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Sample records for control rod patterns

  1. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.; Ross, H.V.

    1958-11-18

    A control rod is described for a nuclear reactor. In certaln reactor designs it becomes desirable to use a control rod having great width but relatively llttle thickness. This patent is addressed to such a need. The neutron absorbing material is inserted in a triangular tube, leaving volds between the circular insert and the corners of the triangular tube. The material is positioned within the tube by the use of dummy spacers to achleve the desired absorption pattern, then the ends of the tubes are sealed with suitable plugs. The tubes may be welded or soldered together to form two flat surfaces of any desired width, and covered with sheetmetal to protect the tubes from damage. This design provides a control member that will not distort under the action of outside forces or be ruptured by gases generated within the jacketed control member.

  2. Optimization of boiling water reactor control rod patterns using linear search

    SciTech Connect

    Kiguchi, T.; Doi, K.; Fikuzaki, T.; Frogner, B.; Lin, C.; Long, A.B.

    1984-10-01

    A computer program for searching the optimal control rod pattern has been developed. The program is able to find a control rod pattern where the resulting power distribution is optimal in the sense that it is the closest to the desired power distribution, and it satisfies all operational constraints. The search procedure consists of iterative uses of two steps: sensitivity analyses of local power and thermal margins using a three-dimensional reactor simulator for a simplified prediction model; linear search for the optimal control rod pattern with the simplified model. The optimal control rod pattern is found along the direction where the performance index gradient is the steepest. This program has been verified to find the optimal control rod pattern through simulations using operational data from the Oyster Creek Reactor.

  3. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  4. Control rod drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  5. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  6. CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT

    DOEpatents

    Thorp, A.G. II

    1962-08-01

    An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

  7. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  8. Control rod driveline and grapple

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A control rod driveline and grapple is disclosed for placement between a control rod drive and a nuclear reactor control rod containing poison for parasitic neutron absorption required for reactor shutdown. The control rod is provided with an enlarged cylindrical handle which terminates in an upwardly extending rod to provide a grapple point for the driveline. The grapple mechanism includes a tension rod which receives the upwardly extending handle and is provided with a lower annular flange. A plurality of preferably six grapple segments surround and grip the control rod handle. Each grapple rod segment grips the flange on the tension rod at an interior upper annular indentation, bears against the enlarged cylindrical handle at an intermediate annulus and captures the upwardly flaring frustum shaped handle at a lower and complementary female segment. The tension rods and grapple segments are surrounded by and encased within a cylinder. The cylinder terminates immediately and outward extending annulus at the lower portion of the grapple segments. Excursion of the tension rod relative to the encasing cylinder causes rod release at the handle by permitting the grapple segments to pivot outwardly and about the annulus on the tension rod so as to open the lower defined frustum shaped annulus and drop the rod. Relative movement between the tension rod and cylinder can occur either due to electromagnetic release of the tension rod within defined limits of travel or differential thermal expansion as between the tension rod and cylinder as where the reactor exceeds design thermal limits.

  9. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  10. SAFETY SYSTEM FOR CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.

    1963-05-14

    A structure for monitoring the structural continuity of a control rod foi a neutron reactor is presented. A electric conductor readily breakable under mechanical stress is fastened along the length of the control rod at a plurality of positions and forms a closed circuit with remote electrical components responsive to an open circuit. A portion of the conductor between the control rod and said components is helically wound to allow free and normally unrestricted movement of the segment of conductor secured to the control rod relative to the remote components. Any break in the circuit is indicative of control rod breakage. (AEC)

  11. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  12. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  13. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

    1959-12-15

    ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

  14. Inverted Control Rod Lock-In Device

    DOEpatents

    Brussalis, W. G.; Bost, G. E.

    1962-12-01

    A mechanism which prevents control rods from dropping out of the reactor core in the event the vessel in which the reactor is mounted should capsize is described. The mechanism includes a pivoted toothed armature which engages the threaded control rod lead screw and prevents removal of the rod whenever the armature is not attracted by the provided electromagnetic means. (AEC)

  15. Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

  16. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  17. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  18. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  19. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  20. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  1. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing.

  2. Variable flow control for a nuclear reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, Richard D.; Bhattacharyya, Ajay

    1978-01-01

    A variable flow control for a control rod assembly of a nuclear reactor that depends on turbulent friction though an annulus. The annulus is formed by a piston attached to the control rod drive shaft and a housing or sleeve fitted to the enclosure housing the control rod. As the nuclear fuel is burned up and the need exists for increased reactivity, the control rods are withdrawn, which increases the length of the annulus and decreases the rate of coolant flow through the control rod assembly.

  3. VARIABLE AREA CONTROL ROD FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Huston, N.E.

    1960-05-01

    A control rod is described which permits continual variation of its absorbing strength uniformly along the length of the rod. The rod is fail safe and is fully inserted into the core but changes in its absorbing strength do not produce axial flux distortion. The control device comprises a sheet containing a material having a high thermal-neutron absorption cross section. A pair of shafts engage the sheet along the longitudinal axis of the shafts and gears associated with the shafts permit winding and unwinding of the sheet around the shafts.

  4. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Roman, Walter G.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1979-01-01

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod.

  5. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  6. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1986-01-01

    A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  7. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  8. Nuclear reactor remote disconnect control rod coupling indicator

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael

    1977-01-01

    A coupling indicator for use with nuclear reactor control rod assemblies which have remotely disengageable couplings between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling indicator indicates whether the control rod and the control rod drive shaft are engaged or disengaged. A resistive network, utilizing magnetic reed switches, senses the position of the control rod drive mechanism lead screw and the control rod position indicating tube, and the relative position of these two elements with respect to each other is compared to determine whether the coupling is engaged or disengaged.

  9. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  10. Control rod drive for reactor shutdown

    DOEpatents

    McKeehan, Ernest R.; Shawver, Bruce M.; Schiro, Donald J.; Taft, William E.

    1976-01-20

    A means for rapidly shutting down or scramming a nuclear reactor, such as a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, and serves as a backup to the primary shutdown system. The control rod drive consists basically of an in-core assembly, a drive shaft and seal assembly, and a control drive mechanism. The control rod is driven into the core region of the reactor by gravity and hydraulic pressure forces supplied by the reactor coolant, thus assuring that common mode failures will not interfere with or prohibit scramming the reactor when necessary.

  11. HIGH STRENGTH CONTROL RODS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Lustman, B.; Losco, E.F.; Cohen, I.

    1961-07-11

    Nuclear reactor control rods comprised of highly compressed and sintered finely divided metal alloy panticles and fine metal oxide panticles substantially uniformly distributed theretbrough are described. The metal alloy consists essentially of silver, indium, cadmium, tin, and aluminum, the amount of each being present in centain percentages by weight. The oxide particles are metal oxides of the metal alloy composition, the amount of oxygen being present in certain percentages by weight and all the oxygen present being substantially in the form of metal oxide. This control rod is characterized by its high strength and resistance to creep at elevated temperatures.

  12. CONTROL ROD ALLOY CONTAINING NOBLE METAL ADDITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.K.; Ray, W.E.

    1960-05-01

    Silver-base alloys suitable for use in the fabrication of control rods for neutronic reactors are given. The alloy consists of from 0.5 wt.% to about 1.5 wt.% of a noble metal of platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, or palladium, up to 10 wt.% of cadmium, from 2 to 20 wt.% indium, the balance being silver.

  13. CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.; Liederbach, F.J.; Lones, W.

    1963-05-14

    A lead-screw-type control rod drive featuring an electric motor and a fluid motor arranged to provide a selectably alternative driving means is described. The electric motor serves to drive the control rod slowly during normal operation, while the fluid motor, assisted by an automatic declutching of the electric motor, affords high-speed rod insertion during a scram. (AEC)

  14. Rebirth of a control rod at the Phenix power plant

    SciTech Connect

    De Carvalho, Corinne; Vignau, Bernard; Masson, Marc

    2007-07-01

    This paper outlines the operations involved in cleaning the control rod for the complementary shutdown system in the Phenix Power Plant, the French sodium-cooled fast reactor. The Phenix reactor is controlled by six control rods and a complementary shutdown system. The latter comprises a control rod and a mechanism maintaining the rod in position by means of an electromagnet. The electromagnet is continuously supplied with power and holds the rod control assembly in position by magnetisation on a plane circular surface made from pure iron. The bearing capacity of the mechanism on the rod was initially 80 daN with a rod weight of 26.3 daN. This deteriorated progressively over time. The bearing surface of the rod and the electromagnet became contaminated with a deposit of sodium oxides and metallic particles, thus creating an air gap. This reached a figure of 36 daN in 2005 and was deemed not to be sufficient to prevent the rod from dropping at the wrong time during reactor operation. The Power Plant thus decided to replace the rod mechanism in the reactor in an initial phase, followed by the control rod itself. As the Phenix Power Plant had no spare control rods left, they initiated a 'salvage' plan, over two stages, for the rod removed from the reactor and placed in the fuel storage drum: - Inspection of the bearing surface of the rod by means of a borescope to check whether the rod could be salvaged, - A cleaning operation on the bearing face and checks on the bearing capacity of the rod. The operation is subject to very stringent requirements: the rod must not be taken out of the sodium to ensure that it can be reused in the reactor. The operation must thus take place in the fuel storage drum where there are no facilities for such an operation and where operating conditions are very hostile: high temperatures (the sodium in the fuel storage drum is at a temperature of 150 deg. C, high dose rate (3 mGy/h on the bearing surface) and the bearing surface is submerged

  15. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bilibin, Konstantin

    1988-01-01

    A temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly 10. The upper end 18 of a lower drive line 17 fits within the lower end of an upper drive line 12. The lower end (not shown) of the lower drive line 17 is connected to a neutron absorber. During normal temperature conditions the lower drive line 17 is supported by detent means 22,26. When an overtemperature condition occurs thermal actuation means 34 urges ring 26 upwardly sufficiently to allow balls 22 to move radially outwardly thereby allowing lower drive line 17 to move downwardly toward the core of the nuclear reactor resulting in automatic reduction of the reactor powder.

  16. Approximation in LQG control of a thermoelastic rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.; Tao, G.

    1989-01-01

    Control and estimator gains are computed for linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) optimal control of the axial vibrations of a thermoelastic rod. The computations are based on a modal approximation of the partial differential equations representing the rod, and convergence of the approximations to control and estimator gains is the main issue.

  17. CONTROL ROD FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Hausner, H.H.

    1958-12-30

    BS>An improved control rod is presented for a nuclear reactor. This control rod is comprised of a rare earth metal oxide or rare earth metal carbide such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium carbide, uniformly distributed in a metal matrix having a low cross sectional area of absorption for thermal neutrons, such as aluminum, beryllium, and zirconium.

  18. DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING INSERTION OF ROD

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, B.J.

    1958-10-14

    A device for rapidly inserting a safety rod into a nuclear reactor upon a given signal or in the event of a power failure in order to prevent the possibility of extensive damage caused by a power excursion is described. A piston is slidably mounted within a vertical cylinder with provision for an electromagnetic latch at the top of the cylinder. This assembly, with a safety rod attached to the piston, is mounted over an access port to the core region of the reactor. The piston is normally latched at the top of the cylinder with the safety rod clear of the core area, however, when the latch is released, the piston and rod drop by their own weight to insert the rod. Vents along the side of the cylinder permit the escape of the air entrapped under the piston over the greater part of the distance, however, at the end of the fall the entrapped air is compressed thereby bringing the safety rod gently to rest, thus providing for a rapid automatic insertion of the rod with a minimum of structural shock.

  19. COAXIAL CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-04-14

    A drive mechanism is presented for the control rod or a nuclear reactor. In this device the control rod is coupled to a drive shaft which extends coaxially through the rotor of an electric motor for relative rotation with respect thereto. A gear reduction mehanism is coupled between the rotor and the drive shaft to convert the rotary motion of the motor into linear motion of the shaft with a comparatively great reduction in speed, thereby providing relatively glow linear movement of the shaft and control rod for control purposes.

  20. Simplified modeling of the EBR-II control rods

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, P.L.

    1995-06-25

    Simplified models of EBR-II control and safety rods have been developed for core modeling under various operational and shutdown conditions. A parametric study was performed on normal worth, high worth, and safety rod type control rods. A summary of worth changes due to individual modeling approximations is tabulated. Worth effects due to structural modeling simplification are negligible. Fuel region homogenization and burnup compression contributes more than any other factor. Reference case C/E values (ratio of calculated worth from detailed model to measured worth) of 1.072 and 1.142 for safety and normal worth rods indicate acceptable errors when the approximations are used. Fuel burnup effect illustrates rod worth sensitivity to the modeling approximation. Aggregate effects are calculated under a reduced mesh.

  1. Cleaning and excavating tool for control rod canopy seals

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, R.A.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a device for servicing a weld site about the periphery of a control rod drive mechanism. It comprises a housing adapted to be rotated about the periphery of the control rod drive mechanism; a carriage reciprocably received within the housing; first movement means for reciprocating the carriage in a first direction; a tool attachment reciprocably received within the carriage; and second movement means for reciprocating the tool in a second direction; wherein the tool attachment is positioned relative to the control rod drive mechanism by the first and second movement means.

  2. Experimental investigations on a tapered ferrite rod antenna with magnetic phase control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petosa, A.; Wight, J. S.; Ittipiboon, A.

    1994-08-01

    Experimental investigations were performed on a tapered ferrite rod antenna at 20 GHz. By inserting a section of the rod into a solenoid, phase control was achieved by varying the applied DC solenoid current. Phase shifts of greater than 100 deg/lambda(0) were attained. The gain and radiation patterns did not change significantly with the applied bias. The return loss was somewhat more sensitive, but a better than 10dB return loss was obtained over the complete bias range.

  3. Fatigue Life Improving of Drill Rod by Inclusion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yinghao

    2016-08-01

    Large and hard inclusions often deteriorate the service performance and reduce the fatigue lifetime of drill rods. In this paper, the main reasons of the rupture of drill rods were analyzed by the examination of their fracture and it is found that the large inclusions were the main reason of breakage of rod drill. The inclusions were high of Ca content or Al2O3 rich. Smaller and better deformability inclusions were obtained by the optimization of refining slag, calcium treatment process and the flow control devices of tundish. Results of industrial experiment after optimization show that total oxygen content of drill rods decreased by more than 50%, macro-inclusions weight fraction decreased from about 4 mg/10 kg to about 0.3 mg/10 kg and the micro-inclusions average size decreased from 6 to 3.6 μm. The average using times of drill rods after optimization were increased by about 60%.

  4. Safety analysis forseismic motion of control rods accounting for rod misalignment

    SciTech Connect

    Osmin, W.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the results of three safety analyses performed by the SRL Safety Analysis Group (SAG) to assess the safety impact of control rod motion induced by a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE).

  5. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear motion device, more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core, is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  6. ALLOY COMPOSITION FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL RODS

    DOEpatents

    Lustman, B.; Losco, E.F.; Snyder, H.J.; Eggleston, R.R.

    1963-01-22

    This invention relates to alloy compositons suitable as cortrol rod material consisting of, by weight, from 85% to 85% Ag, from 2% to 20% In, from up to 10% of Cd, from up to 5% Sn, and from up to 1.5% Al, the amount of each element employed being determined by the equation X + 2Y + 3Z + 3W + 4V = 1.4 and less, where X, Y, Z, W, and V represent the atom fractions of the elements Ag, Cd, In, Al and Sn. (AEC)

  7. Dysprosium titanate as an absorber material for control rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risovany, V. D.; Varlashova, E. E.; Suslov, D. N.

    2000-09-01

    Disprosium titanate is an attractive control rod material for the thermal neutron reactors. Its main advantages are: insignificant swelling, no out-gassing under neutron irradiation, rather high neutron efficiency, a high melting point (˜1870°C), non-interaction with the cladding at temperatures above 1000°C, simple fabrication and easily reprocessed non-radioactive waste. It can be used in control rods as pellets and powder. The disprosium titanate control rods have worked off in the MIR reactor for 17 years, in VVER-1000 - for 4 years without any operating problems. After post-irradiation examinations this type of control rod having high lifetime was recommended for the VVER and RBMK. The paper presents the examination results of absorber element dummies containing dysprosium titanate, irradiated in the SM reactor to the neutron fluence of 3.4×10 22 cm -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) and, also, the data on structure, thermal-physical properties of dysprosium titanate, efficiency of dysprosium titanate control rods.

  8. Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Rolf; Heflin, Stephanie J; Hammond, Timothy; Lee, Bowa; Wang, Jing; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Eggers, Erika D; Frishman, Laura J; McCall, Maureen A; Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2011-10-06

    Dark and light adaptation of retinal neurons allow our vision to operate over an enormous light intensity range. Here we report a mechanism that controls the light sensitivity and operational range of rod-driven bipolar cells that mediate dim-light vision. Our data indicate that the light responses of these cells are enhanced by sustained chloride currents via GABA(C) receptor channels. This sensitizing GABAergic input is controlled by dopamine D1 receptors, with horizontal cells serving as a plausible source of GABA release. Our findings expand the role of dopamine in vision from its well-established function of suppressing rod-driven signals in bright light to enhancing the same signals under dim illumination. They further reveal a role for GABA in sensitizing the circuitry for dim-light vision, thereby complementing GABA's traditional role in providing dynamic feedforward and feedback inhibition in the retina.

  9. Fabrication of control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a research-type nuclear reactor that was designed and built in the early 1960s and has been in continuous operation since its initial criticality in 1965. Under current plans, the HFIR is expected to continue in operation until 2035. This report updates ORNL/TM-9365, Fabrication Procedure for HFIR Control Plates, which was mainly prepared in the early 1970's but was not issued until 1984, and reflects process changes, lessons learned in the latest control rod fabrication campaign, and suggested process improvements to be considered in future campaigns. Most of the personnel involved with the initial development of the processes and in part campaigns have retired or will retire soon. Because their unlikely availability in future campaigns, emphasis has been placed on providing some explanation of why the processes were selected and some discussions about the importance of controlling critical process parameters. Contained in this report is a description of the function of control rods in the reactor, the brief history of the development of control rod fabrication processes, and a description of procedures used in the fabrication of control rods. A listing of the controlled documents and procedures used in the last fabrication campaigns is referenced in Appendix A.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD AND METHOD OF FABRICATION

    DOEpatents

    Porembka, S.W. Jr.

    1961-06-27

    A reactor control rod formed from a compacted powder dispersion is patented. The rod consists of titanium sheathed with a cladding alloy. The cladding alloy contains 1.3% to 1.6% by weight of tin, 0.07% to 0.12% by weight of chromium, 0.04% to 0.08% by weight of nickel, 0.09% to 0.16% by weight of iron, carbon not exceeding 0.05%, less than 0.5% by weight of incidental impurities, and the balance zirconium.

  11. VIEW OF CABLES AND TAPES ASSOCIATED WITH ADRIVE CONTROL ROD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CABLES AND TAPES ASSOCIATED WITH A-DRIVE CONTROL ROD SYSTEM, AT LEVEL +15’, DIRECTLY ABOVE PDP CONTROL ROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE CABLES FROM THE PDP ROOM GO THROUGH THE CONCRETE WALL, MAKE A RIGHT ANGLE TURN DOWNWARD, AND DESCEND INTO THE PDP CONTROL ROOM AS VERTICAL TAPES - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  12. Linear motion device and method for inserting and withdrawing control rods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    Disclosed is a linear motion device and more specifically a control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) for inserting and withdrawing control rods into a reactor core. The CRDM and method disclosed is capable of independently and sequentially positioning two sets of control rods with a single motor stator and rotor. The CRDM disclosed can control more than one control rod lead screw without incurring a substantial increase in the size of the mechanism.

  13. Implementation of CTRLPOS, a VENTURE module for control rod position criticality searches, control rod worth curve calculations, and general criticality searches

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    A module in the VENTURE reactor analysis code system, CTRLPOS, is developed to position control rods and perform control rod position criticality searches. The module is variably dimensioned so that calculations can be performed with any number of control rod banks each having any number of control rods. CTRLPOS can also calculate control rod worth curves for a single control rod or a bank of control rods. Control rod depletion can be calculated to provide radiation source terms. These radiation source terms can be used to predict radiation doses to personnel and estimate the shielding and long-term storage requirements for spent control rods. All of these operations are completely automated. The numerous features of the module are discussed in detail. The necessary input data for the CTRLPOS module is explained. Several sample problems are presented to show the flexibility of the module. The results presented with the sample problems show that the CTRLPOS module is a powerful tool which allows a wide variety of calculations to be easily performed.

  14. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    SciTech Connect

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes, in a reconstitutable control assembly for use with a nuclear fuel assembly, the control assembly including a spider structure and at least one control rod, an attachment joint for detachable fastening the control rod to the spider structure. The attachment joint comprising: a hollow connecting finger on the spider structure; and an elongated detachable split upper end plug on the control rod having a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions, the upper plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly- arranged upper, middle and lower sections. The lower plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly-arranged upper, middle and lower segments.

  15. Internal Control Rod Drive Mechanisms, Design Options for IRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2004-07-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a medium-power (335 MWe) PWR with an integral, primary circuit configuration, where all the reactor coolant system components are contained within the reactor vessel. This integral configuration is a key reason for the success of IRIS' 'safety-by-design' approach, whereby accident initiators are eliminated or the accident consequences and/or frequency are reduced. The most obvious example of the IRIS safety by design approach is the elimination of large LOCA's, since the integral reactor coolant system has no large loop piping. Another serious accident scenario that is being addressed in IRIS is the postulated ejection of a reactor control cluster assembly (RCCA). This accident initiator can be eliminated by locating the RCCA drive mechanisms (CRDMs) inside the reactor vessel. This eliminates the mechanical drive rod penetration between the RCCA and the external CRDM, eliminating the potential for differential pressure across the pressure boundary, and thus eliminating 'by design' the possibility for rod ejection accident. Moreover, the elimination of the 'large' drive-rod penetrations and the external CRDM pressure housings decreases the likelihood of boric acid leakage and subsequent corrosion of the reactor pressure boundary (like the Davis-Besse incident). This paper will discuss the IRIS top level design requirements and objectives for internal CRDMs, and provide examples candidate designs and their specific performance characteristics. (authors)

  16. Control rod system useable for fuel handling in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.

    1976-11-30

    A control rod and its associated drive are used to elevate a complete stack of fuel blocks to a position above the core of a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. A fuel-handling machine grasps the control rod and the drive is unlatched from the rod. The stack and rod are transferred out of the reactor, or to a new location in the reactor, by the fuel-handling machine.

  17. Mesoscale pattern formation of self-propelled rods with velocity reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Großmann, Robert; Peruani, Fernando; Bär, Markus

    2016-11-01

    We study self-propelled particles with velocity reversal interacting by uniaxial (nematic) alignment within a coarse-grained hydrodynamic theory. Combining analytical and numerical continuation techniques, we show that the physics of this active system is essentially controlled by the reversal frequency. In particular, we find that elongated, high-density, ordered patterns, called bands, emerge via subcritical bifurcations from spatially homogeneous states. Our analysis reveals further that the interaction of bands is weakly attractive and, consequently, bands fuse upon collision in analogy with nonequilibrium nucleation processes. Moreover, we demonstrate that a renormalized positive line tension can be assigned to stable bands below a critical reversal rate, beyond which they are transversally unstable. In addition, we discuss the kinetic roughening of bands as well as their nonlinear dynamics close to the threshold of transversal instability. Altogether, the reduction of the multiparticle system onto the dynamics of bands provides a unified framework to understand the emergence and stability of nonequilibrium patterns in this self-propelled particle system. In this regard, our results constitute a proof of principle in favor of the hypothesis in microbiology that velocity reversal of gliding rod-shaped bacteria regulates the transitions between various self-organized patterns observed during the bacterial life cycle.

  18. Comparison of a center and off-center BWR control rod drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.M.; Neogy, P.; Carew, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    A BWR control rod drop accident (RDA) induces a rapid core power transient involving strong neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupling, which requires a detailed multi-dimensional spatial kinetics analysis. Typical two-dimensional (r,z) RDA calculations require that the dropped rod be a center rod, as a result of geometric limitations, while in three-dimensional (x,y,z) calculations the dropped rod is generally taken to be the center rod in order to allow a quarter-core representation and limit computer running times. However, for typical BWR core loadings, the highest worth rod is not necessarily the center rod and it is not known, a priori, what effect this difference in spatial location has on the RDA dynamics. In order to evaluate the effects of this simplification, three-dimensional RAMONA-3B calculations have been performed for both a center and off-center control rod drop accident.

  19. Analysis of High Temperature Reactor Control Rod Worth for the Initial and Full Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktajianto, Hammam; Setiawati, Evi; Anam, Khoirul; Sugito, Heri

    2017-01-01

    Control rod is one important component in a nuclear reactor. In nuclear reactor operations the control rod functions to shut down the reactor. This research analyses ten control rods worth of HTR (High Temperature Reactor) at initial and full core. The HTR in this research adopts HTR-10 China and HTR- of pebble bed. Core calculations are performed by using MCNPX code after modelling the entire parts of core in condition of ten control rods fully withdrawn, all control rods in with 20 cm ranges of depth and the use of one control rod. Pebble bed and moderator balls are distributed in the core zone using a Body Centred Cubic (BCC) lattice by ratio of 57:43. The research results are obtained that the use of one control rod will decrease the reactor criticality of 2.04±0.12 %Δk/k at initial core and 1.57±0.10 %Δk/k at full core. The deeper control rods are in, the lesser criticality of reactor is with reactivity of ten control rods of 16.41±0.11 %Δk/k at initial core and 15.43±0.11 %Δk/k at full core. The results show that the use of ten control rods at full core will keep achieving subcritical condition even though the reactivity is smaller than reactivity at initial core.

  20. Underwater characterization of control rods for waste disposal using SMOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Gallozzi-Ulmann, A.; Couturier, P.; Amgarou, K.; Rothan, D.; Menaa, N.; Chard, P.

    2015-07-01

    Storage of spent fuel assemblies in cooling ponds requires careful control of the geometry and proximity of adjacent assemblies. Measurement of the fuel burnup makes it possible to optimise the storage arrangement of assemblies taking into account the effect of the burnup on the criticality safety margins ('burnup credit'). Canberra has developed a measurement system for underwater measurement of spent fuel assemblies. This system, known as 'SMOPY', performs burnup measurements based on gamma spectroscopy (collimated CZT detector) and neutron counting (fission chamber). The SMOPY system offers a robust and waterproof detection system as well as the needed capability of performing radiometric measurements in the harsh high dose - rate environments of the cooling ponds. The gamma spectroscopy functionality allows powerful characterization measurements to be performed, in addition to burnup measurement. Canberra has recently performed waste characterisation measurements at a Nuclear Power Plant. Waste activity assessment is important to control costs and risks of shipment and storage, to ensure that the activity level remains in the range allowed by the facility, and to declare activity data to authorities. This paper describes the methodology used for the SMOPY measurements and some preliminary results of a radiological characterisation of AIC control rods. After describing the features and normal operation of the SMOPY system, we describe the approach used for establishing an optimum control rod geometric scanning approach (optimum count time and speed) and the method of the gamma spectrometry measurements as well as neutron check measurements used to verify the absence of neutron sources in the waste. We discuss the results obtained including {sup 60}Co, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 108m}Ag activity profiles (along the length of the control rods) and neutron results including Total Measurement Uncertainty evaluations. Full self-consistency checks were performed and these

  1. Final Report: Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Rowsell, David Leon

    2015-06-01

    This report documents the Contractor Readiness Assessment (CRA) for TREAT Fuel Movement and Control Rod Drives Isolation. The review followed the approved Plan of Action (POA) and Implementation Plan (IP) using the identified core requirements. The activity was limited scope focusing on the control rod drives functional isolation and fuel element movement. The purpose of this review is to ensure the facility's readiness to move fuel elements thus supporting inspection and functionally isolate the control rod drives to maintain the required shutdown margin.

  2. Control rod heterogeneity effects in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors: Method developments and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, M.; Granget, G.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Soule, R.

    1988-11-01

    The control rod worth assessment in a large liquid-metal fast breeder reactor is strongly dependent on the actual arrangement of the absorber pins inside the control rod subassemblies. The so-called heterogeneity effects (i.e., the effects on the rod reactivity of the actual rod internal geometry versus homogenization of the absorber atoms over all the subassembly volume) have been evaluated, using explicit and variational methods to derive appropriate cross sections. An experimental program performed at the MASURCA facility has been used to validate these methods.

  3. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    SciTech Connect

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes, for use in facilitating replacement of a neutron absorber control rod on a control assembly spider structure, an end plug. It comprises a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions; the upper section of the upper plug portion being configured for rigid attachment; the middle section of the upper plug portion having angularly displaced flat surfaces formed on the exterior.

  4. Independent safety evaluation of the CR562 (CR6) control rod test

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    This report documents the Independent Safety Evaluation performed for the CR562 control rod. CR562 is a reference Series II control rod which has been designated as an experiment (CR-6) since post- irradiation examination has been planned as part of the surveillance program for FFTF control rods. Prior analysis as an experiment has not been required since the test operated within the Technical Specification Limits up to this time. The control rod will be operated beyond the Technical Specification fluence limit during the last 30 days of Cycle 10B. A TDD-1A has been written to support this extension, and this ISE documents the independent review. A similar procedure was used for the CR544 control rod. 9 refs.

  5. Effect of component aging on PWR control rod drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.; Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of PWR control rod drive (CRD) systems has been completed as part of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the Babcock Wilcox (B W), Combustion Engineering (CE), and Westinghouse (W) systems were evaluated to determine the potential for degradation as each system ages. Operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. This, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and operating environment, demonstrate that each design is subject to degradation, which if left unchecked, could affect its safety function as the plant ages. An industry survey, conducted with the assistance of EPRI and NUMARC, identified current CRD system maintenance and inspection practices. The results of this survey indicate that some plants have performed system modifications, replaced components, or augmented existing preventive maintenance practices in response to system aging. The survey results also supported the operating experience data, which concluded that the timely replacement of degraded components, prior to failure, was not always possible using existing condition monitoring techniques. The recommendations presented in this study also include a discussion of more advanced monitoring techniques, which provide trendable results capable of detecting aging.

  6. Effect of component aging on PWR control rod drive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.; Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1992-06-01

    An aging assessment of PWR control rod drive (CRD) systems has been completed as part of the US NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the Babcock & Wilcox (B & W), Combustion Engineering (CE), and Westinghouse (W) systems were evaluated to determine the potential for degradation as each system ages. Operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. This, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and operating environment, demonstrate that each design is subject to degradation, which if left unchecked, could affect its safety function as the plant ages. An industry survey, conducted with the assistance of EPRI and NUMARC, identified current CRD system maintenance and inspection practices. The results of this survey indicate that some plants have performed system modifications, replaced components, or augmented existing preventive maintenance practices in response to system aging. The survey results also supported the operating experience data, which concluded that the timely replacement of degraded components, prior to failure, was not always possible using existing condition monitoring techniques. The recommendations presented in this study also include a discussion of more advanced monitoring techniques, which provide trendable results capable of detecting aging.

  7. Ultrasound control of magnet growing rod distraction in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez Cervera, T; Lirola Criado, J F; Farrington Rueda, D M

    2016-01-01

    The growing rod technique is currently one of the most common procedures used in the management of early onset scoliosis. However, in order to preserve spine growth and control the deformity it requires frequent surgeries to distract the rods. Magnetically driven growing rods have recently been introduced with same treatment goal, but without the inconvenience of repeated surgical distractions. One of the limitations of this technical advance is an increase in radiation exposure due to the increase in distraction frequency compared to conventional growing rods. An improvement of the original technique is presented, proposing a solution to the inconvenience of multiple radiation exposure using ultrasound technology to control the distraction process of magnetically driven growing rods.

  8. A survey of control rod measurements in ZPPR and their analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accurate prediction of control rod worths has been of great concern in the United States. Optimum control configurations need to balance several often conflicting requirements of control through the operating cycle, while maintaining acceptable power shapes, safety considerations of overriding importance, together with seeking economy by minimizing the number of rods, reducing boron enrichment and lengthening replacement intervals. After control and shutdown requirements have been met, the most important safety concern is the transient overpower condition (TOP) which may be initiated by uncontrolled run-out of a primary rod. Stringent criteria for the primary and secondary systems may be that they are independently capable of shutting down the reactor even with one rod stuck. The TOP initiator may be greatly enhanced by control rod interaction effects. Control rod effects may have a strong impact on core design. For example, work on the integral fast reactor with metallic fuel at ANL has studied core designs which minimize the TOP reactivity by maintaining a minimum primary control bank insertion through tailoring the internal breeding gain. The predicted control rod worths are very sensitive to the calculation methods used and to the accuracy of the basic nuclear data files. Required accuracies have been achieved only through the use of critical experiments on the ZPR and ZPPR facilities. Experiments on ZPR-3 and ZPR-9 produced satisfactory control predictions for the SEFOR, EBR-II and FFTF reactors. This document provides a survey of control rod measurements and compares calculated and experimental results. 16 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Sample Federal Facility Land Use Control ROD Checklist and Suggested Language (LUC Checklist)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The LUC Checklist provides direction on describing and documenting land use controls (LUCs) in federal facility actrions under CERCLA in Records of Decision (RODs), remedial designs (RDs), and remedial action work plans (RAWPs).

  10. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system.

  11. Estimation of the activity generated by neutron activation in control rods of a BWR.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, José; Gallardo, Sergio; Abarca, Agustín; Juan, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    Control rods are activated by neutron reactions into the reactor. The activation is produced mainly in stainless steel and its impurities. The dose produced by this activity is not important inside the reactor, but it has to be taken into account when the rod is withdrawn from the reactor. Activation reactions produced have been modelled by the MCNP5 code based on the Monte Carlo method. The code gives the number of reactions that can be converted into activity.

  12. On-line monitoring of control rod integrity in BWRs using a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, I.; Loner, H.; Ammon, K.; Sihver, L.; Ledergerber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of fuel and control rod integrity in the core of a boiling water reactor is essential for maintaining a safe and reliable operation. Control rods of a boiling water reactor are mainly filled with boron carbide as a neutron absorber. Due to the irradiation of boron with neutrons, a continuous production of lithium and helium will occur inside a control rod. Most of the created helium will be retained in the boron carbide lattice; however a small part will escape into the void volume of the control blade. Therefore the integrity of control rods during operation can efficiently be followed by on-line measurements of helium concentration in the reactor off-gas system using a mass spectrometer. Since helium is a fill gas in fuel rods, the same method is a useful early warning system for primary fuel failures. In this paper, we introduce an on-line helium detector system which is installed at the nuclear power plant in Leibstadt. Furthermore the measuring experiences of control rod failure detection at the plant are presented. Different causes of increased helium levels in the off-gas system have been distinguished. There are spontaneous helium releases as well as helium releases caused by changed conditions in the reactor (power reduction, control rod movement, etc.). Helium peaks can also be characterized according to the released amount of helium, the peak shape and the duration of the release, which leads to different interpretations of the release mechanisms. In addition, the measured amount of released helium from a 50 days period (280 l) is also compared to the calculated amount of produced helium from the washed out boron during the same time period (190 l).

  13. Rod electrical coupling is controlled by a circadian clock and dopamine in mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Nan Ge; Chuang, Alice Z; Masson, Philippe J; Ribelayga, Christophe P

    2015-01-01

    Key points Rod photoreceptors play a key role in vision in dim light; in the mammalian retina, although rods are anatomically connected or coupled by gap junctions, a type of electrical synapse, the functional importance and regulation of rod coupling has remained elusive. We have developed a new technique in the mouse: perforated patch-clamp recording of rod inner segments in isolated intact retinae maintained by superfusion. We find that rod electrical coupling is controlled by a circadian clock and dopamine, and is weak during the day and stronger at night. The results also indicate that the signal-to-noise ratio for a dim light response is increased at night because of coupling. Our observations will provide a framework for understanding the daily variations in human vision as well as the basis of specific retinal malfunctions. Abstract Rod single-photon responses are critical for vision in dim light. Electrical coupling via gap junction channels shapes the light response properties of vertebrate photoreceptors, but the regulation of rod coupling and its impact on the single-photon response have remained unclear. To directly address these questions, we developed a perforated patch-clamp recording technique and recorded from single rod inner segments in isolated intact neural mouse retinae, maintained by superfusion. Experiments were conducted at different times of the day or under constant environmental conditions, at different times across the circadian cycle. We show that rod electrical coupling is regulated by a circadian clock and dopamine, so that coupling is weak during the day and strong at night. Altogether, patch-clamp recordings of single-photon responses in mouse rods, tracer coupling, receptive field measurements and pharmacological manipulations of gap junction and dopamine receptor activity provide compelling evidence that rod coupling is modulated in a circadian manner. These data are consistent with computer modelling. At night, single

  14. Joint-Angle Coordination Patterns Ensure Stabilization of a Body-Plus-Tool System in Point-to-Point Movements with a Rod.

    PubMed

    Valk, Tim A; Mouton, Leonora J; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    When performing a goal-directed action with a tool, it is generally assumed that the point of control of the action system is displaced from the hand to the tool, implying that body and tool function as one system. Studies of how actions with tools are performed have been limited to studying either end-effector kinematics or joint-angle coordination patterns. Because joint-angle coordination patterns affect end-effector kinematics, the current study examined them together, with the aim of revealing how body and tool function as one system. Seated participants made point-to-point movements with their index finger, and with rods of 10, 20, and 30 cm attached to their index finger. Start point and target were presented on a table in front of them, and in half of the conditions a participant displacement compensated for rod length. Results revealed that the kinematics of the rod's tip showed higher peak velocity, longer deceleration time, and more curvature with longer rods. End-effector movements were more curved in the horizontal plane when participants were not displaced. Joint-angle trajectories were similar across rod lengths when participants were displaced, whereas more extreme joint-angles were used with longer rods when participants were not displaced. Furthermore, in every condition the end-effector was stabilized to a similar extent; both variability in joint-angle coordination patterns that affected end-effector position and variability that did not affect end-effector position increased in a similar way vis-à-vis rod length. Moreover, the increase was higher in those conditions, in which participants were not displaced. This suggests that during tool use, body and tool are united in a single system so as to stabilize the end-effector kinematics in a similar way that is independent of tool length. In addition, the properties of the actual trajectory of the end-effector, as well as the actual joint-angles used, depend on the length of the tool and the

  15. Pattern, Growth and Control

    PubMed Central

    Lander, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    The view of biology as goal-directed engineering has deep historical roots in developmental biology, a field currently benefitting from an influx of ideas and methods from systems biology. Systems biology draws on non-biological paradigms to explain developmental mechanisms of control, the specific type of regulation that achieves or maintains a desired end. This review highlights some of the current efforts designed to elucidate basic design principles underlying the engineering objectives of robustness, precision, and scaling that are required during developmental control of growth and pattern formation. Examples from vertebrate and invertebrate development are used to illustrate general principles including the value of integral feedback in achieving set-point control; the usefulness of self-organizing behavior; the importance of recognizing and appropriately handling noise; and the No Free Lunch theory. Through the examination of such principles, systems biology offers a functional framework to make sense of the mechanistic complexity of organismal development. PMID:21414486

  16. Control rod calibration and reactivity effects at the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Letícia Negrão; Gonnelli, Eduardo; Santos, Adimir dos

    2014-11-11

    Researches that aim to improve the performance of neutron transport codes and quality of nuclear cross section databases are very important to increase the accuracy of simulations and the quality of the analysis and prediction of phenomena in the nuclear field. In this context, relevant experimental data such as reactivity worth measurements are needed. Control rods may be made of several neutron absorbing materials that are used to adjust the reactivity of the core. For the reactor operation, these experimental data are also extremely important: with them it is possible to estimate the reactivity worth by the movement of the control rod, understand the reactor response at each rod position and to operate the reactor safely. This work presents a temperature correction approach for the control rod calibration problem. It is shown the control rod calibration data of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, the integral and differential reactivity curves and a theoretical analysis, performed by the MCNP-5 reactor physics code, developed and maintained by Los Alamos National Laboratory, using the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library.

  17. Experience with incomplete control rod insertion in fuel with burnup exceeding approximately 40 GWD/MTU

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, E.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis and measurement experience with fuel assemblies having incomplete control rod insertion at burnups of approximately 40 GWD/MTU is presented. Control rod motion dynamics and simplified structural analyses are presented and compared to measurement data. Fuel assembly growth measurements taken with the plant Refueling Machine Z-Tape are described and presented. Bow measurements (including plug gauging) are described and potential improvements are suggested. The measurements described and analysis performed show that sufficient guide tube bow (either from creep or yield buckling) is present in some high burnup assemblies to stop the control rods before they reach their full limit of travel. Recommendations are made that, if implemented, could improve cost performance related to testing and analysis activities.

  18. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  19. Degradation in steam of 60 cm-long B4C control rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, C.; Drouan, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the framework of nuclear reactor core meltdown accident studies, the degradation of boron carbide control rod segments exposed to argon/steam atmospheres was investigated up to about 2000 °C in IRSN laboratories. The sequence of the phenomena involved in the degradation has been found to take place as expected. Nevertheless, the ZrO2 oxide layer formed on the outer surface of the guide tube was very protective, significantly delaying and limiting the guide tube failure and therefore the boron carbide pellet oxidation. Contrary to what was expected, the presence of the control rod decreases the hydrogen release instead of increasing it by additional oxidation of boron compounds. Boron contents up to 20 wt.% were measured in metallic mixtures formed during degradation. It was observed that these metallic melts are able to attack the surrounding fuel rods, which could have consequences on fuel degradation and fission product release kinetics during severe accidents.

  20. Subplane-based Control Rod Decusping Techniques for the 2D/1D Method in MPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Aaron M; Collins, Benjamin S; Downar, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The MPACT transport code is being jointly developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Michigan to serve as the primary neutron transport code for the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator. MPACT uses the 2D/1D method to solve the transport equation by decomposing the reactor model into a stack of 2D planes. A fine mesh flux distribution is calculated in each 2D plane using the Method of Characteristics (MOC), then the planes are coupled axially through a 1D NEM-P$_3$ calculation. This iterative calculation is then accelerated using the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference method. One problem that arises frequently when using the 2D/1D method is that of control rod cusping. This occurs when the tip of a control rod falls between the boundaries of an MOC plane, requiring that the rodded and unrodded regions be axially homogenized for the 2D MOC calculations. Performing a volume homogenization does not properly preserve the reaction rates, causing an error known as cusping. The most straightforward way of resolving this problem is by refining the axial mesh, but this can significantly increase the computational expense of the calculation. The other way of resolving the partially inserted rod is through the use of a decusping method. This paper presents new decusping methods implemented in MPACT that can dynamically correct the rod cusping behavior for a variety of problems.

  1. Analysis of dose rates received around the storage pool for irradiated control rods in a BWR nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Abarca, A; Gallardo, S

    2011-08-01

    BWR control rods are activated by neutron reactions in the reactor. The dose produced by this activity can affect workers in the area surrounding the storage pool, where activated rods are stored. Monte Carlo (MC) models for neutron activation and dose assessment around the storage pool have been developed and validated. In this work, the MC models are applied to verify the expected reduction of dose when the irradiated control rod is hanged in an inverted position into the pool.

  2. Pattern formation of microtubules and motors: Inelastic interaction of polar rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor S.; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2005-05-01

    We derive a model describing spatiotemporal organization of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with a generic anisotropic interaction kernel we obtain a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments.

  3. Special article: Update on the magnetically controlled growing rod: tips and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Cahill, Patrick; Yaszay, Burt; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2015-12-01

    Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) have become an important treatment option in young patients with spinal deformities. This device allows for gradual lengthening on an outpatient setting with continuous neurological monitoring in an awake patient. With its growing popularity and interest, this study reports the tips, pitfalls, and complications of the MCGR for management of scoliosis. On 3 June 2015 at the University of Hong Kong, 32 participants from 16 regions shared their experience with MCGR. Current indications for surgery include early-onset scoliosis patients. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and congenital scoliosis patients have less favourable outcomes. The number of instrumented levels should be minimised, as all instrumented levels must be included in the definitive fusion surgery. Rod contouring is important and owing to the straight portion of the rod housing the magnet, there is limited proximal rod portion for proper contouring, which may predispose to proximal junctional kyphosis. There is currently no consensus on the rod configuration, timing, frequency, technique, and amount of distraction. Risk factors for distraction failure include larger patients, internal magnets too close to each other, and magnets too close to the apex of the major curve. Future studies should resolve the issues regarding the technique of distraction, optimal frequency and amount of distraction per session. More comprehensive cost analyses should be performed.

  4. Prediction of the lifetime of the elements of the safety and control rods of nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Voskoboinikov, V.V.; Emel'yanov, I. Ya.; Lineva, A.F.; Pushkin, S.N.; Semchenko, E.L.; Usov, P.P.

    1987-07-01

    The authors construct a mathematical model based on the analytical solution to such parameters as magnetic flux, alignment, sliding friction, erosion, abrasion, corrosion, and irradiation for the purpose of predicting the service life of electromagnetically driven control rods and their drives. The analytical solution was verified experimentally on a bench simulation where it was found that incorrect assembly and alignment not only serve as the largest contributors to shortened service life of the rods and drives but also render the calculations of the model invalid.

  5. Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a PWR control rod ejection accident

    SciTech Connect

    Pasichnyk, I.; Perin, Y.; Velkov, K.

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes the results of the quantitative Uncertainty and Sensitivity (U/S) Analysis of a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which is simulated by the coupled system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX applying the GRS tool for U/S analysis SUSA/XSUSA. For the present study, a UOX/MOX mixed core loading based on a generic PWR is modeled. A control rod ejection is calculated for two reactor states: Hot Zero Power (HZP) and 30% of nominal power. The worst cases for the rod ejection are determined by steady-state neutronic simulations taking into account the maximum reactivity insertion in the system and the power peaking factor. For the U/S analysis 378 uncertain parameters are identified and quantified (thermal-hydraulic initial and boundary conditions, input parameters and variations of the two-group cross sections). Results for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are presented for safety important global and local parameters. (authors)

  6. Parallel Magnetic Flow Electromagnet for Movable Coil Control-rod Driving Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Jige, Zhang

    2006-07-01

    The parallel magnetic flow electromagnet can effectively relax the saturation, which easily takes place in the single magnetic flow electromagnet, and accordingly can improve the drive capacity of the movable coil electromagnet drive mechanism for a mobile reactor control rod. (authors)

  7. Maintaining a Critical Spectra within Monteburns for a Gas-Cooled Reactor Array by Way of Control Rod Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Adigun, Babatunde John; Fensin, Michael Lorne; Galloway, Jack D.; Trellue, Holly Renee

    2016-10-01

    Our burnup study examined the effect of a predicted critical control rod position on the nuclide predictability of several axial and radial locations within a 4×4 graphite moderated gas cooled reactor fuel cluster geometry. To achieve this, a control rod position estimator (CRPE) tool was developed within the framework of the linkage code Monteburns between the transport code MCNP and depletion code CINDER90, and four methodologies were proposed within the tool for maintaining criticality. Two of the proposed methods used an inverse multiplication approach - where the amount of fissile material in a set configuration is slowly altered until criticality is attained - in estimating the critical control rod position. Another method carried out several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions, then used a linear fit to estimate the critical rod position. The final method used a second-order polynomial fit of several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions to guess the critical rod position. The results showed that consistency in prediction of power densities as well as uranium and plutonium isotopics was mutual among methods within the CRPE tool that predicted critical position consistently well. Finall, while the CRPE tool is currently limited to manipulating a single control rod, future work could be geared toward implementing additional criticality search methodologies along with additional features.

  8. Maintaining a Critical Spectra within Monteburns for a Gas-Cooled Reactor Array by Way of Control Rod Manipulation

    DOE PAGES

    Adigun, Babatunde John; Fensin, Michael Lorne; Galloway, Jack D.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Our burnup study examined the effect of a predicted critical control rod position on the nuclide predictability of several axial and radial locations within a 4×4 graphite moderated gas cooled reactor fuel cluster geometry. To achieve this, a control rod position estimator (CRPE) tool was developed within the framework of the linkage code Monteburns between the transport code MCNP and depletion code CINDER90, and four methodologies were proposed within the tool for maintaining criticality. Two of the proposed methods used an inverse multiplication approach - where the amount of fissile material in a set configuration is slowly altered until criticalitymore » is attained - in estimating the critical control rod position. Another method carried out several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions, then used a linear fit to estimate the critical rod position. The final method used a second-order polynomial fit of several MCNP criticality calculations at different control rod positions to guess the critical rod position. The results showed that consistency in prediction of power densities as well as uranium and plutonium isotopics was mutual among methods within the CRPE tool that predicted critical position consistently well. Finall, while the CRPE tool is currently limited to manipulating a single control rod, future work could be geared toward implementing additional criticality search methodologies along with additional features.« less

  9. Controlled self-assembly of conjugated rod-coil block copolymers for applications in organic optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yuefei

    Organic electronics are of great interest in manufacturing light weight, mechanical flexible, and inexpensive large area devices. While significant improvements have been made over the last several years and it is now clear that morphology on the lengthscale of exciton diffusion (10nm) is of crucial importance, a clear relationship between structure and device properties has not emerged. This lack of understanding largely emerges from an inability to control morphology on this lengthscale. This thesis will center around an approach, based on block copolymer self-assembly, to generate equilibrium nanostructures on the 10 nm lengthscale of exciton diffusion and study their effects on device performance. Self-assembly of semiconducting block copolymers is complicated by the non-classical chain shape of conjugated polymers. Unlike classical polymers, the chains do not assume a Gaussian coil shape which is stretched near block copolymer interfaces, instead the chains are elongated and liquid crystalline. Previous work has demonstrated how these new molecular interactions and shapes control the phase diagram of so-called rod-coil block copolymers. Here, we will focus on controlling domain size, orientation, and chemical structure. While domain size can be controlled directly through molecular weight, this requires significant additional synthesis of domain size is to be varied. Here, the domain size is controlled by blending homopolymers into a self-assembling rod-coil block copolymer. When coil-like blocks are incorporated, the domains swell, as expected. When rod-like blocks are incorporated, they interdigitate with the rods of the block copolymers. This results in an increase in interfacial area which forces the coils to rearrange and an overall decrease in domain size with increasing rod content. Control over lamellar orientation is crucial in order to design and control charge transport pathways and exciton recombination or separation interfaces. While numerous

  10. Simulation and operation of the EBR-2 automatic control rod drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehto, W. K.; Larson, H. A.; Dean, E. M.; Christensen, L. J.

    An automatic control rod drive system (ACRDS) installed at EBR-II produces shaped power transients from 40% to full reactor power at a linear ramp rate of 4 MWt/s. A digital computer and modified control rod drive provides this capability. Simulation and analysis of ACRDS experiments establish the safety envelope for reactor transient operation. Tailored transients are required as part of USDOE operational reliability testing program for prototypic fast reactor fuel cladding breach behavior studies. After initial EBR-II driver fuel testing and system checkout, test subassemblies were subjected to both slow and fast transients. In addition, the ACRDS is used for steady state operation and will be qualified to control power ascent from initial critical to full power.

  11. Cadmium control/safety rod disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, S.H.

    1995-05-01

    Four heavy-water-moderated reactors at the Savannah River Site will undergo the removal of 862 activated cadmium control/safety rods. Although these reactors are 40 years old, they offer 4 basic advantages for decommissioning: the equipment is still in some sort of operable state; the reactor is blow the floor in a large process room, allowing access; Control/safety rods can be handled remotely by existing equipment; a radiologically shielded removal path exists. Drawbacks include the following: age of reactors; improvements in technology have caused incompatibility problems; more strigent standards; compliance with environmental regulations. This article details how the removal was carried out and the current status of the project, keeping in mind the above considerations.

  12. A model of the control rod housing overflow incident in a Savannah River Production Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.; Flach, G.P.; Steimke, J.L.; Koffman, L.D.; Askew, N.M.

    1993-05-01

    On May 25, 1992, K-reactor at the Savannah River Site was being configured for start up when a D20 leak of unknown origin was detected on the top of the reactor. The reactor was immediately shutdown, and reactor start up was put on hold until the cause of the leak was determined and the problem eliminated. The source of the leak was suspected to be overflow of the control rod guide tubes, and on May 27 hydraulic tests in the laboratory confirmed this and identified the cause to be unanticipated secondary circulations in the control rod housings. The modelling effort, that in conjunction with the experimental program, identified a temporary fix that allowed K-reactor to be restarted two weeks after the initial overflow incident is herein described.

  13. Measurements of /sup 10/B(n,He) reaction rates in a mockup control rod in ZPPR

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, S.B.; Collins, P.J.; Oliver, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the first direct measurement of /sup 10/B capture rate in a mockup control rod in a critical assembly. The experiment used the helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) technique. 13 refs.

  14. Controllable rotating behavior of individual dielectric micro-rod in a rotating electric field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiyu; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Li, Yanbo; Chen, Xiaoming

    2017-02-18

    We report herein controllable rotating behavior of an individual dielectric micro-rod driven by a background rotating electric field. By disposing or removing structured floating microelectrode, the rigid rod suspended in electrolyte solution accordingly exhibits co-field or anti-field rotating motion. In the absence of the ideally polarizable metal surface, the dielectric rod rotates opposite to propagation of electric field, with the measured rotating rate much larger than predicted by Maxwell-Wager interfacial polarization theory incorporating surface conduction of fixed bond charge. Surprisingly, with floating electrode embedded, a novel kind of co-field rotation mode occurs in the presence of induced double-layer polarization, due to the action of hydrodynamic torque from rotating induced-charge electroosmosis. This method of achieving switchable spin modes of dielectric particles would direct implications in constructing flexible electrokinetic framework for analyzing 3D profile of on-chip bio-microfluidic samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of magnetically controlled growing rod device for pediatric scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Nicandro; Kananeh, Salman F.; Siqueira, Heloise H.; Figueiredo, Rita C.; Al Sebai, Mohamed W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of an innovative device using distraction-based magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) for the treatment of pediatric scoliosis. Methods: This is an evidence-based systematic review of literature for the surgical management of patients with pediatric scoliosis using MCGR technique. Six clinical studies regarding the use of MCGR were included in this review, with a total of 68 patients, and mean age of 8.38 years. The dual-rod (DR) technique of rod construct with MCGR was used in 33.85% and the single-rod (SR) in 66.15% of the patients. Results: The mean preoperative main coronal curve for the DR was 65.9°, and for the SR was 69.6° (p>0.05). At the latest follow-up, it was 36.8° for DR and 43.0° for SR (p<0.05). The mean preoperative T1-S1 spinal length was 298.7 mm for the DR and 303.5 mm for the SR group (p<0.05). According to the latest follow-up, using the DR construct, the spinal length increased to 347 mm with 13.92% of total lengthening; and using the SR construct, the average lengthening was 339 mm, with 10.48% of total lengthening (p<0.05). Postoperative complications were similar, 25% in DR and 31.57% in the SR group (p>0.05). Conclusion: Level IV of medical evidence supports the use of MCGR as a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of severe pediatric scoliosis. Recommendation Grade C supports the role of MCGR with DR construct as an option to achieve a better correction of the scoliotic curve and to maximize the postoperative T1-S1 spinal length. PMID:26818162

  16. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow, austenite decomposition kinetics, microstructure and mechanical properties, and industrial trials to determine heat transfer and obtain rod samples under known conditions. Owing to the length and diversity of the study, it is reported in three parts,[8191]the first of which is concerned with the heat flow measurements. A relatively simple and reliable technique, involving a preheated steel rod instrumented with a thermocouple secured at its centerline, has been devised to determine the cooling rate in different regions of the moving bed of rod loops on an operating Stelmor line. The measured thermal response of the rod has been analyzed by two transient conduction models (lumped and distributed parameter, respectively) to yield overall heat-transfer coefficients for radiation and convection. The adequacy of the technique has been checked by cooling instrumented rods under well-defined, air crossflow conditions in the laboratory and comparing measured heat-transfer coefficients to values predicted from well-established equations. The industrial thermal measurements have permitted the characterization of a coefficient to account for radiative interaction among adjacent rod loops near the edge and at the center of the bed.

  17. Analyses of eigenvalue bias and control rod worths in FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Wootan, D.W.; Campbell, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core loading during its ninth operating cycle was significantly different from that of previous cycles because of the presence of the Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE). The CDE consists of a number of axially blanketed fuel assemblies and internal blankets prototypic of advanced oxide cores in Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In preparation for the Cycle 9 reload design effort, a careful assessment of control rod worth and reactivity calculations for Cycles 1 through 8 was made. The goal of this study was to establish calculational biases and reduce uncertainties factored into the reload design calculations. These analyses helped assure that the operational objectives for Cycle 9 were met.

  18. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part III. Mathematical model-formulation and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural evolution, and strength of the rods, has been tested by comparison to measurements from an extensive set of laboratory and plant trials. Thus, the model has been shown to simulate the complex heat flow and microstructural phenomena in the steel rod very well, although improvements need to be sought in the characterization of the austenite-ferrite transformation kinetics and of pearlite interlamellar spacing. The latter variable has a significant influence on the strength of eutectoid steels. Nonetheless, the model consistently is capable of predicting the strengths of plain-carbon steel rods ranging from 1020 to 1080 to within ± 10 pet.

  19. Cost analysis of magnetically controlled growing rods compared with traditional growing rods for early-onset scoliosis in the US: an integrated health care delivery system perspective

    PubMed Central

    Polly, David W; Ackerman, Stacey J; Schneider, Karen; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Traditional growing rod (TGR) for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is effective but requires repeated invasive surgical lengthenings under general anesthesia. Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) is lengthened noninvasively using a hand-held magnetic external remote controller in a physician office; however, the MCGR implant is expensive, and the cumulative cost savings have not been well studied. We compared direct medical costs of MCGR and TGR for EOS from the US integrated health care delivery system perspective. We hypothesized that over time, the MCGR implant cost will be offset by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. Methods For both TGR and MCGR, the economic model estimated the cumulative costs for initial implantation, lengthenings, revisions due to device failure, surgical-site infections, device exchanges (at 3.8 years), and final fusion, over a 6-year episode of care. Model parameters were estimated from published literature, a multicenter EOS database of US institutions, and interviews. Costs were discounted at 3.0% annually and represent 2015 US dollars. Results Of 1,000 simulated patients over 6 years, MCGR was associated with an estimated 270 fewer deep surgical-site infections and 197 fewer revisions due to device failure compared with TGR. MCGR was projected to cost an additional $61 per patient over the 6-year episode of care compared with TGR. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were sensitive to changes in the percentage of MCGR dual rod use, months between TGR lengthenings, percentage of hospital inpatient (vs outpatient) TGR lengthenings, and MCGR implant cost. Conclusion Cost neutrality of MCGR to TGR was achieved over the 6-year episode of care by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis comparing MCGR to TGR – from the US provider perspective – which demonstrates the efficient provision of care with MCGR. PMID:27695352

  20. Patterned control of human locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-01-01

    There is much experimental evidence for the existence of biomechanical constraints which simplify the problem of control of multi-segment movements. In addition, it has been hypothesized that movements are controlled using a small set of basic temporal components or activation patterns, shared by several different muscles and reflecting global kinematic and kinetic goals. Here we review recent studies on human locomotion showing that muscle activity is accounted for by a combination of few basic patterns, each one timed at a different phase of the gait cycle. Similar patterns are involved in walking and running at different speeds, walking forwards or backwards, and walking under different loading conditions. The corresponding weights of distribution to different muscles may change as a function of the condition, allowing highly flexible control. Biomechanical correlates of each activation pattern have been described, leading to the hypothesis that the co-ordination of limb and body segments arises from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle activations need only intervene during limited time epochs to force intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. PMID:22411012

  1. STABILIZED RARE EARTH OXIDES FOR A CONTROL ROD AND METHOD OF PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A.; Potter, R.A.

    1964-01-14

    A method is given for preparing mixed oxides of the formula MR/sub x/O/ sub 12/ wherein M is tungsten or molybdenum and R is a rare earth in the group consisting of samarium, europium, dysprosium, and gadolinium and x is 4 to 5. Oxides of this formula, and particularly the europiumcontaining species, are useful as control rod material for water-cooled nuclear reactors owing to their stability, favorable nuclear properties, and resistance to hydration. These oxides may be utilized as a dispersion in a stainlesssteel matrix. Preparation of these oxides is effected by blending tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide with a rare earth oxide, compressing the mixture, and firing at an elevated temperature in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. (AEC)

  2. Research relative to an advanced rod control system for quadrupole mass spectrometry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, George R.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a suitable amplifier output stage using available transistors and passive components is summarized. All of the analysis and calculation confirm that it is feasible to design the amplifier and quadrupole coupling circuit needed for the Advanced Rod Control System. The progress obtained so far concerning the three frequency tank circuits to be used in the oscillator for the mass spectrometer of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) project is presented. Results from this study look promising. However, it is not known what minimum impedance levels are required to make it possible for the oscillator to work properly. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a prototype circuit in the laboratory which can be measured and tested in an oscillator circuit. Continued attempts will be made to develop a useful inductor motor with better characteristics than the one being used at the moment. It is important that such a model be found if computer simulation is to reflect reality more closely.

  3. Control of Prestressing Force in Rod for Reducing Bending in Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a method to determine the prestressing force required in a rod for reducing the bending effects in a beam. The rod is positioned underneath the beam such that the prestressing force is counteracting the effects of beam bending. It has been found that the prestressing force may also increase the bending as a result of P-δ effect. Therefore, the choice of both the prestressing force and the rod eccentricity from the beam axis is important in determining the appropriate actions to resist the bending of the beam. Over-prestressing the rod may even induce bending or buckling failure in the beam in the reverse direction.

  4. Nuclear Data Library Effects on Fast to Thermal Flux Shapes Around PWR Control Rod Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Zhu, T.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    The development of a high-fidelity computational scheme to estimate the accumulated fluence at the tips of PWR control rods (CR) has been initiated at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Both the fluence from high-energy (E>1 MeV) neutrons as well as for the thermal range (E<0.625 eV) are required as these affect the CR integrity through stresses/strains induced by coupled clad embrittlement / absorber swelling phenomena. The concept of the PSI scheme under development is to provide from validated core analysis models, the volumetric neutron source to a full core MCNPX model that is then used to compute the neutron fluxes. A particular aspect that needs scrutiny is the ability of the MCNPX-based calculation methodology to accurately predict the flux shapes along the control rod surfaces, especially for fully withdrawn CRs. In that case, the tip is located a short distance above the core/reflector interface and since this situation corresponds to a large part of reactor operation, the accumulated fluence will highly depend on the achieved calculation accuracy and precision in this non-fueled zone. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to quantify the influence of nuclear data on the calculated fluxes at the CR tips by (1) conducting a systematic comparison of modern neutron cross-section libraries, including JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0, and (2) by quantifying the uncertainties in the neutron flux calculations with the help of available neutron cross-section variances/covariances data. For completeness, the magnitude of these nuclear data-based uncertainties is also assessed in relation to the influence from other typical sources of modeling uncertainties/biases.

  5. The DBA Analysis of One Control Rod Withdrawal Out of the HTR-10GT Core

    SciTech Connect

    Mingang Lang; Yujie Dong

    2006-07-01

    The 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Test Reactor (HTR-10) has been built in Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) and has been operating successfully since the beginning of 2003. The core outlet temperature of HTR-10 is 700 deg. C. To verify the technology of gas-turbine direct cycle, INET has planned to increase its core outlet temperature to 750 deg. C and use a helium gas turbine instead of the steam generator (then the reactor is called HTR-10GT). Though HTR-10 has good intrinsic safety, the design basic accidents and beyond design basic accidents of HTR10-GT must be analyzed according to China's nuclear regulations due to changed operation parameters. THERMIX code system is used to study the accident on one control rod withdrawal out of the core by a mistake. After a control rod in the side reflector was withdrawn out at a speed of 1 cm/s by a mistake, a positive reactivity was inserted and the reactor power increased and the temperature of the core increased. When the neutron flux of power measuring range exceeded 123% and the core outlet temperature was lager than 800 deg. C, the reactor was scrammed. During the accident sequence the maximum fuel temperature was 1200.9 deg. C. It was lower than the fuel temperature limitation of 1230 deg. C. The paper compares the analysis result of HTR10-GT to those of HTR-10. The results shows that the HTR-10GT is still safe during the accident though its operating temperature is higher than HTR-10 when the fuel safety limits are the same. (authors)

  6. Rod Contributions to Color Perception: Linear with Rod Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Pokorny, Joel; Smith, Vivianne C.; Zele, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    At mesopic light levels, an incremental change in rod activation causes changes in color appearance. In this study, we investigated how rod mediated changes in color perception varied as a function of the magnitude of the rod contrast. Rod-mediated changes in color appearance were assessed by matching them with cone-mediated color changes. A two-channel four-primary colorimeter allowed independent control of the rods and each of the L-, M- and S-cone photoreceptor types. At all light levels, rod contributions to inferred PC, KC and MC pathway mediated vision were linearly related to the rod incremental contrast. This linear relationship could be described by a model based on primate ganglion cell responses with the assumption that rod signals were conveyed via rod-cone gap junctions at mesopic light levels. PMID:18561973

  7. Photostimulator allowing independent control of rods and the three cone types.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Joel; Smithson, Hannah; Quinlan, Jules

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a second-generation photostimulator with four primary lights that allows independent control of the stimulation of the four receptor types in the human eye. The new design uses LEDs (with light levels controlled by eight drivers that include voltage-to-frequency converters that provide 1-micros pulses at frequencies up to 250 kHz), with four center channels being combined by use of a fiber optic assembly, and likewise for four surround channels. Four fiber optic bundles are merged into a single bundle whose output is fed into a spatial homogenizer terminated by a diffuser. An interference filter is sandwiched between each LED and the fiber optic bundle. Two camera lenses collimate light from the diffusers, one for center and one for surround. The center-surround field configuration is formed by a photometric cube with a mirrored ellipse on the hypotenuse. A field lens places images of the diffusers in the plane of an artificial pupil. The fields are highly uniform. Following alignment and calibration, the center and surround fields are indistinguishable. An observer calibration procedure, designed to compensate for prereceptoral filtering, is shown by calculation to correct also for normal observer receptoral spectral sensitivity variation. With the instrument calibrated for the individual observer, a peripherally fixated 200-ms 40% contrast rod center field pulse, highly conspicuous under dark adaptation, is invisible following light adaptation.

  8. Effective parameter study for the facile and controlled growth of silver molybdate nano/micro rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Javier Esteban Enríquez; Singh, Dinesh Pratap

    2016-11-01

    Controlled growth of nano/micro structures by controlling the effective parameters is the basic requirement for the application point of view in various areas. Here we report the facile growth of silver molybdate nano/micro rods by mixing the solution of silver nitrate and ammonium molybdate at ambient condition followed by hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures for 12 h. To achieve the goal for the synthesis of long, high yield and homogeneous nanorods various effective parameters have been studied to set the most effective conditions for the growth. Among possible effective parameters first the temperature of the furnace was set by warring the temperature and then at the set temperature the concentration of reactants (NH4)6Mo7O24 and silver nitrate are varied respect to each other. The pH and temperature values were monitored during the mixing of the reactants. Structural/microstructural characterization revealed the optimum condition of 150°C of the furnace and the concentration of (NH4)6Mo7O24 and silver nitrate as described in various tables.

  9. Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel Experiencing a Fast Control Rod Ejection Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Ortensi, J.; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-10-01

    A rapid increase of the temperature and the mechanical stress is expected in TRISO coated particle fuel that experiences a fast Total Control Rod Ejection (CRE) transient event. During this event the reactor power in the pebble bed core increases significantly for a short time interval. The power is deposited instantly and locally in the fuel kernel. This could result in a rapid increase of the pressure in the buffer layer of the coated fuel particle and, consequently, in an increase of the coating stresses. These stresses determine the mechanical failure probability of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). A new calculation procedure has been implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which analyzes the transient fuel performance behavior of TRISO fuel particles in PBRs. This early capability can easily be extended to prismatic designs, given the availability of neutronic and thermal-fluid solvers. The full-core coupled neutronic and thermal-fluid analysis has been modeled with CYNOD-THERMIX. The temperature fields for the fuel kernel and the particle coatings, as well as the gas pressures in the buffer layer, are calculated with the THETRIS module explicitly during the transient calculation. Results from this module are part of the feedback loop within the neutronic-thermal fluid iterations performed for each time step. The temperature and internal pressure values for each pebble type in each region of the core are then input to the PArticle STress Analysis (PASTA) code, which determines the particle coating stresses and the fraction of failed particles. This paper presents an investigation of a Total Control Rod Ejection (TCRE) incident in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular reactor design using the above described calculation procedure. The transient corresponds to a reactivity insertion of $3 (~2000 pcm) reaching 35 times the nominal power in 0.5 seconds. For each position in the core

  10. Development of a HTSMA-Actuated Surge Control Rod for High-Temperature Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II; Noebe, Ronald; Bigelow, Glen; Culley, Dennis; Stevens, Mark; Penney, Nicholas; Gaydosh, Darrell; Quackenbush, Todd; Carpenter, Bernie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a demand for compact, lightweight, solid-state actuation systems has emerged, driven in part by the needs of the aeronautics industry. However, most actuation systems used in turbomachinery require not only elevated temperature but high-force capability. As a result, shape memory alloy (SMA) based systems have worked their way to the forefront of a short list of viable options to meet such a technological challenge. Most of the effort centered on shape memory systems to date has involved binary NiTi alloys but the working temperatures required in many aeronautics applications dictate significantly higher transformation temperatures than the binary systems can provide. Hence, a high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) based on NiTiPdPt, having a transformation temperature near 300 C, was developed. Various thermo-mechanical processing schemes were utilized to further improve the dimensional stability of the alloy and it was later extruded/drawn into wire form to be more compatible with envisioned applications. Mechanical testing on the finished wire form showed reasonable work output capability with excellent dimensional stability. Subsequently, the wire form of the alloy was incorporated into a benchtop system, which was shown to provide the necessary stroke requirements of approx.0.125 inches for the targeted surge-control application. Cycle times for the actuator were limited to 4 seconds due to control and cooling constraints but this cycle time was determined to be adequate for the surge control application targeted as the primary requirement was initial actuation of a surge control rod, which could be completed in approximately one second.

  11. Assessment of the mechanical performance of the Westinghouse BWR control rod CR 99 at high depletion levels

    SciTech Connect

    Seltborg, P.; Jinnestrand, M.

    2012-07-01

    A long-term program assessing the mechanical performance of the Westinghouse BWR control rod CR 99 at high depletion levels has been performed. The scope of the program has mainly been based on the operation of four CR 99 Generation 2 control rods in demanding positions during 6 and 7 cycles in the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL) and on the detailed visual inspections and blade wing thickness measurements that were performed after the rods were discharged. By correlating statistically the blade wing thickness measurements to the appearance of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), the probability of IASCC appearance as function of the blade wing swelling was estimated. In order to correlate the IASCC probability of a CR 99 to its depletion, the {sup 10}B depletion of the studied rods was calculated in detail on a local level with the stochastic Monte Carlo code MCNP in combination with the Westinghouse nodal code system PHOENIX4/POLCA7. Using this information coupled to the blade wing measurement data, a finite element model describing the blade wing swelling of an arbitrary CR 99 design as function of {sup 10}B depletion could then be generated. In the final step, these relationships were used to quantify the probability of IASCC appearance as function of the {sup 10}B depletion of the CR 99 Generations 2 and 3. Applying this detailed mapping of the CR 99 behavior at high depletion levels and using an on-line core monitoring system with explicit {sup 10}B depletion tracking capabilities will enable a reliable prediction of the probability for IASCC appearance, thus enhancing the optimized design and the sound operation of the CR 99 control rod. Another important outcome of the program was that it was clearly shown that no significant amount of boron leakage did occur through any of the detected IASCC cracks, despite the very high depletion levels achieved. (authors)

  12. Disposal Of Irradiated Cadmium Control Rods From The Plumbrook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Posivak, E.J.; Berger, S.R.; Freitag, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    Innovative mixed waste disposition from NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility was accomplished without costly repackaging. Irradiated characteristic hardware with contact dose rates as high as 8 Sv/hr was packaged in a HDPE overpack and stored in a Secure Environmental Container during earlier decommissioning efforts, awaiting identification of a suitable pathway. WMG obtained regulatory concurrence that the existing overpack would serve as the macro-encapsulant per 40CFR268.45 Table 1.C. The overpack vent was disabled and the overpack was placed in a stainless steel liner to satisfy overburden slumping requirements. The liner was sealed and placed in shielded shoring for transport to the disposal site in a US DOT Type A cask. Disposition via this innovative method avoided cost, risk, and dose associated with repackaging the high dose irradiated characteristic hardware. In conclusion: WMG accomplished what others said could not be done. Large D and D contractors advised NASA that the cadmium control rods could only be shipped to the proposed Yucca mountain repository. NASA management challenged MOTA to find a more realistic alternative. NASA and MOTA turned to WMG to develop a methodology to disposition the 'hot and nasty' waste that presumably had no path forward. Although WMG lead a team that accomplished the 'impossible', the project could not have been completed with out the patient, supportive management by DOE-EM, NASA, and MOTA. (authors)

  13. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

    2012-05-01

    A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

  14. Controlling chaos based on a novel intelligent integral terminal sliding mode control in a rod-type plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, Khari; Zahra, Rahmani; Behrooz, Rezaie

    2016-05-01

    An integral terminal sliding mode controller is proposed in order to control chaos in a rod-type plasma torch system. In this method, a new sliding surface is defined based on a combination of the conventional sliding surface in terminal sliding mode control and a nonlinear function of the integral of the system states. It is assumed that the dynamics of a chaotic system are unknown and also the system is exposed to disturbance and unstructured uncertainty. To achieve a chattering-free and high-speed response for such an unknown system, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is utilized in the next step to approximate the unknown part of the nonlinear dynamics. Then, the proposed integral terminal sliding mode controller stabilizes the approximated system based on Lyapunov’s stability theory. In addition, a Bee algorithm is used to select the coefficients of integral terminal sliding mode controller to improve the performance of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the improvement in the response speed, chattering rejection, transient response, and robustness against uncertainties.

  15. Measuring the efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly using a model of RKI-1 reactimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitarev, V. E.; Lebedev, G. V.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of control rods of the RBMK critical assembly is measured in a series of experiments. The aim of measurements is to determine the characteristics of the model of an RKI-1 reactimeter. The RKI-1 reactimeter is intended for measuring the efficiency of control rods when, according to conditions of operation, the metrological certification of results of an experiment is required. Complications with the metrological certification of reactimeters arise owing to the fact that usually calculated corrections to the results of measurements are required. When the RKI-1 reactimeter is used, there is no need to introduce calculated corrections; the result of measurements is given with the indication of substantiated errors. In connection with this, the metrological certification of the results of measurements using the RKI-1 reactimeter is simplified.

  16. Analysis of the dose rate produced by control rods discharged from a BWR into the irradiated fuel pool.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Gallardo, S; Abarca, A; Juan, V

    2010-01-01

    BWR control rods become activated by neutron reactions into the reactor. Therefore, when they are withdrawn from the reactor, they must be stored into the storage pool for irradiated fuel at a certain depth under water. Dose rates on the pool surface and the area surrounding the pool should be lower than limits for workers. The MCNP code based on the Monte Carlo method has been applied to model this situation and to calculate dose rates at points of interest.

  17. Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Mohammad K.; Da, Fang; Joo, Jungseock; Grinspun, Eitan; Reis, Pedro M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations toward developing predictive understanding of the coiling process. Both cases of deposition onto static and moving substrates are considered. We construct phase diagrams for the possible coiling patterns and characterize them as a function of the geometric and material properties of the rod, as well as the height and relative speeds of deployment. The modes selected and their characteristic length scales are found to arise from a complex interplay between gravitational, bending, and twisting energies of the rod, coupled to the geometric nonlinearities intrinsic to the large deformations. We give particular emphasis to the first sinusoidal mode of instability, which we find to be consistent with a Hopf bifurcation, and analyze the meandering wavelength and amplitude. Throughout, we systematically vary natural curvature of the rod as a control parameter, which has a qualitative and quantitative effect on the pattern formation, above a critical value that we determine. The universality conferred by the prominent role of geometry in the deformation modes of the rod suggests using the gained understanding as design guidelines, in the original applications that motivated the study. PMID:25267649

  18. Calculation of the Phenix end-of-life test 'Control Rod Withdrawal' with the ERANOS code

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberi, V.

    2012-07-01

    The Inst. of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) acts as technical support to French public authorities. As such, IRSN is in charge of safety assessment of operating and under construction reactors, as well as future projects. In this framework, one current objective of IRSN is to evaluate the ability and accuracy of numerical tools to foresee consequences of accidents. Neutronic studies step in the safety assessment from different points of view among which the core design and its protection system. They are necessary to evaluate the core behavior in case of accident in order to assess the integrity of the first barrier and the absence of a prompt criticality risk. To reach this objective one main physical quantity has to be evaluated accurately: the neutronic power distribution in core during whole reactor lifetime. Phenix end of life tests, carried out in 2009, aim at increasing the experience feedback on sodium cooled fast reactors. These experiments have been done in the framework of the development of the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. Ten tests have been carried out: 6 on neutronic and fuel aspects, 2 on thermal hydraulics and 2 for the emergency shutdown. Two of them have been chosen for an international exercise on thermal hydraulics and neutronics in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project. Concerning neutronics, the Control Rod Withdrawal test is relevant for safety because it allows evaluating the capability of calculation tools to compute the radial power distribution on fast reactors core configurations in which the flux field is very deformed. IRSN participated to this benchmark with the ERANOS code developed by CEA for fast reactors studies. This paper presents the results obtained in the framework of the benchmark activity. A relatively good agreement was found with available measures considering the approximations done in the modeling. The work underlines the importance of burn-up calculations in order to have a fine

  19. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core-shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  20. Cuisenaire Rods Go to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Phyllis; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents examples of questions and answers arising from a hands-on and exploratory approach to discrete mathematics using cuisenaire rods. Combinatorial questions about trains formed of cuisenaire rods provide the setting for discovering numerical patterns by experimentation and organizing the results using induction and successive differences.…

  1. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  2. Enhancement of the 77 K critical currents on thin textured Bi-2212 rods by controlled distribution of secondary phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natividad, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Díez, J. C.; Navarro, R.; Martínez, E.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.

    2002-08-01

    Long and thin Bi-2212 rods textured by laser induced zone melting show inhomogeneous radial distribution of secondary phases and Bi concentration in transverse cross-sections. The microstructure inhomogeneity, which depends on the growth conditions, is reflected in the physical properties of the samples. We have estimated the radial distribution of Jc (77 K) in different samples using destructive and non-destructive approaches, correlating these results with the microstructure variations. Using this knowledge, the conductor performance at 77 K has been optimised by controlling the distribution of secondary phases.

  3. Nondestructive and Destructive Examination Studies on Removed-from-Service Control Rod Drive Mechanism Penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Seffens, Rob J.; Schuster, George J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Harris, Robert V.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2007-06-07

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objectives of this work are to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies. Two CRDM assemblies were removed from service, decontaminated, and then used in a series of NDE and destructive examination (DE) measurements; this report addresses the following questions: 1) What did each NDE technique detect? 2) What did each NDE technique miss? 3) How accurately did each NDE technique characterize the detected flaws? 4) Why did the NDE techniques perform or not perform? Two CRDM assemblies including the CRDM nozzle, the J-groove weld, buttering, and a portion of the ferritic head material were selected for this study. This report focuses on a CRDM assembly that contained suspected PWSCC, based on in-service inspection data and through-wall leakage. The NDE measurements used to examine the CRDM assembly followed standard industry techniques for conducting in-service inspections of CRDM nozzles and the crown of the J-groove welds and buttering. These techniques included eddy current testing (ET), time-of-flight diffraction ultrasound, and penetrant testing. In addition, laboratory-based NDE methods were employed to conduct inspections of the CRDM assembly with particular emphasis on inspecting the J-groove weld and buttering. These techniques included volumetric ultrasonic inspection of the J-groove weld metal and visual testing via replicant material of the J-groove weld. The results from these NDE studies were used to

  4. Making Highly Pure Glass Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed quasi-containerless method for making glass rods or fibers minimizes contact between processing equipment and product. Method allows greater range of product sizes and shapes than achieved in experiments on containerless processing. Molten zone established in polycrystalline rod. Furnace sections separated, and glass rod solidifies between them. Clamp supports solid glass as it grows in length. Pulling clamp rapidly away from melt draws glass fiber. Fiber diameter controlled by adjustment of pulling rate.

  5. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  6. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  7. An adaptive pattern based nonlinear PID controller.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Juan Pablo; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Ceballos, Eric

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a pattern based adaptive algorithm to cope with the problem of tuning the controller, and an associative memory to store the parameters, according to different operating conditions. The simplicity of the algorithm enables its implementation in current programmable logic controller technology. Several real-time experiments, carried out in a pressurized tank, illustrate the performance of the proposed controller.

  8. Size-controlled synthesis of rod-like α-FeOOH nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chengzhen; Qiao, Penghui; Nan, Zhaodong

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods were successfully fabricated by a hydrothermal route without any template. Experimental results reveal that concentrations of Fe(3+) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic disodium salt (Na2EDTA) affect the phase composition and size of the as-synthesized products. The size of the rod-like α-FeOOH increased when the concentration of Na2EDTA was increased, where Na2EDTA acts as a nucleation inhibitor. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were produced when the concentration of Fe(3+) was increased from 0.02 to 0.08 and 0.40 M. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the results of the time dependent experiments. Different electrolytes and surfactants can affect the size and the aspect ratio of the as-prepared nanorod-like α-FeOOH. Na2SO4 induced the decreasing of the size of the as-prepared sample. KCl and PVP affected the aspect ratio of the nanorods.

  9. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Philippi, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Benchmark of Atucha-2 PHWR RELAP5-3D control rod model by Monte Carlo MCNP5 core calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Pecchia, M.; D'Auria, F.; Mazzantini, O.

    2012-07-01

    Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and peculiarities require the adoption of advanced Monte Carlo codes for performing realistic neutronic simulations. Therefore core models of Atucha-2 PHWR were developed using MCNP5. In this work a methodology was set up to collect the flux in the hexagonal mesh by which the Atucha-2 core is represented. The scope of this activity is to evaluate the effect of obliquely inserted control rod on neutron flux in order to validate the RELAP5-3D{sup C}/NESTLE three dimensional neutron kinetic coupled thermal-hydraulic model, applied by GRNSPG/UNIPI for performing selected transients of Chapter 15 FSAR of Atucha-2. (authors)

  11. Condensate microdrop self-propelling aluminum surfaces based on controllable fabrication of alumina rod-capped nanopores.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Luo, Yuting; Li, Juan; Yin, Fei; Zhu, Jie; Gao, Xuefeng

    2015-06-03

    Here, we report a type of aluminum-based condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) functional films based on the controllable fabrication of anodic alumina rod-capped nanopores, which can be realized by a three-step method based on the skillful combinations of well-established hard anodization, mild anodization and chemical etching techniques. Such a surface nanoengineering strategy is verified to be feasible via our exemplified experiments and scanning electronic microscopy characterizations. After fluorosilane modification, the surface nanostructure can induce the efficient self-jumping of small-scale condensate microdrops, especially below 50 μm. This work offers an avenue for developing CMDSP aluminum surfaces with self-cleaning, antifrosting, and antidewing functions.

  12. Evaluation and Repair of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in Alloy 600/182 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Charles R.; Arey, Melvin L. Jr.; Robinson, Michael R.; Whitaker, David E.

    2002-07-01

    In February 2001, a routine visual inspection of the reactor vessel head of Oconee Nuclear Station Unit 3 identified boric acid crystals at nine of sixty-nine locations where control rod drive mechanism housings (CRDM nozzles) penetrate the head. The boric acid deposits resulted from primary coolant leaking from cracks in the nozzle attachment weld and from through-thickness cracks in the nozzle wall. A general overview of the inspection and repair process is presented and results of the metallurgical analysis are discussed in more detail. The analysis confirmed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is the mechanism of failure of both the Alloy 182 weld filler material and the alloy 600 wrought base material. (authors)

  13. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  14. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Nymark, Soile; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Berry, Justin D; Adler, Leopold; Koutalos, Yiannis; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Cornwall, M Carter

    2016-07-01

    Photoactivation of vertebrate rhodopsin converts it to the physiologically active Meta II (R*) state, which triggers the rod light response. Meta II is rapidly inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1). Meta II exists in equilibrium with the more stable inactive form of rhodopsin, Meta III. Dark adaptation of rods requires the complete thermal decay of Meta II/Meta III into opsin and all-trans retinal and the subsequent regeneration of rhodopsin with 11-cis retinal chromophore. In this study, we examine the regulation of Meta III decay by Grk1 and Arr1 in intact mouse rods and their effect on rod dark adaptation. We measure the rates of Meta III decay in isolated retinas of wild-type (WT), Grk1-deficient (Grk1(-/-)), Arr1-deficient (Arr1(-/-)), and Arr1-overexpressing (Arr1(ox)) mice. We find that in WT mouse rods, Meta III peaks ∼6 min after rhodopsin activation and decays with a time constant (τ) of 17 min. Meta III decay slows in Arr1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼27 min), whereas it accelerates in Arr1(ox) rods (τ of ∼8 min) and Grk1(-/-) rods (τ of ∼13 min). In all cases, regeneration of rhodopsin with exogenous 11-cis retinal is rate limited by the decay of Meta III. Notably, the kinetics of rod dark adaptation in vivo is also modulated by the levels of Arr1 and Grk1. We conclude that, in addition to their well-established roles in Meta II inactivation, Grk1 and Arr1 can modulate the kinetics of Meta III decay and rod dark adaptation in vivo.

  15. Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods

    PubMed Central

    Nymark, Soile; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Berry, Justin D.; Adler, Leopold; Koutalos, Yiannis; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Cornwall, M. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Photoactivation of vertebrate rhodopsin converts it to the physiologically active Meta II (R*) state, which triggers the rod light response. Meta II is rapidly inactivated by the phosphorylation of C-terminal serine and threonine residues by G-protein receptor kinase (Grk1) and subsequent binding of arrestin 1 (Arr1). Meta II exists in equilibrium with the more stable inactive form of rhodopsin, Meta III. Dark adaptation of rods requires the complete thermal decay of Meta II/Meta III into opsin and all-trans retinal and the subsequent regeneration of rhodopsin with 11-cis retinal chromophore. In this study, we examine the regulation of Meta III decay by Grk1 and Arr1 in intact mouse rods and their effect on rod dark adaptation. We measure the rates of Meta III decay in isolated retinas of wild-type (WT), Grk1-deficient (Grk1−/−), Arr1-deficient (Arr1−/−), and Arr1-overexpressing (Arr1ox) mice. We find that in WT mouse rods, Meta III peaks ∼6 min after rhodopsin activation and decays with a time constant (τ) of 17 min. Meta III decay slows in Arr1−/− rods (τ of ∼27 min), whereas it accelerates in Arr1ox rods (τ of ∼8 min) and Grk1−/− rods (τ of ∼13 min). In all cases, regeneration of rhodopsin with exogenous 11-cis retinal is rate limited by the decay of Meta III. Notably, the kinetics of rod dark adaptation in vivo is also modulated by the levels of Arr1 and Grk1. We conclude that, in addition to their well-established roles in Meta II inactivation, Grk1 and Arr1 can modulate the kinetics of Meta III decay and rod dark adaptation in vivo. PMID:27353443

  16. Reliable and Affordable Control Systems Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Bob; Tomondi, Chris; McGinley, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Active, closed-loop control of combustor pattern factor is a cooperative effort between Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal) Engines and Systems and the NASA Glenn Research Center to reduce emissions and turbine-stator vane temperature variations, thereby enhancing engine performance and life, and reducing direct operating costs. Total fuel flow supplied to the engine is established by the speed/power control, but the distribution to individual atomizers will be controlled by the Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control (ACPFC). This system consist of three major components: multiple, thin-film sensors located on the turbine-stator vanes; fuel-flow modulators for individual atomizers; and control logic and algorithms within the electronic control.

  17. Antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1993-01-01

    During the period of this research project, a comprehensive study of pyramidal horn antennas was conducted. Full-wave analytical and numerical techniques were developed to analyze horn antennas with or without impedance surfaces. Based on these full-wave analytic techniques, research was conducted on the use of impedance surfaces on the walls of the horn antennas to control the antenna radiation patterns without a substantial loss of antenna gain. It was found that the use of impedance surfaces could modify the antenna radiation patterns. In addition to the analytical and numerical models, experimental models were also constructed and they were used to validate the predictions. Excellent agreement between theoretical predictions and the measured data was obtained for pyramidal horns with perfectly conducting surfaces. Very good comparisons between numerical and experimental models were also obtained for horns with impedance surfaces.

  18. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  19. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Holmes, Caroline M; Vellema, Michiel; Pack, Andrea R; Elemans, Coen P H; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel J

    2017-01-31

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function. By examining the activity of individual motor units (the muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron) and manipulating patterns of activation of these neurons, we provide both correlative and causal evidence that the nervous system uses millisecond-scale variations in the timing of spikes within multispike patterns to control a vertebrate behavior-namely, respiration in the Bengalese finch, a songbird. These findings suggest that a fundamental assumption of current theories of motor coding requires revision.

  20. The inner rod protein controls substrate switching and needle length in a Salmonella type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Lefebre, Matthew D; Galán, Jorge E

    2014-01-14

    Type III secretion machines are essential for the biology of many bacteria that are pathogenic or symbiotic for animals, plants, or insects. They exert their function by delivering bacterial effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core component of these machines is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that spans the bacterial envelope and serves as a conduit for proteins that transit this secretion pathway. The needle complex is composed of a multiring base embedded in the bacterial envelope and a filament-like structure, the needle, that projects from the bacterial surface and is linked to the base by the inner rod. Assembly of the needle complex proceeds in a step-wise fashion that is initiated by the assembly of the base and is followed by the export of the building subunits for the needle and inner rod substructures. Once assembled, the needle complex reprograms its specificity and becomes competent for the secretion of effector proteins. Here through genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopy analyses of the Salmonella inner rod protein subunit PrgJ we present evidence that the assembly of the inner rod dictates the timing of substrate switching and needle length. Furthermore, the identification of mutations in PrgJ that specifically alter the hierarchy of protein secretion provides additional support for a complex role of the inner rod substructure in type III secretion.

  1. Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    BWR off-center RDA calculations have been performed for selected rod worths and drop speeds. While in all cases the peak fuel enthalpy was well below the 280 cal/g fuel criterion, a substantial sensitivity to control rod worth and rod drop speed was observed.

  2. Chemical State Mapping of Degraded B4C Control Rod Investigated with Soft X-ray Emission Spectrometer in Electron Probe Micro-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kasada, R; Ha, Y; Higuchi, T; Sakamoto, K

    2016-05-10

    B4C is widely used as control rods in light water reactors, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, because it shows excellent neutron absorption and has a high melting point. However, B4C can melt at lower temperatures owing to eutectic interactions with stainless steel and can even evaporate by reacting with high-temperature steam under severe accident conditions. To reduce the risk of recriticality, a precise understanding of the location and chemical state of B in the melt core is necessary. Here we show that a novel soft X-ray emission spectrometer in electron probe microanalysis can help to obtain a chemical state map of B in a modeled control rod after a high-temperature steam oxidation test.

  3. Chemical State Mapping of Degraded B4C Control Rod Investigated with Soft X-ray Emission Spectrometer in Electron Probe Micro-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasada, R.; Ha, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-05-01

    B4C is widely used as control rods in light water reactors, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, because it shows excellent neutron absorption and has a high melting point. However, B4C can melt at lower temperatures owing to eutectic interactions with stainless steel and can even evaporate by reacting with high-temperature steam under severe accident conditions. To reduce the risk of recriticality, a precise understanding of the location and chemical state of B in the melt core is necessary. Here we show that a novel soft X-ray emission spectrometer in electron probe microanalysis can help to obtain a chemical state map of B in a modeled control rod after a high-temperature steam oxidation test.

  4. FUEL ROD ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1959-09-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods aod a tubular casing through which a coolant flows in heat-change contact with the ruel rods are described. The casting is of trefoil section and carries the fuel rods, each of which has two fin engaging the serrated fins of the other two fuel rods, whereby the fuel rods are held in the casing and are interlocked against relative longitudinal movement.

  5. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  6. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  7. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  8. Connexin 36 and Rod Bipolar Cell Independent Rod Pathways Drive Retinal Ganglion Cells and Optokinetic Reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cameron S.; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad; van der Heijden, Meike; Lo, Eric M.; Paul, David; Bramblett, Debra E.; Lem, Janis; Simons, David L.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Rod pathways are a parallel set of synaptic connections which enable night vision by relaying and processing rod photoreceptor light responses. We use dim light stimuli to isolate rod pathway contributions to downstream light responses then characterize these contributions in knockout mice lacking rod transducin-α (Trα), or certain pathway components associated with subsets of rod pathways. These comparisons reveal that rod pathway driven light sensitivity in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is entirely dependent on Trα, but partially independent of connexin 36 (Cx36) and rod bipolar cells. Pharmacological experiments show that rod pathway-driven and Cx36-independent RGC ON responses are also metabotropic glutamate receptor 6-dependent. To validate the RGC findings in awake, behaving animals we measured optokinetic reflexes (OKRs), which are sensitive to changes in ON pathways. Scotopic OKR contrast sensitivity was lost in Trα−/− mice, but indistinguishable from controls in Cx36−/− and rod bipolar cell knockout mice. Mesopic OKRs were also altered in mutant mice: Trα−/− mice had decreased spatial acuity, rod BC knockouts had decreased sensitivity, and Cx36−/− mice had increased sensitivity. These results provide compelling evidence against the complete Cx36 or rod BC dependence of night vision's ON component. Further, the findings suggest the parallel nature of rod pathways provides considerable redundancy to scotopic light sensitivity but distinct contributions to mesopic responses through complicated interactions with cone pathways. PMID:26718442

  9. Active Brownian rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruani, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria, chemically-driven rods, and motility assays are examples of active (i.e. self-propelled) Brownian rods (ABR). The physics of ABR, despite their ubiquity in experimental systems, remains still poorly understood. Here, we review the large-scale properties of collections of ABR moving in a dissipative medium. We address the problem by presenting three different models, of decreasing complexity, which we refer to as model I, II, and III, respectively. Comparing model I, II, and III, we disentangle the role of activity and interactions. In particular, we learn that in two dimensions by ignoring steric or volume exclusion effects, large-scale nematic order seems to be possible, while steric interactions prevent the formation of orientational order at large scales. The macroscopic behavior of ABR results from the interplay between active stresses and local alignment. ABR exhibit, depending on where we locate ourselves in parameter space, a zoology of macroscopic patterns that ranges from polar and nematic bands to dynamic aggregates.

  10. Piston rod seal

    DOEpatents

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal of the type comprising a gland through which the piston rod is passed the piston is provided with a sleeve surrounding the piston rod and extending axially so as to axially partly overlap the gland when the piston is in its bottom dead center position.

  11. Control of the respiratory pattern in insects.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Three respiratory patterns have been described in insects: Discontinuous, Cyclic and Continuous. The Discontinuous Gas Exchange Cycle (DGC) can be distinguished by the presence of an open phase in which the spiracular valves are fully open, a closed phase during which oxygen concentrations at the tissues are lowered, thereby reducing oxidative damage, and a flutter phase in which the spiracles open intermittently for very brief periods,. The flutter phase serves to regulate internal oxygen levels at a physiologically safe level. In the Cyclic pattern, the spiracles apparently never fully close, yet a rhythmic pattern of carbon dioxide release is observed. In the Continuous pattern, no rhythmicity can be discerned and carbon dioxide release is relatively constant. In this paper I provide evidence that the three patterns described above are not distinct, but rather are a continuum. The critical parameters influencing the pattern are (1) the partial pressure of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere, and (2) the rate of oxygen use i.e. the aerobic metabolic rate. Insects exhibit the DGC when the tracheal system is capable of delivering oxygen during the open phase at a rate faster than it is consumed by oxidative metabolism. The minute to minute balance between these two processes, one delivering oxygen the other removing it, determines the pattern of respiration exhibited by the insect at any given time.

  12. A Destructive Validation of NDE Responses of Service-Induced PWSCC Found in North Anna 2 Control Rod Drive Nozzle 31

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Harris, Robert V.; Crawford, Susan L.; Seffens, Rob J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Moyer, C.

    2009-07-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington focused on assessing the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for inspecting control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzles and J-groove weldments. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of NDE methods as related to the in-service inspection of CRDM nozzles and J-groove weldments, and to enhance the knowledge base of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) through destructive characterization of the CRDM assemblies.

  13. Sucker rod construction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Goodman, J.L.; Tickle, J.D.; Liskey, A.K.

    1987-03-31

    A sucker rod construction is described comprising: a connector member being formed to define a rod receptacle having a closed axially inner end and an open axially outer end, the rod receptacle having axially spaced, tapered annular surfaces, a cylindrical fiberglass rod having an end having an outer surface being received within the rod receptacle through the outer end and cooperating therewith to define an annular chamber between the outer surface of the end of the rod and the tapered annular surfaces, and a bonding means positioned in the annular chamber for bonding to the outer surface of the end of the rod to confront the tapered annular surfaces, each annular surface having an angle of taper with respect to the outer surface of the fiberglass rod, and each angle of taper being progressively and uniformly less toward the open end by an amount between one and one-half degrees and two degrees, inclusive, and a collet connected to the connector member adjacent the open axially outer end of the rod receptacle and having an axial bore therethrough retaining the end of the rod in coaxial position within the rod receptacle.

  14. Investigation of combined free and forced convection in a 2 x 6 rod bundle during controlled flow transients

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.M.; Khan, E.U.

    1980-10-01

    An experimental study was performed to obtain local fluid velocity and temperature measurements in the mixed (combined free and forced) convection regime for specific flow coastdown transients. A brief investigation of steady-state flows for the purely free-convection regime was also completed. The study was performed using an electrically heated 2 x 6 rod bundle contained in a flow housing. In addition a transient data base was obtained for evaluating the COBRA-WC thermal-hydraulic computer program (a modified version of the COBRA-IV code).

  15. Multifrequency control of Faraday wave patterns.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Chad M; Porter, Jeff; Silber, Mary

    2004-12-01

    We show how pattern formation in Faraday waves may be manipulated by varying the harmonic content of the periodic forcing function. Our approach relies on the crucial influence of resonant triad interactions coupling pairs of critical standing wave modes with damped, spatiotemporally resonant modes. Under the assumption of weak damping and forcing, we perform a symmetry-based analysis that reveals the damped modes most relevant for pattern selection, and how the strength of the corresponding triad interactions depends on the forcing frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. In many cases, the further assumption of Hamiltonian structure in the inviscid limit determines whether the given triad interaction has an enhancing or suppressing effect on related patterns. Surprisingly, even for forcing functions with arbitrarily many frequency components, there are at most five frequencies that affect each of the important triad interactions at leading order. The relative phases of those forcing components play a key role, sometimes making the difference between an enhancing and suppressing effect. In numerical examples, we examine the validity of our results for larger values of the damping and forcing. Finally, we apply our findings to one-dimensional periodic patterns obtained with impulsive forcing and to two-dimensional superlattice patterns and quasipatterns obtained with multifrequency forcing.

  16. Line width roughness control and pattern collapse solutions for EUV patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Karen; Huang, George; Ashworth, Dominic; Georger, Jacque; Ren, Liping; Cho, K. Y.; Montgomery, Warren; Wurm, Stefan; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Dunn, Shannon; Ko, Akiteryu

    2011-04-01

    Line width roughness (LWR) control is a critical issue in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). The difficulty of controlling LWR and the need to minimize it have grown as the sensitivity of materials and resolution in the resist patterning process has improved. Another critical feature that has become difficult to control in EUVL and 22nm half-pitch systems is pattern collapse. The increase of aspect ratio that comes from further scaling promotes the onset of pattern collapse. Both pattern collapse and LWR are easily observed in EUVL and leading-edge ArF immersion lithography. This paper will demonstrate recent gains in LWR control in leading EUV films using track-based processes, etch-based improvements, and the results of combined techniques. Also the use of a newly developed EUV-specific FIRM™ rinse chemistry to reduce pattern collapse will be discussed along with future development activities and industry requirements for both LWR and pattern collapse.

  17. Thermal management, beam control, and packaging designs for high power diode laser arrays and pump cavity designs for diode laser array pumped rod shaped lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Te-Yuan

    Several novel techniques for controlling, managing and utilizing high power diode lasers are described. Low pressure water spray cooling for a high heat flux system is developed and proven to be an ideal cooling method for high power diode laser arrays. In order to enable better thermal and optical performance of diode laser arrays, a new and simple optical element, the beam control prism, is invented. It provides the ability to accomplish beam shaping and beam tilting at the same time. Several low thermal resistance diode packaging designs using beam control prisms are proposed, studied and produced. Two pump cavity designs using a diode laser array to uniformly pump rod shape gain media are also investigated.

  18. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part II. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In the second part of this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of plain-carbon steel rods which have been subjected to known cooling conditions are described. Specifically, the isothermal phase transformation kinetics for the decomposition of austenite into ferrite and pearlite have been determined with a diametral dilatometer and characterized in terms of empirical coefficients in the Avrami equation. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) start time, fraction ferrite, ferrite grain diameter, and pearlite interlamellar spacing have been quantified and correlated with steel composition and cooling rate. Tensile tests have been conducted to obtain yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), which, with literature data, have been related to the microstructure and composition of the steels. These correlations, which apply to both hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels, have been incorporated in a mathematical model of the Stelmor process, to be described in Part III of this article.[441

  19. Antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid numerical technique is developed for electrically large pyramidal horn antennas radiating in free space. A stepped-waveguide method is used to analyze the interior surfaces of the horn transition. The Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) is employed on the outer surfaces of the pyramidal horn including the radiating aperture. Meanwhile, the Magnetic Field Integral Equation (MFIE) is used on the aperture to relate the aperture fields and those in the horn transition. The resultant hybrid field integral equation (HFIE) is solved numerically by the method of moments. This formulation is both accurate and numerically stable so that high-gain microwave pyramidal horns can be analyzed rigorously. Far-field radiation patterns, both computed and measured, are presented for three electrically-large x-band horn antennas. The comparisons demonstrate that this method is accurate enough to predict the fine pattern structure at wide angles and in the back region. Computed far-field patterns and aperture field distribution of two smaller x-band horns are also presented along with a discussion on the validity of the approximate aperture field distributions routinely used in the analysis and design of pyramidal horns.

  20. Effect of rod gap spacing on a suction panel for laminar flow and noise control in supersonic wind tunnels. M.S. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a coordinated experimental and theoretical study of a sound shield concept which aims to provide a means of noise reduction in the test section of supersonic wind tunnels at high Reynolds numbers. The model used consists of a planar array of circular rods aligned with the flow, with adjustable gaps between them for boundary layer removal by suction, i.e., laminar flow control. One of the basic requirements of the present sound shield concept is to achieve sonic cross flow through the gaps in order to prevent lee-side flow disturbances from penetrating back into the shielded region. Tests were conducted at Mach 6 over a local unit Reynolds number range from about 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 13.5 x 10 to the 6th power per foot. Measurements of heat transfer, static pressure, and sound levels were made to establish the transition characteristics of the boundary layer on the rod array and the sound shielding effectiveness.

  1. Contrast Gain Control in Plaid Pattern Detection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2016-01-01

    A plaid is a combination of two gratings whose orientations are orthogonal to each other with the same or similar contrasts. We used plaid patterns as stimuli to investigate the mechanisms underlying the detection of a plaid to understand how the visual system combines information from orientation-selective channels. We used a masking paradigm in which an observer was required to detect a target (either a spiral or a plaid) superimposed on a pedestal. We measured the target threshold versus pedestal contrast (TvC) functions at 7 pedestal contrasts for various target-pedestal combinations with a temporal 2AFC paradigm and a staircase procedure. All TvC functions, except the one with an orthogonal spiral pedestal, showed a dipper shape, although the position of the dip and the slope varied across conditions. The result can be explained by a multiple-mechanism divisive inhibition model, which contains several orientation-selective mechanisms. The response of each mechanism is the excitation of a linear filter divided by a broadband inhibitory input. The threshold is determined by a nonlinear combination of the responses of those mechanisms. Alternative models with mechanism(s) specific for plaid did not provide a better description of the data. Thus, a plaid pattern is mediated by a combination of orientation-selective mechanisms. An early plaid-specific mechanism is not necessary for plaid detection. PMID:27764119

  2. Contrast Gain Control in Plaid Pattern Detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2016-01-01

    A plaid is a combination of two gratings whose orientations are orthogonal to each other with the same or similar contrasts. We used plaid patterns as stimuli to investigate the mechanisms underlying the detection of a plaid to understand how the visual system combines information from orientation-selective channels. We used a masking paradigm in which an observer was required to detect a target (either a spiral or a plaid) superimposed on a pedestal. We measured the target threshold versus pedestal contrast (TvC) functions at 7 pedestal contrasts for various target-pedestal combinations with a temporal 2AFC paradigm and a staircase procedure. All TvC functions, except the one with an orthogonal spiral pedestal, showed a dipper shape, although the position of the dip and the slope varied across conditions. The result can be explained by a multiple-mechanism divisive inhibition model, which contains several orientation-selective mechanisms. The response of each mechanism is the excitation of a linear filter divided by a broadband inhibitory input. The threshold is determined by a nonlinear combination of the responses of those mechanisms. Alternative models with mechanism(s) specific for plaid did not provide a better description of the data. Thus, a plaid pattern is mediated by a combination of orientation-selective mechanisms. An early plaid-specific mechanism is not necessary for plaid detection.

  3. Control of spatially patterned synchrony with multisite delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, C.; Omel‘Chenko, O.; Popovych, O. V.; Maistrenko, Y.; Tass, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    We present an analytical study describing a method for the control of spatiotemporal patterns of synchrony in networks of coupled oscillators. Delayed feedback applied through a small number of electrodes effectively induces spatiotemporal dynamics at minimal stimulation intensities. Different arrangements of the delays cause different spatial patterns of synchrony, comparable to central pattern generators (CPGs), i.e., interacting clusters of oscillatory neurons producing patterned output, e.g., for motor control. Multisite delayed feedback stimulation might be used to restore CPG activity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury or gait ignition disorders.

  4. Morphological and biochemical studies of canine progressive rod-cone degeneration. /sup 3/H-fucose autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, G.; O'Brien, P.

    1986-05-01

    Visual cell pathology and rod outer segment renewal were investigated in normal and PRCD-affected miniature poodles using /sup 3/H-fucose autoradiography. Twenty-four hours following the intravitreal injection of /sup 3/H-fucose, label accumulated diffusely over cone OS and in a banded pattern at the rod OS base. In normal rods, the band of /sup 3/H-label was displaced sclerad with time. PRCD-affected rods in the early stages of the disease (stages 0-1) also showed a similar /sup 3/H-label pattern but a significantly (P less than 0.001) reduced renewal rate (control = 2.35 +/- 0.43 mu/24 hr; affected = 0.99 +/- mu/24 hr). This abnormal renewal rate was present in central, equatorial, and peripheral visual cells and was not associated with the presence or density of pigment in the RPE cell layer. Biochemical studies indicated that the /sup 3/H-label was present as an integral membrane component in the rod OS and confirmed that canine rhodopsin is a fucosylated glycoprotein. The /sup 3/H-band in the rod OS layer disappeared in stage 2 of the disease; diffuse label now was present over rod OS that had decreased length and were reduced in number. At this stage of the disease, interphotoreceptor space was invaded by phagocytic cells, and photoreceptor nuclei were lost from the outer nuclear layer. These late degenerative changes were more extensive in the superior and inferior retinal meridians.

  5. FUEL ROD CLUSTERS

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, A.B.

    1959-08-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

  6. Antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1992-01-01

    During this research period, we have effectively transferred existing computer codes from CRAY supercomputer to work station based systems. The work station based version of our code preserved the accuracy of the numerical computations while giving a much better turn-around time than the CRAY supercomputer. Such a task relieved us of the heavy dependence of the supercomputer account budget and made codes developed in this research project more feasible for applications. The analysis of pyramidal horns with impedance surfaces was our major focus during this research period. Three different modeling algorithms in analyzing lossy impedance surfaces were investigated and compared with measured data. Through this investigation, we discovered that a hybrid Fourier transform technique, which uses the eigen mode in the stepped waveguide section and the Fourier transformed field distributions across the stepped discontinuities for lossy impedances coating, gives a better accuracy in analyzing lossy coatings. After a further refinement of the present technique, we will perform an accurate radiation pattern synthesis in the coming reporting period.

  7. Effects of rod worth and drop speed on the BWR off-center rod drop accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cokinos, D.M.; Carew, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of increasing the control rod worth and the rod drop speed on the off-center RDA. An increase in either of these parameters results in an increase in peak core power and fuel enthalpy, and the objective of this study is to determine the margin to the fuel damage threshold.

  8. Central pattern generators and the control of rhythmic movements.

    PubMed

    Marder, E; Bucher, D

    2001-11-27

    Central pattern generators are neuronal circuits that when activated can produce rhythmic motor patterns such as walking, breathing, flying, and swimming in the absence of sensory or descending inputs that carry specific timing information. General principles of the organization of these circuits and their control by higher brain centers have come from the study of smaller circuits found in invertebrates. Recent work on vertebrates highlights the importance of neuro-modulatory control pathways in enabling spinal cord and brain stem circuits to generate meaningful motor patterns. Because rhythmic motor patterns are easily quantified and studied, central pattern generators will provide important testing grounds for understanding the effects of numerous genetic mutations on behavior. Moreover, further understanding of the modulation of spinal cord circuitry used in rhythmic behaviors should facilitate the development of new treatments to enhance recovery after spinal cord damage.

  9. Genes controlling mimetic colour pattern variation in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Nicola J

    2016-10-01

    Butterfly wing patterns are made up of arrays of coloured scales. There are two genera in which within-species variation in wing patterning is common and has been investigated at the molecular level, Heliconius and Papilio. Both of these species have mimetic relationships with other butterfly species that increase their protection from predators. Heliconius have a 'tool-kit' of five genetic loci that control colour pattern, three of which have been identified at the gene level, and which have been repeatedly used to modify colour pattern by different species in the genus. By contrast, the three Papilio species that have been investigated each have different genetic mechanisms controlling their polymorphic wing patterns.

  10. Torque-stiffness-controlled dynamic walking with central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Vanderborght, Bram; Van Ham, Ronald; Wang, Qining

    2014-12-01

    Walking behavior is modulated by controlling joint torques in most existing passivity-based bipeds. Controlled Passive Walking with adaptable stiffness exhibits controllable natural motions and energy efficient gaits. In this paper, we propose torque-stiffness-controlled dynamic bipedal walking, which extends the concept of Controlled Passive Walking by introducing structured control parameters and a bio-inspired control method with central pattern generators. The proposed walking paradigm is beneficial in clarifying the respective effects of the external actuation and the internal natural dynamics. We present a seven-link biped model to validate the presented walking. Effects of joint torque and joint stiffness on gait selection, walking performance and walking pattern transitions are studied in simulations. The work in this paper develops a new solution of motion control of bipedal robots with adaptable stiffness and provides insights of efficient and sophisticated walking gaits of humans.

  11. Epigenomic landscapes of retinal rods and cones

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Alisa; Luo, Chongyuan; Davis, Fred P; Mukamel, Eran A; Henry, Gilbert L; Nery, Joseph R; Urich, Mark A; Picard, Serge; Lister, Ryan; Eddy, Sean R; Beer, Michael A; Ecker, Joseph R; Nathans, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Rod and cone photoreceptors are highly similar in many respects but they have important functional and molecular differences. Here, we investigate genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility in mouse rods and cones and correlate differences in these features with gene expression, histone marks, transcription factor binding, and DNA sequence motifs. Loss of NR2E3 in rods shifts their epigenomes to a more cone-like state. The data further reveal wide differences in DNA methylation between retinal photoreceptors and brain neurons. Surprisingly, we also find a substantial fraction of DNA hypo-methylated regions in adult rods that are not in active chromatin. Many of these regions exhibit hallmarks of regulatory regions that were active earlier in neuronal development, suggesting that these regions could remain undermethylated due to the highly compact chromatin in mature rods. This work defines the epigenomic landscapes of rods and cones, revealing features relevant to photoreceptor development and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11613.001 PMID:26949250

  12. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  13. Nutrient patterns and asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, G; Amirjannati, N; Rashidkhani, B; Sadeghi, M-R; Hekmatdoost, A

    2017-04-01

    The association of dietary nutrient patterns and sperm motility is not yet well elucidated, and previous studies have just focused on the isolated nutrients. This case-control study examined the association of nutrient patterns with asthenozoospermia among Iranian men. In total, 107 incident asthenozoospermic men and 235 age-matched controls were interviewed through the infertility clinics in Tehran, Iran, from January 2012 to November 2013. Semen quality data were analysed according to the fifth edition of WHO guideline. Nutrient patterns were identified using principal component analysis based on semiquantitative 168-item food frequency questionnaires. All nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted by the residual method. In principal component analysis, three dietary patterns emerged. The first pattern, which was high in vitamin E, vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, folate, total fibre, selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly associated with lower risk of asthenozoospermia. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores had 51% lower risk of asthenozoospermia compared with those in the lowest (p-trend: .004). Our findings suggest that adherence to the pattern comprising mainly of antioxidant nutrients may be inversely associated with asthenozoospermia.

  14. Patterning of dispenser cathode surfaces to a controlled porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.; Deininger, William D.; Gibson, John; Thomas, Richard

    1989-01-01

    A process to pattern slots approximately 1.25 microns in width into 25-micron-thick W films that have been deposited onto flat or concave surfaces is discussed. A 25-micron-thick W film with a high degree of (100) orientation is chemically vapor deposited (CVD) onto a flat or concave Mo mandrel. A 5-micron-thick Al film is deposited onto the CVD W, followed by 2 microns of photoresist. On concave cathodes, XeCl2 laser ablation or X-ray lithography is used to pattern the photoresist, whereas on flat cathodes deep UV lithography can be used. The patterned photoresist serves as the mask in a Cl ion-beam-assisted etching (IBAE) process to pattern the Al. An alternative process is to deposit Al2O3 films onto the W and pattern the Al2O3 using laser ablation. The W film is then patterned to 3-6-micron slot widths using IBAE + ClF3 with the patterned Al or Al2O3 as the mask. Finally, a sputter deposition step is required to close up the slots to approximately 1 micron. The process described is capable of patterning concave dispenser cathodes to a controlled and precise porosity.

  15. Stirring with ghost rods in a lid-driven cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Chen, Jie; Stremler, Mark

    2009-11-01

    It has shown that passive fluid particles moving on periodic orbits can be used to `stir' a viscous fluid in a two-dimensional lid-driven cavity that exhibits a figure-eight flow pattern (Stremler & Chen 2007). Fluid motion in the vicinity of these particles produces ``ghost rod'' structures that behave like semi-permeable rods in the flow. Since these ghost rods are present due to the system dynamics, perturbations in the boundary conditions lead to variations in the existence and structure of the ghost rods. We discuss these variations and assess the role of ghost rods in mixing over a range of operating conditions for this system. The results suggest that ghost rods can play an important role in mixing for other counter-rotating flows.

  16. Global feedback control for pattern-forming systems.

    PubMed

    Stanton, L G; Golovin, A A

    2007-09-01

    Global feedback control of pattern formation in a wide class of systems described by the Swift-Hohenberg (SH) equation is investigated theoretically, by means of stability analysis and numerical simulations. Two cases are considered: (i) feedback control of the competition between hexagon and roll patterns described by a supercritical SH equation, and (ii) the use of feedback control to suppress the blowup in a system described by a subcritical SH equation. In case (i), it is shown that feedback control can change the hexagon and roll stability regions in the parameter space as well as cause a transition from up to down hexagons and stabilize a skewed (mixed-mode) hexagonal pattern. In case (ii), it is demonstrated that feedback control can suppress blowup and lead to the formation of spatially localized patterns in the weakly nonlinear regime. The effects of a delayed feedback are also investigated for both cases, and it is shown that delay can induce temporal oscillations as well as blowup.

  17. Validation of updated neutronic calculation models proposed for Atucha-II PHWR. Part I: Benchmark comparisons of WIMS-D5 and DRAGON cell and control rod parameters with MCNP5

    SciTech Connect

    Mollerach, R.; Leszczynski, F.; Fink, J.

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Argentine Government took the decision to complete the construction of the Atucha-II nuclear power plant, which has been progressing slowly during the last ten years. Atucha-II is a 745 MWe nuclear station moderated and cooled with heavy water, of German (Siemens) design located in Argentina. It has a pressure-vessel design with 451 vertical coolant channels, and the fuel assemblies (FA) are clusters of 37 natural UO{sub 2} rods with an active length of 530 cm. For the reactor physics area, a revision and update calculation methods and models (cell, supercell and reactor) was recently carried out covering cell, supercell (control rod) and core calculations. As a validation of the new models some benchmark comparisons were done with Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP5. This paper presents comparisons of cell and supercell benchmark problems based on a slightly idealized model of the Atucha-I core obtained with the WIMS-D5 and DRAGON codes with MCNP5 results. The Atucha-I core was selected because it is smaller, similar from a neutronic point of view, and more symmetric than Atucha-II Cell parameters compared include cell k-infinity, relative power levels of the different rings of fuel rods, and some two-group macroscopic cross sections. Supercell comparisons include supercell k-infinity changes due to the control rods (tubes) of steel and hafnium. (authors)

  18. Intramedullary rodding in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Mulpuri, K; Joseph, B

    2000-01-01

    The results of intramedullary rodding of long bones of 16 children with osteogenesis imperfecta, over a 10-year period, were analyzed. Sheffield elongating rods or non-elongating rods were used. The frequency of fractures was dramatically reduced after implantation of either type of rod, and the ambulatory status improved in all instances. The results were significantly better after Sheffield rodding with regard to the frequency of complications requiring reoperations and the longevity of the rods. Migration of the rods, encountered frequently, appears to be related to improper placement of the rods in the bone. It seems likely that if care is taken to ensure precise placement of a rod of appropriate size, several of these complications may be avoided.

  19. Who's the Boss? Patterns of Perceived Control in Adolescents' Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Helms, Heather M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Sales, Lara H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of different patterns of perceived control in adolescents' relationships with their best friends. Participants included firstborn adolescents (M = 14.94 years), their younger siblings (M = 12.44 years) and both their mothers and fathers in 163 families as well as a best friend of each adolescent (M =…

  20. Excimer laser ablation for spatially controlled protein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Helmut; Hayes, Jason P.; Kingshott, Peter; Johnson, Graham; Harvey, Erol C.; Griesser, Hans J.

    2001-11-01

    Two-dimensional control over the location of proteins on surfaces is desired for a number of applications including diagnostic tests and tissue engineered medical devices. Many of these applications require patterns of specific proteins that allow subsequent two-dimensionally controlled cell attachment. The ideal technique would allow the deposition of specific protein patterns in areas where cell attachment is required, with complete prevention of unspecific protein adsorption in areas where cells are not supposed to attach. In our study, collagen I was used as an example for an extracellular matrix protein known to support the attachment of bovine corneal epithelial cells. An allylamine plasma polymer was deposited on a silicon wafer substrate, followed by grafting of poly(ethylene oxide). Two-dimensional control over the surface chemistry was achieved using a 248 nm excimer laser. Results obtained by XPS and AFM show that the combination of extremely low-fouling surfaces with excimer laser ablation can be used effectively for the production of spatially controlled protein patterns with a resolution of less than 1 micrometers . Furthermore, it was shown that bovine corneal epithelial cell attachment followed exactly the created protein patterns. The presented method is an effective tool for a number of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  1. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  2. Controlled synthesis of CeO2 microstructures from 1D rod-like to 3D lotus-like and their morphology-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jinfeng; Meng, Fanming; Fan, Zhenghua; Li, Huijie

    2016-10-01

    Monodisperse 3D lotus-like CeO2 microstructures have been successfully synthesized via controlling the morphology of CeCO3OH precursors under hydrothermal condition as well as subsequent calcination. The reaction time was systematically investigated. XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, XPS, Raman scattering and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the samples. The lotus-like CeO2 hierarchical structures with an average of 4-6 μm are composed of many nanoplates of 100-200 nm in thickness as the petals stacking together to form open flowers and have a fluorite cubic structure. Based on the time-dependent morphology evolution evidences, a nucleation-dissolution-recrystallization mechanism has been proposed to explain the transformation from rod-like structures to lotus-like CeO2 hierarchical structures with the increase of reaction time. It is found that there are Ce3+ ions and oxygen vacancies in surface of samples. The magnetic and photoluminescence measurements indicated that all CeO2 samples exhibit excellent ferromagnetism and optical properties at room temperature, and while increasing the reaction time, the ferromagnetism and optical properties increase more, which can be reasonably explained for the influences of the different morphology of the particles and the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ce3+ ions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Study on Fracture Behavior of 2D-C/C Composite for Application to Control Rod of Very High Temperature Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumita, J.; Fujita, I.; Shibata, T.; Makita, T.; Takagi, T.; Kunimoto, E.; Sawa, K.; Kim, W.; Park, J.

    2011-10-01

    For a control rod element of the Very High Temperature Reactor, a carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the major candidate materials for its high strength and thermal stability. In this study, in order to establish the data base of the 2D-C/C composite, the fracture data was obtained by simulating the crack expected to be generated under the VHTR condition and the oxidation effect on the fracture behavior was evaluated. Moreover, the fracture mechanism of the C/C composite was investigated through scanning electron microscope observation. This study showed that the oxidized matrix caused reduction of the fracture toughness and the reduction ratio was dependent on the density of matrix and a number cracks. With increasing the oxidation, the fracture toughness is mainly dependent on the fiber characteristics. Furthermore, the crack grows along the boundary between fiber bundles without breaking the fiber. The cracks which were initiated at the interface between the matrix and the fiber were gathered into the voids in the boundary between fiber bundles, and, then, the cracks grew up in the matrix.

  4. Controllable synthesis and enhanced microwave absorbing properties of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yana; Wu, Tong; Jin, Keying; Qian, Yao; Qian, Naxin; Jiang, Kedan; Wu, Wenhua; Tong, Guoxiu

    2016-11-01

    We developed a coordinated self-assembly/precipitate transfer/sintering method that allows the controllable synthesis of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods (HPRs). A series of characterizations confirms that changing [Ni2+] can effectively control the crystal size, internal strain, composition, textural characteristics, and properties of HPRs. Molar percentages of Ni and NiFe2O4 in HPRs increase with [Ni2+] in various Boltzmann function modes. Saturation magnetization Ms and coercivity Hc show U-shaped change trends because of crystal size, composition, and interface magnetic coupling. High magnetic loss is maintained after decorating NiFe2O4 and Ni on the surface of Fe3O4 PRs. Controlling the NiFe2O4 interface layers and Ni content can improve impedance matching and dielectric losses, thereby leading to lighter weight, stronger absorption, and broader absorption band of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs than Fe3O4 PRs. An optimum EM wave absorbing property was exhibited by Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs formed at [Ni2+] = 0.05 M. The maximum reflection loss (RL) reaches -58.4 dB at 13.68 GHz, which corresponds to a 2.1 mm matching thickness. The absorbing bandwidth (RL ≤ -20 dB) reaches 14.4 GHz with the sample thickness at 1.6-2.4 and 2.8-10.0 mm. These excellent properties verify that Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs are promising candidates for new and effective absorptive materials.

  5. Locus of control patterns in headaches and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; López-Jiménez, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The six-cluster solution was optimal. The patterns observed coincided with: the believer in control; the yea-sayer; the pure chance; the pure internal; the pure professional; and the nay-sayer clusters. The double external or type VI clusters were not observed. Clusters could be classified from the best to the worst adjustment to chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the empirical validity of the theoretical model of LOC patterns proposed in 1982 by Wallston and Wallston among a chronic pain population. The analysis of patterns provides more accurate information regarding the adjustment to pain compared with analysis of the LOC factors separately. PMID:23936894

  6. The development of a thermal hydraulic feedback mechanism with a quasi-fixed point iteration scheme for control rod position modeling for the TRIGSIMS-TH application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karriem, Veronica V.

    Nuclear reactor design incorporates the study and application of nuclear physics, nuclear thermal hydraulic and nuclear safety. Theoretical models and numerical methods implemented in computer programs are utilized to analyze and design nuclear reactors. The focus of this PhD study's is the development of an advanced high-fidelity multi-physics code system to perform reactor core analysis for design and safety evaluations of research TRIGA-type reactors. The fuel management and design code system TRIGSIMS was further developed to fulfill the function of a reactor design and analysis code system for the Pennsylvania State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). TRIGSIMS, which is currently in use at the PSBR, is a fuel management tool, which incorporates the depletion code ORIGEN-S (part of SCALE system) and the Monte Carlo neutronics solver MCNP. The diffusion theory code ADMARC-H is used within TRIGSIMS to accelerate the MCNP calculations. It manages the data and fuel isotopic content and stores it for future burnup calculations. The contribution of this work is the development of an improved version of TRIGSIMS, named TRIGSIMS-TH. TRIGSIMS-TH incorporates a thermal hydraulic module based on the advanced sub-channel code COBRA-TF (CTF). CTF provides the temperature feedback needed in the multi-physics calculations as well as the thermal hydraulics modeling capability of the reactor core. The temperature feedback model is using the CTF-provided local moderator and fuel temperatures for the cross-section modeling for ADMARC-H and MCNP calculations. To perform efficient critical control rod calculations, a methodology for applying a control rod position was implemented in TRIGSIMS-TH, making this code system a modeling and design tool for future core loadings. The new TRIGSIMS-TH is a computer program that interlinks various other functional reactor analysis tools. It consists of the MCNP5, ADMARC-H, ORIGEN-S, and CTF. CTF was coupled with both MCNP and ADMARC-H to provide the

  7. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  8. Differential Phosphorylation Provides a Switch to Control How α-Arrestin Rod1 Down-regulates Mating Pheromone Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Christopher G.; Aindow, Ann; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that initiate stimulus-dependent activation of cognate heterotrimeric G-proteins, triggering ensuing downstream cellular responses. Tight regulation of GPCR-evoked pathways is required because prolonged stimulation can be detrimental to an organism. Ste2, a GPCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that mediates response of MATa haploids to the peptide mating pheromone α-factor, is down-regulated by both constitutive and agonist-induced endocytosis. Efficient agonist-stimulated internalization of Ste2 requires its association with an adaptor protein, the α-arrestin Rod1/Art4, which recruits the HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, allowing for ubiquitinylation of the C-terminal tail of the receptor and its engagement by the clathrin-dependent endocytic machinery. We previously showed that dephosphorylation of Rod1 by calcineurin (phosphoprotein phosphatase 2B) is required for optimal Rod1 function in Ste2 down-regulation. We show here that negative regulation of Rod1 by phosphorylation is mediated by two distinct stress-activated protein kinases, Snf1/AMPK and Ypk1/SGK1, and demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that this phospho-regulation impedes the ability of Rod1 to promote mating pathway desensitization. These studies also revealed that, in the absence of its phosphorylation, Rod1 can promote adaptation independently of Rsp5-mediated receptor ubiquitinylation, consistent with recent evidence that α-arrestins can contribute to cargo recognition by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. However, in cells lacking a component (formin Bni1) required for clathrin-independent entry, Rod1 derivatives that are largely unphosphorylated and unable to associate with Rsp5 still promote efficient adaptation, indicating a third mechanism by which this α-arrestin promotes desensitization of the pheromone-response pathway. PMID:26920760

  9. Differential Phosphorylation Provides a Switch to Control How α-Arrestin Rod1 Down-regulates Mating Pheromone Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Christopher G; Aindow, Ann; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that initiate stimulus-dependent activation of cognate heterotrimeric G-proteins, triggering ensuing downstream cellular responses. Tight regulation of GPCR-evoked pathways is required because prolonged stimulation can be detrimental to an organism. Ste2, a GPCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that mediates response of MATa haploids to the peptide mating pheromone α-factor, is down-regulated by both constitutive and agonist-induced endocytosis. Efficient agonist-stimulated internalization of Ste2 requires its association with an adaptor protein, the α-arrestin Rod1/Art4, which recruits the HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, allowing for ubiquitinylation of the C-terminal tail of the receptor and its engagement by the clathrin-dependent endocytic machinery. We previously showed that dephosphorylation of Rod1 by calcineurin (phosphoprotein phosphatase 2B) is required for optimal Rod1 function in Ste2 down-regulation. We show here that negative regulation of Rod1 by phosphorylation is mediated by two distinct stress-activated protein kinases, Snf1/AMPK and Ypk1/SGK1, and demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that this phospho-regulation impedes the ability of Rod1 to promote mating pathway desensitization. These studies also revealed that, in the absence of its phosphorylation, Rod1 can promote adaptation independently of Rsp5-mediated receptor ubiquitinylation, consistent with recent evidence that α-arrestins can contribute to cargo recognition by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. However, in cells lacking a component (formin Bni1) required for clathrin-independent entry, Rod1 derivatives that are largely unphosphorylated and unable to associate with Rsp5 still promote efficient adaptation, indicating a third mechanism by which this α-arrestin promotes desensitization of the pheromone-response pathway.

  10. Flow-Induced Control of Pattern Formation in Chemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenstein, Igal; Beta, Carsten

    Since Alan Turing's seminal paper in 1952, the study of spatio-temporal patterns that arise in systems of reacting and diffusing components has grown into an immense and vibrant realm of scientific research. This field includes not only chemical systems but spans many areas of science as diverse as cell and developmental biology, ecology, geosciences, or semiconductor physics. For several decades research in this field has concentrated on the vast variety of patterns that can emerge in reaction-diffusion systems and on the underlying instabilities. In the 1990s, stimulated by the pioneering work of Ott, Grebogi and Yorke, control of pattern formation arose as a new topical focus and gradually developed into an entire new field of research. On the one hand, research interests concentrated on control and suppression of undesired dynamical states, in particular on control of chaos. On the other hand, the design and engineering of particular space-time patterns became a major focus in this field that motivates ongoing scientific effort until today...

  11. Design and control of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vanag, Vladimir K.; Epstein, Irving R.

    2008-06-15

    We discuss the design of reaction-diffusion systems that display a variety of spatiotemporal patterns. We also consider how these patterns may be controlled by external perturbation, typically using photochemistry or temperature. Systems treated include the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction, the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid and chlorine dioxide-malonic acid-iodine reactions, and the BZ-AOT system, i.e., the BZ reaction in a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion stabilized by the surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

  12. Modular neuromuscular control of human locomotion by central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, Seyyed Arash; Farahmand, Farzam; Zohoor, Hassan

    2017-02-28

    The central pattern generators (CPG) in the spinal cord are thought to be responsible for producing the rhythmic motor patterns during rhythmic activities. For locomotor tasks, this involves much complexity, due to a redundant system of muscle actuators with a large number of highly nonlinear muscles. This study proposes a reduced neural control strategy for the CPG, based on modular organization of the co-active muscles, i.e., muscle synergies. Four synergies were extracted from the EMG data of the major leg muscles of two subjects, during two gait trials each, using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. A Matsuoka׳s four-neuron CPG model with mutual inhibition, was utilized to generate the rhythmic activation patterns of the muscle synergies, using the hip flexion angle and foot contact force information from the sensory afferents as inputs. The model parameters were tuned using the experimental data of one gait trial, which resulted in a good fitting accuracy (RMSEs between 0.0491 and 0.1399) between the simulation and experimental synergy activations. The model׳s performance was then assessed by comparing its predictions for the activation patterns of the individual leg muscles during locomotion with the relevant EMG data. Results indicated that the characteristic features of the complex activation patterns of the muscles were well reproduced by the model for different gait trials and subjects. In general, the CPG- and muscle synergy-based model was promising in view of its simple architecture, yet extensive potentials for neuromuscular control, e.g., resolving redundancies, distributed and fast control, and modulation of locomotion by simple control signals.

  13. Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen.

    PubMed

    Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Young-Ki; Jo, Soo In; Gwag, Jin Seog; Yu, Chang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2009-06-08

    We proposed a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) mode controlled by a modified surface with ultraviolet (UV) curable reactive mesogen (RM) mixed with vertical alignment material for a liquid crystal display (LCD) with fast response time. In the surface-controlled PVA (SC-PVA) mode, the RM monomers in the alignment layer are polymerized along the LC directors by UV exposure under an applied voltage. The polymerized RMs produce a pretilt against the substrate normal depending on the applied field direction in the patterned electrode configuration. In such SC-PVA mode, fast response time was achieved at whole grey levels with the predetermined rotational preference of the LC directors governed by the pretilt direction.

  14. Learning with Rods: One Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Donald Esha

    This paper discusses one English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher's attempts to use cuisenaire rods as a language learning tool. Cuisenaire rods (sometimes called algebricks) vary in size from 1 x 1 x 10 centimeter sticks to 1 x 1 x 1 centimeter cubes, with each of the 10 sizes a different color. Although such rods have been used to teach…

  15. High-yield production of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Moresco, Jacob Lange; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib

    2011-06-01

    Hydrophobins are small fungal proteins with amphipatic properties and the ability to self-assemble on a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface; thus, many technical applications for hydrophobins have been suggested. The pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus expresses the hydrophobins RodA and RodB on the surface of its conidia. RodA is known to be of importance to the pathogenesis of the fungus, while the biological role of RodB is currently unknown. Here, we report the successful expression of both hydrophobins in Pichia pastoris and present fed-batch fermentation yields of 200-300 mg/l fermentation broth. Protein bands of expected sizes were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, and the identity was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Both proteins were purified using his-affinity chromatography, and the high level of purity was verified by silver-stained SDS-PAGE. Recombinant RodA as well as rRodB were able to convert a glass surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic similar to native RodA, but only rRodB was able to decrease the hydrophobicity of a Teflon-like surface to the same extent as native RodA, while rRodA showed this ability to a lesser extent. Recombinant RodA and native RodA showed a similar ability to emulsify air in water, while recombinant RodB could also emulsify oil in water better than the control protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). This is to our knowledge the first successful expression of hydrophobins from A. fumigatus in a eukaryote host, which makes it possible to further characterize both hydrophobins. Furthermore, the expression strategy and fed-batch production using P. pastoris may be transferred to hydrophobins from other species.

  16. Locked-wrap fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kaplan, Samuel; Chertock, Alan J.; Punches, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spacing fast reactor fuel rods using a wire wrapper improved by orienting the wire-wrapped fuel rods in a unique manner which introduces desirable performance characteristics not attainable by previous wire-wrapped designs. Use of this method in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor results in: (a) improved mechanical performance, (b) improved rod-to-rod contact, (c) reduced steel volume, and (d) improved thermal-hydraulic performance. The method produces a "locked wrap" design which tends to lock the rods together at each of the wire cluster locations.

  17. Trunnion Rod Microcrack Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    optimization, which can involve specification of frequency, propagation mode, transmitter, receiver, and post processing . More detail is presented...structures such as plates, rods, pipes and even more arbitrary shaped extrusions like railroad tracks, greatly affect the propagation characteristics of...waves exist only in solids and are not carried in fluids. Some greases do have limited capacity in carrying shear waves. Because the viscosity of some

  18. Control over phase behavior and solution structure of hairy-rod polyfluorene by means of side-chain length and branching.

    PubMed

    Knaapila, M; Stepanyan, R; Torkkeli, M; Garamus, V M; Galbrecht, F; Nehls, B S; Preis, E; Scherf, U; Monkman, A P

    2008-05-01

    We present guidelines on how the solution structure of pi -conjugated hairy-rod polyfluorenes is controlled by the side-chain length and branching. First, the semiquantitative mean-field theory is formulated to predict the phase behavior of the system as a function of side-chain beads (N). The phase transition at N=N{ *} separates a lyotropic phase with solvent coexistence (NN{ *}). The membrane phase transforms into the isotropic phase of dissolved rodlike polymers at the temperature T_{mem}{ *}(N), which decreases both with N and with the degree of side-chain branching. This picture is complemented by polymer demixing with the transition temperature T_{IN}{ *}(N), which decreases with N . For NN{ *}, stable membranes are predicted for T_{IN}{ *}controlled by (9,9-dioctylfluorene)/(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)fluorene) (F8/F2/6) random copolymers. The proportion of F8 to F2/6 repeat units was 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 50:50, and 0:100. In accordance with the theory, lyotropic, membrane, and isotropic phases with the corresponding phase transitions were observed. For NN{ *}. T_{mem}{ *}(N) decreases from 340 K to 280 K for N > or = 8 . For copolymers, the membrane phase is found when the fraction of F8 units is at least 90%, T_{mem}{ *} decreasing with this fraction. The membrane phase contains three material types: loose sheets of two polymer layers, a better packed beta phase, and dissolved polymer. For N > or = 7 and T

  19. The evaluation of corrosion resistant rod end rolling element bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Braza, J.F.; Giuntoli, K.; Imundo, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    Recent developments on carburizing grades of stainless steels have provided new materials to produce corrosion resistant airframe control bearings. This paper presents the application of one of these new carburizing grades of stainless steel to rod end ball bearings. The outer ring of the rod end bearing is made out of carburized stainless steel, while the inner ring and balls are made out of through-hardened stainless steel. The stainless steel rod end bearings were evaluated according to various ASTM and Military specifications for performance and corrosion resistance. The stainless steel rod end bearings exceeded the performance requirements of standard rod end bearings (which are comprised of a carburized 8620 steel outer ring and 52100 steel inner ring and balls) in accordance with MIL-B-6039. The rod end bearings were evaluated in the radial fracture load, axial fracture load, and radial dynamic load tests. Also, salt spray and alternate immersion corrosion tests (ASTM B 117-85 and G 44-88, respectively) were conducted on the stainless steel rod end bearings. The stainless steel rod end bearings exhibited superior corrosion resistance to the standard 8620/52100 steel rod end bearings.

  20. Daylength mediated control of seasonal growth patterns in perennial trees.

    PubMed

    Petterle, Anna; Karlberg, Anna; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P

    2013-06-01

    Daylength is a key regulator of seasonal growth patterns in perennial trees in temperate regions. Cessation of growth is induced by short day signal in these trees before the advent of winter and constitutes a major adaptive developmental program. In this review, we report on the recent progress made in identifying the molecular mechanisms that underlie the daylength mediated control of seasonal growth in perennial trees. A major finding that has emerged from the analysis of this process is that the regulation of growth cessation in perennial trees and flowering time by daylength in annuals such as Arabidopsis thaliana involves identical signalling components.

  1. Improvement in Jc performance below liquid nitrogen temperature for SmBa2Cu3Oy superconducting films with BaHfO3 nano-rods controlled by low-temperature growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Ichino, Y.; Xu, Q.; Matsumoto, K.; Ichinose, A.; Awaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    For use in high-magnetic-field coil-based applications, the critical current density (Jc) of REBa2Cu3Oy (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) coated conductors must be isotropically improved, with respect to the direction of the magnetic field; these improvements must be realized at the operating conditions of these applications. In this study, improvement of the Jc for various applied directions of magnetic field was achieved by controlling the morphology of the BaHfO3 (BHO) nano-rods in a SmBCO film. We fabricated the 3.0 vol. % BHO-doped SmBCO film at a low growth temperature of 720 °C, by using a seed layer technique (Ts = 720 °C film). The low-temperature growth resulted in a morphological change in the BHO nano-rods. In fact, a high number density of (3.1 ± 0.1) × 103 μm-2 of small (diameter: 4 ± 1 nm), discontinuous nano-rods that grew in various directions, was obtained. In Jc measurements, the Jc of the Ts = 720 °C film in all directions of the applied magnetic field was higher than that of the non-doped SmBCO film. The Jcmin (6.4 MA/cm2) of the former was more than 6 times higher than that (1.0 MA/cm2) of the latter at 40 K, under 3 T. The aforementioned results indicated that the discontinuous BHO nano-rods, which occurred with a high number density, exerted a 3D-like flux pinning at the measurement conditions considered. Moreover, at 4.2 K and under 17 T, a flux pinning force density of 1.6 TN/m3 was realized; this value was comparable to the highest value recorded, to date.

  2. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  3. Breathing pattern and ventilatory control in chronic tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A; Lesser, Marvin; McCool, F Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Blunted ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide indicate that respiratory control is impaired when ventilation is stimulated in individuals with tetraplegia; however, respiratory control during resting breathing has not been extensively studied in this population. Our objective was to evaluate respiratory control and sigh frequency during resting breathing in persons with tetraplegia. A prospective, two-group comparative study was performed. Breathing pattern was assessed in ten outpatients with chronic tetraplegia and eight age- and gender-matched able-bodied controls. Subjects were noninvasively monitored for 1 h, while seated and at rest. Tidal volume (V(T)) was calculated from the sum of the anteroposterior displacements of the rib cage and abdomen and the axial displacement of the chest wall. Inspiratory time (T(I)), V(T), and the ratio of V(T) to inspiratory time (V(T)/T(I)) were calculated breath by breath. A sigh was defined as any breath greater than two or more times an individual's mean V(T). Minute ventilation, V(T)/T(I), and sigh frequency were reduced in tetraplegia compared with controls (5.24 +/- 1.15 vs. 7.16 +/- 1.29 L/min, P < 0.005; 208 +/- 45 vs. 284 +/- 47 ml/s, P < 0.005; and 11 +/- 7 vs. 42 +/- 19 sighs/h, P < 0.0005, respectively). V(T)/T(I) was associated with sigh frequency in both groups (tetraplegia: R = 0.88; P = 0.001 and control: R = 0.70; P < 0.05). We concluded that reductions in minute ventilation, V(T)/T(I), and sigh frequency suggest that respiratory drive is diminished during resting breathing in subjects with tetraplegia. These findings extend prior observations of disordered respiratory control during breathing stimulated by CO(2) in tetraplegia to resting breathing.

  4. Integrated control of transporter endocytosis and recycling by the arrestin-related protein Rod1 and the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5

    PubMed Central

    Becuwe, Michel; Léon, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    After endocytosis, membrane proteins can recycle to the cell membrane or be degraded in lysosomes. Cargo ubiquitylation favors their lysosomal targeting and can be regulated by external signals, but the mechanism is ill-defined. Here, we studied the post-endocytic trafficking of Jen1, a yeast monocarboxylate transporter, using microfluidics-assisted live-cell imaging. We show that the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 and the glucose-regulated arrestin-related trafficking adaptors (ART) protein Rod1, involved in the glucose-induced internalization of Jen1, are also required for the post-endocytic sorting of Jen1 to the yeast lysosome. This new step takes place at the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where Rod1 localizes dynamically upon triggering endocytosis. Indeed, transporter trafficking to the TGN after internalization is required for their degradation. Glucose removal promotes Rod1 relocalization to the cytosol and Jen1 deubiquitylation, allowing transporter recycling when the signal is only transient. Therefore, nutrient availability regulates transporter fate through the localization of the ART/Rsp5 ubiquitylation complex at the TGN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03307.001 PMID:25380227

  5. Correlated and uncorrelated invisible temporal white noise alters mesopic rod signaling.

    PubMed

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Kremers, Jan; Zele, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    We determined how rod signaling at mesopic light levels is altered by extrinsic temporal white noise that is correlated or uncorrelated with the activity of one (magnocellular, parvocellular, or koniocellular) postreceptoral pathway. Rod and cone photoreceptor excitations were independently controlled using a four-primary photostimulator. Psychometric (Weibull) functions were measured for incremental rod pulses (50 to 250 ms) in the presence (or absence; control) of perceptually invisible subthreshold extrinsic noise. Uncorrelated (rod) noise facilitates rod detection. Correlated postreceptoral pathway noise produces differential changes in rod detection thresholds and decreases the slope of the psychometric functions. We demonstrate that invisible extrinsic noise changes rod-signaling characteristics within the three retinogeniculate pathways at mesopic illumination depending on the temporal profile of the rod stimulus and the extrinsic noise type.

  6. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  7. Experimental analysis of liquid-metal reactor scram rod kinematic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, F. D.; Kondrashov, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    This article represents the results of computational and experimental research of liquid-metal research reactor control rod kinematics. In this research liquid-metal coolant (sodium) was simulated by water. Investigation of control rod scram-mode movement duration and investigation of velocity of movable parts near the bump of damper are the purposes of this research. Also mathematic simulation of control rod movement in scram mode was performed. Computational results for some modes of water circulation comply with experimental results well. Results of this work will be used for tests of scram rod drive of above-named research reactor. It will significantly simplify the scram rod drive testing stand construction.

  8. Patterns of control of maximum metabolic rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Hochachka, Peter W; Beatty, Cheryl L

    2003-09-01

    In this analysis, four performance phenotypes were used to compare mechanisms of control of aerobic maximum metabolic rate (MMR): (i) untrained sedentary (US) subjects, as a reference group against which to compare (ii) power trained (PT), (iii) endurance trained (ET) and (iv) high altitude adapted native (HA) subject groups. Sprinters represented the PT group; long distance runners illustrated the ET group; and Quechuas represented the HA group. Numerous recent studies have identified contributors to control on both the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supply side and the ATP demand side of ATP turnover. Control coefficients or c(i) values were defined as fractional change in MMR/fractional change in the capacity of any given step in ATP turnover. From the best available evidence it appears that at MMR all five of the major steps in energy delivery (namely, ventilation, pulmonary diffusion, cardiac output, tissue capillary - mitochondrial O(2) transfer, and aerobic cell metabolism per se) approach an upper functional ceiling, with control strength being distributed amongst the various O(2) flux steps. On the energy demand side, the situation is somewhat simplified since at MMR approximately 90% of O(2)-based ATP synthesis is used for actomyosin (AM) and Ca(2+) ATPases; at MMR these two ATP demand rates also appear to be near an upper functional ceiling. In consequence, at MMR the control contributions or c(i) values are rather evenly divided amongst all seven major steps in ATP supply and ATP demand pathways right to the point of fatigue. Relative to US (the reference group), in PT subjects at MMR control strength shifts towards O(2) delivery steps (ventilation, pulmonary diffusion and cardiac output). In contrast in ET and HA subjects at MMR control shifts towards the energy demand steps (AM and Ca(2+) ATPases), and more control strength is focussed on tissue level ATP supply and ATP demand. One obvious advantage of the ET and HA control pattern is improved

  9. E-beam-patterned hydrogels to control nanoscale surface bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krsko, P.; Saaem, I.; Clancy, R.; Geller, H.; Soteropoulos, P.; Libera, M.

    2005-11-01

    We are interested in controlling the spatial distribution of proteins on surfaces at cellular and subcellular length scales. To do this, we use a variation of e-beam lithography in a field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) to radiation crosslink thin films of water- soluble polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] and poly (carboxylic acids). We can simultaneously pattern the resulting hydrogels on silicon or glass surfaces with nanoscale and microscale feature sizes. Using hydroxy-terminated PEG 6800 we create gels with swell ratios between unity and fifteen depending on the degree of radiation crosslinking, and the swelling properties can be interpreted in terms of the Flory-Rehner formulation modified for one-dimensional swelling. While lightly-crosslinked PEG gels resist protein adsorption and cell adhesion as expected, highly crosslinked PEG gels adsorb such proteins as fibronectin and laminin and consequently become adhesive to fibroblasts, macrophages, and neurons. By spatially modulating the degree of crosslinking, we can localize these cells on surfaces and, for example, direct neurite outgrowth. If instead of using hydroxy-terminated PEG we use amine- terminated PEG, we introduce the additional flexibility of creating high-swelling PEG gels that resist nonspecific protein adsorption but to which specific proteins can be covalently bound. These can be surface patterned at submicron spacings, and we can pattern 7500 nanohydrogels in a 100 micron diameter arrays in 10 seconds. This is an areal density ~104 times greater than a modern DNA/protein chip, and the required bioreagents for chip fabrication and processing are proportionately less. We can bind fibronectin and laminin to different arrays, and we show that these proteins maintain their biospecificity after binding to the nanohydrogels with high fidelity. Looking to applications in next-generation protein-chip technology, our most recent experiments compare the performance of nanohydrogel

  10. Investigating the optical XNOR gate using plasmonic nano-rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Majid; Kaboli, Milad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a coherent perfect absorption (CPA)-type XNOR gate based on plasmonic nano particle is proposed. It consists of two plasmonic nano rod arrays on top of two parallel arms with quartz substrate. The operation principle is based on the absorbable formation of a conductive path in the dielectric layer of a plasmonic nano-particles waveguide. Since the CPA efficiency depends strongly on the number of plasmonic nano-rod and the nano rod location, an efficient binary optimization method based the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to design an optimized array of the plasmonic nano-rod in order to achieve the maximum absorption coefficient in the 'off' state and the minimum absorption coefficient in the 'on' state. In Binary PSO (BPSO), a group of birds consists a matrix with binary entries, control the presence ('1‧) or the absence ('0‧) of nano rod in the array.

  11. Neuronal firing patterns outweigh circuitry oscillations in parkinsonian motor control

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Liou, Jyun-You; Pei, Ju-Chun; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Wen-Chuan; Wang, Tien-Rei

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations at beta frequencies (20–50 Hz) in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits have long been the leading theory for bradykinesia, the slow movements that are cardinal symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The beta oscillation theory helped to drive a frequency-based design in the development of deep brain stimulation therapy for PD. However, in contrast to this theory, here we have found that bradykinesia can be completely dissociated from beta oscillations in rodent models. Instead, we observed that bradykinesia is causatively regulated by the burst-firing pattern of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in a feed-forward, or efferent-only, mechanism. Furthermore, STN burst-firing and beta oscillations are two independent mechanisms that are regulated by different NMDA receptors in STN. Our results shift the understanding of bradykinesia pathophysiology from an interactive oscillatory theory toward a feed-forward mechanism that is coded by firing patterns. This distinct mechanism may improve understanding of the fundamental concepts of motor control and enable more selective targeting of bradykinesia-specific mechanisms to improve PD therapy. PMID:27797341

  12. Control of cell nucleus shapes via micropillar patterns.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhen; Yan, Ce; Peng, Rong; Zhao, Yingchun; He, Yao; Ding, Jiandong

    2012-02-01

    We herein report a material technique to control the shapes of cell nuclei by the design of the microtopography of substrates to which the cells adhere. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) micropillars or micropits of a series of height or depth were fabricated, and some surprising self deformation of the nuclei of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was found in the case of micropillars with a sufficient height. Despite severe nucleus deformation, BMSCs kept the ability of proliferation and differentiation. We further demonstrated that the shapes of cell nuclei could be regulated by the appropriate micropillar patterns. Besides circular and elliptoid shapes, some unusual nucleus shapes of BMSCs have been achieved, such as square, cross, dumbbell, and asymmetric sphere-protrusion.

  13. Maternal control of pattern formation in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, B

    1998-01-01

    Genetic screens for recessive, maternal-effect, embryonic-lethal mutations have identified about 25 genes that control early steps of pattern formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These maternal genes are discussed as belonging to one of three groups. The par group genes establish and maintain polarity in the one-cell zygote in response to sperm entry, defining an anterior/posterior body axis at least in part through interactions with the cyto-skeleton mediated by cortically localized proteins. Blastomere identity group genes act down-stream of the par group to specify the identities of individual embryonic cells, or blastomeres, using both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Requirements for the blastomere identity genes are consistent with previous studies suggesting that early asymmetric cleavages in the C. elegans embryo generate six "founder" cells that account for much of the C. elegans body plan. Intermediate group genes, most recently identified, may link the establishment of polarity in the zygote by par group genes to the localization of blastomere identity group gene functions. This review summarizes the known requirements for the members of each group, although it seems clear that additional regulatory genes controlling pattern formation in the early embryo have yet to be identified. An emerging challenge is to link the function of the genes in these three groups into interacting pathways that can account for the specification of the six founder cell identities in the early embryo, five of which produce somatic cell types and one of which produces the germline.

  14. System for fuel rod removal from a reactor module

    DOEpatents

    Matchett, R.L.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Bacvinsicas, W.S.; Roof, D.R.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1988-07-28

    A robotic system for remote underwater withdrawal of the fuel rods from fuel modules of a light water breeder reactor includes a collet/grapple assembly for gripping and removing fuel rods in each module, which is positioned by use of a winch and a radial support means attached to a vertical support tube which is mounted over the fuel module. A programmable logic controller in conjunction with a microcomputer, provides control for the accurate positioning and pulling force of the rod grapple assembly. Closed circuit television cameras are provided which aid in operator interface with the robotic system. 7 figs.

  15. System for fuel rod removal from a reactor module

    DOEpatents

    Matchett, Richard L.; Roof, David R.; Kikta, Thomas J.; Wilczynski, Rosemarie; Nilsen, Roy J.; Bacvinskas, William S.; Fodor, George

    1990-01-01

    A robotic system for remote underwater withdrawal of the fuel rods from fuel modules of a light water breeder reactor includes a collet/grapple assembly for gripping and removing fuel rods in each module, which is positioned by use of a winch and a radial support means attached to a vertical support tube which is mounted over the fuel module. A programmable logic controller in conjunction with a microcomputer, provides control for the accurate positioning and pulling force of the rod grapple assembly. Closed circuit television cameras are provided which aid in operator interface with the robotic system.

  16. 26. A typical outer rod room, or rack room, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A typical outer rod room, or rack room, showing the racks for the nine horizontal control rods (HCRs) that would be inserted or withdrawn from the pile to control the rate of reaction. In this case, it is the 105-F Reactor in February 1945. The view is looking away from the pile, which is out of the picture on the left. Several of the cooling water hose reels for the rods can be seen at the end of the racks near the wall. D-8323 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  17. Comparing Single Versus Double Screw-Rod Anterior Instrumentation for Treating Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures with Incomplete Neurological Deficit: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Wang, Juan; Shao, Gaohai; Wang, Qunbo; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Following a thoracolumbar burst fracture (TCBF), anterior screw-rods apply pressure upon the graft site. However, there is limited evidence comparing single screw-rod anterior instrumentation (SSRAI) to double screw-rod anterior instrumentation (DSRAI) for TCBFs. Our objective was to compare SSRAI versus DSRAI for TCBFs with incomplete neurological deficit. Material/Methods A total of 51 participants with T11-L2 TCBFs (AO classification: A3) were randomly assigned to receive SSRAI or DSRAI. Key preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative data were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the independent factors associated with inferior clinical outcomes, as well as the comparative efficacy of SSRAI and DSRAI. Results There were no significant differences in the key demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups (all p>0.05). Smoking status was significantly associated with inferior three-month and six-month Denis pain scores (Wald statistic=4.246, p=0.039). Both SSRAI and DSRAI were significantly effective in improving three-month and six-month postoperative degree of kyphosis, three-month and six-month postoperative ASIA impairment scale scores, three-month and six-month postoperative Denis pain score, and three-month and six-month postoperative Denis work score (all p<0.001). Although there were no significant differences between DSRAI and SSRAI with respect to all outcomes (all p>0.05), DSRAI displayed significantly longer operating times, as well as significantly larger operative blood losses (both p<0.001). Conclusions SSRAI may be preferable over DSRAI for TCBFs with incomplete neurological deficit due to its lower operating time and amount of operative blood loss. PMID:27197020

  18. Sucker rod pump

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a subsurface well pump, it comprises: a working barrel; a plunger which reciprocates along the vertical axis within the working barrel between an upper and lower position; a rod connected to the plunger and extending to a means for providing reciprocating force; a well string extending from the top of the working barrel to the surface; an outlet check valve which permits flow to exit the working barrel into the well string and does not permit flow to exit the well string into the working barrel; and an inlet check valve which permits flow into the working barrel from outside of the subsurface pump, the inlet check valve being above the top position of the plunger, the inlet check valve having a cross sectional flow area about equal to or greater than the horizontal cross sectional area of the working barrel, and the inlet check valve being a hinged flapper valve.

  19. Topological mixing with ghost rods.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Finn, Matthew D

    2006-03-01

    Topological chaos relies on the periodic motion of obstacles in a two-dimensional flow in order to form nontrivial braids. This motion generates exponential stretching of material lines, and hence efficient mixing. Boyland, Aref, and Stremler [J. Fluid Mech. 403, 277 (2000)] have studied a specific periodic motion of rods that exhibits topological chaos in a viscous fluid. We show that it is possible to extend their work to cases where the motion of the stirring rods is topologically trivial by considering the dynamics of special periodic points that we call "ghost rods", because they play a similar role to stirring rods. The ghost rods framework provides a new technique for quantifying chaos and gives insight into the mechanisms that produce chaos and mixing. Numerical simulations for Stokes flow support our results.

  20. Experiments with a falling rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vitor

    2016-02-01

    We study the motion of a uniform thin rod released from rest, with the bottom end initially in contact with a horizontal surface. Our focus here is the motion of the bottom end as the rod falls. For small angles of release with respect to the horizontal, the rod falls without the bottom end slipping. For larger angles, the slipping direction depends on the static friction coefficient between the rod and the horizontal surface. Small friction coefficients cause the end to slip initially in one direction and then in the other, while for high coefficients, the end slips in one direction only. For intermediate values, depending on the angle of release, both situations can occur. We find the initial slipping direction to depend on a relation between the angle at which the rod slips, and a critical angle at which the frictional force vanishes. Comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations shows good agreement.

  1. Inhibitory control and the speech patterns of second language users.

    PubMed

    Korko, Malgorzata; Williams, Simon A

    2017-02-01

    Inhibitory control (IC), an ability to suppress irrelevant and/or conflicting information, has been found to underlie performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, including bilingual language processing. This study examines the relationship between IC and the speech patterns of second language (L2) users from the perspective of individual differences. While the majority of studies have supported the role of IC in bilingual language processing using single-word production paradigms, this work looks at inhibitory processes in the context of extended speech, with a particular emphasis on disfluencies. We hypothesized that the speech of individuals with poorer IC would be characterized by reduced fluency. A series of regression analyses, in which we controlled for age and L2 proficiency, revealed that IC (in terms of accuracy on the Stroop task) could reliably predict the occurrence of reformulations and the frequency and duration of silent pauses in L2 speech. No statistically significant relationship was found between IC and other L2 spoken output measures, such as repetitions, filled pauses, and performance errors. Conclusions focus on IC as one out of a number of cognitive functions in the service of spoken language production. A more qualitative approach towards the question of whether L2 speakers rely on IC is advocated.

  2. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor

  3. Lateral suppression of mesopic rod and cone flicker detection

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Lu, Yolanda H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of flicker detection suppression by measuring mesopic rod and cone critical flicker frequencies (CFFs) at different center and surround illuminance levels. Stimuli were generated with a four-primary photostimulator that provided independent control of rod and cone excitations. The results showed that dim surrounds ≤0.2 Td suppressed cone-mediated CFFs at ≥20 Td but not rod-mediated CFFs. These results can be understood in terms of peak amplitudes of photoreceptor impulse response functions under different stimulation conditions. PMID:22330377

  4. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Sarah N.; Kang, Ziho

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of air traffic controllers' (ATCs') visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades) over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1) defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2) developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human judgement bias during interrater agreement. The developed concepts and procedures were applied to investigating the visual scanpaths of expert ATCs using scenarios with different aircraft congestion levels. Furthermore, oculomotor trends were analyzed to identify the influence of aircraft congestion on scan time and number of comparisons among aircraft. The findings show that (1) the scanpaths filtered at the highest intensity led to more consistent mapping with the ATCs' linguistic inputs, (2) the pattern classification occurrences differed between scenarios, and (3) increasing aircraft congestion caused increased scan times and aircraft pairwise comparisons. The results provide a foundation for better characterizing complex scanpaths in a dynamic task and automating the analysis process. PMID:27239190

  5. Wettability control on multiphase flow in patterned microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Benzhong; Juanes, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes, including geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration into soil. Although it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and pore fluids, the effect of wettability on multiphase flow continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the impact of wettability on viscously unfavorable fluid–fluid displacement in disordered media by means of high-resolution imaging in microfluidic flow cells patterned with vertical posts. By systematically varying the wettability of the flow cell over a wide range of contact angles, we find that increasing the substrate’s affinity to the invading fluid results in more efficient displacement of the defending fluid up to a critical wetting transition, beyond which the trend is reversed. We identify the pore-scale mechanisms—cooperative pore filling (increasing displacement efficiency) and corner flow (decreasing displacement efficiency)—responsible for this macroscale behavior, and show that they rely on the inherent 3D nature of interfacial flows, even in quasi-2D media. Our results demonstrate the powerful control of wettability on multiphase flow in porous media, and show that the markedly different invasion protocols that emerge—from pore filling to postbridging—are determined by physical mechanisms that are missing from current pore-scale and continuum-scale descriptions. PMID:27559089

  6. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control.

    PubMed

    McClung, Sarah N; Kang, Ziho

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of air traffic controllers' (ATCs') visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades) over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1) defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2) developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human judgement bias during interrater agreement. The developed concepts and procedures were applied to investigating the visual scanpaths of expert ATCs using scenarios with different aircraft congestion levels. Furthermore, oculomotor trends were analyzed to identify the influence of aircraft congestion on scan time and number of comparisons among aircraft. The findings show that (1) the scanpaths filtered at the highest intensity led to more consistent mapping with the ATCs' linguistic inputs, (2) the pattern classification occurrences differed between scenarios, and (3) increasing aircraft congestion caused increased scan times and aircraft pairwise comparisons. The results provide a foundation for better characterizing complex scanpaths in a dynamic task and automating the analysis process.

  7. Wettability control on multiphase flow in patterned microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanes, Ruben; Zhao, Benzhong; MacMinn, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes, including geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration into soil. Although it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and pore fluids, the effect of wettability on multiphase flow continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here, we study the impact of wettability on viscously unfavorable fluid-fluid displacement in disordered media by means of high-resolution imaging in microfluidic flow cells patterned with vertical posts. By systematically varying the wettability of the flow cell over a wide range of contact angles, we find that increasing the substrate's affinity to the injected fluid results in more efficient displacement of the defending fluid up to a critical wetting transition, beyond which the trend is reversed. We identify the pore-scale mechanisms-cooperative pore filling (increasing displacement efficiency) and corner flow (decreasing displacement efficiency)-responsible for this macroscale behavior, and show that they rely on the inherent 3D nature of interfacial flows, even in quasi-2D media. Our results demonstrate the powerful control of wettability on multiphase flow in porous media, and show that the markedly different invasion protocols that emerge-from pore-filling to post-bridging-are determined by physical mechanisms that are missing from current pore-scale and continuum-scale descriptions.

  8. Actin-Interacting Protein 1 Contributes to Intranuclear Rod Assembly in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Hellen C.; Daszkiewicz, Wioleta; Schleicher, Michael; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Intranuclear rods are aggregates consisting of actin and cofilin that are formed in the nucleus in consequence of chemical or mechanical stress conditions. The formation of rods is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, such as certain myopathies and some neurological disorders. It is still not well understood what exactly triggers the formation of intranuclear rods, whether other proteins are involved, and what the underlying mechanisms of rod assembly or disassembly are. In this study, Dictyostelium discoideum was used to examine appearance, stages of assembly, composition, stability, and dismantling of rods. Our data show that intranuclear rods, in addition to actin and cofilin, are composed of a distinct set of other proteins comprising actin-interacting protein 1 (Aip1), coronin (CorA), filactin (Fia), and the 34 kDa actin-bundling protein B (AbpB). A finely tuned spatio-temporal pattern of protein recruitment was found during formation of rods. Aip1 is important for the final state of rod compaction indicating that Aip1 plays a major role in shaping the intranuclear rods. In the absence of both Aip1 and CorA, rods are not formed in the nucleus, suggesting that a sufficient supply of monomeric actin is a prerequisite for rod formation. PMID:28074884

  9. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  10. Implementing gait pattern control and transition for legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhijun; Rocha, Marlon V.; Lima, Priscila M. V.; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; França, Felipe M. G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a generalised central pattern generator (CPG) model is formulated to generate a full range of gait patterns for a hexapod insect. To this end, a recurrent neuronal network module, as the building block for rhythmic patterns, is proposed to extend the concept of oscillatory building blocks (OBB) for constructing a CPG model. The model is able to make transitions between different gait patterns by simply adjusting one model parameter. Simulation results are further presented to show the effectiveness and performance of the CPG network.

  11. Topological mixing with ghost rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Finn, Matthew D.

    2006-03-01

    Topological chaos relies on the periodic motion of obstacles in a two-dimensional flow in order to form nontrivial braids. This motion generates exponential stretching of material lines, and hence efficient mixing. Boyland, Aref, and Stremler [J. Fluid Mech. 403, 277 (2000)] have studied a specific periodic motion of rods that exhibits topological chaos in a viscous fluid. We show that it is possible to extend their work to cases where the motion of the stirring rods is topologically trivial by considering the dynamics of special periodic points that we call “ghost rods”, because they play a similar role to stirring rods. The ghost rods framework provides a new technique for quantifying chaos and gives insight into the mechanisms that produce chaos and mixing. Numerical simulations for Stokes flow support our results.

  12. Patterns and controls on nitrogen cycling of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barger, Nichole N.; Zaady, Eli; Weber, Bettina; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Biocrusts play a significant role in the nitrogen [N ] cycle within arid and semi-arid ecosystems, as they contribute major N inputs via biological fixation and dust capture, harbor internal N transformation processes, and direct N losses via N dissolved, gaseous and erosional loss processes (Fig. 1). Because soil N availability in arid and semi-arid ecosystems is generally low and may limit net primary production (NPP), especially during periods when adequate water is available, understanding the mechanisms and controls of N input and loss pathways in biocrusts is critically important to our broader understanding of N cycling in dryland environments. In particular, N cycling by biocrusts likely regulates short-term soil N availability to support vascular plant growth, as well as long-term N accumulation and maintenance of soil fertility. In this chapter, we review the influence of biocrust nutrient input, internal cycling, and loss pathways across a range of biomes. We examine linkages between N fixation capabilities of biocrust organisms and spatio-temporal patterns of soil N availability that may influence the longer-term productivity of dryland ecosystems. Lastly, biocrust influence on N loss pathways such as N gas loss, leakage of N compounds from biocrusts, and transfer in wind and water erosion are important to understand the maintenance of dryland soil fertility over longer time scales. Although great strides have been made in understanding the influence of biocrusts on ecosystem N cycling, there are important knowledge gaps in our understanding of the influence of biocrusts on ecosystem N cycling that should be the focus of future studies. Because work on the interaction of N cycling and biocrusts was reviewed in Belnap and Lange (2003), this chapter will focus primarily on research findings that have emerged over the last 15 years (2000-2015).

  13. Statistical properties of a folded elastic rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayart, Elsa; Deboeuf, Stéphanie; Boué, Laurent; Corson, Francis; Boudaoud, Arezki; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    2010-03-01

    A large variety of elastic structures naturally seem to be confined into environments too small to accommodate them; the geometry of folded structures span a wide range of length-scales. The elastic properties of these confined systems are further constrained by self-avoidance as well as by the dimensionality of both structures and container. To mimic crumpled paper, we devised an experimental setup to study the packing of a dimensional elastic object in 2D geometries: an elastic rod is folded at the center of a circular Hele-Shaw cell by a centripetal force. The initial configuration of the rod and the acceleration of the rotating disk allow to span different final folded configurations while the final rotation speed controls the packing intensity. Using image analysis we measure geometrical and mechanical properties of the folded configurations, focusing on length, curvature and energy distributions.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) rods were synthesized from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO 4, DCPA) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) by the hydrothermal method from 120 to 180 °C. Both cuttlebone (aragonite polymorph of CaCO 3) and CaCO 3 chemical (calcite polymorph of CaCO 3) were used as CaCO 3 sources. The nucleation and growth of HAP rods mainly occurred on DCPA particles, while some HAP rods also grew from aragonite particles. The nucleation and growth of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles on the surface of calcite particles were observed at the beginning of the reaction of DCPA and calcite, and some HAP rods were also found to grow out of β-TCP particles. After the hydrothermal reaction at 140 °C for 24 h, most products are HAP with a small amount of β-TCP synthesized as a byproduct. The HAP rods synthesized were ˜200 nm in width and several microns in length. The reaction mechanism and growth process of HAP rods are discussed.

  15. Nuclear design of Helical Cruciform Fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, K.; Kazimi, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    In order to increase the power density of current and new light water reactor designs, the Helical Cruciform Fuel (HCF) rods are proposed. The HCF rods are equivalent to a cylindrical rod, with the fuel in a cruciform shaped, twisted axially. The HCF rods increase the surface area to volume ratio and inter-subchannel mixing behavior due to their cruciform and helical shapes, respectively. In a previous study, the HCF rods have shown the potential to up-rate existing PWRs by 50% and BWRs by 25%. However, HCF rods do display different neutronics modeling and performance. The cruciform cross section of HCF rods creates radially asymmetric heat generation and temperature distribution. The nominal HCF rod's beginning of life reactivity is reduced, compared to a cylindrical rod with the same fuel volume, by 500 pcm, due to increase in absorption in cladding. The rotation of these rods accounts for reactivity changes, which depends on the H/HM ratio of the pin cell. The HCF geometry shows large sensitivities to U{sup 235} or gadolinium enrichments compared to a cylindrical geometry. In addition, the gadolinium-containing HCF rods show a stronger effect on neighboring HCF rods than in case of cylindrical rods, depending on the orientation of the HCF rods. The helical geometry of the rods introduces axial shadowing of about 600 pcm, not seen in typical cylindrical rods. (authors)

  16. Process-based tolerance assessment of connecting rod machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Surendra Babu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Process tolerancing based on the process capability studies is the optimistic and pragmatic approach of determining the manufacturing process tolerances. On adopting the define-measure-analyze-improve-control approach, the process potential capability index ( C p) and the process performance capability index ( C pk) values of identified process characteristics of connecting rod machining process are achieved to be greater than the industry benchmark of 1.33, i.e., four sigma level. The tolerance chain diagram methodology is applied to the connecting rod in order to verify the manufacturing process tolerances at various operations of the connecting rod manufacturing process. This paper bridges the gap between the existing dimensional tolerances obtained via tolerance charting and process capability studies of the connecting rod component. Finally, the process tolerancing comparison has been done by adopting a tolerance capability expert software.

  17. Behavior of Segmented Rods during Penetration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    full-scale penetrators which had been swaged 24%. The density of this tungsten alloy was 17.2 Mg/m 3. Gold-alloy penetrators were composed of 92Au-4.9Ag...of behavior. Segmented rods of tungsten alloy always penetrated less than the equivalent unitary rod. Successive rod segments were found to...gold-alloy penetrators because unitary rods of this material surpassed the perform- ance of unitary tungsten -alloy rods, while leaving almost no

  18. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  19. Abiotic and biotic controls of spatial pattern at alpine treeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Xiao, Ningchuan; Alftine, K.J.; Bekker, Mathew; Butler, David R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Cairns, David M.; Fagre, Daniel; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    At alpine treeline, trees and krummholz forms affect the environment in ways that increase their growth and reproduction. We assess the way in which these positive feedbacks combine in spatial patterns to alter the environment in the neighborhood of existing plants. The research is significant because areas of alpine tundra are susceptible to encroachment by woody species as climate changes. Moreover, understanding the general processes of plant invasion is important. The importance of spatial pattern has been recognized, but the spatial pattern of positive feedbacks per se has not been explored in depth. We present a linked set of models of vegetation change at an alpine forest-tundra ecotone. Our aim is to create models that are as simple as possible in order to test specific hypotheses. We present results from a model of the resource averaging hypothesis and the positive feedback switch hypothesis of treelines. We compare the patterns generated by the models to patterns observed in fine scale remotely sensed data.

  20. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Jason Dean; Medvedev, Pavel G; Novascone, Stephen Rhead; Perez, Danielle Marie; Williamson, Richard L

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  1. Bistability Controlled by Convection in a Pattern-Forming System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsal, Nicolas; Weicker, Lionel; Wolfersberger, Delphine; Sciamanna, Marc

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the transition from convective to absolute dynamical instabilities in a nonlinear optical system forming patterns, i.e., a photorefractive crystal in a single feedback configuration. We demonstrate that the convective regime is directly related to the bistability area in which the homogeneous steady state coexists with a pattern solution. Outside this domain, the system exhibits either a homogeneous steady state or an absolute dynamical regime. We evidence that the bistability area can be greatly increased by adjusting the mirror tilt angle and/or by applying an external background illumination on the photorefractive crystal.

  2. The evolution of rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Morshedian, Ala; Fain, Gordon L

    2017-04-05

    Photoreceptors in animals are generally of two kinds: the ciliary or c-type and the rhabdomeric or r-type. Although ciliary photoreceptors are found in many phyla, vertebrates seem to be unique in having two distinct kinds which together span the entire range of vision, from single photons to bright light. We ask why the principal photoreceptors of vertebrates are ciliary and not rhabdomeric, and how rods evolved from less sensitive cone-like photoreceptors to produce our duplex retina. We suggest that the principal advantage of vertebrate ciliary receptors is that they use less ATP than rhabdomeric photoreceptors. This difference may have provided sufficient selection pressure for the development of a completely ciliary eye. Although many of the details of rod evolution are still uncertain, present evidence indicates that (i) rods evolved very early before the split between the jawed and jawless vertebrates, (ii) outer-segment discs make no contribution to rod sensitivity but may have evolved to increase the efficiency of protein renewal, and (iii) evolution of the rod was incremental and multifaceted, produced by the formation of several novel protein isoforms and by changes in protein expression, with no one alteration having more than a few-fold effect on transduction activation or inactivation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  3. Soil respiration patterns and controls in limestone cedar glades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Hui, Dafeng

    2015-01-01

    Soil depth, SOM, and vegetation cover were important drivers of Rs in limestone cedar glades. Seasonal Rs patterns reflected those for mesic temperate grasslands more than for semi-arid ecosystems, in that Rs primarily tracked temperature for most of the year.

  4. Topological Optimization of Rod Mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Matthew D.; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2006-11-01

    Stirring of fluid with moving rods is necessary in many practical applications to achieve homogeneity. These rods are topological obstacles that force stretching of fluid elements. The resulting stretching and folding is commonly observed as filaments and striations, and is a precursor to mixing. In a space-time diagram, the trajectories of the rods form a braid [1], and the properties of this braid impose a minimal complexity in the flow. We discuss how optimal mixing protocols can be obtained by a judicious choice of braid, and how these protocols can be implemented using simple gearing [2].[12pt] [1] P. L. Boyland, H. Aref, and M. A. Stremler, JFM 403, 277 (2000).[8pt] [2] J.-L. Thiffeault and M. D. Finn, http://arxiv.org/nlin/0603003

  5. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  6. Fast solvers for optimal control problems from pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Martin; Pearson, John W.; Maini, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    The modeling of pattern formation in biological systems using various models of reaction-diffusion type has been an active research topic for many years. We here look at a parameter identification (or PDE-constrained optimization) problem where the Schnakenberg and Gierer-Meinhardt equations, two well-known pattern formation models, form the constraints to an objective function. Our main focus is on the efficient solution of the associated nonlinear programming problems via a Lagrange-Newton scheme. In particular we focus on the fast and robust solution of the resulting large linear systems, which are of saddle point form. We illustrate this by considering several two- and three-dimensional setups for both models. Additionally, we discuss an image-driven formulation that allows us to identify parameters of the model to match an observed quantity obtained from an image.

  7. Fission gas release restrictor for breached fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kadambi, N. Prasad; Tilbrook, Roger W.; Spencer, Daniel R.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.

    1986-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the cladding of a rod in an operating liquid metal fast breeder reactor, the rapid release of high-pressure gas from the fission gas plenum may result in a gas blanketing of the breached rod and rods adjacent thereto which impairs the heat transfer to the liquid metal coolant. In order to control the release rate of fission gas in the event of a breached rod, the substantial portion of the conventional fission gas plenum is formed as a gas bottle means which includes a gas pervious means in a small portion thereof. During normal reactor operation, as the fission gas pressure gradually increases, the gas pressure interiorly of and exteriorly of the gas bottle means equalizes. In the event of a breach in the cladding, the gas pervious means in the gas bottle means constitutes a sufficient restriction to the rapid flow of gas therethrough that under maximum design pressure differential conditions, the fission gas flow through the breach will not significantly reduce the heat transfer from the affected rod and adjacent rods to the liquid metal heat transfer fluid flowing therebetween.

  8. Vibrational Power Flow Analysis of Rods and Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohlever, James Christopher; Bernhard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to model vibrational power flow and predict the resulting energy density levels in uniform rods and beams is investigated. This method models the flow of vibrational power in a manner analogous to the flow of thermal power in a heat conduction problem. The classical displacement solutions for harmonically excited, hysteretically damped rods and beams are used to derive expressions for the vibrational power flow and energy density in the rod and beam. Under certain conditions, the power flow in these two structural elements will be shown to be proportional to the energy density gradient. Using the relationship between power flow and energy density, an energy balance on differential control volumes in the rod and beam leads to a Poisson's equation which models the energy density distribution in the rod and beam. Coupling the energy density and power flow solutions for rods and beams is also discussed. It is shown that the resonant behavior of finite structures complicates the coupling of solutions, especially when the excitations are single frequency inputs. Two coupling formulations are discussed, the first based on the receptance method, and the second on the travelling wave approach used in Statistical Energy Analysis. The receptance method is the more computationally intensive but is capable of analyzing single frequency excitation cases. The traveling wave approach gives a good approximation of the frequency average of energy density and power flow in coupled systems, and thus, is an efficient technique for use with broadband frequency excitation.

  9. Controls on Dune Deformation Patterns in White Sands, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. B.; Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Eolian dune fields exhibit a variety of pattern transitions, including: the ab initio appearance of dunes from no dunes; transverse to barchan and unvegetated barchan to vegetated parabolic. Recent model predictions offer some insight into the mechanisms underlying some of these transitions. However, there are few direct observations, and tests providing empirical verification are sparse. The White Sands dune field exhibits all three of the aforementioned transitions in sequence, from the upwind to downwind margin, and has the potential to be a testing ground for these predictions. Repeat LiDAR data at White Sands provide an excellent opportunity to study not only dune structure, but also dune dynamics, which can provide insight into how dunes destabilize from one dune morphology into another. We employ a recently developed method for decomposing dune migration into two components: "translation" of a dune, and changes in dune shape referred to as "deformation". We find that the fastest moving dunes (i.e. the dunes translating most quickly) have the largest amount of deformation. Patterns of deformation also vary depending on dune type: transverse dunes experience coherent deformation, while parabolic dunes exhibit highly localized and apparently random deformation. Only a fraction of the deformation can be explained by the migration rate. A significant amount of deformation appears to be attributable to dune-dune interactions, which destabilize dune patterns in locations where dune density is high. At the interface between the transverse to barchan dune patterns, we describe how transverse dunes break up into barchans and compare it to published model results. Regarding the barchan to parabolic transition, we find that the onset of vegetation drives a gradual slowdown in migration rates, while the magnitude of deformation drops and becomes localized to dune crests as the arms are stabilized by plants.

  10. Controls on subglacial patterns and depositional environments in western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.

    2009-12-01

    In western Ireland, Late Devensian ice flow dynamics and resultant patterns of landforms and sediments reflect the interplay between internal (glaciological) forcing and external forcing by rapid climate changes centred on the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. This interplay can be best demonstrated where ice from climatically-sensitive mountain source regions flowed into surrounding lowlands, such as the Connemara region of west County Galway, western Ireland. Here, a semi-independent ice cap was present over the Twelve Bens mountains, and interacted with ice from the much larger regional ice sheet from central Ireland. Landform and sediment patterns in the flat lowland region (c. 100 km2 below 30 m asl) to the south of the Twelve Bens reflect elements of this ice interaction. In detail, landform and sediment distributions here are highly complex with marked spatial differences in patterns of sediment availability. Across much of the region, sculpted bedrock forms (whaleback and bedrock drumlin ridges, roches mountonnées, striae) reflect subglacial abrasion across the underlying igneous and metamorphic bedrock that forms a relatively flat and lake-dominated landscape. Glacigenic sediments are found only at or around ice-retreat margins, and within isolated bedrock valleys. Here, diamicton drumlins are relatively uncommon but yet must represent depositional conditions that are not reflected elsewhere in this ice sheet sector where subglacial sediments are generally absent. This paper explores the interrelationship between local and regional ice flows through their impact on spatial patterns of glacial landforms and sediments. The paper presents field data on the characteristics of bedrock forms (erosional) and diamicton drumlins (depositional). Subglacial sediments are described from drumlin outcrops at key sites around Connemara, which helps in the understanding of the evolution of the subglacial environment in response to ice interactions from different source regions.

  11. Formation Control of Multi-agent Systems via Distributed Pattern Decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurama, Kazunori; Azuma, Shun-Ichi; Sugie, Toshiharu

    This paper deals with a formation control problem of networked multi-agent systems via distributed pattern decision. We assume that several formation patterns are given without a leader which decides what formation pattern the group of agents should form. Each agent has to individually decide a possible formation pattern by watching the configuration of his neighborhood. Our control objective is to achieve one of the given formation patterns as a result of the distributed pattern decisions. We propose a new objective function consisting of formation errors on the cliques of networks, and design a formation controller based on the gradient flow of this clique-based objective function. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by simulations.

  12. Plasmonic-cavity model for radiating nano-rod antennas.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Mortensen, N Asger

    2014-01-23

    In this paper, we propose the analytical solution of nano-rod antennas utilizing a cylindrical harmonics expansion. By treating the metallic nano-rods as plasmonic cavities, we derive closed-form expressions for both the internal and the radiated fields, as well as the resonant condition and the radiation efficiency. With our theoretical model, we show that besides the plasmonic resonances, efficient radiation takes advantage of (a) rendering a large value of the rods' radius and (b) a central-fed profile, through which the radiation efficiency can reach up to 70% and even higher in a wide frequency band. Our theoretical expressions and conclusions are general and pave the way for engineering and further optimization of optical antenna systems and their radiation patterns.

  13. Method of targeted delivery of laser beam to isolated retinal rods by fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Nigel; Bessarab, Dmitri; Jones, C Michael; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2011-11-01

    A method of controllable light delivery to retinal rod cells using an optical fiber is described. Photo-induced current of the living rod cells was measured with the suction electrode technique. The approach was tested with measurements relating the spatial distribution of the light intensity to photo-induced current. In addition, the ion current responses of rod cells to polarized light at two different orientation geometries of the cells were studied.

  14. A regulatory network controls nephrocan expression and midgut patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Juan; Wei, Wei; Saund, Ranajeet S.; Xiang, Ping; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Yi, Yuyin; Alder, Olivia; Lu, Daphne Y. D.; Savory, Joanne G. A.; Krentz, Nicole A. J.; Montpetit, Rachel; Cullum, Rebecca; Hofs, Nicole; Lohnes, David; Humphries, R. Keith; Yamanaka, Yojiro; Duester, Gregg; Saijoh, Yukio; Hoodless, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Although many regulatory networks involved in defining definitive endoderm have been identified, the mechanisms through which these networks interact to pattern the endoderm are less well understood. To explore the mechanisms involved in midgut patterning, we dissected the transcriptional regulatory elements of nephrocan (Nepn), the earliest known midgut specific gene in mice. We observed that Nepn expression is dramatically reduced in Sox17−/− and Raldh2−/− embryos compared with wild-type embryos. We further show that Nepn is directly regulated by Sox17 and the retinoic acid (RA) receptor via two enhancer elements located upstream of the gene. Moreover, Nepn expression is modulated by Activin signaling, with high levels inhibiting and low levels enhancing RA-dependent expression. In Foxh1−/− embryos in which Nodal signaling is reduced, the Nepn expression domain is expanded into the anterior gut region, confirming that Nodal signaling can modulate its expression in vivo. Together, Sox17 is required for Nepn expression in the definitive endoderm, while RA signaling restricts expression to the midgut region. A balance of Nodal/Activin signaling regulates the anterior boundary of the midgut expression domain. PMID:25209250

  15. Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

  16. Controllable Airy-like beams induced by tunable phase patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Qian, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally observe a novel family of Airy-like beams. First, we theoretically investigate the physical generation of our proposed controllable Airy-like beams by introducing a rotation angle factor into the phase function, which can regulate and flexibly control the beam wavefront. Meanwhile we can also readily control the main lobes of these beams to follow appointed parabolic trajectories using the rotation angle factor. We also demonstrate that the controllable Airy-like beams lack the properties of being diffraction-free and self-healing. The experiments are performed and the results are in accord with the theoretical simulations. We believe that the intriguing characteristics of our proposed Airy-like beams could provide more degrees of freedom, and are likely to give rise to new applications and lend versatility to the emerging field.

  17. A comparison of the real-time controllability of pattern recognition to conventional myoelectric control for discrete and simultaneous movements.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Smith, Lauren H; Rouse, Elliott J; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-10

    Myoelectric control has been used for decades to control powered upper limb prostheses. Conventional, amplitude-based control has been employed to control a single prosthesis degree of freedom (DOF) such as closing and opening of the hand. Within the last decade, new and advanced arm and hand prostheses have been constructed that are capable of actuating numerous DOFs. Pattern recognition control has been proposed to control a greater number of DOFs than conventional control, but has traditionally been limited to sequentially controlling DOFs one at a time. However, able-bodied individuals use multiple DOFs simultaneously, and it may be beneficial to provide amputees the ability to perform simultaneous movements. In this study, four amputees who had undergone targeted motor reinnervation (TMR) surgery with previous training using myoelectric prostheses were configured to use three control strategies: 1) conventional amplitude-based myoelectric control, 2) sequential (one-DOF) pattern recognition control, 3) simultaneous pattern recognition control. Simultaneous pattern recognition was enabled by having amputees train each simultaneous movement as a separate motion class. For tasks that required control over just one DOF, sequential pattern recognition based control performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error. For tasks that required control over 2 DOFs, the simultaneous pattern recognition controller performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error compared to the other control strategies. In the two strategies in which users could employ simultaneous movements (conventional and simultaneous pattern recognition), amputees chose to use simultaneous movements 78% of the time with simultaneous pattern recognition and 64% of the time with conventional control for tasks that required two DOF motions to reach the target. These results suggest that when amputees are given the

  18. An elastic rod model for anguilliform swimming.

    PubMed

    McMillen, T; Holmes, P

    2006-11-01

    We develop a model for anguilliform (eel-like) swimming as an elastic rod actuated via time-dependent intrinsic curvature and subject to hydrodynamic drag forces, the latter as proposed by Taylor (in Proc Roy Proc Lond A 214:158-183, 1952). We employ a eometrically exact theory and discretize the resulting nonlinear partial differential evolution both to perform numerical simulations, and to compare with previous models consisting of chains of rigid links or masses connected by springs, dampers, and prescribed force generators representing muscles. We show that muscle activations driven by motoneuronal spike trains via calcium dynamics produce intrinsic curvatures corresponding to near-sinusoidal body shapes in longitudinally-uniform rods, but that passive elasticity causes Taylor's assumption of prescribed shape to fail, leading to time-periodic motions and lower speeds than those predicted Taylor (in Proc Roy Proc Lond A 214:158-183, 1952). We investigate the effects of bending stiffness, body geometry, and activation patterns on swimming speed, turning behavior, and acceleration to steady swimming. We show that laterally-uniform activation yields stable straight swimming and laterally differential activation levels lead to stable turns, and we argue that tapered bodies with reduced caudal (tail-end) activation (to produce uniform intrinsic curvature) swim faster than ones with uniform activation.

  19. Control of Organ Growth by Patterning and Hippo Signalling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Kenneth D.; Harvey, Kieran F.

    2017-01-01

    Control of organ size is of fundamental importance and is controlled by genetic, environmental and mechanical factors. Studies in many species have pointed to the existence of both organ-extrinsic and organ-intrinsic size control mechanisms, which ultimately must coordinate to regulate organ size. Here we discuss organ size control by organ patterning and by the Hippo pathway, which both act in an organ-intrinsic fashion. The influence of morphogens and other patterning molecules couples growth and patterning, whilst emerging evidence suggests that the Hippo pathway controls growth in response to mechanical stimuli and signals emanating from cell-cell interactions. Several points of crosstalk have been reported between signalling pathways that control organ patterning and the Hippo pathway, both at the level of membrane receptors and transcriptional regulators. However, despite substantial progress in the past decade, key questions in the growth control field remain, including precisely how and when organ patterning and the Hippo pathway communicate to control size and whether these communication mechanisms are organ-specific or general. In addition, elucidating mechanisms by which organ-intrinsic cues such as patterning factors and the Hippo pathway interface with extrinsic cues such as hormones to control organ size remains unresolved. PMID:26032720

  20. Behavior of peripheral rods and their role in the life cycle of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, K A; Zusman, D R

    1991-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative bacterium with a complex life cycle including a developmental phase in which cells aggregate and sporulate in response to starvation. In previous papers, we have described a heretofore unsuspected layer of complexity in the development of M. xanthus: vegetatively growing cells differentiate into two cell types during development. In addition to the differentiation of spores within fruiting bodies, a second cell type, peripheral rods, arises outside fruiting bodies. The pattern of expression of proteins in peripheral rods is different from that of either vegetatively growing cells or spores, and peripheral rods express a number of recognized developmental markers. In this report, we examine four aspects of the biology of peripheral rods: (i) the influence of nutrients on the proportion of peripheral rods in a population of developing cells, (ii) the capacity of peripheral rods to recapitulate development, (iii) the development of peripheral rods on conditioned medium, and (iv) the ability of peripheral rods to resume growth on low amounts of exogenously added nutrients. The results of these studies suggest that peripheral rods play a significant role in the life cycle of M. xanthus by allowing the exploitation of low amounts or transient influxes of nutrients without the investment of energy in spore germination. The differentiation of vegetatively growing cells into two cell types that differ significantly in biology, shape, and localization within the population has been incorporated into a model of the life cycle of M. xanthus. Images PMID:1904432

  1. Controlled spin pattern formation in multistable cavity-polariton systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, S. S.; Kulakovskii, V. D.

    2016-12-01

    Theoretical studies are performed of planar cavity-polariton systems under resonant optical excitation. We show that if the cavity is spatially anisotropic, the polariton spin is highly sensitive to the pump polarization direction, which can be used to modulate the circular polarization of the output light. In particular, when the right- and left-circular components of the incident wave have equal intensities and mutually opposite angular momenta, the pump has strictly linear yet angle-dependent polarization and as such brings about a periodic angular variation of the polariton spin. Free motion of polaritons is the other factor determining the shape of the cavity-field distribution. Such externally driven and highly tunable spin patterns represent a counterpart of spin shaping in nonresonantly excited Bose-Einstein condensates of cavity polaritons.

  2. Nonrandom extinction patterns can modulate pest control service decline.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Moeller, Holly V; Frishkoff, Luke O

    2013-06-01

    Changes in biodiversity will mediate the consequences of agricultural intensification and expansion for ecosystem services. Regulating services, like pollination and pest control, generally decline with species loss. In nature, however, relationships between service provision and species richness are not always strong, partially because anthropogenic disturbances purge species from communities in nonrandom orders. The same traits that make for effective service providers may also confer resistance or sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbances, which may either temper or accelerate declines in service provision with species loss. We modeled a community of predators interacting with insect pest prey, and identified the contexts in which pest control provision was most sensitive to species loss. We found pest populations increased rapidly when functionally unique and dietary-generalist predators were lost first, with up to 20% lower pest control provision than random loss. In general, pest abundance increased most in the scenarios that freed more pest species from predation. Species loss also decreased the likelihood that the most effective service providers were present. In communities composed of species with identical traits, predators were equally effective service providers and, when competing predators went extinct, remaining community members assumed their functional roles. In more realistic trait-diverse communities, predators differed in pest control efficacy, and remaining predators could not fully compensate for the loss of their competitors, causing steeper declines in pest control provision with predator species loss. These results highlight diet breadth in particular as a key predictor of service provision, as it affects both the way species respond to and alter their environments. More generally, our model provides testable hypotheses for predicting how nonrandom species loss alters relationships between biodiversity and pest control provision.

  3. Robot Control Through Brain Computer Interface For Patterns Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluomo, P.; Bucolo, M.; Fortuna, L.; Frasca, M.

    2011-09-01

    A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system processes and translates neuronal signals, that mainly comes from EEG instruments, into commands for controlling electronic devices. This system can allow people with motor disabilities to control external devices through the real-time modulation of their brain waves. In this context an EEG-based BCI system that allows creative luminous artistic representations is here presented. The system that has been designed and realized in our laboratory interfaces the BCI2000 platform performing real-time analysis of EEG signals with a couple of moving luminescent twin robots. Experiments are also presented.

  4. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  5. Dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells contribute to pattern separation by controlling sparsity

    PubMed Central

    Chavlis, Spyridon; Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hippocampus plays a key role in pattern separation, the process of transforming similar incoming information to highly dissimilar, nonverlapping representations. Sparse firing granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) have been proposed to undertake this computation, but little is known about which of their properties influence pattern separation. Dendritic atrophy has been reported in diseases associated with pattern separation deficits, suggesting a possible role for dendrites in this phenomenon. To investigate whether and how the dendrites of GCs contribute to pattern separation, we build a simplified, biologically relevant, computational model of the DG. Our model suggests that the presence of GC dendrites is associated with high pattern separation efficiency while their atrophy leads to increased excitability and performance impairments. These impairments can be rescued by restoring GC sparsity to control levels through various manipulations. We predict that dendrites contribute to pattern separation as a mechanism for controlling sparsity. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27784124

  6. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  7. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  8. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostomy rod. 876.4270 Section 876.4270 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device used during the loop colostomy procedure. A loop of colon is surgically brought out...

  9. Sway patterns in orthostatic tremor: impairment of postural control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bacsi, Ann M; Fung, Victor S C; Colebatch, James G

    2005-11-01

    Sway parameters in orthostatic tremor (OT) patients were compared with age-matched controls. The effects of vision (eyes open or closed), stance width (feet apart or together), and external support (with or without) on sway and 14-18 Hz energy were measured. Sway in OT patients decreased in the presence of each of the stabilizing factors but the extent of benefit obtained by OT patients was significantly less than controls for support for the sagittal plane (22% vs. 42% decrease; P < 0.01) and feet apart in the mediolateral plane (38% vs. 65% decrease; P < 0.01). Three patients with proprioceptive loss also had a reduced response to these factors. Energy in the 14-18 Hz range did not always change in parallel with sway levels. Vision suppresses activity at the OT frequency in patients. Postural control mechanisms in OT remain responsive to postural conditions, but patients differ significantly from normals in the degree of their responsiveness. OT appears to have disruption of the normal generation or processing of proprioceptive signals as one of its important components.

  10. Gene expression changes during retinal development and rod specification

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, Matthew; Hokamp, Karsten; Farrar, G. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) typically results from individual mutations in any one of >70 genes that cause rod photoreceptor cells to degenerate prematurely, eventually resulting in blindness. Gene therapies targeting individual RP genes have shown efficacy at clinical trial; however, these therapies require the surviving photoreceptor cells to be viable and functional, and may be economically feasible for only the more commonly mutated genes. An alternative potential treatment strategy, particularly for late stage disease, may involve stem cell transplants into the photoreceptor layer of the retina. Rod progenitors from postnatal mouse retinas can be transplanted and can form photoreceptors in recipient adult retinas; optimal numbers of transplantable cells are obtained from postnatal day 3–5 (P3–5) retinas. These cells can also be expanded in culture; however, this results in the loss of photoreceptor potential. Gene expression differences between postnatal retinas, cultured retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), and rod photoreceptor precursors were investigated to identify gene expression patterns involved in the specification of rod photoreceptors. Methods Microarrays were used to investigate differences in gene expression between cultured RPCs that have lost photoreceptor potential, P1 retinas, and fresh P5 retinas that contain significant numbers of transplantable photoreceptors. Additionally, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) sorted Rho-eGFP-expressing rod photoreceptor precursors were compared with Rho-eGFP-negative cells from the same P5 retinas. Differential expression was confirmed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Results Analysis of the microarray data sets, including the use of t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) to identify expression pattern neighbors of key photoreceptor specific genes, resulted in the identification of 636 genes differentially regulated during rod specification. Forty-four of these

  11. Allowing Learners to Choose: Self-Controlled Practice Schedules for Learning Multiple Movement Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Will F. W.; Magill, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    For this study, we investigated the effects of self-controlled practice on learning multiple motor skills. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to self-control or yoked conditions. Participants learned a three-keystroke pattern with three different relative time structures. Those in the self-control group chose one of three relative time…

  12. Phytophthora infestans specific phosphorylation patterns and new putative control targets.

    PubMed

    Frades, Itziar; Andreasson, Erik

    2016-04-01

    In this study we applied biomathematical searches of gene regulatory mechanisms to learn more about oomycete biology and to identify new putative targets for pesticides or biological control against Phytophthora infestans. First, oomycete phylum-specific phosphorylation motifs were found by discriminative n-gram analysis. We found 11.600 P. infestans specific n-grams, mapping 642 phosphoproteins. The most abundant group among these related to phosphatidylinositol metabolism. Due to the large number of possible targets found and our hypothesis that multi-level control is a sign of usefulness as targets for intervention, we identified overlapping targets with a second screen. This was performed to identify proteins dually regulated by small RNA and phosphorylation. We found 164 proteins to be regulated by both sRNA and phosphorylation and the dominating functions where phosphatidylinositol signalling/metabolism, endocytosis, and autophagy. Furthermore we performed a similar regulatory study and discriminative n-gram analysis of proteins with no clear orthologs in other species and proteins that are known to be unique to P. infestans such as the RxLR effectors, Crinkler (CRN) proteins and elicitins. We identified CRN proteins with specific phospho-motifs present in all life stages. PITG_12626, PITG_14042 and PITG_23175 are CRN proteins that have species-specific phosphorylation motifs and are subject to dual regulation.

  13. Entropy driven patterning in vibrofluidized granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanis, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    We investigate pattern formation in vertically vibrofluidized rod and sphere granular mixtures confined to quasi-2D containers. In a pure rod system, crowding induces an isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. The inclusion of spheres destabilizes both the isotropic and nematic states. Instead, small independent rod bundles form, where the long axes of rods are closely approximated. To investigate the role of entropy maximization in the granular experiments, we performed strict-2D equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations of hard rods and spheres and found analogous patterning. Similarities and differences between the steady state experiments and equilibrium simulations will be discussed. In collaboration with Daniel Harries, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

  14. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  15. Integument pattern formation involves genetic and epigenetic controls: feather arrays simulated by digital hormone models.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall B; Shen, Wei-Min; Will, Peter; Wu, Da-Yu; Lin, Chih-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Pattern formation is a fundamental morphogenetic process. Models based on genetic and epigenetic control have been proposed but remain controversial. Here we use feather morphogenesis for further evaluation. Adhesion molecules and/or signaling molecules were first expressed homogenously in feather tracts (restrictive mode, appear earlier) or directly in bud or inter-bud regions ( de novo mode, appear later). They either activate or inhibit bud formation, but paradoxically colocalize in the bud. Using feather bud reconstitution, we showed that completely dissociated cells can reform periodic patterns without reference to previous positional codes. The patterning process has the characteristics of being self-organizing, dynamic and plastic. The final pattern is an equilibrium state reached by competition, and the number and size of buds can be altered based on cell number and activator/inhibitor ratio, respectively. We developed a Digital Hormone Model which consists of (1) competent cells without identity that move randomly in a space, (2) extracellular signaling hormones which diffuse by a reaction-diffusion mechanism and activate or inhibit cell adhesion, and (3) cells which respond with topological stochastic actions manifested as changes in cell adhesion. Based on probability, the results are cell clusters arranged in dots or stripes. Thus genetic control provides combinational molecular information which defines the properties of the cells but not the final pattern. Epigenetic control governs interactions among cells and their environment based on physical-chemical rules (such as those described in the Digital Hormone Model). Complex integument patterning is the sum of these two components of control and that is why integument patterns are usually similar but non-identical. These principles may be shared by other pattern formation processes such as barb ridge formation, fingerprints, pigmentation patterning, etc. The Digital Hormone Model can also be applied to

  16. Integument pattern formation involves genetic and epigenetic controls: feather arrays simulated by digital hormone models

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall B.; Shen, Wei-Min; Will, Peter; Wu, Da-Yu; Lin, Chih-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pattern formation is a fundamental morphogenetic process. Models based on genetic and epigenetic control have been proposed but remain controversial. Here we use feather morphogenesis for further evaluation. Adhesion molecules and/or signaling molecules were first expressed homogenously in feather tracts (restrictive mode, appear earlier) or directly in bud or inter-bud regions (de novo mode, appear later). They either activate or inhibit bud formation, but paradoxically co-localize in the bud. Using feather bud reconstitution, we showed that completely dissociated cells can reform periodic patterns without reference to previous positional codes. The patterning process has the characteristics of being self-organizing, dynamic and plastic. The final pattern is an equilibrium state reached by competition, and the number and size of buds can be altered based on cell number and activator/inhibitor ratio, respectively. We developed a Digital Hormone Model which consists of (1) competent cells without identity that move randomly in a space, (2) extracellular signaling hormones which diffuse by a reaction-diffusion mechanism and activate or inhibit cell adhesion, and (3) cells which respond with topological stochastic actions manifested as changes in cell adhesion. Based on probability, the results are cell clusters arranged in dots or stripes. Thus genetic control provides combinational molecular information which defines the properties of the cells but not the final pattern. Epigenetic control governs interactions among cells and their environment based on physical-chemical rules (such as those described in the Digital Hormone Model). Complex integument patterning is the sum of these two components of control and that is why integument patterns are usually similar but non-identical. These principles may be shared by other pattern formation processes such as barb ridge formation, fingerprints, pigmentation patterning, etc. The Digital Hormone Model can also be applied to

  17. Fuel rod assembly to manifold attachment

    DOEpatents

    Donck, Harry A.; Veca, Anthony R.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel element is formed with a plurality of fuel rod assemblies detachably connected to an overhead support with each of the fuel rod assemblies having a gas tight seal with the support to allow internal fission gaseous products to flow without leakage from the fuel rod assemblies into a vent manifold passageway system on the support. The upper ends of the fuel rod assemblies are located at vertically extending openings in the support and upper threaded members are threaded to the fuel rod assemblies to connect the latter to the support. The preferred threaded members are cap nuts having a dome wall encircling an upper threaded end on the fuel rod assembly and having an upper sealing surface for sealing contact with the support. Another and lower seal is achieved by abutting a sealing surface on each fuel rod assembly with the support. A deformable portion on the cap nut locks the latter against inadvertent turning off the fuel rod assembly. Orienting means on the fuel rod and support primarily locates the fuel rods azimuthally for reception of a deforming tool for the cap nut. A cross port in the fuel rod end plug discharges into a sealed annulus within the support, which serves as a circumferential chamber, connecting the manifold gas passageways in the support.

  18. Exotic patterns and convection control in a vibrated bed of binary granular mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Meheboob; Ansari, Istafaul

    2013-11-01

    Experiments have been carried out in a harmonically shaken quasi-2D bed of glass and steel particles for a wide range of shaking strengths and relative number fractions of two species. The goal is to understand the role of bidispersity and other control parameters on the resulting pattern formation dynamics and segregation. We report novel patterns displaying the coexistence of sub-harmonic/harmonic and disordered states, and a partial analog of granular Rayleigh-Benard convection. The former patterns bear striking similarities with Chimera-states in the sense that they represent a coexisting state of synchronous and asynchronous patterns. The horizontal segregation of glass and steel particles is responsible for the genesis of such phase-coexisting patterns. We demonstrate a simple recipe to control ``buoyancy-driven'' granular convection.

  19. Dermal morphogenesis controls lateral line patterning during postembryonic development of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hironori; Ghysen, Alain; Satou, Chie; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Kawakami, Koichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2010-04-15

    The lateral line system displays highly divergent patterns in adult teleost fish. The mechanisms underlying this variability are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the lateral line mechanoreceptor, the neuromast, gives rise to a series of accessory neuromasts by a serial budding process during postembryonic development in zebrafish. We also show that accessory neuromast formation is highly correlated to the development of underlying dermal structures such as bones and scales. Abnormalities in opercular bone morphogenesis, in endothelin 1-knockdown embryos, are accompanied by stereotypic errors in neuromast budding and positioning, further demonstrating the tight correlation between the patterning of neuromasts and of the underlying dermal bones. In medaka, where scales form between peridermis and opercular bones, the lateral line displays a scale-specific pattern which is never observed in zebrafish. These results strongly suggest a control of postembryonic neuromast patterns by underlying dermal structures. This dermal control may explain some aspects of the evolution of lateral line patterns.

  20. Variability of sap flow on forest hillslopes: patterns and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow in trees is an essential variable in integrated studies of hydrologic fluxes. It gives indication of transpiration rates for single trees and, with a suitable method of upscaling, for whole stands. This information is relevant for hydrologic and climate models, especially for the prediction of change in water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum under climate change. To this end, we do not only need knowledge concerning the response of sapflow to atmospheric forcing but also an understanding of the main controls on its spatial variability. Our study site consists of several subcatchments of the Attert basin in Luxembourg underlain by schists of the Ardennes massif. Within these subcatchments we measure sap flow in more than 20 trees on a range of forested hillslopes covered by a variety of temperate deciduous tree species such as beech, oak, hornbeam and maple as well as conifers such as firs. Our sap flow sensors are based on the heat pulse velocity method and consist of three needles, one needle acting as the heating device and the other two holding three thermistors each, enabling us to simultaneously measure sap flow velocity at three different depths within the tree. In close proximity to the trees we collect additional data on soil moisture, matric potential and groundwater levels. First results show that the sensor design seems promising for an upscaling of the measured sap flow velocities to sap flow at the tree level. The maximum depth of actively used sapwood as well as the decrease in sap flow velocity with increasing depth in the tree can be determined by way of the three thermistors. Marked differences in sap flow velocity profiles are visible between the different species, resulting in differences in sap flow for trees of similar diameter. We examine the range of tree sap flow values and variation due to species, size class, slope position and exposition and finally relate them to the dynamics of soil moisture conditions with the

  1. Site controlled red-yellow-green light emitting InGaN quantum discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, M.; Li, H.; Kusch, G.; Zhao, C.; Ooi, B.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Holmes, J. D.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD's confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD

  2. Structural vibration control by tuned mass damper using central pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iba, Daisuke; Hongu, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for active mass dampers using a Central Pattern Generator in vibration mitigation. The active mass dampers (or active dynamic absorbers) have been applied to structural vibration control of high-rise buildings, bridges and so on. In this case, the mass of the active mass damper must oscillate in an appropriate phase in relation to the control object, and generally, the damper has been designed by linear control theory as pole placement method, optimal control method or H infinity control method, and all the rest. On the other hand, on walking of animate beings like mammals or insects, both side feet have appropriate phase relations; moreover, it is possible to keep moving on irregular ground. That is, algorithms for the walking would be embedded into the animate beings to control the complicated and redundant bodies with ease and robustness. In biological study, the Central Pattern Generators in bodies playing a significant role in the walking have been learned over the last few decades, and some studies said that some animate beings are able to control their feet by using the generators without their brains in the walking. Moreover, mathematical models of the pattern generators have been proposed, and some researchers have been studying to realize walking of biped-robots using the pattern generators embedded in a computer. In this study, the algorithm is installed into a controller for the active mass damper; furthermore, validation of the controller is performed by numerical simulation.

  3. Precuring implant photoresists for shrink and patterning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winroth, Gustaf; Rosseel, Erik; Delvaux, Christie; Sanchez, Efrain Altamirano; Ercken, Monique

    2013-10-01

    193-nm compatible photoresists are turning out to be the new platform for implant lithography, due to the increasing requirements in both resolution and overlay. Shrinkage of such resists is becoming progressively the most topical issue for aggressive nodes, where conventional pretreatments from older resist platforms, such as ultraviolet flood exposures, are not directly transferable to (meth-)acrylate-type resists. The precuring options available for state-of-the-art implant photoresists for 193-nm lithography is explored, in which we target to reduce the shrinkage during implantation for trenching critical dimensions (CDs) that are relevant for nodes <20 nm. An extensive study comprising different approaches, including laser-, ion-, and electron-based treatments, is presented. Each treatment is individually investigated with the aim to find not only a valid pretreatment for shrinkage control during implantation, but also to understand what effect alternative pretreatments have on the morphology and the CDs of thick photoresists used as implant stopping layers. Viable options for further process optimization in order to integrate them into device process flows are found. To this extent, the shrink behavior after pretreatment is shown, and the additional shrink dynamics after implantation are compared.

  4. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction Data for Selected Control Rod Drive Nozzles from Davis Besse Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-04-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined ultrasonic (UT) time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) data from ten (10) nozzles in the Davis Besse Nuclear Power Plant reactor closure head. The TOFD data was acquired by AREVA after a bare metal visual examination of the pressure vessel head indicated potential leakage in at least one nozzle. A detailed analysis of the UT data shows that Nozzle 4 has three indications consistent with cracking in the penetration tube. One of the indications starts at the wetted side of the weld and progresses to the annulus. In addition, examination of UT data from the annulus region of Nozzle 4 displays an irregular pattern that could be associated with boric acid deposits and leakage/wastage in the interference fit. The review of TOFD data for the other nine nozzles resulted in several indications being detected in the weld region and near the inner diameter (ID) and outer diameter (OD) surfaces of the penetration tube, but no other indications that are consistent with cracking that may have resulted in leakage were observed. A review of the back-wall reflections in the other nine nozzles also did not show strong indications of leakage, although Nozzle 67 displayed an irregularly-shaped region of high ultrasonic transmission near 180 degrees on the interference fit.

  5. Colloidal crystal based plasma polymer patterning to control Pseudomonas aeruginosa attachment to surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pingle, Hitesh; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Thissen, Helmut; McArthur, Sally; Kingshott, Peter

    2015-12-02

    Biofilm formation on medical implants and subsequent infections are a global problem. A great deal of effort has focused on developing chemical contrasts based on micro- and nanopatterning for studying and controlling cells and bacteria at surfaces. It has been known that micro- and nanopatterns on surfaces can influence biomolecule adsorption, and subsequent cell and bacterial adhesion. However, less focus has been on precisely controlling patterns to study the initial bacterial attachment mechanisms and subsequently how the patterning influences the role played by biomolecular adsorption on biofilm formation. In this work, the authors have used colloidal self-assembly in a confined area to pattern surfaces with colloidal crystals and used them as masks during allylamine plasma polymer (AAMpp) deposition to generate highly ordered patterns from the micro- to the nanoscale. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-aldehyde was grafted to the plasma regions via "cloud point" grafting to prevent the attachment of bacteria on the plasma patterned surface regions, thereby controlling the adhesive sites by choice of the colloidal crystal morphology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was chosen to study the bacterial interactions with these chemically patterned surfaces. Scanning electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, and epifluorescence microscopy were used for pattern characterization, surface chemical analysis, and imaging of attached bacteria. The AAMpp influenced bacterial attachment because of the amine groups displaying a positive charge. XPS results confirm the successful grafting of PEG on the AAMpp surfaces. The results showed that PEG patterns can be used as a surface for bacterial patterning including investigating the role of biomolecular patterning on bacterial attachment. These types of patterns are easy to fabricate and could be useful in further applications in biomedical research.

  6. Electric Fuel Rod Simulator Fabrication at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-04

    Commercial vendors could not supply the high-quality, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators (FRS) required for large thermal-hydraulic safety-oriented experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1970s and early 1980s. Staff at ORNL designed, developed, and manufactured the simulators utilized in these safety experiments. Important FRS design requirements include (1) materials of construction, (2) test power requirements and availability, (3) experimental test objectives, (4) supporting thermal analyses, and (5) extensive quality control throughout all phases of FRS fabrication. This paper will present an overview of these requirements (design, analytics, and quality control) as practiced at ORNL to produce a durable high-quality FRS.

  7. Realtime Control of Multiple-focus Phased Array Heating Patterns Based on Noninvasive Ultrasound Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Andrew; Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2011-01-01

    A system for the realtime generation and control of multiple-focus ultrasound phased-array heating patterns is presented. The system employs a 1-MHz, 64-element array and driving electronics capable of fine spatial and temporal control of the heating pattern. The driver is integrated with a realtime 2D temperature imaging system implemented on a commercial scanner. The coordinates of the temperature control points are defined on B-mode guidance images from the scanner, together with the temperature set points and controller parameters. The temperature at each point is controlled by an independent proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller that determines the focal intensity at that point. Optimal multiple-focus synthesis is applied to generate the desired heating pattern at the control points. The controller dynamically reallocates the power available among the foci from the shared power supply upon reaching the desired temperature at each control point. Furthermore, anti-windup compensation is implemented at each control point to improve the system dynamics. In vitro experiments in tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrate the robustness of the controllers for short (2 – 5 sec) and longer multiple-focus HIFU exposures. Thermocouple measurements in the vicinity of the control points confirm the dynamics of the temperature variations obtained through noninvasive feedback. PMID:21768037

  8. Fretting corrosion behavior of nitinol spinal rods in conjunction with titanium pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Lukina, Elena; Kollerov, Mikhail; Meswania, Jay; Khon, Alla; Panin, Pavel; Blunn, Gordon W

    2017-03-01

    Untypical corrosion damage including erosions combined with the build-up of titanium oxide as a corrosion product on the surface of explanted Nitinol spinal rods in the areas where it was in contact with titanium pedicle screw head is reported. It was suggested that Nitinol rods might have inferior fretting corrosion resistance compared with that made of titanium or CoCr. Fretting corrosion of Nitinol spinal rods with titanium (Ti6Al4V) pedicle screws were tested in-vitro by conducting a series of potentiostatic measurements of the peak-to-peak values of fretting corrosion current under bending in a 10% solution of calf serum in PBS. The test included Nitinol rods locked in titanium pedicle screws of different designs. Performance of commercially available titanium (Ti6Al4V) and CoCr spinal rods was also investigated for a comparison. Corrosion damage observed after the in-vitro tests was studied using SEM and EDAX analysis and was compared with patterns on Nitinol rods retrieved 12months after initial surgery. Metal ions level was measured in the test media after in-vitro experiments and in the blood and tissues of the patients who had the rods explanted. The results of this study revealed that Nitinol spinal rods locked in Ti pedicle screws are susceptible to fretting corrosion demonstrating higher fretting corrosion current compared with commercially used Ti6Al4V and CoCr rods. On the surface of Nitinol rods after in-vitro tests and on those retrieved from the patients similar corrosion patterns were observed. Improved resistance to fretting corrosion was observed with Nitinol rods in the in-vitro tests where pedicle screws were used with a stiffer locking mechanism. Since the development of the localized corrosion damage might increase the risk of premature fatigue failure of the rods and result in leaching of Ni ions, it is concluded that Nitinol rods should not be used in conjunction with Ti pedicle screws without special protection especially where the

  9. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Hellum, Aren M.

    2014-10-01

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  10. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Hellum, Aren M.

    2014-01-01

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime—laterally coupled, diffusively—which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common. PMID:25338940

  11. Modeling how shark and dolphin skin patterns control transitional wall-turbulence vorticity patterns using spatiotemporal phase reset mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hellum, Aren M

    2014-10-23

    Many slow-moving biological systems like seashells and zebrafish that do not contend with wall turbulence have somewhat organized pigmentation patterns flush with their outer surfaces that are formed by underlying autonomous reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanisms. In contrast, sharks and dolphins contend with wall turbulence, are fast swimmers, and have more organized skin patterns that are proud and sometimes vibrate. A nonlinear spatiotemporal analytical model is not available that explains the mechanism underlying control of flow with such proud patterns, despite the fact that shark and dolphin skins are major targets of reverse engineering mechanisms of drag and noise reduction. Comparable to RD, a minimal self-regulation model is given for wall turbulence regeneration in the transitional regime--laterally coupled, diffusively--which, although restricted to pre-breakdown durations and to a plane close and parallel to the wall, correctly reproduces many experimentally observed spatiotemporal organizations of vorticity in both laminar-to-turbulence transitioning and very low Reynolds number but turbulent regions. We further show that the onset of vorticity disorganization is delayed if the skin organization is treated as a spatiotemporal template of olivo-cerebellar phase reset mechanism. The model shows that the adaptation mechanisms of sharks and dolphins to their fluid environment have much in common.

  12. Sleep patterns and impulse control among Japanese junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takeru; Hagihara, Akihito; Nobutomo, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Adolescents with decreased impulse control exhibit behavioral problems. Lifestyles are related to impulse control. However, the relations of sleep patterns and impulse control among adolescents are unknown. Thus we examined how sleep patterns were associated with impulse control among Japanese junior high school students. Surveys were completed by a nationwide sample of 1934 students. A significant association between decreased impulse control and bedtimes after midnight was revealed. Specific lifestyle factors related to bedtimes after midnight were older age, greater numbers of hours spent watching television, lack of participation in an extracurricular activity, greater use of convenience stores, and increased attendance at cram schools. This study revealed that going to sleep after midnight was significantly related to decreased impulse control among adolescents. Data about specific lifestyle factors related to going to sleep after midnight should be useful in preventing those behaviors demonstrated by school children that derive from decreased impulse control.

  13. A recovery principle provides insight into auxin pattern control in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon; Liu, Junli; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Lindsey, Keith

    2017-02-21

    Regulated auxin patterning provides a key mechanism for controlling root growth and development. We have developed a data-driven mechanistic model using realistic root geometry and formulated a principle to theoretically investigate quantitative auxin pattern recovery following auxin transport perturbation. This principle reveals that auxin patterning is potentially controlled by multiple combinations of interlinked levels and localisation of influx and efflux carriers. We demonstrate that (1) when efflux carriers maintain polarity but change levels, maintaining the same auxin pattern requires non-uniform and polar distribution of influx carriers; (2) the emergence of the same auxin pattern, from different levels of influx carriers with the same nonpolar localisation, requires simultaneous modulation of efflux carrier level and polarity; and (3) multiple patterns of influx and efflux carriers for maintaining an auxin pattern do not have spatially proportional correlation. This reveals that auxin pattern formation requires coordination between influx and efflux carriers. We further show that the model makes various predictions that can be experimentally validated.

  14. A recovery principle provides insight into auxin pattern control in the Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Simon; Liu, Junli; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Lindsey, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Regulated auxin patterning provides a key mechanism for controlling root growth and development. We have developed a data-driven mechanistic model using realistic root geometry and formulated a principle to theoretically investigate quantitative auxin pattern recovery following auxin transport perturbation. This principle reveals that auxin patterning is potentially controlled by multiple combinations of interlinked levels and localisation of influx and efflux carriers. We demonstrate that (1) when efflux carriers maintain polarity but change levels, maintaining the same auxin pattern requires non-uniform and polar distribution of influx carriers; (2) the emergence of the same auxin pattern, from different levels of influx carriers with the same nonpolar localisation, requires simultaneous modulation of efflux carrier level and polarity; and (3) multiple patterns of influx and efflux carriers for maintaining an auxin pattern do not have spatially proportional correlation. This reveals that auxin pattern formation requires coordination between influx and efflux carriers. We further show that the model makes various predictions that can be experimentally validated. PMID:28220889

  15. A simple cellular model to quantify controls on aeolian dune-field pattern development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, E. N.; Nield, J. M.; Baas, A. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2009-12-01

    A second-generation, source-to-sink cellular automaton model captures and quantifies many of the factors controlling the evolution of aeolian dune-field patterns by varying only a small number of parameters. Our model quantifies the role of sediment supply, sediment availability, and transport capacity in the development and evolution of an aeolian dune-field pattern over long time scales. Simulation results produced by varying the sediment supply and transport capacity identified seven dune-field patterns. A new clustered dune-field pattern is identified and used to propose an alternative mechanism for the formation of superimposed dunes. Bedforms are hypothesized to cluster together, simultaneously forming two spatial scales of bedforms without first developing a large basal dune and small superimposed dunes. Sediment supply and transport capacity control the type and frequency of dune interactions, the sediment availability of the system, and ultimately the development of dune-field patterns. Our model allows predictions about the range of sediment supply and wind strengths required to produce many of the dune-field patterns seen in the real world. This simple model demonstrates the dominant control of aeolian sediment state on the construction and evolution of aeolian dune-field patterns.

  16. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Donald F

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report 14 new cases of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa and three new cases of cone-rod dystrophy and to compare the similarities and dissimilarities to those found in the bilateral forms of these disorders. Methods: A total of 272 cases of retinitis pigmentosa and 167 cases of cone-rod dystrophy were studied by corneal full field electroretinograms and electrooculograms. The student t-test was used to compare categories. Results: The percentage of familial and nonfamilial cases was the same for the bilateral and unilateral forms of the disease. In our series, unilateral retinitis pigmentosa makes up approximately 5% of the total population of retinitis pigmentosa, while unilateral cone-rod dystrophy makes up only about 2% of the total. In the familial forms of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa the most common inheritance pattern was autosomal dominant and all affected relatives had bilateral disease. Conclusion: Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy appear to be directly related to the more common bilateral forms of these disorders. The genetic mechanisms which account for asymmetric disorders are not currently understood. It may be a different unidentified mutation at a single loci or it is possible that nonlinked mutations in multiple loci account for this unusual disorder. PMID:19668577

  17. The effect of fuel rod oxidation on PCMI-induced fuel failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2011-11-01

    It was found in a one of the PWRs operating in Korea that a few three cycle-burned Zry-4 fuel assemblies which were loaded in a core center region at control bank positions were leaking. The leaking cycle has experienced a few reactor trips and some fuel rods started to leak at about a month after a power ramp following the second reactor trip. To investigate a root cause of such fuel failure as well as to examine intact and leak rod oxidation behaviors, one intact and one leaking fuel rods were selected from one intact and one failed three cycle-burned fuel assemblies, respectively, and in parallel one intact fuel rod was selected from a two cycle-burned fuel assembly to examine the effect of burnup on fuel rod oxidation and cladding stress during the power ramp. The maximum oxide thicknesses for the intact two cycle-burned and three cycle-burned fuel rods were measured to be about 70 and 140 μm, respectively, whereas that for the leaking three cycle-burned fuel rod to be about 200 μm. The leaking fuel rods generated a very sharp increase in oxide thickness in the fuel rod upper region having a relatively high axial power, resulting in through-wall axial cracks. The root cause of the fuel rod leaks was evaluated to be the pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI)-induced failure combined with excessive Zry-4 oxidation and cladding stress, based on the evaluations of pellet-clad friction coefficient-dependent cladding hoop stresses after the power ramp following the second trip, measured oxide thicknesses and axial cracks on the cladding surface, a fuel leak initiation time and failed fuel rod locations at the control bank positions.

  18. Actuator system history of safety rod lower latch problems review of latch inspection video tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.J.

    1992-06-24

    During pre-restart testing the safety rod at position X26-YlO bound after being driven approximately two (2) feet out of the reactor. Subsequently, the rod was manually returned to it's seated position. Inspection of the lower latch showed that the latch locking plunger button (screwed on to the bottom of the plunger shaft and retained by a pin through a hole drilled through the button and the plunger shaft) was missing. The shaft failed through the hole drilled for the retaining pin. The button, with the retaining pin intact, was found lodged between the safety rod upper adapter collar and the top of the safety rod thimble top fitting. Analysis of the safety rod latch and accompanying forest guide tube design provided assurance that this type of failure would not cause binding during the scramming'' of the safety rods. Inspection of all of the K'' safety rod lower latches revealed six other latches with missing plunger buttons, and nine with other non-conformances which required latch replacement. A history search conducted by Reactor Engineering Design, Components Handling Group, is included in this report. The history search shows that latch design modifications, as a part of initial development of the latch system and later to improve the delatching operation, were made from 1950 to 1960. These modifications created a condition where latch damage could occur. Video tapes were made during inspection of the safety rod latches in K area and control rod latches in L area. These tapes were reviewed by Reactor Engineering Design Components Handling engineers. The reviews were used for correlation of latch problems reported by the engineers/mechanics making the inspections. The K area tapes showed inspection of 65 of the 66 safety rod latches. The review of the tapes showed the plunger buttons to be missing from five latches. RED-CH reviewed the L Area video taped inspection of 35 control rod clusters (245 latches). No non-conformances were noted.

  19. Actuator system history of safety rod lower latch problems review of latch inspection video tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.J.

    1992-06-24

    During pre-restart testing the safety rod at position X26-YlO bound after being driven approximately two (2) feet out of the reactor. Subsequently, the rod was manually returned to it`s seated position. Inspection of the lower latch showed that the latch locking plunger button (screwed on to the bottom of the plunger shaft and retained by a pin through a hole drilled through the button and the plunger shaft) was missing. The shaft failed through the hole drilled for the retaining pin. The button, with the retaining pin intact, was found lodged between the safety rod upper adapter collar and the top of the safety rod thimble top fitting. Analysis of the safety rod latch and accompanying forest guide tube design provided assurance that this type of failure would not cause binding during the ``scramming`` of the safety rods. Inspection of all of the ``K`` safety rod lower latches revealed six other latches with missing plunger buttons, and nine with other non-conformances which required latch replacement. A history search conducted by Reactor Engineering Design, Components Handling Group, is included in this report. The history search shows that latch design modifications, as a part of initial development of the latch system and later to improve the delatching operation, were made from 1950 to 1960. These modifications created a condition where latch damage could occur. Video tapes were made during inspection of the safety rod latches in K area and control rod latches in L area. These tapes were reviewed by Reactor Engineering Design Components Handling engineers. The reviews were used for correlation of latch problems reported by the engineers/mechanics making the inspections. The K area tapes showed inspection of 65 of the 66 safety rod latches. The review of the tapes showed the plunger buttons to be missing from five latches. RED-CH reviewed the L Area video taped inspection of 35 control rod clusters (245 latches). No non-conformances were noted.

  20. Mechanoresponsive change in photoluminescent color of rod-like liquid-crystalline compounds and control of molecular orientation on photoaligned layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Mizuho; Miura, Seiya; Okumoto, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Mayuko; Fukae, Ryohei; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we reported novel liquid-crystalline luminophore that switches its photoluminescent color by mechanically grinding. Mechanochromic luminescence (MCL) is expected for mechanical sensor, cellular imaging, detection of microenvironmental changes, and optical memory. In this work, we focused on liquid-crystalline MCL compounds on alignment layer. Controlling the molecular alignment of MCL compounds with photoalignment layer have potential to succeed in functional MCL film such as polarized micropatterned MCL and directional detection of mechanical stimuli. Herein, we prepared asymmetric rodlike MCL compounds containing cyano- and pyridyl molecular terminal and explored their photoluminescence behavior under mechanical stimulus. The cyano terminated compound showed a nematic phase and tuned its photoluminescent color from green to yellow upon grinding, while the pyridyl-terminated compounds that show no mesophase changed its photoluminescent color from blue to green and reverted to its initial color by heating above its melting point. The cyano-terminated MCL was aligned along the orientation direction of photoalignment layer and pyridyl-terminated MCL exhibited uniaxial alignment when it coated on photoaligned film containing carboxylic acid.

  1. Hydrologic controls on aperiodic spatial organization of the ridge-slough patterned landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Stephen T.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Acharya, Subodh; Kaplan, David A.; Jawitz, James W.

    2016-11-01

    A century of hydrologic modification has altered the physical and biological drivers of landscape processes in the Everglades (Florida, USA). Restoring the ridge-slough patterned landscape, a dominant feature of the historical system, is a priority but requires an understanding of pattern genesis and degradation mechanisms. Physical experiments to evaluate alternative pattern formation mechanisms are limited by the long timescales of peat accumulation and loss, necessitating model-based comparisons, where support for a particular mechanism is based on model replication of extant patterning and trajectories of degradation. However, multiple mechanisms yield a central feature of ridge-slough patterning (patch elongation in the direction of historical flow), limiting the utility of that characteristic for discriminating among alternatives. Using data from vegetation maps, we investigated the statistical features of ridge-slough spatial patterning (ridge density, patch perimeter, elongation, patch size distributions, and spatial periodicity) to establish more rigorous criteria for evaluating model performance and to inform controls on pattern variation across the contemporary system. Mean water depth explained significant variation in ridge density, total perimeter, and length : width ratios, illustrating an important pattern response to existing hydrologic gradients. Two independent analyses (2-D periodograms and patch size distributions) provide strong evidence against regular patterning, with the landscape exhibiting neither a characteristic wavelength nor a characteristic patch size, both of which are expected under conditions that produce regular patterns. Rather, landscape properties suggest robust scale-free patterning, indicating genesis from the coupled effects of local facilitation and a global negative feedback operating uniformly at the landscape scale. Critically, this challenges widespread invocation of scale-dependent negative feedbacks for explaining

  2. Chemotaxis of Nonbiological Colloidal Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yiying; Blackman, Nicole M. K.; Kopp, Nathaniel D.; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell

    2007-10-01

    Chemotaxis is the movement of organisms toward or away from a chemical attractant or toxin by a biased random walk process. Here we describe the first experimental example of chemotaxis outside biological systems. Platinum-gold rods 2.0μm long exhibit directed movement toward higher hydrogen peroxide concentrations through “active diffusion.” Brownian dynamics simulations reveal that no “temporal sensing” algorithm, commonly attributed to bacteria, is necessary; rather, the observed chemotaxis can be explained by random walk physics in a gradient of the active diffusion coefficient.

  3. The CD control improvement by using CDSEM 2D measurement of complex OPC patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, William; Cheng, Jeffrey; Lee, Adder; Cheng, James; Tzeng, Alex C.; Lu, Colbert; Yang, Ray; Lee, Hong Jen; Bandoh, Hideaki; Santo, Izumi; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Chien Kang

    2016-10-01

    As the process node becomes more advanced, the accuracy and precision in OPC pattern CD are required in mask manufacturing. CD SEM is an essential tool to confirm the mask quality such as CD control, CD uniformity and CD mean to target (MTT). Unfortunately, in some cases of arbitrary enclosed patterns or aggressive OPC patterns, for instance, line with tiny jogs and curvilinear SRAF, CD variation depending on region of interest (ROI) is a very serious problem in mask CD control, even it decreases the wafer yield. For overcoming this situation, the 2-dimensional (2D) method by Holon is adopted. In this paper, we summarize the comparisons of error budget between conventional (1D) and 2D data using CD SEM and the CD performance between mask and wafer by complex OPC patterns including ILT features.

  4. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nejati, Somayeh; Darabi, Samaneh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Sorayani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods In our study, 330 depressed patients (cases) and healthy people (controls) (1:2) were individually matched according to age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression were recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers went to each patient's residential area, and invited qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intake over the past year was collected using a validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by the principal components method. Binary logistic regression was used to test the effect of dietary patterns on depression. Results We identified two major dietary patterns by using factor analysis: the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. We categorized the scores of these patterns to quartiles. After adjusting for non-depression drug use, job, marital status, children number, and body mass index, the relations of depression and quartiles of two dietary patterns are significant (p=0.04 & p=0.01, respectively). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depression in healthy dietary pattern, and higher OR for depression in unhealthy dietary pattern. Conclusion This study indicates that healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of depression. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of depression. PMID:26508953

  5. Intelligent fuzzy-neural pattern generation and control of a quadrupedal bionic inspection robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayfeddine, D.; Bulgakov, A. G.

    2017-02-01

    This paper represents a case study on ‘single leg single step’ pattern generation and control of quadrupedal bionic robot movement using intelligent fuzzy-neural approaches. The aim is to set up a flip-flop mechanical configuration allowing the robot to move one step forward. The same algorithm can be integrated to develop a full trajectory pattern as an interconnected task of global path planning for autonomous quadrupedal robots.

  6. Pattern formation and flow control of fine particles by laser-scanning micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Koshioka, M; Misawa, H; Kitamura, N; Masuhara, H

    1991-10-01

    A novel micromanipulation technique is proposed for aligning fine particles on micrometer-scale spatial patterns and for moving the particles continuously along the formed patterns. This technique is based on the repetitive scanning of a focused trapping laser beam. The velocity of the particle flow can be controlled by scan speed and laser power. The origin of the driving force is considered theoretically and experimentally.

  7. Stability and failure analysis of steering tie-rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, GongFeng; Zhang, YiLiang; Xu, XueDong; Ding, DaWei

    2008-11-01

    A new car in operation of only 8,000 km, because of malfunction, resulting in lost control and rammed into the edge of the road, and then the basic vehicle scrapped. According to the investigation of the site, it was found that the tie-rod of the car had been broken. For the subjective analysis of the accident and identifying the true causes of rupture of the tierod, a series of studies, from the angle of theory to experiment on the bended broken tie-rod, were conducted. The mechanical model was established; the stability of the defective tie-rod was simulated based on ANSYS software. Meanwhile, the process of the accident was simulated considering the effect of destabilization of different vehicle speed and direction of the impact. Simultaneously, macro graphic test, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis and SEM analysis of the fracture were implemented. The results showed that: 1) the toughness of the tie-rod is at a normal level, but there is some previous flaws. One quarter of the fracture surface has been cracked before the accident. However, there is no relationship between the flaw and this incident. The direct cause is the dynamic instability leading to the large deformation of impact loading. 2) The declining safety factor of the tie-rod greatly due to the previous flaws; the result of numerical simulation shows that previous flaw is the vital factor of structure instability, on the basis of the comparison of critical loads of the accident tie-rod and normal. The critical load can decrease by 51.3% when the initial defect increases 19.54% on the cross-sectional area, which meets the Theory of Koiter.

  8. 2D spatially controlled polymer micro patterning for cellular behavior studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, V.; Palla-Papavlu, A.; Paraico, I.; Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A.; Dinescu, M.

    2011-04-01

    A simple and effective method to functionalize glass surfaces that enable polymer micropatterning and subsequent spatially controlled adhesion of cells is reported in this paper. The method involves the application of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) to achieve polymer patterning in a single step onto cell repellent substrates (i.e. polyethyleneglycol (PEG)). This approach was used to produce micron-size polyethyleneimine (PEI)-patterns alternating with cell-repellent areas. The focus of this work is the ability of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to orient, migrate, and produce organized cellular arrangements on laser generated PEI patterns.

  9. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  10. Controlled mud-crack patterning and self-organized cracking of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Seghir, Rian; Arscott, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting pattern formation – such as that observed in nature – in the context of micro/nanotechnology could have great benefits if coupled with the traditional top-down lithographic approach. Here, we demonstrate an original and simple method to produce unique, localized and controllable self-organised patterns on elastomeric films. A thin, brittle silica-like crust is formed on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using oxygen plasma. This crust is subsequently cracked via the deposition of a thin metal film – having residual tensile stress. The density of the mud-crack patterns depends on the plasma dose and on the metal thickness. The mud-crack patterning can be controlled depending on the thickness and shape of the metallization – ultimately leading to regularly spaced cracks and/or metal mesa structures. Such patterning of the cracks indicates a level of self-organization in the structuring and layout of the features – arrived at simply by imposing metallization boundaries in proximity to each other, separated by a distance of the order of the critical dimension of the pattern size apparent in the large surface mud-crack patterns. PMID:26437880

  11. New type of dummy layout pattern to control ILD etch rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohland, Oliver; Spieker, Julie; Huang, Chih-Ta; Govindaswamy, Srikanth; Balasinski, Artur

    2007-12-01

    Adding dummy features (waffles) to drawn geometries of the circuit layout is a common practice to improve its manufacturability. As an example, local dummy pattern improves MOSFET line and space CD control by adjusting short range optical proximity and reducing the aggressiveness of its correction features (OPC) to widen the lithography process window. Another application of dummy pattern (waffles) is to globally equalize layout pattern density, to reduce long-range inter-layer dielectric (ILD) thickness variations after the CMP process and improve contact resistance uniformity over the die area. In this work, we discuss a novel type of dummy pattern with a mid-range interaction distance, to control the ILD composition driven by its deposition and etch process. This composition is reflected on sidewall spacers and depends on the topography of the underlying poly pattern. During contact etch, it impacts the etch rate of the ILD. As a result, the deposited W filling the damascene etched self-aligned trench contacts in the ILD may electrically short to the underlying gates in the areas of isolated poly. To mitigate the dependence of the ILD composition on poly pattern distribution, we proposed a special dummy feature generation with the interaction range defined by the ILD deposition and etch process. This helped equalize mid-range poly pattern density without disabling the routing capability with damascene trench contacts in the periphery which would have increased the layout footprint.

  12. Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

  13. Biomolecular rods and tubes in nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Alexander M.

    2005-02-01

    Biomolecules are vitally important elements in nanoscale science and also in future nanotechnology. Their shape and their chemical and physical functionality can give them a big advantage over inorganic and organic substances. While this becomes most obvious in proteins and peptides, with their complicated, but easily controlled chemistry, other biomolecular substances such as DNA, lipids and carbohydrates can also be important. In this review, the emphasis is on one-dimensional molecules and on molecules that self-assemble into linear structures, and on their potential applications. An important aspect is that biomolecules can act as templates, i.e. their shape and chemical properties can be employed to arrange inorganic substances such as metals or metal compounds on the nanometre scale. In particular, rod- and tube-like nanostructures can show physical properties that are different from those of the bulk material, and thus these structures are likely to be a basis for new technology.

  14. Biomolecular rods and tubes in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Alexander M

    2005-02-01

    Biomolecules are vitally important elements in nanoscale science and also in future nanotechnology. Their shape and their chemical and physical functionality can give them a big advantage over inorganic and organic substances. While this becomes most obvious in proteins and peptides, with their complicated, but easily controlled chemistry, other biomolecular substances such as DNA, lipids and carbohydrates can also be important. In this review, the emphasis is on one-dimensional molecules and on molecules that self-assemble into linear structures, and on their potential applications. An important aspect is that biomolecules can act as templates, i.e. their shape and chemical properties can be employed to arrange inorganic substances -- such as metals or metal compounds -- on the nanometre scale. In particular, rod- and tube-like nanostructures can show physical properties that are different from those of the bulk material, and thus these structures are likely to be a basis for new technology.

  15. Flip, flop and fly: modulated motor control and highly variable movement patterns of autotomized gecko tails.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P

    2010-02-23

    Many animals lose and regenerate appendages, and tail autotomy in lizards is an extremely well-studied example of this. Whereas the energetic, ecological and functional ramifications of tail loss for many lizards have been extensively documented, little is known about the behaviour and neuromuscular control of the autotomized tail. We used electromyography and high-speed video to quantify the motor control and movement patterns of autotomized tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). In addition to rhythmic swinging, we show that they exhibit extremely complex movement patterns for up to 30 min following autotomy, including acrobatic flips up to 3 cm in height. Unlike the output of most central pattern generators (CPGs), muscular control of the tail is variable and can be arrhythmic. We suggest that the gecko tail is well suited for studies involving CPGs, given that this spinal preparation is naturally occurring, requires no surgery and exhibits complex modulation.

  16. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed.

  17. Equations determine reasonable rod pump submergence depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongquan; Cai Wizhong

    1997-03-24

    A reasonable rod pump submergence depth can be calculated by combining fluid level changes with piston travel. Submergence depth is affected by the pump fill factor, reservoir fluid viscosity, rod pump type, and pumping parameters such as pump diameter, polished-rod stroke length, and pumping speed. Fluid level velocity can be obtained with an energy balance, and piston travel rate is based on the polished-rod travel. The paper describes the pump fill factor, piston travel velocity, fluid level rise, flow coefficient, reasonable submergence depth, and results from equations.

  18. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest; Pardini, John A.; Walker, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  19. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  20. Expression pattern of immediate early genes in the cerebellum of D1R KO, D2R KO, and wild type mice under vestibular-controlled activity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the different motor abilities of D1R knockout (KO), D2R KO and wild-type (WT) mice. To understand the interaction between the cerebellum and the striatal direct and indirect pathways, we examined the expression patterns of immediate early genes (IEG) in the cerebellum of these three genotypes of mice. In the WT naive mice, there was little IEG expression. However, we observed a robust expression of c-fos mRNA in the vermis and hemisphere after running rota-rod tasks. In the vermis, c-fos was expressed throughout the lobules except lobule 7, and also in crus 1 of the ansiform lobule (Crus1), copula of the pyramis (Cop) and most significantly in the flocculus in the hemisphere. jun-B was much less expressed but more preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells. In addition, we observed significant levels of c-fos and jun-B expressions after handling mice, and after the stationary rota-rod task in naive mice. Surprisingly, we observed significant expression of c-fos and jun-B even 30 min after single weighing. Nonetheless, certain additional c-fos and jun-B expressions were observed in three genotypes of the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks 24 h after stationary rota-rod task and on days 1 and 5 after rota-rod tasks, but no significant differences in expressions after the running rota-rod tasks were observed among the three genotypes. In addition, there may be some differences 24 h after the stationary rota-rod task between the naive mice and the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks.

  1. Protein patterning utilizing region-specific control of wettability by surface modification under atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghee; Kwon, Min-Sung; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Jun, Chang-Duk; Chung, Euiheon; Yang, Sung

    2013-09-01

    Wettability control can be crucial in improving the uniformity of selective protein immobilization in high-density microarrays. In this study, we propose an atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD)-based method in conjunction with photolithography to implement region-specific control of wettability on Si substrate. The proposed PECVD method under atmospheric pressure condition would be a useful alternative of conventional reactive plasma-based treatments methods requiring vacuum condition for uniform protein patterning. Layers with dissimilar wettability and roughness prepared by AP-PECVD process using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) or TEOS-O2 as precursors could realize uniform protein patterning in a micrometer-scale.

  2. Rotation of a Thin Elastic Rod Injected into a Cylindrical Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, Connor; Su, Tianxiang; Wicks, Nathan; Pabon, Jahir; Reis, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    We report the results from an experimental investigation of the buckling of a thin elastic rod injected into a horizontal cylindrical constraint, with an emphasis on comparing the two cases of rotating, or not, the rod at the injection site. We are particularly interested on the total length of rod that can be injected into the pipe prior to the onset of helical buckling. This instability arises due to the frictional rod-constraint contact that eventually leads to the buildup of axial stress on the rod, above a critical value. We explore the dependence of the buckling conditions on the physical and control parameters of the system (e.g. material and geometric parameters, injection speed and rotation frequency) and rationalize the underlying physical mechanism through a reduced model. Funding and support provided by Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  3. Controlled Assembly of Rod-Like Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-29

    of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus by Cu(I) Catalyzed Azide?Alkyne 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction and Its Application in Cell Binding, Bioconjugate...that investigation of two-dimensional (2D) assembly of the icosahedral turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) on cationic lipid monolayers at the air

  4. Surface Patterning: Controlling Fluid Flow Through Dolphin and Shark Skin Biomimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Lawren; Lang, Amy; Bradshaw, Michael; McVay, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Dolphin skin is characterized by circumferential ridges, perpendicular to fluid flow, present from the crest of the head until the tail fluke. When observing a cross section of skin, the ridges have a sinusoidal pattern. Sinusoidal grooves have been proven to induce vortices in the cavities that can help control flow separation which can reduce pressure drag. Shark skin, however, is patterned with flexible scales that bristle up to 50 degrees with reversed flow. Both dolphin ridges and shark scales are thought to help control fluid flow and increase swimming efficiency by delaying the separation of the boundary layer. This study investigates how flow characteristics can be altered with bio-inspired surface patterning. A NACA 4412 hydrofoil was entirely patterned with transverse sinusoidal grooves, inspired by dolphin skin but scaled so the cavities on the model have the same Reynolds number as the cavities on a swimming shark. Static tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 100,000 and at varying angles of attack. The results were compared to the smooth hydrofoil case. The flow data was quantified using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The results of this study demonstrated that the patterned hydrofoil experienced greater separation than the smooth hydrofoil. It is hypothesize that this could be remediated if the pattern was placed only after the maximum thickness of the hydrofoil. Funding through NSF REU grant 1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. High accuracy jog CD control on OPC pattern by advanced laser writer Sigma7500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Tomas; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin

    2008-10-01

    With the progress of mask writer technology, 50 KV electron beam writers always perform with better pattern fidelity and critical dimension (CD) control than traditional laser raster-scan writers because laser spot size is confined by the laser longer wavelength relative to electron beam. As far as Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) pattern fidelity is concerned, critical masks with OPC process have to choose Variable-Shape-Beam (VSB) electron beam writer presently. However, the over-aggressive OPC fragmentation induces data volume abrupt explosion, longer writing time, higher mask cost and even mask quality degradation 1. Micronic Sigma7500 laser writer introduces a novel imaging system combining partial coherent light and DUV spatial light modulation (SLM) to generate a high-quality pattern image 2. The benefit of raster-scan laser writer is high throughput with consistent writing time regardless of pattern geometry, complexity and data size. However, pattern CD accuracy still needs improvement. This study is to evaluate jog CD control capability of Sigma7500 on OPC typical line-and-space test patterns with different orientations of 0°, 90°, 45° and 135°. In addition, mask CD uniformity and OPC jog height linearity will also be demonstrated.

  6. Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light damage independently of hypoxia inducible transcription factors in rods.

    PubMed

    Kast, Brigitte; Schori, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light-induced degeneration preserving retinal morphology and function. Although hypoxia inducible transcription factors 1 and 2 (HIF1, HIF2) are the main regulators of the hypoxic response, photoreceptor protection does not depend on HIF1 in rods. Here we used rod-specific Hif2a single and Hif1a;Hif2a double knockout mice to investigate the potential involvement of HIF2 in rods for protection after hypoxic preconditioning. To identify potential HIF2 target genes in rods we determined the retinal transcriptome of hypoxic control and rod-specific Hif2a knockouts by RNA sequencing. We show that rods do not need HIF2 for hypoxia-induced increased survival after light exposure. The transcriptomic analysis revealed a number of genes that are potentially regulated by HIF2 in rods; among those were Htra1, Timp3 and Hmox1, candidates that are interesting due to their connection to human degenerative diseases of the retina. We conclude that neither HIF1 nor HIF2 are required in photoreceptors for protection by hypoxic preconditioning. We hypothesize that HIF transcription factors may be needed in other cells to produce protective factors acting in a paracrine fashion on photoreceptor cells. Alternatively, hypoxic preconditioning induces a rod-intrinsic response that is independent of HIF transcription factors.

  7. Specific subgroups of FruM neurons control sexually dimorphic patterns of aggression in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yick-Bun; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    A great challenge facing neuroscience is to understand how genes, molecules, cells, circuits, and systems interact to generate social behavior. Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) offer a powerful model system to address questions of this magnitude. These animals display genetically specified, sexually dimorphic patterns of fighting behavior via sex-specific splicing of the fruitless gene. Here, we show that sexually dimorphic behavioral patterns displayed during aggression are controlled by specific subgroups of neurons expressing male forms of fruitless proteins (FruM). Using the GAL4/UAS system to manipulate transformer expression, we feminized or masculinized different populations of neurons in fly nervous systems. With a panneuronal elav-GAL4 driver, male patterns of fighting behavior were transferred into females and female patterns into males. We screened 60 Gal4 lines that express the yeast transcription factor in different patterns in fly central nervous systems and found five that showed abnormal same-sex courtship behavior. The sexually dimorphic fighting patterns, however, were completely switched only in one and partially switched in a second of these lines. In the other three lines, female patterns of aggression were seen despite a switch in courtship preference. A tight correspondence was seen between FruM expression and how flies fight in several subgroups of neurons usually expressing these proteins: Expression is absent when flies fight like females and present when flies fight like males, thereby beginning a separation between courtship and aggression among these neurons. PMID:18042702

  8. Control strategies of 3-cell Central Pattern Generator via global stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Álvaro; Rodríguez, Marcos; Barrio, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The study of the synchronization patterns of small neuron networks that control several biological processes has become an interesting growing discipline. Some of these synchronization patterns of individual neurons are related to some undesirable neurological diseases, and they are believed to play a crucial role in the emergence of pathological rhythmic brain activity in different diseases, like Parkinson’s disease. We show how, with a suitable combination of short and weak global inhibitory and excitatory stimuli over the whole network, we can switch between different stable bursting patterns in small neuron networks (in our case a 3-neuron network). We develop a systematic study showing and explaining the effects of applying the pulses at different moments. Moreover, we compare the technique on a completely symmetric network and on a slightly perturbed one (a much more realistic situation). The present approach of using global stimuli may allow to avoid undesirable synchronization patterns with nonaggressive stimuli. PMID:27021970

  9. Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Ryan G.; Ahsan, Shoeb; Aizawa, Yukie; Maxwell, Karen L.; Morshead, Cindi M.; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) protein-patterned scaffolds provide a more biomimetic environment for cell culture than traditional two-dimensional surfaces, but simultaneous 3D protein patterning has proved difficult. We developed a method to spatially control the immobilization of different growth factors in distinct volumes in 3D hydrogels, and to specifically guide differentiation of stem/progenitor cells therein. Stem-cell differentiation factors sonic hedgehog (SHH) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were simultaneously immobilized using orthogonal physical binding pairs, barnase-barstar and streptavidin-biotin, respectively. Barnase and streptavidin were sequentially immobilized using two-photon chemistry for subsequent concurrent complexation with fusion proteins barstar-SHH and biotin-CNTF, resulting in bioactive 3D patterned hydrogels. The technique should be broadly applicable to the patterning of a wide range of proteins.

  10. Control strategies of 3-cell Central Pattern Generator via global stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Álvaro; Rodríguez, Marcos; Barrio, Roberto

    2016-03-29

    The study of the synchronization patterns of small neuron networks that control several biological processes has become an interesting growing discipline. Some of these synchronization patterns of individual neurons are related to some undesirable neurological diseases, and they are believed to play a crucial role in the emergence of pathological rhythmic brain activity in different diseases, like Parkinson's disease. We show how, with a suitable combination of short and weak global inhibitory and excitatory stimuli over the whole network, we can switch between different stable bursting patterns in small neuron networks (in our case a 3-neuron network). We develop a systematic study showing and explaining the effects of applying the pulses at different moments. Moreover, we compare the technique on a completely symmetric network and on a slightly perturbed one (a much more realistic situation). The present approach of using global stimuli may allow to avoid undesirable synchronization patterns with nonaggressive stimuli.

  11. Control strategies of 3-cell Central Pattern Generator via global stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Álvaro; Rodríguez, Marcos; Barrio, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The study of the synchronization patterns of small neuron networks that control several biological processes has become an interesting growing discipline. Some of these synchronization patterns of individual neurons are related to some undesirable neurological diseases, and they are believed to play a crucial role in the emergence of pathological rhythmic brain activity in different diseases, like Parkinson’s disease. We show how, with a suitable combination of short and weak global inhibitory and excitatory stimuli over the whole network, we can switch between different stable bursting patterns in small neuron networks (in our case a 3-neuron network). We develop a systematic study showing and explaining the effects of applying the pulses at different moments. Moreover, we compare the technique on a completely symmetric network and on a slightly perturbed one (a much more realistic situation). The present approach of using global stimuli may allow to avoid undesirable synchronization patterns with nonaggressive stimuli.

  12. Controllable deposition distance of aligned pattern via dual-nozzle near-field electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xindu; Zeng, Jun; Liang, Feng; Wu, Peixuan; Wang, Han

    2017-03-01

    For large area micro/nano pattern printing, multi-nozzle electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing setup is an efficient method to boost productivity in near-field electrospinning (NFES) process. And controlling EHD multi-jet accurate deposition under the interaction of nozzles and other parameters are crucial concerns during the process. The influence and sensitivity of various parameters such as the needle length, needle spacing, electrode-to-collector distance, voltage etc. on the direct-write patterning performance was investigated by orthogonal experiments with dual-nozzle NFES setup, and then the deposition distance estimated based on a novel model was compared with measurement results and proven. More controllable deposition distance and much denser of aligned naofiber can be achieved by rotating the dual-nozzle setup. This study can be greatly contributed to estimate the deposition distance and helpful to guide the multi-nozzle NFES process to accurate direct-write pattern in manufacturing process in future.

  13. FGF Signaling Regulates Rod Photoreceptor Cell Maintenance and Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhao; Kidd, Ambrose R.; Thomas, Jennifer L.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Hyde, David R.; Raymond, Pamela A.; Thummel, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Fgf signaling is required for many biological processes involving the regulation of cell proliferation and maintenance, including embryonic patterning, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and cancer progression. Although the function of Fgf signaling is suggested in several different regeneration models, including appendage regeneration in amphibians and fin and heart regeneration in zebrafish, it has not yet been studied during zebrafish photoreceptor cell regeneration. Here we demonstrate that intravitreal injections of FGF-2 induced rod precursor cell proliferation and photoreceptor cell neuroprotection during intense light damage. Using the dominant-negative Tg(hsp70:dn-fgfr1) transgenic line, we found that Fgf signaling was required for homeostasis of rod, but not cone, photoreceptors. Even though fgfr1 is expressed in both rod and cone photoreceptors, we found that Fgf signaling differentially affected the regeneration of cone and rod photoreceptors in the light-damaged retina, with the dominant-negative hsp70:dn-fgfr1 transgene significantly repressing rod photoreceptor regeneration without affecting cone photoreceptors. These data suggest that rod photoreceptor homeostasis and regeneration is Fgf-dependent and that rod and cone photoreceptors in adult zebrafish are regulated by different signaling pathways. PMID:21945172

  14. Longitudinal Impact of Rods: A Continuing Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, W. G. B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment of research potential. The experiment cconsists of measuring the time of contact of a metal rod bouncing on a steel base as a function of the velocity of impact, length, diameter, and material of the rod. (GA)

  15. Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrikar, Onkar

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

  16. ABOVE- AND BELOWGROUND CONTROLS ON FOREST TREE GROWTH, MORTALITY AND SPATIAL PATTERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the relative importance of above- and belowground competition in controlling growth, mortality and spatial patterns of trees in a nitrogen-limited, old-growth forest in western Oregon. To assess the effects of competition for light, we applied a spatially-explici...

  17. Closed-loop control of flow separation using instantaneous trajectory patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Andreas; Parezanović, Vladimir; Kaiser, Eurika; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    A new sensor technique based on visualized instantaneous trajectory patterns is tested to control flow separation. A smooth ramp mounted inside the test section of a water tunnel produces canonical separation conditions. Pulsed hydrogen bubbles furnish instantaneous trajectory patterns of the underlying dynamical system. The evolution of these patterns feeds machine learning algorithms to determine actions that reduce the separated flow region. Compared to periodic forcing the results show even with less actuator action, a major impact on the separated flow. The controlled flow states contain strongly reduced recirculation zones which remain robust even under adverse conditions. Additionally, the visualization of instantaneous trajectory patterns is shown to have some promising options: The Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) of the controlled dynamical system can be deduced in-time without determination and integration of the instantaneous velocity fields. Additionally, classical procedures to reduce the data dimensionality, as for example the principal component analysis (PCA) and its variants, can be applied directly to the visualizations in order to feed the controller. Funding of the ANR program SepaCoDe and the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Flexible method for fabricating protein patterns on superhydrophobic platforms controlled by magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Hao; Zou, Haoyang; Wang, Chenmiao; Zhang, Hao; Mano, João F; Song, Wenlong

    2017-02-28

    Inspired by the rolling of water droplets on lotus leaves, we developed a novel, magnetic field-controlled patterning method for water-soluble proteins and other functional materials on superhydrophobic platforms. This simple method can be used to fabricate biochips and open micro-fluidic devices in a simple way.

  19. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  20. Spacer multi-patterning control strategy with optical CD metrology on device structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsu; Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Ma, Won-Kwang; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Young-Sik; Kwak, Noh-Jung; Theeuwes, Thomas; Guo, Wei; Song, Yi; Wisse, Baukje; Kruijswijk, Stefan; Cramer, Hugo; Welch, Steven; Verma, Alok; Zhang, Rui; Chai, Yvon; Hsu, Sharon; Miceli, Giacomo; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Byun, Jin-Moo

    2016-03-01

    Spacer multi patterning process continues to be a key enabler of future design shrinks in DRAM and NAND process flows. Improving Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) for main features remains high priority for multi patterning technology and requires improved metrology and control solutions. In this paper Spacer Patterning Technology is evaluated using an angle resolved scatterometry tool for both intra field control of the core CD after partition etch (S1) and interfield pitch-walking control after final etch (S1-S2). The intrafield measurements were done directly on device using dense sampling. The inter-field corrections were based on sparse full wafer measurements on biased OCD targets. The CDU improvement after partition-etch was verified by direct scatterometer and CD-SEM measurement on device. The final etch performance across wafer was verified with scatterometer on OCD target. The scatterometer metrology in combination with the control strategy demonstrated a consistent CDU improvement of core (S1) intrafield CD after partition etch between 23-39% and 47-53% on interfield pitch-walking (S1-S2) after final etch. To confirm these improvements with CD-SEM, oversampling of more than 16 times is needed compared to scatterometer. Based on the results it is concluded that scatterometry in combination with the evaluated metrology and control strategy in principle qualifies for a spacer process CDU control loop in a manufacturing environment.

  1. An Analysis of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscle EMG for Improved Pattern Recognition Control.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A

    2016-04-01

    Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for application to partial-hand prosthetic control.

  2. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-10-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years.

  3. Vortex Noise from Rotating Cylindrical Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowell, E Z; Deming, A F

    1935-01-01

    A series of round rods of the some diameter were rotated individually about the mid-point of each rod. Vortices are shed from the rods when in motion, giving rise to the emission of sound. With the rotating system placed in the open air, the distribution of sound in space, the acoustical power output, and the spectral distribution have been studied. The frequency of emission of vortices from any point on the rod is given by the formula von Karman. From the spectrum estimates are made of the distribution of acoustical power along the rod, the amount of air concerned in sound production, the "equivalent size" of the vortices, and the acoustical energy content for each vortex.

  4. Rod-Coil Block Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention is a series of rod-coil block polyimide copolymers that are easy to fabricate into mechanically resilient films with acceptable ionic or protonic conductivity at a variety of temperatures. The copolymers consist of short-rigid polyimide rod segments alternating with polyether coil segments. The rods and coil segments can be linear, branched or mixtures of linear and branched segments. The highly incompatible rods and coil segments phase separate, providing nanoscale channels for ion conduction. The polyimide segments provide dimensional and mechanical stability and can be functionalized in a number of ways to provide specialized functions for a given application. These rod-coil black polyimide copolymers are particularly useful in the preparation of ion conductive membranes for use in the manufacture of fuel cells and lithium based polymer batteries.

  5. Novel Laser Scan Lithography onto Deep Inside Surfaces of Fine Pipes Using a Reflection Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kenta; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki

    2009-04-01

    A novel laser scan lithography for patterning in deep fine pipes using a reflection rod was developed. As a previous research, patterning results using an optical fiber rod or a light-emitting diode (LED) rod were reported. However, the minimum inner diameter was 6 mm, and the pattern width was approximately 200 µm. Here, more precise patterning onto the inside of much finer pipes using a novel reflection rod is demonstrated. A violet laser beam of 408 nm wavelength was shaped using a micropinhole and focused onto the inner surface of the pipe by way of a reflection rod of 500 µm diameter. The tip of the reflection rod was cut and polished in 45° mirror surface and the laser beam was bent in a right angle when reflected on the mirror surface. A beam spot observation system composed of a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a television monitor was also added to observe the laser beam spot during the exposure. Specimen pipes were coated with 1-µm-thick positive THMR iP-3300 (Tokyo Ohka Kogyo) resist and scanned using a linear stage and a rotation stage and exposed to the laser light. The inside lithography was demonstrated for fine pipes of 1 mm inner diameter. Helical patterns with space widths of 9-20 µm were successfully delineated even at the deep inside position 20 mm away from the pipe entrance. Dense helical patterns of 100 µm narrow pitch and 12 µm space width and character patterns of 15 µm space width were also successfully delineated.

  6. Controlled neuronal cell patterning and guided neurite growth on micropatterned nanofiber platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkoc, Veysi; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Nelson, Tyler; Lannutti, John J.; Hansford, Derek J.

    2015-12-01

    Patterning neuronal cells and guiding neurite growth are important for applications such as prosthetics, cell based biosensors, and tissue engineering. In this paper, a microdevice is presented that provides neuronal cell patterning and guided neurite growth on a collagen coated gelatin/PCL nanofiber mat. The pattern consisted of a grid of polystyrene microwells/nodes to confine the cell bodies and orthogonal grooves to guide neurite growth from each node. Vacuum assisted cell seeding was used to localize cell bodies in the microwells and physically separate the cells during seeding. The electrospun nanofiber mats under the polystyrene microstructures were coated with collagen to enhance the cellular attachment and enhance differentiation. We evaluated the performance of our device using adhesion, viability, and differentiation assays of neuron-like PC12 cells compared to controls for vacuum seeding, spatial isolation and guidance, and collagen coating of the fibers. The device provided PC12 cell patterning with increased adhesion, differentiation, and guided neurite outgrowth compared to controls, demonstrating its potential for in vitro neuronal cell patterning studies.

  7. Looking South at North End of Rod Loading Line Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at North End of Rod Loading Line Including Welding Area Within Rod Loading building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Rod Loading Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  8. Control of Turing patterns and their usage as sensors, memory arrays, and logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzika, František; Schreiber, Igor

    2013-10-01

    We study a model system of three diffusively coupled reaction cells arranged in a linear array that display Turing patterns with special focus on the case of equal coupling strength for all components. As a suitable model reaction we consider a two-variable core model of glycolysis. Using numerical continuation and bifurcation techniques we analyze the dependence of the system's steady states on varying rate coefficient of the recycling step while the coupling coefficients of the inhibitor and activator are fixed and set at the ratios 100:1, 1:1, and 4:5. We show that stable Turing patterns occur at all three ratios but, as expected, spontaneous transition from the spatially uniform steady state to the spatially nonuniform Turing patterns occurs only in the first case. The other two cases possess multiple Turing patterns, which are stabilized by secondary bifurcations and coexist with stable uniform periodic oscillations. For the 1:1 ratio we examine modular spatiotemporal perturbations, which allow for controllable switching between the uniform oscillations and various Turing patterns. Such modular perturbations are then used to construct chemical computing devices utilizing the multiple Turing patterns. By classifying various responses we propose: (a) a single-input resettable sensor capable of reading certain value of concentration, (b) two-input and three-input memory arrays capable of storing logic information, (c) three-input, three-output logic gates performing combinations of logical functions OR, XOR, AND, and NAND.

  9. Increased monolayer domain size and patterned growth of tungsten disulfide through controlling surface energy of substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Kyle; Kang, Kyungnam; Fu, Shichen; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2016-08-01

    We report a surface energy-controlled low-pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of WS2 monolayers on SiO2 using pre-growth oxygen plasma treatment of substrates, facilitating increased monolayer surface coverage and patterned growth without lithography. Oxygen plasma treatment of the substrate caused an increase in the average domain size of WS2 monolayers by 78%  ±  2% while having a slight reduction in nucleation density, which translates to increased monolayer surface coverage. This substrate effect on growth was exploited to grow patterned WS2 monolayers by patterned plasma treatment on patterned substrates and by patterned source material with resolutions less than 10 µm. Contact angle-based surface energy measurements revealed a dramatic increase in polar surface energy. A growth model was proposed with lowered activation energies for growth and increased surface diffusion length consistent with the range of results observed. WS2 samples grown with and without oxygen plasma were similar high quality monolayers verified through transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman, and photoluminescence measurements. This technique enables the production of large-grain size, patterned WS2 without a post-growth lithography process, thereby providing clean surfaces for device applications.

  10. Self-rolled nanotubes with controlled hollow interiors by patterned grafts.

    PubMed

    Han, Minwoo; Hyun, Jungin; Sim, Eunji

    2015-05-14

    By patterning surface grafts, we propose a simple and systematic method to form tubular structures for which two-dimensional grafted sheets are programmed to self-roll into hollow tubes with a desired size of the internal cavity. The repeating pattern of grafts utilizing defect sites causes anisotropy in the surface-grafted nanosheet, which spontaneously transforms into a curved secondary architecture and, thus, becomes a potential tool with which to form and control the curvature of nanotubes. In fact, the degree and the type of graft defect allow control of the internal cavity size and shape of the resulting nanotubes. By performing dissipative particle dynamics simulations on coarse-grained sheets, we found that the inner cavity size is inversely proportional to the graft-defect density, the difference in the graft densities between the two surface sides of the layer, regardless of whether the defects are patterned or random. While a random distribution of defects gives rise to a non-uniform local curvature and often leads to twisted tubes, regular patterns of graft defects ensure uniform local curvature throughout the sheet, which is important to generate monodisperse nanotubes. At a low graft-defect density, the sheet-to-tube transformation is governed by the layer anisotropy, which induces spontaneous scrolling along the long edge of the sheet, resulting in short tubes. Thus, the curve formation rate and the cavity diameter are independent of the pattern of the graft defects. At a high graft-defect density, however, the scroll direction owing to the graft pattern may conflict with that due to the layer anisotropy. To produce monodisperse nanotubes, two factors are important: (1) a graft-defect pattern parallel to the short edge of the layer, and (2) a graft-defect area wider than half of the graft coil length.

  11. Eulerian Formulation of Spatially Constrained Elastic Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynen, Alexandre

    Slender elastic rods are ubiquitous in nature and technology. For a vast majority of applications, the rod deflection is restricted by an external constraint and a significant part of the elastic body is in contact with a stiff constraining surface. The research work presented in this doctoral dissertation formulates a computational model for the solution of elastic rods constrained inside or around frictionless tube-like surfaces. The segmentation strategy adopted to cope with this complex class of problems consists in sequencing the global problem into, comparatively simpler, elementary problems either in continuous contact with the constraint or contact-free between their extremities. Within the conventional Lagrangian formulation of elastic rods, this approach is however associated with two major drawbacks. First, the boundary conditions specifying the locations of the rod centerline at both extremities of each elementary problem lead to the establishment of isoperimetric constraints, i.e., integral constraints on the unknown length of the rod. Second, the assessment of the unilateral contact condition requires, in principle, the comparison of two curves parametrized by distinct curvilinear coordinates, viz. the rod centerline and the constraint axis. Both conspire to burden the computations associated with the method. To streamline the solution along the elementary problems and rationalize the assessment of the unilateral contact condition, the rod governing equations are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of the constraint. The methodical exploration of both types of elementary problems leads to specific formulations of the rod governing equations that stress the profound connection between the mechanics of the rod and the geometry of the constraint surface. The proposed Eulerian reformulation, which restates the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate associated with the constraint axis, describes the rod deformed configuration

  12. Temperature-dependent variation in gas exchange patterns and spiracular control in Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Erica; Bradley, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    Insects display an array of respiratory behaviors, including the use of discontinuous gas exchange. This pattern is characterized by periods of spiracular closure, micro-openings (flutter), and complete openings during which the majority of gas exchange takes place. A current model of insect spiracular control suggests that spiracles are controlled by two interacting feedback loops, which produce the discontinuous pattern. The flutter period is thought to be initiated by a critically low partial pressure of oxygen, while the open period is initiated by a critically high CO2 threshold. The goal of our study was to test this control model under conditions of feeding-induced or temperature-induced changes in metabolic rate. We manipulated the metabolic rate of the insect Rhodnius prolixus using two discrete mechanisms: (1) feeding the insects a bloodmeal or (2) exposing them to a range of temperatures (18-38°C). Examining the variation in the gas exchange patterns produced by insects in each of these treatments allowed us to determine whether spiracular control is sensitive to metabolic rate and/or temperature. We found that increases in temperature caused significant decreases in open phase burst volumes and premature abandonment of discontinuous gas exchange cycles. These effects were not observed in fed individuals maintained at a single temperature despite their higher metabolic rates. Our results indicate that some part of the spiracular control mechanism is temperature sensitive, suggesting a possible role for pH in CO2 sensing.

  13. Extremum-seeking control of the beam pattern of a reconfigurable holographic metamaterial antenna.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mikala C; Brunton, Steven L; Kundtz, Nathan B; Kutz, Nathan J

    2016-01-01

    Robust, continuous, and software-defined beam pattern control of holographic metamaterial antennas is necessary to realize the potential of these low-power-consumption, thin, lightweight, inexpensive antennas for consumer usage of satellite communication. We present a complete feedback control approach that enables adaptive control of the radiation pattern for the electronically scanned metamaterial antenna that is robust to measurement noise and is able to continuously optimize performance throughout changing environmental conditions and antenna characteristics. The physical size, weight, and cost advantages of the metamaterial antenna make it an attractive technology when paired with robust and adaptive on-board software strategies to optimize antenna performance and self-tune for various environmental conditions.

  14. Coherent control of radiation patterns of nonlinear multiphoton processes in nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Papoff, Francesco; McArthur, Duncan; Hourahine, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the coherent control of light waves and currents in metallic nanospheres which applies independently of the nonlinear multiphoton processes at the origin of waves and currents. We derive conditions on the external control field which enable us to change the radiation pattern and suppress radiative losses or to reduce absorption, enabling the particle to behave as a perfect scatterer or as a perfect absorber. The control introduces narrow features in the response of the particles that result in high sensitivity to small variations in the local environment, including subwavelength spatial shifts. PMID:26155833

  15. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    DOE PAGES

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; ...

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface ofmore » the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.« less

  16. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; Madrid, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David V.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale R.; Lake, Patrick W.; McCourt, Andrew L.

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface of the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.

  17. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L

    2014-01-01

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  18. Target Achievement Control Test: evaluating real-time myoelectric pattern-recognition control of multifunctional upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    Despite high classification accuracies (~95%) of myoelectric control systems based on pattern recognition, how well offline measures translate to real-time closed-loop control is unclear. Recently, a real-time virtual test analyzed how well subjects completed arm motions using a multiple-degree of freedom (DOF) classifier. Although this test provided real-time performance metrics, the required task was oversimplified: motion speeds were normalized and unintended movements were ignored. We included these considerations in a new, more challenging virtual test called the Target Achievement Control Test (TAC Test). Five subjects with transradial amputation attempted to move a virtual arm into a target posture using myoelectric pattern recognition, performing the test with various classifier (1- vs 3-DOF) and task complexities (one vs three required motions per posture). We found no significant difference in classification accuracy between the 1- and 3-DOF classifiers (97.2% +/- 2.0% and 94.1% +/- 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.14). Subjects completed 31% fewer trials in significantly more time using the 3-DOF classifier and took 3.6 +/- 0.8 times longer to reach a three-motion posture compared with a one-motion posture. These results highlight the need for closed-loop performance measures and demonstrate that the TAC Test is a useful and more challenging tool to test real-time pattern-recognition performance.

  19. Granular materials interacting with thin flexible rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alfredo Gay; Campello, Eduardo M. B.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we develop a computational model for the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods. We treat granular materials as a collection of spherical particles following a discrete element method (DEM) approach, while flexible rods are described by a large deformation finite element (FEM) rod formulation. Grain-to-grain, grain-to-rod, and rod-to-rod contacts are fully permitted and resolved. A simple and efficient strategy is proposed for coupling the motion of the two types (discrete and continuum) of materials within an iterative time-stepping solution scheme. Implementation details are shown and discussed. Validity and applicability of the model are assessed by means of a few numerical examples. We believe that robust, efficiently coupled DEM-FEM schemes can be a useful tool to the simulation of problems wherein granular materials interact with thin flexible rods, such as (but not limited to) bombardment of grains on beam structures, flow of granular materials over surfaces covered by threads of hair in many biological processes, flow of grains through filters and strainers in various industrial segregation processes, and many others.

  20. Morphoelastic rods Part II: Growing birods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessinnes, Thomas; Moulton, Derek E.; Goriely, Alain

    2017-03-01

    The general problem of determining the shape and response of two attached growing elastic Kirchhoff rods is considered. A description of the kinematics of the individual interacting rods is introduced. Each rod has a given intrinsic shape and constitutive laws, and a map associating points on the two rods is defined. The resulting filamentary structure, a growing birod, can be seen as a new filamentary structure. This kinematic description is used to derive the general equilibrium equations for the shape of the rods under loads, or equivalently, for the new birod. It is shown that, in general, the birod is not simply a Kirchhoff rod but rather, due to the internal constraints, new effects can appear. The two-dimensional restriction is then considered explicitly and the limit for small deformation is shown to be equivalent to the classic Timsohenko bi-metallic strip problem. A number of examples and applications are presented. In particular, the problem of two attached rods with intrinsic helical shape and uniform growth is computed in detail and a host of new interesting solutions and bifurcations are observed.

  1. Comparison of flow-controlled calcium and barium carbonate precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuszter, G.; De Wit, A.

    2016-12-01

    Various precipitation patterns can be obtained in flow conditions when injecting a solution of sodium carbonate in a confined geometry initially filled with a solution of either barium or calcium chloride. We compare here the barium and calcium carbonate precipitate structures as a function of initial concentrations and injection flow rate. We show that, in some part of the parameter space, the patterns are similar and feature comparable properties indicating that barium and calcium behave similarly in the related flow-controlled precipitation conditions. For other values of parameters though, the precipitate structures are different indicating that the cohesive and microscopic properties of barium versus calcium carbonate are then important in shaping the pattern in flow conditions.

  2. Controlling droplet-based deposition uniformity of long silver nanowires by micrometer scale substrate patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Nandita; Cross, Graham L. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report control of droplet-deposit uniformity of long silver nanowires suspended in solutions by microscopic influence of the liquid contact line. Substrates with microfabricated line patterns with a pitch far smaller than mean wire length lead to deposit thickness uniformity compared to unpatterned substrates. For high boiling-point solvents, two significant effects were observed: The substrate patterns suppressed coffee ring staining, and the wire deposits exhibited a common orientation lying perpendicular over top the lines. The latter result is completely distinct from previously reported substrate groove channeling effects. This work shows that microscopic influence of the droplet contact line geometry including the contact angle by altered substrate wetting allows significant and advantageous influence of deposition patterns of wire-like solutes as the drop dries.

  3. Development of Fractal Pattern Making Application using L-System for Enhanced Machine Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Alexander A. S.; Linggarjati, Jimmy; Wijaya, Yandi

    2014-03-01

    One big issue facing the industry today is an automated machine lack of flexibility for customization because it is designed by the manufacturers based on certain standards. In this research, it is developed customized application software for CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) machines using open source platform. The application is enable us to create designs by means of fractal patterns using L-System, developed by turtle geometry interpretation and Python programming languages. The result of the application is the G-Code of fractal pattern formed by the method of L-System. In the experiment on the CNC machine, the G-Code of fractal pattern which involving the branching structure has been able to run well.

  4. High-speed Lissajous-scan atomic force microscopy: Scan pattern planning and control design issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazaei, A.; Yong, Yuen K.; Moheimani, S. O. Reza

    2012-06-01

    Tracking of triangular or sawtooth waveforms is a major difficulty for achieving high-speed operation in many scanning applications such as scanning probe microscopy. Such non-smooth waveforms contain high order harmonics of the scan frequency that can excite mechanical resonant modes of the positioning system, limiting the scan range and bandwidth. Hence, fast raster scanning often leads to image distortion. This paper proposes analysis and design methodologies for a nonlinear and smooth closed curve, known as Lissajous pattern, which allows much faster operations compared to the ordinary scan patterns. A simple closed-form measure is formulated for the image resolution of the Lissajous pattern. This enables us to systematically determine the scan parameters. Using internal model controllers (IMC), this non-raster scan method is implemented on a commercial atomic force microscope driven by a low resonance frequency positioning stage. To reduce the tracking errors due to actuator nonlinearities, higher order harmonic oscillators are included in the IMC controllers. This results in significant improvement compared to the traditional IMC method. It is shown that the proposed IMC controller achieves much better tracking performances compared to integral controllers when the noise rejection performances is a concern.

  5. The Mechanical Effect of Rod Contouring on Rod-Screw System Strength in Spine Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Karakasli, Ahmet; Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Ozcanhan, Mehmet Hilal; Ertem, Fatih; Erduran, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Rod-screw fixation systems are widely used for spinal instrumentation. Although many biomechanical studies on rod-screw systems have been carried out, but the effects of rod contouring on the construct strength is still not very well defined in the literature. This work examines the mechanical impact of straight, 20° kyphotic, and 20° lordotic rod contouring on rod-screw fixation systems, by forming a corpectomy model. Methods The corpectomy groups were prepared using ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples. Non-destructive loads were applied during flexion/extension and torsion testing. Spine-loading conditions were simulated by load subjections of 100 N with a velocity of 5 mm min-1, to ensure 8.4-Nm moment. For torsional loading, the corpectomy models were subjected to rotational displacement of 0.5° s-1 to an end point of 5.0°, in a torsion testing machine. Results Under both flexion and extension loading conditions the stiffness values for the lordotic rod-screw system were the highest. Under torsional loading conditions, the lordotic rod-screw system exhibited the highest torsional rigidity. Conclusion We concluded that the lordotic rod-screw system was the most rigid among the systems tested and the risk of rod and screw failure is much higher in the kyphotic rod-screw systems. Further biomechanical studies should be attempted to compare between different rod kyphotic angles to minimize the kyphotic rod failure rate and to offer a more stable and rigid rod-screw construct models for surgical application in the kyphotic vertebrae. PMID:27651858

  6. Taylor impact of glass rods

    SciTech Connect

    Willmott, G.R.; Radford, D.D.

    2005-05-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of soda-lime and borosilicate glass rods was examined during classic and symmetric Taylor impact experiments for impact pressures to 4 and 10 GPa, respectively. High-speed photography and piezoresistive gauges were used to measure the failure front velocities in both glasses, and for impact pressures below {approx}2 GPa the failure front velocity increases rapidly with increasing pressure. As the pressure was increased above {approx}3 GPa, the failure front velocities asymptotically approached maximum values between the longitudinal and shear wave velocities of each material; at {approx}4 GPa, the average failure front velocities were 4.7{+-}0.5 and 4.6{+-}0.5 mm {mu}s{sup -1} for the soda-lime and borosilicate specimens, respectively. The observed mechanism of failure in these experiments involved continuous pressure-dependent nucleation and growth of microcracks behind the incident wave. As the impact pressure was increased, there was a decrease in the time to failure. The density of cracks within the failed region was material dependent, with the more open-structured borosilicate glass showing a larger fracture density.

  7. Independently Controlled Wing Stroke Patterns in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bartussek, Jan; Fry, Steven N.; Zapotocky, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Flies achieve supreme flight maneuverability through a small set of miniscule steering muscles attached to the wing base. The fast flight maneuvers arise from precisely timed activation of the steering muscles and the resulting subtle modulation of the wing stroke. In addition, slower modulation of wing kinematics arises from changes in the activity of indirect flight muscles in the thorax. We investigated if these modulations can be described as a superposition of a limited number of elementary deformations of the wing stroke that are under independent physiological control. Using a high-speed computer vision system, we recorded the wing motion of tethered flying fruit flies for up to 12 000 consecutive wing strokes at a sampling rate of 6250 Hz. We then decomposed the joint motion pattern of both wings into components that had the minimal mutual information (a measure of statistical dependence). In 100 flight segments measured from 10 individual flies, we identified 7 distinct types of frequently occurring least-dependent components, each defining a kinematic pattern (a specific deformation of the wing stroke and the sequence of its activation from cycle to cycle). Two of these stroke deformations can be associated with the control of yaw torque and total flight force, respectively. A third deformation involves a change in the downstroke-to-upstroke duration ratio, which is expected to alter the pitch torque. A fourth kinematic pattern consists in the alteration of stroke amplitude with a period of 2 wingbeat cycles, extending for dozens of cycles. Our analysis indicates that these four elementary kinematic patterns can be activated mutually independently, and occur both in isolation and in linear superposition. The results strengthen the available evidence for independent control of yaw torque, pitch torque, and total flight force. Our computational method facilitates systematic identification of novel patterns in large kinematic datasets. PMID:25710715

  8. Fabrication of disposable topographic silicon oxide from sawtoothed patterns: control of arrays of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heesook; Yoo, Hana; Park, Soojin

    2010-05-18

    Disposable topographic silicon oxide patterns were fabricated from polymeric replicas of sawtoothed glass surfaces, spin-coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films, and thermal annealing at certain temperature and followed by oxygen plasma treatment of the thin PDMS layer. A simple imprinting process was used to fabricate the replicated PDMS and PS patterns from sawtoothed glass surfaces. Next, thin layers of PDMS films having different thicknesses were spin-coated onto the sawtoothed PS surfaces and annealed at 60 degrees C to be drawn the PDMS into the valley of the sawtoothed PS surfaces, followed by oxygen plasma treatment to fabricate topographic silicon oxide patterns. By control of the thickness of PDMS layers, silicon oxide patterns having various line widths were fabricated. The silicon oxide topographic patterns were used to direct the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films via solvent annealing process. A highly ordered PS-b-P2VP micellar structure was used to let gold precursor complex with P2VP chains, and followed by oxygen plasma treatment. When the PS-b-P2VP thin films containing gold salts were exposed to oxygen plasma environments, gold salts were reduced to pure gold nanoparticles without changing high degree of lateral order, while polymers were completely degraded. As the width of trough and crest in topographic patterns increases, the number of gold arrays and size of gold nanoparticles are tuned. In the final step, the silicon oxide topographic patterns were selectively removed by wet etching process without changing the arrays of gold nanoparticles.

  9. Bio-inspired direct patterning functional nanothin microlines: controllable liquid transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianbin; Meng, Qingan; Wang, Pengwei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-04-28

    Developing a general and low-cost strategy that enables direct patterning of microlines with nanometer thickness from versatile liquid-phase functional materials and precise positioning of them on various substrates remains a challenge. Herein, with inspiration from the oriental wisdom to control ink transfer by Chinese brushes, we developed a facile and general writing strategy to directly pattern various functional microlines with homogeneous distribution and nanometer-scale thickness. It is demonstrated that the width and thickness of the microlines could be well-controlled by tuning the writing method, providing guidance for the adaptation of this technique to various systems. It is also shown that various functional liquid-phase materials, such as quantum dots, small molecules, polymers, and suspensions of nanoparticles, could directly write on the substrates with intrinsic physicochemical properties well-preserved. Moreover, this technique enabled direct patterning of liquid-phase materials on certain microdomains, even in multiple layered style, thus a microdomain localized chemical reaction and the patterned surface chemical modification were enabled. This bio-inspired direct writing device will shed light on the template-free printing of various functional micropatterns, as well as the integrated functional microdevices.

  10. Dietary patterns and odds of Type 2 diabetes in Beirut, Lebanon: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Lebanon, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has a major public health impact through high disease prevalence, significant downstream pathophysiologic effects, and enormous financial liabilities. Diet is an important environmental factor in the development and prevention of T2D. Dietary patterns may exert greater effects on health than individual foods, nutrients, or food groups. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dietary patterns and the odds of T2D among Lebanese adults. Methods Fifty-eight recently diagnosed cases of T2D and 116 population-based age, sex, and place of residence matched control participants were interviewed. Data collection included a standard socio-demographic and lifestyle questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated by a semi-quantitative 97-item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, and percent body fat were also obtained. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of extracted patterns with T2D. Pearson correlations between these patterns and obesity markers, energy, and nutrient intakes were also examined. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: Refined Grains & Desserts, Traditional Lebanese, Fast Food and Meat & Alcohol. While scores of the “Refined Grains & Desserts” had the highest correlations with energy (r = 0.74) and carbohydrates (r = 0.22), those of the “Fast Food” had the highest correlation with fat intake (r = 0.34). After adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, scores of the Refined Grains & Desserts and Fast Food patterns were associated with higher odds of T2D (OR: 3.85, CI: 1.13-11.23 and OR: 2.80, CI: 1.14-5.59; respectively) and scores of the Traditional Lebanese pattern were inversely associated with the odds of T2D (OR: 0.46, CI: 0.22-0.97). Conclusions The findings of this study

  11. Thermoreversible Gels Composed of Colloidal Silica Rods with Short-Range Attractions

    DOE PAGES

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Hong, Kunlun; Wagner, Norman J.

    2016-07-28

    Dynamic arrest transitions of colloidal suspensions containing non-spherical particles are of interest for the design and processing of various particle technologies. To better understand the effects of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on gel and glass formation, we present a colloidal model system of octadecyl-coated silica rods, termed as adhesive hard rods (AHR), which enables control of rod aspect ratio and temperature-dependent interactions. The aspect ratios of silica rods were controlled by varying the initial TEOS concentration following the work of Kuijk et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 2346–2349) and temperature-dependent attractions were introduced by coating themore » calcined silica rods with an octadecyl-brush and suspending in tetradecane. The rod length and aspect ratio were found to increase with TEOS concentration as expected, while other properties such as the rod diameter, coating coverage, density, and surface roughness were nearly independent of the aspect ratio. Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed temperature-dependent attractions between octadecyl-coated silica rods in tetradecane, as characterized by a low-q upturn in the scattered intensity upon thermal quenching. Lastly, the rheology of a concentrated AHR suspension in tetradecane demonstrated thermoreversible gelation behavior, displaying a nearly 5 orders of magnitude change in the dynamic moduli as the temperature was cycled between 15 and 40 °C. We find the adhesive hard rod model system serves as a tunable platform to explore the combined influence of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on the dynamic arrest transitions in colloidal suspensions with thermoreversible, short-range attractions.« less

  12. Thermoreversible Gels Composed of Colloidal Silica Rods with Short-Range Attractions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Hong, Kunlun; Wagner, Norman J.

    2016-07-28

    Dynamic arrest transitions of colloidal suspensions containing non-spherical particles are of interest for the design and processing of various particle technologies. To better understand the effects of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on gel and glass formation, we present a colloidal model system of octadecyl-coated silica rods, termed as adhesive hard rods (AHR), which enables control of rod aspect ratio and temperature-dependent interactions. The aspect ratios of silica rods were controlled by varying the initial TEOS concentration following the work of Kuijk et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 2346–2349) and temperature-dependent attractions were introduced by coating the calcined silica rods with an octadecyl-brush and suspending in tetradecane. The rod length and aspect ratio were found to increase with TEOS concentration as expected, while other properties such as the rod diameter, coating coverage, density, and surface roughness were nearly independent of the aspect ratio. Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed temperature-dependent attractions between octadecyl-coated silica rods in tetradecane, as characterized by a low-q upturn in the scattered intensity upon thermal quenching. Lastly, the rheology of a concentrated AHR suspension in tetradecane demonstrated thermoreversible gelation behavior, displaying a nearly 5 orders of magnitude change in the dynamic moduli as the temperature was cycled between 15 and 40 °C. We find the adhesive hard rod model system serves as a tunable platform to explore the combined influence of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on the dynamic arrest transitions in colloidal suspensions with thermoreversible, short-range attractions.

  13. High-resolution liquid patterns via three-dimensional droplet shape control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Rishi; Adera, Solomon; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2014-09-01

    Understanding liquid dynamics on surfaces can provide insight into nature’s design and enable fine manipulation capability in biological, manufacturing, microfluidic and thermal management applications. Of particular interest is the ability to control the shape of the droplet contact area on the surface, which is typically circular on a smooth homogeneous surface. Here, we show the ability to tailor various droplet contact area shapes ranging from squares, rectangles, hexagons, octagons, to dodecagons via the design of the structure or chemical heterogeneity on the surface. We simultaneously obtain the necessary physical insights to develop a universal model for the three-dimensional droplet shape by characterizing the droplet side and top profiles. Furthermore, arrays of droplets with controlled shapes and high spatial resolution can be achieved using this approach. This liquid-based patterning strategy promises low-cost fabrication of integrated circuits, conductive patterns and bio-microarrays for high-density information storage and miniaturized biochips and biosensors, among others.

  14. Control chart pattern recognition using an optimized neural network and efficient features.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Ranaee, Vahid

    2010-07-01

    Automatic recognition of abnormal patterns in control charts has seen increasing demands nowadays in manufacturing processes. This study investigates the design of an accurate system for control chart pattern (CCP) recognition from two aspects. First, an efficient system is introduced that includes two main modules: the feature extraction module and the classifier module. The feature extraction module uses the entropies of the wavelet packets. These are applied for the first time in this area. In the classifier module several neural networks, such as the multilayer perceptron and radial basis function, are investigated. Using an experimental study, we choose the best classifier in order to recognize the CCPs. Second, we propose a hybrid heuristic recognition system based on particle swarm optimization to improve the generalization performance of the classifier. The results obtained clearly confirm that further improvements in terms of recognition accuracy can be achieved by the proposed recognition system.

  15. Measurements, patterns, and controls of nitrogen flux in a cranberry bed during the harvest flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for cranberry production but also a source of freshwater eutrophication in southeastern Massachusetts. Surface application of N fertilizer is pervasive throughout the cranberry industry, accounting for 93% of total annual N export from farms. The agricultural practice of "wet harvesting", involving the flooding of farms with ~1 ft of water, may promote the vertical transport and transformation of nitrogen in cranberry beds. A cranberry bed at the University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station (East Wareham, MA) has been instrumented with a network of hydrological monitoring equipment for quantifying patterns and controls of nitrogen dynamics during the harvest flood. Here, data of (1) hydraulic head gradient between floodwater and groundwater (J), (2) hydraulic conductivity (K), and (3) N concentration in groundwater (C) collected from multiple points on the cranberry bed will be presented, and used to evaluate the patterns and controls N fluxes (f = JKC) in the cranberry bed.

  16. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi

    2003-01-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  17. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on controlled rehydration of patterned reagents in a 2-dimensional paper network.

    PubMed

    Fridley, Gina E; Le, Huy; Yager, Paul

    2014-07-01

    We have demonstrated a multistep 2-dimensional paper network immunoassay based on controlled rehydration of patterned, dried reagents. Previous work has shown that signal enhancement improves the limit of detection in 2-dimensional paper network assays, but until now, reagents have only been included as wet or dried in separate conjugate pads placed at the upstream end of the assay device. Wet reagents are not ideal for point-of-care because they must be refrigerated and typically limit automation and require more user steps. Conjugate pads allow drying but do not offer any control of the reagent distribution upon rehydration and can be a source of error when pads do not contact the assay membrane uniformly. Furthermore, each reagent is dried on a separate pad, increasing the fabrication complexity when implementing multistep assays that require several different reagents. Conversely, our novel method allows for consistent, controlled rehydration from patterned reagent storage depots directly within the paper membrane. In this assay demonstration, four separate reagents were patterned in different regions of the assay device: a gold-antibody conjugate used for antigen detection and three different signal enhancement components that must not be mixed until immediately before use. To show the viability of patterning and drying reagents directly onto a paper device for dry reagent storage and subsequent controlled release, we tested this device with the malaria antigen Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) as an example of target analyte. In this demonstration, the signal enhancement step increases the visible signal by roughly 3-fold and decreases the analytical limit of detection by 2.75-fold.

  18. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J

    2016-01-27

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  19. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  20. Parsing the Roles of the Frontal Lobes and BG in Task Control Using Multivoxel Pattern Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kehagia, Angie A; Ye, Rong; Joyce, Dan W; Doyle, Orla M; Rowe, James B; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-04-07

    Cognitive control has traditionally been associated with pFC based on observations of deficits in patients with frontal lesions. However, evidence from patients with Parkinson's disease indicates that subcortical regions also contribute to control under certain conditions. We scanned 17 healthy volunteers while they performed a task-switching paradigm that previously dissociated performance deficits arising from frontal lesions in comparison with Parkinson's disease, as a function of the abstraction of the rules that are switched. From a multivoxel pattern analysis by Gaussian Process Classification, we then estimated the forward (generative) model to infer regional patterns of activity that predict Switch/Repeat behavior between rule conditions. At 1000 permutations, Switch/Repeat classification accuracy for concrete rules was significant in the BG, but at chance in the frontal lobe. The inverse pattern was obtained for abstract rules, whereby the conditions were successfully discriminated in the frontal lobe but not in the BG. This double dissociation highlights the difference between cortical and subcortical contributions to cognitive control and demonstrates the utility of multivariate approaches in investigations of functions that rely on distributed and overlapping neural substrates.

  1. Songbird Respiration is Controlled by Multispike Patterns at Millisecond Temporal Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Caroline; Srivastava, Kyle; Vellema, Michiel; Elemans, Coen; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel

    Although the importance of precise timing of neural action potentials (spikes) is well known in sensory systems, approaches to motor control have focused almost exclusively on firing rates. Here we examined whether precise timing of spikes in multispike patterns has an effect on the motor output in the respiratory system of the Bengalese finch, a songbird. By recording from single motor neurons and the muscle fibers they innervate in freely behaving birds, we find that the spike trains are significantly non-Poisson, suggesting that the precise timing of spikes is tightly controlled. We further find that even a one millisecond shift of an individual spike in a multispike pattern predicts a significantly different air sac pressure. Finally, we provide evidence for the causal relation between precise spike timing and the motor output in this organism by stimulating the motor system with precisely timed patterns of electrical impulses. We observe that shifting a single pulse by as little as two milliseconds elicits differences in resulting air sac pressure. These results demonstrate that the precise timing of spikes does play a role in motor control. This work was partially supported by NSF Grant IOS/1208126, NIH Grant 5R90DA033462 , NIH Grant R01NS084844, and NIH Grant F31DC013753.

  2. Quality control in hard disc drive manufacturing using pattern recognition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Ibrahim; Shyen, Victor Bee Ee

    2016-11-01

    Computerized monitoring-diagnosis is an efficient technique to identify the source of unnatural variation (UV) in manufacturing process. In this study, a pattern recognition scheme (PRS) for monitoring-diagnosis the UVs was developed based on control chart pattern recognition technique. This PRS integrates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart and artificial neural network (ANN) recognizer to perform two-stage monitoring-diagnosis. The first stage monitoring was performed using the MEWMA statistics, whereas the second stage monitoring-diagnosis was performed using an ANN. The PRS was designed based on bivariate process mean shifts between 0.75σ and 3.00σ, with cross correlation between ρ=0.1 and 0.9. The performance of the proposed PRS has been validated in quality control of hard disk drive component manufacturing. The validation proved that it is efficient in rapidly detecting UV and accurately classify the source of UV patterns. In a nutshell, the PRS will aid in realizing automated decision making system in manufacturing industry.

  3. Control of magnetic anisotropy and magnetic patterning of perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schuppler, C.; Habenicht, A.; Guhr, I.L.; Maret, M.; Leiderer, P.; Boneberg, J.; Albrecht, M.

    2006-01-02

    We report an approach to altering the magnetic properties of (111) textured Co/Pt multilayer films grown on sapphire (0001) substrates in a controlled way using single-pulse laser irradiation. The as-grown films reveal a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy induced by interfacial anisotropy. We show that laser irradiation can chemically mix the multilayer structure particularly at the interfaces, hence reducing the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and coercivity in a controlled manner depending on laser fluence. As a result, perpendicular films can also be magnetically patterned into hard and soft magnetic regions using a regular two-dimensional lattice of polystyrene particles acting as an array of microlenses.

  4. Patterning surfaces for controlled platelet adhesion and detection of dysfunctional platelets.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Shi, Qiang; Wong, Shing-Chung; Hou, Jianwen; Shi, Hengchong; Yin, Jinghua

    2013-06-01

    Platelets play a fundamental role in thrombus formation and in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis. Patterning surfaces for controlled platelet adhesion paves the way for adhesion and activation mechanisms in platelets and detection of platelet functional defects. Here, a new and simple method based on controlled polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) on the surface of styrene-block-(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-styrene (SEBS) is shown. The competition between polymerization and degradation enables platelet adhesion on SEBS to be switched on and off. The adhesive sites of the platelets can be down to single cell level, and the dysfunctional platelets can be quantitatively detected.

  5. Controllable spiking patterns in long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for neuromorphic photonics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, Antonio; Javaloyes, Julien

    2015-12-14

    Multiple controllable spiking patterns are achieved in a 1310 nm Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in response to induced perturbations and for two different cases of polarized optical injection, namely, parallel and orthogonal. Furthermore, reproducible spiking responses are demonstrated experimentally at sub-nanosecond speed resolution and with a controlled number of spikes fired. This work opens therefore exciting research avenues for the use of VCSELs in ultrafast neuromorphic photonic systems for non-traditional computing applications, such as all-optical binary-to-spiking format conversion and spiking information encoding.

  6. Laser-assisted growth of molybdenum rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björklund, K. L.; Heszler, P.; Boman, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report for the first time the laser-assisted growth of molybdenum rods via the H 2 reduction of MoF 6 with a focused Ar + laser beam as the heat source. By varying the gas composition, total pressure, and laser power rods with different morphologies were deposited on a tungsten wire. At low H 2/MoF 6 molar ratios crystal-like rods were obtained and at higher molar ratios the rods became dendrite-like. The activation energy for the process was determined to be 77±7 kJ mol -1 in the temperature range 705-840 K. The reaction order showed to be nearly 3 with respect to the hydrogen partial pressure and zero order with respect to the molybdenum hexafluoride partial pressure. Compositional and morphological characterisation were performed with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy.

  7. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  8. Control of femtosecond multi-filamentation in glass by designable patterned optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping-Ping; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Lü, Jia-Qi; Wang, Dan; Liu, Gui-Geng; Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-12-01

    We present a scheme for realizing femtosecond multi-filamentation with designable quantity and locations of filaments, based on the control of multi-focal spots formed by patterned optical fields (POFs) composed of multiple individual optical fields (IOFs). A computer-controlled spatial light modulator is used to engineer the POFs. In particular, we introduce a blazed phase grating in any IOF, which increases a degree of freedom, making the engineering of multi-focal spots becomes more flexible. We achieve experimentally the aim controlling femtosecond multi-filamentation in a K9 glass. Our scheme has great flexibility and convenience in controlling the multi-filamentation in quantity and locations of filaments and strength of interaction between filaments.

  9. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H.; Atcheson, Donald B.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  10. Microelectrophoresis of Silica Rods Using Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility and the zeta potential (ζ) of fluorescently labeled colloidal silica rods, with an aspect ratio of 3.8 and 6.1, were determined with microelectrophoresis measurements using confocal microscopy. In the case where the colloidal particles all move at the same speed parallel to the direction of the electric field, we record a xyz-stack over the whole depth of the capillary. This method is faster and more robust compared to taking xyt-series at different depths inside the capillary to obtain the parabolic flow profile, as was done in previous work from our group. In some cases, rodlike particles do not move all at the same speed in the electric field, but exhibit a velocity that depends on the angle between the long axis of the rod and the electric field. We measured the orientation-dependent velocity of individual silica rods during electrophoresis as a function of κa, where κ–1 is the double layer thickness and a is the radius of the rod associated with the diameter. Thus, we determined the anisotropic electrophoretic mobility of the silica rods with different sized double layers. The size of the double layer was tuned by suspending silica rods in different solvents at different electrolyte concentrations. We compared these results with theoretical predictions. We show that even at already relatively high κa when the Smoluchowski limiting law is assumed to be valid (κa > 10), an orientation dependent velocity was measured. Furthermore, we observed that at decreasing values of κa the anisotropy in the electrophoretic mobility of the rods increases. However, in low polar solvents with κa < 1, this trend was reversed: the anisotropy in the electrophoretic mobility of the rods decreased. We argue that this decrease is due to end effects, which was already predicted theoretically. When end effects are not taken into account, this will lead to strong underestimation of the experimentally determined zeta potential. PMID:28045541

  11. Calculator program speeds rod pump design

    SciTech Connect

    Engineer, R.; Davis, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    Matching sucker rod pump characteristics to a specific application is greatly simplified with this program, intended for use with an HP-41CV hand-held computer. The user inputs application data and the program calculates all necessary design criteria, including Mill's acceleration factor, peak and minimum polish rod loads and horsepower required. Sample calculations are provided, together with a thorough discussion of special design considerations involved in huff-and-puff applications.

  12. A Conserved Supergene Locus Controls Colour Pattern Diversity in Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Joron, Mathieu; Papa, Riccardo; Beltrán, Margarita; Chamberlain, Nicola; Mavárez, Jesús; Baxter, Simon; Abanto, Moisés; Bermingham, Eldredge; Humphray, Sean J; Rogers, Jane; Beasley, Helen; Barlow, Karen; H. ffrench-Constant, Richard; Mallet, James; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    We studied whether similar developmental genetic mechanisms are involved in both convergent and divergent evolution. Mimetic insects are known for their diversity of patterns as well as their remarkable evolutionary convergence, and they have played an important role in controversies over the respective roles of selection and constraints in adaptive evolution. Here we contrast three butterfly species, all classic examples of Müllerian mimicry. We used a genetic linkage map to show that a locus, Yb, which controls the presence of a yellow band in geographic races of Heliconius melpomene, maps precisely to the same location as the locus Cr, which has very similar phenotypic effects in its co-mimic H. erato. Furthermore, the same genomic location acts as a “supergene”, determining multiple sympatric morphs in a third species, H. numata. H. numata is a species with a very different phenotypic appearance, whose many forms mimic different unrelated ithomiine butterflies in the genus Melinaea. Other unlinked colour pattern loci map to a homologous linkage group in the co-mimics H. melpomene and H. erato, but they are not involved in mimetic polymorphism in H. numata. Hence, a single region from the multilocus colour pattern architecture of H. melpomene and H. erato appears to have gained control of the entire wing-pattern variability in H. numata, presumably as a result of selection for mimetic “supergene” polymorphism without intermediates. Although we cannot at this stage confirm the homology of the loci segregating in the three species, our results imply that a conserved yet relatively unconstrained mechanism underlying pattern switching can affect mimicry in radically different ways. We also show that adaptive evolution, both convergent and diversifying, can occur by the repeated involvement of the same genomic regions. PMID:17002517

  13. The effects of pattern shape, subliminal stimulation, and voluntary control on multistable visual perception.

    PubMed

    Taddei-Ferretti, C; Radilova, J; Musio, C; Santillo, S; Cibelli, E; Cotugno, A; Radil, T

    2008-08-15

    Spontaneous figure reversal of ambiguous patterns was analyzed in humans. A) With Necker-"cube"-like, or "drum"-like figures, having square or round shaped "front" and "rear" surfaces, and either large or small "depth", the perceptual intervals corresponding to both interpretations of "drum" were longer than those of "cube"; the perceived "depth" of the figures was less relevant for reversal timing (inter-reversal intervals were only slightly longer for the "deeper" figures). Although the shape of "front" and "rear" surfaces is not a crucial geometrical feature for figure reversal, it did influence its timing. More, or longer information-processing steps should probably be needed for perceptual representations of curvilinear patterns in comparison with rectangular ones. The underlying neural mechanisms are probably located at a relatively peripheral level in the visual system. B) With a modified Necker "cube"-like figure, having the two internal vertices coincident, and the long axis of the figure aligned horizontally, the effect of voluntary control on perception-reversal timing overcomes opposite effects due to either fixation-attention to pattern's focal zones, or subliminal stimulation by the pattern's biased versions, suggesting one or the other perception's possibility, while it is enhanced by concordant imagery. Voluntary control should intervene downward at a high-level processing, and should probably affect both a decision-making and a perception-stabilizing mechanism in the process of the pattern's unconscious interpretation. Results A and B are confronted with other results on both perceptual and binocular rivalry of up-to-date literature, in the frame of discussions on low-level bottom-up automatic stimulus-driven processing vs high-level top-down covert attention-driven processing.

  14. Interaction of Fixed Number of Photons with Retinal Rod Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nam Mai; Cheng, Mei Fun; Bessarab, Dmitri A.; Krivitsky, Leonid A.

    2014-05-01

    New tools and approaches of quantum optics offer a unique opportunity to generate light pulses carrying a precise number of photons. Accurate control over the light pulses helps to improve the characterization of photoinduced processes. Here, we study interaction of a specialized light source which provides flashes containing just one photon, with retinal rod cells of Xenopus laevis toads. We provide unambiguous proof of the single-photon sensitivity of rod cells without relying on the statistical modeling. We determine their quantum efficiencies without the use of any precalibrated detectors and obtain the value of (29±4.7)%. Our approach provides the path for future studies and applications of quantum properties of light in phototransduction, vision, and photosynthesis.

  15. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  16. Close packing of rods on spherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    We study the optimal packing of short, hard spherocylinders confined to lie tangential to a spherical surface, using simulated annealing and molecular dynamics simulations. For clusters of up to twelve particles, we map out the changes in the geometry of the closest-packed configuration as a function of the aspect ratio L/D, where L is the cylinder length and D the diameter of the rods. We find a rich variety of cluster structures. For larger clusters, we find that the best-packed configurations up to around 100 particles are highly dependent on the exact number of particles and aspect ratio. For even larger clusters, we find largely disordered clusters for very short rods (L/D = 0.25), while slightly longer rods (L/D = 0.5 or 1) prefer a global baseball-like geometry of smectic-like domains, similar to the behavior of large-scale nematic shells. Intriguingly, we observe that when compared to their optimal flat-plane packing, short rods adapt to the spherical geometry more efficiently than both spheres and longer rods. Our results provide predictions for experimentally realizable systems of colloidal rods trapped at the interface of emulsion droplets.

  17. Technical description of RODS: a real-time public health surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U; Dato, Virginia M; Gesteland, Per H; Hutman, Judith; Wagner, Michael M

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system, a computer-based public health surveillance system for early detection of disease outbreaks. Hospitals send RODS data from clinical encounters over virtual private networks and leased lines using the Health Level 7 (HL7) message protocol. The data are sent in real time. RODS automatically classifies the registration chief complaint from the visit into one of seven syndrome categories using Bayesian classifiers. It stores the data in a relational database, aggregates the data for analysis using data warehousing techniques, applies univariate and multivariate statistical detection algorithms to the data, and alerts users of when the algorithms identify anomalous patterns in the syndrome counts. RODS also has a Web-based user interface that supports temporal and spatial analyses. RODS processes sales of over-the-counter health care products in a similar manner but receives such data in batch mode on a daily basis. RODS was used during the 2002 Winter Olympics and currently operates in two states-Pennsylvania and Utah. It has been and continues to be a resource for implementing, evaluating, and applying new methods of public health surveillance.

  18. Technical Description of RODS: A Real-time Public Health Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Dato, Virginia M.; Gesteland, Per H.; Hutman, Judith; Wagner, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system, a computer-based public health surveillance system for early detection of disease outbreaks. Hospitals send RODS data from clinical encounters over virtual private networks and leased lines using the Health Level 7 (HL7) message protocol. The data are sent in real time. RODS automatically classifies the registration chief complaint from the visit into one of seven syndrome categories using Bayesian classifiers. It stores the data in a relational database, aggregates the data for analysis using data warehousing techniques, applies univariate and multivariate statistical detection algorithms to the data, and alerts users of when the algorithms identify anomalous patterns in the syndrome counts. RODS also has a Web-based user interface that supports temporal and spatial analyses. RODS processes sales of over-the-counter health care products in a similar manner but receives such data in batch mode on a daily basis. RODS was used during the 2002 Winter Olympics and currently operates in two states—Pennsylvania and Utah. It has been and continues to be a resource for implementing, evaluating, and applying new methods of public health surveillance. PMID:12807803

  19. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Crever, F.E.

    1962-05-01

    BS>A slow-acting shim rod for control of major variations in reactor neutron flux and a fast-acting control rod to correct minor flux variations are employed to provide a sensitive, accurate control system. The fast-acting rod is responsive to an error signal which is produced by changes in the neutron flux from a predetermined optimum level. When the fast rod is thus actuated in a given direction, means is provided to actuate the slow-moving rod in that direction to return the fast rod to a position near the midpoint of its control range. (AEC)

  20. CONTROL FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lichtenberger, H.V.; Cameron, R.A.

    1959-03-31

    S>A control rod operating device in a nuclear reactor of the type in which the control rod is gradually withdrawn from the reactor to a position desired during stable operation is described. The apparatus is comprised essentially of a stop member movable in the direction of withdrawal of the control rod, a follower on the control rod engageable with the stop and means urging the follower against the stop in the direction of withdrawal. A means responsive to disengagement of the follower from the stop is provided for actuating the control rod to return to the reactor shut-down position.

  1. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  2. Long-Range Ordering of Block Copolymers on Well-Controlled Patterned Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Park, Jina; Lee, Donghyun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we achieved long-range ordering of block copolymers (BCPs) by combining solvent-annealing process and well-controlled patterned substrates. Nano-lines of poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE) were firstly fabricated in large area as a PTFE bar was rubbed on Si substrates at 340 °C. The amplitude and pitch distance of PTFE nanolines were around 17 nm and 150 nm, respectively. Then, asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymers (PS- b-P2VP) were subsequently spin-coated on the patterned substrates after a thin layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared on the PTFE patterned substrates to enhance the wettability of BCP thin films. As BCP thin films were solvent-annealed in vapor of organic solvents, highly ordered BCP nanostructures oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the surface were generated in large area. In addition, the nanopatterns were successfully transferred to the underlying PVA layer or Si substrate by dry etching. Thus, the resulting nanopatterns were utilized as templates to synthesize inorganic nanofeatures. The ordering behavior of BCP thin films on the patterned substrates was characterized by using AFM, SEM and GI-SAXS.

  3. Real-Time Control of an Exoskeleton Hand Robot with Myoelectric Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Xu; Tong, Kay-Yu; Zhou, Ping

    2016-10-06

    Robot-assisted training provides an effective approach to neurological injury rehabilitation. To meet the challenge of hand rehabilitation after neurological injuries, this study presents an advanced myoelectric pattern recognition scheme for real-time intention-driven control of a hand exoskeleton. The developed scheme detects and recognizes user's intention of six different hand motions using four channels of surface electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the forearm and hand muscles, and then drives the exoskeleton to assist the user accomplish the intended motion. The system was tested with eight neurologically intact subjects and two individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The overall control accuracy was [Formula: see text] for the neurologically intact subjects and [Formula: see text] for the SCI subjects. The total lag of the system was approximately 250[Formula: see text]ms including data acquisition, transmission and processing. One SCI subject also participated in training sessions in his second and third visits. Both the control accuracy and efficiency tended to improve. These results show great potential for applying the advanced myoelectric pattern recognition control of the wearable robotic hand system toward improving hand function after neurological injuries.

  4. Mechanistic assessment of runoff connectivity patterns: The hierarchy of space-time controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, A.; McDonnell, J.

    2014-12-01

    The patterns and processes influencing runoff generation are many and complex. In the northern Great Plains, threshold-like activation of infiltration-excess overland flow during spring snowmelt is common. However, the multiple controls on, and their hierarchy in determining, hydrological connectivity are poorly understood in space and time. Here we present analysis of a 52-year data set from three 5 ha runoff plots in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. We found that the key controls on the activation of snowmelt runoff are firstly snow water equivalent, followed by soil moisture in the preceding fall, and finally maximum depth of the surface thawed layer during snowmelt. Building on this analysis, we conducted a field experiment during the spring 2014 snowmelt period to assess these controls in high spatial and temporal detail. We found that soil moisture and thawed layer depth show little spatial variability during snowmelt, while the spatial patterns of snow water equivalent and snow cover ablation show time-varying hot spots of snowmelt. Catchment connectivity is determined by the topography of the soil surface, specifically the local micro-scale depressional area, volume and slope. Finally, we analyzed the stable isotope composition of soil water, snowmelt water from the base of the snowpack (both exhibiting high spatial variability) and hillslope runoff (with high temporal variability). This further illustrates how these time-varying controls on runoff generation are sequenced in an individual melt season, where filling and spilling of surface depressions over frozen ground dominates.

  5. A developmentally regulated translational control pathway establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Berchowitz, Luke E.; Gajadhar, Aaron S.; van Werven, Folkert J.; De Rosa, Alexandra A.; Samoylova, Mariya L.; Brar, Gloria A.; Xu, Yifeng; Xiao, Che; Futcher, Bruce; Weissman, Jonathan S.; White, Forest M.; Amon, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Production of haploid gametes from diploid progenitor cells is mediated by a specialized cell division, meiosis, where two divisions, meiosis I and II, follow a single S phase. Errors in progression from meiosis I to meiosis II lead to aneuploid and polyploid gametes, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling this transition are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the conserved kinase Ime2 regulates the timing and order of the meiotic divisions by controlling translation. Ime2 coordinates translational activation of a cluster of genes at the meiosis I–meiosis II transition, including the critical determinant of the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern CLB3. We further show that Ime2 mediates translational control through the meiosis-specific RNA-binding protein Rim4. Rim4 inhibits translation of CLB3 during meiosis I by interacting with the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of CLB3. At the onset of meiosis II, Ime2 kinase activity rises and triggers a decrease in Rim4 protein levels, thereby alleviating translational repression. Our results elucidate a novel developmentally regulated translational control pathway that establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern. PMID:24115771

  6. Nanoscale Control of Rewriteable Doping Patterns in Pristine Graphene/Boron Nitride Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Jairo; Ju, Long; Wong, Dillon; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Germany, Chad; Wickenburg, Sebastian; Lu, Jiong; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F

    2016-03-09

    Nanoscale control of charge doping in two-dimensional (2D) materials permits the realization of electronic analogs of optical phenomena, relativistic physics at low energies, and technologically promising nanoelectronics. Electrostatic gating and chemical doping are the two most common methods to achieve local control of such doping. However, these approaches suffer from complicated fabrication processes that introduce contamination, change material properties irreversibly, and lack flexible pattern control. Here we demonstrate a clean, simple, and reversible technique that permits writing, reading, and erasing of doping patterns for 2D materials at the nanometer scale. We accomplish this by employing a graphene/boron nitride heterostructure that is equipped with a bottom gate electrode. By using electron transport and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrate that spatial control of charge doping can be realized with the application of either light or STM tip voltage excitations in conjunction with a gate electric field. Our straightforward and novel technique provides a new path toward on-demand graphene p-n junctions and ultrathin memory devices.

  7. Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: Non-local control of complex patterning

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of shape during embryonic development, and the maintenance of shape against injury or tumorigenesis, requires constant coordination of cell behaviors toward the patterning needs of the host organism. Molecular cell biology and genetics have made great strides in understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell function. However, generalized rational control of shape is still largely beyond our current capabilities. Significant instructive signals function at long range to provide positional information and other cues to regulate organism-wide systems properties like anatomical polarity and size control. Is complex morphogenesis best understood as the emergent property of local cell interactions, or as the outcome of a computational process that is guided by a physically-encoded map or template of the final goal state? Here I review recent data and molecular mechanisms relevant to morphogenetic fields: large-scale systems of physical properties that have been proposed to store patterning information during embryogenesis, regenerative repair, and cancer suppression that ultimately controls anatomy. Placing special emphasis on the role of endogenous bioelectric signals as an important component of the morphogenetic field, I speculate on novel approaches for the computational modeling and control of these fields with applications to synthetic biology, regenerative medicine, and evolutionary developmental biology. PMID:22542702

  8. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-07

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns.

  9. pH-dependent control of particle motion through surface interactions with patterned polymer brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary; Howse, Jonathan; Fairclough, Patrick

    2012-09-11

    In this Article, we show that inclined silicon surfaces patterned with poly(methacrylic acid) brushes are able to control the position and movement of 20 μm silica particles, which are propelled across the patterned surface by sedimentation forces. Three different types of behavior were observed depending on the angle between the direction in which a particle sedimented and the orientation of the polymer-brush silicon interface. At small angles, particles were found to sediment to the brush interface and then sediment following the direction of the brush interface. At larger angles, particles sedimented to the interface and then followed the direction of the brush interface, but then after a certain distance changed direction to pass over the interface. At the largest angles where the brush interface was approximately perpendicular to the motion of the particle, particles were found to travel over the interface unperturbed. This behavior was also found to be pH dependent, allowing the formation of pH responsive "gates", which allow particles to pass at low pH but not at high pH. It was also found that if patterned polymer brush surfaces were oriented in the correct way, they were able to control the number of particles present at specific locations.

  10. Control of cultured human cells with femtosecond laser ablated patterns on steel and plastic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Tarmo; Silvennoinen, Martti; Päiväsaari, Kimmo; Vahimaa, Pasi

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore topographical patterns produced with femtosecond laser pulses as a means of controlling the behaviour of living human cells (U2OS) on stainless steel surfaces and on negative plastic imprints (polycarbonate). The results show that the patterns on both types of material strongly affect cell behaviour and are particularly powerful in controlling cell spreading/elongation, localization and orientation. Analysis by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy shows that on periodic 1D grating structures, cells and cell nuclei are highly elongated and aligned, whereas on periodic 2D grid structures, cell spreading and shape is affected. The results also show that the density and morphology of the cells can be affected. This was observed particularly on pseudo-periodic, coral-like structures which clearly inhibited cell growth. The results suggest that these patterns could be used in a variety of applications among the fields of clinical research and implant design, as well as in diagnosis and in cell and drug research. Furthermore, this article highlights the noteworthy aspects and the unique strengths of the technique and proposes directions for further research.

  11. Topographic cell instructive patterns to control cell adhesion, polarization and migration

    PubMed Central

    Ventre, Maurizio; Natale, Carlo Fortunato; Rianna, Carmela; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Topographic patterns are known to affect cellular processes such as adhesion, migration and differentiation. However, the optimal way to deliver topographic signals to provide cells with precise instructions has not been defined yet. In this work, we hypothesize that topographic patterns may be able to control the sensing and adhesion machinery of cells when their interval features are tuned on the characteristic lengths of filopodial probing and focal adhesions (FAs). Features separated by distance beyond the length of filopodia cannot be readily perceived; therefore, the formation of new adhesions is discouraged. If, however, topographic features are separated by a distance within the reach of filopodia extension, cells can establish contact between adjacent topographic islands. In the latter case, cell adhesion and polarization rely upon the growth of FAs occurring on a specific length scale that depends on the chemical properties of the surface. Topographic patterns and chemical properties may interfere with the growth of FAs, thus making adhesions unstable. To test this hypothesis, we fabricated different micropatterned surfaces displaying feature dimensions and adhesive properties able to interfere with the filopodial sensing and the adhesion maturation, selectively. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to exert a potent control on cell adhesion, elongation and migration by tuning topographic features’ dimensions and surface chemistry. PMID:25253035

  12. Biomimetic patterned surfaces for controllable friction in micro- and nanoscale devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2013-12-01

    Biomimetics is the study and simulation of biological systems for desired functional properties. It involves the transformation of underlying principles discovered in nature into man-made technologies. In this context, natural surfaces have significantly inspired and motivated new solutions for micro- and nano-scale devices (e.g., Micro/Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems, MEMS/NEMS) towards controllable friction, during their operation. As a generic solution to reduce friction at small scale, various thin films/coatings have been employed in the last few decades. In recent years, inspiration from `Lotus Effect' has initiated a new research direction for controllable friction with biomimetic patterned surfaces. By exploiting the intrinsic hydrophobicity and ability to reduce contact area, such micro- or nano-patterned surfaces have demonstrated great strength and potential for applications in MEMS/NEMS devices. This review highlights recent advancements on the design, development and performance of these biomimetic patterned surfaces. Also, we present some hybrid approaches to tackle current challenges in biomimetic tribological applications for MEMS/NEMS devices.

  13. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P.; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns. PMID:24344272

  14. Spectral pattern recognition of controlled substances in street samples using artificial neural network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poryvkina, Larisa; Aleksejev, Valeri; Babichenko, Sergey M.; Ivkina, Tatjana

    2011-04-01

    The NarTest fluorescent technique is aimed at the detection of analyte of interest in street samples by recognition of its specific spectral patterns in 3-dimentional Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS) measured with NTX2000 analyzer without chromatographic or other separation of controlled substances from a mixture with cutting agents. The illicit drugs have their own characteristic SFS features which can be used for detection and identification of narcotics, however typical street sample consists of a mixture with cutting agents: adulterants and diluents. Many of them interfere the spectral shape of SFS. The expert system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) has been developed and applied for such pattern recognition in SFS of street samples of illicit drugs.

  15. Nanostructure Formation by controlled dewetting on patterned substrates: A combined theoretical, modeling and experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liang-Xing; Wang, Ying-Min; Srinivasan, Bharathi Madurai; Asbahi, Mohamed; Yang, Joel K. W.; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We perform systematic two-dimensional energetic analysis to study the stability of various nanostructures formed by dewetting solid films deposited on patterned substrates. Our analytical results show that by controlling system parameters such as the substrate surface pattern, film thickness and wetting angle, a variety of equilibrium nanostructures can be obtained. Phase diagrams are presented to show the complex relations between these system parameters and various nanostructure morphologies. We further carry out both phase field simulations and dewetting experiments to validate the analytically derived phase diagrams. Good agreements between the results from our energetic analyses and those from our phase field simulations and experiments verify our analysis. Hence, the phase diagrams presented here provide guidelines for using solid-state dewetting as a tool to achieve various nanostructures. PMID:27580943

  16. Construction of DNA nanotubes with controllable diameters and patterns using hierarchical DNA sub-tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Wu, Xiaoxu; Song, Tao; Li, Xin

    2016-08-01

    The design of DNA nanotubes is a promising and hot research branch in structural DNA nanotechnology, which is rapidly developing as a versatile method for achieving subtle nanometer scale materials and molecular diagnostic/curative devices. Multifarious methods have been proposed to achieve varied DNA nanotubes, such as using square tiles and single-stranded tiles, but it is still a challenge to develop a bottom-up assembly way to build DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns using certain universal DNA nanostructures. This work addresses the challenge by assembling three types of spatial DNA nanotubes with different diameters and patterns from the so-called ``basic bricks'', i.e., hierarchical DNA sub-tiles. A high processing rate and throughput synthesis of DNA nanotubes are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Experimental observations and data analysis suggests the stability and controllability of DNA nanotubes assembled by hierarchical DNA sub-tiles.

  17. Climatic controls on hurricane patterns: a 1200-y near-annual record from Lighthouse Reef, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denommee, K. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Droxler, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are powerful agents of destruction, and understanding climatic controls on TC patterns is of great importance. Over timescales of seasons to several decades, relationships among TC track, frequency, intensity and basin-scale climate changes are well documented by instrumental records. Over centuries to millennia, climate-shift influence on TC regimes remains poorly constrained. To better understand these relationships, records from multiple locations of TC strikes spanning millennia with high temporal resolution are required, but such records are rare. Here we report on a highly detailed sedimentary proxy record of paleo-TC strikes from the Blue Hole of Lighthouse Reef, Belize. Our findings provide an important addition to other high-resolution records, which collectively demonstrate that shifts between active and inactive TC regimes have occurred contemporaneously with shifts hemispheric-scale oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns such as MDR SSTs and NAO mode, rather than with changes in local climate phenomena as has previously been suggested.

  18. Climatic controls on hurricane patterns: a 1200-y near-annual record from Lighthouse Reef, Belize.

    PubMed

    Denommee, K C; Bentley, S J; Droxler, A W

    2014-01-27

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are powerful agents of destruction, and understanding climatic controls on TC patterns is of great importance. Over timescales of seasons to several decades, relationships among TC track, frequency, intensity and basin-scale climate changes are well documented by instrumental records. Over centuries to millennia, climate-shift influence on TC regimes remains poorly constrained. To better understand these relationships, records from multiple locations of TC strikes spanning millennia with high temporal resolution are required, but such records are rare. Here we report on a highly detailed sedimentary proxy record of paleo-TC strikes from the Blue Hole of Lighthouse Reef, Belize. Our findings provide an important addition to other high-resolution records, which collectively demonstrate that shifts between active and inactive TC regimes have occurred contemporaneously with shifts hemispheric-scale oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns such as MDR SSTs and NAO mode, rather than with changes in local climate phenomena as has previously been suggested.

  19. Temporal changes of spatial soil moisture patterns: controlling factors explained with a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Edoardo; Wollschläger, Ute; Kögler, Simon; Behrens, Thorsten; Dietrich, Peter; Reinstorf, Frido; Schmidt, Karsten; Weiler, Markus; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing the spatial patterns of soil moisture is critical for hydrological and meteorological models, as soil moisture is a key variable that controls matter and energy fluxes and soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes. Deriving detailed process understanding at the hillslope scale is not trivial, because of the temporal variability of local soil moisture dynamics. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to provide adequate information on the temporal variability of soil moisture and its controlling factors. Recent advances in wireless sensor technology allow monitoring of soil moisture dynamics with high temporal resolution at varying scales. In addition, mobile geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) have been widely used for mapping soil water content at the field scale with high spatial resolution, as being related to soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa). The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal pattern of soil moisture at the hillslope scale and to infer the controlling hydrological processes, integrating well established and innovative sensing techniques, as well as new statistical methods. We combined soil hydrological and pedological expertise with geophysical measurements and methods from digital soil mapping for designing a wireless soil moisture monitoring network. For a hillslope site within the Schäfertal catchment (Central Germany), soil water dynamics were observed during 14 months, and soil ECa was mapped on seven occasions whithin this period of time using an EM38-DD device. Using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, we described the temporal persistence of a dry and a wet characteristic state of soil moisture as well as the switching mechanisms, inferring the local properties that control the observed spatial patterns and the hydrological processes driving the transitions. Based on this, we evaluated the use of EMI for mapping the spatial pattern of soil moisture under

  20. Dietary Pattern and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Mara M.; Chang, Ellen T.; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T.; Batista, Julie L.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E.; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997–2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (“vegetable,” “high meat,” “fruit/low-fat dairy,” “desserts/sweets”) using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  1. Central pattern generators for locomotion control in animals and robots: a review.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2008-05-01

    The problem of controlling locomotion is an area in which neuroscience and robotics can fruitfully interact. In this article, I will review research carried out on locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs), i.e. neural circuits capable of producing coordinated patterns of high-dimensional rhythmic output signals while receiving only simple, low-dimensional, input signals. The review will first cover neurobiological observations concerning locomotor CPGs and their numerical modelling, with a special focus on vertebrates. It will then cover how CPG models implemented as neural networks or systems of coupled oscillators can be used in robotics for controlling the locomotion of articulated robots. The review also presents how robots can be used as scientific tools to obtain a better understanding of the functioning of biological CPGs. Finally, various methods for designing CPGs to control specific modes of locomotion will be briefly reviewed. In this process, I will discuss different types of CPG models, the pros and cons of using CPGs with robots, and the pros and cons of using robots as scientific tools. Open research topics both in biology and in robotics will also be discussed.

  2. [Central Pattern Generators: Mechanisms of the Activity and Their Role in the Control of "Automatic" Movements].

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, I; Deliagina, T G; Orlovsky, G N

    2015-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are a set of interconnected neurons capable of generating a basic pattern of motor output underlying "automatic" movements (breathing, locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and so on) in the absence of afferent signals from the executive motor apparatus. They can be divided into the constitutive CPGs active throughout the entire lifetime (respiratory CPGs) and conditional CPGs controlling episodic movements (locomotion, chewing, swallowing, and others). Since a motor output of CPGs is determined by their internal organization, the activities of the conditional CPGs are initiated by simple commands coming from higher centers. We describe the structural and functional organization of the locomotor CPGs in the marine mollusk Clione limacina, lamprey, frog embryo, and laboratory mammals (cat, mouse, and rat), CPGs controlling the respiratory and swallowing movements in mammals, and CPGs controlling discharges of the electric organ in the gymnotiform fish. It is shown that in all these cases, the generation of rhythmic motor output is based both on the endogenous (pacemaker) activity of specific groups of interneurons and on interneural interactions. These two interrelated mechanisms complement each other, ensuring the high reliability of CPG functionality. We discuss how the experience obtained in studying CPGs can be used to understand mechanisms of more complex functions of the brain, including its cognitive functions.

  3. Control of Spectral Interference Patterns in Broad Rabi Sidebands: Terahertz Quasi-Comb Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Dmitri; Filin, Alex; Levis, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands with an effective bandwidth ~ 200 meV is generated in atmospheric-pressure gases in pump-probe experiments. The dynamic Rabi sidebands show characteristic fringe patterns of spatial-spectral interference, whose variable contrast is affected by decoherence processes. The spectrum envelope, the fringe contrast, and the fringe spacing variation in these patterns can be controlled by the intensity and shape of the probe pulse. We demonstrate such control experimentally and report analytic and numerical investigation of possibilities to produce a comb-like fringe structure. The sideband envelope is mainly determined by the sharpness of the driving probe pulse. The fringe contrast, defined by the maximum-to-minimum difference, depends strongly on the asymmetry of the driving pulse. The variation of inter-peak distance within a sideband was controlled using the temporal shape of the driving pulse. In a particular case of blue-shifted sideband emitted by excited oxygen atoms driven by a picosecond pulse of 800 nm carrier wavelength and ~ 0.05 TW/ cm2 intensity, a super-Gaussian pulse shape leads to almost equidistant fringes producing a comb-like spectrum over the interval from 1.60 to 1.66 eV. This work is supported through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, MURI grant FA9550-10-1-0561.

  4. Motor neurons control blood vessel patterning in the developing spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Himmels, Patricia; Paredes, Isidora; Adler, Heike; Karakatsani, Andromachi; Luck, Robert; Marti, Hugo H.; Ermakova, Olga; Rempel, Eugen; Stoeckli, Esther T.; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Formation of a precise vascular network within the central nervous system is of critical importance to assure delivery of oxygen and nutrients and for accurate functionality of neuronal networks. Vascularization of the spinal cord is a highly stereotypical process. However, the guidance cues controlling blood vessel patterning in this organ remain largely unknown. Here we describe a new neuro-vascular communication mechanism that controls vessel guidance in the developing spinal cord. We show that motor neuron columns remain avascular during a developmental time window, despite expressing high levels of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We describe that motor neurons express the VEGF trapping receptor sFlt1 via a Neuropilin-1-dependent mechanism. Using a VEGF gain-of-function approach in mice and a motor neuron-specific sFlt1 loss-of-function approach in chicken, we show that motor neurons control blood vessel patterning by an autocrine mechanism that titrates motor neuron-derived VEGF via their own expression of sFlt1. PMID:28262664

  5. Nonprincipal plane scattering of flat plates and pattern control of horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Using the geometrical theory of diffraction, the traditional method of high frequency scattering analysis, the prediction of the radar cross section of a perfectly conducting, flat, rectangular plate is limited to principal planes. Part A of this report predicts the radar cross section in nonprincipal planes using the method of equivalent currents. This technique is based on an asymptotic end-point reduction of the surface radiation integrals for an infinite wedge and enables nonprincipal plane prediction. The predicted radar cross sections for both horizontal and vertical polarizations are compared to moment method results and experimental data from Arizona State University's anechoic chamber. In part B, a variational calculus approach to the pattern control of the horn antenna is outlined. The approach starts with the optimization of the aperture field distribution so that the control of the radiation pattern in a range of directions can be realized. A control functional is thus formulated. Next, a spectral analysis method is introduced to solve for the eigenfunctions from the extremal condition of the formulated functional. Solutions to the optimized aperture field distribution are then obtained.

  6. Bacterial Flagella as a Model Rigid Rod of Tunable Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Walter; Yardimci, Sevim; Gibaud, Thomas; Snow, Henry; Urbach, Jeff; Dogic, Zvonimir

    In this research, we study the physical properties of suspensions of bacterial flagella from Salmonella typhimurium prepared in a variety of rigid polymorphic shapes. Flagella act as a rigid colloidal particle that can exhibit non-trivial geometry including helices of varying dimensions, straight rods, or a combination of the two in the same filament. By controlling the conditions in which flagella are prepared, the polymorphic shape assumed by the filament can be controlled. Utilizing different polymorphic shapes, we combine results from optical microscopy observations of single filaments with bulk rheological measurements to help understand the role that constituent colloidal geometry plays in complex bulk behavior.

  7. Real-time comparison of conventional direct control and pattern recognition myoelectric control in a two-dimensional Fitts' law style test.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Sophie M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared real-time control performance of pattern recognition to direct control for the next generation of myoelectric controlled upper limb prostheses. Many different implementations of pattern recognition control have been proposed, with minor differentiations in the feature sets and classifiers. An objective and generalizable evaluation tool quantifying the control performance, other than classification accuracy, is needed. This paper used the implementation of such a tool through the design of a target acquisition test, similar to a Fitts' law test, relating movement time of the target acquisition to the difficulty of the target, for a given control strategy. Performance metrics such as throughput (bits/sec), completion rate (%) and path efficiency (%) allow for a complete evaluation of the described strategies. We compared direct control and pattern recognition control with the proposed test and found that 1) the test was valid for control system evaluation by following Fitts' law with high coefficients of determination for both types of control and 2) that pattern recognition significantly outperformed direct control in throughput with similar completion rates and path efficiencies. In this framework, the present pilot study supports pattern recognition as a promising strategy and forms a basis for the development of a general and objective tool for the performance evaluation of upper limb control strategies.

  8. NEURONATIN IS A STRESS-RESPONSIVE PROTEIN OF ROD PHOTORECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    SHINDE, VISHAL; PITALE, PRIYAMVADA M.; HOWSE, WAYNE; GORBATYUK, OLEG; GORBATYUK, MARINA

    2016-01-01

    Neuronatin (NNAT) is a small transmembrane proteolipid that is highly expressed in the embryonic developing brain and several other peripheral tissues. This study is the first to provide evidence that NNAT is detected in the adult retina of various adult rod-dominant mammals, including wild-type (WT) rodents, transgenic rodents expressing mutant S334ter, P23H, or T17M rhodopsin, non-human primates, humans, and cone-dominant tree shrews. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were applied to detect NNAT. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that NNAT immunofluorescence is restricted to the outer segments (OSs) of photoreceptors without evidence of staining in other retinal cell types across all mammalian species. Moreover, in tree shrew retinas, we found NNAT to be co-localized with rhodopsin, indicating its predominant expression in rods. The rod-derived expression of NNAT was further confirmed by qRT-PCR in isolated rod photoreceptor cells. We also used these cells to mimic cellular stress in transgenic retinas by treating them with the endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer, tunicamycin. Thus, our data revealed accumulation of NNAT around the nucleus as compared to dispersed localization of NNAT within control cells. This distribution coincided with the partial intracellular mislocalization of NNAT to the outer nuclear layer observed in transgenic retinas. In addition, stressed retinas demonstrated an increase of NNAT mRNA and protein levels. Therefore, our study demonstrated that NNAT is a novel stress-responsive protein with a potential structural and/or functional role in adult mammalian retinas. PMID:27109921

  9. Development of burnup dependent fuel rod model in COBRA-TF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mine Ozdemir

    predictions. After confirming that the new fuel thermal conductivity model in CTF worked and provided consistent results with FRAPTRAN predictions for a single fuel rod configuration, the same type of analysis was carried out for a bigger system which is the 4x4 PWR bundle consisting of 15 fuel pins and one control guide tube. Steady- state calculations at Hot Full Power (HFP) conditions for control guide tube out (unrodded) were performed using the 4x4 PWR array with CTF/TORT-TD coupled code system. Fuel centerline, surface and average temperatures predicted by CTF/TORT-TD with and without the new fuel thermal conductivity model were compared against CTF/TORT-TD/FRAPTRAN predictions to demonstrate the improvement in fuel centerline predictions when new model was used. In addition to that constant and CTF dynamic gap conductance model were used with the new thermal conductivity model to show the performance of the CTF dynamic gap conductance model and its impact on fuel centerline and surface temperatures. Finally, a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) scenario using the same 4x4 PWR array was run both at Hot Zero Power (HZP) and Hot Full Power (HFP) condition, starting at a position where half of the control rod is inserted. This scenario was run using CTF/TORT-TD coupled code system with and without the new fuel thermal conductivity model. The purpose of this transient analysis was to show the impact of thermal conductivity degradation (TCD) on feedback effects, specifically Doppler Reactivity Coefficient (DRC) and, eventually, total core reactivity.

  10. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations on self-assembly of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Fan, Zhong-Xiang; Ma, Ze-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Self-assembly of rod-coil-rod ABA triblock copolymers in a rod-selective solvent is investigated by using dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The morphologies of the self-assembled aggregates are dependent on the number of copolymers in the aggregate and the rod length of the copolymer. We observe vesicles at short rod block and bowl-like aggregates at slightly longer rod block. In the vesicle region near the phase boundary, metastable bowl-like aggregates can be observed and be transformed into vesicles by annealing process. A transition from the bowl-like structure to the vesicle is observed by increasing the solvophobicity of the mid-coil block. In this study, the difference between the self-assembly of fully flexible ABA triblock copolymer and that of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer is also discussed.

  11. Polarization mode control of long-wavelength VCSELs by intracavity patterning

    DOE PAGES

    Long, Christopher Michael; Mickovic, Zlatko; Dwir, Benjamin; ...

    2016-04-26

    Polarization mode control is enhanced in wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting at 1310 nm wavelength by etching two symmetrically arranged arcs above the gain structure within the laser cavity. The intracavity patterning introduces birefringence and dichroism, which discriminates between the two polarization states of the fundamental transverse modes. We find that the cavity modifications define the polarization angle at threshold with respect to the crystal axes, and increase the gain anisotropy and birefringence on average, leading to an increase in the polarization switching current. As a result, experimental measurements are explained using the spin-flip model of VCSEL polarization dynamics.

  12. Particle-rod hybrids: growth of arachidic acid molecular rods from capped cadmium selenide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongzhong; Wang, Ruomiao; Arachchige, Indika; Mao, Guangzhao; Brock, Stephanie L

    2004-12-22

    This communication describes a spin-coating method to nucleate organic molecular rods of uniform size from an inorganic nanoparticle at a solid surface. The particle-rod hybrid structure spontaneously forms when a film is spin coated from a mixed 2-propanol solution of arachidic acid (AA) and nanoparticles of cadmium selenide capped by mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA-CdSe) on graphite. AFM images show that MUA-CdSe nanoparticles nucleate single crystalline rods of AA with a cross section of a single unit cell of the C-form. The solution-based process potentially allows the precise tuning of the wetting profile of the solution on the surface-attached nanoparticle, which provides the reservoir for the growth of the single crystalline rods. The results suggest that nanoparticles can be regarded as nanoseeds for the nucleation of guest crystals. It should be possible to further functionalize the AA rods by electrostatic complexation with metal or organic ions.

  13. Dual Window Pattern Recognition Classifier for Improved Partial-Hand Prosthesis Control

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Eric J.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Although partial-hand amputees largely retain the ability to use their wrist, it is difficult to preserve wrist motion while using a myoelectric partial-hand prosthesis without severely impacting control performance. Electromyogram (EMG) pattern recognition is a well-studied control method; however, EMG from wrist motion can obscure myoelectric finger control signals. Thus, to accommodate wrist motion and to provide high classification accuracy and minimize system latency, we developed a training protocol and a classifier that switches between long and short EMG analysis window lengths. Seventeen non-amputee and two partial-hand amputee subjects participated in a study to determine the effects of including EMG from different arm and hand locations during static and/or dynamic wrist motion in the classifier training data. We evaluated several real-time classification techniques to determine which control scheme yielded the highest performance in virtual real-time tasks using a three-way ANOVA. We found significant interaction between analysis window length and the number of grasps available. Including static and dynamic wrist motion and intrinsic hand muscle EMG with extrinsic muscle EMG significantly reduced pattern recognition classification error by 35%. Classification delay or majority voting techniques significantly improved real-time task completion rates (17%), selection (23%), and completion (11%) times, and selection attempts (15%) for non-amputee subjects, and the dual window classifier significantly reduced the time (8%) and average number of attempts required to complete grasp selections (14%) made in various wrist positions. Amputee subjects demonstrated improved task timeout rates, and made fewer grasp selection attempts, with classification delay or majority voting techniques. Thus, the proposed techniques show promise for improving control of partial-hand prostheses and more effectively restoring function to individuals using these devices. PMID

  14. Passive electrical properties of rod outer segments

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Gertrude; Fatt, P.

    1968-01-01

    1. Measurements on a packed suspension of randomly oriented, dark-adapted frog rods at frequencies of 15 c/s-0·5 Mc/s indicate a behaviour similar to that of other biological materials. 2. Results are analysed on the assumption that the low-frequency limiting resistance is determined by current flowing in the suspending medium and that, of the rods, two thirds are oriented perpendicular to the applied field and one third parallel to it. Those parallel to the field are treated as non-conductors. 3. From the high-frequency limiting resistance the conductivity of the rod interior is calculated to vary linearly with the conductivity of the medium. The slope of the relation of internal to external conductivity is 0·50 with a limiting internal conductivity (at zero external) of 280 μmho/cm. 4. On the assumption that the suspension can be represented as a single-capacitance network, the characteristic frequency of impedance is used to calculate a capacitance for the rod surface of 1·54 μF/cm2. On the assumption of a distribution in properties of the suspension according to the theory of Bruggeman, the capacitance is calculated to have a value of about one half this. 5. At frequencies below 5 kc/s the impedance locus deviates from the curve describing the behaviour at higher frequencies. It is suggested that this may involve conduction in a thin layer extending along the surface of the rod. PMID:5685292

  15. Wetting of a partially immersed compliant rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Jagota, Anand

    2016-11-01

    The force on a solid rod partially immersed in a liquid is commonly used to determine the liquid-vapor surface tension by equating the measured force required to remove the rod from the liquid to the vertical component of the liquid-vapor surface tension. Here, we study how this process is affected when the rod is compliant. For equilibrium, we enforce force and configurational energy balance, including contributions from elastic energy. We show that, in general, the contact angle does not equal that given by Young's equation. If surface stresses are tensile, the strain in the immersed part of the rod is found to be compressive and to depend only on the solid-liquid surface stress. The strain in the dry part of the rod can be either tensile or compressive, depending on a combination of parameters that we identify. We also provide results for compliant plates partially immersed in a liquid under plane strain and plane stress. Our results can be used to extract solid surface stresses from such experiments.

  16. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.; West, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  17. Geology of Hebrus Valles and Hephaestus Fossae, Mars: evidence for basement control of fluvial patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    Hebrus Valles (HV) and Hephaestus Fossae (HF) are valley systems located SW of Elysium Mons in the low northern plains of Mars. HV share many of their characteristics with other martian outflow channels--widely interpreted as having formed by catastrophic flooding. The NW-trending HV system is 250 km long and begins in an elongate depression. Individual channels are less than 1 km wide; a braided reach is about 10 km wide. Streamlined islands are abundant in the middle reach. HV terminate as a series of narrow distributaries. No sedimentary deposits are obviously related to the development of the channel. HV cut across a broad expanse of older plains dotted by irregular mesas and smaller knobs. HF are a connected series of linear valley segments which branch and cross downslope but have high junction angles. Locally, the channel pattern is polygonal. HF are parallel to HV but are considerably deeper and longer (600 km). HF also originate in a depression, but to the NW they terminate near the gradational boundary between the knobby plains and polygonally fractured terrain of Utopia Planitia. The valley pattern has led some to suggest that HF are tectonic features. It is suggested that like HV, HF are also of fluvial origin. Downcutting to, or subsurface flow at this pre-existing surface red to a channel pattern that was strongly controlled by the polygonal troughs buried beneath the younger knobby plains materials.

  18. Controlling statics and dynamics of colloids by photo-patterned liquid crystals (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Peng, Chenhui; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Wei, Qi-Huo

    2016-09-01

    Transport of fluids and particles at the microscale is an important theme both in fundamental and applied science. We demonstrate how an advanced approach to photo-induced alignment of liquid crystals can be used to generate nonlinear electrokinetics. The photoalignment technique is based on irradiation of a photosensitive substrate with light through nanoaperture arrays in metal films. The resulting pattern of surface alignment induces predesigned 2D and 3D distortions of local molecular orientation. In presence of a static electric field, these distortions generate spatial charge and drive electrokinetic flows of the new type, in which the velocities depend on the square of the applied electric field. The patterned liquid crystal electrolyte converts the electric energy into the flows and transport of embedded particles of any type (fluid, solid, gaseous) along a predesigned trajectory, posing no limitation on the electric nature (charge, polarizability) of these particles and interfaces. The patterned liquid crystal electrolyte induces persistent vortices of controllable rotation speed and direction that are quintessential for micro- and nanoscale mixing applications.

  19. Controlled Chemical Patterns with ThermoChemical NanoLithography (TCNL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Keith; Giordano, Anthony; Wang, Debin; Kodali, Vamsi; King, W. P.; Marder, S. R.; Riedo, E.; Curtis, J. E.

    2012-02-01

    Many research areas, both fundamental and applied, rely upon the ability to organize non-trivial assemblies of molecules on surfaces. In this work, we introduce a significant extension of ThermoChemical NanoLithography (TCNL), a high throughput chemical patterning technique that uses temperature-driven chemical reactions localized near the tip of a thermal cantilever. By combining a chemical kinetics based model with experiments, we have developed a protocol for varying the concentration of surface bound molecules. The result is an unprecedented ability to fabricate extremely complex patterns comprised of varying chemical concentrations, as demonstrated by sinusoidal patterns of amine groups with varying pitches (˜5-15 μm) and the replication of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa with dimensions of ˜30 x 40 μm^2. Programmed control of the chemical reaction rate should have widespread applications for a technique which has already been shown to nanopattern various substrates including graphene nanowires, piezoelectric crystals, and optoelectronic materials.

  20. Molecular bioelectricity: how endogenous voltage potentials control cell behavior and instruct pattern regulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In addition to biochemical gradients and transcriptional networks, cell behavior is regulated by endogenous bioelectrical cues originating in the activity of ion channels and pumps, operating in a wide variety of cell types. Instructive signals mediated by changes in resting potential control proliferation, differentiation, cell shape, and apoptosis of stem, progenitor, and somatic cells. Of importance, however, cells are regulated not only by their own Vmem but also by the Vmem of their neighbors, forming networks via electrical synapses known as gap junctions. Spatiotemporal changes in Vmem distribution among nonneural somatic tissues regulate pattern formation and serve as signals that trigger limb regeneration, induce eye formation, set polarity of whole-body anatomical axes, and orchestrate craniofacial patterning. New tools for tracking and functionally altering Vmem gradients in vivo have identified novel roles for bioelectrical signaling and revealed the molecular pathways by which Vmem changes are transduced into cascades of downstream gene expression. Because channels and gap junctions are gated posttranslationally, bioelectrical networks have their own characteristic dynamics that do not reduce to molecular profiling of channel expression (although they couple functionally to transcriptional networks). The recent data provide an exciting opportunity to crack the bioelectric code, and learn to program cellular activity at the level of organs, not only cell types. The understanding of how patterning information is encoded in bioelectrical networks, which may require concepts from computational neuroscience, will have transformative implications for embryogenesis, regeneration, cancer, and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:25425556

  1. Reflective electron beam lithography: lithography results using CMOS controlled digital pattern generator chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff Fuge; Freed, Regina; Kidwingira, Francoise; Yang, Jason; Bevis, Chris; Carroll, Allen; Brodie, Alan; Tong, William M.; Lin, Shy-Jay; Wang, Wen-Chuan; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart

    2013-03-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography can potentially extend semiconductor manufacturing to the 10 nm logic (16 nm half pitch) technology node and beyond. KLA-Tencor is developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) technology targeting high-volume 10 nm logic node performance. REBL uses a novel multi-column wafer writing system combined with an advanced stage architecture to enable the throughput and resolution required for a NGL system. Using a CMOS Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) chip with over one million microlenses, the system is capable of maskless printing of arbitrary patterns with pixel redundancy and pixel-by-pixel grayscaling at the wafer. Electrons are generated in a flood beam via a thermionic cathode at 50-100 keV and decelerated to illuminate the DPG chip. The DPG-modulated electron beam is then reaccelerated and demagnified 80-100x onto the wafer to be printed. Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development progress of the REBL tool for maskless lithography at and below the 10 nm logic technology node. Since that time, the REBL team has made good progress towards developing the REBL system and DPG for direct write lithography. REBL has been successful in manufacturing a CMOS controlled DPG chip with a stable charge drain coating and with all segments functioning. This DPG chip consists of an array of over one million electrostatic lenslets that can be switched on or off via CMOS voltages to pattern the flood electron beam. Testing has proven the validity of the design with regards to lenslet performance, contrast, lifetime, and pattern scrolling. This chip has been used in the REBL demonstration platform system for lithography on a moving stage in both PMMA and chemically amplified resist. Direct imaging of the aerial image has also been performed by magnifying the pattern at the wafer plane via a mag stack onto a YAG imaging screen. This paper will discuss the chip design improvements and new charge drain coating that have resulted in a

  2. Optimal coordinated control of energy extraction in LES of wind farms: effect of turbine arrangement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Johan; Munters, Wim; Goit, Jay

    2015-11-01

    We investigate optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers, considering the individual wind turbines as flow actuators. By controlling the thrust coefficients of the turbines as function of time, the energy extraction can be dynamically regulated with the aim to optimally influence the flow field and the vertical energy transport. To this end, we use Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layers in a receding-horizon optimal control framework. Recently, the approach was applied to fully developed wind-farm boundary layers in a 7D by 6D aligned wind-turbine arrangement. For this case, energy extraction increased up to 16%, related to improved wake mixing by slightly anti-correlating the turbine thrust coefficient with the local wind speed at the turbine level. Here we discuss optimal control results for finite wind farms that are characterized by entrance effects and a developing internal boundary layer above the wind farm. Both aligned and staggered arrangement patterns are considered, and a range of different constraints on the controls is included. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, grant no. 306471). Simulations were performed on the infrastructure of the Flemish Supercomputer Center, funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Governement.

  3. Monterey Fan: Growth pattern control by basin morphology and changing sea levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Gutmacher, C.E.; Chase, T.E.; Wilde, P.

    1984-01-01

    Monterey Fan is the largest modern fan off the California shore. Two main submarine canyon systems feed it via a complex pattern of fan valleys and channels. The northern Ascension Canyon system is relatively inactive during high sea-level periods. In contrast, Monterey Canyon and its tributaries to the south cut across the shelf and remain active during high sea level. Deposition on the upper fan is controlled primarily by the relative activity within these two canyon systems. Deposition over the rest of the fan is controlled by the oceanic crust topography, resulting in an irregular fan shape and periodic major shifts in the locus of deposition. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Controlling the motion and placement of micrometer-sized metal particles using patterned polymer brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; Howse, Jonathan R; Fairclough, J Patrick A

    2011-10-04

    In this paper, we show that silicon surfaces patterned with poly(methacrylic acid) brushes are able to control the Brownian motion of 2-3 μm iron particles, which sediment onto the surface in aqueous solution and experience differences in repulsive force depending upon their position. Differences in repulsion lead to different gravitational potential energies across the surface, which gives bias to the Brownian motion taking place. Three regimes have been identified depending upon the brush height: (i) no control of Brownian motion when the brush height is small, (ii) Brownian motion that is influenced by the polymer brush when the brush 17 height is intermediate, (iii) Brownian motion that is confined by polymer brush barriers when the brush height is greatest. The height of brush found necessary to significantly influence iron particle motion was small at 39 nm or 2% of the particle diameter.

  5. Photo-controllable DNA origami nanostructures assembling into predesigned multiorientational patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yangyang; Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-12-26

    We demonstrate a novel strategy for constructing multidirectional programmed 2D DNA nanostructures in various unique patterns by introducing photoresponsive oligonucleotides (Azo-ODNs) into hexagonal DNA origami structures. We examined regulation of assembly and disassembly of DNA nanostructures reversibly by different photoirradiation conditions in a programmed manner. Azo-ODNs were incorporated to the hexagonal DNA origami structures, which were then employed as self-assembly units for building up nanosized architectures in regulated arrangements. By adjusting the numbers and the positions of Azo-ODNs in the hexagonal units, the specific nanostructures with face controlling can be achieved, resulting in construction of ring-shaped nanostructures. By combining DNA origami strategy with photoregulating system, remote controlling of assembly and disassembly of DNA nanostructures has been accomplished simply by photo irradiation.

  6. [Study on the control of dynamic artificial limb ankle based on central pattern generator].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Xu, Caiyu; Li, Mingyue; Su, Longtao

    2014-12-01

    In order to obtain the normal gait for the prosthesis-carrier with the change of external environment and gait, we designed a model of dynamic ankle prosthesis and control system and introduced the strategy of central pattern generator (CPG) about the moving trail of dynamic ankle prosthesis. The dynamic parts, which are incorporated in the model of dynamic ankle prosthesis, provide power in order to have anthropic function and character. The tool of Matlab/simulink was used to simulate the strategy. The simulation results showed that the strategy of CPG learn- ing control in this study was effective and could track the reference trail rapidly and fit the moving trail of a person's normal limb. It can make the prosthetic timely regulation and action, enhance the prosthetic intelligence. It has im- portant practical value for intelligent prosthesis development based on this analysis of technology.

  7. Bio-inspired design strategies for central pattern generator control in modular robotics.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Carrón, F; Rodríguez, F B; Varona, P

    2011-03-01

    New findings in the nervous system of invertebrates have shown how a number of features of central pattern generator (CPG) circuits contribute to the generation of robust flexible rhythms. In this paper we consider recently revealed strategies that living CPGs follow to design CPG control paradigms for modular robots. To illustrate them, we divide the task of designing an example CPG for a modular robot into independent problems. We formulate each problem in a general way and provide a bio-inspired solution for each of them: locomotion information coding, individual module control and inter-module coordination. We analyse the stability of the CPG numerically, and then test it on a real robot. We analyse steady state locomotion and recovery after perturbations. In both cases, the robot is able to autonomously find a stable effective locomotion state. Finally, we discuss how these strategies can result in a more general design approach for CPG-based locomotion.

  8. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  9. Torque requirement of rotating rods in airflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.; Crossman, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the torque required for rotating a rotor disk fitted with a number of radially arranged rods placed into a ducted airflow. An array of stationary rods, also radially arranged, was placed upstream close to the rotor with a small gap between the rods to cause wake interference. The results show that torque generally increased with airflow and the rate of increase varied considerably. At lower values of airflow, the rate of increase was larger than at higher airflow, and definite torque peaks occurred at certain airflow rates, where the torque attained a maximum within the test airflow range. During the test, a maximum blade passage frequency of 2037 Hz was attained. The results also show that the torque peaks occurred at the same Strouhal number for all speeds.

  10. Processing depleted uranium quad alloy penetrator rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bokan, S.L.

    1987-02-19

    Two depleted uranium (DU) quad alloys were cast, extruded and rolled to produce penetrator rods. The two alloy combinations were (1) 1 wt % molybdenum (Mo), 1 wt % niobium (Nb), and 0.75 wt % titanium (Ti); and (2) 1 wt % tantalum (Ta), 1 wt % Nb, and 0.75 wt % Ti. This report covers the processing and results with limited metallographic information available. The two alloys were each vacuum induction melted (VIM) into an 8-in. log, extruded into a 3-in. log, then cut into 4 logs and extruded at 4 different temperatures into 0.8-in. bars. From the 8 conditions (2 alloys, 4 extrusion temperatures each), 10 to 13 16-in. rods were cut for rolling and swaging. Due to cracking problems, the final processing changed from rolling and swaging to limited rolling and heat treating. The contracted work was completed with the delivery of 88 rods to Dr. Zabielski. 28 figs.

  11. Self-Contact for Rods on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, G. H. M.; Peletier, M. A.; Planqué, R.

    2006-11-01

    We study self-contact phenomena in elastic rods that are constrained to lie on a cylinder. By choosing a particular set of variables to describe the rod centerline the variational setting is made particularly simple: the strain energy is a second-order functional of a single scalar variable, and the self-contact constraint is written as an integral inequality. Using techniques from ordinary differential equation theory (comparison principles) and variational calculus (cut-and-paste arguments) we fully characterize the structure of constrained minimizers. An important auxiliary result states that the set of self-contact points is continuous, a result that contrasts with known examples from contact problems in free rods.

  12. Concentration-dependent sedimentation of colloidal rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogic, Z.; Philipse, A. P.; Fraden, S.; Dhont, J. K. G.

    2000-11-01

    In this paper we first develop an approximate theory for the leading order concentration dependence of the sedimentation coefficient for rodlike colloids/polymers/macromolecules. To first order in volume fraction φ of rods, the sedimentation coefficient is written as 1+αφ. For large aspect ratios L/D (L is the rod length, D its thickness) α is found to vary like ∝(L/D)2/ln(L/D). This theoretical prediction is compared to experimental results. Then, experiments on fd virus are described, both in the isotropic and nematic phase. First-order in concentration results for this very long and thin (semiflexible) rod are in agreement with the above-mentioned theoretical prediction. Sedimentation profiles for the nematic phase show two sedimentation fronts. This result indicates that the nematic phase becomes unstable with the respect to isotropic phase during sedimentation.

  13. Youth smoking risk and community patterns of alcohol availability and control: a national multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, E.; Chen, Y.; Subramanian, S

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To test whether college youth smoking risks are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability and control. Design: Hierarchical multilevel multivariable modelling of cross sectional survey data. Outcomes included self reported current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking and heavy episodic (binge) drinking. Setting: 120 nationally representative US colleges. Participants: 10 924 randomly selected students. Main results: Individual risks for smoking and binge drinking are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability, policy enforcement and control over and above individual perceptions about these factors, student and college characteristics, and school binge drinking rates. Youth exposed to high levels of alcohol availability are at higher risk of smoking (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.75, 7.44) and binge drinking (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.25, 7.93) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to strongly enforced alcohol policy environments are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16, 0.57) and binge drinking (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10, 0.31) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to communities with strong parental controls are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and binge drinking (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.21) than youth not so exposed. Individual risks related to environmental exposures differ for youth with varying perceptions about alcohol availability and policy control. Conclusions: Drinking environments in US college communities comprise strong independent risks for smoking. Smoking prevention models should be tested that include environmental drinking prevention strategies tailored to underlying perceptions and experiences of college youth. PMID:16286496

  14. Control of spectral interference patterns in broad Rabi sidebands toward quasi-comb structures.

    PubMed

    Romanov, D A; Filin, A I; Levis, R J

    2015-03-01

    The pattern of spectral interference fringes in broad dynamic Rabi sidebands allows for a considerable degree of control by shaping the picosecond driving pulse. We demonstrate experimental evidence of such control and report an analytic and numerical investigation of possibilities to control the fringe pattern to produce a comb-like optical structure. The temporal phase and amplitude shaping of a picosecond driving pulse influence the spectrum envelope, fringe contrast, and fringe spacing variation in the sideband spectra. The sideband spectrum envelope depends on the sharpness of the driving pulse, that is, on the rate at which the temporal distance between the leading and trailing edges grows away from the pulse maximum. Increasing this parameter reduces the variation of the envelope amplitude across the sideband. The fringe contrast, defined by the maximum-to-minimum difference, depends strongly on the asymmetry of the driving pulse. The imbalance between the leading and trailing edges leads to a decrease of the contrast. The variation of interpeak distance within a sideband was controlled using the temporal shape of the driving pulse. In the particular case of a blue-shifted sideband emitted by excited oxygen atoms driven by a picosecond pulse of 800 nm carrier wavelength and ∼5×10¹⁰ W cm⁻² intensity, a Gaussian pulse shape results in an interpeak distance increasing almost five times over the interval from 1.60 to 1.66 eV, whereas a super-Gaussian shape leads to almost equidistant fringes producing a comb-like spectrum.

  15. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Controlled evaporative self-assembly of poly(acrylic acid) in a confined geometry for fabricating patterned polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Men, Yonghong; Xiao, Peng; Chen, Jing; Fu, Jun; Huang, Youju; Zhang, Jiawei; Xie, Zhengchao; Wang, Wenqin; Chen, Tao

    2014-04-29

    A simple yet robust approach was exploited to fabricate large-scaled patterned polymer brushes by combining controlled evaporative self-assembly (CESA) in a confined geometry and self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP). Our method was carried out without any sophisticated instruments, free of lithography, overcoming current difficulties in fabricating polymer patterns by using complex instruments.

  17. Competing mechanisms in the wear resistance behavior of biomineralized rod-like microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar de Obaldia, Enrique; Herrera, Steven; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties observed in biological composite materials relative to those of their individual constituents distinguish them from common engineering materials. Some naturally occurring high-performance ceramics, like the external veneer of the Chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) tooth, have been shown to have superior hardness and impressive abrasion resistance properties. The mechanical performance of the chiton tooth has been attributed to a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with organic material. While nanoindentation tests provide useful information about the overall performance of this biological composite, understanding the key microstructural features and energy dissipation mechanisms at small scales remains a challenging task. We present a combined experimental/numerical approach to elucidate the role of material deformation in the rods, debonding at the rod interfaces and the influence of energy dissipation mechanisms on the ability of the microstructure to distribute damage under extreme loading conditions. We employ a 3D finite element-based micromechanical model to simulate the nanoindentation tests performed in geological magnetite and cross-sections of the chiton tooth. This proposed model is capable of capturing the inelastic deformation of the rods and the failure of their interfaces, while damage, fracture and fragmentation of the mineralized rods is assessed using a probabilistic function. Our results show that these natural materials achieve their abrasion resistant properties by controlling the interface strength between rods, alleviating the tensile stress on the rods near the indentation tip and therefore decreasing the probability of catastrophic failure without significantly sacrificing resistance to penetration. The understanding of these competing energy dissipating mechanisms provides a path to the prediction of new combination of materials. In turns, these results suggest certain

  18. Chemical Dosimeter Tube With Coaxial Sensing Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.

    1993-01-01

    Improved length-of-stain (LOS) chemical dosimeter indicates total dose of chemical vapor in air. Made with rods and tubes of various diameters to obtain various sensitivities and dynamic ranges. Sensitivity larger and dose range smaller when more room for diffusion in gap between tube and rod. Offers greater resistance to changing of color of exposed dye back to color of unexposed condition, greater sensitivity, and higher degree of repeatability. Developed to measure doses of gaseous HCI, dosimeter modified by use of other dyes to indicate doses of other chemical vapors.

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-09-17

    A reusable system is described for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member. The locking cap has two opposing fingers shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed.

  20. Optical contact approach to laser rod support.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurski, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The successful application of an optical contact is described between a ruby laser rod that has no mechanical support and a sapphire rod. The contact is found to be durable in the environmental conditions associated with a high-power pulsed ruby laser. The described contact technique makes it possible to construct a laser oscillator using an ellipsoidal pump mirror that does not employ dielectric coatings in the cavity. Another advantage consists in that the ruby laser is not shaded from the pump light by mounting jigs at its ends.

  1. Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Paul C.; Argetsinger, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

  2. Improving fuel-rod performance. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ocken, H.; Knott, S.

    1981-03-01

    To reduce the risk of fuel-rod failures, utilities operate their nuclear reactors within conservative limits on power increases proposed by nuclear-fuel vendors. Of particular concern to US utilities is that adopting these limits results in an industrywide average plant capacity loss of 3% in BWR designs and 0.3% in PWR designs. To replace lost BWR capacity by other generating means currently costs the utilities $150 million annually, and losses for PWRs are about $20 million. Efforts are therefore being made to identify the factors responsible for Zircaloy degradation under PCI condition and to improve nuclear-fuel-rod design and reactor operation.

  3. Rod Photoreceptor Temporal Properties in Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yuquan; Locke, Kirsten G.; Hood, Donald C.; Birch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the characteristic signs of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the progressive loss of night vision. We have previously shown that the gain of rod photoreceptor activation is moderately reduced in some patients with RP, but this decrease in activation kinetics is not sufficient to account for the night blindness. Recently, single rod recording from animal models of RP showed rods under degeneration remain saturated for shorter periods than normal rods; i.e. are less able to sustain the rod photoresponse. Using paired-flash ERG, here we determine whether rod phototransduction inactivation parameters might also be abnormal in patients with RP. Inactivation parameters were derived from 13 subjects with normal vision, 16 patients with adRP, and 16 patients with autosomal recessive/isolate (rec/iso) RP. The adRP cases included 9 patients with rhodopsin mutations and 7 patients with peripherin/RDS mutations. The inactivation phase was derived using a double-flash paradigm, with a test flash of 2.7 log scot td-sec followed at varying intervals by a 4.2 log scot td-sec probe flash. Derived rod photoresponses to this just-saturating test flash in normal subjects exhibit a critical time to the initiation of recovery (Tsat) of 525±90 (SD) msec. The values of Tsat were 336±104 (SD) msec in patients with adRP (P<0.001) and 271±45 (SD) msec (P<0.001) in patients with rec/iso RP. When Tsat values were categorized by mutations, the values were 294±91 (SD) msec (P<0.001) for rhodopsin mutations, and 389±100 (SD) msec (p=0.01) for peripherin/RDS mutations. Overall, Tsat in patients with RP was significantly correlated with the amplitude of ISCEV standard rod response (r = 0.56; P < 0.001) and the gain of the activation phase of phototransduction (r=0.6, P<0.001). Tsat may be a useful marker for therapeutic efficacy in future clinical trials in RP. PMID:21219898

  4. Intraoperative pulmonary embolism of Harrington rod during spinal surgery: the potential dangers of rod cutting.

    PubMed

    Aylott, Caspar E W; Hassan, Kamran; McNally, Donal; Webb, John K

    2006-12-01

    This is a case report and laboratory-based biomechanics study. The objective is to report the first case of Titanium rod embolisation during scoliosis surgery into the Pulmonary artery. To investigate the potential of an unconstrained cut Titanium rod fragment to cause wounding with reference to recognised weapons. Embolisation of a foreign body to the heart is rare. Bullet embolisation to the heart and lungs is infrequently reported in the last 80 years. Iatrogenic cases of foreign body embolisation are very rare. Fifty 1-2 cm segments of Titanium rod were cut in an unconstrained manner and a novel method was used to calculate velocity. A high-speed camera (6,000 frames/s) was used to further measure velocity and study projectile motion. The wounding potential was investigated using lambs liver, high-speed photography and local dissection. Rod velocities were measured in excess of 23 m s(-1). Rods were seen to tumble end-over-end with a maximum speed of 560 revolutions/s. The maximum kinetic energy was 0.61 J which is approximately 2% that of a crossbow. This is sufficient to cause significant liver damage. The degree of surface damage and internal disruption was influenced by the orientation of the rod fragment at impact. An unconstrained cut segment of a Titanium rod has a significant potential to wound. Precautions should be taken to avoid this potentially disastrous but preventable complication.

  5. Patterns of HIV/SIV Prevention and Control by Passive Antibody Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses are promising immune effectors for control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Protective activity and mechanisms of immunodeficiency virus-specific NAbs have been increasingly scrutinized in animals infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and related viruses. Studies on such models have unraveled a previously underscored protective potential against in vivo immunodeficiency virus replication. Pre-challenge NAb titers feasibly provide sterile protection from SIV/SHIV infection by purging the earliest onset of viral replication and likely modulate innate immune cell responses. Sufficient sub-sterile NAb titers after established infection also confer dose-dependent reduction of viremia, and in certain earlier time frames augment adaptive immune cell responses and even provide rebound-free viral control. Here, we provide an overview of the obtained patterns of SIV/SHIV protection and viral control by various types of NAb passive immunizations and discuss how these notions may be extrapolated to NAb-based clinical control of HIV infection. PMID:27853456

  6. Novel duplication pattern of the mitochondrial control region in Cantor's Giant softshell turtle Pelochelys cantorii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Li, Wei; Zhao, Jian; Chen, Hai-Gang; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2016-11-15

    Cantor's Giant Softshell Turtle, Pelochelys cantorii has become one of the most critically endangered species in the world. When comparative analyses of the P. cantorii complete mitochondrial genome sequences were conducted, we discovered a duplication of a segment of the control region in the mitochondrial genome of P. cantorii. The duplication is characterized by two copies of conserved sequence box 2 (CSB2) and CSB3 in a single control region. In contrast to previous reports of duplications involving the control regions of other animals, this particular pattern of duplications appears to be unique to P. cantorii. Copies of the CSB2 and CSB3 show many of the conserved sequence features typically found in mitochondrial control regions, and rare differences were found between the paralogous copies. Using the primer design principle of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and the reference sequence of the duplicated CSBs, specific primers were designed to amplify the duplicated CSBs. These primers were validated among different individuals and populations of P. cantorii. This unique duplication structure suggests the two copies of the CSB2 and CSB3 may have arisen through occasional tandem duplication and subsequent concerted evolution.

  7. Controlling growth and electrical connectivity of neuronal cells patterned on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beighley, Ross; Spedden, Elise; White, James; Staii, Cristian

    2012-02-01

    In the developing brain biochemical and geometrical cues are an essential source of information used by neurons when wiring up the nervous system. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms by which various guidance factors control the path that growing axons/dendrites follow to reach their targets and form functional electrical connections remains qualitative. A current limitation for the study of neural network formation is the ability to precisely control the growth and interconnectivity of small numbers of neurons. Here we present a combined Atomic Force Microscopy - Fluorescence Spectroscopy approach for patterning neurons on 2-dimensional substrates and precisely controlling their location, growth and interconnectivity. We demonstrate that this approach allows one to: a) form simple neuronal circuits in well-controlled geometries; b) guide the formation of functional synapses between neurons, and c) measure the electrical activity of small groups of neurons. We also discuss the implications of these results for our current understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern the development of electrical connections between neurons.

  8. Linking impulse response functions to reaction time: Rod and cone reaction time data and a computational model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J.; Pokorny, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Reaction times for incremental and decremental stimuli were measured at five suprathreshold contrasts for six retinal illuminance levels where rods alone (0.002–0.2 Trolands), rods and cones (2–20 Trolands) or cones alone (200 Trolands) mediated detection. A 4-primary photostimulator allowed independent control of rod or cone excitations. This is the first report of reaction times to isolated rod or cone stimuli at mesopic light levels under the same adaptation conditions. The main findings are: 1) For rods, responses to decrements were faster than increments, but cone reaction times were closely similar. 2) At light levels where both systems were functional, rod reaction times were ~20 ms longer. The data were fitted with a computational model that incorporates rod and cone impulse response functions and a stimulus-dependent neural sensory component that triggers a motor response. Rod and cone impulse response functions were derived from published psychophysical two-pulse threshold data and temporal modulation transfer functions. The model fits were accomplished with a limited number of free parameters: two global parameters to estimate the irreducible minimum reaction time for each receptor type, and one local parameter for each reaction time versus contrast function. This is the first model to provide a neural basis for the variation in reaction time with retinal illuminance, stimulus contrast, stimulus polarity, and receptor class modulated. PMID:17346763

  9. Crystallization-Driven Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil-Rod Pseudopolyrotaxanes into Spherical Micelles, Nanorods, and Nanorings in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui; Jin, Yong; Cheng, Xinfeng; Fan, Baozhu; Sun, Tongbing; Peng, Shaojun; Li, Hanping

    2015-08-01

    A novel rod-containing block copolymer is constructed by supramacromolecular self-assembly of α-cyclodextrin and a triblock copolymer with methoxy polyethylene glycol as the flanking chains and the midterm block alternately connected by 2,2-dimethylolbutyric acid and isophorone diisocyanate. The assembled rod-containing block copolymer shows an exciting phenomenon of concentration- and pH-dependent morphological switching of well-defined nanostructures. In the solutions at pH 9.2, spherical micelles, rod-like micelles, and hydrogel are observed successively with an increase of the concentration. Notably, the rod-like micelles are composed of spherical segments due to the combination of the crystalline cores of the spherical micelles. In addition, 1D nanostructures with different curvatures from linear rod-like micelles (pH 9.2) to ring-shaped micelles (pH 7.5) can be obtained by controlling the pH values of the assembled systems.

  10. Method and means of packaging nuclear fuel rods for handling

    DOEpatents

    Adam, Milton F.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel rods, especially spent nuclear fuel rods that may show physical distortion, are encased within a metallic enclosing structure by forming a tube about the fuel rod. The tube has previously been rolled to form an overlapping tubular structure and then unrolled and coiled about an axis perpendicular to the tube. The fuel rod is inserted into the tube as the rolled tube is removed from a coiled strip and allowed to reassume its tubular shape about the fuel rod. Rollers support the coiled strip in an open position as the coiled strip is uncoiled and allowed to roll about the fuel rod.

  11. Integrated modeling and parallel computation of laser-induced axisymmetric rod growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hong

    2005-07-01

    To fully investigate a pyrolytic Laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) system for growing an axisymmetric rod, a novel integrated three-dimensional mathematical model was developed not only to describe the heat transport in the deposit and substrate, but also to simulate the gas-phase in the heated reaction zone and its effect on growth rate. The integrated model consists of three components: the substrate, rod, and gas-phase domains. Each component is a separate model and the three components are dynamically integrated into one model for simulating the iterative and complex process of rod deposition. The gas-phase reaction is modeled by the gas-phase component, an adaptive domain attached on the top part of the rod. Its size and mesh decomposition is dynamically determined by the rod temperature distribution and the chosen threshold. The temperature and molar ratio are predicted and used to adjust the growth rate, by taking into account the diffusion limited growth regime, and to improve the simulation of entire deposition process. The substrate component describes the heat flow into the substrate, and the substrate surface temperature can be used to predict the initial rod growth which may affect the successive growth of the rod. The rod growth process is simulated using a layer-by-layer axisymmetric model. For each layer, the rod grows along the outward normal direction at each point on the rod surface. This simplified model makes the process more predictable and easier to control by specifying the height of the rod and the number of total iterations. Finite difference schemes, iterative numerical methods, and parallel algorithms were developed for solving the model. The numerical computation is stable, convergent, and efficient. The model and numerical methods are implemented sequentially and in parallel using a standard C++ code and Message Passing Interface (MPI). The program can be easily installed and executed on different platforms, such as Unix

  12. Water and Nutrient Export Patterns of Urban Watersheds with Stormwater Control Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C.; McMillan, S. K.; Clinton, S. M.; Jefferson, A.; Tague, C.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic patterns of undeveloped ecosystems are altered by urbanization. Stream discharge rapidly responds to precipitation with elevated concentrations of nutrients, sediment and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that have the potential to adversely affect stream ecosystem function. The goal of this research was to understand the timing and magnitude of water and solute export during storm events in two urban and two suburban watersheds with stormwater control measures (SCMs) in Charlotte, NC. We sampled X storms from June 2010 - December 2011 to characterize hydrologic response and a subset of X storms were sampled intensively to identify export patterns of five environmentally reactive solutes (soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP), ammonium, nitrate, DOC, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN)). Key environmental variables, including temperature, magnitude and intensity of precipitation and antecedent moisture conditions were measured concurrently with instream response to develop predictive relationships and conceptual models for solute export. Similar chemograph response of nitrate, DOC and TDN at all sites support the hypothesis that these solutes come from the same source in each watershed. These three constituents displayed a 'flushing pattern' in which concentration increased with stream discharge. However, complex storms with multiple hydrograph peaks revealed a flushing response during the first peak followed by dilution in the second, which was attributed to varying nutrient concentrations from impervious surface runoff. Additionally, it was observed that the event mean concentration of all nitrogen species monitored was greatest at the site with the most urban development, whereas SRP was highest at the watershed with the least. Differences in timing of peak concentrations of each solute supports the hypothesis that multiple water sources contribute to instream concentrations different times during a rain event. Future work on this systems is focused on

  13. Hydrologic regime controls pattern and architecture of woody debris in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, L. A.; Grant, G.; Lewis, S.

    2015-12-01

    differences in flow-dictated wood architecture control channel stability and key channel structures. Understanding how flow regimes control wood accumulations and patterns is therefore fundamental to properly interpreting the geomorphic and ecologic role of wood in streams.

  14. Improvement in J{sub c} performance below liquid nitrogen temperature for SmBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} superconducting films with BaHfO{sub 3} nano-rods controlled by low-temperature growth

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, S. Yoshida, Y.; Ichino, Y.; Xu, Q.; Matsumoto, K.; Ichinose, A.; Awaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    For use in high-magnetic-field coil-based applications, the critical current density (J{sub c}) of REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) coated conductors must be isotropically improved, with respect to the direction of the magnetic field; these improvements must be realized at the operating conditions of these applications. In this study, improvement of the J{sub c} for various applied directions of magnetic field was achieved by controlling the morphology of the BaHfO{sub 3} (BHO) nano-rods in a SmBCO film. We fabricated the 3.0 vol. % BHO-doped SmBCO film at a low growth temperature of 720 °C, by using a seed layer technique (T{sub s} = 720 °C film). The low-temperature growth resulted in a morphological change in the BHO nano-rods. In fact, a high number density of (3.1 ± 0.1) × 10{sup 3} μm{sup −2} of small (diameter: 4 ± 1 nm), discontinuous nano-rods that grew in various directions, was obtained. In J{sub c} measurements, the J{sub c} of the T{sub s} = 720 °C film in all directions of the applied magnetic field was higher than that of the non-doped SmBCO film. The J{sub c}{sup min} (6.4 MA/cm{sup 2}) of the former was more than 6 times higher than that (1.0 MA/cm{sup 2}) of the latter at 40 K, under 3 T. The aforementioned results indicated that the discontinuous BHO nano-rods, which occurred with a high number density, exerted a 3D-like flux pinning at the measurement conditions considered. Moreover, at 4.2 K and under 17 T, a flux pinning force density of 1.6 TN/m{sup 3} was realized; this value was comparable to the highest value recorded, to date.

  15. Monsoonal versus Anthropogenic Controls on Erosion Patterns and Sediment Flux in the Song Gianh, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter; Jonell, Tara; Carter, Andrew; Van Hoang, Long; Böning, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    The Song Gianh is a small drainage on the northern central coast of Vietnam that delivers sediment into the Gulf of Tonkin. The basin provides the opportunity to evaluate what surface processes control continental erosion rates and patterns because there is a strong monsoonal precipitation gradient from the SW to NE. We apply several complimentary provenance methods to modern siliciclastic sediments of the Song Gianh to pinpoint regions of focused sediment generation and evaluate how sediment is mixed downstream and delivered to the ocean. We find that detrital zircon populations of Song Gianh main channel change radically downstream of the confluence with the northern Rao Tro tributary, which is dominated by 100-300 Ma grains eroded from granite bedrock. This tributary provides almost as much zircon to the main channel as all the headwater tributaries combined, despite being a much smaller, drier, and flatter sub-basin. In contrast, bulk sediment Nd and Sr isotopes indicate that most sediment is derived from the wetter headwater tributaries. Contribution from the southern tributaries to the net siliciclastic river flux is negligible. Precipitation and topography do not appear to modulate zircon production in the modern river although regions controlling bulk Nd and Sr compositions are wetter and have higher local relief. This apparent contrast in regions of sediment production suggests disequilibrium and differential travel times for zircon and mineral phases rich in Nd and Sr. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of alluvial terraces on the main channel show that the valleys aggraded rapidly from ~7-9 ka during a period of strong summer monsoon, suggesting that heavy rainfall generated large sediment volumes. Younger terraces dated to 500-1000 yrs BP are interpreted to reflect erosion and aggradation driven by extensive human agriculture. We speculate that agriculture, together with bedrock compositions, are the most likely control on producing the

  16. Assembly of Acircular SnO2 Rod Using Optical Tweezers and Laser Curing of Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanhyuk Nam,; Daehie Hong,; Jaeik Chung,; Jaewon Chung,; Insung Hwang,; Jongheun Lee,; Seunghwan Ko,; Costas P. Grigoropoulos,

    2010-05-01

    Acicular tin dioxide (SnO2) rods (1-2 μm in diameter, 5-20 μm long) were assembled and fused on the patterned gold electrode by an optical tweezer. In addition, the electrical contact between the assembled SnO2 rod and the gold electrode was improved by laser curing of gold nanoparticles and the subsequent sintering in the oven. Here, the nanoparticles covered the entire area of the assembled SnO2 rod by evaporating a droplet of nanoparticle solution dripped on the assembled SnO2 rod. Subsequently, nanoparticles near the contact area between the rod and electrode were locally cured by direct heating with a focused infrared laser beam, which induced desorption of the surface monolayer. Therefore, the cured gold nanoparticles could be sintered after the non-laser irradiated nanoparticles were cleaned by the initial solvent application. Without sintering of the nanoparticles, the resistance of the assembled SnO2 rod was measured over several MΩ. After the nanoparticle sintering it could be reduced to a few hundred kΩ, which was in agreement with the resistance of the assembled SnO2 rod.

  17. Assembly of Acircular SnO2 Rod Using Optical Tweezers and Laser Curing of Metal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Chanhyuk; Hong, Daehie; Chung, Jaeik; Chung, Jaewon; Hwang, Insung; Lee, Jongheun; Ko, Seunghwan; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2010-05-01

    Acicular tin dioxide (SnO2) rods (1-2 µm in diameter, 5-20 µm long) were assembled and fused on the patterned gold electrode by an optical tweezer. In addition, the electrical contact between the assembled SnO2 rod and the gold electrode was improved by laser curing of gold nanoparticles and the subsequent sintering in the oven. Here, the nanoparticles covered the entire area of the assembled SnO2 rod by evaporating a droplet of nanoparticle solution dripped on the assembled SnO2 rod. Subsequently, nanoparticles near the contact area between the rod and electrode were locally cured by direct heating with a focused infrared laser beam, which induced desorption of the surface monolayer. Therefore, the cured gold nanoparticles could be sintered after the non-laser irradiated nanoparticles were cleaned by the initial solvent application. Without sintering of the nanoparticles, the resistance of the assembled SnO2 rod was measured over several MΩ. After the nanoparticle sintering it could be reduced to a few hundred kΩ, which was in agreement with the resistance of the assembled SnO2 rod.

  18. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    SciTech Connect

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-30

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  19. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi; Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-01

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  20. Detecting spatio-temporal controls on depth distributions of root water uptake using soil moisture patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Landscape scale soil moisture patterns show a pronounced shift when plants become active during the growing season. Soil moisture patterns are then not only controlled by soils, topography and related abiotic site characteristics as well as site characteristic throughfall patterns but also by root water uptake. In this study root water uptake from different soil depths is estimated based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content and was investigated with a setup of 15 field sites in a forest in northeastern Germany. These sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands. Vegetation types include pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 5 soil moisture and soil temperature profiles, matric potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors as well as standard climate data. The resulting comprehensive data set of depth distributed root water uptake shows differences in overall amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions between different forest stands, but also related to slope position and thus depth to groundwater. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of root water uptake depending on water availability. The relative contributions of the different depths to overall root water uptake shift as the summer progresses. However, the relationship of these depth resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. This unique data set of depth specific contributions to root water uptake down to a depth of 2 m allows a much more detailed analysis of tree response to water availability than the more common transpiration estimates generated by sapflow or eddy flux measurements.

  1. Controlling for non-independence in comparative analysis of patterns across populations within species

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Graham N.; Nee, Sean; Felsenstein, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    How do we quantify patterns (such as responses to local selection) sampled across multiple populations within a single species? Key to this question is the extent to which populations within species represent statistically independent data points in our analysis. Comparative analyses across species and higher taxa have long recognized the need to control for the non-independence of species data that arises through patterns of shared common ancestry among them (phylogenetic non-independence), as have quantitative genetic studies of individuals linked by a pedigree. Analyses across populations lacking pedigree information fall in the middle, and not only have to deal with shared common ancestry, but also the impact of exchange of migrants between populations (gene flow). As a result, phenotypes measured in one population are influenced by processes acting on others, and may not be a good guide to either the strength or direction of local selection. Although many studies examine patterns across populations within species, few consider such non-independence. Here, we discuss the sources of non-independence in comparative analysis, and show why the phylogeny-based approaches widely used in cross-species analyses are unlikely to be useful in analyses across populations within species. We outline the approaches (intraspecific contrasts, generalized least squares, generalized linear mixed models and autoregression) that have been used in this context, and explain their specific assumptions. We highlight the power of ‘mixed models’ in many contexts where problems of non-independence arise, and show that these allow incorporation of both shared common ancestry and gene flow. We suggest what can be done when ideal solutions are inaccessible, highlight the need for incorporation of a wider range of population models in intraspecific comparative methods and call for simulation studies of the error rates associated with alternative approaches. PMID:21444315

  2. Nutrient intakes, nutritional patterns and the risk of liver cirrhosis: an explorative case-control study.

    PubMed

    Corrao, Giovanni; Zambon, Antonella; Bagnardi, Vinccnzo; Aricò, Sarino; Loguercio, Carmelina; D'Amicis, Amleto

    2004-01-01

    Several experimental studies have suggested that specific nutrients might play a role on the risk of liver damage. Nevertheless, few epidemiological studies have evaluated the role of diet on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis, giving contradictory results. To evaluate the role of the intake of nutritional factors and dietary patterns on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis and to examine their combined action with alcohol consumption we used data from the Italian Study on Liver Cirrhosis Determinants project. From 1994 to 1998 all the consecutive cirrhotic inpatients admitted to 19 Italian collaborative hospitals for signs of liver decompensation in whom the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was made for the first time (259 cases) and one or two gender, age and area of residence matched individuals (416 controls) were recruited. Data on lifetime alcohol intake, usual consumption of 191 food items and on markers of hepatitis B and C viral infection were collected. The analysis of principal components identified a nutritional pattern positively correlated with vegetable and fruit intakes and negatively with animal and no-fruit sugar products. With respect to abstainers, relative risks in consumers of use < or = 25 and > or = 51 g/day of alcohol increased from 0.4 [95% confidence interval 0.0, 5.9] to 9.3 [1.3, 69.0] and from 2.1 [1.1, 4.2] to 18.1 [2.8, 118.3] for the lowest and the highest value of this nutritional pattern, respectively. Diet might therefore modulate the damaging effect of alcohol on the liver.

  3. Controlling for non-independence in comparative analysis of patterns across populations within species.

    PubMed

    Stone, Graham N; Nee, Sean; Felsenstein, Joseph

    2011-05-12

    How do we quantify patterns (such as responses to local selection) sampled across multiple populations within a single species? Key to this question is the extent to which populations within species represent statistically independent data points in our analysis. Comparative analyses across species and higher taxa have long recognized the need to control for the non-independence of species data that arises through patterns of shared common ancestry among them (phylogenetic non-independence), as have quantitative genetic studies of individuals linked by a pedigree. Analyses across populations lacking pedigree information fall in the middle, and not only have to deal with shared common ancestry, but also the impact of exchange of migrants between populations (gene flow). As a result, phenotypes measured in one population are influenced by processes acting on others, and may not be a good guide to either the strength or direction of local selection. Although many studies examine patterns across populations within species, few consider such non-independence. Here, we discuss the sources of non-independence in comparative analysis, and show why the phylogeny-based approaches widely used in cross-species analyses are unlikely to be useful in analyses across populations within species. We outline the approaches (intraspecific contrasts, generalized least squares, generalized linear mixed models and autoregression) that have been used in this context, and explain their specific assumptions. We highlight the power of 'mixed models' in many contexts where problems of non-independence arise, and show that these allow incorporation of both shared common ancestry and gene flow. We suggest what can be done when ideal solutions are inaccessible, highlight the need for incorporation of a wider range of population models in intraspecific comparative methods and call for simulation studies of the error rates associated with alternative approaches.

  4. Image analysis for measuring rod network properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongjae; Choi, Jungkyu; Nam, Jaewook

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, metallic nanowires have been attracting significant attention as next-generation flexible transparent conductive films. The performance of films depends on the network structure created by nanowires. Gaining an understanding of their structure, such as connectivity, coverage, and alignment of nanowires, requires the knowledge of individual nanowires inside the microscopic images taken from the film. Although nanowires are flexible up to a certain extent, they are usually depicted as rigid rods in many analysis and computational studies. Herein, we propose a simple and straightforward algorithm based on the filtering in the frequency domain for detecting the rod-shape objects inside binary images. The proposed algorithm uses a specially designed filter in the frequency domain to detect image segments, namely, the connected components aligned in a certain direction. Those components are post-processed to be combined under a given merging rule in a single rod object. In this study, the microscopic properties of the rod networks relevant to the analysis of nanowire networks were measured for investigating the opto-electric performance of transparent conductive films and their alignment distribution, length distribution, and area fraction. To verify and find the optimum parameters for the proposed algorithm, numerical experiments were performed on synthetic images with predefined properties. By selecting proper parameters, the algorithm was used to investigate silver nanowire transparent conductive films fabricated by the dip coating method.

  5. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  6. Confinement stabilises single crystal vaterite rods.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Anna S; Albarracin, Eduardo J; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Ihli, Johannes; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2014-05-11

    Single-crystals of vaterite, the least-stable anhydrous polymorph of CaCO3, are rare in biogenic and synthetic systems. We here describe the synthesis of high aspect ratio single crystal vaterite rods under additive-free conditions by precipitating CaCO3 within the cylindrical pores of track-etch membranes.

  7. Using the Rods for Structural Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Patrick

    The innovative use of a visual cueing device, or rods, in a second language class to represent the parts of speech and the grammatical structure of a sentence is explained and illustrated. The advantages found in it are that individual structures are not learned as isolated elements but rather as parts of a larger system, and that there is more…

  8. Genetics Home Reference: intranuclear rod myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibers and are important for muscle contraction. Attachment (binding) and release of the overlapping thick and thin filaments allows them to move relative to each other so that the muscles can contract. ACTA1 gene mutations that cause intranuclear rod myopathy ...

  9. Drop Ejection From an Oscillating Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, E. D.; Basaran, O. A.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a drop of a Newtonian liquid that is pendant from or sessile on a solid rod that is forced to undergo time-periodic oscillations along its axis is studied theoretically. The free boundary problem governing the time evolution of the shape of the drop and the flow field inside it is solved by a method of lines using a finite element algorithm incorporating an adaptive mesh. When the forcing amplitude is small, the drop approaches a limit cycle at large times and undergoes steady oscillations thereafter. However, drop breakup is the consequence if the forcing amplitude exceeds a critical value. Over a wide range of amplitudes above this critical value, drop ejection from the rod occurs during the second oscillation period from the commencement of rod motion. Remarkably, the shape of the interface at breakup and the volume of the primary drop formed are insensitive to changes in forcing amplitude. The interface shape at times close to and at breakup is a multi-valued function of distance measured along the rod axis and hence cannot be described by recently popularized one-dimensional approximations. The computations show that drop ejection occurs without the formation of a long neck. Therefore, this method of drop formation holds promise of preventing formation of undesirable satellite droplets.

  10. Adjustable solitary waves in electroactive rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Zhang, C. L.; Dai, H.-H.; Chen, W. Q.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an asymptotic analysis of solitary waves propagating in an incompressible isotropic electroactive circular rod subjected to a biasing longitudinal electric displacement. Several asymptotic expansions are introduced to simplify the rod governing equations. The boundary conditions on the lateral surface of the rod are satisfied from the asymptotic point of view. In the limit of finite-small amplitude and long wavelength, a set of ten simplified one-dimensional nonlinear governing equations is established. To validate our approach and the derivation, we compare the linear dispersion relation with the one directly derived from the three-dimensional linear theory in the limit of long wavelength. Then, by the reductive perturbation method, we deduce the far-field equation (i.e. the KdV equation). Finally, the leading order of the electroelastic solitary wave solution is presented. Numerical examples are provided to show the influences of the biasing electric displacement and material constants on the solitary waves. It is found that the biasing electric displacement can modulate the velocity of solitary waves with a prescribed amplitude in the electroactive rod, a very interesting result which may promote the particular application of solitary waves in solids with multi-field coupling.

  11. 49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse position....

  12. 49 CFR 236.793 - Rod, lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., attached to the front rod or lug of a switch, movable-point frog or derail, through which a locking plunger may extend when the switch points or derail are in the normal or reverse position....

  13. Monodisperse hard rods in external potentials.

    PubMed

    Bakhti, Benaoumeur; Karbach, Michael; Maass, Philipp; Müller, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    We consider linear arrays of cells of volume V(c) populated by monodisperse rods of size σV(c),σ=1,2,..., subject to hardcore exclusion interaction. Each rod experiences a position-dependent external potential. In one application we also examine effects of contact forces between rods. We employ two distinct methods of exact analysis with complementary strengths and different limits of spatial resolution to calculate profiles of pressure and density on mesoscopic and microscopic length scales at thermal equilibrium. One method uses density functionals and the other statistically interacting vacancy particles. The applications worked out include gravity, power-law traps, and hard walls. We identify oscillations in the profiles on a microscopic length scale and show how they are systematically averaged out on a well-defined mesoscopic length scale to establish full consistency between the two approaches. The continuum limit, realized as V(c)→0,σ→∞ at nonzero and finite σV(c), connects our highest-resolution results with known exact results for monodisperse rods in a continuum. We also compare the pressure profiles obtained from density functionals with the average microscopic pressure profiles derived from the pair distribution function.

  14. Scattering from coated structures and antenna pattern control using impedance surfaces, part A/B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polka, Lesley A.; Liu, Kefeng

    1990-01-01

    The scattering from coated, conducting structures, specifically the coated dihedral corner reflector configuration and the coated strip/plate configuration is examined. The formulation uses impedance-wedge Uniform Theory of Diffraction scattering coefficients to calculate the diffracted fields. A finite-thickness coating is approximated using the impedance boundary condition to arrive at an equivalent impedance for the coating. The formulation of the impedance wedge coefficients is outlined. Far-field, perfectly conducting approximations are discussed. Problems with the present dihedral corner reflector model for certain angles of incidence and observation are discussed along with a potentially rectifying modification. Also, the capacity to measure the electromagnetic properties of lossy materials was developed. The effects of using multiple material coatings on the radiation pattern of the horn antenna were studied. Numerous computations were devoted toward the inverse problem of synthesizing desired radiation patterns using the impedance surfaces. Stabilizing the equivalent sheet impedance using the linear control condition was attempted, and it was found to be a very difficult task.

  15. Climatic controls on hurricane patterns: a 1200-y near-annual record from Lighthouse Reef, Belize

    PubMed Central

    Denommee, K. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Droxler, A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are powerful agents of destruction, and understanding climatic controls on TC patterns is of great importance. Over timescales of seasons to several decades, relationships among TC track, frequency, intensity and basin-scale climate changes are well documented by instrumental records. Over centuries to millennia, climate-shift influence on TC regimes remains poorly constrained. To better understand these relationships, records from multiple locations of TC strikes spanning millennia with high temporal resolution are required, but such records are rare. Here we report on a highly detailed sedimentary proxy record of paleo-TC strikes from the Blue Hole of Lighthouse Reef, Belize. Our findings provide an important addition to other high-resolution records, which collectively demonstrate that shifts between active and inactive TC regimes have occurred contemporaneously with shifts hemispheric-scale oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns such as MDR SSTs and NAO mode, rather than with changes in local climate phenomena as has previously been suggested. PMID:24464265

  16. Control of distributed autonomous robotic systems using principles of pattern formation in nature and pedestrian behavior.

    PubMed

    Molnar, P; Starke, J

    2001-01-01

    Self-organized and error-resistant control of distributed autonomous robotic units in a manufacturing environment with obstacles where the robotic units have to be assigned to manufacturing targets in a cost effective way, is achieved by using two fundamental principles of nature. First, the selection behavior of modes is used which appears in pattern formation of physical, chemical and biological systems. Coupled selection equations based on these pattern formation principles can be used as dynamical system approach to assignment problems. These differential equations guarantee feasibility of the obtained solutions which is of great importance in industrial applications. Second, a model of behavioral forces is used, which has been successfully applied to describe self-organized crowd behavior of pedestrians. This novel approach includes collision avoidance as well as error resistivity. In particular, in systems where failures are of concern, the suggested approach outperforms conventional methods in covering up for sudden external changes like breakdowns of some robotic units. The capability of this system is demonstrated in computer simulations.

  17. Fetal development of complex autonomic control evaluated from multiscale heart rate patterns.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dirk; Nowack, Samuel; Bauer, Stephan; Tetschke, Florian; Rudolph, Anja; Wallwitz, Ulrike; Jaenicke, Franziska; Heinicke, Esther; Götz, Theresa; Huonker, Ralph; Witte, Otto W; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-03-01

    Development of the fetal autonomic nervous system's integrative capacity in relation to gestational age and emerging behavioral pattern is reflected in fetal heart rate patterns. Conventional indices of vagal and sympathetic rhythms cannot sufficiently reflect their complex interrelationship. Universal behavioral indices of developing complex systems may provide additional information regarding the maturating complex autonomic control. We investigated fetal magnetocardiographic recordings undertaken at 10-min intervals in active (n = 248) and quiet (n = 111) states between 22 and 39 wk gestational age. Standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, skewness, contribution of particular rhythms to the total power, and multiscale entropy were analyzed. The multiscale entropy methodology was validated for 10-min data sets. Age dependence was analyzed by linear regression. In the quiet state, contribution of sympathovagal rhythms and their complexity over a range of corresponding short scales increased with rising age, and skewness shifted from negative to positive values. In the active state, age dependencies were weaker. Skewness as the strongest parameter shifted in the same direction. Fluctuation amplitude and the complexity of scales associated with sympathovagal rhythms increased. We conclude that in the quiet state, stable complex organized rhythms develop. In the active state, however, increasing behavioral variability due to multiple internal coordinations, such as movement-related heart rate accelerations, and external influences develop. Hence, the state-selective assessment in association with developmental indices used herein may substantially improve evaluation of maturation age and early detection and interpretation of developmental problems in prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Control of the Diurnal Pattern of Methane Emission from Emergent Aquatic Macrophytes by Gas Transport Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    Methane emissions from Typha latifolia (L.) showed a large mid-morning transient peak associated with rising light levels. This peak was also associated with a steep decline in lacunal CH, concentrations near the stem base. This pattern contrasted sharply with emissions from Peltandra virginica (L.) that gradually rose to a peak in the mid-afternoon corresponding to elevated air temperatures. Internal CH4 concentrations within P. virginica stems did not change significantly over the diurnal period. Stomatal conductance appeared to correlate directly with light levels in both plant types and were not associated with peak CH4 emission events in either plant. These patterns are consistent with a convective throughflow and diffusive gas ventilation systems for Typha and Peltandra, respectively. Further effects of the convective throughflow in T. latifolia were evident in the elevated CH4 concentrations measured within brown leaves as contrasted to the near ambient levels measured within live green leaves. Experimental manipulation of elevated and reduced CO2 levels in the atmosphere surrounding the plants and of light/dark periods suggested that stomatal aperture has little or no control of methane emissions from T. latifolia.

  19. Fabrication of bifocal microlens arrays based on controlled electrohydrodynamic reflowing of pre-patterned polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hong; Tian, Hongmiao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Jiang, Chengbao; Liu, Hongzhong

    2014-09-01

    An easy method based on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) reflowing of pre-patterned polymer is proposed in this study for the fabrication of bifocal microlens arrays (MLAs). The method comprises two sequential steps, i.e. hot embossing for generating a polymer-based micropillar array and EHD reflowing of the micropillars for the formation of a bifocal MLA with controllable surface shape and optical performance. The EHD reflowing process is achieved by applying a voltage across an electrode pair sandwiching an air gap and the pre-patterned polymer, and the EHD force induced on the air-polymer interface reshapes the pillar array into the MLA. The complex bifocal microlens can be achieved only when the electric intensity is stronger than that required to produce a commonly known Taylor cone, which is formed when the EHD force exactly surpasses the surface tension. Finally, the light through MLA is imaged on a moving charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and leads to an observation of two focal planes.

  20. Sand dune patterns on Titan controlled by long-term climate cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Hayes, Alex G.; Lucas, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Linear sand dunes cover the equatorial latitudes of Saturn's moon Titan and are shaped by global wind patterns. These dunes are thought to reflect present-day diurnal, tidal and seasonal winds, but climate models have failed to reproduce observed dune morphologies with these wind patterns. Dunes diagnostic of a specific wind or formative timescale have remained elusive. Here we analyse radar imagery from NASA's Cassini spacecraft and identify barchan, star and reoriented dunes in sediment-limited regions of Titan's equatorial dune fields that diverge by 23° on average from the orientation of linear dunes. These morphologies imply shifts in wind direction and sediment availability. Using a numerical model, we estimate that the observed reorientation of dune crests to a change in wind direction would have taken around 3,000 Saturn years (1 Saturn year ~ 29.4 Earth years) or longer--a timescale that exceeds diurnal, seasonal or tidal cycles. We propose that shifts in winds and sediment availability are the product of long-term climate cycles associated with variations in Saturn's orbit. Orbitally controlled landscape evolution--also proposed to explain the distribution of Titan's polar lakes--implies a dune-forming climate on equatorial Titan that is analogous to Earth.