduce venous deoxyhaemoglobin (dHb) and thus increase BOLD signals, without appreciably altering CMRO(2) or CBF. The aim of our study was to use precise end-tidal targeting to compare the calibration of BOLD signals under an isocapnic hyperoxic protocol (HOP) (rises in P(ET)O(2) to 140, 240 and 340 mm Hg from baseline) to that of an iso-oxic hypercapnic protocol (HCP) (rises in P(ET)CO(2) of 3, 5, 7 and 9 mm Hg from baseline). Nine healthy volunteers were imaged at 3T while monitoring end-tidal gas concentrations and simultaneously measuring BOLD and CBF signals, via arterial spin labeling (ASL), during graded HCP and HOP, alternating with normocapnic states in a blocked experimental design. The variability of the calibration constant obtained under HOP (M(HOP)) was 0.3-0.5 that of the HCP one (M(HCP)). In addition, M-variances with precise gas targeting (M(HCP) and M(HOP)) were less than those reported in studies using traditional F(I)CO(2) and F(I)O(2) methods (M(HC) and M(HO), respectively). We conclude that precise controlled gas delivery markedly improves BOLD-calibration for fMRI studies of oxygen metabolism with both the HCP and the more precise HOP-alternative.

  12. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  13. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part II. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In the second part of this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of plain-carbon steel rods which have been subjected to known cooling conditions are described. Specifically, the isothermal phase transformation kinetics for the decomposition of austenite into ferrite and pearlite have been determined with a diametral dilatometer and characterized in terms of empirical coefficients in the Avrami equation. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) start time, fraction ferrite, ferrite grain diameter, and pearlite interlamellar spacing have been quantified and correlated with steel composition and cooling rate. Tensile tests have been conducted to obtain yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), which, with literature data, have been related to the microstructure and composition of the steels. These correlations, which apply to both hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels, have been incorporated in a mathematical model of the Stelmor process, to be described in Part III of this article.[441

  14. Controlled synthesis of novel rod-like Cu1.81S nanostructures and field emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changqing; Yu, Ke; Li, Shouchuan; Yin, Haihong; zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bin; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2014-10-01

    Three flower-like and one rod-shape cubic Cu2S nanostructures were successfully synthesized from a facile hydrothermal method employing CuCl2·2H2O and thiourea as Cu and S source with different volume ratio of ethanol and distilled water, respectively. Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium Bromide (CTAB) plays an important role in forming the nanorod. After thermal annealing treatment, tetragonal Cu1.81S nanoflower and nanorod were obtained for the first time. Field emission (FE) properties of these nanostructures were investigated for the first time. The results indicated that the tetragonal Cu1.81S nanorods had excellent field emission performance with turn-on field of ∼2.2 V μm-1, threshold field of ∼5.1 V μm-1 and enhancement factor of 1532. It showed that the tetragonal Cu1.81S nanostructures were competitive material in field emission applications.

  15. Development and operation of a computerized source controller for a gamma calibration well

    SciTech Connect

    Halliburton, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the 1950s, the need for an accurately reproducible, real-time gamma calibration facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was met with a manually operated radium source housed in a calibration well. This arrangement was quite satisfactory in the early days but was not able to keep pace with the increasing number of instruments necessary to support an expanding health physics program. Consequently, the hand crank was replaced by an electric motor in the early 1960s. This improvement made it possible to move the source at speeds up to 7 cm/s, resulting in a major increase in efficiency. This configuration served reliably for two decades but, by the 1980s, component aging and the growing scarcity of replacement parts led to the development of a third-generation source controller. The electric motor and vacuum-tube-driven power supply were replaced with a solid state power supply and a stepper motor interfaced to a microcomputer. The software written to operate the system is menu-driven, user-friendly, and provides the greatest flexibility and ease of use while minimizing learning time. The development and use of this control system will be discussed.

  16. A Calibration-Free, Noncontact, Disposable Liquid Dispensing Cartridge Featuring an Online Process Control.

    PubMed

    Bammesberger, Stefan Borja; Malki, Imad; Ernst, Andreas; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a noncontact liquid dispenser that uses a disposable cartridge for the calibration-free dosage of diverse biochemical reagents from the nanoliter to the microliter range. The dispensing system combines the advantages of a positive displacement syringe pump (responsible for defining the aliquot's volume with high accuracy) with a highly dynamic noncontact dispenser (providing kinetic energy to detach the liquid from the tip). The disposable, noncontact dispensing cartridge system renders elaborate washing procedures of tips obsolete. A noncontact sensor monitors the dispensing process to enable an online process control. To further increase confidence and reliability for particularly critical biomedical applications, an optional closed-loop control prevents malfunctions. The dispensing performance was characterized experimentally in the range of 0.25 to 10.0 µL using liquids of different rheological properties (viscosity 1.03-16.98 mPas, surface tension 30.49-70.83 mN/m) without adjusting or calibrating the actuation parameters. The precision ranged between a coefficient of variation of 0.5% and 5.3%, and the accuracy was below ±10%. The presented technology has the potential to contribute significantly to the improvement of biochemical liquid handling for laboratory automation in terms of usability, miniaturization, cost reduction, and safety.

  17. Effect of rod gap spacing on a suction panel for laminar flow and noise control in supersonic wind tunnels. M.S. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a coordinated experimental and theoretical study of a sound shield concept which aims to provide a means of noise reduction in the test section of supersonic wind tunnels at high Reynolds numbers. The model used consists of a planar array of circular rods aligned with the flow, with adjustable gaps between them for boundary layer removal by suction, i.e., laminar flow control. One of the basic requirements of the present sound shield concept is to achieve sonic cross flow through the gaps in order to prevent lee-side flow disturbances from penetrating back into the shielded region. Tests were conducted at Mach 6 over a local unit Reynolds number range from about 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 13.5 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Measurements of heat transfer, static pressure, and sound levels were made to establish the transition characteristics of the boundary layer on the rod array and the sound shielding effectiveness.

  18. FUEL ROD CLUSTERS

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, A.B.

    1959-08-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

  19. High concentration (2500 suns), high throughput, automated flash tester with calibrated color balance and intensity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludowise, Michael; Taylor, Sean; Lucow, Ewelina; Chan, Hing

    2008-08-01

    SolFocus has designed and built a flexible and adaptable solar flash tester capable of reaching in excess of 2500x suns flux using a commercially available Xenon flash and power supply. Using calibrated isotype cells and photodetectors, the intensity and color balance of the flash are controlled through software algorithms that compensate for tube aging and thermal drift. The data acquisition system dynamically normalizes each of the 1600 I-V data pairs to the lamp intensity during each flash. Up to 32 cells can be measured simultaneously, with a flash re-cycle time of 3 seconds. The dynamic current range is 100μA to 10A over 0 to 5V. Test ranges are limited by user input through a modern GUI screen. The system is mated to a commercially available probe station tester which allows automated testing of up to 150mm diameter wafers, and is capable of testing a 4000 cell wafer in less than 8 minutes. The core software and optical components are easily adaptable to receiver and full panel testing as well. Data on the calibration and performance of the flash tester, the dynamic range achieved in test, and throughputs obtained during operation are presented.

  20. Shape control synthesis of spheroid and rod-like silver nanostructures in organic-inorganic sol-gel composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraidarov, T.; Levchenko, V.; Popov, I.; Reisfeld, R.

    2009-07-01

    The synthesis of a variety of spheroid and rod-like silver nanoparticles in hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel composite films was examined. The sol-gel matrix used in this work involves urethane terminated silica network which acts as a stabilizing and coupling agent and can complex with silver atoms through its secondary amine functionality and form stable colloid dispersions. The parameters determining the particles size and shape are the starting concentrations of silver ions, the coordination and reduction abilities of the solvent and the reaction kinetics and temperature. In this work the reduction process of silver ion was performed by DMF in sol-gel polyurethane precursor solution at two reaction temperatures: (a) 40 ∘C and (b) reflux at boiling temperature. The effects of concentration and temperature of solution on the morphology and uniformity of silver nanorods were investigated by UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. Spheroid nanoparticles size was as 10-12 nm. Electron diffraction shows that all nanoparticles have a silver face-centered cubic crystal lattice. The silver nanoparticles obtained in composite films exhibit a strong characteristic extinction peak, due to surface plasmon resonance occurring nearly 420-440 nm.

  1. Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of increasing the control rod worth and the rod drop speed on the off-center RDA. An increase in either of these parameters results in an increase in peak core power and fuel enthalpy, and the objective of this study is to determine the margin to the fuel damage threshold.

  2. Calibration of an instrumented treadmill using a precision-controlled device with artificial neural network-based error corrections.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hong-Jung; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Chen, Ting-Yi; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Instrumented treadmills (ITs) are used to measure reaction forces (RF) and center of pressure (COP) movements for gait and balance assessment. Regular in situ calibration is essential to ensure their accuracy and to identify conditions when a factory re-calibration is needed. The current study aimed to develop and calibrate in situ an IT using a portable, precision-controlled calibration device with an artificial neural network (ANN)-based correction method. The calibration device was used to apply static and dynamic calibrating loads to the surface of the IT at 189 and 25 grid-points, respectively, at four belt speeds (0, 4, 6 and 8 km/h) without the need of a preset template. Part of the applied and measured RF and COP were used to train a threelayered, back-propagation ANN model while the rest of the data were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN. The percent errors of Fz and errors of the Px and Py were significantly decreased from a maximum of -1.15%, -1.64 mm and -0.73 mm to 0.02%, 0.02 mm and 0.03 mm during static calibration, respectively. During dynamic calibration, the corresponding values were decreasing from -3.65%, 2.58 mm and -4.92 mm to 0.30%, -0.14 mm and -0.47 mm, respectively. The results suggest that the calibration device and associated ANN will be useful for correcting measurement errors in vertical loads and COP for ITs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The HERA-B database services. for detector configuration, calibration, alignment, slow control and data classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, A.; Amaral, Vasco; Marconi, Umberto; Steinbeck, Stefan; Tomé, António; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Wolters, Helmut; HERA-B Collaboration

    2001-10-01

    The database services for the distributed application environment of the HERA-B experiment are presented. Achieving the required 10 6 trigger reduction implies that all reconstruction, including calibration and alignment procedures, must run online, making extensive usage of the database systems. The associations from the events to the database objects are carefully introduced considering efficiency and flexibility. The challenges of managing the slow control information were addressed by introducing data and update objects used in special processing on dedicated servers. The system integrates the DAQ client/server protocols with customized active database servers and relies on a high-performance database support toolkit. For applications that required complex selection mechanisms, as in the data-quality databases, the relevant data is replicated using a relational database management system.

  4. Commercial off the Shelf Ground Control Supports Calibration and Conflation from Ground to Space Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielová, M.; Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    The need for rapid deployment of aerial and satellite imagery in support of GIS and engineering integration projects require new sources of geodetic control to ensure the accuracy for geospatial projects. In the past, teams of surveyors would need to deploy to project areas to provide targeted or photo identifiable points that are used to provide data for orthorecificaion, QA/QC and calibration for multi-platform sensors. The challenge of integrating street view, UAS, airborne and Space based sensors to produce the common operational picture requires control to tie multiple sources together. Today commercial off the shelf delivery of existing photo identifiable control is increasing the speed of deployment of this data without having to revisit sites over and over again. The presentation will discuss the processes developed by CompassData to build a global library of 40,000 control points available today. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) based processes and initiatives ensure consistent quality of survey data, photo identifiable features selected and meta data to support photogrammetrist, engineers and GIS professionals to quickly deliver projects with better accuracy.

  5. Direct costs associated with the management of progressive early onset scoliosis: estimations based on gold standard technique or with magnetically controlled growing rods.

    PubMed

    Charroin, C; Abelin-Genevois, K; Cunin, V; Berthiller, J; Constant, H; Kohler, R; Aulagner, G; Serrier, H; Armoiry, X

    2014-09-01

    The main disadvantage of the surgical management of early onset scoliosis (EOS) using conventional growing rods is the need for iterative surgical procedures during childhood. The emergence of an innovative device using distraction-based magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) provides the opportunity to avoid such surgeries and therefore to improve the patient's quality of life. Despite the high cost of MCGR and considering its potential impact in reducing hospital stays, the use of MCGR could reduce medical resource consumption in a long-term view in comparison to traditional growing rod (TGR). A cost-simulation model was constructed to assess the incremental cost between the two strategies. The cost for each strategy was estimated based on probability of medical resource consumption determined from literature search as well as data from EOS patients treated in our centre. Some medical expenses were also estimated from expert interviews. The time horizon chosen was 4 years as from first surgical implantation. Costs were calculated in the perspective of the French sickness fund (using rates from year 2013) and were discounted by an annual rate of 4%. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test model strength to various parameters. With a time horizon of 4 years, the estimated direct costs of TGR and MCGR strategies were 49,067 € and 42,752 €, respectively leading to an incremental costs of 6135 € in favour of MCGR strategy. In the first case, costs were mainly represented by hospital stays expenses (83.9%) whereas in the other the cost of MCGR contributed to 59.5% of the total amount. In the univariate sensitivity analysis, the tariffs of hospital stays, the tariffs of the MCG, and the frequency of distraction surgeries were the parameters with the most important impact on incremental cost. MCGR is a recent and promising innovation in the management of severe EOS. Besides improving the quality of life, its use in the treatment of severe EOS is likely to

  6. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with 27 versus 39 Fr bougie calibration: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cal, Patricio; Deluca, Luciano; Jakob, Tomás; Fernández, Ezequiel

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become a widely used primary bariatric surgery. As this is a restrictive procedure, calibrating bougie size is assumed to impact on both morbidity and weight loss. However, no prospective studies have confirmed this hypothesis. The objective of this trial was to compare LSG outcomes using different calibrating bougie diameters. A randomized controlled trial: 126 patients undergoing LSG were randomized to either a 27-Fr (group A) or a 39-Fr (group B) calibrating bougie. Inclusion criteria were BMI 40-50 kg/m(2), aged 20-70 and absence of prior gastric surgery. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. Sample size was calculated to detect a six-point difference in percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 1 year after surgery, considering an α error = 0.05 and a β error = 0.2. The volume of resected stomach, morbidity and weight loss at 6 months and at 1 year after surgery were analyzed. Groups (group A n = 62, group B n = 64) were similar in BMI (44.3 vs. 43.5), aged (41.9 vs. 42.2) and female percentage (87.1 vs. 84.3 %). A 1-year follow-up was achieved in 90.1 and 87.1 %, respectively. Two major complications occurred, one leak in each group (1.6 %). The volume of resected stomach was similar (426 vs. 402 ml, P = 0.71), as well as 6 months %EWL (66.3 vs. 66.6 %; P = 0.91) and 1 year %EWL (75.6 vs. 71.3 %, P = 0.21). A 1-year %EWL higher than 50 was achieved in 96.5 % of patients in group A versus 85.2 % in group B (P = 0.11). The use of different bougie diameters had no impact on the volume of resected stomach, morbidity or short-term weight loss after LSG, although a trend was seen toward better weight loss with the smaller bougie. A longer-lasting follow-up will be necessary to further assess differences.

  7. Calibration Chamber Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-30

    penetrometers of different designs, (iii) the effect of rod friction, (iv) the effect of discontinuous operation, and (v) sensing an interface between two sand...layers. Other test results on two designs of 10 cm2 Fugro penetrometers, each with a different position of friction sleeve, assisted in the selection...at different stages in the penetration of a specimen. The calibration tests had the prime purpose of establishing correlations between the penetration

  8. Simultaneous in-flight calibrations of the Galileo science platform and attitude control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, J. Y.; Hayati, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a design metholodology and simulation study results for a combined star scanner-gyro-scan platform in-flight calibration for the dual spin Galileo spacecraft. The design process involves three separate parts: the construction of an error model, development of the calibration model, and the selection of the appropriate estimation technique. The major innovative contribution lies in the development of the first two parts which are unique to the Galileo design. A unified procedure has been developed to allow simultaneous calibration of the three subsystems. However, provisions are also made in the software to calibrate each subsystem separately when the necessary a priori information is available.

  9. Trunnion Rod Microcrack Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Engineers needs reliable non-destructive testing (NDT) methods that are rapid, robust, and capable of detecting and quantifying defects , as well as...Robustness is required to handle the significant variations in design, construction, and field conditions that are known to exist. Defect detection and...constructed to help contain failing rods. It is not known if the defect growth and resulting rod failure rate will stay at its relatively low number of

  10. Preventing Instrumentation Failure in Three-Column Spinal Osteotomy: Biomechanical Analysis of Rod Configuration.

    PubMed

    Jager, Zachary S; İnceoğlu, Serkan; Palmer, Daniel; Akpolat, Yusuf T; Cheng, Wayne K

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical analysis. To show the role of additional rods and long-term fatigue strength to prevent the instrumentation failure on three-column osteotomies. Three-column osteotomy such as pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) and vertebral column resections are surgical correction options for fixed spinal deformity. Posterior fixation for the PSO involves pedicle screw-and rod-based instrumentation, with the rods being contoured to accommodate the accentuated lordosis. Pseudarthrosis and instrumentation failure are known complications of PSO. Unilateral pedicle screw and rod constructs were mounted in ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene blocks using a vertebrectomy model with the rods contoured to simulate posterior fixation of a PSO. Each construct was cycled under a 200 N load at 5 Hz in simulated flexion and extension to rod failure. Three configurations (n = 5) of titanium alloy rods were tested: single rod (control), double rod, and bridging rod. Outcomes were total cycles to failure and location of rod failure. Double-rod and bridging-rod constructs had a significantly higher number of cycles to failure compared with the single-rod construct (p < .05). Single-rod constructs failed at or near the rod bend apex, whereas the majority of double-rod and bridging-rod constructs failed at the screw-rod or rod-connector junction. Double-rod and bridging-rod constructs are more resistant to fatigue failure compared with single-rod constructs in PSO instrumentation and could be considered to mitigate the risk of instrumentation failure. Copyright © 2016 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychophysical calibration of auditory range control in binaural synthesis with independent adjustment of virtual source loudness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, William L.

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of synthetic cues to the range of auditory images created via headphone display of virtual sound sources processed using individualized HRTFs. The particular focus of the study was to determine how well auditory range could be controlled when independent adjustment of loudness was also desired. Variation in perceived range of the resulting auditory spatial images was assessed using a two-alternative, forced choice procedure in which listeners indicated which of two successively presented sound sources seemed to be more closely positioned. The first of the two sources served as a fixed standard stimulus positioned using a binaural HRTF measured at ear level, 1.5 m from the listeners head at an azimuth angle of 120 deg. The second source served as a variable loudness comparison stimulus processed using the same pair of HRTFs, with the same interaural time difference but with a manipulated interaural level difference. From the obtained choice proportions for each pairwise comparison of stimuli, numerical scale values for auditory source range were generated using Thurstone's Case IV method for indirect scaling. Results provide a basis for calibrated control over auditory range for virtual sources varying in loudness.

  12. Control of the saturation temperature in magnetic heating by using polyethylene-glycol-coated rod-shaped nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Polyethylene-glycol (PEG)-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles were prepared for magnetic hyperthermia applications by using the co-precipitation method. The PEG coating occurred during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles were rod-shaped with an average length of 16 nm and an average diameter of 4.5 nm, as observed using transmission electron microscopy. The PEG coating on the surfaces of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics with negligible coercive force. Further, magnetic heating effects were observed in aqueous solutions of the coated nanoparticles. The saturation temperature could be controlled at 42 ℃ by changing the concentration of the nanoparticles in the aqueous solution. Alternately, the saturation temperature could be controlled for a given concentration of nanoparticles by changing the intensity of the magnetic field. The Curie temperature of the nanoparticles was estimated to be 495 ℃. These results for the PEG-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles showed the possibility of utilizing them for controlled magnetic hyperthermia at 42 ℃.

  13. Quality Control and Calibration of the Dual-Polarization Radar at Kwajalein, RMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, David A.; Wolff, David B.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Tokay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Weather radars, recording information about precipitation around the globe, will soon be significantly upgraded. Most of today s weather radars transmit and receive microwave energy with horizontal orientation only, but upgraded systems have the capability to send and receive both horizontally and vertically oriented waves. These enhanced "dual-polarimetric" (DP) radars peer into precipitation and provide information on the size, shape, phase (liquid / frozen), and concentration of the falling particles (termed hydrometeors). This information is valuable for improved rain rate estimates, and for providing data on the release and absorption of heat in the atmosphere from condensation and evaporation (phase changes). The heating profiles in the atmosphere influence global circulation, and are a vital component in studies of Earth s changing climate. However, to provide the most accurate interpretation of radar data, the radar must be properly calibrated and data must be quality controlled (cleaned) to remove non-precipitation artifacts; both of which are challenging tasks for today s weather radar. The DP capability maximizes performance of these procedures using properties of the observed precipitation. In a notable paper published in 2005, scientists from the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) at the University of Oklahoma developed a method to calibrate radars using statistically averaged DP measurements within light rain. An additional publication by one of the same scientists at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) in Norman, Oklahoma introduced several techniques to perform quality control of radar data using DP measurements. Following their lead, the Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite Validation Office at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has fine-tuned these methods for specific application to the weather radar at Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, approximately 2100 miles

  14. High-speed endless optical polarization stabilization using calibrated waveplates and field-programmable gate array-based digital controller.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Ariya; Koch, Benjamin; Zhang, Hongbin; Mirvoda, Vitali; Lichtinger, Manfred; Sandel, David; Noé, Reinhold

    2008-11-10

    A truly endless polarization stabilization experiment with a tracking speed of 15 krad/s is presented. The high-speed polarization tracking is realized by using calibrated lithium niobate linear retardation waveplates as the polarization transformers combined with a very fast digital controller running on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

  15. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost. PMID:27258272

  16. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-05-31

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost.

  17. Calibration of high-aspect ratio quality control optical scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Hildén, Timo; Heino, Jouni; Berdova, Maria; Lauhakangas, Rauno; Garcia, Francisco; Tuominen, Eija; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are widely used in contemporary high-energy physics experiments. The GEM is a detector containing a densely pierced polymer foil, coated with a thin metal layer on one or both sides. They are able to achieve high amplification gains and performance at low cost, even under harsh radiation conditions. The holes in the foils have a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 μm and 140 μm pitch distance between the centers of the holes. High-quality assurance is needed to guarantee a long lifespan for the detectors in the severe radiation environment. Mapping of the defects connecting two or more holes is important phase when determining the usability of a foil for detector application. The commercial optical scanning system (OSS) with a scanning area of 950 × 950 mm was further developed in the Detector Laboratory at Helsinki Institute of Physics for controlling the quality of GEM foils. Microfabricated transfer standard containing sets of 10 × 10 numbered etched cavities with a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 μm was produced for system calibration. The cavity dimensions and the expanded uncertainty were calculated with the 95% confidence level, as is required by the ISO Guide for Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The transfer standard was examined with the OSS in nine different positions of the scanning area. The results were analyzed, the uncertainties were calculated and the corrections were made according to the ISO requirement.

  18. Effect of light on the transfer of sugars from sugar nucleotides to rod outer segment membranes of control and dystrophic rats.

    PubMed

    Mok, C; Matuk, Y

    1987-10-01

    The transfer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), D-mannose (Man), D-galactose (Gal) and L-fucose (Fuc) from their nucleotide complexes to isolated rod outer segment (ROS) membranes obtained from dark-adapted 21 +/- 2 days old dystrophic (RCS) and control (RCS-rdy+) rat retinas, was studied under light or dark conditions of incubation. It was found that all of these sugars were transferred to ROS membranes in the dark. Under these conditions there was significantly less (p less than 0.001) Gal transferred to dystrophic than to control membranes. Exposure to light affected the transfer of Gal and Fuc only. Thus, the transfer of Gal and Fuc to control ROS membranes was increased by about 50% compared to the level observed under dark conditions of incubation. On the other hand, exposure to light had no effect on the transfer of Gal to dystrophic ROS membranes but it enhanced the transfer of Fuc to these membranes by about 250% above the level observed in the dark. Under light there were highly significant (p less than 0.001) differences between control and dystrophic membranes in the transfer of Gal and Fuc. The transfer of Fuc to dystrophic ROS membranes was proportional to the concentration of GDP-Fuc but the acceptors on control membranes were saturated at low concentrations of substrate. However, the transfer of Gal from UDP-Gal to both types of membranes was proportional to the concentrations of substrate and ROS membrane protein and to the period of incubation. The transfer of Gal and Fuc to both types of membranes was significantly reduced after denaturation of ROS membrane proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Validation of updated neutronic calculation models proposed for Atucha-II PHWR. Part I: Benchmark comparisons of WIMS-D5 and DRAGON cell and control rod parameters with MCNP5

    SciTech Connect

    Mollerach, R.; Leszczynski, F.; Fink, J.

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure-vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels, and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO{sub 2} rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update calculation methods and models (cell, supercell and reactor) was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. As a validation of the new models some benchmark comparisons were done with Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP5. This paper presents comparisons of cell and supercell benchmark problems based on a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the WIMS-D5 and DRAGON codes with MCNP5 results. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, and more symmetric than Atucha-II Cell parameters compared include cell k-infinity, relative power levels of the different rings of fuel rods, and some two-group macroscopic cross sections. Supercell comparisons include supercell k-infinity changes due to the control rods (tubes) of steel and hafnium. (authors)

  20. Intramedullary rodding in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Mulpuri, K; Joseph, B

    2000-01-01

    The results of intramedullary rodding of long bones of 16 children with osteogenesis imperfecta, over a 10-year period, were analyzed. Sheffield elongating rods or non-elongating rods were used. The frequency of fractures was dramatically reduced after implantation of either type of rod, and the ambulatory status improved in all instances. The results were significantly better after Sheffield rodding with regard to the frequency of complications requiring reoperations and the longevity of the rods. Migration of the rods, encountered frequently, appears to be related to improper placement of the rods in the bone. It seems likely that if care is taken to ensure precise placement of a rod of appropriate size, several of these complications may be avoided.

  1. Double-labeling techniques demonstrate that rod bipolar cells are under GABAergic control in the inner plexiform layer of the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Kim, I B; Lee, M Y; Oh, S; Kim, K Y; Chun, M

    1998-04-01

    The synaptic connectivity between rod bipolar cells and GABAergic neurons in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina was studied using two immunocytochemical markers. Rod bipolar cells were stained with an antibody specific for protein kinase C (PKC, alpha isoenzyme), and GABAergic neurons were stained with an antiserum specific for glutamic-acid decarboxylase (GAD). Some amacrine cells were also labeled with the anti-PKC antiserum. All PKC-labeled amacrine cells examined showed GABA immunoreactivity, indicating that PKC-labeled amacrine cells constitute a subpopulation of GABAergic amacrine cells in the rat retina. A total of 150 ribbon synapses established by rod bipolar cells were observed in the IPL. One member of the postsynaptic dyads was always an unlabeled AII amacrine cell process, and the other belonged to an amacrine-cell process showing GAD immunoreactivity. The majority (n=92) (61.3%) of these processes made reciprocal synapses back to the axon terminals of rod bipolar cells. In addition, 78 conventional synapses onto rod bipolar axons were observed, and among them 52 (66.7%) were GAD-immunoreactive. Thus GABA provides the major inhibitory input to rod bipolar cells.

  2. Magnetic Controlled Growing Rods (MCGR) As a Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS): Early Results With Two Patients Had been Fused.

    PubMed

    Heydar, Ahmed Majid; Şirazi, Serdar; Bezer, Murat

    2016-04-06

    Prospective unicentral non-randomized study. To evaluate the safety, effectivity profile of magnetic controlled growing rods (MCGR) in patients with early onset scoliosis (EOS). Conventional growing rods are the most commonly used growth sparring devices in the treatment of EOS, since this technique requires repeated surgical operations for lengthenings it is associated with high rate of complications and increased costs. MCGR in treatment of EOS is effective in correcting deformity while allowing continuous spinal growth, this was reported recently by few studies. A total of 18 patients with progressive EOS were treated by MCGR, two of them had undergone final fusion operation. Patients were followed-up for a minimium time of 9 months from the time of initial surgery. Radiological data were analysed in terms of cobb angle, kyphosis angle, T1-T12 and T1-S1 distances in preoperative, postoperative and last follow up. The mean preoperative Cobb and kyphosis angle were 68° (44-116°), 43° (98-24°), it was corrected to 35° (67-12°), 29° (47-21°) immediately after initial operation and maintained at 34.5° (52-10°), 33° (52-20°) at last follow up, respectively.The mean preoperative T1-T12 and T1-S1 distance were 171mm (202-130mm), 289mm (229-370mm), it was increased to 197mm (158-245mm), 330mm (258-406mm) immediatley after initial operation and further increased to 215mm (170-260mm), 357mm (277-430mm) at last follow up, respectively. Two patients had undergone final fusion, they had overall mean Cobb angle correction of 66° (62-70°), kyphosis angle change of 53° (26-80°). Total height gain in T1-T12 and T1-S1 of 80.5mm (67-94) and 119mm (105-133) respectively. MCGR is safe and effective technique in correction of EOS deformity and in maintaining the correction during nonsurgical distraction procedures. A further correction of the deformity and more spinal height gain can be achieved in the final fusion operation. 3.

  3. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  4. Frequent small distractions with a magnetically controlled growing rod for early-onset scoliosis and avoidance of the law of diminishing returns.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Bow, Cora; Samartzis, Dino; Kwan, Kenny; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effect of frequent small distractions with a magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) on spinal length gain and achieved distraction length in children with early-onset scoliosis (EOS), and to determine whether the law of diminishing returns applies to this group of patients with MCGR. A consecutive series of 3 males and 4 females with EOS who underwent MCGR implantation at a mean age of 10.2 years and were followed up for a mean of 3.8 years were reviewed. Distraction was aimed at 2 mm monthly. The coronal Cobb angle, T1-S1 length gain, and achieved distraction length were measured at 6-monthly intervals. The mean total number of distractions was 31. Four of the patients had problems that may have affected distractions. The mean coronal Cobb angle improved post-operatively and was maintained throughout the follow-up period. The mean T1-S1 length gain and achieved distraction length varied over the follow-up period and did not diminish with repeated lengthening. Frequent small distractions with the MCGR for EOS enable T1-S1 and achieved distraction length gain without significant reduction in gain after repeated lengthening.

  5. Localization of the Drosophila checkpoint control protein Bub3 to the kinetochore requires Bub1 but not Zw10 or Rod.

    PubMed

    Basu, J; Logarinho, E; Herrmann, S; Bousbaa, H; Li, Z; Chan, G K; Yen, T J; Sunkel, C E; Goldberg, M L

    1998-12-01

    We report here the isolation and molecular characterization of the Drosophila homolog of the mitotic checkpoint control protein Bub3. The Drosophila Bub3 protein is associated with the centromere/kinetochore of chromosomes in larval neuroblasts whose spindle assembly checkpoints have been activated by incubation with the microtubule-depolymerizing agent colchicine. Drosophila Bub3 is also found at the kinetochore regions in mitotic larval neuroblasts and in meiotic primary and secondary spermatocytes, with the strong signal seen during prophase and prometaphase becoming increasingly weaker after the chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase plate. We further show that the localization of Bub3 to the kinetochore is disrupted by mutations in the gene encoding the Drosophila homolog of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Bub1. Combined with recent findings showing that the kinetochore localization of Bub1 conversely depends upon Bub3, these results support the hypothesis that the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins exist as a multiprotein complex recruited as a unit to the kinetochore. In contrast, we demonstrate that the kinetochore constituents Zw10 and Rod are not needed for the binding of Bub3 to the kinetochore. This suggests that the kinetochore is assembled in at least two relatively independent pathways.

  6. Controlled synthesis of CeO2 microstructures from 1D rod-like to 3D lotus-like and their morphology-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jinfeng; Meng, Fanming; Fan, Zhenghua; Li, Huijie

    2016-10-01

    Monodisperse 3D lotus-like CeO2 microstructures have been successfully synthesized via controlling the morphology of CeCO3OH precursors under hydrothermal condition as well as subsequent calcination. The reaction time was systematically investigated. XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, XPS, Raman scattering and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the samples. The lotus-like CeO2 hierarchical structures with an average of 4-6 μm are composed of many nanoplates of 100-200 nm in thickness as the petals stacking together to form open flowers and have a fluorite cubic structure. Based on the time-dependent morphology evolution evidences, a nucleation-dissolution-recrystallization mechanism has been proposed to explain the transformation from rod-like structures to lotus-like CeO2 hierarchical structures with the increase of reaction time. It is found that there are Ce3+ ions and oxygen vacancies in surface of samples. The magnetic and photoluminescence measurements indicated that all CeO2 samples exhibit excellent ferromagnetism and optical properties at room temperature, and while increasing the reaction time, the ferromagnetism and optical properties increase more, which can be reasonably explained for the influences of the different morphology of the particles and the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ce3+ ions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Study on Fracture Behavior of 2D-C/C Composite for Application to Control Rod of Very High Temperature Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumita, J.; Fujita, I.; Shibata, T.; Makita, T.; Takagi, T.; Kunimoto, E.; Sawa, K.; Kim, W.; Park, J.

    2011-10-01

    For a control rod element of the Very High Temperature Reactor, a carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the major candidate materials for its high strength and thermal stability. In this study, in order to establish the data base of the 2D-C/C composite, the fracture data was obtained by simulating the crack expected to be generated under the VHTR condition and the oxidation effect on the fracture behavior was evaluated. Moreover, the fracture mechanism of the C/C composite was investigated through scanning electron microscope observation. This study showed that the oxidized matrix caused reduction of the fracture toughness and the reduction ratio was dependent on the density of matrix and a number cracks. With increasing the oxidation, the fracture toughness is mainly dependent on the fiber characteristics. Furthermore, the crack grows along the boundary between fiber bundles without breaking the fiber. The cracks which were initiated at the interface between the matrix and the fiber were gathered into the voids in the boundary between fiber bundles, and, then, the cracks grew up in the matrix.

  8. Controllable synthesis and enhanced microwave absorbing properties of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yana; Wu, Tong; Jin, Keying; Qian, Yao; Qian, Naxin; Jiang, Kedan; Wu, Wenhua; Tong, Guoxiu

    2016-11-01

    We developed a coordinated self-assembly/precipitate transfer/sintering method that allows the controllable synthesis of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods (HPRs). A series of characterizations confirms that changing [Ni2+] can effectively control the crystal size, internal strain, composition, textural characteristics, and properties of HPRs. Molar percentages of Ni and NiFe2O4 in HPRs increase with [Ni2+] in various Boltzmann function modes. Saturation magnetization Ms and coercivity Hc show U-shaped change trends because of crystal size, composition, and interface magnetic coupling. High magnetic loss is maintained after decorating NiFe2O4 and Ni on the surface of Fe3O4 PRs. Controlling the NiFe2O4 interface layers and Ni content can improve impedance matching and dielectric losses, thereby leading to lighter weight, stronger absorption, and broader absorption band of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs than Fe3O4 PRs. An optimum EM wave absorbing property was exhibited by Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs formed at [Ni2+] = 0.05 M. The maximum reflection loss (RL) reaches -58.4 dB at 13.68 GHz, which corresponds to a 2.1 mm matching thickness. The absorbing bandwidth (RL ≤ -20 dB) reaches 14.4 GHz with the sample thickness at 1.6-2.4 and 2.8-10.0 mm. These excellent properties verify that Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs are promising candidates for new and effective absorptive materials.

  9. The development of a thermal hydraulic feedback mechanism with a quasi-fixed point iteration scheme for control rod position modeling for the TRIGSIMS-TH application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karriem, Veronica V.

    Nuclear reactor design incorporates the study and application of nuclear physics, nuclear thermal hydraulic and nuclear safety. Theoretical models and numerical methods implemented in computer programs are utilized to analyze and design nuclear reactors. The focus of this PhD study's is the development of an advanced high-fidelity multi-physics code system to perform reactor core analysis for design and safety evaluations of research TRIGA-type reactors. The fuel management and design code system TRIGSIMS was further developed to fulfill the function of a reactor design and analysis code system for the Pennsylvania State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). TRIGSIMS, which is currently in use at the PSBR, is a fuel management tool, which incorporates the depletion code ORIGEN-S (part of SCALE system) and the Monte Carlo neutronics solver MCNP. The diffusion theory code ADMARC-H is used within TRIGSIMS to accelerate the MCNP calculations. It manages the data and fuel isotopic content and stores it for future burnup calculations. The contribution of this work is the development of an improved version of TRIGSIMS, named TRIGSIMS-TH. TRIGSIMS-TH incorporates a thermal hydraulic module based on the advanced sub-channel code COBRA-TF (CTF). CTF provides the temperature feedback needed in the multi-physics calculations as well as the thermal hydraulics modeling capability of the reactor core. The temperature feedback model is using the CTF-provided local moderator and fuel temperatures for the cross-section modeling for ADMARC-H and MCNP calculations. To perform efficient critical control rod calculations, a methodology for applying a control rod position was implemented in TRIGSIMS-TH, making this code system a modeling and design tool for future core loadings. The new TRIGSIMS-TH is a computer program that interlinks various other functional reactor analysis tools. It consists of the MCNP5, ADMARC-H, ORIGEN-S, and CTF. CTF was coupled with both MCNP and ADMARC-H to provide the

  10. Differential Phosphorylation Provides a Switch to Control How α-Arrestin Rod1 Down-regulates Mating Pheromone Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Christopher G.; Aindow, Ann; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that initiate stimulus-dependent activation of cognate heterotrimeric G-proteins, triggering ensuing downstream cellular responses. Tight regulation of GPCR-evoked pathways is required because prolonged stimulation can be detrimental to an organism. Ste2, a GPCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that mediates response of MATa haploids to the peptide mating pheromone α-factor, is down-regulated by both constitutive and agonist-induced endocytosis. Efficient agonist-stimulated internalization of Ste2 requires its association with an adaptor protein, the α-arrestin Rod1/Art4, which recruits the HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, allowing for ubiquitinylation of the C-terminal tail of the receptor and its engagement by the clathrin-dependent endocytic machinery. We previously showed that dephosphorylation of Rod1 by calcineurin (phosphoprotein phosphatase 2B) is required for optimal Rod1 function in Ste2 down-regulation. We show here that negative regulation of Rod1 by phosphorylation is mediated by two distinct stress-activated protein kinases, Snf1/AMPK and Ypk1/SGK1, and demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that this phospho-regulation impedes the ability of Rod1 to promote mating pathway desensitization. These studies also revealed that, in the absence of its phosphorylation, Rod1 can promote adaptation independently of Rsp5-mediated receptor ubiquitinylation, consistent with recent evidence that α-arrestins can contribute to cargo recognition by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. However, in cells lacking a component (formin Bni1) required for clathrin-independent entry, Rod1 derivatives that are largely unphosphorylated and unable to associate with Rsp5 still promote efficient adaptation, indicating a third mechanism by which this α-arrestin promotes desensitization of the pheromone-response pathway. PMID:26920760

  11. Differential Phosphorylation Provides a Switch to Control How α-Arrestin Rod1 Down-regulates Mating Pheromone Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Christopher G; Aindow, Ann; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that initiate stimulus-dependent activation of cognate heterotrimeric G-proteins, triggering ensuing downstream cellular responses. Tight regulation of GPCR-evoked pathways is required because prolonged stimulation can be detrimental to an organism. Ste2, a GPCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that mediates response of MATa haploids to the peptide mating pheromone α-factor, is down-regulated by both constitutive and agonist-induced endocytosis. Efficient agonist-stimulated internalization of Ste2 requires its association with an adaptor protein, the α-arrestin Rod1/Art4, which recruits the HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, allowing for ubiquitinylation of the C-terminal tail of the receptor and its engagement by the clathrin-dependent endocytic machinery. We previously showed that dephosphorylation of Rod1 by calcineurin (phosphoprotein phosphatase 2B) is required for optimal Rod1 function in Ste2 down-regulation. We show here that negative regulation of Rod1 by phosphorylation is mediated by two distinct stress-activated protein kinases, Snf1/AMPK and Ypk1/SGK1, and demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that this phospho-regulation impedes the ability of Rod1 to promote mating pathway desensitization. These studies also revealed that, in the absence of its phosphorylation, Rod1 can promote adaptation independently of Rsp5-mediated receptor ubiquitinylation, consistent with recent evidence that α-arrestins can contribute to cargo recognition by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. However, in cells lacking a component (formin Bni1) required for clathrin-independent entry, Rod1 derivatives that are largely unphosphorylated and unable to associate with Rsp5 still promote efficient adaptation, indicating a third mechanism by which this α-arrestin promotes desensitization of the pheromone-response pathway.

  12. Carbon rod furnace infrared source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Blass, W. E.; Gailar, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    A carbon rod furnace infrared source has been built and has proven to be a reliable and trouble-free source despite the high rod temperature of 2500 K. The furnace offers several advantages over previous furnaces. These include an increase in usable rod length to 6.35 cm, extended rod life, and a fully automated power supply for the furnace. Construction and operational details are discussed.

  13. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  14. Calibration of a fuel relocation model in BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, L. P.; Williamson, R. L.; Perez, D. M.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate parameter calibration in the context of the BISON nuclear fuels performance analysis code. Specifically, we present the calibration of a parameter governing fuel relocation: the power level at which the relocation model is activated. This relocation activation parameter is a critical value in obtaining reasonable comparison with fuel centerline temperature measurements. It also is the subject of some debate in terms of the optimal values. We show that the optimal value does vary across the calibration to individual rods. We also demonstrate an aggregated calibration, where we calibrate to observations from six rods. (authors)

  15. Learning with Rods: One Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Donald Esha

    This paper discusses one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher's attempts to use cuisenaire rods as a language learning tool. Cuisenaire rods (sometimes called algebricks) vary in size from 1 x 1 x 10 centimeter sticks to 1 x 1 x 1 centimeter cubes, with each of the 10 sizes a different color. Although such rods have been used to teach…

  16. High-yield production of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Moresco, Jacob Lange; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib

    2011-06-01

    Hydrophobins are small fungal proteins with amphipatic properties and the ability to self-assemble on a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface; thus, many technical applications for hydrophobins have been suggested. The pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus expresses the hydrophobins RodA and RodB on the surface of its conidia. RodA is known to be of importance to the pathogenesis of the fungus, while the biological role of RodB is currently unknown. Here, we report the successful expression of both hydrophobins in Pichia pastoris and present fed-batch fermentation yields of 200-300 mg/l fermentation broth. Protein bands of expected sizes were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, and the identity was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Both proteins were purified using his-affinity chromatography, and the high level of purity was verified by silver-stained SDS-PAGE. Recombinant RodA as well as rRodB were able to convert a glass surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic similar to native RodA, but only rRodB was able to decrease the hydrophobicity of a Teflon-like surface to the same extent as native RodA, while rRodA showed this ability to a lesser extent. Recombinant RodA and native RodA showed a similar ability to emulsify air in water, while recombinant RodB could also emulsify oil in water better than the control protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). This is to our knowledge the first successful expression of hydrophobins from A. fumigatus in a eukaryote host, which makes it possible to further characterize both hydrophobins. Furthermore, the expression strategy and fed-batch production using P. pastoris may be transferred to hydrophobins from other species.

  17. Automatic exposure control calibration and optimisation for abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine imaging with an Agfa computed radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. S.; Wood, T. J.; Avery, G.; Balcam, S.; Needler, L.; Joshi, H.; Saunderson, J. R.; Beavis, A. W.

    2016-11-01

    The use of three physical image quality metrics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm) have recently been examined by our group for their appropriateness in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with an Agfa computed radiography (CR) imaging system. This study uses the same methodology but investigates AEC calibration for abdomen, pelvis and spine CR imaging. AEC calibration curves were derived using a simple uniform phantom (equivalent to 20 cm water) to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated abdomen, pelvis and spine images (created from real patient CT datasets) with appropriate detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves did not provide optimized performance but constant eNEQm and SNR did, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given that it is easier to measure in practice. This result was consistent with the previous investigation for chest imaging with AEC devices. Medical physicists may therefore use a simple and easily accessible uniform water equivalent phantom to measure the SNR image quality metric described here when calibrating AEC devices for abdomen, pelvis and spine imaging with Agfa CR systems, in the confidence that clinical image quality will be sufficient for the required clinical task. However, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma the advice of expert image evaluators must be sought.

  18. Automatic exposure control calibration and optimisation for abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine imaging with an Agfa computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L; Joshi, H; Saunderson, J R; Beavis, A W

    2016-11-07

    The use of three physical image quality metrics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm) have recently been examined by our group for their appropriateness in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with an Agfa computed radiography (CR) imaging system. This study uses the same methodology but investigates AEC calibration for abdomen, pelvis and spine CR imaging. AEC calibration curves were derived using a simple uniform phantom (equivalent to 20 cm water) to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated abdomen, pelvis and spine images (created from real patient CT datasets) with appropriate detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves did not provide optimized performance but constant eNEQm and SNR did, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given that it is easier to measure in practice. This result was consistent with the previous investigation for chest imaging with AEC devices. Medical physicists may therefore use a simple and easily accessible uniform water equivalent phantom to measure the SNR image quality metric described here when calibrating AEC devices for abdomen, pelvis and spine imaging with Agfa CR systems, in the confidence that clinical image quality will be sufficient for the required clinical task. However, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma the advice of expert image evaluators must be sought.

  19. Locked-wrap fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kaplan, Samuel; Chertock, Alan J.; Punches, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spacing fast reactor fuel rods using a wire wrapper improved by orienting the wire-wrapped fuel rods in a unique manner which introduces desirable performance characteristics not attainable by previous wire-wrapped designs. Use of this method in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor results in: (a) improved mechanical performance, (b) improved rod-to-rod contact, (c) reduced steel volume, and (d) improved thermal-hydraulic performance. The method produces a "locked wrap" design which tends to lock the rods together at each of the wire cluster locations.

  20. Improving focus performance at litho using diffraction-based focus metrology, novel calibration methods, interface, and control loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiarui; Chen, Y. L.; Chen, K. H.; Lee, Brian; Tsai, Frankie; Ke, C. M.; Liao, C. H.; Ngo, Desmond; Gosali, Benny; Tijssen, Robin; Huang, Vincent; Tu, Ward; Noot, Marc; Escalante Marun, Maryana; Leewis, Christian; Luijten, Carlo; Staals, Frank; Van Veen, Martijn; Furthner, Francois; Young, Stuart; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

    2016-03-01

    In advanced optical lithography the requirements of focus control continues to tighten. Usable depth of focus (DoF) is already quite low due to typical sources of focus errors, such as topography, wafer warpage and the thickness of photoresist. And now the usable DoF is further decreased by hotspots (design and imaging hotspots). All these have put extra challenges to improve focus metrology, scanner focus stability calibrations and on-product correction mechanisms. Asymmetric focus targets are developed to address robustness in focus measurements using diffraction-based focus (DBF and μDBF) metrology. A new layout specific calibration methodology is introduced for baseline focus setup and control in order to improve scanner focus uniformity and stability using the measurements of the above mentioned asymmetric targets. A similar metrology is also used for on product focus measurements. Moreover, a few novel alternative methods are also investigated for on-product focus measurements. Data shows good correlation between DBF and process on record (POR) method using traditional FEM. The new focus calibration demonstrated robustness, stability and speed. This technical publication will report the data from all the above activities including results from various product layers.

  1. Indication of BOLD-specific venous flow-volume changes from precisely controlled hyperoxic vs. hypercapnic calibration.

    PubMed

    Mark, Clarisse I; Pike, G Bruce

    2012-04-01

    Deriving cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals involves a flow-volume parameter (α), reflecting total cerebral blood volume changes, and a calibration constant (M). Traditionally, the former is assumed a fixed value and the latter is measured under alterations in fixed inspired fractional concentrations of carbon dioxide. We recently reported on reductions in M-variability via precise control of end-tidal pressures of both hypercapnic (HC) and hyperoxic (HO) gases. In light of these findings, our aim was to apply the improved calibration alternatives to neuronal activation, making use of their distinct vasoactive natures to evaluate the α-value. Nine healthy volunteers were imaged at 3 T while simultaneously measuring BOLD and arterial spin-labeling signals during controlled, graded, HC, and HO, followed by visual (VC) and sensorimotor cortices (SMC) activation. On the basis of low M- and CMRO(2)-variability, the comparison of these calibration alternatives accurately highlighted a reduced venous flow-volume relationship (α=0.16±0.02, with α(VC)=0.12±0.04, and α(SMC)=0.20±0.02), as appropriate for BOLD modeling.

  2. Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Mohammad K.; Da, Fang; Joo, Jungseock; Grinspun, Eitan; Reis, Pedro M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations toward developing predictive understanding of the coiling process. Both cases of deposition onto static and moving substrates are considered. We construct phase diagrams for the possible coiling patterns and characterize them as a function of the geometric and material properties of the rod, as well as the height and relative speeds of deployment. The modes selected and their characteristic length scales are found to arise from a complex interplay between gravitational, bending, and twisting energies of the rod, coupled to the geometric nonlinearities intrinsic to the large deformations. We give particular emphasis to the first sinusoidal mode of instability, which we find to be consistent with a Hopf bifurcation, and analyze the meandering wavelength and amplitude. Throughout, we systematically vary natural curvature of the rod as a control parameter, which has a qualitative and quantitative effect on the pattern formation, above a critical value that we determine. The universality conferred by the prominent role of geometry in the deformation modes of the rod suggests using the gained understanding as design guidelines, in the original applications that motivated the study. PMID:25267649

  3. Working-point control technique for the homodyne interferometry in hydrophone calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Xing, Guangzhen

    2015-02-01

    The stabilization of a homodyne type Michelson interferometer for calibrating the high frequency hydrophone is presented in this article. For the detection of the ultrasonic field, a 5 um thickness pellicle was inserted in water moving in sympathy with the ultrasonic wave. To ensure high signal to noise ratio at high frequencies, a 5 MHz focusing transducer was driven by high voltage and harmonics of the shocked ultrasonic field could be activated. Nevertheless, the homodyne interferometer suffered from the drawback of signal fading caused by the low frequency noise in environment, including acoustic noise and water surface agitation. Direct Current Phase Tracking was utilized to maintain the quadrature working point for the interferometer. Most of environmental noises could be effectively compensated while stabilization was maintained. A piezoelectric actuator supporting the reference mirror was utilized as the stabilizing element whose output was frequency independent over the low frequency disturbances, usually below 200 Hz. The ultrasonic signal fading caused by environmental disturbances could be solved while the negative electric feedback loop was operating. The displacement and voltage output of the hydrophone under test were then processed by DFT to derive the fundamental and harmonic components. Under plane wave conditions, the ultrasonic pressure could be derived by the detected displacement with a stabilized homodyne interferometer, and the hydrophone could then be calibrated. Measurement results indicated that the hydrophone calibration system based on the active stabilization of homodyne interferometry was sound in theory and feasible in practice.

  4. Volume calibration for nuclear materials control: ANSI N15.19-1989 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Liebetrau, A.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since the last IAEA International Safeguards Symposium, a revised standard for volume calibration methodology was issued in the United States. Because the new standard reflects the advent of high-precision volume measurement technology, it is significantly different from the earlier standard which it supersedes. The new standard outlines a unified data standardization model that applies to process tanks equipped with differential pressure measurement systems for determining liquid content. At the heart of the model is an algorithm to determine liquid height from pressure measurements that accounts for the major factors affecting the accuracy of those measurements. The standardization model also contains algorithms that adjust data from volumetric and gravimetric provers to a standard set of reference conditions. A key component of the standardization model is an algorithm to take account of temperature-induced dimensional changes in the tank. Improved methods for the statistical treatment of calibration data have also appeared since the last Safeguards Symposium. A statistical method of alignment has been introduced that employs a least-squares criterion to determine ``optimal`` alignment factors. More importantly, a statistical model has been proposed that yields plausible estimates of the variance of height and volume measurements when significant run-to-run differences are present in the calibration data. The new standardization model and statistical methods described here are being implemented in a portable, user-friendly software program for use by IAEA inspectors and statisticians. Perhaps these methods will eventually find their way into appropriate international standards.

  5. The evaluation of corrosion resistant rod end rolling element bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Braza, J.F.; Giuntoli, K.; Imundo, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    Recent developments on carburizing grades of stainless steels have provided new materials to produce corrosion resistant airframe control bearings. This paper presents the application of one of these new carburizing grades of stainless steel to rod end ball bearings. The outer ring of the rod end bearing is made out of carburized stainless steel, while the inner ring and balls are made out of through-hardened stainless steel. The stainless steel rod end bearings were evaluated according to various ASTM and Military specifications for performance and corrosion resistance. The stainless steel rod end bearings exceeded the performance requirements of standard rod end bearings (which are comprised of a carburized 8620 steel outer ring and 52100 steel inner ring and balls) in accordance with MIL-B-6039. The rod end bearings were evaluated in the radial fracture load, axial fracture load, and radial dynamic load tests. Also, salt spray and alternate immersion corrosion tests (ASTM B 117-85 and G 44-88, respectively) were conducted on the stainless steel rod end bearings. The stainless steel rod end bearings exhibited superior corrosion resistance to the standard 8620/52100 steel rod end bearings.

  6. Control over phase behavior and solution structure of hairy-rod polyfluorene by means of side-chain length and branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaapila, M.; Stepanyan, R.; Torkkeli, M.; Garamus, V. M.; Galbrecht, F.; Nehls, B. S.; Preis, E.; Scherf, U.; Monkman, A. P.

    2008-05-01

    We present guidelines on how the solution structure of π -conjugated hairy-rod polyfluorenes is controlled by the side-chain length and branching. First, the semiquantitative mean-field theory is formulated to predict the phase behavior of the system as a function of side-chain beads (N) . The phase transition at N=N∗ separates a lyotropic phase with solvent coexistence (NN∗) . The membrane phase transforms into the isotropic phase of dissolved rodlike polymers at the temperature Tmem∗(N) , which decreases both with N and with the degree of side-chain branching. This picture is complemented by polymer demixing with the transition temperature TIN∗(N) , which decreases with N . For NN∗ , stable membranes are predicted for TIN∗controlled by (9,9-dioctylfluorene)/(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene) (F8/F2/6) random copolymers. The proportion of F8 to F2/6 repeat units was 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 50:50, and 0:100. In accordance with the theory, lyotropic, membrane, and isotropic phases with the corresponding phase transitions were observed. For NN∗ . Tmem∗(N) decreases from 340 K to 280 K for N≥8 . For copolymers, the membrane phase is found when the fraction of F8 units is at least 90%, Tmem∗ decreasing with this fraction. The membrane phase contains three material types: loose sheets of two polymer layers, a better packed β phase, and dissolved polymer. For N≥7 and T

  7. Control over phase behavior and solution structure of hairy-rod polyfluorene by means of side-chain length and branching.

    PubMed

    Knaapila, M; Stepanyan, R; Torkkeli, M; Garamus, V M; Galbrecht, F; Nehls, B S; Preis, E; Scherf, U; Monkman, A P

    2008-05-01

    We present guidelines on how the solution structure of pi -conjugated hairy-rod polyfluorenes is controlled by the side-chain length and branching. First, the semiquantitative mean-field theory is formulated to predict the phase behavior of the system as a function of side-chain beads (N). The phase transition at N=N{ *} separates a lyotropic phase with solvent coexistence (NN{ *}). The membrane phase transforms into the isotropic phase of dissolved rodlike polymers at the temperature T_{mem}{ *}(N), which decreases both with N and with the degree of side-chain branching. This picture is complemented by polymer demixing with the transition temperature T_{IN}{ *}(N), which decreases with N . For NN{ *}, stable membranes are predicted for T_{IN}{ *}controlled by (9,9-dioctylfluorene)/(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene) (F8/F2/6) random copolymers. The proportion of F8 to F2/6 repeat units was 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 50:50, and 0:100. In accordance with the theory, lyotropic, membrane, and isotropic phases with the corresponding phase transitions were observed. For NN{ *}. T_{mem}{ *}(N) decreases from 340 K to 280 K for N > or = 8 . For copolymers, the membrane phase is found when the fraction of F8 units is at least 90%, T_{mem}{ *} decreasing with this fraction. The membrane phase contains three material types: loose sheets of two polymer layers, a better packed beta phase, and dissolved polymer. For N > or = 7 and T

  8. WE-D-9A-06: Open Source Monitor Calibration and Quality Control Software for Enterprise Display Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bevins, N; Vanderhoek, M; Lang, S; Flynn, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Medical display monitor calibration and quality control present challenges to medical physicists. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate and share experiences with an open source package that allows for both initial monitor setup and routine performance evaluation. Methods: A software package, pacsDisplay, has been developed over the last decade to aid in the calibration of all monitors within the radiology group in our health system. The software is used to calibrate monitors to follow the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) via lookup tables installed on the workstation. Additional functionality facilitates periodic evaluations of both primary and secondary medical monitors to ensure satisfactory performance. This software is installed on all radiology workstations, and can also be run as a stand-alone tool from a USB disk. Recently, a database has been developed to store and centralize the monitor performance data and to provide long-term trends for compliance with internal standards and various accrediting organizations. Results: Implementation and utilization of pacsDisplay has resulted in improved monitor performance across the health system. Monitor testing is now performed at regular intervals and the software is being used across multiple imaging modalities. Monitor performance characteristics such as maximum and minimum luminance, ambient luminance and illuminance, color tracking, and GSDF conformity are loaded into a centralized database for system performance comparisons. Compliance reports for organizations such as MQSA, ACR, and TJC are generated automatically and stored in the same database. Conclusion: An open source software solution has simplified and improved the standardization of displays within our health system. This work serves as an example method for calibrating and testing monitors within an enterprise health system.

  9. Crystal phase-controlled synthesis of rod-shaped AgInTe2 nanocrystals for in vivo imaging in the near-infrared wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, Tatsuya; Ishigami, Yujiro; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Shimada, Taisuke; Baba, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kuwabata, Susumu; Torimoto, Tsukasa

    2016-03-01

    Rod-shaped AgInTe2 nanocrystals (NCs) exhibiting intense near-band edge photoluminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region, were successfully prepared by the thermal reaction of metal acetates and Te precursors in 1-dodecanethiol. Increasing the reaction temperature resulted in the formation of larger AgInTe2 NCs with crystal structures varying from hexagonal to tetragonal at reaction temperatures of 280 °C or higher. The energy gap was increased from 1.13 to 1.20 eV with a decrease in rod width from 8.3 to 5.6 nm, accompanied by a blue shift in the photoluminescence (PL) peak wavelength from 1097 to 1033 nm. The optimal PL quantum yield was approximately 18% for AgInTe2 NCs with rod widths of 5.6 nm. The applicability of AgInTe2 NCs as a NIR-emitting material for in vivo biological imaging was examined by injecting AgInTe2 NC-incorporated liposomes into the back of a C57BL/6 mouse, followed by in vivo photoluminescence imaging in the NIR region.Rod-shaped AgInTe2 nanocrystals (NCs) exhibiting intense near-band edge photoluminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region, were successfully prepared by the thermal reaction of metal acetates and Te precursors in 1-dodecanethiol. Increasing the reaction temperature resulted in the formation of larger AgInTe2 NCs with crystal structures varying from hexagonal to tetragonal at reaction temperatures of 280 °C or higher. The energy gap was increased from 1.13 to 1.20 eV with a decrease in rod width from 8.3 to 5.6 nm, accompanied by a blue shift in the photoluminescence (PL) peak wavelength from 1097 to 1033 nm. The optimal PL quantum yield was approximately 18% for AgInTe2 NCs with rod widths of 5.6 nm. The applicability of AgInTe2 NCs as a NIR-emitting material for in vivo biological imaging was examined by injecting AgInTe2 NC-incorporated liposomes into the back of a C57BL/6 mouse, followed by in vivo photoluminescence imaging in the NIR region. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  10. Estimation of rod scale errors in geodetic leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craymer, Michael R.; Vaníček, Petr; Castle, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons among repeated geodetic levelings have often been used for detecting and estimating residual rod scale errors in leveled heights. Individual rod-pair scale errors are estimated by a two-step procedure using a model based on either differences in heights, differences in section height differences, or differences in section tilts. It is shown that the estimated rod-pair scale errors derived from each model are identical only when the data are correctly weighted, and the mathematical correlations are accounted for in the model based on heights. Analyses based on simple regressions of changes in height versus height can easily lead to incorrect conclusions. We also show that the statistically estimated scale errors are not a simple function of height, height difference, or tilt. The models are valid only when terrain slope is constant over adjacent pairs of setups (i.e., smoothly varying terrain). In order to discriminate between rod scale errors and vertical displacements due to crustal motion, the individual rod-pairs should be used in more than one leveling, preferably in areas of contrasting tectonic activity. From an analysis of 37 separately calibrated rod-pairs used in 55 levelings in southern California, we found eight statistically significant coefficients that could be reasonably attributed to rod scale errors, only one of which was larger than the expected random error in the applied calibration-based scale correction. However, significant differences with other independent checks indicate that caution should be exercised before accepting these results as evidence of scale error. Further refinements of the technique are clearly needed if the results are to be routinely applied in practice.

  11. Calibration of liquid crystal ultrafast pulse shaper with common-path spectral interferometry and application to coherent control with a covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Schlup, Philip; Lunacek, Monte; Whitley, Darrell; Bartels, Randy A.

    2008-03-01

    An ultrafast pulse shaper for coherent control applications is described, complete with a simple, reliable calibration technique and an advanced learning control algorithm. The calibration technique makes use of a common-path interferometer, producing less noisy measurements than a conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy (ES) is demonstrated to perform better than a traditional ES for high-dimensional search landscapes.

  12. Analysis of the in-vessel control rod guide tube and subpile room shielding design for the advanced neutron source reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F.X.; Bucholz, J.A.; Engle, W.W. Jr.; Williams, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    An extensive sheilding analysis of the control rod guide tube (CRGT) and the subpile room was performed for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. A two-dimensional model for the CRGT and subpile room was developed. Coupled 39 neutron group and 44 gamma group calculations with the multigroup DORT discrete originates transport code were done using cross sections from the ANSL-V library including photoneutron production. Different shield designs were investigated with a shield thickness of 10 to 15 mm. None of the shields affected the neutron dose rate and gamma dose rate at the top of the subpile room, which were 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 5} mrem/h and 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 3} mrem/h, respectively. An L-shaped cylindrical boral shield positioned around the core pressure boundary tube at the bottom of the reflector vessel with the horizontal part extended over the whole bottom of the reflector vessel reduced the maximal displacements per atom (DPA) level and helium production level in the primary coolant supply adapter and its flange after 40 years of reactor operation from 1 and 500 appm to 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} and 2 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} appm compared with the unshielded arrangement. Shields of boral and hafnium with the horizontal part of the shield restricted to a radius of 485 mm gave a maximal DPA of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -2} and a helium production of up to 20 appm. Heat loads of up to 70 W{center_dot}cm{sup -3} were calculated at the most exposed parts of the shield both for boral and hafnium shields. A depletion/activation analysis of the hafnium shield showed that at the most exposed part of the shield, the naturally occurring isotope {sup 177}Hf is 34% depleted at the end of two years of reactor operation. This high burnup is somewhat balanced by a subsequent buildup of {sup 178}Hf, {sup 179}Hf, and {sup 180}Hf. In all other parts of the shield, the burnup is much smaller.

  13. Improvement in Jc performance below liquid nitrogen temperature for SmBa2Cu3Oy superconducting films with BaHfO3 nano-rods controlled by low-temperature growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Ichino, Y.; Xu, Q.; Matsumoto, K.; Ichinose, A.; Awaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    For use in high-magnetic-field coil-based applications, the critical current density (Jc) of REBa2Cu3Oy (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) coated conductors must be isotropically improved, with respect to the direction of the magnetic field; these improvements must be realized at the operating conditions of these applications. In this study, improvement of the Jc for various applied directions of magnetic field was achieved by controlling the morphology of the BaHfO3 (BHO) nano-rods in a SmBCO film. We fabricated the 3.0 vol. % BHO-doped SmBCO film at a low growth temperature of 720 °C, by using a seed layer technique (Ts = 720 °C film). The low-temperature growth resulted in a morphological change in the BHO nano-rods. In fact, a high number density of (3.1 ± 0.1) × 103 μm-2 of small (diameter: 4 ± 1 nm), discontinuous nano-rods that grew in various directions, was obtained. In Jc measurements, the Jc of the Ts = 720 °C film in all directions of the applied magnetic field was higher than that of the non-doped SmBCO film. The Jcmin (6.4 MA/cm2) of the former was more than 6 times higher than that (1.0 MA/cm2) of the latter at 40 K, under 3 T. The aforementioned results indicated that the discontinuous BHO nano-rods, which occurred with a high number density, exerted a 3D-like flux pinning at the measurement conditions considered. Moreover, at 4.2 K and under 17 T, a flux pinning force density of 1.6 TN/m3 was realized; this value was comparable to the highest value recorded, to date.

  14. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  15. Cone rod dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Christian P

    2007-01-01

    Cone rod dystrophies (CRDs) (prevalence 1/40,000) are inherited retinal dystrophies that belong to the group of pigmentary retinopathies. CRDs are characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination, predominantly localized to the macular region. In contrast to typical retinitis pigmentosa (RP), also called the rod cone dystrophies (RCDs) resulting from the primary loss in rod photoreceptors and later followed by the secondary loss in cone photoreceptors, CRDs reflect the opposite sequence of events. CRD is characterized by primary cone involvement, or, sometimes, by concomitant loss of both cones and rods that explains the predominant symptoms of CRDs: decreased visual acuity, color vision defects, photoaversion and decreased sensitivity in the central visual field, later followed by progressive loss in peripheral vision and night blindness. The clinical course of CRDs is generally more severe and rapid than that of RCDs, leading to earlier legal blindness and disability. At end stage, however, CRDs do not differ from RCDs. CRDs are most frequently non syndromic, but they may also be part of several syndromes, such as Bardet Biedl syndrome and Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 (SCA7). Non syndromic CRDs are genetically heterogeneous (ten cloned genes and three loci have been identified so far). The four major causative genes involved in the pathogenesis of CRDs are ABCA4 (which causes Stargardt disease and also 30 to 60% of autosomal recessive CRDs), CRX and GUCY2D (which are responsible for many reported cases of autosomal dominant CRDs), and RPGR (which causes about 2/3 of X-linked RP and also an undetermined percentage of X-linked CRDs). It is likely that highly deleterious mutations in genes that otherwise cause RP or macular dystrophy may also lead to CRDs. The diagnosis of CRDs is based on clinical history, fundus examination and electroretinogram. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, genetic counseling is always advised. Currently

  16. Bond of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) rods to concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Zahrani, M.M.; Nanni, A.; Al-Dulaijan, S.U.; Bakis, C.E.

    1996-11-01

    The bond behavior between FRP rods and concrete is one of the most important aspects to predicting the short- and long-term performance of FRP reinforced concrete structures including development and transfer length. In this research, the direct pull-out test was used to study the FRP/concrete bond behavior. This method allows measurement of the loaded- and free-end slip of the FRP rod and placement of a strain probe inside the rod to measure internal strain distribution in both axial and radial directions along the bonded length without affecting the FRP/concrete interface. Knowledge of strain distribution is necessary to study the load transfer mechanism between FRP rod and concrete. The scope of this paper include experimental results obtained with the direct pull-out test using 12.7 mm glass and carbon FRP rods with smooth and axisymmetrical deformed surfaces. The typical results are given as nominal bond and shear stress vs. free- and loaded-end slip. Experimental results obtained from strain probes used during pull-out tests are also presented as nominal bond and shear stress vs. strain. For smooth rods, friction is the main controlling factor. For deformed rods, bond tends to be controlled by strength and mechanical action of the axisymmetrical deformations rather than adhesion and friction. The strength of concrete appears to have no effect on the bond strength and failure mechanism of these particular machined FRP rods when concrete splitting is avoided.

  17. Station to instrumented aircraft L-band telemetry system and RF signal controller for spacecraft simulations and station calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scaffidi, C. A.; Stocklin, F. J.; Feldman, M. B.

    1971-01-01

    An L-band telemetry system designed to provide the capability of near-real-time processing of calibration data is described. The system also provides the capability of performing computerized spacecraft simulations, with the aircraft as a data source, and evaluating the network response. The salient characteristics of a telemetry analysis and simulation program (TASP) are discussed, together with the results of TASP testing. The results of the L-band system testing have successfully demonstrated the capability of near-real-time processing of telemetry test data, the control of the ground-received signal to within + or - 0.5 db, and the computer generation of test signals.

  18. Correlated and uncorrelated invisible temporal white noise alters mesopic rod signaling.

    PubMed

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Kremers, Jan; Zele, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    We determined how rod signaling at mesopic light levels is altered by extrinsic temporal white noise that is correlated or uncorrelated with the activity of one (magnocellular, parvocellular, or koniocellular) postreceptoral pathway. Rod and cone photoreceptor excitations were independently controlled using a four-primary photostimulator. Psychometric (Weibull) functions were measured for incremental rod pulses (50 to 250 ms) in the presence (or absence; control) of perceptually invisible subthreshold extrinsic noise. Uncorrelated (rod) noise facilitates rod detection. Correlated postreceptoral pathway noise produces differential changes in rod detection thresholds and decreases the slope of the psychometric functions. We demonstrate that invisible extrinsic noise changes rod-signaling characteristics within the three retinogeniculate pathways at mesopic illumination depending on the temporal profile of the rod stimulus and the extrinsic noise type.

  19. Novel calibration tools and validation concepts for microarray-based platforms used in molecular diagnostics and food safety control.

    PubMed

    Brunner, C; Hoffmann, K; Thiele, T; Schedler, U; Jehle, H; Resch-Genger, U

    2015-04-01

    Commercial platforms consisting of ready-to-use microarrays printed with target-specific DNA probes, a microarray scanner, and software for data analysis are available for different applications in medical diagnostics and food analysis, detecting, e.g., viral and bacteriological DNA sequences. The transfer of these tools from basic research to routine analysis, their broad acceptance in regulated areas, and their use in medical practice requires suitable calibration tools for regular control of instrument performance in addition to internal assay controls. Here, we present the development of a novel assay-adapted calibration slide for a commercialized DNA-based assay platform, consisting of precisely arranged fluorescent areas of various intensities obtained by incorporating different concentrations of a "green" dye and a "red" dye in a polymer matrix. These dyes present "Cy3" and "Cy5" analogues with improved photostability, chosen based upon their spectroscopic properties closely matching those of common labels for the green and red channel of microarray scanners. This simple tool allows to efficiently and regularly assess and control the performance of the microarray scanner provided with the biochip platform and to compare different scanners. It will be eventually used as fluorescence intensity scale for referencing of assays results and to enhance the overall comparability of diagnostic tests.

  20. Controlling morphology and optical properties of self-catalyzed, mask-free GaN rods and nanorods by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarek, C.; Bashouti, M.; Heilmann, M.; Dieker, C.; Knoke, I.; Spiecker, E.; Christiansen, S.

    2013-10-01

    A simple self-catalyzed and mask-free approach will be presented to grow GaN rods and nanorods based on the metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy technique. The growth parameter dependent adjustment of the morphology of the structures will be discussed. Rods and nanorods with diameters reaching from a few μm down to 100 nm, heights up to 48 μm, and densities up to 8ṡ107 cm-2 are all vertically aligned with respect to the sample surface and exhibiting a hexagonal shape with smooth sidewall facets. Optical properties of GaN nanorods were determined using cathodoluminescence. It will be shown that the optical properties can be improved just by reducing the Ga precursor flow. Furthermore, for regular hexagonal shaped rods and nanorods, whispering gallery modes with quality factors up to 500 were observed by cathodoluminescence pointing out high morphological quality of the structures. Structural investigations using transmission electron microscopy show that larger GaN nanorods (diameter > 500 nm) contain threading dislocations in the bottom part and vertical inversion domain boundaries, which separate a Ga-polar core from a N-polar shell. In contrast, small GaN nanorods (˜200 nm) are largely free of such extended defects. Finally, evidence for a self-catalyzed, Ga-induced vapor-liquid-solid growth will be discussed.

  1. Integrated control of transporter endocytosis and recycling by the arrestin-related protein Rod1 and the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5

    PubMed Central

    Becuwe, Michel; Léon, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    After endocytosis, membrane proteins can recycle to the cell membrane or be degraded in lysosomes. Cargo ubiquitylation favors their lysosomal targeting and can be regulated by external signals, but the mechanism is ill-defined. Here, we studied the post-endocytic trafficking of Jen1, a yeast monocarboxylate transporter, using microfluidics-assisted live-cell imaging. We show that the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 and the glucose-regulated arrestin-related trafficking adaptors (ART) protein Rod1, involved in the glucose-induced internalization of Jen1, are also required for the post-endocytic sorting of Jen1 to the yeast lysosome. This new step takes place at the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where Rod1 localizes dynamically upon triggering endocytosis. Indeed, transporter trafficking to the TGN after internalization is required for their degradation. Glucose removal promotes Rod1 relocalization to the cytosol and Jen1 deubiquitylation, allowing transporter recycling when the signal is only transient. Therefore, nutrient availability regulates transporter fate through the localization of the ART/Rsp5 ubiquitylation complex at the TGN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03307.001 PMID:25380227

  2. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  3. Experimental analysis of liquid-metal reactor scram rod kinematic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, F. D.; Kondrashov, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    This article represents the results of computational and experimental research of liquid-metal research reactor control rod kinematics. In this research liquid-metal coolant (sodium) was simulated by water. Investigation of control rod scram-mode movement duration and investigation of velocity of movable parts near the bump of damper are the purposes of this research. Also mathematic simulation of control rod movement in scram mode was performed. Computational results for some modes of water circulation comply with experimental results well. Results of this work will be used for tests of scram rod drive of above-named research reactor. It will significantly simplify the scram rod drive testing stand construction.

  4. Active Brownian rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruani, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria, chemically-driven rods, and motility assays are examples of active (i.e. self-propelled) Brownian rods (ABR). The physics of ABR, despite their ubiquity in experimental systems, remains still poorly understood. Here, we review the large-scale properties of collections of ABR moving in a dissipative medium. We address the problem by presenting three different models, of decreasing complexity, which we refer to as model I, II, and III, respectively. Comparing model I, II, and III, we disentangle the role of activity and interactions. In particular, we learn that in two dimensions by ignoring steric or volume exclusion effects, large-scale nematic order seems to be possible, while steric interactions prevent the formation of orientational order at large scales. The macroscopic behavior of ABR results from the interplay between active stresses and local alignment. ABR exhibit, depending on where we locate ourselves in parameter space, a zoology of macroscopic patterns that ranges from polar and nematic bands to dynamic aggregates.

  5. Investigating the optical XNOR gate using plasmonic nano-rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Majid; Kaboli, Milad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a coherent perfect absorption (CPA)-type XNOR gate based on plasmonic nano particle is proposed. It consists of two plasmonic nano rod arrays on top of two parallel arms with quartz substrate. The operation principle is based on the absorbable formation of a conductive path in the dielectric layer of a plasmonic nano-particles waveguide. Since the CPA efficiency depends strongly on the number of plasmonic nano-rod and the nano rod location, an efficient binary optimization method based the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to design an optimized array of the plasmonic nano-rod in order to achieve the maximum absorption coefficient in the 'off' state and the minimum absorption coefficient in the 'on' state. In Binary PSO (BPSO), a group of birds consists a matrix with binary entries, control the presence ('1‧) or the absence ('0‧) of nano rod in the array.

  6. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration.

  7. Rod Microglia: A Morphological Definition

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Samuel E.; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Brain microglial morphology relates to function, with ramified microglia surveying the micro-environment and amoeboid microglia engulfing debris. One subgroup of microglia, rod microglia, have been observed in a number of pathological conditions, however neither a function nor specific morphology has been defined. Historically, rod microglia have been described intermittently as cells with a sausage-shaped soma and long, thin processes, which align adjacent to neurons. More recently, our group has described rod microglia aligning end-to-end with one another to form trains adjacent to neuronal processes. Confusion in the literature regarding rod microglia arises from some reports referring to the sausage-shaped cell body, while ignoring the spatial distribution of processes. Here, we systematically define the morphological characteristics of rod microglia that form after diffuse brain injury in the rat, which differ morphologically from the spurious rod microglia found in uninjured sham. Rod microglia in the diffuse-injured rat brain show a ratio of 1.79±0.03 cell length∶cell width at day 1 post-injury, which increases to 3.35±0.05 at day 7, compared to sham (1.17±0.02). The soma length∶width differs only at day 7 post-injury (2.92±0.07 length∶width), compared to sham (2.49±0.05). Further analysis indicated that rod microglia may not elongate in cell length but rather narrow in cell width, and retract planar (side) processes. These morphological characteristics serve as a tool for distinguishing rod microglia from other morphologies. The function of rod microglia remains enigmatic; based on morphology we propose origins and functions for rod microglia after acute neurological insult, which may provide biomarkers or therapeutic targets. PMID:24830807

  8. System for fuel rod removal from a reactor module

    DOEpatents

    Matchett, Richard L.; Roof, David R.; Kikta, Thomas J.; Wilczynski, Rosemarie; Nilsen, Roy J.; Bacvinskas, William S.; Fodor, George

    1990-01-01

    A robotic system for remote underwater withdrawal of the fuel rods from fuel modules of a light water breeder reactor includes a collet/grapple assembly for gripping and removing fuel rods in each module, which is positioned by use of a winch and a radial support means attached to a vertical support tube which is mounted over the fuel module. A programmable logic controller in conjunction with a microcomputer, provides control for the accurate positioning and pulling force of the rod grapple assembly. Closed circuit television cameras are provided which aid in operator interface with the robotic system.

  9. System for fuel rod removal from a reactor module

    DOEpatents

    Matchett, R.L.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Bacvinsicas, W.S.; Roof, D.R.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1988-07-28

    A robotic system for remote underwater withdrawal of the fuel rods from fuel modules of a light water breeder reactor includes a collet/grapple assembly for gripping and removing fuel rods in each module, which is positioned by use of a winch and a radial support means attached to a vertical support tube which is mounted over the fuel module. A programmable logic controller in conjunction with a microcomputer, provides control for the accurate positioning and pulling force of the rod grapple assembly. Closed circuit television cameras are provided which aid in operator interface with the robotic system. 7 figs.

  10. 26. A typical outer rod room, or rack room, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A typical outer rod room, or rack room, showing the racks for the nine horizontal control rods (HCRs) that would be inserted or withdrawn from the pile to control the rate of reaction. In this case, it is the 105-F Reactor in February 1945. The view is looking away from the pile, which is out of the picture on the left. Several of the cooling water hose reels for the rods can be seen at the end of the racks near the wall. D-8323 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  11. Cuisenaire Rods Go to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Phyllis; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents examples of questions and answers arising from a hands-on and exploratory approach to discrete mathematics using cuisenaire rods. Combinatorial questions about trains formed of cuisenaire rods provide the setting for discovering numerical patterns by experimentation and organizing the results using induction and successive differences.…

  12. Sucker rod pump

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a subsurface well pump, it comprises: a working barrel; a plunger which reciprocates along the vertical axis within the working barrel between an upper and lower position; a rod connected to the plunger and extending to a means for providing reciprocating force; a well string extending from the top of the working barrel to the surface; an outlet check valve which permits flow to exit the working barrel into the well string and does not permit flow to exit the well string into the working barrel; and an inlet check valve which permits flow into the working barrel from outside of the subsurface pump, the inlet check valve being above the top position of the plunger, the inlet check valve having a cross sectional flow area about equal to or greater than the horizontal cross sectional area of the working barrel, and the inlet check valve being a hinged flapper valve.

  13. Portable near-infrared instruments: Application for quality control of polymorphs in pharmaceutical raw materials and calibration transfer.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vitor Hugo; da Silva, Jailson José; Pereira, Claudete Fernandes

    2017-02-05

    This work presents an evaluation of the analytical performance of three different portable near-infrared (NIR) instruments (denominated Port.1, Port.2 and Port.3) for quantifying mebendazole polymorphs (A, B and C) in pharmaceutical raw materials using multivariate calibration models. The performance of the portable instruments was compared with a benchtop one (FT-NIR Frontier spectrometer). In addition, calibration transfer between the benchtop and one of the portable instruments was also performed. For polymorph A, the Port.1 presented the lowest RMSEP value (1.01% w/w) even when compared to the FT-NIR instrument. For polymorphs B and C, the same Port.1 instrument presented RMSEP values of 2.09% w/w and 2.41% w/w, respectively, which were statistically similar to those obtained with the benchtop instrument. The LOD ranges (3.9-5.5 for polymorph A, 3.6-5.1 for polymorph B and 5.7-7.7 for polymorph C) obtained with the Port.1 was higher than those achieved with the benchtop NIR instrument, with high spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and better wavelength reproducibility. Calibration transfer was performed between the benchtop NIR and Port.1 instruments. According to the results, the transferability of models is possible. The results obtained for complete recalibration of the portable instrument and those for the benchtop are comparable. The methods developed demonstrated a flexible, easy, cheap and fast way for quality control of MBZ polymorphs in incoming material, mainly in pharmaceutical laboratory chains.

  14. Development of a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer for non-destructive analysis of isotope ratios in irradiated B4C pellets--Test measurements on an unirradiated control rod pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoravi, P.; Joseph, M.; Sivakumar, N.

    2008-09-01

    A laser mass spectrometric facility is developed using a home-built reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS) to analyze the boron isotopic ratio 10B/11B in the irradiated B4C pellets of the FBTR control rod. Compared to other mass spectrometry-based methods, the present method is practically non-destructive and makes it relatively easier to handle irradiated (radioactive) B4C pellets through remote operation. The results with inactive samples indicate that the method yields 10B percentage values, accurate to within ±1%.

  15. Comparing Single Versus Double Screw-Rod Anterior Instrumentation for Treating Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures with Incomplete Neurological Deficit: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Wang, Juan; Shao, Gaohai; Wang, Qunbo; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Following a thoracolumbar burst fracture (TCBF), anterior screw-rods apply pressure upon the graft site. However, there is limited evidence comparing single screw-rod anterior instrumentation (SSRAI) to double screw-rod anterior instrumentation (DSRAI) for TCBFs. Our objective was to compare SSRAI versus DSRAI for TCBFs with incomplete neurological deficit. Material/Methods A total of 51 participants with T11-L2 TCBFs (AO classification: A3) were randomly assigned to receive SSRAI or DSRAI. Key preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the independent factors associated with inferior clinical outcomes, as well as the comparative efficacy of SSRAI and DSRAI. Results There were no significant differences in the key demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups (all p>0.05). Smoking status was significantly associated with inferior three-month and six-month Denis pain scores (Wald statistic=4.246, p=0.039). Both SSRAI and DSRAI were significantly effective in improving three-month and six-month postoperative degree of kyphosis, three-month and six-month postoperative ASIA impairment scale scores, three-month and six-month postoperative Denis pain score, and three-month and six-month postoperative Denis work score (all p<0.001). Although there were no significant differences between DSRAI and SSRAI with respect to all outcomes (all p>0.05), DSRAI displayed significantly longer operating times, as well as significantly larger operative blood losses (both p<0.001). Conclusions SSRAI may be preferable over DSRAI for TCBFs with incomplete neurological deficit due to its lower operating time and amount of operative blood loss. PMID:27197020

  16. Experiments with a falling rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vitor

    2016-02-01

    We study the motion of a uniform thin rod released from rest, with the bottom end initially in contact with a horizontal surface. Our focus here is the motion of the bottom end as the rod falls. For small angles of release with respect to the horizontal, the rod falls without the bottom end slipping. For larger angles, the slipping direction depends on the static friction coefficient between the rod and the horizontal surface. Small friction coefficients cause the end to slip initially in one direction and then in the other, while for high coefficients, the end slips in one direction only. For intermediate values, depending on the angle of release, both situations can occur. We find the initial slipping direction to depend on a relation between the angle at which the rod slips, and a critical angle at which the frictional force vanishes. Comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations shows good agreement.

  17. Topological mixing with ghost rods.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Finn, Matthew D

    2006-03-01

    Topological chaos relies on the periodic motion of obstacles in a two-dimensional flow in order to form nontrivial braids. This motion generates exponential stretching of material lines, and hence efficient mixing. Boyland, Aref, and Stremler [J. Fluid Mech. 403, 277 (2000)] have studied a specific periodic motion of rods that exhibits topological chaos in a viscous fluid. We show that it is possible to extend their work to cases where the motion of the stirring rods is topologically trivial by considering the dynamics of special periodic points that we call "ghost rods", because they play a similar role to stirring rods. The ghost rods framework provides a new technique for quantifying chaos and gives insight into the mechanisms that produce chaos and mixing. Numerical simulations for Stokes flow support our results.

  18. Light-controlled one-sided growth of large plasmonic gold domains on quantum rods observed on the single particle level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Luigi; Jakab, Arpad; Khalavka, Yuriy; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2010-02-01

    We create large gold domains (up to 15 nm) exclusively on one side of CdS or CdSe/CdS quantum rods by photoreduction of gold ions under anaerobic conditions. Electrons generated in the semiconductor by UV stimulation migrate to one tip where they reduce gold ions. Large gold domains eventually form; these support efficient plasmon oscillations with a light scattering cross section large enough to visualize single hybrid particles in a dark-field microscope during growth in real time.

  19. The sROD module for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase-II Upgrade Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A.; Fiorini, L.; Hernández, Y.; Higón, E.; Mellado, B.; March, L.; Moreno, P.; Reed, R.; Solans, C.; Valero, A.; Valls, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The main upgrade of the LHC to increase the instantaneous luminosity is scheduled for 2022. The High Luminosity LHC, also called upgrade Phase-II, will imply a complete redesign of the read-out electronics in TileCal. In the new read-out architecture, the front-end electronics aims to transmit full digitized information to the back-end system in the counting rooms. Thus, the back-end system will also provide digital calibrated information with enhanced precision and granularity to the first level trigger to improve the trigger efficiencies. The demonstrator project is envisaged to qualify this new proposed architecture. A reduced part of the detector, 1/256 of the total, will be equipped with the new electronics during 2014 to evaluate the proposed architecture in real conditions. The upgraded Read-Out Driver (sROD) will be the core element of the back-end electronics in Phase-II. The sROD module is designed on a double mid-size AMC format and will operate under an AdvancedTCA framework. The module includes two Xilinx Series 7 Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for data receiving and processing, as well as the implementation of embedded systems. Related to optical connectors, the sROD uses 4 QSFPs to receive and transmit data from the front-end electronics and 1 Avago MiniPOD to send preprocessed data to the first level trigger system. An SFP module maintains the compatibility with the existing hardware. A complete description of the sROD module for the demonstrator including the main functionalities, circuit design and the control software and firmware will be presented.

  20. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 38; SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Quality Control Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); McClain, Charles R.; Darzi, Michael; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E.; Firestone, James K.; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Schieber, Brian D.; hide

    1996-01-01

    This document provides five brief reports that address several quality control procedures under the auspices of the Calibration and Validation Element (CVE) within the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project. Chapter 1 describes analyses of the 32 sensor engineering telemetry streams. Anomalies in any of the values may impact sensor performance in direct or indirect ways. The analyses are primarily examinations of parameter time series combined with statistical methods such as auto- and cross-correlation functions. Chapter 2 describes how the various onboard (solar and lunar) and vicarious (in situ) calibration data will be analyzed to quantify sensor degradation, if present. The analyses also include methods for detecting the influence of charged particles on sensor performance such as might be expected in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Chapter 3 discusses the quality control of the ancillary environmental data that are routinely received from other agencies or projects which are used in the atmospheric correction algorithm (total ozone, surface wind velocity, and surface pressure; surface relative humidity is also obtained, but is not used in the initial operational algorithm). Chapter 4 explains the procedures for screening level-, level-2, and level-3 products. These quality control operations incorporate both automated and interactive procedures which check for file format errors (all levels), navigation offsets (level-1), mask and flag performance (level-2), and product anomalies (all levels). Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the match-up data set development for comparing SeaWiFS level-2 derived products with in situ observations, as well as the subsequent outlier analyses that will be used for evaluating error sources.

  1. Controlling mode instabilities at 628 W average output power in an Yb-doped rod-type fiber amplifier by active modulation of the pump power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stihler, Christoph; Jauregui, Cesar; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The phenomenon of transverse mode instabilities (TMI) is currently the most limiting effect for the scaling of the average output power of fiber laser systems with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality. Thus, it is of high interest to develop efficient mitigation strategies to further enhance the performance of fiber laser systems. By actively modulating the pump power of an Yb-doped rod-type fiber amplifier, it was possible to weaken the thermally-induced refractive index grating along the fiber and, thus, to mitigate TMI to a large extent. A significant advantage of this approach is that it can be easily integrated in any existing fiber-laser system since no further optical components are needed. A function generator connected to the pump diode driver was used to achieve the modulation. With this setup we were able to extract a fully stabilized beam at 1.5 times above the TMI threshold. Furthermore, a stabilization of the beam was still feasible at an average output power of 628 W, which is more than three times higher than the free-running TMI threshold of that particular fiber under identical conditions (e.g. seed power). This is the highest average output power reported from a single-channel rod-type fiber amplifier with a high-quality stabilized beam, to the best of our knowledge.

  2. A Novel Real-Time Path Servo Control of a Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Large-Stroke Asymmetric Rod-Less Pneumatic System under Variable Loads

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hao-Ting

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to develop a novel large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system of a hardware-in-the-loop for path tracking control under variable loads based on the MATLAB Simulink real-time system. High pressure compressed air provided by the air compressor is utilized for the pneumatic proportional servo valve to drive the large stroke asymmetric rod-less pneumatic actuator. Due to the pressure differences between two chambers, the pneumatic actuator will operate. The highly nonlinear mathematical models of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic system were analyzed and developed. The functional approximation technique based on the sliding mode controller (FASC) is developed as a controller to solve the uncertain time-varying nonlinear system. The MATLAB Simulink real-time system was a main control unit of a hardware-in-the-loop system proposed to establish driver blocks for analog and digital I/O, a linear encoder, a CPU and a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic rod-less system. By the position sensor, the position signals of the cylinder will be measured immediately. The measured signals will be viewed as the feedback signals of the pneumatic servo system for the study of real-time positioning control and path tracking control. Finally, real-time control of a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system with measuring system, a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system, data acquisition system and the control strategy software will be implemented. Thus, upgrading the high position precision and the trajectory tracking performance of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system will be realized to promote the high position precision and path tracking capability. Experimental results show that fifth order paths in various strokes and the sine wave path are successfully implemented in the test rig. Also, results of variable loads under the different angle were implemented experimentally. PMID:28587220

  3. A Novel Real-Time Path Servo Control of a Hardware-in-the-Loop for a Large-Stroke Asymmetric Rod-Less Pneumatic System under Variable Loads.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao-Ting

    2017-06-04

    This project aims to develop a novel large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system of a hardware-in-the-loop for path tracking control under variable loads based on the MATLAB Simulink real-time system. High pressure compressed air provided by the air compressor is utilized for the pneumatic proportional servo valve to drive the large stroke asymmetric rod-less pneumatic actuator. Due to the pressure differences between two chambers, the pneumatic actuator will operate. The highly nonlinear mathematical models of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic system were analyzed and developed. The functional approximation technique based on the sliding mode controller (FASC) is developed as a controller to solve the uncertain time-varying nonlinear system. The MATLAB Simulink real-time system was a main control unit of a hardware-in-the-loop system proposed to establish driver blocks for analog and digital I/O, a linear encoder, a CPU and a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic rod-less system. By the position sensor, the position signals of the cylinder will be measured immediately. The measured signals will be viewed as the feedback signals of the pneumatic servo system for the study of real-time positioning control and path tracking control. Finally, real-time control of a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system with measuring system, a large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system, data acquisition system and the control strategy software will be implemented. Thus, upgrading the high position precision and the trajectory tracking performance of the large stroke asymmetric pneumatic servo system will be realized to promote the high position precision and path tracking capability. Experimental results show that fifth order paths in various strokes and the sine wave path are successfully implemented in the test rig. Also, results of variable loads under the different angle were implemented experimentally.

  4. Eulerian formulation of elastic rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynen, Alexandre; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations governing the deflection of elastic rods are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of this generic tubular constraint defined as a perfectly stiff normal ringed surface. This reformulation hinges on describing the rod-deformed configuration by means of its relative position with respect to a reference curve, defined as the axis or spine curve of the constraint, and on restating the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate parametrizing this curve. Associated with a segmentation strategy, which partitions the global problem into a sequence of rod segments either in continuous contact with the constraint or free of contact (except for their extremities), this re-parametrization not only trivializes the detection of new contacts but also transforms these free boundary problems into classic two-points boundary-value problems and suppresses the isoperimetric constraints resulting from the imposition of the rod position at the extremities of each rod segment.

  5. Lateral suppression of mesopic rod and cone flicker detection

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Lu, Yolanda H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of flicker detection suppression by measuring mesopic rod and cone critical flicker frequencies (CFFs) at different center and surround illuminance levels. Stimuli were generated with a four-primary photostimulator that provided independent control of rod and cone excitations. The results showed that dim surrounds ≤0.2 Td suppressed cone-mediated CFFs at ≥20 Td but not rod-mediated CFFs. These results can be understood in terms of peak amplitudes of photoreceptor impulse response functions under different stimulation conditions. PMID:22330377

  6. Surface properties of sprayed and electrodeposited ZnO rod layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromyko, I.; Krunks, M.; Dedova, T.; Katerski, A.; Klauson, D.; Oja Acik, I.

    2017-05-01

    Herein we present a comparative study on as-deposited, two-month-stored, and heat-treated ZnO rods obtained by spray pyrolysis (SP) at 550 °C, and electrodeposition (ED) at 80 °C. The aim of the study is to establish the reason for different behaviour of wettability and photocatalytic activity (PA) of SP and ED rods. Samples were studied using XPS, SEM, XRD, Raman, contact angle (CA) measurements and photocatalytic oxidation of doxycycline. Wettability and PA are mainly controlled by surface composition rather than by morphology. The relative amount of hydroxyl groups on the surface of as-deposited ED rods is four times higher compared to as-deposited SP rods. Opposite to SP rods, ED rods contain oxygen vacancy defects (Vo). Therefore, as-deposited ED rods are superhydrophilic (CA ∼ 3°) and show highest PA among studied samples, being three times higher compared to SP rods (removing of 75% of doxycycline after 30 min). It was revealed that as-deposited ED rods are inclined to faster contamination. The amount of Cdbnd C groups on the surface of aged ED rods is six times higher compared to aged SP rods. Stored ED samples become hydrophobic (CA ∼ 120°) and PA decreases sharply while SP rods remain hydrophilic (CA ∼ 50°), being more resistive to the contamination.

  7. Calibrated breast density methods for full field digital mammography: A system for serial quality control and inter-system generalization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, B.; Smallwood, A. M.; Sellers, T. A.; Drukteinis, J. S.; Heine, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are developing a system for calibrated breast density measurements using full field digital mammography (FFDM). Breast tissue equivalent (BTE) phantom images are used to establish baseline (BL) calibration curves at time zero. For a given FFDM unit, the full BL dataset is comprised of approximately 160 phantom images, acquired prior to calibrating prospective patient mammograms. BL curves are monitored serially to ensure they produce accurate calibration and require updating when calibration accuracy degrades beyond an acceptable tolerance, rather than acquiring full BL datasets repeatedly. BL updating is a special case of generalizing calibration datasets across FFDM units, referred to as cross-calibration. Serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques were developed and evaluated. Methods: BL curves were established for three Hologic Selenia FFDM units at time zero. In addition, one set of serial phantom images, comprised of equal proportions of adipose and fibroglandular BTE materials (50/50 compositions) of a fixed height, was acquired biweekly and monitored with the cumulative sum (Cusum) technique. These 50/50 composition images were used to update the BL curves when the calibration accuracy degraded beyond a preset tolerance of ±4 standardized units. A second set of serial images, comprised of a wide-range of BTE compositions, was acquired biweekly to evaluate serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration techniques. Results: Calibration accuracy can degrade serially and is a function of acquisition technique and phantom height. The authors demonstrated that all heights could be monitored simultaneously while acquiring images of a 50/50 phantom with a fixed height for each acquisition technique biweekly, translating into approximately 16 image acquisitions biweekly per FFDM unit. The same serial images are sufficient for serial monitoring, BL updating, and cross-calibration. Serial calibration accuracy was

  8. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  9. Generating Multiple Calibrating Voltages Simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutreix, Lionel J.

    1992-01-01

    Calibrating unit containing signal generator controlled by microprocessor puts out ac signals of known voltages on fifty channels simultaneously. Signals used to calibrate high-frequency tape recorder channels for multiple, ac-coupled strain gauges simultaneously. Calibrating voltage required on each tape channel determined by remote computer, and corresponding data and commands transmitted to microprocessor via modems.

  10. Path Length Control in a Nulling Coronagraph with a MEMS Deformable Mirror and a Calibration Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti R.; Wallacea, J. Kent; Samuele, Rocco; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul; Lane, Benjamin; Levine, B. Martin; Mendillo, Chris; hide

    2008-01-01

    We report progress on a nulling coronagraph intended for direct imaging of extrasolar planets. White light is suppressed in an interferometer, and phase errors are measured by a second interferometer. A 1020-pixel MEMS deformable mirror in the first interferometer adjusts the path length across the pupil. A feedback control system reduces deflections of the deformable mirror to order of 1 nm rms.

  11. Calibration, Information, and Control Strategies for Braking to Avoid a Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajen, Brett R.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored visual control strategies for braking to avoid collision by manipulating information about speed of self-motion. Participants watched computer-generated displays and used a brake to stop at an object in the path of motion. Global optic flow rate and edge rate were manipulated by adjusting eyeheight and ground-texture size.…

  12. Calibration, Information, and Control Strategies for Braking to Avoid a Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajen, Brett R.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored visual control strategies for braking to avoid collision by manipulating information about speed of self-motion. Participants watched computer-generated displays and used a brake to stop at an object in the path of motion. Global optic flow rate and edge rate were manipulated by adjusting eyeheight and ground-texture size.…

  13. GPI Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.

    2017-09-01

    "The Gemini Planet Imager requires a large set of Calibrations. These can be split into two major sets, one set associated with each observation and one set related to biweekly calibrations. The observation set is to optimize the correction of miscroshifts in the IFU spectra and the latter set is for correction of detector and instrument cosmetics."

  14. Topological mixing with ghost rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Finn, Matthew D.

    2006-03-01

    Topological chaos relies on the periodic motion of obstacles in a two-dimensional flow in order to form nontrivial braids. This motion generates exponential stretching of material lines, and hence efficient mixing. Boyland, Aref, and Stremler [J. Fluid Mech. 403, 277 (2000)] have studied a specific periodic motion of rods that exhibits topological chaos in a viscous fluid. We show that it is possible to extend their work to cases where the motion of the stirring rods is topologically trivial by considering the dynamics of special periodic points that we call “ghost rods”, because they play a similar role to stirring rods. The ghost rods framework provides a new technique for quantifying chaos and gives insight into the mechanisms that produce chaos and mixing. Numerical simulations for Stokes flow support our results.

  15. Silk fibroin rods for sustained delivery of breast cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Tuna; Lovett, Michael L; Giangregorio, Raffaella; Coonahan, Erin; Kaplan, David L

    2014-10-01

    A silk-protein based reservoir rod was developed for zero-order and long-term sustained drug delivery applications. Silk reservoir rod formulations were processed in three steps. First, a regenerated silk fibroin solution, rich in random-coil content was transformed into a tubular silk film with controllable dimensions, uniform film morphology and a structure rich in silk II, β-sheet content via "film-spinning." Second, the drug powder was loaded into swollen silk tubes followed by tube end clamping. Last, clamped silk tube ends were sealed completely via dip coating. Anastrozole, an FDA approved active ingredient for the treatment of breast cancer, was used as a model drug to investigate viability of the silk reservoir rod technology for sustained drug delivery. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic data (in a female Sprague-Dawley rat model) analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy indicated zero-order release for 91 days. Both in vitro and in vivo anastrozole release rates could be controlled simply by varying silk rod dimensions. The swelling behavior of silk films and zero-order anastrozole release kinetics indicated practically immediate film hydration and formation of a linear anastrozole concentration gradient along the silk film thickness. The dependence of anastrozole release rate on the overall silk rod dimensions was in good agreement with an essentially diffusion-controlled sustained release from a reservoir cylindrical geometry. In vivo results highlighted a strong in vitro-in vivo pharmacokinetic correlation and a desirable biocompatibility profile of silk reservoir rods. During a 6-month implantation in rats, the apparent silk molecular weight values decreased gradually, while rod dry mass and β-sheet crystal content values remained essentially constant, providing a suitable timeframe for controlled, long-term sustained delivery applications. Overall, the silk reservoir rod may be a viable candidate for sustained delivery of

  16. Accurate calibration and control of relative humidity close to 100% by X-raying a DOPC multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; Jiang, Zhang; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Lurio, Laurence B.; Sinha, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Here in this study, we have designed a compact sample chamber that can achieve accurate and continuous control of the relative humidity (RH) in the vicinity of 100%. A 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) multilayer can be used as a humidity sensor by measuring its inter-layer repeat distance (d-spacing) via X-ray diffraction. We convert from DOPC d-spacing to RH according to a theory given in the literature and previously measured data of DOPC multilamellar vesicles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions. This curve can be used for calibration of RH close to 100%, a regime where conventional sensors do not have sufficient accuracy. We demonstrate that this control method can provide RH accuracies of 0.1 to 0.01%, which is a factor of 10–100 improvement compared to existing methods of humidity control. Our method provides fine tuning capability of RH continuously for a single sample, whereas the PVP solution method requires new samples to be made for each PVP concentration. The use of this cell also potentially removes the need for an X-ray or neutron beam to pass through bulk water if one wishes to work close to biologically relevant conditions of nearly 100% RH.

  17. Accurate calibration and control of relative humidity close to 100% by X-raying a DOPC multilayer

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal K.; Bera, Sambhunath; ...

    2015-01-01

    Here in this study, we have designed a compact sample chamber that can achieve accurate and continuous control of the relative humidity (RH) in the vicinity of 100%. A 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) multilayer can be used as a humidity sensor by measuring its inter-layer repeat distance (d-spacing) via X-ray diffraction. We convert from DOPC d-spacing to RH according to a theory given in the literature and previously measured data of DOPC multilamellar vesicles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions. This curve can be used for calibration of RH close to 100%, a regime where conventional sensors do not have sufficient accuracy. We demonstratemore » that this control method can provide RH accuracies of 0.1 to 0.01%, which is a factor of 10–100 improvement compared to existing methods of humidity control. Our method provides fine tuning capability of RH continuously for a single sample, whereas the PVP solution method requires new samples to be made for each PVP concentration. The use of this cell also potentially removes the need for an X-ray or neutron beam to pass through bulk water if one wishes to work close to biologically relevant conditions of nearly 100% RH.« less

  18. Calibration of Germanium Resistance Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladner, D.; Urban, E.; Mason, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Largely completed thermometer-calibration cryostat and probe allows six germanium resistance thermometers to be calibrated at one time at superfluid-helium temperatures. In experiments involving several such thermometers, use of this calibration apparatus results in substantial cost savings. Cryostat maintains temperature less than 2.17 K through controlled evaporation and removal of liquid helium from Dewar. Probe holds thermometers to be calibrated and applies small amount of heat as needed to maintain precise temperature below 2.17 K.

  19. Fast calibration of gas flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, R. V.; Wilson, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Digital unit automates calibration sequence using calculator IC and programmable read-only memory to solve calibration equations. Infrared sensors start and stop calibration sequence. Instrument calibrates mass flowmeters or rotameters where flow measurement is based on mass or volume. This automatic control reduces operator time by 80 percent. Solid-state components are very reliable, and digital character allows system accuracy to be determined primarily by accuracy of transducers.

  20. Towards comprehensive quality controlled time series of in situ SSTs for calibration and validation of satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatov, A.; Ivanova, D.; Kihai, Y.

    2006-05-01

    In situ measurements of bulk sea surface temperatures (SST) have been historically made from the drifting and moored buoys and ships. In recent decades, a number of successful remotely sensed SST products have been introduced. Customarily, the in situ bulk SST is considered a standard to calibrate and validate the satellite SST retrievals. The volume of in situ SST measurements has dramatically increased since the onset of satellite SST era, and their coverage and quality have improved. The remote sensing techniques have also quickly evolved to a number of matured and accurate SST products with accuracies approaching or even exceeding that of buoy and ship SST. It is imperative that the available records of in situ bulk SSTs are systematized and quality controlled (QC) for use in the satellite SST analyses. The accuracies and information content of the in situ SSTs should be quantified and stratified by data source (drifting vs. moored buoys, ships), country of origin, types of sensors used, etc. The objective is to generate long-term time series of QCed in situ SSTs to be used in conjunction with the operational retrievals and historical reprocessing of the satellite SSTs. This study explores the available ground-based SST data in the satellite era (ca. 1970-on). The emphasis is on their long-term consistency and improved QC through comparison with SST climatologies and exploring spatial and temporal context (in particular, an attempt is made to separate the diurnal signal from noise). Addressing these science issues will contribute towards improved calibration and validation of the current, historical and future SST environmental and climate data records.

  1. Statistical properties of a folded elastic rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayart, Elsa; Deboeuf, Stéphanie; Boué, Laurent; Corson, Francis; Boudaoud, Arezki; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    2010-03-01

    A large variety of elastic structures naturally seem to be confined into environments too small to accommodate them; the geometry of folded structures span a wide range of length-scales. The elastic properties of these confined systems are further constrained by self-avoidance as well as by the dimensionality of both structures and container. To mimic crumpled paper, we devised an experimental setup to study the packing of a dimensional elastic object in 2D geometries: an elastic rod is folded at the center of a circular Hele-Shaw cell by a centripetal force. The initial configuration of the rod and the acceleration of the rotating disk allow to span different final folded configurations while the final rotation speed controls the packing intensity. Using image analysis we measure geometrical and mechanical properties of the folded configurations, focusing on length, curvature and energy distributions.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) rods were synthesized from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO 4, DCPA) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) by the hydrothermal method from 120 to 180 °C. Both cuttlebone (aragonite polymorph of CaCO 3) and CaCO 3 chemical (calcite polymorph of CaCO 3) were used as CaCO 3 sources. The nucleation and growth of HAP rods mainly occurred on DCPA particles, while some HAP rods also grew from aragonite particles. The nucleation and growth of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles on the surface of calcite particles were observed at the beginning of the reaction of DCPA and calcite, and some HAP rods were also found to grow out of β-TCP particles. After the hydrothermal reaction at 140 °C for 24 h, most products are HAP with a small amount of β-TCP synthesized as a byproduct. The HAP rods synthesized were ˜200 nm in width and several microns in length. The reaction mechanism and growth process of HAP rods are discussed.

  3. Calibration and optimization of computer-controlled optical surfacing for large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Martin, Hubert M.; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    Precision optical surfaces can be efficiently manufactured using a computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) process. Most CCOS processes are based on control of the dwell time of a tool on the workpiece, according to the desired removal and the tool influence function (TIF), which is the material wear function of the tool. Several major topics were investigated to improve current CCOS processes and provide new solutions for the next generation of CCOS processes. A rigid conformal (RC) lap using a visco-elastic non-Newtonian medium was invented. It conforms to the aspheric surface shape, yet maintains stiffness on short time scales to provide natural smoothing. The smoothing removes mid- to high-frequency errors while controlled dwell time removes low-frequency errors. A parametric smoothing model was also introduced to predict the smoothing effects. A parametric edge TIF model to represent measured edge TIFs was developed and demonstrated. This model covers the removal behavior as the tool overhangs the edge of the workpiece. These new tools and models were applied in a new process optimization technique called nonsequential optimization. The non-sequential approach performs a comprehensive optimization of dwell time using multiple TIFs (multiple tools) simultaneously. An overview of these newly implemented CCOS features** is presented along with some actual CCOS results.

  4. Nuclear design of Helical Cruciform Fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, K.; Kazimi, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the Helical Cruciform Fuel (HCF) rods are proposed. The HCF rods are equivalent to a cylindrical rod, with the fuel in a cruciform shaped, twisted axially. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio and inter-subchannel mixing behavior due to their cruciform and helical shapes, respectively. In a previous study, the HCF rods have shown the potential to up-rate existing PWRs by 50% and BWRs by 25%. However, HCF rods do display different neutronics modeling and performance. The cruciform cross section of HCF rods creates radially asymmetric heat generation and temperature distribution. The nominal HCF rod's beginning of life reactivity is reduced, compared to a cylindrical rod with the same fuel volume, by 500 pcm, due to increase in absorption in cladding. The rotation of these rods accounts for reactivity changes, which depends on the H/HM ratio of the pin cell. The HCF geometry shows large sensitivities to U{sup 235} or gadolinium enrichments compared to a cylindrical geometry. In addition, the gadolinium-containing HCF rods show a stronger effect on neighboring HCF rods than in case of cylindrical rods, depending on the orientation of the HCF rods. The helical geometry of the rods introduces axial shadowing of about 600 pcm, not seen in typical cylindrical rods. (authors)

  5. Remote dipolar interactions for objective density calibration and flow control of excitonic fluids.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Kobi; Rapaport, Ronen; Santos, Paulo V

    2011-03-25

    In this Letter we suggest a method to observe remote interactions of spatially separated dipolar quantum fluids, and in particular, of dipolar excitons in GaAs bilayer based devices. The method utilizes the static electric dipole moment of trapped dipolar fluids to induce a local potential change on spatially separated test dipoles. We show that such an interaction can be used for model-independent, objective fluid density measurements, an outstanding problem in this field of research, as well as for interfluid exciton flow control and trapping. For a demonstration of the effects on realistic devices, we use a full two-dimensional hydrodynamical model.

  6. Process-based tolerance assessment of connecting rod machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Surendra Babu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Process tolerancing based on the process capability studies is the optimistic and pragmatic approach of determining the manufacturing process tolerances. On adopting the define-measure-analyze-improve-control approach, the process potential capability index ( C p) and the process performance capability index ( C pk) values of identified process characteristics of connecting rod machining process are achieved to be greater than the industry benchmark of 1.33, i.e., four sigma level. The tolerance chain diagram methodology is applied to the connecting rod in order to verify the manufacturing process tolerances at various operations of the connecting rod manufacturing process. This paper bridges the gap between the existing dimensional tolerances obtained via tolerance charting and process capability studies of the connecting rod component. Finally, the process tolerancing comparison has been done by adopting a tolerance capability expert software.

  7. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  8. Behavior of Segmented Rods during Penetration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    full-scale penetrators which had been swaged 24%. The density of this tungsten alloy was 17.2 Mg/m 3. Gold-alloy penetrators were composed of 92Au-4.9Ag...of behavior. Segmented rods of tungsten alloy always penetrated less than the equivalent unitary rod. Successive rod segments were found to...gold-alloy penetrators because unitary rods of this material surpassed the perform- ance of unitary tungsten -alloy rods, while leaving almost no

  9. Cultural Adaptation of Visual Attention: Calibration of the Oculomotor Control System in Accordance with Cultural Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Komiya, Asuka

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention), whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention). Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park) as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment. PMID:23185596

  10. Cultural adaptation of visual attention: calibration of the oculomotor control system in accordance with cultural scenes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Komiya, Asuka

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Westerners are more likely than East Asians to attend to central objects (i.e., analytic attention), whereas East Asians are more likely than Westerners to focus on background objects or context (i.e., holistic attention). Recently, it has been proposed that the physical environment of a given culture influences the cultural form of scene cognition, although the underlying mechanism is yet unclear. This study examined whether the physical environment influences oculomotor control. Participants saw culturally neutral stimuli (e.g., a dog in a park) as a baseline, followed by Japanese or United States scenes, and finally culturally neutral stimuli again. The results showed that participants primed with Japanese scenes were more likely to move their eyes within a broader area and they were less likely to fixate on central objects compared with the baseline, whereas there were no significant differences in the eye movements of participants primed with American scenes. These results suggest that culturally specific patterns in eye movements are partly caused by the physical environment.

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Calibration of an Embedded Piezoceramic Actuator for Active Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopmann, Gary H.; Lesieutre, George A.; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Chen, Weicheng; Fahnline, John B.; Pai, Suresh; Dershem, Brian

    1996-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors describe the design and fabrication processes for a PZT strain actuator that evolved during the initial stages of a research effort to synthesize and process intelligent, cost effective structures (SPICES). The actuator performance requirements were similar to those of conventional actuators, e.g., it had to be robust, highly efficient with adequate force and stroke, as lightweight as possible, and most importantly, affordable. Further, since the actuator was to be integrated within a composite structure, it had to be compatible with the host material and easily embeddable during the fabrication process. In control applications employing strain devices as actuators, a good bond between this actuator and host material is critical to their successful operation. This criterion is often difficult to achieve when attempting to join ceramics with metals or polymers with dissimilar properties such as Young's moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, etc. One unique feature of the actuator design that evolved in this project is that the need for direct bonding between the PZT ceramic and polymers was circumvented, i.e. the strain transfer to the host material was achieved via a frame surrounding the ceramic. Consequently, the frame material could be selected (or coated) for compatibility with the host material. A second feature is that the frame enclosed a co-fired, multilayered, PZT stack that was used to minimize the voltage requirements while maximizing the output strain.

  12. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  13. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  14. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Jason Dean; Medvedev, Pavel G; Novascone, Stephen Rhead; Perez, Danielle Marie; Williamson, Richard L

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. Test and evaluation of the one-meter, fuel rod calorimeter at Mol, Belgium, 1-12 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Keddar, A.

    1982-10-29

    In order to test the performance of the l-m fuel rod calorimeter, measurements were made of fuel rods with three different plutonium isotopic compositions containing from 3.6 to 28.5 g of plutonium. Measurement times were nominally 2 h: 1 h for a fuel rod measurement and 1 h for a base-line measurement. From these measurements, the precision (1 S.D.) of the calorimeter power measurement is 1 mW over the range of 10 to 135 mW. For rods with powers greater than 50 mW, apparent biases of up to 3% were within measured and assumed experimental errors. It is not possible from these data to identify the source of biases of -5.8% and -7% found for two rods. A problem encountered with the electric rod calibration requires further study. 1 figure, 7 tables.

  16. The evolution of rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Morshedian, Ala; Fain, Gordon L

    2017-04-05

    Photoreceptors in animals are generally of two kinds: the ciliary or c-type and the rhabdomeric or r-type. Although ciliary photoreceptors are found in many phyla, vertebrates seem to be unique in having two distinct kinds which together span the entire range of vision, from single photons to bright light. We ask why the principal photoreceptors of vertebrates are ciliary and not rhabdomeric, and how rods evolved from less sensitive cone-like photoreceptors to produce our duplex retina. We suggest that the principal advantage of vertebrate ciliary receptors is that they use less ATP than rhabdomeric photoreceptors. This difference may have provided sufficient selection pressure for the development of a completely ciliary eye. Although many of the details of rod evolution are still uncertain, present evidence indicates that (i) rods evolved very early before the split between the jawed and jawless vertebrates, (ii) outer-segment discs make no contribution to rod sensitivity but may have evolved to increase the efficiency of protein renewal, and (iii) evolution of the rod was incremental and multifaceted, produced by the formation of several novel protein isoforms and by changes in protein expression, with no one alteration having more than a few-fold effect on transduction activation or inactivation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  17. Automatic temperature-calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.L.; Stant, R.S.

    1982-08-23

    A relatively inexpensive, computer-controlled temperature calibration system is described. The system will provide working standard level calibration between -90/sup 0/C and +1100/sup 0/C for multiple resistance thermometers or thermocouples. It is designed to collect the data in a cooldown or ballistic state using either a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) or a precision thermocouple as a standard. The use of this calibration system increases measurement repeatability, while greatly reducing the man-hours required for a calibration. Construction and basic software details of the temperature calibration system are provided.

  18. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  19. Topological Optimization of Rod Mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Matthew D.; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2006-11-01

    Stirring of fluid with moving rods is necessary in many practical applications to achieve homogeneity. These rods are topological obstacles that force stretching of fluid elements. The resulting stretching and folding is commonly observed as filaments and striations, and is a precursor to mixing. In a space-time diagram, the trajectories of the rods form a braid [1], and the properties of this braid impose a minimal complexity in the flow. We discuss how optimal mixing protocols can be obtained by a judicious choice of braid, and how these protocols can be implemented using simple gearing [2].[12pt] [1] P. L. Boyland, H. Aref, and M. A. Stremler, JFM 403, 277 (2000).[8pt] [2] J.-L. Thiffeault and M. D. Finn, http://arxiv.org/nlin/0603003

  20. RETINA-specific expression of Kcnv2 is controlled by cone-rod homeobox (Crx) and neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl).

    PubMed

    Aslanidis, Alexander; Karlstetter, Marcus; Walczak, Yana; Jägle, Herbert; Langmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cone dystrophy with supernormal rod response (CDSRR) is an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to progressive retinal degeneration with a distinct electroretinogram (ERG) phenotype. CDSRR patients show reduced sensitivity to dim light, augmented response to suprathreshold light and reduced response to flicker. The disorder is caused by mutations in the KCNV2 gene, which encodes the Kv11.1 subunit of a voltage-gated potassium channel. Here, we studied the retina-specific expression and cis-regulatory activity of the murine Kcnv2 gene using electroporation of explanted retinas. Using qRT-PCR profiling of early postnatal retinas, we showed that Kcnv2 expression increased towards P14, which marks the beginning of visual activity in mice. In vivo electroporation of GFP-Kcnv2 expressing plasmids revealed that Kv11.1 localizes to the inner segment membranes of adult P21 photoreceptors. Using bioinformatic prediction and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we identified two Crx binding sites (CBS) and one Nrl binding site (NBS) in the Kcnv2 promoter. Reporter electroporation of the wild type promoter region induced strong DsRed expression, indicating high regulatory activity, whereas shRNA-mediated knockdown of Crx and Nrl resulted in reduced Kcnv2 promoter activity and low endogenous Kcnv2 mRNA expression in the retina. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CBS and NBS demonstrated that CBS2 is crucial for Kcnv2 promoter activity. We conclude that nucleotide changes in evolutionary conserved CBS could impact retina-specific expression levels of Kcnv2.

  1. Comparison of single and dual growing rod techniques followed through definitive surgery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, George H; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Kostial, Patricia; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Armstrong, Douglas G; Roh, Jeffrey; Lowe, Robert; Asher, Marc A; Marks, David S

    2005-09-15

    Retrospective analysis of patients treated with single and dual growing rods who had completed their course of treatment, had definitive fusion, and had a minimum of 2 years follow-up. To determine which technique was the most effective in the management of severe spinal deformity in young children: control of the spinal deformity, spinal growth, and the incidence of complications. Growing rod techniques provide proximal and distal segmental "claw" foundations, but their overall results through definitive fusion have not been clearly determined. A total of 28 consecutive patients who had growing rod procedures followed through definitive spinal fusions were analyzed. There were three patient groups: Group 1 (N = 5), single submuscular rod and short apical fusion; Group 2 (N = 16), single growing rod alone; and Group 3 (N = 7), dual growing rods. The interval between initial rod insertion and definitive spinal fusion was similar in all three groups. The best overall results occurred in Group 3, whereas the patients in Group 1 had the worse results. Both Groups 2 and 3 provided good initial correction of the spinal deformity and allowed spinal growth. Group 2 had better frontal and sagittal plane balance and the lowest complication rate. The use of growing rods is effective in controlling severe spinal deformities and allowing spinal growth. Dual rods are stronger than single rods and, therefore, provide better initial correction and maintenance of correction. The use of an apical fusion does not appear to be effective over the course of treatment.

  2. Fission gas release restrictor for breached fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kadambi, N. Prasad; Tilbrook, Roger W.; Spencer, Daniel R.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.

    1986-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the cladding of a rod in an operating liquid metal fast breeder reactor, the rapid release of high-pressure gas from the fission gas plenum may result in a gas blanketing of the breached rod and rods adjacent thereto which impairs the heat transfer to the liquid metal coolant. In order to control the release rate of fission gas in the event of a breached rod, the substantial portion of the conventional fission gas plenum is formed as a gas bottle means which includes a gas pervious means in a small portion thereof. During normal reactor operation, as the fission gas pressure gradually increases, the gas pressure interiorly of and exteriorly of the gas bottle means equalizes. In the event of a breach in the cladding, the gas pervious means in the gas bottle means constitutes a sufficient restriction to the rapid flow of gas therethrough that under maximum design pressure differential conditions, the fission gas flow through the breach will not significantly reduce the heat transfer from the affected rod and adjacent rods to the liquid metal heat transfer fluid flowing therebetween.

  3. Faced folded rods as nano-antenna for optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Taerin; Choi, Jinyoung; Lim, Yongjun; Lee, Il-Min; Kim, Kyoung-Youm; Lee, Byoungho

    2010-11-01

    We propose faced folded rods (FFR) as nano-antenna for light emissions. This FFR structure, which is composed of two folded gold rods, shows two different field enhancement modes depending on the polarization direction of feeding light. Under the incidence of x-polarized light, double hot spots are observed at gaps due to capacitive coupling between rods. Meanwhile, when y-polarized light is applied to this geometry, a single hot spot is achieved at the center of the structure which is due to the superposition of half-wavelength dipole resonance occurring at each folded rod. Strong resonance of several vertices, which is predicted to be 100 of electric field enhancement factor in FFRs, can be achieved for sensitive bio-molecular detection. Thus, we can manipulate the number and position of desired hot spots by way of controlling the polarization state of light. Since we can obtain up to four different hot spot areas in nano-meter scale, multiplexed biosensing can be possible using FFRs as the nano-antenna. To understand the physical mechanism behind the pair type of folded rods, a single folded rod is first simulated as a basic elementary structure and compared with the pair structure. Then, this FFR structure is fabricated with an electron beam evaporator and the focused ion beam lithography. The scattered light intensity is captured by a CCD camera and compared with the simulation data.

  4. Vibrational Power Flow Analysis of Rods and Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohlever, James Christopher; Bernhard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to model vibrational power flow and predict the resulting energy density levels in uniform rods and beams is investigated. This method models the flow of vibrational power in a manner analogous to the flow of thermal power in a heat conduction problem. The classical displacement solutions for harmonically excited, hysteretically damped rods and beams are used to derive expressions for the vibrational power flow and energy density in the rod and beam. Under certain conditions, the power flow in these two structural elements will be shown to be proportional to the energy density gradient. Using the relationship between power flow and energy density, an energy balance on differential control volumes in the rod and beam leads to a Poisson's equation which models the energy density distribution in the rod and beam. Coupling the energy density and power flow solutions for rods and beams is also discussed. It is shown that the resonant behavior of finite structures complicates the coupling of solutions, especially when the excitations are single frequency inputs. Two coupling formulations are discussed, the first based on the receptance method, and the second on the travelling wave approach used in Statistical Energy Analysis. The receptance method is the more computationally intensive but is capable of analyzing single frequency excitation cases. The traveling wave approach gives a good approximation of the frequency average of energy density and power flow in coupled systems, and thus, is an efficient technique for use with broadband frequency excitation.

  5. 40 CFR 85.2233 - Steady state test equipment calibrations, adjustments, and quality control-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the sample hose and probe for leaks and is performed in accordance with good engineering practices. An... circumstances described therein. (1) Gas calibration. (i) Each time the analyzer electronic or optical...

  6. 40 CFR 85.2233 - Steady state test equipment calibrations, adjustments, and quality control-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the sample hose and probe for leaks and is performed in accordance with good engineering practices. An... circumstances described therein. (1) Gas calibration. (i) Each time the analyzer electronic or optical...

  7. Cloned plasmid DNA fragments as calibrators for controlling GMOs: different real-time duplex quantitative PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, Isabel; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc

    2004-03-01

    Analytical real-time PCR technology is a powerful tool for implementation of the GMO labeling regulations enforced in the EU. The quality of analytical measurement data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR depends on the correct use of calibrator and reference materials (RMs). For GMO methods of analysis, the choice of appropriate RMs is currently under debate. So far, genomic DNA solutions from certified reference materials (CRMs) are most often used as calibrators for GMO quantification by means of real-time PCR. However, due to some intrinsic features of these CRMs, errors may be expected in the estimations of DNA sequence quantities. In this paper, two new real-time PCR methods are presented for Roundup Ready soybean, in which two types of plasmid DNA fragments are used as calibrators. Single-target plasmids (STPs) diluted in a background of genomic DNA were used in the first method. Multiple-target plasmids (MTPs) containing both sequences in one molecule were used as calibrators for the second method. Both methods simultaneously detect a promoter 35S sequence as GMO-specific target and a lectin gene sequence as endogenous reference target in a duplex PCR. For the estimation of relative GMO percentages both "delta C(T)" and "standard curve" approaches are tested. Delta C(T) methods are based on direct comparison of measured C(T) values of both the GMO-specific target and the endogenous target. Standard curve methods measure absolute amounts of target copies or haploid genome equivalents. A duplex delta C(T) method with STP calibrators performed at least as well as a similar method with genomic DNA calibrators from commercial CRMs. Besides this, high quality results were obtained with a standard curve method using MTP calibrators. This paper demonstrates that plasmid DNA molecules containing either one or multiple target sequences form perfect alternative calibrators for GMO quantification and are especially suitable for duplex PCR reactions.

  8. Synthesis and Liquid-Crystal Behavior of Bent Colloidal Silica Rods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Guangdong; Martinez-Miranda, Luz J; Yu, Hua; Liu, Kun; Nie, Zhihong

    2016-01-13

    The design and assembly of novel colloidal particles are of both academic and technological interest. We developed a wet-chemical route to synthesize monodisperse bent rigid silica rods by controlled perturbation of emulsion-templated growth. The bending angle of the rods can be tuned in a range of 0-50° by varying the strength of perturbation in the reaction temperature or pH in the course of rod growth. The length of each arm of the bent rods can be individually controlled by adjusting the reaction time. For the first time we demonstrated that the bent silica rods resemble banana-shaped liquid-crystal molecules and assemble into ordered structures with a typical smectic B2 phase. The bent silica rods could serve as a visualizable mesoscopic model for exploiting the phase behaviors of bent molecules which represent a typical class of liquid-crystal molecules.

  9. Calibration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurz, Peter; Balogh, Andre; Coffey, Victoria; Dichter, Bronislaw K.; Kasprzak, Wayne T.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Lennartsson, Walter; McFadden, James P.

    Calibration and characterization of particle instruments with supporting flight electronics is necessary for the correct interpretation of the returned data. Generally speaking, the instrument will always return a measurement value (typically in form of a digital number), for example a count rate, for the measurement of an external quantity, which could be an ambient neutral gas density, an ion composition (species measured and amount), or electron density. The returned values are used then to derive parameters associated with the distribution such as temperature, bulk flow speed, differential energy flux and others. With the calibration of the instrument the direct relationship between the external quantity and the returned measurement value has to be established so that the data recorded during flight can be correctly interpreted. While calibration and characterization of an instrument are usually done in ground-based laboratories prior to integration of the instrument in the spacecraft, it can also be done in space.

  10. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Backhaus, M.; Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2015-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL's off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware, and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ test bench using a realistic front-end chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data path implementation, test on the test bench and ROD prototypes, will be reported. Recent Pixel collaboration efforts focus on finalizing hardware and firmware tests for the IBL. The plan is to approach a complete IBL DAQ hardware-software installation by the end of 2014.

  11. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  12. Method of targeted delivery of laser beam to isolated retinal rods by fiber optics

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C. Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    A method of controllable light delivery to retinal rod cells using an optical fiber is described. Photo-induced current of the living rod cells was measured with the suction electrode technique. The approach was tested with measurements relating the spatial distribution of the light intensity to photo-induced current. In addition, the ion current responses of rod cells to polarized light at two different orientation geometries of the cells were studied. PMID:22076256

  13. Method of targeted delivery of laser beam to isolated retinal rods by fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2011-11-01

    A method of controllable light delivery to retinal rod cells using an optical fiber is described. Photo-induced current of the living rod cells was measured with the suction electrode technique. The approach was tested with measurements relating the spatial distribution of the light intensity to photo-induced current. In addition, the ion current responses of rod cells to polarized light at two different orientation geometries of the cells were studied.

  14. Investigation of Lightning Rod Shielding Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayel, Mohamed

    This paper studies those parameters affecting the shielding angle of the lightning rod (Franklin Rod) above very tall buildings. It was recommended that the shielding angle of the lightning rod is about 45°∼60°. The downward lightning leader is modeled by using discrete line charges to consider the exponential distribution of charges through the downward leader. The voltage condition used by Rizk is used to investigate the inception of the upward lightning leader. Different air conditions (relative air density and air humidity) are considered for more practical simulation. The influences of lightning parameters and lightning rod height on the shielding angle are studied. The results shows that, lightning leader parameters, lightning rod height and ground slope have series effects on the lightning rod shielding angle. Based on the results, a lightning rod shielding angle for shielding design is recommended to decrease the lightning stroke to the lightning rod.

  15. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  16. In situ pre-growth calibration using reflectance as a control strategy for MOCVD fabrication of device structures

    SciTech Connect

    Breiland, W.G.; Hou, H.Q.; Chui, H.C.; Hammons, B.E.

    1996-08-01

    In situ normal incidence reflectance, combined with a virtual interface model, is being used routinely on a commercial MOCVD reactor to measure growth rates of compound semiconductor films. The technique serves as a pre-growth calibration tool analogous to the use of RHEED in MBE as well as a real-time monitor throughout the run. An application of the method to the growth of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) device structure is presented. All necessary calibration information can be obtained using a single run lasting less than one hour. Working VCSEL devices are obtained on the first try after calibration. Repeated runs have yielded {+-} 0.3% reproducibility of the Fabry-Perot cavity wavelength over the course of more than 100 runs.

  17. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is...

  18. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is...

  19. Evaluation of stormwater micropollutant source control and end-of-pipe control strategies using an uncertainty-calibrated integrated dynamic simulation model.

    PubMed

    Vezzaro, L; Sharma, A K; Ledin, A; Mikkelsen, P S

    2015-03-15

    The estimation of micropollutant (MP) fluxes in stormwater systems is a fundamental prerequisite when preparing strategies to reduce stormwater MP discharges to natural waters. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools in this step, as they can be used to integrate the limited data provided by monitoring campaigns and to evaluate the performance of different strategies based on model simulation results. This study presents an example where six different control strategies, including both source-control and end-of-pipe treatment, were compared. The comparison focused on fluxes of heavy metals (copper, zinc) and organic compounds (fluoranthene). MP fluxes were estimated by using an integrated dynamic model, in combination with stormwater quality measurements. MP sources were identified by using GIS land usage data, runoff quality was simulated by using a conceptual accumulation/washoff model, and a stormwater retention pond was simulated by using a dynamic treatment model based on MP inherent properties. Uncertainty in the results was estimated with a pseudo-Bayesian method. Despite the great uncertainty in the MP fluxes estimated by the runoff quality model, it was possible to compare the six scenarios in terms of discharged MP fluxes, compliance with water quality criteria, and sediment accumulation. Source-control strategies obtained better results in terms of reduction of MP emissions, but all the simulated strategies failed in fulfilling the criteria based on emission limit values. The results presented in this study shows how the efficiency of MP pollution control strategies can be quantified by combining advanced modeling tools (integrated stormwater quality model, uncertainty calibration).

  20. Process development and fabrication for sphere-pac fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, R.K.; Campbell, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium fuel rods containing sphere-pac fuel have been fabricated for in-reactor tests and demonstrations. A process for the development, qualification, and fabrication of acceptable sphere-pac fuel rods is described. Special equipment to control fuel contamination with moisture or air and the equipment layout needed for rod fabrication is described and tests for assuring the uniformity of the fuel column are discussed. Fuel retainers required for sphere-pac fuel column stability and instrumentation to measure fuel column smear density are described. Results of sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication campaigns are reviewed and recommended improvements for high throughput production are noted.

  1. Synthesis of monodisperse high-aspect-ratio colloidal silicon and silica rods.

    PubMed

    van Kats, Carlos M; Johnson, Patrick M; van den Meerakker, Jan E A M; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2004-12-07

    We describe the synthesis and the physical properties of suspensions of colloidal silicon and silica rodlike particles. In addition to pure silicon and pure silica rods, we have also synthesized silicon rods with a silica shell and silica rods with a fluorescent silica layer. Pre-patterned p-type (100) silicon wafers were electrochemically etched in electrolyte solutions containing hydrogen fluoride. By the current density being varied while etching, macropores were etched with controllable modulated pore diameters. These silicon structures were transformed into rods with indentations 5.5 mum apart and with lengths up to 100 mum using iterative oxidation in air and dissolution of the silica by HF. Complete oxidation of these rods was also achieved. Sonication of the modulated rods resulted in monodisperse particles of 5.5 mum length and 300 nm width. A high yield of 10(12) particles, or more, is possible with this method. At high concentrations, these particles show nematic ordering in charge-stabilized suspensions. The oxidized silica outer layer of the silicon rods makes the further growth of silica in solution or on a wafer possible. This allows for control of the particles' interaction potential. Labeling with a fluorescent dye and index matching of the complete silica rods enable the study of concentrated dispersions quantitatively, on a single particle level, with confocal microscopy. Because of their high refractive index in the near-IR, the nematic phases of rods with a silica core are also interesting for photonic applications.

  2. SNLS calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnault, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) is a massive imaging survey, conducted between 2003 and 2008, with the MegaCam instrument, mounted on the CFHT-3.6-m telescope. With a 1 degree wide focal plane, made of 36 2048 × 4612 sensors totalling 340 megapixels, MegaCam was at the time the largest imager on the sky. The Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) uses the cadenced observations of the 4 deg2 wide "DEEP" layer of the CFHTLS to search and follow-up Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and study the acceleration of the cosmic expansion. The reduction and calibration of the CFHTLS/SNLS datasets has posed a series of challenges. In what follows, we give a brief account of the photometric calibration work that has been performed on the SNLS data over the last decade.

  3. Temperature Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of temperature measurements is vital to many experiments. In this project, we design an algorithm to calibrate thermocouples' temperature measurements. To collect data, we rely on incremental heating to calculate the diffusion coefficients of argon through sanidine glasses. These coefficients change according to an arrhenius equation that depends on temperature, time, and the size and geometry of the glass; thus by fixing the type of glass and the time of each heating step, we obtain many data points by varying temperature. Because the dimension of temperature is continuous, obtaining data is simpler in noble gas diffusion experiments than in measuring the discrete melting points of various metals. Due to the nature of electrical connections, the need to reference to the freezing point of ice, thermal gradients in the sample, the time dependent dissipation of heat into the surroundings, and other inaccuracies with thermocouple temperature measurements, it is necessary to calibrate the experimental measurements with the expected or theoretical measurements. Since the diffusion constant equation is exponential with the inverse of temperature, we transform the exponential D vs T graph into a linear log(D) vs 1/T graph. Then a simple linear regression yields the equation of the line, and we find a mapping function from the experimental temperature to the expected temperature. By relying on the accuracy of the diffusion constant measurement, the mapping function provides the temperature calibration. Theoretical (Temperature, Diffusion Coefficient, Fractional Loss, Zeta)

  4. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  5. Three-Gorge Reservoir: A 'Controlled Experiment' for Calibration/Validation of Time-Variable Gravity Signals Detected from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Boy, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    With the advances of measurements, modern space geodesy has become a new type of remote sensing for the Earth dynamics, especially for mass transports in the geophysical fluids on large spatial scales. A case in point is the space gravity mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) which has been in orbit collecting gravity data since early 2002. The data promise to be able to detect changes of water mass equivalent to sub-cm thickness on spatial scale of several hundred km every month or so. China s Three-Gorge Reservoir has already started the process of water impoundment in phases. By 2009,40 km3 of water will be stored behind one of the world s highest dams and spanning a section of middle Yangtze River about 600 km in length. For the GRACE observations, the Three-Gorge Reservoir would represent a geophysical controlled experiment , one that offers a unique opportunity to do detailed geophysical studies. -- Assuming a complete documentation of the water level and history of the water impoundment process and aided with a continual monitoring of the lithospheric loading response (such as in area gravity and deformation), one has at hand basically a classical forwardinverse modeling problem of surface loading, where the input and certain output are known. The invisible portion of the impounded water, i.e. underground storage, poses either added values as an observable or a complication as an unknown to be modeled. Wang (2000) has studied the possible loading effects on a local scale; we here aim for larger spatial scales upwards from several hundred km, with emphasis on the time-variable gravity signals that can be detected by GRACE and follow-on missions. Results using the Green s function approach on the PREM elastic Earth model indicate the geoid height variations reaching several millimeters on wavelengths of about a thousand kilometers. The corresponding vertical deformations have amplitude of a few centimeters. In terms of long

  6. Empirical performance of the calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis within temporal pattern discovery: lessons for developing a risk identification and analysis system.

    PubMed

    Norén, G Niklas; Bergvall, Tomas; Ryan, Patrick B; Juhlin, Kristina; Schuemie, Martijn J; Madigan, David

    2013-10-01

    Observational healthcare data offer the potential to identify adverse drug reactions that may be missed by spontaneous reporting. The self-controlled cohort analysis within the Temporal Pattern Discovery framework compares the observed-to-expected ratio of medical outcomes during post-exposure surveillance periods with those during a set of distinct pre-exposure control periods in the same patients. It utilizes an external control group to account for systematic differences between the different time periods, thus combining within- and between-patient confounder adjustment in a single measure. To evaluate the performance of the calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis within Temporal Pattern Discovery as a tool for risk identification in observational healthcare data. Different implementations of the calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis were applied to 399 drug-outcome pairs (165 positive and 234 negative test cases across 4 health outcomes of interest) in 5 real observational databases (four with administrative claims and one with electronic health records). Performance was evaluated on real data through sensitivity/specificity, the area under receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC), and bias. The calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis achieved good predictive accuracy across the outcomes and databases under study. The optimal design based on this reference set uses a 360 days surveillance period and a single control period 180 days prior to new prescriptions. It achieved an average AUC of 0.75 and AUC >0.70 in all but one scenario. A design with three separate control periods performed better for the electronic health records database and for acute renal failure across all data sets. The estimates for negative test cases were generally unbiased, but a minor negative bias of up to 0.2 on the RR-scale was observed with the configurations using multiple control periods, for acute liver injury and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The calibrated self-controlled

  7. Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment

    DOEpatents

    Donck, Harry A.; Veca, Anthony R.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

  8. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  9. Neural networks for calibration tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    Artificial neural networks are suitable for performing pattern-to-pattern calibrations. These calibrations are potentially useful for facilities operations in aeronautics, the control of optical alignment, and the like. Computed tomography is compared with neural net calibration tomography for estimating density from its x-ray transform. X-ray transforms are measured, for example, in diffuse-illumination, holographic interferometry of fluids. Computed tomography and neural net calibration tomography are shown to have comparable performance for a 10 degree viewing cone and 29 interferograms within that cone. The system of tomography discussed is proposed as a relevant test of neural networks and other parallel processors intended for using flow visualization data.

  10. Standard Leak Calibration Facility software system

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    A Standard Leak Calibration Facility Software System has been developed and implemented for controlling, and running a standard Leak Calibration Facility. Primary capabilities provided by the software system include computer control of the vacuum system, automatic leak calibration, and data acquisition, manipulation, and storage.

  11. Experimental Study on Surrogate Nuclear Fuel Rods under Reversed Cyclic Bending

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods under reversed cyclic bending or bending fatigue must be understood to evaluate their vibration integrity in a transportation environment. This is especially important for high-burnup fuels (>45 GWd/MTU), which have the potential for increased structural damage. It has been demonstrated that the bending fatigue of SNF rods can be effectively studied using surrogate rods. In this investigation, surrogate rods made of stainless steel (SS) 304 cladding and aluminum oxide pellets were tested under load or moment control at a variety of amplitude levels at 5 Hz using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The behavior of the rods was further characterized using flexural rigidity and hysteresis data, and fractography was performed on the failed rods. The proposed surrogate rods captured many of the characteristics of deformation and failure mode observed in SNF, including the linear-to-nonlinear deformation transition and large residual curvature in static tests, PPI and PCMI failure mechanisms, and large variation in the initial structural condition. Rod degradation was measured and characterized by measuring the flexural rigidity; the degradation of the rigidity depended on both the moment amplitude applied and the initial structural condition of the rods. It was also shown that a cracking initiation site can be located on the internal surface or the external surface of cladding. Finally, fatigue damage to the bending rods can be described in terms of flexural rigidity, and the fatigue life of rods can be predicted once damage model parameters are properly evaluated. The developed experimental approach, test protocol, and analysis method can be used to study the vibration integrity of SNF rods in the future.

  12. Frequency control of tunable lasers using a frequency-calibrated λ-meter in an experiment on preparation of Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Saakyan, S A; Vilshanskaya, E V; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V; Sautenkov, V A; Vasiliev, V V

    2015-09-30

    A new technique is proposed and applied to study the frequency drift of an external-cavity semiconductor laser, locked to the transmission resonances of a thermally stabilised Fabry–Perot interferometer. The interferometer frequency drift is measured to be less than 2 MHz h{sup -1}. The laser frequency is measured using an Angstrom wavemeter, calibrated using an additional stabilised laser. It is shown that this system of laser frequency control can be used to identify Rydberg transitions in ultracold {sup 7}Li atoms. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  13. Site controlled red-yellow-green light emitting InGaN quantum discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, M.; Li, H.; Kusch, G.; Zhao, C.; Ooi, B.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Holmes, J. D.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD's confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD

  14. Site controlled red-yellow-green light emitting InGaN quantum discs on nano-tipped GaN rods.

    PubMed

    Conroy, M; Li, H; Kusch, G; Zhao, C; Ooi, B; Edwards, P R; Martin, R W; Holmes, J D; Parbrook, P J

    2016-06-07

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD's confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  15. Electric Fuel Rod Simulator Fabrication at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-04

    Commercial vendors could not supply the high-quality, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators (FRS) required for large thermal-hydraulic safety-oriented experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1970s and early 1980s. Staff at ORNL designed, developed, and manufactured the simulators utilized in these safety experiments. Important FRS design requirements include (1) materials of construction, (2) test power requirements and availability, (3) experimental test objectives, (4) supporting thermal analyses, and (5) extensive quality control throughout all phases of FRS fabrication. This paper will present an overview of these requirements (design, analytics, and quality control) as practiced at ORNL to produce a durable high-quality FRS.

  16. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  17. Actuator system history of safety rod lower latch problems review of latch inspection video tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.J.

    1992-06-24

    During pre-restart testing the safety rod at position X26-YlO bound after being driven approximately two (2) feet out of the reactor. Subsequently, the rod was manually returned to it's seated position. Inspection of the lower latch showed that the latch locking plunger button (screwed on to the bottom of the plunger shaft and retained by a pin through a hole drilled through the button and the plunger shaft) was missing. The shaft failed through the hole drilled for the retaining pin. The button, with the retaining pin intact, was found lodged between the safety rod upper adapter collar and the top of the safety rod thimble top fitting. Analysis of the safety rod latch and accompanying forest guide tube design provided assurance that this type of failure would not cause binding during the scramming'' of the safety rods. Inspection of all of the K'' safety rod lower latches revealed six other latches with missing plunger buttons, and nine with other non-conformances which required latch replacement. A history search conducted by Reactor Engineering Design, Components Handling Group, is included in this report. The history search shows that latch design modifications, as a part of initial development of the latch system and later to improve the delatching operation, were made from 1950 to 1960. These modifications created a condition where latch damage could occur. Video tapes were made during inspection of the safety rod latches in K area and control rod latches in L area. These tapes were reviewed by Reactor Engineering Design Components Handling engineers. The reviews were used for correlation of latch problems reported by the engineers/mechanics making the inspections. The K area tapes showed inspection of 65 of the 66 safety rod latches. The review of the tapes showed the plunger buttons to be missing from five latches. RED-CH reviewed the L Area video taped inspection of 35 control rod clusters (245 latches). No non-conformances were noted.

  18. Actuator system history of safety rod lower latch problems review of latch inspection video tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.J.

    1992-06-24

    During pre-restart testing the safety rod at position X26-YlO bound after being driven approximately two (2) feet out of the reactor. Subsequently, the rod was manually returned to it`s seated position. Inspection of the lower latch showed that the latch locking plunger button (screwed on to the bottom of the plunger shaft and retained by a pin through a hole drilled through the button and the plunger shaft) was missing. The shaft failed through the hole drilled for the retaining pin. The button, with the retaining pin intact, was found lodged between the safety rod upper adapter collar and the top of the safety rod thimble top fitting. Analysis of the safety rod latch and accompanying forest guide tube design provided assurance that this type of failure would not cause binding during the ``scramming`` of the safety rods. Inspection of all of the ``K`` safety rod lower latches revealed six other latches with missing plunger buttons, and nine with other non-conformances which required latch replacement. A history search conducted by Reactor Engineering Design, Components Handling Group, is included in this report. The history search shows that latch design modifications, as a part of initial development of the latch system and later to improve the delatching operation, were made from 1950 to 1960. These modifications created a condition where latch damage could occur. Video tapes were made during inspection of the safety rod latches in K area and control rod latches in L area. These tapes were reviewed by Reactor Engineering Design Components Handling engineers. The reviews were used for correlation of latch problems reported by the engineers/mechanics making the inspections. The K area tapes showed inspection of 65 of the 66 safety rod latches. The review of the tapes showed the plunger buttons to be missing from five latches. RED-CH reviewed the L Area video taped inspection of 35 control rod clusters (245 latches). No non-conformances were noted.

  19. The effect of fuel rod oxidation on PCMI-induced fuel failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2011-11-01

    It was found in a one of the PWRs operating in Korea that a few three cycle-burned Zry-4 fuel assemblies which were loaded in a core center region at control bank positions were leaking. The leaking cycle has experienced a few reactor trips and some fuel rods started to leak at about a month after a power ramp following the second reactor trip. To investigate a root cause of such fuel failure as well as to examine intact and leak rod oxidation behaviors, one intact and one leaking fuel rods were selected from one intact and one failed three cycle-burned fuel assemblies, respectively, and in parallel one intact fuel rod was selected from a two cycle-burned fuel assembly to examine the effect of burnup on fuel rod oxidation and cladding stress during the power ramp. The maximum oxide thicknesses for the intact two cycle-burned and three cycle-burned fuel rods were measured to be about 70 and 140 μm, respectively, whereas that for the leaking three cycle-burned fuel rod to be about 200 μm. The leaking fuel rods generated a very sharp increase in oxide thickness in the fuel rod upper region having a relatively high axial power, resulting in through-wall axial cracks. The root cause of the fuel rod leaks was evaluated to be the pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI)-induced failure combined with excessive Zry-4 oxidation and cladding stress, based on the evaluations of pellet-clad friction coefficient-dependent cladding hoop stresses after the power ramp following the second trip, measured oxide thicknesses and axial cracks on the cladding surface, a fuel leak initiation time and failed fuel rod locations at the control bank positions.

  20. 13. VIEW FROM COLD CALIBRATION BLOCKHOUSE LOOKING DOWN CONNECTING TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW FROM COLD CALIBRATION BLOCKHOUSE LOOKING DOWN CONNECTING TUNNEL TO COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND BASEMENT, SHOWING HARD WIRE CONNECTION (INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Cold Calibration Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. Negative control of cell division by mreB, a gene that functions in determining the rod shape of Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wachi, M; Matsuhashi, M

    1989-01-01

    Exponentially growing Escherichia coli cells containing additional copies of the shape-determining gene mreB were found to be elongated, whereas mreB mutant cells were spherical and overproduced penicillin-binding protein 3, a septum peptidoglycan synthetase. The effect of the mreB gene on expression of ftsI, the structural gene for penicillin-binding protein 3, was examined by using an ftsI-lacZ fusion gene on a plasmid. Formation of beta-galactosidase from the fusion gene was significantly increased in mreB129 mutant cells, and its overproduction was suppressed to a normal level by the presence of a plasmid containing the mreB gene. These results indicate a negative mechanism of control of cell division by this morphology gene and suggest that the gene functions in determining whether division or elongation of the cells occurs. Images PMID:2656641

  2. Negative control of cell division by mreB, a gene that functions in determining the rod shape of Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Wachi, M; Matsuhashi, M

    1989-06-01

    Exponentially growing Escherichia coli cells containing additional copies of the shape-determining gene mreB were found to be elongated, whereas mreB mutant cells were spherical and overproduced penicillin-binding protein 3, a septum peptidoglycan synthetase. The effect of the mreB gene on expression of ftsI, the structural gene for penicillin-binding protein 3, was examined by using an ftsI-lacZ fusion gene on a plasmid. Formation of beta-galactosidase from the fusion gene was significantly increased in mreB129 mutant cells, and its overproduction was suppressed to a normal level by the presence of a plasmid containing the mreB gene. These results indicate a negative mechanism of control of cell division by this morphology gene and suggest that the gene functions in determining whether division or elongation of the cells occurs.

  3. The SLAC Vertical Comparator for the Calibration of Digital Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Woschitz, Helmut; Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2006-12-06

    Digital levels replaced spirit levels in most fields of precise height measurements because of the automation of the height readings. Three manufacturers offer digital levels with a single reading resolution of 10 {micro}m, and for all of them systematic effects are known. In Europe several facilities for system calibration of digital levels using vertical comparators were established within the last decade. However, there still was no system calibration facility in North America. In order to guarantee the accuracy required for the alignment of experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a calibration facility for the system calibration of digital levels was built. In this paper the setup of the SLAC vertical comparator is described in detail and its standard uncertainty is derived. In order to perform traditional rod calibration of conventional line-scaled rods, a CCD camera was integrated into the SLAC comparator. The CCD camera setup is also briefly described. To demonstrate the capabilities of the comparator, results of system and rod calibration are shown.

  4. Chemotaxis of Nonbiological Colloidal Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yiying; Blackman, Nicole M. K.; Kopp, Nathaniel D.; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell

    2007-10-01

    Chemotaxis is the movement of organisms toward or away from a chemical attractant or toxin by a biased random walk process. Here we describe the first experimental example of chemotaxis outside biological systems. Platinum-gold rods 2.0μm long exhibit directed movement toward higher hydrogen peroxide concentrations through “active diffusion.” Brownian dynamics simulations reveal that no “temporal sensing” algorithm, commonly attributed to bacteria, is necessary; rather, the observed chemotaxis can be explained by random walk physics in a gradient of the active diffusion coefficient.

  5. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  6. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  7. Mechanoresponsive change in photoluminescent color of rod-like liquid-crystalline compounds and control of molecular orientation on photoaligned layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Mizuho; Miura, Seiya; Okumoto, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Mayuko; Fukae, Ryohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we reported novel liquid-crystalline luminophore that switches its photoluminescent color by mechanically grinding. Mechanochromic luminescence (MCL) is expected for mechanical sensor, cellular imaging, detection of microenvironmental changes, and optical memory. In this work, we focused on liquid-crystalline MCL compounds on alignment layer. Controlling the molecular alignment of MCL compounds with photoalignment layer have potential to succeed in functional MCL film such as polarized micropatterned MCL and directional detection of mechanical stimuli. Herein, we prepared asymmetric rodlike MCL compounds containing cyano- and pyridyl molecular terminal and explored their photoluminescence behavior under mechanical stimulus. The cyano terminated compound showed a nematic phase and tuned its photoluminescent color from green to yellow upon grinding, while the pyridyl-terminated compounds that show no mesophase changed its photoluminescent color from blue to green and reverted to its initial color by heating above its melting point. The cyano-terminated MCL was aligned along the orientation direction of photoalignment layer and pyridyl-terminated MCL exhibited uniaxial alignment when it coated on photoaligned film containing carboxylic acid.

  8. How To Make Singing Rods Scream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnix, Richard B.; Carpenter, D. Rae; McNairy, William W.

    1999-11-01

    The singing rod has long been a favorite of physics demonstrators. Longitudinal vibrations are easily excited for mode numbers n = 1 and n = 2 for short rods and even higher mode numbers for rods about a meter or greater in length. Aluminum is favored because of its higher Q, or tendency to maintain its resonance with a minimum of damping. Occasionally one finds by chance that an aluminum rod screams intermittently when one of the transverse modes becomes coupled to the longitudinal mode as a result of an integer ratio between the longitudinal and transverse frequencies. Computer software is now available to Fourier analyze the various waves emanating from a rod and read out the numerical values of the frequencies. This has made it possible to measure the multiplicity of frequencies present when coupling occurs and compare theoretical and experimental values. Demonstrations, with accompanying data on frequencies and mode numbers, will be shown for rods of both circular and square cross section.

  9. Stability and failure analysis of steering tie-rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, GongFeng; Zhang, YiLiang; Xu, XueDong; Ding, DaWei

    2008-11-01

    A new car in operation of only 8,000 km, because of malfunction, resulting in lost control and rammed into the edge of the road, and then the basic vehicle scrapped. According to the investigation of the site, it was found that the tie-rod of the car had been broken. For the subjective analysis of the accident and identifying the true causes of rupture of the tierod, a series of studies, from the angle of theory to experiment on the bended broken tie-rod, were conducted. The mechanical model was established; the stability of the defective tie-rod was simulated based on ANSYS software. Meanwhile, the process of the accident was simulated considering the effect of destabilization of different vehicle speed and direction of the impact. Simultaneously, macro graphic test, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis and SEM analysis of the fracture were implemented. The results showed that: 1) the toughness of the tie-rod is at a normal level, but there is some previous flaws. One quarter of the fracture surface has been cracked before the accident. However, there is no relationship between the flaw and this incident. The direct cause is the dynamic instability leading to the large deformation of impact loading. 2) The declining safety factor of the tie-rod greatly due to the previous flaws; the result of numerical simulation shows that previous flaw is the vital factor of structure instability, on the basis of the comparison of critical loads of the accident tie-rod and normal. The critical load can decrease by 51.3% when the initial defect increases 19.54% on the cross-sectional area, which meets the Theory of Koiter.

  10. Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

  11. Development and Demonstration of a Self-Calibrating Pseudolite Array for Task Level Control of a Planetary Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Stephen M.; LeMaster, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudolites can extend the availability of GPS-type positioning systems to a wide range of applications not possible with satellite-only GPS. One such application is Mars exploration, where the centimeter-level accuracy and high repeatability of CDGPS would make it attractive for rover positioning during autonomous exploration, sample collection, and habitat construction if it were available. Pseudolites distributed on the surface would allow multiple rovers and/or astronauts to share a common navigational reference. This would help enable cooperation for complicated science tasks, reducing the need for instructions from Earth and increasing the likelihood of mission success. Conventional GPS Pseudolite arrays require that the devices be pre-calibrated through a Survey of their locations, typically to sub-centimeter accuracy. This is a problematic task for robots on the surface of another planet. By using the GPS signals that the Pseudolites broadcast, however, it is possible to have the array self-survey its own relative locations, creating a SelfCalibrating Pseudolite Array (SCPA). This requires the use of GPS transceivers instead of standard pseudolites. Surveying can be done either at carrier- or code-phase levels. An overview of SCPA capabilities, system requirements, and self-calibration algorithms is presented in another work. The Aerospace Robotics Laboratory at Statif0id has developed a fully operational prototype SCPA. The array is able to determine the range between any two transceivers with either code- or carrier-phase accuracy, and uses this inter-transceiver ranging to determine the at-ray geometry. This paper presents results from field tests conducted at Stanford University demonstrating the accuracy of inter-transceiver ranging and its viability and utility for array localization, and shows how transceiver motion may be utilized to refine the array estimate by accurately determining carrier-phase integers and line biases. It also summarizes the

  12. Growth and Morphology of Rod Eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Teng; Shan Liu; R. Trivedi

    2008-03-17

    The formation of rod eutectic microstructure is investigated systematically in a succinonitrile-camphor alloy of eutectic composition by using the directional solidification technique. A new rod eutectic configuration is observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. Two different orientations of the ellipse are observed that differ by a 90{sup o} rotation such that the major and the minor axes are interchanged. Critical experiments in thin samples, where a single layer of rods forms, show that the spacing and orientation of the elliptic rods are governed by the growth rate and the sample thickness. In thicker samples, multi layers of rods form with circular cross-section and the scaling law between the spacing and velocity predicted by the Jackson and Hunt model is validated. A theoretical model is developed for a two-dimensional array of elliptical rods that are arranged in a hexagonal or a square array, and the results are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. The model of elliptic rods is also shown to reduce to that for the circular rod eutectic when the lengths of the two axes are equal, and to the lamellar eutectic model when one of the axes is much larger than the other one.

  13. Rod-climbing effect in Newtonian fluids.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Daniel; Kobylko, Mathias; Bohn, Steffen; Meunier, Jacques; Morozov, Alexander; van Saarloos, Wim

    2004-11-19

    When a rotating rod is brought into a polymer melt or concentrated polymer solution, the meniscus climbs the rod. This spectacular rod climbing is due to the normal stresses present in the polymer fluid and is thus a purely non-Newtonian effect. A similar rod climbing of an interface between two fluids has therefore been taken as a signature that one of the fluids exhibits normal stress effects. We show here, however, that the effect can occur with simple Newtonian fluids: it occurs when a Taylor-Couette instability happens in the less viscous of the two liquids but not in the more viscous one.

  14. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed.

  15. Equations determine reasonable rod pump submergence depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongquan; Cai Wizhong

    1997-03-24

    A reasonable rod pump submergence depth can be calculated by combining fluid level changes with piston travel. Submergence depth is affected by the pump fill factor, reservoir fluid viscosity, rod pump type, and pumping parameters such as pump diameter, polished-rod stroke length, and pumping speed. Fluid level velocity can be obtained with an energy balance, and piston travel rate is based on the polished-rod travel. The paper describes the pump fill factor, piston travel velocity, fluid level rise, flow coefficient, reasonable submergence depth, and results from equations.

  16. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest; Pardini, John A.; Walker, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  17. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  18. Biomolecular rods and tubes in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Alexander M.

    2005-02-01

    Biomolecules are vitally important elements in nanoscale science and also in future nanotechnology. Their shape and their chemical and physical functionality can give them a big advantage over inorganic and organic substances. While this becomes most obvious in proteins and peptides, with their complicated, but easily controlled chemistry, other biomolecular substances such as DNA, lipids and carbohydrates can also be important. In this review, the emphasis is on one-dimensional molecules and on molecules that self-assemble into linear structures, and on their potential applications. An important aspect is that biomolecules can act as templates, i.e. their shape and chemical properties can be employed to arrange inorganic substances such as metals or metal compounds on the nanometre scale. In particular, rod- and tube-like nanostructures can show physical properties that are different from those of the bulk material, and thus these structures are likely to be a basis for new technology.

  19. Biomolecular rods and tubes in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Alexander M

    2005-02-01

    Biomolecules are vitally important elements in nanoscale science and also in future nanotechnology. Their shape and their chemical and physical functionality can give them a big advantage over inorganic and organic substances. While this becomes most obvious in proteins and peptides, with their complicated, but easily controlled chemistry, other biomolecular substances such as DNA, lipids and carbohydrates can also be important. In this review, the emphasis is on one-dimensional molecules and on molecules that self-assemble into linear structures, and on their potential applications. An important aspect is that biomolecules can act as templates, i.e. their shape and chemical properties can be employed to arrange inorganic substances -- such as metals or metal compounds -- on the nanometre scale. In particular, rod- and tube-like nanostructures can show physical properties that are different from those of the bulk material, and thus these structures are likely to be a basis for new technology.

  20. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT OF MARSSIM FIELD CALIBRATION FOR QUANTIFICATION OF CS-137 VOLUMETRICALLY CONTAMINATED SOILS IN THE BC CONTROLLED AREA USING 2 BY 2 SODIUM IODIDE DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    PAPPIN JL

    2007-10-26

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Technical Basis and Documentation for Field Calibrations of radiation measurement equipment for use in the MARSSIM Seeping Surveys of the BC Controlled Area (BCCA). The Be Controlled Area is bounded on tt1e north by (but does not include) the BCCribs & Trenches and is bounded on the south by Army Loop Road. Parts of the BC Controlled Area are posted as a Contamination Area and the remainder is posted as a Soil Contamination Area. The area is approximately 13 square miles and divided into three zones (Zone A , Zone B. and Zone C). A map from reference 1 which shows the 3 zones is attached. The MARSSIM Scoping Surveys are intended 10 better identify the boundaries of the three zones based on the volumetric (pCi/g) contamination levels in the soil. The MARSSIM Field Calibration. reference 2. of radiation survey instrumentation will determine the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) and an algorithm for converting counts to pCi/g. The instrumentation and corresponding results are not intended for occupational radiation protection decisions or for the release of property per DOE Order 5400.5.