Science.gov

Sample records for control technical exchange

  1. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  2. Microtube strip heat exchanger. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1992-07-09

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with ``conventional`` microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  3. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  4. The Electrically Controlled Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jacob

    Controlling magnetism via voltage in the virtual absence of electric current is the key to reduce power consumption while enhancing processing speed, integration density and functionality in comparison with present-day information technology. Almost all spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is therefore a key challenge to better spintronics. However, there is no direct interaction between magnetization and electric fields, thus making voltage control of magnetism in general a scientific challenge. The significance of controlled interface magnetism started with the exchange-bias effect. Exchange bias is a coupling phenomenon at magnetic interfaces that manifests itself prominently in the shift of the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop along the magnetic-field axis. Various attempts on controlling exchange bias via voltage utilizing different scientific principles have been intensively studied recently. The majority of present research is emphasizing on various complex oxides. Our approach can be considered as a paradigm shift away from complex oxides. We focus on a magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic simple oxide Cr2O3. From a combination of experimental and theoretical efforts, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr2O3 single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This is a significant scientific breakthrough providing a new route towards potentially revolutionizing information technology. In addition, a second path of electrically controlled exchange bias is introduced by exploiting the piezoelectric property of BaTiO3. An exchange-bias Co

  5. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established.

  6. Electric Control of Exchange Bias Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, W.; Binek, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    Voltage-controlled exchange bias training and tunability are introduced. Isothermal voltage pulses are used to reverse the antiferromagnetic order parameter of magnetoelectric Cr2O3, and thus continuously tune the exchange bias of an adjacent CoPd film. Voltage-controlled exchange bias training is initialized by tuning the antiferromagnetic interface into a nonequilibrium state incommensurate with the underlying bulk. Interpretation of these hitherto unreported effects contributes to new understanding in electrically controlled magnetism.

  7. Full Electric Control of Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. M.; Cybart, Shane A.; Yi, D.; Parker, James M.; Ramesh, R.; Dynes, R. C.

    2013-02-01

    We report the creation of a multiferroic field effect device with a BiFeO3 (BFO) (antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric) gate dielectric and a La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) (ferromagnetic) conducting channel that exhibits direct, bipolar electrical control of exchange bias. We show that exchange bias is reversibly switched between two stable states with opposite exchange bias polarities upon ferroelectric poling of the BFO. No field cooling, temperature cycling, or additional applied magnetic or electric field beyond the initial BFO polarization is needed for this bipolar modulation effect. Based on these results and the current understanding of exchange bias, we propose a model to explain the control of exchange bias. In this model the coupled antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric order in BFO along with the modulation of interfacial exchange interactions due to ionic displacement of Fe3+ in BFO relative to Mn3+/4+ in LSMO cause bipolar modulation.

  8. Electrically controlled cesium ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.

    1996-10-01

    Several sites within the DOE complex (Savannah River, Idaho, Oak Ridge and Hanford) have underground storage tanks containing high-level waste resulting from nuclear engineering activities. To facilitate final disposal of the tank waste, it is advantageous to separate and concentrate the radionuclides for final immobilization in a vitrified glass matrix. This task proposes a new approach for radionuclide separation by combining ion exchange (IX) and electrochemistry to provide a selective and economic separation method.

  9. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  10. Introducing Realism into the Technical Definition Assignment (Exercise Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jerome

    1989-01-01

    Describes a writing exercise to help technical writing students determine the appropriate methods of extension for technical definitions, decide which terms need to be defined for a particular audience, and place definitions effectively in the document. (MM)

  11. Optimal Corrosion Control Treatment Evaluation Technical Recommendations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides technical recommendations that both systems and primacy agencies can use to comply with LCR CCT requirements and effective evaluation and designation of optimal corrosion control treatment (OCCT).

  12. NASA's experience in the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the aerospace field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibideau, Philip A.

    1990-01-01

    The early NASA international scientific and technical information exchange arrangements were usually detailed in correspondence with the librarians of the institutions involved. While this type of exchange grew to include some 200 organizations in 43 countries, NASA's main focus shifted to the relationship with the European Space Agency (ESA), which began in 1964. The NASA/ESA Tripartite Exchange Program provides more than 4000 technical reports from the NASA-produced Aerospace Database. The experience in the evolving cooperation between NASA and ESA has established the model for more recent exchange agreements with Israel, Australia, and Canada. The results of these agreements are made available to participating European organizations through the NASA File.

  13. Full Electric Field Control of Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Exchange bias is the shift of a magnetic hysteresis curve due to interfacial magnetic coupling between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM). This ubiquitous effect has long been used in the electronics industry to bias the magnetization of FM layers in magnetic devices. Its continued understanding is of critical importance to advance the development of future high-density magnetic storage media and other novel magnetic devices. However, due to the technological limitations of manipulating and observing an atomically thin interface, exchange bias is not well understood. In this talk we present a multiferroic field effect device with BiFeO3 (BFO) (antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric) as the gate dielectric and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) (ferromagnetic) as the conducting channel, which exhibits the direct, bipolar electric control of exchange bias. Here the magnetic states at the AFM/FM interface can be directly manipulated with electric fields and the results can be observed as a change in exchange bias polarity and magnitude. Control of exchange bias at this level has significant implications because it represents a form of electric field control of magnetism and may potentially offer a route toward the eventual full electric field control of magnetization. In this device, exchange bias is reversibly switched between two stable states with opposite exchange bias polarities upon ferroelectric poling of the BFO. No field cooling, temperature cycling, or additional applied magnetic or electric field beyond BFO poling is needed for this bipolar modulation effect. Detailed temperature dependent measurements and a model will be presented which will attribute this effect to the coupled antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric order in BFO along with the modulation of interfacial exchange interactions due to ionic displacement of Fe3+ in BFO relative to Mn3 + / 4 + in LSMO.

  14. The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. 34th Annual Report 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience/United States, Columbia, MD.

    The 1981 annual report of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE) is presented. IAESTE seeks to provide students at institutions of higher education with technical experience abroad relative to their studies and to promote international understanding among all students. An international report…

  15. Pulling back the covers: technical lessons of a real-world health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Atif; Dixon, Brian E

    2007-01-01

    Several nations and local communities are striving to achieve widespread, secure exchange of clinical data between various health care providers and public health organizations. Most of the literature on health information exchange focuses on the financial, political, and privacy aspects of these initiatives. Perhaps just as important are the technical and organizational factors that have influenced development of data exchange methods and results. One mature network in the Midwestern United States has had success in establishing consistent, secure exchange of clinical data for more than ten years. Presented here are the technical lessons learned and design decisions made from this initiative with the hope that they can be used by others striving to connect disparate clinical information systems for the improvement of health care quality and safety.

  16. Distributed control using linear momentum exchange devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, J. P.; Waites, Henry; Doane, G. B., III

    1987-01-01

    MSFC has successfully employed the use of the Vibrational Control of Space Structures (VCOSS) Linear Momentum Exchange Devices (LMEDs), which was an outgrowth of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory (AFWAL) program, in a distributed control experiment. The control experiment was conducted in MSFC's Ground Facility for Large Space Structures Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The GF/LSSCV's test article was well suited for this experiment in that the LMED could be judiciously placed on the ASTROMAST. The LMED placements were such that vibrational mode information could be extracted from the accelerometers on the LMED. The LMED accelerometer information was processed by the control algorithms so that the LMED masses could be accelerated to produce forces which would dampen the vibrational modes of interest. Experimental results are presented showing the LMED's capabilities.

  17. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program 1996 technical exchange meeting. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1996 Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program Technical Exchange Meeting. This meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users and other interested parties within the EM community. During this meeting the following many separation processes technologies were discussed such as ion exchange, membrane separation, vacuum distillation, selective sorption, and solvent extraction. Other topics discussed include: waste forms; testing or inorganic sorbents for radionuclide and heavy metal removal; selective crystallization; and electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes. This is the leading abstract, individual papers have been indexed separately for the databases.

  18. Proceedings of the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program Annual Technical Exchange Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1995 Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) Annual Technical Exchange Meeting. The ESP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development. The meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users (for example, EM focus areas), and other interested parties within EM. During this meeting, developers of ESP-funded technologies describe the problems and needs addressed by their technologies; the technical approach, accomplishments, and resolution of issues; the strategy and schedule for commercialization; and evolving potential applications. Presenters are asked to address the following areas: Target waste management problem, waste stream, or data need; scientific background and technical approach; technical accomplishments and resolution of technical issues; schedule and strategy for commercializing and implementing the technology or acquiring needed data; potential alternate applications of the technology or data, including outside of DOE/EM. The meeting is not a program review of the individual tasks or subtasks; but instead focuses on the technical aspects and implementation of ESP-sponsored technology or data. The meeting is also attended by members of the ESP Technical Review Team, who have the opportunity at that time to review the ESP as a whole.

  19. Prefabricated heat-exchanging fireplace. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schleper, M.A.

    1981-06-15

    A heat-exchanging fireplace was installed in a 2000 square foot home and the standard air distribution equipment was ducted directly to the forced-air heating system of the home. The standard air distribution equipment for the fireplace included two squirrel-cage blowers which were connected to a thermostat, allowing a choice of temperature ranges; and a snap disc thermostat was used to disconnect the blowers in order to avoid blowing cold air after the fire died out. Arranged in this manner, one is able to set the regular home thermostat a few degrees lower than the fireplace thermostat, and this will allow the regular heating system to turn on after the fire has gone out in the fireplace. Energy consumption in both the fireplace and the conventional heating system was monitored throughout a heating season and then compared with past heating seasons when only a conventional heating system was used.

  20. Technical Data Exchange Software Tools Adapted to Distributed Microsatellite Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pache, Charly

    2002-01-01

    One critical issue concerning distributed design of satellites, is the collaborative work it requires. In particular, the exchange of data between each group responsible for each subsystem can be complex and very time-consuming. The goal of this paper is to present a design collaborative tool, the SSETI Design Model (SDM), specifically developed for enabling satellite distributed design. SDM is actually used in the ongoing Student Space Exploration &Technology (SSETI) initiative (www.sseti.net). SSETI is lead by European Space Agency (ESA) outreach office (http://www.estec.esa.nl/outreach), involving student groups from all over Europe for design, construction and launch of a microsatellite. The first part of this paper presents the current version of the SDM tool, a collection of Microsoft Excel linked worksheets, one for each subsystem. An overview of the project framework/structure is given, explaining the different actors, the flows between them, as well as the different types of data and the links - formulas - between data sets. Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams give an overview of the different parts . Then the SDM's functionalities, developed in VBA scripts (Visual Basic for Application), are introduced, as well as the interactive features, user interfaces and administration tools. The second part discusses the capabilities and limitations of SDM current version. Taking into account these capabilities and limitations, the third part outlines the next version of SDM, a web-oriented, database-driven evolution of the current version. This new approach will enable real-time data exchange and processing between the different actors of the mission. Comprehensive UML diagrams will guide the audience through the entire modeling process of such a system. Tradeoffs simulation capabilities, security, reliability, hardware and software issues will also be thoroughly discussed.

  1. The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. 32nd Annual Report 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience/United States, Columbia, MD.

    After a general outline of the organization of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience and a brief introduction to its functions and activities, this annual report contains the international report. This includes: the report of the General Secretary; a list of international visits and visitors; publicity…

  2. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  3. NASA's experience in the international exchange of scientific and technical information in the aerospace field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibideau, Philip A.

    1989-01-01

    The early NASA international scientific and technical information (STI) exchange arrangements were usually detailed in correspondence with the librarians of the institutions involved. While this type of exchange, which involved only hardcopy (paper) products, grew to include some 220 organization in 43 countries, NASA's main focus shifted substantially to the STI relationship with the European Space Agency (ESA) which began in 1964. The NASA/ESA Tripartite Exchange Program, which now has more than 500 participants, provides more than 4,000 highly-relevant technical reports, fully processed, for the NASA produced 'Aerospace Database'. In turn, NASA provides an updated copy of this Database, known in Europe as the 'NASA File', for access, through ESA's Information Retrieval Service, by participating European organizations. Our experience in the evolving cooperation with ESA has established the 'model' for our more recent exchange agreements with Israel, Australia, Canada, and one under negotiation with Japan. The results of these agreements are made available to participating European organizations through the NASA File.

  4. PROGRAMED EXCHANGES AND THE CONTROL OF AGGRESSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELLIS, DESMOND P.; HAMBLIN, ROBERT L.

    SYSTEMS OF EXCHANGE - USING THE EXTINCTION, DISTRACTION, AND SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS SYSTEMS - WERE IMPLEMENTED TO DECREASE AGGRESSION AND PROMOTE COOPERATION AND SCHOLARLY BEHAVIOR, THREE SYSTEMS WERE TESTED USING EXCHANGE THEORY AS A GUIDE. THE SUBJECTS WERE FIVE 4- AND 5-YEAR-OLD BOYS DIAGNOSED AS HYPERAGGRESSIVE. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS INCLUDED…

  5. Control strategies in a thermal oil - Molten salt heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Lidia; Bonilla, Javier; Rodríguez-García, Margarita M.; Palenzuela, Patricia; de la Calle, Alberto; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary control scheme for a molten salt - thermal oil heat exchanger. This controller regulates the molten salt mass flow rate to reach and maintain the desired thermal oil temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger. The controller architecture has been tested using an object-oriented heat exchanger model that has been validated with data from a molten salt testing facility located at CIEMAT-PSA. Different simulations are presented with three different goals: i) to analyze the controller response in the presence of disturbances, ii) to demonstrate the benefits of designing a setpoint generator and iii) to show the controller potential against electricity price variations.

  6. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

  7. (Technical exchange in robotics for reactor decommissioning between the USA and Japan)

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbin, C.R.

    1987-09-22

    Japan is one of the world leaders in artificial intelligence and robotics. A major collaborative program already exists between the ORNL CFRP effort in advanced teleoperations and the Japanese interest in remote handling for nuclear fuel reprocessing. The subject visit was stimulated by the Japanese to foster a broader exchange in the area of autonomous robotics and intelligent machines. Following a visit to CESAR approximately one year ago, JAERI proposed a similar initiative in intelligent autonomous machines. This effort (HASP) has been formally approved as a ten year program, and initiated in its first year with eight full-time researchers. Beginning next year, it is expected that this effort will grow to its maximum level of 25 researchers per year. Prospects for potential technical exchange in AI/robotics appear promising. Additional opportunities may exist in remote handling for reactor decommissioning.

  8. Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    Controlling Office is (insert controlling DoD office). NUREG /CR-6635 BNL- NUREG -52565 Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance...DC 20555-0001 AVAILABILITY NOTICE Availability of Reference Materials Cited in NRC Publications NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regu...Technical Information Service Springfield, VA 22161 -0002 <http://www.ntis.gov> 1 -800-553-6847 or locally 703-605-6000 The NUREG series

  9. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  10. Profitability of simple technical trading rules of Chinese stock exchange indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Although technical trading rules have been widely used by practitioners in financial markets, their profitability still remains controversial. We here investigate the profitability of moving average (MA) and trading range break (TRB) rules by using the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHCI) from May 21, 1992 through December 31, 2013 and Shenzhen Stock Exchange Component Index (SZCI) from April 3, 1991 through December 31, 2013. The t-test is adopted to check whether the mean returns which are conditioned on the trading signals are significantly different from unconditioned returns and whether the mean returns conditioned on the buy signals are significantly different from the mean returns conditioned on the sell signals. We find that TRB rules outperform MA rules and short-term variable moving average (VMA) rules outperform long-term VMA rules. By applying White's Reality Check test and accounting for the data snooping effects, we find that the best trading rule outperforms the buy-and-hold strategy when transaction costs are not taken into consideration. Once transaction costs are included, trading profits will be eliminated completely. Our analysis suggests that simple trading rules like MA and TRB cannot beat the standard buy-and-hold strategy for the Chinese stock exchange indexes.

  11. Technical Justification for Radiation Controls at an Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DUPAQUIER, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the technical approach used to establish radiation protection controls over incoming radioactive materials to an environmental measurements laboratory at the Hanford Site. Conditions that would trigger internal dosimetry, posting.

  12. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  13. Gas controller's paper pipeline - transportation and exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    When gas supplies began to decline during the 1970s, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission promulgated Orders 402 and 402-A to allow curtailed companies to make 60-day emergency purchases. In assisting its customer companies with such transactions, Texas Gas encountered several problems: the gas had to be allocated to each company, the sales required separate billing, the allocated volumes had to be received and delivered, and new contracts were necessary. Another stopgap measure, known as the 533 transportation service, also proved difficult to implement because the gas volumes were usually very small and were often interrupted when regular supplies began to resume. Under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, interstate companies could offer the same gas prices to producers that intrastate companies paid; the NGPA also allowed sales from intra- to interstate companies. These provisions created a greater need for transportation-or-exchange service among all the parties. More recently, the FERC's Order 60 gave interstate companies the power to enter into self-implementing transportation-or-exchange service. Under legal modifications now being considered, pipeline companies will be able to significantly reduce regulatory delays by using blanket certificates.

  14. Overcoming technical challenges when treating atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome with therapeutic plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Zimbudzi, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a very rare, life-threatening, progressive disease that frequently has a genetic component and in most cases is triggered by an uncontrolled activation of the complement system. Successful treatment of aHUS with plasma infusions and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is well reported. TPE has been the treatment of choice in most adult patients with aHUS. However, due to severe hemolysis, which is common among aHUS patients, there are some technical challenges that can affect TPE treatment such as the continuous activation of the blood leak alarm due to hemolysis. Our experience shows that such patients can be managed better on a centrifuge based TPE machine compared to a membrane based TPE machine.

  15. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least...

  16. Technical Architecture of ONC-Approved Plans For Statewide Health Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, Randolph C.; Ezzard, John

    2011-01-01

    ONC-approved state plans for HIE were reviewed for descriptions and depictions of statewide HIE technical architecture. Review was complicated by non-standard organizational elements and technical terminology across state plans. Findings were mapped to industry standard, referenced, and defined HIE architecture descriptions and characteristics. Results are preliminary due to the initial subset of ONC-approved plans available, the rapid pace of new ONC-plan approvals, and continuing advancements in standards and technology of HIE, etc. Review of 28 state plans shows virtually all include a direct messaging component, but for participating entities at state-specific levels of granularity (RHIO, enterprise, organization/provider). About ½ of reviewed plans describe a federated architecture, and ¼ of plans utilize a single-vendor “hybrid-federated” architecture. About 1/3 of states plan to leverage new federal and open exchange technologies (DIRECT, CONNECT, etc.). Only one plan describes a centralized architecture for statewide HIE, but others combine central and federated architectural approaches. PMID:22195059

  17. Technical architecture of ONC-approved plans for statewide health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Randolph C; Ezzard, John

    2011-01-01

    ONC-approved state plans for HIE were reviewed for descriptions and depictions of statewide HIE technical architecture. Review was complicated by non-standard organizational elements and technical terminology across state plans. Findings were mapped to industry standard, referenced, and defined HIE architecture descriptions and characteristics. Results are preliminary due to the initial subset of ONC-approved plans available, the rapid pace of new ONC-plan approvals, and continuing advancements in standards and technology of HIE, etc. Review of 28 state plans shows virtually all include a direct messaging component, but for participating entities at state-specific levels of granularity (RHIO, enterprise, organization/provider). About ½ of reviewed plans describe a federated architecture, and ¼ of plans utilize a single-vendor "hybrid-federated" architecture. About 1/3 of states plan to leverage new federal and open exchange technologies (DIRECT, CONNECT, etc.). Only one plan describes a centralized architecture for statewide HIE, but others combine central and federated architectural approaches.

  18. Learning from Health Information Exchange Technical Architecture and Implementation in Seven Beacon Communities

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Douglas B.; Propp, Karen; Cohen, Alexander; Sabharwal, Raj; Schachter, Abigail A.; Rein, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    As health care providers adopt and make “meaningful use” of health information technology (health IT), communities and delivery systems must set up the infrastructure to facilitate health information exchange (HIE) between providers and numerous other stakeholders who have a role in supporting health and care. By facilitating better communication and coordination between providers, HIE has the potential to improve clinical decision-making and continuity of care, while reducing unnecessary use of services. When implemented as part of a broader strategy for health care delivery system and payment reform, HIE capability also can enable the use of analytic tools needed for population health management, patient engagement in care, and continuous learning and improvement. The diverse experiences of seven communities that participated in the three-year federal Beacon Community Program offer practical insight into factors influencing the technical architecture of exchange infrastructure and its role in supporting improved care, reduced cost, and a healthier population. The case studies also document challenges faced by the communities, such as significant time and resources required to harmonize variations in the interpretation of data standards. Findings indicate that their progress developing community-based HIE strategies, while driven by local needs and objectives, is also influenced by broader legal, policy, and market conditions. PMID:25848591

  19. Learning from health information exchange technical architecture and implementation in seven beacon communities.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Douglas B; Propp, Karen; Cohen, Alexander; Sabharwal, Raj; Schachter, Abigail A; Rein, Alison L

    2014-01-01

    As health care providers adopt and make "meaningful use" of health information technology (health IT), communities and delivery systems must set up the infrastructure to facilitate health information exchange (HIE) between providers and numerous other stakeholders who have a role in supporting health and care. By facilitating better communication and coordination between providers, HIE has the potential to improve clinical decision-making and continuity of care, while reducing unnecessary use of services. When implemented as part of a broader strategy for health care delivery system and payment reform, HIE capability also can enable the use of analytic tools needed for population health management, patient engagement in care, and continuous learning and improvement. The diverse experiences of seven communities that participated in the three-year federal Beacon Community Program offer practical insight into factors influencing the technical architecture of exchange infrastructure and its role in supporting improved care, reduced cost, and a healthier population. The case studies also document challenges faced by the communities, such as significant time and resources required to harmonize variations in the interpretation of data standards. Findings indicate that their progress developing community-based HIE strategies, while driven by local needs and objectives, is also influenced by broader legal, policy, and market conditions.

  20. Control of the Oscillatory Interlayer Exchange Interaction with Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uta; Haack, Géraldine; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The oscillatory interlayer exchange interaction between two magnetic layers separated by a metallic spacer is one of the few coherent quantum phenomena that persists at room temperature. Here, we show that this interaction can be controlled dynamically by illuminating the sample (e.g., a spin valve) with radiation in the 10-100 THz range. We predict that the exchange interaction can be changed from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic (and vice versa) by tuning the amplitude and/or the frequency of the radiation. Our chief theoretical result is an expression that relates the dynamical exchange interaction to the static one that has already been extensively measured.

  1. Control of quantum magnets by atomic exchange bias.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A J; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of discretized states in quantum magnets has a radical impact on their properties. Managing this effect is key for spintronics in the quantum limit. Magnetic fields can modify state mixing and, for example, mitigate destabilizing effects in single-molecule magnets. The exchange bias field has been proposed as a mechanism for localized control of individual nanomagnets. Here, we demonstrate that exchange coupling with the magnetic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope provides continuous tuning of spin state mixing in an individual nanomagnet. By directly measuring spin relaxation time with electronic pump-probe spectroscopy, we find that the exchange interaction acts analogously to a local magnetic field that can be applied to a specific atom. It can be tuned in strength by up to several tesla and cancel external magnetic fields, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of complete control over individual quantum magnets with atomically localized exchange coupling.

  2. Control of quantum magnets by atomic exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shichao; Choi, Deung-Jang; Burgess, Jacob A. J.; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of discretized states in quantum magnets has a radical impact on their properties. Managing this effect is key for spintronics in the quantum limit. Magnetic fields can modify state mixing and, for example, mitigate destabilizing effects in single-molecule magnets. The exchange bias field has been proposed as a mechanism for localized control of individual nanomagnets. Here, we demonstrate that exchange coupling with the magnetic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope provides continuous tuning of spin state mixing in an individual nanomagnet. By directly measuring spin relaxation time with electronic pump-probe spectroscopy, we find that the exchange interaction acts analogously to a local magnetic field that can be applied to a specific atom. It can be tuned in strength by up to several tesla and cancel external magnetic fields, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of complete control over individual quantum magnets with atomically localized exchange coupling.

  3. The predictive protective control of the heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevriva, Pavel; Filipova, Blanka; Vilimec, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the predictive control applied to flexible cogeneration energy system FES. FES was designed and developed by the VITKOVICE POWER ENGINEERING joint-stock company and represents a new solution of decentralized cogeneration energy sources. In FES, the heating medium is flue gas generated by combustion of a solid fuel. The heated medium is power gas, which is a gas mixture of air and water steam. Power gas is superheated in the main heat exchanger and led to gas turbines. To protect the main heat exchanger against damage by overheating, the novel predictive protective control based on the mathematical model of exchanger was developed. The paper describes the principle, the design and the simulation of the predictive protective method applied to main heat exchanger of FES.

  4. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program's Implementation of Open Archives Initiative (OAI) for Data Interoperability and Data Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocker, JoAnne; Roncaglia, George J.; Heimerl, Lynn N.; Nelson, Michael L.

    Interoperability and data-exchange are critical for the survival of government information management programs. E-government initiatives are transforming the way the government interacts with the public. More information is to be made available through Web-enabled technologies. Programs such as the NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI)…

  5. Exchange Controls, Investment and the Balance of Payments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Exchange controls in Great Britain were abolished in 1979. Since then, there has been a significant outflow of capital. This article examines the case for the reintroduction of controls with particular reference to the effect this might have on investment. (Author/JDH)

  6. Temperature control system for a J-module heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Basdekas, Demetrios L.; Macrae, George; Walsh, Joseph M.

    1978-01-01

    The level of primary fluid is controlled to change the effective heat transfer area of a heat exchanger utilized in a liquid metal nuclear power plant to eliminate the need for liquid metal control valves to regulate the flow of primary fluid and the temperature of the effluent secondary fluid.

  7. Technical Seminar: "Towards Intelligent Flight Control"

    NASA Video Gallery

    The idea behind intelligent flight control is to provide more autonomy in an aircraft cockpit. Such systems must allow for all different kinds of situations and for human factors that occur in loss...

  8. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  9. Indian - Atlantic interocean exchange: variability and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Mathijs Wilhelmus

    2002-05-01

    South of Africa, warm Indian Ocean water enters the Atlantic Ocean by means of large Agulhas Rings. These rings, with diameters up to 350 km and reaching all the way to the ocean floor at 5 km depth, form an important link in the global thermohaline circulation, which is the driving force behind the moderate temperatures over Northern Europe. For six years, the shedding of Agulhas rings has been monitored from space, using satellite altimeter measurements of the sea surface height. Rings can be identified by sea surface elevations on the order of 20-50 cm. The rings are followed on their way westward through the Atlantic, where they gradually decay. The decay is found to take place mainly in the Cape Basin during the first year after formation, probably delivering most of the Ring's thermohaline contents to this region. Also, rings are observed to often split into smaller rings. The shedding of Agulhas Rings is shown to be related to upstream processes. Especially, eddies from the Mozambique Channel are found to control the timing of Agulhas Ring shedding. These Mozambique Eddies have recently been measured to be dynamically comparable to the energetic Agulhas Rings, to carry tropical water masses southward through the Mozambique Channel, and to induce strong mixing in the channel. They in turn seem to be part of a mode of variability that is found over much of the Indian Ocean. A four-per-year signal is found to originate in the equatorial part of the Indian Ocean, and to propagate by a sequence of Kelvin and Rossby waves into the Mozambique Channel. Kelvin waves at the equator are forced by the semi-annual westerly windbursts that occur during the change of the monsoons. The frequency of these waves is doubled to four, probably by resonance of an equatorial basin mode. Four Kelvin waves per year are observed to reach the Indonesian coast, where they travel southward as coastal Kelvin waves. These force baroclinic Rossby waves at subtropical latitudes, which

  10. 48 CFR 252.204-7012 - Safeguarding of unclassified controlled technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Controlled technical information means technical information with military or space application that is..., catalog-item identifications, data sets, studies and analyses and related information, and...

  11. Control and Measurement of an Exchange-Only Spin Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medford, James

    2015-03-01

    Gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots have proven to be a versatile testbed for exploring quantum systems and quantum information. We demonstrate the fast all-electrical control of a spin qubit using the two coherent exchange interactions in a triple quantum dot. Our measurements identify the role of nuclear spins from the host GaAs in this system as a mechanism for both dephasing and leakage out of the qubit subspace. We also show that by increasing both exchange interactions in a balanced fashion, we enter a second regime of operation. In this regime, leakage from the subspace has been suppressed, resulting in a spin qubit with a tunable electric dipole moment, which we refer to as the resonant exchange qubit.

  12. Ion Exchange Conceptual Design for Treating Seven Technical Area Sumps with Elevated Levels of Copper and Zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-02-17

    Recently a meeting was held to discuss technical support for developing a conceptual design and estimate for installing and operating an in-line ion exchange system to treat seven Technical Area Sumps with elevated levels (high ppb - low ppm) of copper and potentially zinc (copper level is above the outfall limits). These sump waters are currently routed to the A01 outfall, which is permitted by the State of South Carolina. a study of potential treatment options and followup laboratory work done in the summer of 1997 by Larry Oji and John Hage identified two commercially available ion exchange resins, Duolit GT-73 and Chelex 100, for treating waters at these metals concentrations.

  13. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binek, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Voltage-controlled spintronics is of particular importance to continue progress in information technology through reduced power consumption, enhanced processing speed, integration density, and functionality in comparison with present day CMOS electronics. Almost all existing and prototypical solid-state spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism, enabling spin-selective transmission or scattering of electrons. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is a key challenge to better spintronics. Currently, most attempts to electrically control magnetism focus on potentially large magnetoelectric effects of multiferroics. We report on our interest in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O3 (chromia). Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias is achieved at room temperature in perpendicular anisotropic Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd exchange bias heterostructures. This discovery promises significant implications for potential spintronics. From the perspective of basic science, our finding serves as macroscopic evidence for roughness-insensitive and electrically controllable equilibrium boundary magnetization in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. The latter evolves at chromia (0001) surfaces and interfaces when chromia is in one of its two degenerate antiferromagnetic single domain states selected via magnetoelectric annealing. Theoretical insight into the boundary magnetization and its role in electrically controlled exchange bias is gained from first-principles calculations and general symmetry arguments. Measurements of spin-resolved ultraviolet photoemission, magnetometry at Cr 2 O3 (0001) surfaces, and detailed investigations of the unique exchange bias properties of Cr 2 O3 (0001)/CoPd including its electric controllability provide macroscopically averaged information about the boundary magnetization of chromia. Laterally resolved X-ray PEEM and temperature dependent MFM reveal detailed microscopic information of the chromia

  14. 77 FR 9218 - Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Proposed Waivers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Proposed Waivers and Extension... the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program (TCPCTIP), the..., should there be one. Eligible applicants for TCPCTIP are tribally controlled postsecondary career...

  15. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  16. Server-Controlled Identity-Based Authenticated Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    We present a threshold identity-based authenticated key exchange protocol that can be applied to an authenticated server-controlled gateway-user key exchange. The objective is to allow a user and a gateway to establish a shared session key with the permission of the back-end servers, while the back-end servers cannot obtain any information about the established session key. Our protocol has potential applications in strong access control of confidential resources. In particular, our protocol possesses the semantic security and demonstrates several highly-desirable security properties such as key privacy and transparency. We prove the security of the protocol based on the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model.

  17. Safety Control and Safety Education at Technical Institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Hiroshi

    The importance of safety education for students at technical institutes is emphasized on three grounds including safety of all working members and students in their education, research and other activities. The Kanazawa Institute of Technology re-organized the safety organization into a line structure and improved safety minds of all their members and now has a chemical materials control system and a set of compulsory safety education programs for their students, although many problems still remain.

  18. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  19. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program's Implementation of Open Archives Initiation (OAI) for Data Interoperability and Data Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, JoAnne; Roncaglia, George J.; Heimerl, Lynn N.; Nelson, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Interoperability and data-exchange are critical for the survival of government information management programs. E-government initiatives are transforming the way the government interacts with the public. More information is to be made available through web-enabled technologies. Programs such as the NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program Office are tasked to find more effective ways to disseminate information to the public. The NASA STI Program is an agency-wide program charged with gathering, organizing, storing, and disseminating NASA-produced information for research and public use. The program is investigating the use of a new protocol called the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) as a means to improve data interoperability and data collection. OAI promotes the use of the OAI harvesting protocol as a simple way for data sharing among repositories. In two separate initiatives, the STI Program is implementing OAI In collaboration with the Air Force, Department of Energy, and Old Dominion University, the NASA STI Program has funded research on implementing the OAI to exchange data between the three organizations. The second initiative is the deployment of OAI for the NASA technical report server (TRS) environment. The NASA TRS environment is comprised of distributed technical report servers with a centralized search interface. This paper focuses on the implementation of OAI to promote interoperability among diverse data repositories.

  20. Experiments on Socio-Technical Systems: The Problem of Control.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Peter

    2016-06-01

    My aim is to question whether the introduction of new technologies in society may be considered to be genuine experiments. I will argue that they are not, at least not in the sense in which the notion of experiment is being used in the natural and social sciences. If the introduction of a new technology in society is interpreted as an experiment, then we are dealing with a notion of experiment that differs in an important respect from the notion of experiment as used in the natural and social sciences. This difference shows itself most prominently when the functioning of the new technological system is not only dependent on technological hardware but also on social 'software', that is, on social institutions such as appropriate laws, and actions of operators of the new technological system. In those cases we are not dealing with 'simply' the introduction of a new technology, but with the introduction of a new socio-technical system. I will argue that if the introduction of a new socio-technical system is considered to be an experiment, then the relation between the experimenter and the system on which the experiment is performed differs significantly from the relation in traditional experiments in the natural and social sciences. In the latter experiments it is assumed that the experimenter is not part of the experimental system and is able to intervene in and control the experimental system from the outside. With regard to the introduction of new socio-technical systems the idea that there is an experimenter outside the socio-technical system who intervenes in and controls that system becomes problematic. From that perspective we are dealing with a different kind of experiment.

  1. Fault tolerance control for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Boyang

    2016-08-01

    Fault diagnosis and controller design are two important aspects to improve proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system durability. However, the two tasks are often separately performed. For example, many pressure and voltage controllers have been successfully built. However, these controllers are designed based on the normal operation of PEMFC. When PEMFC faces problems such as flooding or membrane drying, a controller with a specific design must be used. This paper proposes a unique scheme that simultaneously performs fault diagnosis and tolerance control for the PEMFC system. The proposed control strategy consists of a fault diagnosis, a reconfiguration mechanism and adjustable controllers. Using a back-propagation neural network, a model-based fault detection method is employed to detect the PEMFC current fault type (flooding, membrane drying or normal). According to the diagnosis results, the reconfiguration mechanism determines which backup controllers to be selected. Three nonlinear controllers based on feedback linearization approaches are respectively built to adjust the voltage and pressure difference in the case of normal, membrane drying and flooding conditions. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed fault tolerance control strategy can track the voltage and keep the pressure difference at desired levels in faulty conditions.

  2. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1−x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, a few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. These results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures. PMID:26996674

  3. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-03-21

    We report that ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, a few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.

  4. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; ...

    2016-03-21

    We report that ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, amore » few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.« less

  5. Controls of Carbon Exchange in a Boreal Minerogenic Mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, M.; Sagerfors, J.; Buffam, I.; Eriksson, T.; Grelle, A.; Klemedtsson, L.; Weslien, P.; Laudon, H.; Lindroth, A.

    2008-12-01

    Based on theories on both mire development and their response to environmental change, the current role of mires as a net carbon sink has been questioned. A rigorous evaluation of the contemporary net C-exchange in mires requires direct measurements of all relevant fluxes. We use data on carbon exchange from a boreal minerogenic oligotrophic mire (Degerö Stormyr, 64°11' N, 19°33E) to derive a contemporary carbon budget and to analyze the main controls on the C exchange. Data on the following fluxes were collected: land-atmosphere CO2 (continuous Eddy Covariance measurements, 7 years) and CH4 (static chambers during the snow free period, 4 years) exchange; DOC in precipitation; loss of TOC, CO2 and CH4 through water runoff, 4 years (continuous discharge measurement and regular C-content measurements). The annual land atmosphere exchange of CO2 (NEE) was fairly constant between years and varied between -48 - -61 gCm-2yr-1 during six out of the seven years, despite a large variation in weather combinations, the average being -53 ± 5 gCm-2yr-1. Of the net fixation of atmospheric CO2-C during the net uptake period, i.e. the growing season, approximately a third was lost during the net source period, i.e. the winter period. During the four years with measurements of methane and runoff C-export another third of the growing season uptake was lost from the mire ecosystem as methane and runoff C. While the balance between the length of the NEE uptake and the NEE loss period are most important for the annual net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) it is central to understand the controls of the spring-summer, and the summer-autumn transitions. The onset of the net C uptake period was controlled by the interaction between the water content and the temperature of the peat moss surface. We interpret this as mainly being a control of the CO2 photosynthesis uptake by the Sphagnum mosses. The transition from being a net C sink to being a net C source is in contrast only controlled

  6. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ning; Caruso, Anthony N; Vescovo, Elio; Belashchenko, Kirill D; Dowben, Peter A; Binek, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr(2)O(3) has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr(2)O(3) single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Néel temperature.

  7. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Vescovo, E.; Wang, Y.; Caruso, A.N.; Belashchenko, K.D.; Dowben, P.A.; Binek, C.

    2010-06-20

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Neel temperature.

  8. Control of Methane Production and Exchange in Northern Peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    This proposal has successfully supported studies that have developed unique long ten-n datasets of methane (CH4) emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange in order to quantify the controls on CH4 production and exchange especially the linkages to the carbon cycle in northern peatlands. The primary research site has been a small fen in southeastern New Hampshire where a unique multi-year data baseline of CH4 flux measurements was begun (with NASA funding) in 1989. The fen has also been instrumented for continuous hydrological and meteorological observations and year-round porewater sampling. Multiyear datasets of methane flux are very valuable and very rare. Datasets using the same sampling techniques at the same sites are the only way to assess the effect of the integrated ecosystem response to climatological variability. The research has had two basic objectives: 1. To quantify the effect of seasonal and interannual variability on CH4flux. 2. To examine process level controls on methane dynamics.

  9. Tag Content Access Control with Identity-based Key Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Rong, Chunming

    2010-09-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that used to identify objects and users has been applied to many applications such retail and supply chain recently. How to prevent tag content from unauthorized readout is a core problem of RFID privacy issues. Hash-lock access control protocol can make tag to release its content only to reader who knows the secret key shared between them. However, in order to get this shared secret key required by this protocol, reader needs to communicate with a back end database. In this paper, we propose to use identity-based secret key exchange approach to generate the secret key required for hash-lock access control protocol. With this approach, not only back end database connection is not needed anymore, but also tag cloning problem can be eliminated at the same time.

  10. [Technical guideline for human rabies prevention and control (2016)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Li, Y; Chen, R F; Tao, X Y; Yu, P C; Cao, S C; Li, L; Chen, Z H; Zhu, W Y; Yin, W W; Li, Y H; Wang, C L; Yu, H J

    2016-02-01

    In order to promote the prevention and control programs on rabies in our country, to regulate the prevention and disposition of rabies and to reduce the deaths caused by rabies, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has organized a panel of experts, in the reference with Guidelines issued by WHO, American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the latest research progress from home and abroad, and compiled this document-"Technical Guidelines for Human Rabies Prevention and Control (2016)". The Guidelines conducted a systematic review on the etiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology of rabies and provided evidence on varieties, mechanisms, effects, side-effects and security of rabies vaccine, as well as on other preparations on passive immunity of its kind, on methods related to prevention and disposition of exposure etc, finally to have come up with the recommendation on the above mentioned various techniques. The guidelines will be used by staff working on prevention and control of rabies from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels, from the departments of outpatient and divisions of infection and emergency control in all the medical institutions. The guideline will be updated and revised, following the research progress from home and abroad.

  11. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  12. 77 FR 30516 - Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Final Waivers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Final Waivers and Extension of... Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84... Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program (TCPCTIP), the Secretary waives 34 CFR 75.250 and...

  13. The technical analysis of the stock exchange and physics: Japanese candlesticks for solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, C.; Atanasov, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we use the Japanese candlesticks, a method popular in the technical analysis of the Stock/Forex markets and apply it to a variable in physics-the solar activity. This method is invented and used exclusively for economic analysis and its application to a physical problem produced unexpected results. We found that the Japanese candlesticks are convenient tool in the analysis of the variables in the physics of the Sun. Based on our observations, we differentiated a new cycle in the solar activity.

  14. Vitrification of ion-exchange (IEX) resins: Advantages and technical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the commercial sector to convert low-level radioactive ion exchange (IEX) resin wastes from the nuclear utilities to solid stabilized waste forms for permanent disposal. One of the alternative waste stabilization technologies is vitrification of the resin into glass. Wastes can be vitrified at elevated temperatures by thermal treatment. One alternative thermal treatment is conventional Joule heated melting. Vitrification of wastes into glass is an attractive option because it atomistically bonds both hazardous and radioactive species in the glass structure, and volume reduces the wastes by 70-80%. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs.

  15. Research on What the International Exchange and Communication of Scientific and Technical Information Should Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masakazu; Ashizaki, Tatsuo

    The Japanese scientific and technological information amounts to about 20% of the worldwide occurrence. According to the questionnaires about 70% of the respondants abroad experienced the use of literature written by Japanese within two months back from the date of answering. Japan is highly paid attention in a sense that she follows U.S. who is a leader in scientific and technological fields. Nevertherless only 5% of the total Japanese information has been introduced in major journals and international conferences of western world. Even information vendors have not provided information abroad actively. On the other hand it is necessary not only to provide information but also to promote mutual exchange of human resources concerning Southeast Asian countries. Considering the result of this questionnaires and trend in technology development the authors made the report on what international distribution of scientific and technological information should be. The outline of this report is described.

  16. Newly available technologies present expanding opportunities for scientific and technical information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolzman, Jean M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for expanded communication among researchers, scholars, and students is supported by growth in the capabilities for electronic communication as well as expanding access to various forms of electronic interchange and computing capabilities. Increased possibilities for information exchange, collegial dialogue, collaboration, and access to remote resources exist as high-speed networks, increasingly powerful workstations, and large, multi-user computational facilities are more frequently linked and more commonly available. Numerous writers speak of the telecommunications revolution and its impact on the development and dissemination of knowledge and learning. One author offers the phrase 'Scholarly skywriting' to represent a new form of scientific communication that he envisions using electronic networks. In the United States (U.S.), researchers associated with the National Science Foundation (NSF) are exploring 'nationwide collaboratories' and 'digital collaboration.' Research supported by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) points to a future where workstations with built-in audio, video monitors, and screen sharing protocols are used to support collaborations with colleagues located throughout the world. Instruments and sensors located worldwide will produce data streams that will be brought together, analyzed, and distributed as new findings. Researchers will have access to machines that can supply domain-specific information in addition to locator and directory assistance. New forms of electronic journals will emerge and provide opportunities for researchers and scientists to exchange information electronically and interactively in a range of structures and formats. Ultimately, the wide-scale use of these technologies in the dissemination of research results and the stimulation of collegial dialogue will change the way we represent and express our knowledge of the world. A new paradigm will evolve--perhaps a truly worldwide

  17. Angular dependence of exchange bias and magnetization reversal controlled by electric-field-induced competing anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yonggang; Chen, Aitian; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Xu; Peng, Renci; Huang, Haoliang; Zou, Lvkuan; Zheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sen; Miao, Peixian; Lu, Yalin; Cai, Jian; Nan, Ce-Wen

    Combination of exchange-biased systems and FE materials gives a new avenue to study angular dependence of exchange bias and achieve reversible electric-field-controlled magnetization reversal. We study the angular dependence of electric-field-controlled exchange bias and magnetization reversal in CoFeB/IrMn/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7 Ti0.3O3. It is demonstrated that the ratio of the exchange-coupled unidirectional anisotropy and the uniaxial anisotropy of the FM layer, as well as their relative orientation can be dramatically and continuously tuned via electric fields. Simulations confirm that the electric-field-controlled exchange bias originates from the competition between the uniaxial anisotropy induced by the piezostrain and the exchange-coupled unidirectional anisotropy. Moreover, electric-field-controlled magnetization reversal was realized at zero magnetic field.

  18. Revealing controllable nanowire transformation through cationic exchange for RRAM application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2014-05-14

    One dimensional metal oxide nanostructures have attracted much attention owing to their fascinating functional properties. Among them, piezoelectricity and photocatalysts along with their related materials have stirred significant interests and widespread studies in recent years. In this work, we successfully transformed piezoelectric ZnO into photocatalytic TiO2 and formed TiO2/ZnO axial heterostructure nanowires with flat interfaces by solid to solid cationic exchange reactions in high vacuum (approximately 10(-8) Torr) transmission electron microscope (TEM). Kinetic behavior of the single crystalline TiO2 was systematically analyzed. The nanoscale growth rate of TiO2 has been measured using in situ TEM videos. On the basis of the rate, we can control the dimensions of the axial-nanoheterostructure. In addition, the unique Pt/ ZnO / TiO2/ ZnO /Pt heterostructures with complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics were designed to solve the important issue of sneak-peak current. The resistive switching behavior was attributed to the migration of oxygen and TiO2 layer served as reservoir, which was confirmed by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis. This study not only supplied a distinct method to explore the transformation mechanisms but also exhibited the potential application of ZnO/TiO2 heterostructure in nanoscale crossbar array resistive random-access memory (RRAM).

  19. Physiological parameters controlling plant-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schjoerring, Jan K.; Husted, Søren; Mattsson, Marie

    Recent advances in characterizing the influence of different physiological and environmental parameters on NH 3 exchange between plants and the atmosphere are presented. A central parameter in controlling the rate and direction of NH 3 fluxes is the NH 3 compensation point. It may vary from below 1 to over 20 nmol NH 3 mol -1 air. High compensation points seem to be a result of high tissue N status, rapid absorption of NH +4 from the root medium and/or low activity of glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in NH +4 assimilation. These conditions cause the NH +4 concentration in leaf apoplast and leaf cells to increase. The NH 3 compensation point also depends on plant developmental stage with peaks in NH 3 emission related to leaf senescence and N remobilization. The leaf temperature has a profound influence on the NH 3 compensation point: an increase in temperature from 15 to 30°C may cause a plant to switch from being a strong sink for atmospheric NH 3 to being a significant NH 3 source. Stomatal conductance for NH 3 relative to that of water vapour increases with tissue N status and with leaf senescence. At a given leaf temperature, the NH 3 compensation point can be successfully predicted on basis of the pH and NH +4 concentration in the apoplast of the mesophyll cells.

  20. Vibration of a flexible spacecraft with momentum exchange controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canavin, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Floating reference frames were investigated in order to allow first order vibration analysis in the presence of large system rotations. When the deformations of an elastic continuum are expanded in terms of the free-free modes of an unconstrained system, the rigid body modes are found to be fixed relative to the Tisserand frame, with respect to which the relative momentum is zero. The proof presented for this is based on the orthogonality condition for modes with distinct natural frequencies. This result also guarantees the independence of coordinates for all modes with nonzero natural frequencies. A Modified Tisserand Constraint is introduced in order to define a floating reference frame with similar properties for an elastic body which contains a spinning rotor. Finite element equations of motion are derived for a completely flexible spacecraft with momentum exchange controllers, using a Modified Tisserand Frame. The deformable systems covered in this application are assumed to undergo only small rotations, and therefore the rotor torques must formally be small, although in engineering applications it may be possible to relax this constraint. A modal analysis is performed for the system and the resulting set of equations is reduced in number by a truncation procedure for more efficient system simulation.

  1. Newly available technologies present expanding opportunities for scientific and technical information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolzman, Jean M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for expanded communication among researchers, scholars, and students is supported by growth in the capabilities for electronic communication as well as expanding access to various forms of electronic interchange and computing capabilities. Research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration points to a future where workstations with audio and video monitors and screen-sharing protocols are used to support collaborations with colleagues located throughout the world. Instruments and sensors all over the world will produce data streams that will be brought together and analyzed to produce new findings, which in turn can be distributed electronically. New forms of electronic journals will emerge and provide opportunities for researchers and scientists to electronically and interactively exchange information in a wide range of structures and formats. Ultimately, the wide-scale use of these technologies in the dissemination of research results and the stimulation of collegial dialogue will change the way we represent and express our knowledge of the world. A new paradigm will evolve-perhaps a truly worldwide 'invisible college'.

  2. Newly available technologies present expanding opportunities for scientific and technical information exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolzman, Jean M.

    1993-03-01

    The potential for expanded communication among researchers, scholars, and students is supported by growth in the capabilities for electronic communication as well as expanding access to various forms of electronic interchange and computing capabilities. Research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration points to a future where workstations with audio and video monitors and screen-sharing protocols are used to support collaborations with colleagues located throughout the world. Instruments and sensors all over the world will produce data streams that will be brought together and analyzed to produce new findings, which in turn can be distributed electronically. New forms of electronic journals will emerge and provide opportunities for researchers and scientists to electronically and interactively exchange information in a wide range of structures and formats. Ultimately, the wide-scale use of these technologies in the dissemination of research results and the stimulation of collegial dialogue will change the way we represent and express our knowledge of the world. A new paradigm will evolve-perhaps a truly worldwide 'invisible college'.

  3. Strain-mediated multiferroic control of spontaneous exchange bias in Ni-NiO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Sun, Wei-Yang; Schelhas, Laura T.; Carman, Greg P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the measurement of strain-mediated multiferroic control of spontaneous exchange bias (SEB) in magnetostrictive nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) bilayers on ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT). Electric field control of a positive to negative exchange bias shift was measured, with an overall shift of 40.5 Oe, corresponding to a 325% change. Observed changes in coercivity are also reported and provide insight into the role of competing anisotropies in these structures. The findings in this paper provide evidence that magnetoelastic anisotropy can be utilized to control spontaneous exchange bias (SEB). This control of SEB is accomplished by modifying a bulk anisotropy (magnetoelasticity) that adjusts the mobility of interfacial anti-ferromagnetic spins and, therefore, the magnitude of the exchange bias. The demonstrated magnetoelastic control of exchange bias provides a useful tool in the creation of future magnetoelectric devices.

  4. Perspectives of voltage control for magnetic exchange bias in multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Zhou, Z.; Sun, N. X.; Liu, M.

    2017-04-01

    Exchange bias, as an internal magnetic bias induced by a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, is extremely important in many magnetic applications such as memories, sensors and other devices. Voltage control of exchange bias in multiferroics provides an energy-efficient way to achieve a rapidly 180° deterministic switching of magnetization, which has been considered as a key challenge in realizing next generation of fast, compact and ultra-low power magnetoelectric memories and sensors. Additionally, exchange bias can enhance dynamic magnetoelectric coupling strength in an external-field-free manner. In this paper, we provide a perspective on voltage control of exchange bias in different multiferroic heterostructures. Brief mechanization and related experiments are discussed as well as future trend and challenges that can be overcome by electrically tuning of exchange bias in state-of-the-art magnetoelectric devices.

  5. Phenological control over ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, R. K.; Moore, D. J.; Scott-Denton, L.; Burns, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon fluxes has been improved over the past decade in large part due to the maturation of observational records from networks of flux towers and the development of model-data assimilation techniques from which insight into carbon cycle processes can be extracted. Some of the earliest analyses of the observation record revealed that interannual phenological variation in forest ecosystems has a significant influence on the annual cumulative net rate of CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. In winter-deciduous forest ecosystems, phenological variability in the timing of bud break in the spring, and the early-season rate at which the forest reaches its seasonal maximum leaf area index, have large effects on the ultimate annual sum for net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In snow-controlled evergreen forests, the timing at which snow melt or soil thaw occurs, and liquid water becomes available to drive diurnal increases in stomatal conductance, the spring 'phenological switch-on' can be abrupt and the capacity for the forest to reach its seasonal maximum NEE can occur within a few days. The relatively high sensitivity of ecosystem carbon budgets to variability in phenology renders it difficult to accurately model system dynamics, especially for evergreen forests. Recent model-data assimilation studies have found large errors in the ability of the models to replicate observations of NEE at the seasonal-to-annual time scales, in large part due to inadequacies in how they capture spring and fall phenology thresholds and early- and late-season dynamics in the state of the photosynthetic apparatus. In our own studies of interannual variation in NEE in the evergreen subalpine forest at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, we have not been able to accurately represent spring phenology dynamics and their influence on annual NEE using the Simple Evapotranspiration and Net Photosynthesis (SIPNET) model without explicit consideration of snowmelt dynamics. In

  6. Condensing heat exchanger microbial growth and control study-phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R.W.; Caron, M.E.; Metselaar, C.; Steele, J.

    1993-12-31

    The Space Station Temperature and Humidity Control Condensing Heat Exchangers will be utilized to collect and remove atmospheric water vapor generated by the metabolic and hygienic activity of crew members. The porous hydrophillic coating within the heat exchangers will always be wet. Cabin air will continuously flow through the heat exchangers during system operation which makes them a potential site for microbial colonization. This paper summarizes the findings form an ongoing study which evaluates biofilm formation on wet hydrophilic coated panels compared to panels to which microbial control measures have have been applied. The control measures evaluated are an antimicrobial agent within the coating and periodic drying.

  7. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: Science Matters - Technical Dimensions of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Agreements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbie, James

    2017-01-01

    Agreements to reduce nuclear arms and prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons are technical as well as political documents. They must be both technically sound and politically acceptable. This presentation illustrates technical aspects of arms control and non-proliferation agreements, with examples from SALT I, INF, the HEU Agreement, START, and the Iran nuclear negotiations, drawing on 44 years of personal experience in the negotiation of these agreements. The lecture is designed to convey an appreciation of the role that individuals with technical training can play in diplomatic efforts to reduce nuclear forces and prevent nuclear proliferation.

  8. Web-based technical assistance and training to promote community tobacco control policy change.

    PubMed

    Young, Walter F; Montgomery, Debbie; Nycum, Colleen; Burns-Martin, Lavon; Buller, David B

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the tobacco industry was released of claims that provided monetary relief for states. A significant expansion of tobacco control activity in many states created a need to develop local capacity. Technical assistance and training for new and experienced staff became a significant challenge for tobacco control leadership. In Colorado, this challenge was addressed in part through the development of a technical assistance and training Web site designed for local tobacco control staff and coalition members. Researchers, technical Web site development specialists, state health agency, and state tobacco control coalition staff collaborated to develop, promote, and test the efficacy of this Web site. The work group embodied a range of skills including tobacco control, Web site technical development, marketing, training, and project management. Persistent marketing, updating of Web site content, and institutionalizing it as a principal source of information and training were key to use by community coalition members.

  9. The pebble GTP exchange factor and the control of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, L; Somers, W G; Harley, A; Saint, R

    2001-12-01

    Several G proteins of the Rho family have been shown to be required for cytokinesis. The activity of these proteins is regulated by GTP exchange factors (GEFs), which stimulate GDP/GTP exchange, and by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which suppress activity by stimulating the intrinsic GTPase activity. The role of Rho family members during cytokinesis is likely to be determined by their spatial and temporal interactions with these factors. Here we focus on the role of the pebble (pbl) gene of Drosophila melanogaster, a RhoGEF that is required for cytokinesis. We summarise the evidence that the primary target of PBL is Rho1 and describe genetic approaches to elucidating the function of PBL and identifying other components of the PBL-activated Rho signalling pathway.

  10. Monitoring hyporheic exchanges during a dam controlled experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houzé, Clémence; Varnède, Lucie; Durand, Véronique; Pessel, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Precise understanding of the hyporheic exchanges response to stream flow fluctuations remains a great challenge for many environmental and hydrological problems. Multiplication of natural stream restoration programs and anthropic structures removal highlight that a better understanding of the hydrodynamic and ecological functioning of hyporheic exchanges is critical . The objective of this field experiment was to monitor the dynamic exchanges within the hyporheic zone due to an artificial stream head variation. Various types of measurements were performed, using natural tracers and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The dam downstream the studied river reach was successively lowered during two days, and raised during three days, implying river heads variations of about 15cm. The studied area was equipped with CTD probes (measuring the head and the conductivity) within the river, 2 multi-depths water sampling tubes inserted up to one meter depth within the riverbed deposits and 3 ERT profiles with various electrode spacing (20 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm). During the 5 days experiment, water sampling and ERT profiles were done regularly. Estimations of the sediments hydraulic conductivity were obtained by several slug tests in plastic tubes at different depths within the streambed. First results showed that stream fluctuation leads to a rapid hyporheic response according to chloride variations between stream and riverbed sediments. Similar results between geochemical and geophysical tools were found. A decrease in stream head leads to reduce the depth of the mixing zone, as the river gaining conditions intensify. On the contrary, we observed that an increased river head tends to deepen the hyporheic exchange zone.

  11. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  12. Mechanical Characterization of Anion Exchange Membranes Under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-11

    membranes (AEM) have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of fuel cells by utilizing non-noble catalysts and a variety of fuel sources. Although...the cost of fuel cells by utilizing non-noble catalysts and a variety of fuel sources. Although chemical degradation typically dominates membrane...anion exchange membranes (AEM) have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of fuel cells by utilizing non-noble catalysts and a variety of

  13. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  14. Technical Highlight: Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types in the hot-humid climate zone, and examine the impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls.

  15. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document provides comprehensive guidance on procedures for quality assurance and quality control for waste containment facilities. The document includes a discussion of principles and concepts, compacted soil liners, soil drainage systems, geosynthetic dr...

  16. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  17. Study on the Heat-Flow Controllable Heat Exchanger-3rd report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Osamu; Hamano, Masayoshi; Yanadori, Michio

    The heat-flow controllable heat exchanger for the purpose of heat recovery through the waste hot water at the bathroom and the washing room has been developed. The system is especially available at the house of cold area and the recovery heat is used to warm the suction air conducted from ventilation device. As the result of field test, it is clarified that the heat recovery rate by the system is very large. Also, the exchanger is possible to control the amount of recorery heat. Therefore, it is considered that the exchanger is applicable in the ventilation systems used the waste hot water.

  18. Voltage Control of Exchange Bias in a Chromium Oxide Based Thin Film Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, Will; Street, Mike; Mahmood, Ather; Binek, Christian

    Controlling magnetism by electrical means is a key challenge in the field of spintronics, and electric control of exchange bias is one of the most promising routes to address this challenge. Isothermal electric control of exchange bias has been achieved near room temperature using bulk, single crystal, magnetoelectric Cr2O3. In this study the electrically-controlled exchange bias is investigated in an all thin film Cr2O3/PdCo exchange bias heterosystem where an MBE grown ferromagnetic and perpendicular anisotropic Pd/Co multilayer has been deposited on a PLD grown (0001) Cr2O3 thin film. Prototype devices are fabricated using lithography techniques. Using a process of magnetoelectric annealing, voltage control of exchange bias in Cr2O3 heterostructures is demonstrated with significant implications for scalability of ultra-low power memory and logical devices. In addition, the dependence of the exchange bias on the applied electric and magnetic fields are independently studied at 300K and isothermal voltage-controlled switching is investigated. This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC DMR-0820521.

  19. Temperature control using a heat exchanger of a cardioplegic system in cardiopulmonary bypass model for rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Gon; Choi, Se Hun; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2008-12-01

    Small animal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model would be a valuable tool for investigating pathophysiological and therapeutic strategies on bypass. However, the rat CPB models have a number of technical limitations. Effective maintenance and control of core temperature by heat exchanger (HE) is among them. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of rectal temperature maintenance and hypothermic control using a HE of cardioplegia system in CPB model for rats. The miniature circuit consisted of a reservoir, HE, membrane oxygenator, and roller pump; the static priming volume was 40 cc. In the first stage of experiment, 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups; HE group was subjected to CPB with HE from a cardioplegia system, and control group was subjected to CPB with warm water circulating around the reservoir. Partial CPB was conducted at a flow rate of 40 mg/kg/min for 20 min after venous cannulation (via the internal jugular vein) and arterial cannulation (via the femoral artery). Rectal temperature was measured after anesthetic induction, after cannulation, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after CPB. Arterial blood gas with hematocrit was also analyzed, 5 and 15 min after CPB. In the second stage with the same experimental setting, rectal temperatures were lowered in 10 rats to the target temperature of 32 degrees C. After reaching the target temperature, animals were rewarmed. Rectal temperature was measured after cannulation, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after CPB. Arterial blood gas with hematocrit was also analyzed, 5 and 15 min after CPB. Rectal temperature change differed between the two groups (P < 0.01). The temperatures of the HE group were well maintained during CPB, whereas the control group was under progressive hypothermia. Rectal temperature 20 min after CPB was 36.16 +/- 0.32 degrees C in the HE group and 34.22 +/- 0.36 degrees C in the control group. In the second set of experiments, the hypothermia targeted (32 degrees C) was

  20. Controlled optical properties of water-soluble CdTe nanocrystals via anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Jia, Jianguang; Lin, Yuan; Zhou, Xiaowen

    2016-02-01

    We report a study on anion exchange reaction of CdTe nanocrystals with S(2-) in aqueous solution under ambient condition. We found that the optical properties of CdTe nanocrystals can be well tuned by controlling the reaction conditions, in which the reaction temperature is crucially important. At low reaction temperature, the product nanocrystals showed blue-shifts in both absorption and PL spectra, while the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) was significantly enhanced. When anion exchanges were carried out at higher reaction temperature, on the other hand, obvious red shifts in absorption and PL spectra accompanied by a fast increase followed by gradual decrease in PLQY were observed. On variation of S(2-) concentration, it was found that the overall kinetics of Te(2-) for S(2-) exchanges depends also on [S(2-)] when anion exchanges were performed at higher temperature. A possible mechanism for anion exchanges in CdTe NCs was proposed.

  1. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control... for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.317 Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards. (a) An analog telephone complies with the Commission's volume control requirements if the...

  2. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs... stability control (ESC) for passenger cars and LTVs (light trucks and vans). Safety Standard 126 establishes... be involved in a fatal crash. For passenger cars, the reductions are 5 percent and 23...

  3. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  4. Trading Up: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Show Self-Control Through Their Exchange Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Rossettie, Mattea S.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Self-control is defined as the ability or capacity to obtain an objectively more valuable outcome rather than an objectively less valuable outcome though tolerating a longer delay or a greater effort requirement (or both) in obtaining that more valuable outcome. A number of tests have been devised to assess self-control in nonhuman animals, including exchange tasks. In this study, three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) participated in a delay of gratification task that required food exchange as the behavioral response that reflected self-control. The chimpanzees were offered opportunities to inhibit eating and instead exchange a currently possessed food item for a different (and sometimes better) item, often needing to exchange several food items before obtaining the highest-valued reward. We manipulated reward type, reward size, reward visibility, delay to exchange, and location of the highest-valued reward in the sequence of exchange events to compare performance within the same individuals. The chimpanzees successfully traded until obtaining the best item in most cases, although there were individual differences among participants in some variations of the test. These results support the idea that self-control is robust in chimpanzees even in contexts in which they perhaps anticipate future rewards and sustain delay of gratification until they can obtain the ultimately most-valuable item. PMID:26325355

  5. Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser.

  6. Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

  7. Direct shape control of photoreduced nanostructures on proton exchanged ferroelectric templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balobaid, Laila; Craig Carville, N.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Photoreduction on a periodically proton exchanged ferroelectric crystal leads to the formation of periodic metallic nanostructures on the surface. By varying the depth of the proton exchange (PE) from 0.59 to 3.10 μm in congruent lithium niobate crystals, the width of the lateral diffusion region formed by protons diffusing under the mask layer can be controlled. The resulting deposition occurs in the PE region with the shallowest PE depth and preferentially in the lateral diffusion region for greater PE depths. PE depth-control provides a route for the fabrication of complex metallic nanostructures with controlled dimensions on chemically patterned ferroelectric templates.

  8. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: an information-entropy-based approach.

    PubMed

    Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Wunner, G; Schmitt, S

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I=32 bits versus I=660 bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  9. Quantifying control effort of biological and technical movements: An information-entropy-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeufle, D. F. B.; Günther, M.; Wunner, G.; Schmitt, S.

    2014-01-01

    In biomechanics and biorobotics, muscles are often associated with reduced movement control effort and simplified control compared to technical actuators. This is based on evidence that the nonlinear muscle properties positively influence movement control. It is, however, open how to quantify the simplicity aspect of control effort and compare it between systems. Physical measures, such as energy consumption, stability, or jerk, have already been applied to compare biological and technical systems. Here a physical measure of control effort based on information entropy is presented. The idea is that control is simpler if a specific movement is generated with less processed sensor information, depending on the control scheme and the physical properties of the systems being compared. By calculating the Shannon information entropy of all sensor signals required for control, an information cost function can be formulated allowing the comparison of models of biological and technical control systems. Exemplarily applied to (bio-)mechanical models of hopping, the method reveals that the required information for generating hopping with a muscle driven by a simple reflex control scheme is only I =32bits versus I =660bits with a DC motor and a proportional differential controller. This approach to quantifying control effort captures the simplicity of a control scheme and can be used to compare completely different actuators and control approaches.

  10. Relaciones Culturales de Mexico: Convenios de Intercambio Cultural y Asistencia Tecnica (Mexican Cultural Relations: Cultural Exchange and Technical Assistance Agreements).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n10 p43-83, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) describing briefly Mexico's cultural relations with 23 nations with which she has cultural exchange agreements. The reasons for cultural exchange are stated, such as the belief that cultural relations promote good relations among nations. The agreements concluded between…

  11. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  12. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendices by Control Technique

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  13. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  14. A brushless dc spin motor for momentum exchange altitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D.; Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brushless dc spin motor is designed to use Hall effect probes as means of revolving rotor position and controlling motor winding currents. This results in 3 to 1 reduction in watt-hours required for wheel acceleration, a 2 to 1 reduction in power to run wheel, and a 10 to 1 reduction in the electronics size and weight.

  15. Film model approximation for particle-diffusion-controlled binary ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, G.; Cincotti, A.; Cao, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new rate expression for particle-diffusion-controlled ion exchange, based on an equivalent pseudosteady-state film resistance model, is developed. The rate expression approximates the electric field effects on intraparticle diffusion in spherical ion-exchangers. With regard to the prediction of batch exchange and column breakthrough curves for both irreversible and reversible processes, the model captures the essential traits of the coupled diffusion phenomenon described by the Nernst-Planck equation with results of accuracy comparable to that obtained when using the linear driving force approximation for systems with constant diffusivity. Numerical results for the exchange of two counterions of equal valence are presented as application examples for different mobility ratios and selectivity coefficients.

  16. Technical support for guidance, navigation and control space shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A review of the guidance, navigation and control projects in support of the space shuttle program was conducted. The subjects considered include the following: (1) functional and performance requirements, (2) mission requirements, (3) operating systems software definition, (4) orbit navigation using various sensors, (5) fault detection, isolation and recovery, and (6) passive rendezvous sensors requirements definition.

  17. Final Technical Report: Distributed Controls for High Penetrations of Renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Raymond H.; Neely, Jason C.; Rashkin, Lee J.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this effort was to apply four potential control analysis/design approaches to the design of distributed grid control systems to address the impact of latency and communications uncertainty with high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The four techniques considered were: optimal fixed structure control; Nyquist stability criterion; vector Lyapunov analysis; and Hamiltonian design methods. A reduced order model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) developed for the Matlab Power Systems Toolbox (PST) was employed for the study, as well as representative smaller systems (e.g., a two-area, three-area, and four-area power system). Excellent results were obtained with the optimal fixed structure approach, and the methodology we developed was published in a journal article. This approach is promising because it offers a method for designing optimal control systems with the feedback signals available from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data as opposed to full state feedback or the design of an observer. The Nyquist approach inherently handles time delay and incorporates performance guarantees (e.g., gain and phase margin). We developed a technique that works for moderate sized systems, but the approach does not scale well to extremely large system because of computational complexity. The vector Lyapunov approach was applied to a two area model to demonstrate the utility for modeling communications uncertainty. Application to large power systems requires a method to automatically expand/contract the state space and partition the system so that communications uncertainty can be considered. The Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) design methodology was selected to investigate grid systems for energy storage requirements to support high penetration of variable or stochastic generation (such as wind and PV) and loads. This method was applied to several small system models.

  18. The Importance of Postural Control in Relation to Technical Abilities in Small-Sided Soccer Games.

    PubMed

    Edis, Çağlar; Vural, Faik; Vurgun, Hikmet

    2016-12-01

    Making assessments regarding postural control and balance is very important for injury prevention in soccer. However, there has been no study that has associated postural control variables with branch-specific technical properties in a game. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between variables designating postural control levels and technical performance variables in different (1:1, 2:2 and 3:3) small-sided games (SSGs). Sixteen trained male amateur soccer players volunteered to take part in the study (age 17.2 ± 1.02 years, body height 176.25 ± 0.07 m, body mass 67.67 ± 13.27 kg). Following familiarization sessions, postural control was evaluated using one-leg and both-leg quiet-stance positions by measuring postural sway with a Tekscan HR Mat™ in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Later, 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 SSGs were performed at two-day intervals and the technical variables specified for each game were analyzed. A Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis demonstrated the relationship between postural control and soccer-specific technical variables in 1:1 (r-values ranging from 0.582 to 0.776), 2:2 (rvalues ranging from 0.511 to 0.740) and 3:3 (r-values ranging from 0.502 to 0.834) SSGs. In addition, a Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed differences between SSGs in terms of several variables. The results of the study showed that higher postural control levels are among the important variables that affect success in the performance of technical skills under rival pressure and suddenly changing conditions. Therefore, it is recommended that in addition to its use for injury prevention purposes, balance training should be conducted to improve branch-specific technical skills and to increase the levels of their successful performance in a game.

  19. Description of emission control using fluidized-bed, heat-exchange technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, G.J.; Grogan, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    Environmental effects of fluidized-bed, waste-heat recovery technology are identified. The report focuses on a particular configuration of fluidized-bed, heat-exchange technology for a hypothetical industrial application. The application is a lead smelter where a fluidized-bed, waste-heat boiler (FBWHB) is used to control environmental pollutants and to produce steam for process use. Basic thermodynamic and kinetic information for the major sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and NO/sub x/ removal processes is presented and their application to fluidized-bed, waste heat recovery technology is discussed. Particulate control in fluidized-bed heat exchangers is also discussed.

  20. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  1. [DELTA T dryer/moisture control system]. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Drying Technology, Inc. was awarded a grant for the purpose of extending DELTA T dryer/moisture control technology into additional industries. Ultimate purpose of the grant was to save energy and improve efficiency in the process industries. Results indicate that these objectives have been met and will continue as this new technology is duplicated in the present industries and also is extended into other industries as well.

  2. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a strong commitment to transfer the results of its science and technology programs to the private sector. The intent is to apply innovative and sometimes advanced technologies to address needs while simultaneously stimulating new commercial business opportunities. Such focused “technology transfer” was evident in the late 1990s as the results of DOE investments in environmental management technology development led to new tools for characterizing and remediating contaminated sites as well as handling and minimizing the generation of hazardous wastes. The Department’s Office of Environmental Management was attempting to reduce the cost, accelerate the schedule, and improve the efficacy of clean-up efforts in the nuclear weapons complex. It recognized that resulting technologies had broader world market applications and that their commercialization would further reduce costs and facilitate deployment of improved technology at DOE sites. DOE’s Albuquerque Operations Office (now part of the National Nuclear Security Administration) began in 1995 to build the foundation for a technology exchange program with Mexico. Initial sponsorship for this work was provided by the Department’s Office of Environmental Management. As part of this effort, Applied Sciences Laboratory, Inc. (ASL) was contracted by the DOE Albuquerque office to identify Mexico’s priority environmental management needs, identify and evaluate DOE-sponsored technologies as potential solutions for those needs, and coordinate these opportunities with decision makers from Mexico’s federal government. That work led to an improved understanding of many key environmental challenges that Mexico faces and the many opportunities to apply DOE’s technologies to help resolve them. The above results constituted, in large part, the foundation for an initial DOE-funded program to apply the Department’s technology base to help address some of Mexico

  3. Temperature-dependent variation in gas exchange patterns and spiracular control in Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Erica; Bradley, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    Insects display an array of respiratory behaviors, including the use of discontinuous gas exchange. This pattern is characterized by periods of spiracular closure, micro-openings (flutter), and complete openings during which the majority of gas exchange takes place. A current model of insect spiracular control suggests that spiracles are controlled by two interacting feedback loops, which produce the discontinuous pattern. The flutter period is thought to be initiated by a critically low partial pressure of oxygen, while the open period is initiated by a critically high CO2 threshold. The goal of our study was to test this control model under conditions of feeding-induced or temperature-induced changes in metabolic rate. We manipulated the metabolic rate of the insect Rhodnius prolixus using two discrete mechanisms: (1) feeding the insects a bloodmeal or (2) exposing them to a range of temperatures (18-38°C). Examining the variation in the gas exchange patterns produced by insects in each of these treatments allowed us to determine whether spiracular control is sensitive to metabolic rate and/or temperature. We found that increases in temperature caused significant decreases in open phase burst volumes and premature abandonment of discontinuous gas exchange cycles. These effects were not observed in fed individuals maintained at a single temperature despite their higher metabolic rates. Our results indicate that some part of the spiracular control mechanism is temperature sensitive, suggesting a possible role for pH in CO2 sensing.

  4. CONTACT: An Air Force technical report on military satellite control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weakley, Christopher K.

    1993-07-01

    This technical report focuses on Military Satellite Control Technologies and their application to the Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN). This report is a compilation of articles that provide an overview of the AFSCN and the Advanced Technology Program, and discusses relevant technical issues and developments applicable to the AFSCN. Among the topics covered are articles on Future Technology Projections; Future AFSCN Topologies; Modeling of the AFSCN; Wide Area Communications Technology Evolution; Automating AFSCN Resource Scheduling; Health & Status Monitoring at Remote Tracking Stations; Software Metrics and Tools for Measuring AFSCN Software Performance; Human-Computer Interface Working Group; Trusted Systems Workshop; and the University Technical Interaction Program. In addition, Key Technology Area points of contact are listed in the report.

  5. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers: three mammalian gene families control Ca2+ transport.

    PubMed

    Lytton, Jonathan

    2007-09-15

    Mammalian Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are members of three branches of a much larger family of transport proteins [the CaCA (Ca2+/cation antiporter) superfamily] whose main role is to provide control of Ca2+ flux across the plasma membranes or intracellular compartments. Since cytosolic levels of Ca2+ are much lower than those found extracellularly or in sequestered stores, the major function of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers is to extrude Ca2+ from the cytoplasm. The exchangers are, however, fully reversible and thus, under special conditions of subcellular localization and compartmentalized ion gradients, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers may allow Ca2+ entry and may play more specialized roles in Ca2+ movement between compartments. The NCX (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger) [SLC (solute carrier) 8] branch of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers comprises three members: NCX1 has been most extensively studied, and is broadly expressed with particular abundance in heart, brain and kidney, NCX2 is expressed in brain, and NCX3 is expressed in brain and skeletal muscle. The NCX proteins subserve a variety of roles, depending upon the site of expression. These include cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, neuronal signalling and Ca2+ reabsorption in the kidney. The NCKX (Na2+/Ca2+-K+ exchanger) (SLC24) branch of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers transport K+ and Ca2+ in exchange for Na+, and comprises five members: NCKX1 is expressed in retinal rod photoreceptors, NCKX2 is expressed in cone photoreceptors and in neurons throughout the brain, NCKX3 and NCKX4 are abundant in brain, but have a broader tissue distribution, and NCKX5 is expressed in skin, retinal epithelium and brain. The NCKX proteins probably play a particularly prominent role in regulating Ca2+ flux in environments which experience wide and frequent fluctuations in Na+ concentration. Until recently, the range of functions that NCKX proteins play was generally underappreciated. This situation is now changing rapidly as evidence emerges for roles including photoreceptor

  6. 145. VIEW OF LIQUID NITROGEN/HELIUM HEAT EXCHANGER IN FUEL CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    145. VIEW OF LIQUID NITROGEN/HELIUM HEAT EXCHANGER IN FUEL CONTROL ROOM (215), LSB (BLDG. 751), FROM FUEL APRON WITH BAY DOOR OPEN - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. The Ownership and Control of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's EDGAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James Packard

    1993-01-01

    Describes the EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval) system developed for the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for SEC disclosure filings. Ownership and control of the database, hardware, and software is considered; the Information Industry Association position is described; and the need for greater public access to…

  8. Demonstration of leapfrogging for implementing nonlinear model predictive control on a heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Upasana Manimegalai; Govindarajan, Anand; Rhinehart, R Russell

    2016-01-01

    This work reveals the applicability of a relatively new optimization technique, Leapfrogging, for both nonlinear regression modeling and a methodology for nonlinear model-predictive control. Both are relatively simple, yet effective. The application on a nonlinear, pilot-scale, shell-and-tube heat exchanger reveals practicability of the techniques.

  9. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  10. 47 CFR 68.317 - Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid compatibility volume control: technical standards. 68.317 Section 68.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK...

  11. Control of the Physical and Technical Properties of Water in Technological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopotov, V. D.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Sarkisov, Yu S.; Kulchenko, A. K.; Klopotov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The physical and technical properties of water activated by the electrochemical treatment in a two-chamber electrolizer are investigated. The regularities of changes inthe values of acidity, redox potential, ionic composition, concentration of oxygen, structural organization of catholyte and anolyte are revealed. The possibility of controlling the properties of the liquid for more efficient extraction of polymetallic minerals by flotation is described.

  12. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Gramlich, N.; Lohr, N.; Glugla, M.; Shu, W.; Willms, S.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)

  13. Voltage Controlled Exchange Bias in a Cr2O3 based heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtenkamp, Will; Street, Mike; Binek, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Controlling magnetism by electrical means is a key challenge in the field of spintronics, and electric control of exchange bias is one of the most promising routes to address this challenge. Isothermal electric control of exchange bias has been achieved near room temperature using bulk, single crystal, magnetoelectric Cr2O3, which has a voltage controlled net magnetization at the (0001) surface. Voltage control of magnetism in a Cr2O3 thin film system has presented significant challenges. In this study we explore the electric control of exchange bias in an all-thin-film system of decreasing chromia film thickness with significant implications for scalability of ultra-low power memory and logical devices. Cross-sectional HRTEM indicates that grain boundaries in the metallic bottom electrode propagate into the Cr2O3 thin film with detrimental effects on leakage currents. We address this issue via a three-step growth method for the deposition of epitaxial Pd on sapphire. The resulting microstructure of the films is analyzed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, tunneling electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC DMR-0820521.

  14. Instrumentation and Controls Division, Technical Support Department Management Plan, FY 1993--FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, B.P.; Kunselman, C.W.; Effler, R.P.; Miller, D.R.; Millet, A.J.; Stansberry, C.T.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the organization, key functions, and major activities of the Technical Support Department The Department is the programmatic support element of the Instrumentation and Controls Division. The Department`s primary focus is the support of existing equipment and systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are generally characterized as instrumentation and controls. The support takes the form of repair, calibration, fabrication, field engineering, preventive maintenance, software support, and record keeping.

  15. Reversible Control of Nanoparticle Functionalization and Physicochemical Properties by Dynamic Covalent Exchange.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Flavio; Kay, Euan R

    2015-03-27

    Existing methods for the covalent functionalization of nanoparticles rely on kinetically controlled reactions, and largely lack the sophistication of the preeminent oligonucleotide-based noncovalent strategies. Here we report the application of dynamic covalent chemistry for the reversible modification of nanoparticle (NP) surface functionality, combining the benefits of non-biomolecular covalent chemistry with the favorable features of equilibrium processes. A homogeneous monolayer of nanoparticle-bound hydrazones can undergo quantitative dynamic covalent exchange. The pseudomolecular nature of the NP system allows for the in situ characterization of surface-bound species, and real-time tracking of the exchange reactions. Furthermore, dynamic covalent exchange offers a simple approach for reversibly switching-and subtly tuning-NP properties such as solvophilicity.

  16. Tracking pulmonary gas exchange by breathing control during exercise: role of muscle blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Haouzi, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Populations of group III and IV muscle afferent fibres located in the adventitia of the small vessels appear to respond to the level of venular distension and to recruitment of the vascular bed within the skeletal muscles. The CNS could thus be informed on the level of muscle hyperaemia when the metabolic rate varies. As a result, the magnitude and kinetics of the change in peripheral gas exchange – which translates into pulmonary gas exchange – can be sensed. We present the view that the respiratory control system uses these sources of information of vascular origin, among the numerous inputs produced by exercise, as a marker of the metabolic strain imposed on the circulatory and the ventilatory systems, resulting in an apparent matching between pulmonary gas exchange and alveolar ventilation. PMID:23981720

  17. Synthesis of Ultrathin and Thickness-Controlled Cu2-xSe Nanosheets via Cation Exchange.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanxing; Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Tongying, Pornthip; Tian, Yang; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-11-06

    We demonstrate the use of cation exchange to synthesize ultrathin and thickness-controlled Cu2-xSe nanosheets (NSs) beginning with CdSe NSs. In this manner, extremely thin (i.e., 1.6 nm thickness) Cu2-xSe NSs, beyond which can be made directly, have been obtained. Furthermore, they represent the thinnest NSs produced via cation exchange. Notably, the exchange reaction preserves the starting morphology of the CdSe sheets and also retains their cubic crystal structure. The resulting nonstoichiometric and cubic Cu2-xSe NSs are stable and do not exhibit any signs of Cu or Se oxidation after exposure to air for 2 weeks. Resulting NSs also show the existence of a localized surface plasmon resonance in the infrared due to the presence of copper vacancies. Efforts to isolate intermediates during the cation exchange reaction show that it occurs via a mechanism where entire sheets are rapidly converted into the final product once the exchange reaction commences, precluding the isolation of alloyed species.

  18. Hydraulic controls of in-stream gravel bar hyporheic exchange and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, Nico; Schmidt, Christian; Vieweg, Michael; Oswald, Sascha E.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-04-01

    Hyporheic exchange transports solutes into the subsurface where they can undergo biogeochemical transformations, affecting fluvial water quality and ecology. A three-dimensional numerical model of a natural in-stream gravel bar (20 m × 6 m) is presented. Multiple steady state streamflow is simulated with a computational fluid dynamics code that is sequentially coupled to a reactive transport groundwater model via the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed. Ambient groundwater flow is considered by scenarios of neutral, gaining, and losing conditions. The transformation of oxygen, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon by aerobic respiration and denitrification in the hyporheic zone are modeled, as is the denitrification of groundwater-borne nitrate when mixed with stream-sourced carbon. In contrast to fully submerged structures, hyporheic exchange flux decreases with increasing stream discharge, due to decreasing hydraulic head gradients across the partially submerged structure. Hyporheic residence time distributions are skewed in the log-space with medians of up to 8 h and shift to symmetric distributions with increasing level of submergence. Solute turnover is mainly controlled by residence times and the extent of the hyporheic exchange flow, which defines the potential reaction area. Although streamflow is the primary driver of hyporheic exchange, its impact on hyporheic exchange flux, residence times, and solute turnover is small, as these quantities exponentially decrease under losing and gaining conditions. Hence, highest reaction potential exists under neutral conditions, when the capacity for denitrification in the partially submerged structure can be orders of magnitude higher than in fully submerged structures.

  19. The Importance of Winter for Controlling the Growing Season Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, M. G.; Peichl, M.; Ottosson Lofvenius, M.; Nilsson, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the winter season of high latitudes can be important for controlling a range of ecological and biogeochemical properties of northern ecosystems. Here we evaluate the importance of winter conditions on the carbon exchange between boreal forest systems and the atmosphere during the following growing season in order to elucidate any influence of inter-seasonal "memory" effects on carbon exchange properties of boreal forest ecosystems. The study is based on 5 years of continuous eddy covariance measurements at two ca 50 year old Norway spruce stands situated in mid- and northern Sweden, respectively (a total of 10 site years). The growing season net ecosystem exchange (NEE) ranged from -530 to -60 g C m-2 (negative values indicates carbon sinks). Environmental conditions during the growing season (e.g. temperature, radiation, length) only weakly explained the year-to-year variability in NEE. In contrast, up to 75% of the variation could be explained by the severity of the preceding winter (defined as the lowest observed average weekly air temperature) using an exponential response function. After warm winters the carbon sink properties were high as compared to those observed after cold winters. The winter conditions markedly affected the systems potential for carbon uptake in early summer. This presentation will address the potential mechanisms underpinning the observed correlations linking growing season carbon exchange to the conditions of the preceding winter. The influence of winter on the partitioned carbon fluxes of ecosystem respiration and gross primary productivity, respectively, will also be addressed. The results strongly indicate that controls on boreal forest carbon exchange can transcend across seasons. Understanding these mechanisms are integral for understanding the environmental drivers of atmospheric carbon exchange, allowing for accurate predictions of boreal forest NEE under both present and future climates.

  20. Exchange Bias Optimization by Controlled Oxidation of Cobalt Nanoparticle Films Prepared by Sputter Gas Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Antón, Ricardo López; González, Juan A; Andrés, Juan P; Normile, Peter S; Canales-Vázquez, Jesús; Muñiz, Pablo; Riveiro, José M; De Toro, José A

    2017-03-11

    Porous films of cobalt nanoparticles have been obtained by sputter gas aggregation and controllably oxidized by air annealing at 100 °C for progressively longer times (up to more than 1400 h). The magnetic properties of the samples were monitored during the process, with a focus on the exchange bias field. Air annealing proves to be a convenient way to control the Co/CoO ratio in the samples, allowing the optimization of the exchange bias field to a value above 6 kOe at 5 K. The occurrence of the maximum in the exchange bias field is understood in terms of the density of CoO uncompensated spins and their degree of pinning, with the former reducing and the latter increasing upon the growth of a progressively thicker CoO shell. Vertical shifts exhibited in the magnetization loops are found to correlate qualitatively with the peak in the exchange bias field, while an increase in vertical shift observed for longer oxidation times may be explained by a growing fraction of almost completely oxidized particles. The presence of a hummingbird-like form in magnetization loops can be understood in terms of a combination of hard (biased) and soft (unbiased) components; however, the precise origin of the soft phase is as yet unresolved.

  1. Exchange Bias Optimization by Controlled Oxidation of Cobalt Nanoparticle Films Prepared by Sputter Gas Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Antón, Ricardo López; González, Juan A.; Andrés, Juan P.; Normile, Peter S.; Canales-Vázquez, Jesús; Muñiz, Pablo; Riveiro, José M.; De Toro, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Porous films of cobalt nanoparticles have been obtained by sputter gas aggregation and controllably oxidized by air annealing at 100 °C for progressively longer times (up to more than 1400 h). The magnetic properties of the samples were monitored during the process, with a focus on the exchange bias field. Air annealing proves to be a convenient way to control the Co/CoO ratio in the samples, allowing the optimization of the exchange bias field to a value above 6 kOe at 5 K. The occurrence of the maximum in the exchange bias field is understood in terms of the density of CoO uncompensated spins and their degree of pinning, with the former reducing and the latter increasing upon the growth of a progressively thicker CoO shell. Vertical shifts exhibited in the magnetization loops are found to correlate qualitatively with the peak in the exchange bias field, while an increase in vertical shift observed for longer oxidation times may be explained by a growing fraction of almost completely oxidized particles. The presence of a hummingbird-like form in magnetization loops can be understood in terms of a combination of hard (biased) and soft (unbiased) components; however, the precise origin of the soft phase is as yet unresolved. PMID:28336895

  2. The Importance of Postural Control in Relation to Technical Abilities in Small-Sided Soccer Games

    PubMed Central

    Edis, Çağlar; Vurgun, Hikmet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Making assessments regarding postural control and balance is very important for injury prevention in soccer. However, there has been no study that has associated postural control variables with branch-specific technical properties in a game. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between variables designating postural control levels and technical performance variables in different (1:1, 2:2 and 3:3) small-sided games (SSGs). Sixteen trained male amateur soccer players volunteered to take part in the study (age 17.2 ± 1.02 years, body height 176.25 ± 0.07 m, body mass 67.67 ± 13.27 kg). Following familiarization sessions, postural control was evaluated using one-leg and both-leg quiet-stance positions by measuring postural sway with a Tekscan HR Mat™ in anterior–posterior and medial–lateral directions. Later, 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 SSGs were performed at two-day intervals and the technical variables specified for each game were analyzed. A Spearman’s rank-order correlation analysis demonstrated the relationship between postural control and soccer-specific technical variables in 1:1 (r-values ranging from 0.582 to 0.776), 2:2 (rvalues ranging from 0.511 to 0.740) and 3:3 (r-values ranging from 0.502 to 0.834) SSGs. In addition, a Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed differences between SSGs in terms of several variables. The results of the study showed that higher postural control levels are among the important variables that affect success in the performance of technical skills under rival pressure and suddenly changing conditions. Therefore, it is recommended that in addition to its use for injury prevention purposes, balance training should be conducted to improve branch-specific technical skills and to increase the levels of their successful performance in a game. PMID:28149410

  3. Robust multi-objective optimization of state feedback controllers for heat exchanger system with probabilistic uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi, Babak; Wang, Qiuwang

    2013-07-01

    The performance of thermal control systems has, in recent years, improved in numerous ways due to developments in control theory and information technology. The shell-and-tube heat exchanger (STHX) is a medium where heat transfer process occurred. The accuracy of the heat exchanger depends on the performance of both elements. Therefore, both components need to be controlled in order to achieve a substantial result in the process. For this purpose, the actual dynamics of both shell and tube of the heat exchanger is crucial. In this paper, optimal reliability-based multi-objective Pareto design of robust state feedback controllers for a STHX having parameters with probabilistic uncertainties. Accordingly, the probabilities of failure of those objective functions are also considered in the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) approach. A new multi-objective uniform-diversity genetic algorithm (MUGA) is presented and used for Pareto optimum design of linear state feedback controllers for STHX problem. In this way, Pareto front of optimum controllers is first obtained for the nominal deterministic STHX using the conflicting objective functions in time domain. Such Pareto front is then obtained for STHX having probabilistic uncertainties in its parameters using the statistical moments of those objective functions through a Hammersley Sequence Sampling (HSS) approach. It is shown that multi-objective reliability-based Pareto optimization of the robust state feedback controllers using MUGA includes those that may be obtained by various crisp threshold values of probability of failures and, thus, remove the difficulty of selecting suitable crisp values. Besides, the multi-objective Pareto optimization of such robust feedback controllers using MUGA unveils some very important and informative trade-offs among those objective functions. Consequently, some optimum robust state feedback controllers can be compromisingly chosen from the Pareto frontiers.

  4. A computational model of insect discontinuous gas exchange: A two-sensor, control systems approach.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber, Beverley J; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-07

    The insect gas exchange system is characterised by branching air-filled tubes (tracheae/tracheoles) and valve-like structures in their outer integument (spiracles) which allow for a periodic gas exchange pattern known as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC). The DGC facilitates the temporal decoupling of whole animal gas exchange from cellular respiration rates and may confer several physiological benefits, which are nevertheless highly controversial (primarily reduction of cellular oxidative damage and/or respiratory water saving). The intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing DGCs are the focus of extensive ongoing research and little consensus has been reached on the evolutionary genesis or mechanistic costs and benefits of the pattern. Despite several hypotheses and much experimental and evolutionary biology research, a mechanistic physical model, which captures various key elements of the DGC pattern, is currently lacking. Here, we present a biologically realistic computational, two-sensor DGC model (pH/carbon dioxide and oxygen setpoints) for an Orthopteran gas exchange system, and show computationally for the first time that a control system of two interacting feedback loops is capable of generating a full DGC pattern with outputs which are physiologically realistic, quantitatively matching experimental results found in this taxonomic model elsewhere. A finite-element mathematical approach is employed and various trigger sets are considered. Parameter sensitivity analyses suggest that various aspects of insect DGC are adequately captured in this model. In particular, with physiologically relevant input parameters, the full DGC pattern is induced; and the phase durations, endotracheal carbon dioxide partial pressure ranges, and pH fluctuations which arise are physically realistic. The model results support the emergent property hypothesis for the existence of DGC, and indicate that asymmetric loading and off-loading (hysteresis) in one of the sensor

  5. Independent control of the shape and composition of ionic nanocrystals through sequential cation exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, Joseph Matthew; Zheng, Haimei; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-07-06

    Size- and shape-controlled nanocrystal growth is intensely researched for applications including electro-optic, catalytic, and medical devices. Chemical transformations such as cation exchange overcome the limitation of traditional colloidal synthesis, where the nanocrystal shape often reflects the inherent symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here we show that nanocrystals, with established synthetic protocols for high monodispersity, can be templates for independent composition control. Specifically, controlled interconversion between wurtzite CdS, chalcocite Cu2S, and rock salt PbS occurs while preserving the anisotropic dimensions unique to the as-synthesized materials. Sequential exchange reactions between the three sulfide compositions are driven by the disparate solubilites of the metal ion exchange pair in specific coordinating molecules. Starting with CdS, highly anisotropic PbS nanorods are created, which serve as an important material for studying strong 2-dimensional quantum confinement, as well as for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, interesting nanoheterostructures of CdS|PbS are obtained by precise control over ion insertion and removal.

  6. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  7. Development and Evaluation of Oral Controlled Release Chlorpheniramine-Ion Exchange Resinate Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, A. U.; Sakarkar, D. M.; Kawtikwar, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    An oral controlled release suspension of chlorpheniramine maleate was prepared using ion-exchange resin technology. A strong cation exchange resin Indion 244 was utilized for the sorption of the drug and the drug resinates was evaluated for various physical and chemical parameters. The drug-resinate complex was microencapsulated with a polymer Eudragit RS 100 to further retard the release characteristics. Both the drug-resinate complex and microencapsulated drug resinate were suspended in a palatable aqueous suspension base and were evaluated for controlled release characteristic. Stability study indicated that elevated temperature did not alter the sustained release nature of the dosage form indicating that polymer membrane surrounding the core material remained intact throughout the storage period. PMID:20046790

  8. [Technical requirements for buying a heat and humidity exchanger for ventilation during anesthesia. French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care].

    PubMed

    Hajjar, J; Loctin, H; Goullet, D

    2000-08-01

    To prevent cross infection and to improve the management of anaesthetic circuits, the French society of anesthesia and intensive care recommended the use of heat and moisture exchange filter (HMEF). Buying a HMEF needs a procedure with different steps and a product request form must delineate precise needed requirements of the device. In the absence of standardized methods to assess filtration performance, required specifications are established from both manufacturer data and scientific published studies. Proposed purchasing method and criteria help the health care workers at the time of final decision for objective comparison between the different devices on the market.

  9. On a Time-Optimal Control Problem Associated with the Heat Exchange Process

    SciTech Connect

    Albeverio, Sergio Alimov, Shavkat

    2008-02-15

    The initial-boundary problem for the heat conduction equation inside a bounded domain is considered. It is supposed that on the boundary of this domain the heat exchange according to Newton's law takes place. The control parameter is equal to the magnitude of output of hot or cold air and is defined on a given part of the boundary. An estimate of the minimal time for achieving the given average temperature is found.

  10. Enhancing cancer control programmatic and research opportunities for African-Americans through technical assistance training.

    PubMed

    Satcher, David; Sullivan, Louis W; Douglas, Harry E; Mason, Terry; Phillips, Rogsbert F; Sheats, Joyce Q; Smith, Selina A

    2006-10-15

    African-Americans remain severely underrepresented in cancer control program delivery and research. Community-based organizational leaders and minority junior investigators have received little attention as representatives of target populations, or as agents to deliver and evaluate efforts to eliminate cancer health disparities. This paper describes activities of the National Black Leadership Initiative on Cancer II: Network Project, which has sought to address these issues. Community leaders and junior investigators received technical assistance (TA) and mentoring to develop applications for cancer education and community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. TA was provided to 35 community leaders and 32 junior investigators. Twenty-nine community leaders won funding through the Community Partners for Cancer Education Program. Three pilot research applications were funded. Technical assistance may improve minority recruitment/retention in CBPR cancer control research and enhance understanding and elimination of cancer health disparities among African-Americans. Cancer 2006. (c) American Cancer Society.

  11. Controlled transdermal delivery of leuprorelin by pulsed iontophoresis and ion-exchange fiber.

    PubMed

    Malinovskaja, Kristina; Laaksonen, Timo; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2014-11-01

    Poor transport efficacy and issues related to biological variation are major concerns in the development of novel iontophoretic devices for the transdermal delivery of therapeutic peptides. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of constant and pulsed current on the transport of nonapeptide leuprorelin acetate across porcine epidermis. Also, the potential of drug delivery system combining iontophoresis and ion-exchange fibers as drug matrices for the delivery of the same peptide was tested. The present study demonstrated the benefit of pulsed current (Tn=2.59×10(-4)) over constant current (Tn=1.7×10(-4)) in terms of more efficient transdermal peptide transport. An increase in the delivery of electroosmotic marker by pulsed current was due to the combined effect of more pronounced electroosmotic transport and reduced inhibition of passive transport. We also showed a promising approach using ion-exchange fibers for controlling the release and iontophoretic transdermal delivery of peptides. Positively charged leuprorelin acetate was bound to the ion-exchange groups of cation-exchange fibers until it was gradually released by mobile counter ions in the external solution. Transdermal flux from acrylic acid grafted Smopex®-102 fibers remained higher (Jss=0.71μg/hcm(2)) than from sulfonic acid grafted Smopex®-101 fibers (Jss=0.31μg/hcm(2)) due to better drug release.

  12. Coherent control of charge exchange in strong-field dissociation of LiF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Greg; Esry, Brett

    2016-05-01

    The alkali-metal-halides family of molecules are useful prototypes in the study of laser-assisted charge exchange. Typically these molecules possess a field-free crossing between the ionic and covalent diabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential curves, leading to Li+ + F- and Li + F in LiF. These channels are energetically well-separated from higher-lying potentials, and may be easily distinguished experimentally. Moreover, charge exchange involves non-adiabatic transitions between the ionic and covalent channels, thereby allowing the investigation of physics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The focus of this work is to control the preference between ionic and covalent dissociative products. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the nuclear motion in full dimensionality, and investigate a pump-probe scheme for charge-exchange control. The degree of control is investigated by calculating the kinetic-energy release spectrum as a function of pump-probe delay for the ionic and covalent fragments. This work is supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. A Preliminary Study: USMC Tactical Communications Technical Control Needs for the Landing Force Integrated Communications System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    corrected thereby making the TSQ-111 a viable alternative choice for the long term . There is too little lead time and high acquisition risk (quantity...SaCUIWTY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (hM 0a Emeee 20. long term (1991+) eras of service. Examined...are the technical control functional requirements for both the transitional near term and the eventual long term digital i systems. The study raises

  14. UMIST, IDN, NTUA, TUM, ULB: A Successful European Exchange Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borne, Pierre; Singh, Madan G.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the exchange programs that existed for a decade in the fields of automatic control and computer science including the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, the "Institut Industriel du Nord," the National Technical University of Athens, the Technical University of Munich, and the Free University of…

  15. Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

    1980-06-01

    Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

  16. Flight tests with a data link used for air traffic control information exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that air traffic control (ATC) message exchange with a data link offers the potential benefits of increased airspace system safety and efficiency. To accomplish these benefits, data link can be used to reduce communication errors and relieve overloaded ATC voice radio frequencies, which hamper efficient message exchange during peak traffic periods. Flight tests with commercial airline pilots as test subjects were conducted in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle Boeing 737 airplane to contrast flight operations that used current voice communications with flight operations that used data link to transmit both strategic and tactical ATC clearances during a typical commercial airflight from takeoff to landing. The results of these tests that used data link as the primary communication source with ATC showed flight crew acceptance, a perceived reduction in crew work load, and a reduction in crew communication errors.

  17. Ultrafast and reversible control of the exchange interaction in Mott insulators

    PubMed Central

    Mentink, J. H.; Balzer, K.; Eckstein, M.

    2015-01-01

    The strongest interaction between microscopic spins in magnetic materials is the exchange interaction Jex. Therefore, ultrafast control of Jex holds the promise to control spins on ultimately fast timescales. We demonstrate that time-periodic modulation of the electronic structure by electric fields can be used to reversibly control Jex on ultrafast timescales in extended antiferromagnetic Mott insulators. In the regime of weak driving strength, we find that Jex can be enhanced and reduced for frequencies below and above the Mott gap, respectively. Moreover, for strong driving strength, even the sign of Jex can be reversed and we show that this causes time reversal of the associated quantum spin dynamics. These results suggest wide applications, not only to control magnetism in condensed matter systems, for example, via the excitation of spin resonances, but also to assess fundamental questions concerning the reversibility of the quantum many-body dynamics in cold atom systems. PMID:25819547

  18. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-12-31

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins` performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  19. Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems (TRACS) Initial Operating Capability (IOC) documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dana P.

    1991-01-01

    The Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems (TRACS) software package is described. TRACS offers supplemental tools for the analysis, control, and interchange of project requirements. This package provides the fundamental capability to analyze and control requirements, serves a focal point for project requirements, and integrates a system that supports efficient and consistent operations. TRACS uses relational data base technology (ORACLE) in a stand alone or in a distributed environment that can be used to coordinate the activities required to support a project through its entire life cycle. TRACS uses a set of keyword and mouse driven screens (HyperCard) which imposes adherence through a controlled user interface. The user interface provides an interactive capability to interrogate the data base and to display or print project requirement information. TRACS has a limited report capability, but can be extended with PostScript conventions.

  20. Fiber-optic, anti-cycling, high pressure sodium street light control. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the Final Technical Progress Report on a project to develop and market a Fiber-Optic Anti-Cycling High Pressure Sodium Street Light Control. The field test units are now being made with a single vertical PC board design and contains a computer-on-a-chip or PROM IC to take the place of the majority of the components previously contained on the upper logic board. This will reduce the final costs of the unit when it is in production and increase the control`s flexibility. The authors have finished the soft tooling and have made the 400 plastic cases for the field test units. The new configuration of the cases entails a simplified design of the control shell which will have the lenses cast in place. The shell and base plastics are now finished and in final assembly awaiting the completion of the PC boards.

  1. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  2. Multiple model predictive control for a hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qihong; Gao, Lijun; Dougal, Roger A.; Quan, Shuhai

    This paper presents a hierarchical predictive control strategy to optimize both power utilization and oxygen control simultaneously for a hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell/ultracapacitor system. The control employs fuzzy clustering-based modeling, constrained model predictive control, and adaptive switching among multiple models. The strategy has three major advantages. First, by employing multiple piecewise linear models of the nonlinear system, we are able to use linear models in the model predictive control, which significantly simplifies implementation and can handle multiple constraints. Second, the control algorithm is able to perform global optimization for both the power allocation and oxygen control. As a result, we can achieve the optimization from the entire system viewpoint, and a good tradeoff between transient performance of the fuel cell and the ultracapacitor can be obtained. Third, models of the hybrid system are identified using real-world data from the hybrid fuel cell system, and models are updated online. Therefore, the modeling mismatch is minimized and high control accuracy is achieved. Study results demonstrate that the control strategy is able to appropriately split power between fuel cell and ultracapacitor, avoid oxygen starvation, and so enhance the transient performance and extend the operating life of the hybrid system.

  3. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  4. Controls on residence time and exchange in a system of shallow coastal bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safak, I.; Wiberg, P. L.; Richardson, D. L.; Kurum, M. O.

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of transport and residence time influence the morphology, ecology and biogeochemistry of shallow coastal bay systems in important ways. To better understand the factors controlling residence time and exchange in coastal bays, a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model was set up and validated with field observations of circulation in a system of 14 shallow coastal bays on the Atlantic coast of the USA (Virginia Coast Reserve). Residence times of neutrally buoyant particles as well as exchange among the bays in the system and between the bays and the ocean were examined with Lagrangian particle tracking. There was orders of magnitude variation in the calculated residence time within most of the bays, ranging from hours in the tidally refreshed (repletion) water near the inlets to days-weeks in the remaining (residual) water away from the inlets. Residence time in the repletion waters was most sensitive to the tidal phase (low vs. high) when particles were released whereas residence time in the residual waters was more sensitive to wind forcing. Wind forcing was found to act as a diffuser that shortens particle residence within the bays; its effect was higher away from the inlets and in relatively confined bays. Median residence time in the bays significantly decreased with an increase in the ratio between open water area and total area (open water plus marsh). Exchange among the bays and capture areas of inlets (i.e., exchange between the bays and the ocean) varied considerably but were insensitive to tidal phase of release, wind, and forcing conditions in different years, in contrast to the sensitivity of residence time to these factors. We defined a new quantity, termed shortest-path residence time, calculated as distance from the closest inlet divided by root-mean-square velocity at each point in model domain. A relationship between shortest-path residence time and particle-tracking residence time provides a means of estimating residence time

  5. Command Generation and Control of Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost Tethered Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The research completed for this NASA Graduate Student Research Program Fellowship sought to enhance the current state-of-the-art dynamic models and control laws for Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost satellite systems by utilizing command generation, specifically Input Shaping. The precise control of tethered spacecraft with flexible appendages is extremely difficult. The complexity is magnified many times when the satellite must interact with other satellites as in a momentum exchange via a tether. The Momentum Exchange Electronic Reboost Tether (MXER) concept encapsulates all of these challenging tasks [l]. Input Shaping is a command generation technique that allows flexible spacecraft to move without inducing residual vibration [2], limit transient deflection [3] and utilize fuel-efficient actuation [4]. Input shaping is implemented by convolving a sequence of impulses, known as the input shaper, with a desired system command to produce a shaped input that is then used to drive the system. This process is demonstrated in Figure 1. The shaped command is then use to drive the system without residual vibration while meeting many other performance specifications. The completed work developed tether control algorithms for retrieval. A simple model of the tether response has been developed and command shaping was implemented to minimize unwanted dynamics. A model of a flexible electrodynamic tether has been developed to investigate the tether s response during reboost. Command shaping techniques have been developed to eliminate the tether oscillations and reduce the tether s deflection to pre-specified levels during reboost. Additionally, a model for the spin-up of a tethered system was developed. This model was used in determining the parameters for optimization the resulting angular velocity.

  6. Controlling plasmonic "hot spots" in nanoparticle assemblies using ligand place-exchange reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Lanlan

    properties of the Au nanoplate-Au NP assemblies were studied by monitoring the shift in the LSPR band of the Au nanoplates upon attachment of Au NPs and by measuring the SERS enhancement of the 4-ATP linker. The LSPR band red shifted about 1 nm upon attachment of each Au NP at the vertex and edge sites. The estimated shift is about 0.1 to 0.6 nm per Au NP for those attached to the terraces sites, where the shift is larger for Au NPs attached to outer terrace sites close to the edge and smaller for the inner terrace sites. Au nanoplate-Au NP assemblies with 100% of the NPs attached on the vertex sites of the nanoplates showed the largest enhancement relative to the Au nanoplates. The intensity was similar to the assemblies with many more NPs, but relatively fewer at the vertex/edge sites, indicating that the "hottest spot" for enhancement is located in the interparticle junction between the vertex of the nanoplate and the attached NP. The relative enhancement of the Au nanoplate-Au NP couple relative to the Au nanoplate alone was about 11 on a per Au NP basis. Fundamentally, the results suggest that a small number of "hottest spots" in the laser beam area dominate the Raman enhancement signal and practically, the nanoplate-NP coupling approach controllably at the vertex/edge sites can be very useful for amplifying the detection of analyte down to the single molecule level. This research provides a simple approach for the preparation of various nanostructure assemblies with high accuracy and reproducibility. At the same time, it can potentially be used to control the location of analyte for LSPR and SERS sensing. Another important contribution of this study is the direct evidence for the mechanism and kinetics of the ligand place-exchange reaction on the nanoplate surfaces, which can be useful for controlling NP attachment to other structures as well.

  7. Electrical control of exchange bias via oxygen migration across CoO-ZnO nanocomposite barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Yan, S. S.; Xu, J.; Li, S. D.; Zhao, G. X.; Long, Y. Z.; Shen, T. T.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    We proposed a nanocomposite barrier CoO-ZnO for magnetism manipulation in Co/CoO-ZnO/Ag heterojunctions. Both electrical control of magnetism and resistive switching were realized in this junction. An electrical tunable exchange bias of CoO1-v (v denotes O vacancies) on Co films was realized using voltages below 1 volt. The magnetism modulation associated with resistive switching can be attributed to the oxygen ions migration between the insulating CoO1-v layer and the semiconductive ZnO1-v layer, which can cause both ferromagnetic phase and resistance switching of CoO1-v layer.

  8. Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for Command and Control Applications, Modelling and Enforcing Category-Based Access Control via Term Rewriting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0026 Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for Command and Control Applications Maribel...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 24 August 2010 – 28 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Information Management and Exchange for...specified by individual members of the federation). 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Information Management , Distributed

  9. Eliminating leakage current in voltage-controlled exchange-bias devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Ather; Echtenkamp, Will; Street, Michael; Binek, Christian; Magnetic Heterostructures Team

    Manipulation of magnetism by electric field has drawn much attention due to the technological importance for low-power devices, and for understanding fundamental magnetoelectric phenomena. A manifestation of electrically controlled magnetism is voltage control of exchange bias (EB). Robust isothermal voltage control of EB was demonstrated near room temperature using a heterostructure of Co/Pd thin film and an exchange coupled single crystal of the antiferromagnetic Cr2O3 (Chromia). A major obstacle for EB in lithographically patterned Chromia based thin-film devices is to minimize the leakage currents at high electric fields (>10 kV/mm). By combining electrical measurements on patterned devices and conductive Atomic Force Microscopy of Chromia thin-films, we investigate the defects which form conducting paths impeding the application of sufficient voltage for demonstrating the isothermal EB switching in thin film heterostructures. Technological challenges in the device fabrication will be discussed. This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC Abstract DMR-0820521.

  10. Controlling Self-Assembly Kinetics of DNA-Functionalized Liposomes Using Toehold Exchange Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Lucia; Kotar, Jurij; Di Michele, Lorenzo; Mognetti, Bortolo M

    2016-02-23

    The selectivity of Watson-Crick base pairing has allowed the design of DNA-based functional materials bearing an unprecedented level of accuracy. Examples include DNA origami, made of tiles assembling into arbitrarily complex shapes, and DNA coated particles featuring rich phase behaviors. Frequently, the realization of conceptual DNA-nanotechnology designs has been hampered by the lack of strategies for effectively controlling relaxations. In this article, we address the problem of kinetic control on DNA-mediated interactions between Brownian objects. We design a kinetic pathway based on toehold-exchange mechanisms that enables rearrangement of DNA bonds without the need for thermal denaturation, and test it on suspensions of DNA-functionalized liposomes, demonstrating tunability of aggregation rates over more than 1 order of magnitude. While the possibility to design complex phase behaviors using DNA as a glue is already well recognized, our results demonstrate control also over the kinetics of such systems.

  11. Rotational Control of a Dirhodium-Centered Supramolecular Four-Gear System by Ligand Exchange.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Kazuma; Ube, Hitoshi; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2016-03-09

    Self-assembled molecular machines have great potential to enable noncovalent regulation of a coupled motion of the building blocks. Herein we report the synthesis and the rotational control of a lantern-type dirhodium complex with circularly arranged four 2,3,6,7,14,15-hexamethyltriptycene carboxylates as gears and two axial ligands as the rate control elements. The rotating rates in solution were markedly affected by the coordination ability and the bulkiness of axial ligands. Notably, the rate changes were closely correlated with the changes in the electronic states of the dirhodium center. Such ligand exchange-based control of rotational motions with color changes would advance stimulus-responsive metallo-molecular multirotors.

  12. Multivariable robust control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chen, Hsuan-Tsung; Yang, Yee-Pien; Yen, Jia-Yush

    This paper applies multivariable robust control strategies to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system. From the system point of view, a PEMFC can be modeled as a two-input-two-output system, where the inputs are air and hydrogen flow rates and the outputs are cell voltage and current. By fixing the output resistance, we aimed to control the cell voltage output by regulating the air and hydrogen flow rates. Due to the nonlinear characteristics of this system, multivariable robust controllers were designed to provide robust performance and to reduce the hydrogen consumption of this system. The study was carried out in three parts. Firstly, the PEMFC system was modeled as multivariable transfer function matrices using identification techniques, with the un-modeled dynamics treated as system uncertainties and disturbances. Secondly, robust control algorithms were utilized to design multivariable H ∞ controllers to deal with system uncertainty and performance requirements. Finally, the designed robust controllers were implemented to control the air and hydrogen flow rates. From the experimental results, multivariable robust control is shown to provide steady output responses and significantly reduce hydrogen consumption.

  13. Comparison of model-based and conventional controllers on a pilot-scale heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Raul, Pramod R; Srinivasan, Haritha; Kulkarni, Sanket; Shokrian, Mazdak; Shrivastava, Glory; Russell Rhinehart, R

    2013-05-01

    This pilot-scale heat exchanger demonstration compares two relatively simple nonlinear model-based control strategies to conventional proportional-integral (PI) control. The two nonlinear controllers, generic model control (GMC) and process-model based control (PMBC), use a first-principles model thereby providing characterization of the nonlinear process throughout the operating range. There are two approaches to GMC, one uses a dynamic model, the other a steady-state model. This work uses the steady-state model; accordingly, will use the term GMC-SS, which can be classified as output characterization for a PI controller, making it relatively simple to implement. PMBC uses a dynamic model and adapts to represent the process. These two nonlinear controllers were selected for this application evaluation because of their simplicity (they can be implemented in-house within many commercial control systems), diversity (steady-state and dynamic models), and demonstrated utility for control of nonlinear single-input-single-output processes. The application and results are presented and discussed. Summarizing the results: Within a small temperature operating range PI provides good control, but over the full operating range, the nonlinear and variable delay of the process lead to poor control with PI. GMC can handle the nonlinear issues, but using the convenient steady-state model; it also, provides poor control because of the variable delay associated with flow rate. PMBC was able to provide good control throughout the entire operating range. PMBC has a further advantage of only having one tuning coefficient, while PI and GMC-SS have two.

  14. Admittance control of an upper limb exoskeleton--reduction of energy exchange.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Li, Zhi; Roldan, Jay Ryan; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The synergy of human arms and wearable robot systems (e.g. exoskeletons) is enabled by a control algorithm that maximizes the transparency between the two subsystems. The transparency can be improved by integrating the admittance control along with an arm redundancy resolution algorithm. Recent research effort resulted in a new criterion for the human arm redundancy resolution for unconstrained arm motions estimating the swivel angle with prediction errors of less than 5°. The proposed criterion for the arm redundancy resolution defines the mouth as the primary target of the the human hand during unconstrained arm motions in free space. It was postulated based on experimental data analysis that this criterion is based on a neural mechanism directing the hand towards the head for self-feeding. In conjunction with the proposed redundancy resolution criteria a task space admittance control algorithm is introduced based on multiple force sensor inputs obtained at the interface between the human arm and the exoskeleton system. The system performance was evaluated by five healthy subjects performing a peg-in-hole task for three different target locations. The velocities and interaction forces at the upper arm, lower arm, handle and tip were recorded and further used to power exchange between the subject and the device. Results indicated that the proposed control scheme outperforms the purely reactive task space admittance control with energy exchange reduced to 11.22%. Improving the quality of the human control of a wearable robot system may allow the robot to be a natural and transparent extension of the operator's body.

  15. Stomatal control of gas-exchange is related to assimilate transport from leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikinmaa, E.; Holtta, T.; Sevanto, S.; Makela, A.; Hari, P.; Vesala, T.

    2009-04-01

    In land plants, the carbon fluxes are closely associated with those of water. The loss of water from leaves pulls water from soil in plants. High transpiration relative to compensating water flux from soil increases the tension of water column that may lead to its rupture and catastrophic dysfunction of the xylem if the transpiration rate is not regulated. Modification of the size of stomatal openings in leaves regulates the interconnected fluxes of water and carbon. Stomatal regulation of transpiration has direct influence also on the carbon transport from source leaves to sinks. Under given conditions, the water tension of xylem in leaves is linearly related to stomatal conductance while the assimilation rate, which is linked to the loading capacity, has saturating relationship with stomatal conductance. High sugar loading at source could compensate for the high water tension in xylem resulting from eg. high transpiration. However, excessive loading rate of the most commonly transported sugar, sucrose, causes rapid viscosity build up that effectively blocks the phloem transport. Assimilate transport from the shoot is a clear requirement for continuous photosynthetic production in leaves. Without transport the storage capacity of the leaves would be rapidly exhausted and accumulation of excess sugars in leaves lead to downregulation of photosynthesis. In this presentation we study the stomatal response to environment and its linkage to xylem and phloem tranport with dynamic model. We hypothesize that stomatal reaction to environment would maintain maximal assimilate transport in phloem under those conditions. We added to the xylem phloem transport model stomatal control of leaf gas-exchange, light and CO2 concentration dependent photosynthesis rate and carbon storage in leaf. For each time step we varied the stomatal conductance and selected the sollution that maximised the transport of assimilates in phloem. Our hypothesis reproduced realistically stomatal

  16. Plant physiological and environmental controls over the exchange of acetaldehyde between forest canopies and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Lerdau, M.; Mak, J. E.

    2008-11-01

    We quantified fine scale sources and sinks of gas phase acetaldehyde in two forested ecosystems in the US. During the daytime, the upper canopy behaved as a net source while at lower heights, reduced emission rates or net uptake were observed. At night, uptake generally predominated throughout the canopies. Net ecosystem emission rates were inversely related to foliar density due to the extinction of light in the canopy and a respective decrease of the acetaldehyde compensation point. This is supported by branch level studies revealing much higher compensation points in the light than in the dark for poplar (Populus deltoides) and holly oak (Quercus ilex) implying a higher light/temperature sensitivity for acetaldehyde production relative to consumption. The view of stomata as the major pathway for acetaldehyde exchange is supported by strong linear correlations between branch transpiration rates and acetaldehyde exchange velocities for both species. In addition, natural abundance carbon isotope analysis of gas-phase acetaldehyde during poplar branch fumigation experiments revealed a significant kinetic isotope effect of 5.1±0.3‰ associated with the uptake of acetaldehyde. Similar experiments with dry dead poplar leaves showed no fractionation or uptake of acetaldehyde, confirming that this is only a property of living leaves. We suggest that acetaldehyde belongs to a potentially large list of plant metabolites where stomatal resistance can exert long term control over both emission and uptake rates due to the presence of both source(s) and sink(s) within the leaf which strongly buffer large changes in concentrations in the substomatal airspace due to changes in stomatal resistance. We conclude that the exchange of acetaldehyde between plant canopies and the atmosphere is fundamentally controlled by ambient acetaldehyde concentrations, stomatal resistance, and the compensation point which is a function of light/temperature.

  17. Plant physiological and environmental controls over the exchange of acetaldehyde between forest canopies and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Lerdau, M.; Mak, J. E.

    2008-06-01

    We quantified fine scale sources and sinks of gas phase acetaldehyde in two forested ecosystems in the US. During the daytime, the upper canopy behaved as a net source while at lower heights, reduced emission rates or net uptake were observed. At night, uptake generally predominated thoughout the canopies. Net ecosystem emission rates were inversely related to foliar density which influenced the extinction of light and the acetaldehyde compensation point in the canopy. This is supported by branch level studies revealing much higher compensation points in the light than in the dark for poplar (Populus deltoides) and holly oak (Quercus ilex) implying a higher light/temperature sensitivity for acetaldehyde production relative to consumption. The view of stomata as the major pathway for acetaldehyde exchange is supported by strong linear correlations between branch transpiration rates and acetaldehyde exchange velocities for both species. In addition, natural abundance carbon isotope analysis of gas-phase acetaldehyde during poplar branch fumigation experiments revealed a significant kinetic isotope effect of 5.1±0.3‰, associated with the uptake of acetaldehyde. Similar experiments with dry dead poplar leaves showed no fractionation or uptake of acetaldehyde, confirming that this is only a property of living leaves. We suggest that acetaldehyde belongs to a potentially large list of plant metabolites where stomatal conductance can exert long term control over both emission and uptake rates due to the presence of both source(s) and sink(s) within the leaf which strongly buffer large changes in concentrations in the substomatal airspace due to changes in stomatal conductance. We conclude that the exchange of acetaldehyde between plant canopies and the atmosphere is fundamentally controlled by ambient acetaldehyde concentrations, stomatal conductance, and the acetaldehyde compensation point.

  18. Non-linear advanced control of the LHC inner triplet heat exchanger test unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñuela, E. Blanco; Cubillos, J. Casas; de Prada Moraga, C.; Cristea, S.

    2002-05-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will include eight interaction region final focus magnet systems, the so-called "Inner Triplet," one on each side of the four beam collision points. The Inner Triplets will be cooled in a static bath of pressurized He II nominally at 1.9 K. This temperature is a control parameter and has very severe constraints in order to avoid the transition from the superconducting to normal resistive state. The main difference in these special zones with respect to a regular LHC cell is higher dynamic heat load unevenly distributed which modifies largely the process characteristics and hence the controller performance. Several control strategies have already been tested at CERN in a pilot plant (LHC String Test) which reproduced a LHC half-cell. In order to validate a common control structure along the whole LHC ring, a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has been developed and implemented in the Inner Triplet Heat Exchanger Unit (IT-HXTU) at CERN. Automation of the Inner Triplet setup and the advanced control techniques deployed based on the Model Based Predictive Control (MBPC) principle are presented.

  19. Production of stable bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange

    PubMed Central

    Gramer, Michael J; van den Bremer, Ewald TJ; van Kampen, Muriel D; Kundu, Amitava; Kopfmann, Peter; Etter, Eric; Stinehelfer, David; Long, Justin; Lannom, Tom; Noordergraaf, Esther H; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Labrijn, Aran F; Schuurman, Janine; van Berkel, Patrick HC; Parren, Paul WHI

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bispecific antibodies can be challenging for a variety of reasons. For example, protein expression problems, stability issues, or the use of non-standard approaches for manufacturing can result in poor yield or poor facility fit. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of standard antibody platforms for large-scale manufacturing of bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange. Two parental antibodies that each contain a single matched point mutation in the CH3 region were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and manufactured at 1000 L scale using a platform fed-batch and purification process that was designed for standard antibody production. The bispecific antibody was generated by mixing the two parental molecules under controlled reducing conditions, resulting in efficient Fab-arm exchange of >95% at kg scale. The reductant was removed via diafiltration, resulting in spontaneous reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds. Aside from the bispecific nature of the molecule, extensive characterization demonstrated that the IgG1 structural integrity was maintained, including function and stability. These results demonstrate the suitability of this bispecific IgG1 format for commercial-scale manufacturing using standard antibody manufacturing techniques. PMID:23995617

  20. Portable pilot plant for evaluating marine biofouling growth and control in heat exchangers-condensers.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, J F; Sánchez, J; García-Morales, J L; Casanueva-Robles, T; López, J A; Portela, J R; Nebot, E; Sales, D

    2003-01-01

    Biofouling frequently involves a serious impediment to achieving optimum operating conditions in heat exchangers-condensers. The economic coat and energy losses associated with this phenomenon are significant and the environmental impact of biocides must satisfy stringent regulations. A portable pilot plant has been designed in order to carry out in-situ experimental study as biofilm is formed under thermal and hydrodynamically controlled conditions. The pilot plant has an automatic monitoring, control and data acquisition system, which automatically processes data from indirect measure of fouling in terms of increased fluid frictional and heat transfer resistances. A particular method is used and proposed for direct measuring and biofilm characterization. Once we know the actual film thickness, we can calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the layer by using the appropriate heat transfer equations.

  1. Interface-controlled layer exchange in metal-induced crystallization of germanium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shu; Marshall, Ann F.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2010-08-01

    Low-temperature synthesis of polycrystalline germanium (poly-Ge) thin films is of great interest in thin-film photovoltaic and electronics applications. We demonstrate metal (Al)-induced crystallization to form poly-Ge thin films on both glass and polymer substrates at temperatures as low as 200 °C. An interfacial diffusion control layer, intentionally interposed between the Al and the underlying amorphous Ge (a-Ge) layer, is found to achieve layer exchange while suppressing uncontrolled Ge crystallization within the bilayer samples. Germanium thin films with micron-size grains and (111)-preferred orientation are prepared by controlled Ge nucleation and Ge lateral overgrowth of Al during a-Ge crystallization.

  2. Fault Diagnosis for the Heat Exchanger of the Aircraft Environmental Control System Based on the Strong Tracking Filter

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system’s efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger. PMID:25823010

  3. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  4. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts.

  5. Supporting tobacco control: stimulating local newspaper coverage with a technical assistance website for local coalitions.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them.

  6. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    B. E. Law; E. Falgeb; L. Guc; D. D. Baldocchic; P. Bakwind; P. Berbigiere; K. Davisf; A. J. Dolmang; M. Falkh; J. D. Fuentesi; A. Goldsteinc; A. Granierj; A. Grellek; D. Hollingerl; I. A. Janssensm; P. Jarvisn; N. O. Jenseno; G. Katulp; Y. Mahliq; G. Matteuccir; T. Meyerss; R. Monsont; W. Mungeru; W. Oechelv; R. Olsonw; K. Pilegaardx; K. T. Paw Uh; H. Thorgeirssony; R. Valentinir; S. Vermaz; T. Vesalaa1; K. Wilsons; S. Wofsyu

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this research was to compare seasonal and annual estimates of CO2 and water vapor exchange across sites in forests, grasslands, crops, and tundra that are part of an international network called FLUXNET, and to investigating the responses of vegetation to environmental variables. FLUXNETs goals are to understand the mechanisms controlling the exchanges of CO2, water vapor and energy across a spectrum of time and space scales, and to provide information for modeling of carbon and water cycling across regions and the globe. At a subset of sites, net carbon uptake (net ecosystem exchange, the net of photosynthesis and respiration) was greater under diffuse than under direct radiation conditions, perhaps because of a more efficient distribution of non-saturating light conditions for photosynthesis, lower vapor pressure deficit limitation to photosynthesis, and lower respiration associated with reduced temperature. The slope of the relation between monthly gross ecosystem production and evapotranspiration was similar between biomes, except for tundra vegetation, showing a strong linkage between carbon gain and water loss integrated over the year (slopes=3.4 g CO2/kg H2O for grasslands, 3.2 for deciduous broadleaf forests, 3.1 for crops, 2.4 for evergreen conifers, and 1.5 for tundra vegetation). The ratio of annual ecosystem respiration to gross photosynthesis averaged 0.83, with lower values for grasslands, presumably because of less investment in respiring plant tissue compared with forests. Ecosystem respiration was weakly correlated with mean annual temperature across biomes, in spite of within site sensitivity over shorter temporal scales. Mean annual temperature and site water balance explained much of the variation in gross photosynthesis. Water availability limits leaf area index over the long-term, and inter-annual climate variability can limit carbon uptake below the potential of the leaf area present.

  7. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection.

  8. Reach-scale cation exchange controls on major ion chemistry of an Antarctic glacial meltwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gooseff, Michael N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    McMurdo dry valleys of Antarctica represent the largest of the ice-free areas on the Antarctic continent, containing glaciers, meltwater streams, and closed basin lakes. Previous geochemical studies of dry valley streams and lakes have addressed chemical weathering reactions of hyporheic substrate and geochemical evolution of dry valley surface waters. We examine cation transport and exchange reactions during a stream tracer experiment in a dry valley glacial meltwater stream. The injection solution was composed of dissolved Li+, Na+, K+, and Cl-. Chloride behaved conservatively in this stream, but Li+, Na+, and K+ were reactive to varying degrees. Mass balance analysis indicates that relative to Cl-, Li+ and K+ were taken up in downstream transport and Na+ was released. Simulations of conservative and reactive (first-order uptake or generation) solute transport were made with the OTIS (one-dimensional solute transport with inflow and storage) model. Among the four experimental reaches of Green Creek, solute transport simulations reveal that Li+ was removed from stream water in all four reaches, K+ was released in two reaches, taken up in one reach, and Na+ was released in all four reaches. Hyporheic sediments appear to be variable with uptake of Li+ in two reaches, uptake of K+ in one reach, release of K+ in two reaches, and uptake of Na+ in one reach. Mass balances of the conservative and reactive simulations show that from 1.05 to 2.19 moles of Li+ was adsorbed per reach, but less than 0.3 moles of K+ and less than 0.9 moles of Na+ were released per reach. This suggests that either (1) exchange of another ion which was not analyzed in this experiment or (2) that both ion exchange and sorption control inorganic solute transport. The elevated cation concentrations introduced during the experiment are typical of initial flows in each flow season, which flush accumulated dry salts from the streambed. We propose that the bed sediments (which compose the hyporheic

  9. Locus of control, sources of motivation, and mental boundaries as antecedents of leader-member exchange quality.

    PubMed

    Barbuto, John E; Finch, Weltmer Dayna; Pennisi, Lisa A

    2010-02-01

    In this study were examined leaders' and members' scores on locus of control, sources of motivation, and mental boundaries to predict the quality of leader-member exchanges. 80 elected officials and their 388 direct reports were sampled in a field study. Analysis indicated followers' scores on locus of control, leaders' scores of self-concept internal motivation, leaders' scores on locus of control, and followers' rated goal-internalization motivation were positively related to leader-member exchanges. Implications and directions for research are discussed.

  10. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange across contrasting biogeochemical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Ryan; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Upstill-Goddard, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Air-sea gas exchange is important to the global partitioning of CO2.Exchange fluxes are products of an air-sea gas concentration difference, ΔC, and a gas transfer velocity, kw. The latter is controlled by the rate of turbulent diffusion at the air-sea interface but it cannot be directly measured and has a high uncertainty that is now considered one of the greatest challenges to quantifying net global air-sea CO2 exchange ...(Takahashi et al., 2009). One important control on kw is exerted by sea surface surfactants that arise both naturally from biological processes and through anthropogenic activity. They influence gas exchange in two fundamental ways: as a monolayer physical barrier and through modifying sea surface hydrodynamics and hence turbulent energy transfer. These effects have been demonstrated in the laboratory with artificial surfactants ...(Bock et al., 1999; Goldman et al., 1988) and through purposeful surfactant releases in coastal waters .(.).........().(Brockmann et al., 1982) and in the open ocean (Salter et al., 2011). Suppression of kwin these field experiments was ~5-55%. While changes in both total surfactant concentration and the composition of the natural surfactant pool might be expected to impact kw, the required in-situ studies are lacking. New data collected from the coastal North Sea in 2012-2013 shows significant spatio-temporal variability in the surfactant activity of organic matter within the sea surface microlayer that ranges from 0.07-0.94 mg/L T-X-100 (AC voltammetry). The surfactant activities show a strong winter/summer seasonal bias and general decrease in concentration with increasing distance from the coastline possibly associated with changing terrestrial vs. phytoplankton sources. Gas exchange experiments of this seawater using a novel laboratory tank and gas tracers (CH4 and SF6) demonstrate a 12-45% reduction in kw compared to surfactant-free water. Seasonally there is higher gas exchange suppression in the summer

  11. Improving dynamic performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell system using time delay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Bae

    Transient behaviour is a key parameter for the vehicular application of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The goal of this presentation is to construct better control technology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell. The PEM fuel cell model comprises a compressor, an injection pump, a humidifier, a cooler, inlet and outlet manifolds, and a membrane-electrode assembly. The model includes the dynamic states of current, voltage, relative humidity, stoichiometry of air and hydrogen, cathode and anode pressures, cathode and anode mass flow rates, and power. Anode recirculation is also included with the injection pump, as well as anode purging, for preventing anode flooding. A steady-state, isothermal analytical fuel cell model is constructed to analyze the mass transfer and water transportation in the membrane. In order to prevent the starvation of air and flooding in a PEM fuel cell, time delay control is suggested to regulate the optimum stoichiometry of oxygen and hydrogen, even when there are dynamical fluctuations of the required PEM fuel cell power. To prove the dynamical performance improvement of the present method, feed-forward control and Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control with a state estimator are compared. Matlab/Simulink simulation is performed to validate the proposed methodology to increase the dynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system.

  12. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  13. Fouling on ion-exchange membranes: Classification, characterization and strategies of prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The environmentally friendly ion-exchange membrane (IEM) processes find more and more applications in the modern industries in order to demineralize, concentrate and modify products. Moreover, these processes may be applied for the energy conversion and storage. However, the main drawback of the IEM processes is a formation of fouling, which significantly decreases the process efficiency and increases the process cost. The present review is dedicated to the problematic of IEM fouling phenomena. Firstly, the major types of IEM fouling such as colloidal fouling, organic fouling, scaling and biofouling are discussed along with consideration of the main factors affecting fouling formation and development. Secondly, the review of the possible methods of IEM fouling characterization is provided. This section includes the methods of fouling visualization and characterization as well as methods allowing investigations of characteristics of the fouled IEMs. Eventually, the reader will find the conventional and modern strategies of prevention and control of different fouling types.

  14. Integration and exchange of split dCas9 domains for transcriptional controls in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dacheng; Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Programmable and precise regulation of dCas9 functions in response to multiple molecular signals by using synthetic gene circuits will expand the application of the CRISPR-Cas technology. However, the application of CRISPR-Cas therapeutic circuits is still challenging due to the restrictive cargo size of existing viral delivery vehicles. Here, we construct logic AND circuits by integrating multiple split dCas9 domains, which is useful to reduce the size of synthetic circuits. In addition, we engineer sensory switches by exchanging split dCas9 domains, allowing differential regulations on one gene, or activating two different genes in response to cell-type specific microRNAs. Therefore, we provide a valuable split-dCas9 toolkit to engineer complex transcription controls, which may inspire new biomedical applications. PMID:27694915

  15. Controlled methyl-esterification of pectin catalyzed by cation exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaoxia; Yang, Guang; Fan, Xingchen; Bai, Yeming; Ren, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yifa

    2016-02-10

    This study developed a new method to methyl-esterify pectin using a cation exchange resin. Homogalacturonan (HG)-type pectin (WGPA-3-HG) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG)-I-type pectin (AHP-RG) obtained from the roots of Panax ginseng and sunflower heads, respectively, were used as models. Compared to commonly used methyl-esterification methods that use either methyl iodide or acidified methanol, the developed method can methyl-esterify both HG- and RG-I-type pectins without degrading their structures via β-elimination or acid hydrolysis. In addition, by modifying reaction conditions, including the mass ratio of resin to pectin, reaction time, and temperature, the degree of esterification can be controlled. Moreover, the resin and methanol can be recycled to conserve resources, lower costs, and reduce environmental pollution. This new methodology will be highly useful for industrial esterification of pectin.

  16. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emission compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emission control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  17. Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol exchange above a temperate mountain grassland

    PubMed Central

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Graus, Martin; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) fluxes were quantified above a managed temperate mountain grassland in the Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during the growing seasons 2008 and 2009. Half-hourly methanol fluxes were calculated by means of the virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) method using 3-dimensional wind data from a sonic anemometer and methanol volume mixing ratios measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). During (undisturbed) mature and growing phases methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with close-to-zero fluxes during nighttime and emissions, up to 10 nmol m−2 s−1, which followed the diurnal course of radiation and air temperature. Management events were found to represent the largest perturbations of methanol exchange at the studied grassland ecosystem: Peak emissions of 144.5 nmol m−2 s−1 were found during/after cutting of the meadow reflecting the wounding of the plant material and subsequent depletion of the leaf internal aqueous methanol pools. After the application of organic fertilizer, elevated methanol emissions of up to 26.7 nmol m−2 s−1 were observed, likely reflecting enhanced microbial activity associated with the applied manure. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses revealed air temperature and radiation as the dominant abiotic controls, jointly explaining 47 % and 70 % of the variability in half-hourly and daily methanol fluxes. In contrast to published leaf-level laboratory studies, the surface conductance and the daily change in the amount of green plant area, used as ecosystem-scale proxies for stomatal conductance and growth, respectively, were found to exert only minor biotic controls on methanol exchange. PMID:24349901

  18. Tantalum acetabular augments in one-stage exchange of infected total hip arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Till Orla; Kendoff, Daniel; Sabihi, Reza; Kamath, Atul F; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    During the one-stage exchange procedure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), acetabular defects challenge reconstructive options. Porous tantalum augments are an established tool for addressing acetabular destruction in aseptic cases, but their utility in septic exchange is unknown. This retrospective case-control study presents the initial results of tantalum augmentation during one-stage exchange for PJI. Primary endpoints were rates of re-infection and short-term complications associated with this technique. Study patients had no higher risk of re-infection with equivalent durability at early follow-up with a re-infection rate in both groups of 4%. In conclusion, tantalum augments are a viable option for addressing acetabular defects in one-stage exchange for septic THA. Further study is necessary to assess long-term durability when compared to traditional techniques for acetabular reconstruction.

  19. Characterization and control of the microbial community affiliated with copper or aluminum heat exchangers of HVAC systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Michael G; Attaway, Hubert H; Terzieva, Silva; Marshall, Anna; Steed, Lisa L; Salzberg, Deborah; Hamoodi, Hameed A; Khan, Jamil A; Feigley, Charles E; Michels, Harold T

    2012-08-01

    Microbial growth in heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with the subsequent contamination of indoor air is of increasing concern. Microbes and the subsequent biofilms grow easily within heat exchangers. A comparative study where heat exchangers fabricated from antimicrobial copper were evaluated for their ability to limit microbial growth was conducted using a full-scale HVAC system under conditions of normal flow rates using single-pass outside air. Resident bacterial and fungal populations were quantitatively assessed by removing triplicate sets of coupons from each exchanger commencing the fourth week after their installation for the next 30 weeks. The intrinsic biofilm associated with each coupon was extracted and characterized using selective and differential media. The predominant organisms isolated from aluminum exchangers were species of Methylobacterium of which at least three colony morphologies and 11 distinct PFGE patterns we found; of the few bacteria isolated from the copper exchangers, the majority were species of Bacillus. The concentrations and type of bacteria recovered from the control, aluminum, exchangers were found to be dependent on the type of plating media used and were 11,411-47,257 CFU cm(-2) per coupon surface. The concentration of fungi was found to average 378 CFU cm(-2). Significantly lower concentrations of bacteria, 3 CFU cm(-2), and fungi, 1 CFU cm(-2), were recovered from copper exchangers regardless of the plating media used. Commonly used aluminum heat exchangers developed stable, mixed, bacterial/fungal biofilms in excess of 47,000 organisms per cm(2) within 4 weeks of operation, whereas the antimicrobial properties of metallic copper were able to limit the microbial load affiliated with the copper heat exchangers to levels 99.97 % lower during the same time period.

  20. qcML: an exchange format for quality control metrics from mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W P; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S; Olsen, Jesper V; Heck, Albert J R; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml.

  1. qcML: An Exchange Format for Quality Control Metrics from Mass Spectrometry Experiments*

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Mathias; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Nasso, Sara; Bittremieux, Wout; Nahnsen, Sven; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Pichler, Peter; van den Toorn, Henk W. P.; Staes, An; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Mazanek, Michael; Taus, Thomas; Scheltema, Richard A.; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Gatto, Laurent; van Breukelen, Bas; Aiche, Stephan; Valkenborg, Dirk; Laukens, Kris; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mechtler, Karl; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gevaert, Kris; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Martens, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Quality control is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Several recent papers discuss relevant parameters for quality control and present applications to extract these from the instrumental raw data. What has been missing, however, is a standard data exchange format for reporting these performance metrics. We therefore developed the qcML format, an XML-based standard that follows the design principles of the related mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, and TraML standards from the HUPO-PSI (Proteomics Standards Initiative). In addition to the XML format, we also provide tools for the calculation of a wide range of quality metrics as well as a database format and interconversion tools, so that existing LIMS systems can easily add relational storage of the quality control data to their existing schema. We here describe the qcML specification, along with possible use cases and an illustrative example of the subsequent analysis possibilities. All information about qcML is available at http://code.google.com/p/qcml. PMID:24760958

  2. The design and implementation of the Technical Facilities Controller (TFC) for the Goldstone deep space communications complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, D. A.; Menninger, F. J.; Gorman, T.; Glenn, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Technical Facilities Controller is a microprocessor-based energy management system that is to be implemented in the Deep Space Network facilities. This system is used in conjunction with facilities equipment at each of the complexes in the operation and maintenance of air-conditioning equipment, power generation equipment, power distribution equipment, and other primary facilities equipment. The implementation of the Technical Facilities Controller was completed at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex and is now operational. The installation completed at the Goldstone Complex is described and the utilization of the Technical Facilities Controller is evaluated. The findings will be used in the decision to implement a similar system at the overseas complexes at Canberra, Australia, and Madrid, Spain.

  3. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors.

  4. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger with Bypass Setpoint Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft radiators are sized for their maximum heat load in their warmest thermal environment, but must operate at reduced heat loads and in colder environments. For systems where the radiator environment can be colder than the working fluid freezing temperature, radiator freezing becomes an issue. Radiator freezing has not been a major issue for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) active thermal control systems (ATCSs) because they operate in environments that are warm relative to the freezing point of their external coolants (Freon-21 and ammonia, respectively). For a vehicle that lands at the Lunar South Pole, the design thermal environment is 215K, but the radiator working fluid must also be kept from freezing during the 0 K sink of transit. A radiator bypass flow control design such as those used on the Space Shuttle and ISS requires more than 30% of the design heat load to avoid radiator freezing during transit - even with a very low freezing point working fluid. By changing the traditional ATCS architecture to include a regenerating heat exchanger inboard of the radiator and by using a regenerator bypass flow control valve to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load can be reduced by more than half. This gives the spacecraft much more flexibility in design and operation. The present work describes the regenerator bypass ATCS setpoint control methodology. It includes analytical results comparing the performance of this system to the traditional radiator bypass system. Finally, a summary of the advantages of the regenerator bypass system are presented.

  5. Does Encouragement Matter in Improving Gender Imbalances in Technical Fields? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Unkovic, Cait; Sen, Maya; Quinn, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Does encouragement help address gender imbalances in technical fields? We present the results of one of the first and largest randomized controlled trials on the topic. Using an applied statistics conference in the social sciences as our context, we randomly assigned half of a pool of 3,945 graduate students to receive two personalized emails encouraging them to apply (n = 1,976) and the other half to receive nothing (n = 1,969). We find a robust, positive effect associated with this simple intervention and suggestive evidence that women responded more strongly than men. However, we find that women’s conference acceptance rates are higher within the control group than in the treated group. This is not the case for men. The reason appears to be that female applicants in the treated group solicited supporting letters at lower rates. Our findings therefore suggest that “low dose” interventions may promote diversity in STEM fields but may also have the potential to expose underlying disparities when used alone or in a non-targeted way. PMID:27097315

  6. Gross primary production controls the subsequent winter CO2 exchange in a boreal peatland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junbin; Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats B

    2016-12-01

    In high-latitude regions, carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions during the winter represent an important component of the annual ecosystem carbon budget; however, the mechanisms that control the winter CO2 emissions are currently not well understood. It has been suggested that substrate availability from soil labile carbon pools is a main driver of winter CO2 emissions. In ecosystems that are dominated by annual herbaceous plants, much of the biomass produced during the summer is likely to contribute to the soil labile carbon pool through litter fall and root senescence in the autumn. Thus, the summer carbon uptake in the ecosystem may have a significant influence on the subsequent winter CO2 emissions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a plot-scale shading experiment in a boreal peatland to reduce the gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. At the growing season peak, vascular plant biomass in the shaded plots was half that in the control plots. During the subsequent winter, the mean CO2 emission rates were 21% lower in the shaded plots than in the control plots. In addition, long-term (2001-2012) eddy covariance data from the same site showed a strong correlation between the GPP (particularly the late summer and autumn GPP) and the subsequent winter net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In contrast, abiotic factors during the winter could not explain the interannual variation in the cumulative winter NEE. Our study demonstrates the presence of a cross-seasonal link between the growing season biotic processes and winter CO2 emissions, which has important implications for predicting winter CO2 emission dynamics in response to future climate change.

  7. Corporate Characteristics and Internal Control Information Disclosure- Evidence from Annual Reports in 2009 of Listed Companies in Shenzhen Stock Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowen, Song

    Under the research framework of internal control disclosure and combined the current economic situation, the paper empirically analyzes the relationship between corporate characteristics and internal control information disclosure. The paper selects 647 A share companies listed in Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in 2009 as a sample. The results show: (1) the companies with excellent performance and high liquidity tend to disclose more internal control information; (2) the companies with the high leverage and also issued B shares are not willing to disclosure internal control information; (3) the companies sizes and companies which have hired Four-big accounting firms have no significant effects on internal control disclosure.

  8. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  9. What Animated Illustrations Conditions Can Improve Technical Document Comprehension in Young Students? Format, Signaling and Control of the Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Guignard, Helene

    2005-01-01

    We study the comprehension of a multimedia technical document about gear functioning by young pupils. The research is focused on the effect of three factors on the construction of a mental model: illustration format (animated versus static) signaling cues (presence versus absence) learner-control of information delivery (three rhythms of…

  10. Materials Testing and Quality Control Soils, 3-28. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This instructional package on material testing and quality control of soils has been adapted from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. This short course presents basic information on soils as well as exploration, field identification, and laboratory procedures that will enable students completing…

  11. Geophysical controls of aquifer-river exchange flow patterns in a UK lowland meandering river.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dara, Rebwar; Krause, Stefan; Rivett, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The deposition of fine particles (clay and silt) and organic matters in alluvial sediments can substantially reduce the permeability of streambed sediments and extend towards the wider floodplain. The resulting hydraulic conductivity patterns within the streambed and floodplain have been shown to control both location as well as intensity of hyporheic exchange in many lowland rivers. The aim of the study is to investigate the variability in streambed permeability fields in an unprecedented spatial resolution and quantify the impacts on controlling hyporheic exchange fluxes in the River Tern, a UK lowland meandering stream. Geophysical surveys were conducted deploying Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in conjunction with geological information derived from core logs and bank exposures for mapping shallow subsurface structural heterogeneity. The GPR survey deployed a pulse EKKO pro equipped with a shielded 250 MHz antenna. For the floodplain survey, GPR profiles of 12 NE-SW and 6 NW- SE orientation profiles were taken creating a raster of approximately 10 m. The riparian terrestrial GPR surveys were accompanied by a longitudinal in channel GPR survey for which the antenna was deployed on a floating device. At locations identified to be representative for the range of streambed hydrofacies identified by GPR in investigated stream reach, multi-level mini-piezometer networks were installed in the streambed for monitoring groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes, and conducting dilution tracer tests for quantification of residence time distributions at the aquifer-river interface. Quasi-three-dimensional GPR profiles from closely spaced grids of 2D GPR data of floodplain deposits indicated a range of different radar facies and helped to delineate the type and extend of high and low conductive materials. The results of longitudinal GPR survey along a 240 m section of the river channel revealed that areas rich in low conductivity layers such as organic peat and clay lenses

  12. Geologically controlled bi-directional exchange of groundwater with a hypersaline lake in the Canadian prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Laurence R.; Hayashi, Masaki; Zimmerman, Elena P.; Holmden, Chris; Kelley, Lynn I.

    2016-06-01

    Hypersaline lakes occur in hydrologically closed basins due to evaporitic enrichment of dissolved salts transported to the lakes by surface water and groundwater. At the hypersaline Lydden Lake in Saskatchewan, Canada, groundwater/lake-water interaction is strongly influenced by the geological heterogeneity of glacial deposits, whereby a highly permeable glaciofluvial sand/gravel deposit is underlain by glaciolacustrine deposits consisting of dense clay interspersed with silt/sand lenses. Pressure head distribution in a near shore area indicates a bi-directional flow system. It consists of topographically driven flow of fresh groundwater towards the lake in the sand/gravel aquifer and density-driven, landward flow of saline groundwater in the underlying glaciolacustrine deposits. Electrical resistivity tomography, and chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater clearly show the landward intrusion of saline water in the heterogeneous unit. The feasibility of bi-directional flow and transport is supported by numerical simulations of density-coupled groundwater flow and transport. The results suggest that the geologically controlled groundwater exchange processes have substantial influences on both inputs and outputs of dissolved minerals in hypersaline lakes in closed basins.

  13. Control of lymphocyte shape and the chemotactic response by the GTP exchange factor Vav.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Martín-Cófreces, Noa B; Cabrero, José R; Dosil, Mercedes; Alvarado-Sánchez, Brenda; Bustelo, Xosé R; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2005-04-15

    Rho GTPases control many facets of cell polarity and migration; namely, the reorganization of the cellular cytoskeleton to extracellular stimuli. Rho GTPases are activated by GTP exchange factors (GEFs), which induce guanosine diphosphate (GDP) release and the stabilization of the nucleotide-free state. Thus, the role of GEFs in the regulation of the cellular response to extracellular cues during cell migration is a critical step of this process. In this report, we have analyzed the activation and subcellular localization of the hematopoietic GEF Vav in human peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1alpha). We show a robust activation of Vav and its redistribution to motility-associated subcellular structures, and we provide biochemical evidence of the recruitment of Vav to the membrane of SDF-1alpha-activated human lymphocytes, where it transiently interacts with the SDF-1alpha receptor CXCR4. Overexpression of a dominant negative form of Vav abolished lymphocyte polarization, actin polymerization, and migration. SDF-1alpha-mediated cell polarization and migration also were impaired by overexpression of an active, oncogenic Vav, although the mechanism appears to be different. Together, our data postulate a pivotal role for Vav in the transmission of the migratory signal through the chemokine receptor CXCR4.

  14. A novel design of the heat exchanger of an aircraft's environmental controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazian, Negin

    Redesign of a heat exchanger chassis of an aircraft's environmental controller developed by Honeywell was carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) to reduce overall cost and weight. Eight design alternatives were proposed to replace the current design and were evaluated using a decision matrix. Selected design involved introduction of bolted flanges into the chassis. Von-Mises stresses in the flanges and shear and tensile forces in the bolts were obtained by FEA using ANSYS. Flanges were further modified using safety margin and weight as optimization factors. The optimized flange contains a fluid passage with 0.08in wall thickness reduction and 0.14in passage length reduction. Furthermore, the overall weight was reduced by 0.026kg. After optimization, the margin of safety was improved from 0.041 to 0.580 for maximum operating pressure, and from -0.297 to 0.067 for burst pressure. The novel design accomplished weight and cost reduction along with improving the margins of safety.

  15. Water and nitrogen availability co-control ecosystem CO2 exchange in a semiarid temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Tan, Yulian; Li, Ang; Ren, Tingting; Chen, Shiping; Wang, Lixin; Huang, Jianhui

    2015-10-23

    Both water and nitrogen (N) availability have significant effects on ecosystem CO2 exchange (ECE), which includes net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP). How water and N availability influence ECE in arid and semiarid grasslands is still uncertain. A manipulative experiment with additions of rainfall, snow and N was conducted to test their effects on ECE in a semiarid temperate steppe of northern China for three consecutive years with contrasting natural precipitation. ECE increased with annual precipitation but approached peak values at different precipitation amount. Water addition, especially summer water addition, had significantly positive effects on ECE in years when the natural precipitation was normal or below normal, but showed trivial effect on GEP when the natural precipitation was above normal as effects on ER and NEP offset one another. Nitrogen addition exerted non-significant or negative effects on ECE when precipitation was low but switched to a positive effect when precipitation was high, indicating N effect triggered by water availability. Our results indicate that both water and N availability control ECE and the effects of future precipitation changes and increasing N deposition will depend on how they can change collaboratively in this semiarid steppe ecosystem.

  16. Controls on mangrove forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchanges in western Everglades National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Jordan G.; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Zieman, Joseph C.; O'Halloran, Thomas L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.

    2010-01-01

    We report on net ecosystem production (NEP) and key environmental controls on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) between a mangrove forest and the atmosphere in the coastal Florida Everglades. An eddy covariance system deployed above the canopy was used to determine NEE during January 2004 through August 2005. Maximum daytime NEE ranged from -20 to -25 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1 between March and May. Respiration (Rd) was highly variable (2.81 ± 2.41 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1), reaching peak values during the summer wet season. During the winter dry season, forest CO2 assimilation increased with the proportion of diffuse solar irradiance in response to greater radiative transfer in the forest canopy. Surface water salinity and tidal activity were also important controls on NEE. Daily light use efficiency was reduced at high (>34 parts per thousand (ppt)) compared to low (d by ~0.9 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1 and nighttime Rd by ~0.5 μmol (CO2) m-2 s-1. The forest was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an annual NEP of 1170 ± 127 g C m-2 during 2004. This unusually high NEP was attributed to year-round productivity and low ecosystem respiration which reached a maximum of only 3 g C m-2 d-1. Tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from belowground respiration likely lowered the estimates of mangrove forest respiration. These results suggest that carbon balance in mangrove coastal systems will change in response to variable salinity and inundation patterns, possibly resulting from secular sea level rise and climate change.

  17. Controllable exchange bias in Fe/metamagnetic FeRh bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Ippei; Hamasaki, Yosuke; Itoh, Mitsuru; Taniyama, Tomoyasu

    2014-10-27

    We report the studies of tuning the exchange bias at ferromagnetic Fe/metamagnetic FeRh bilayer interfaces. Fe/FeRh(111) bilayers show exchange bias in the antiferromagnetic state of FeRh while no exchange bias occurs at Fe/FeRh(001) interface. The contrasting results are attributed to the spin configurations of FeRh at the interface, i.e., the uncompensated ferromagnetic spin configuration of FeRh appears exclusively for (111) orientation. The exchange bias disappears as the bilayers are warmed above the antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition temperature. The direction of the exchange bias for Fe/FeRh(111) is also found to be perpendicular to the cooling-field direction, in contrast to the commonly observed direction of exchange bias for ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interfaces. In view of these results, the exchange bias in Fe/FeRh bilayers with the (111) crystallographic orientation should be useful for the design of rapid writing technology for magnetic information devices.

  18. Controls for ecosystem methane exchange are time-scale specifc and shift during the growing season of a temperate fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, T.; Koebsch, F.; Jurasinski, G.; Koch, M.; Hofmann, J.; Glatzel, S.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural sources for atmospheric methane (CH4). In wetlands with permanent shallow inundation, the seasonal variation of CH4 exchange is mainly controlled by temperature and phenology. In addition, ecosystem CH4 exchange varies considerably on smaller temporal scales such as days or weeks. Several single processes that control CH4 emissions on the local soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are well investigated, but their interaction on ecosystem level is not well understood yet. We applied wavelet analysis to a quasi-continuous Eddy Covariance CH4 flux time series to describe the temporal variation of ecosystem CH4 exchange within the growing season of a permanently inundated temperate fen. Moreover, we addressed time scale-specific controls and investigated whether their impact changes during the course of the growing season. On large time scales of two weeks to three months, temperature explained most of the variation in ecosystem CH4 exchange. In general, the temperature in the shallow water column had the largest impact as explanatory variable, however, air temperature and soil temperature became increasingly important as explanatory variables when water level dropped slightly up to June. The diurnal variation of ecosystem CH4 exchange shifted during the course of the growing season: During a short time period at the end of April, plant activity (expressed by canopy photosynthesis) caused a diurnal variation of ecosystem CH4 exchange with peak time around noon. In the following weeks, the daily cycle of convective mixing within the water column (expressed by the water temperature gradient) gradually gained importance and caused high night-time CH4 emissions, thereby levelling off the diurnal CH4 emission pattern. Moreover, shear-induced turbulence caused short-term fluctuations of ecosystem CH4 exchange on time scales up to two hours. Our study highlights the need for multi-scale approaches that consider the non-stationarity of the

  19. [Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi

    2013-02-01

    Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange

  20. A Middleware for the Controlled Information Exchange Between Online Games and Internet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsträßer, Sonja; Hildebrandt, Tomas; Rensing, Christoph; Steinmetz, Ralf

    Multiplayer Online Games (MOGs) are a thriving market leading to a multiplicity of game related internet applications. Enabling information exchange between games and these applications is essential, but still an unsolved challenge. Our Virtual Context Based Service (VCBS) middleware enables such an information exchange. The VCBS middleware is an interface between games and other internet applications, which also supports community activities. In this paper we describe the architecture of the VCBS middleware and its components, and introduce our concept for generic MOG interfaces.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode infiltrate particle size control and oxygen surface exchange resistance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burye, Theodore E.

    Over the past decade, nano-sized Mixed Ionic Electronic Conducting (MIEC) -- micro-sized Ionic Conducting (IC) composite cathodes produced by the infiltration method have received much attention in the literature due to their low polarization resistance (RP) at intermediate (500-700°C) operating temperatures. Small infiltrated MIEC oxide nano-particle size and low intrinsic MIEC oxygen surface exchange resistance (Rs) have been two critical factors allowing these Nano-Micro-Composite Cathodes (NMCCs) to achieve high performance and/or low temperature operation. Unfortunately, previous studies have not found a reliable method to control or reduce infiltrated nano-particle size. In addition, controversy exists on the best MIEC infiltrate composition because: 1) Rs measurements on infiltrated MIEC particles are presently unavailable in the literature, and 2) bulk and thin film Rs measurements on nominally identical MIEC compositions often vary by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Here, two processing techniques, precursor nitrate solution desiccation and ceria oxide pre-infiltration, were developed to systematically produce a reduction in the average La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe 0.2O3-delta (LSCF) infiltrated nano-particle size from 50 nm to 22 nm. This particle size reduction reduced the SOFC operating temperature, (defined as the temperature where RP=0.1 Ocm 2) from 650°C to 540°C. In addition, Rs values for infiltrated MIEC particles were determined for the first time through finite element modeling calculations on 3D Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) reconstructions of electrochemically characterized infiltrated electrodes.

  2. Enabling a flexible exchange of energy of a photovoltaic plant with the grid by means of a controlled storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, R.; Parma, C.; De Marco, A.; Bittanti, S.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a control strategy for a photovoltaic (PV) power plant equipped with an energy storage system (ESS), based on lithium-ion battery. The plant consists of the following units: the PV generator, the energy storage system, the DC-bus and the inverter. The control, organised in a hierarchical manner, maximises the self-consumption of the local load unit. In particular, the ESS action performs power balance in case of low solar radiation or surplus of PV generation, thus managing the power exchange variability at the plant with the grid. The implemented control strategy is under testing in RSE pilot test facility in Milan, Italy.

  3. Neural Control of Gas Exchange Patterns in Insects: Locust Density-Dependent Phases as a Test Case

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Tali S.; Ayali, Amir; Gefen, Eran

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive significance of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGC) in insects is contentious. Based on observations of DGC occurrence in insects of typically large brain size and often socially-complex life history, and spontaneous DGC in decapitated insects, the neural hypothesis for the evolution of DGC was recently proposed. It posits that DGC is a non-adaptive consequence of adaptive down-regulation of brain activity at rest, reverting ventilatory control to pattern-generating circuits in the thoracic ganglia. In line with the predictions of this new hypothesis, we expected a higher likelihood of DGC in the gregarious phase of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Orthoptera), which is characterized by a larger brain size and increased sensory sensitivity compared with the solitary phase. Furthermore, surgical severing of the neural connections between head and thoracic ganglia was expected to increase DGC prevalence in both phases, and to eliminate phase-dependent variation in gas exchange patterns. Using flow-through respirometry, we measured metabolic rates and gas exchange patterns in locusts at 30°C. In contrast to the predictions of the neural hypothesis, we found no phase-dependent differences in DGC expression. Likewise, surgically severing the descending regulation of thoracic ventilatory control did not increase DGC prevalence in either phase. Moreover, connective-cut solitary locusts abandoned DGC altogether, and employed a typical continuous gas exchange pattern despite maintaining metabolic rate levels of controls. These results are not consistent with the predictions of the neural hypothesis for the evolution of DGC in insects, and instead suggest neural plasticity of ventilatory control. PMID:23555850

  4. Twin plane decoration of silver nanorods with palladium by galvanic exchange at a controlled rate.

    PubMed

    Sławiński, Grzegorz W; Ivanova, Olga S; Zamborini, Francis P

    2011-11-01

    Here we describe the galvanic exchange of surface-grown Ag nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) with PdCl(4)(2-) as a function of the PdCl(4)(2-) concentration. The morphology of the resulting AgPd alloy nanostructures depends on the galvanic exchange rate, which increases with increasing PdCl(4)(2-) concentration over a specific concentration range. When the concentration of PdCl(4)(2-) exceeds 7.5 × 10(-5) M (or ratio of moles of PdCl(4)(2-) in solution to moles of Ag on the surface > 542), rapid galvanic exchange results in Pd deposition over the entire Ag nanostructure in the early stages of exchange. When the concentration of PdCl(4)(2-) is in the range of 1.0 × 10(-5) to 5.0 × 10(-5) M (moles of PdCl(4)(2-) in solution to moles of Ag on the surface = 13-54), Pd deposition occurs preferentially at high energy twin plane defects in the form of well-spaced nanoparticles during the early stages of exchange. In later stages, the Pd deposits grow and coalescence into a rough shell, and etching of the Ag leads to a presumably hollow nanostructure. Composition analysis by linear sweep voltammetry as a function of time shows that the galvanic exchange rate is much slower than the diffusion-limited rate and, when correlated with UV-vis spectroscopy, shows that less than 10% Pd in the nanostructure completely dampens the Ag-localized surface plasmon band.

  5. The mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a key role in the control of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hernández-SanMiguel, Esther; Vay, Laura; Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier

    2006-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that mitochondria play an important role in the control of cytosolic Ca2+ signaling. We show here that the main mitochondrial Ca2+-exit pathway, the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, controls the pattern of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations in non-excitable cells. In HeLa cells, the inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger CGP37157 changed the pattern of the oscillations induced by histamine from a high-frequency irregular one to a lower frequency baseline spike type, surprisingly with little changes in the average Ca2+ values of a large cell population. In human fibroblasts, CGP37157 increased the frequency of the baseline oscillations in cells having spontaneous activity and induced the generation of oscillations in cells without spontaneous activity. This effect was dose-dependent, disappeared when the inhibitor was washed out and was not mimicked by mitochondrial depolarization. CGP37157 increased mitochondrial [Ca2+] and ATP production in histamine-stimulated HeLa cells, but the effect on ATP production was only transient. CGP37157 also activated histamine-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and increased the size of the cytosolic Ca2+ peak induced by histamine in HeLa cells. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger directly modulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release and in that way controls cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations.

  6. Kinetically controlled patterning of highly cross-linked phosphonium photopolymers using simple anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Ryan; Gillies, Elizabeth R; Ragogna, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    A phosphonium salt possessing three methacrylate groups has been incorporated into a photopolymeric system to generate highly cross-linked polyelectrolyte networks. Emergent chemical and physical properties in the polymers were observed and attributed to the tandem increase in cross-link density and ion-content upon incorporation of the self-cross-linking cation. Anion-exchange with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or dodecylbenzenesulfonate resulted in significant differences in wettability and ion-exchange behavior. The passivating effects of dodecylbenzenesulfonate were utilized to selectively pattern fluorescein dye into the polymer network, highlighting a new patterning procedure using ionic-bond forming reactions.

  7. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  8. Carbon dioxide control in an open system that measures canopy gas exchanges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration affects both C3 carbon net assimilation as well as crop water use. Methods for measuring whole canopy gas exchange responses under carbon dioxide enrichment are needed for breeding programs aiming to develop crop cultivars resistant to stresses like drought i...

  9. Multiply Controlled Verbal Operants: An Analysis and Extension to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, A.; Tincani, M.; Frost, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system…

  10. CONTACT: An Air Force Technical Report on Military Satellite Control Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-09

    Technolog projections; Future AFSCN topologies; Modeling of the AFSCN; Wide Area Communicatio s Technology evelution; Automating AFSCN Resource...Projections: Methods and Faults Assistant Editor/Desktop Publishing: - Lin Sten Jack Spiker, Scitor Corporation 03 Topologies and Technologies for the...Loral difficult to predict. On dile other hand, technology break- Corporate Technical Journal. He holds two patents and has pub- throughs can happen

  11. Technical Evaluation Report on the Guidance and Control Panel Symposium on Advances in Guidance and Control Systems (35th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    NORT AT[ NTIC TREAY ORANIZTIO DITIBTO Conro SystemsBILITY Th N doCum K hOVs bee opp ove. AGARD-AR-195 NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION ADVISORY GROUP...two papers contained obvious marketing material for a company’s product or services which distracted from the technical content. The only major

  12. Controlled and renewable release of phosphorous in soils from mixtures of phosphate rock and NH4-exchanged clinoptilolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, T.-M.; Eberl, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    A controlled and renewable release fertilization system is proposed that employs NH4 saturated clinoptilolite to aid in the dissolution of phosphate rock (apatite), and thereby to release soluble N, P, and exchangeable Ca for uptake by plants. The system is based on the principle that exchangers can sequester Ca ions released by the dissolution of apatite, thereby leading to further dissolution of the apatite. Experiments show that the quantity of P released by this method is an order of magnitude more than that released by apatite alone. This system offers an alternative technology to the acidulation of phosphate rock, and may circumvent problems associated with highly soluble fertilizers. ?? 1986 Butterworth & Co (Publishers) Ltd.

  13. Dynamic analysis and linear control strategies for proton exchange membrane fuel cell using a distributed parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methekar, R. N.; Prasad, V.; Gudi, R. D.

    To satisfy high power density demand in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a robust control strategy is essential. A linear ratio control strategy is examined in this work. The manipulated variables are selected using steady-state relative gain array (RGA) analysis to be the inlet molar flow rates of hydrogen and coolant, and the controlled variables are average power density and average solid temperature, respectively. By selecting proper manipulated variables, the PEMFC does not exhibit sign change in gain and hence can be controlled by using a linear controller. Transfer function models obtained from step tests on the distributed parameter PEMFC model are used to design controllers for the multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) system. In addition, a ratio control strategy is proposed and evaluated, where the inlet molar flow rate of oxygen is used as a dependent manipulated variable and changed in a constant ratio with respect to the inlet molar flow rate of hydrogen. Simulation results show that the ratio control strategy provides a faster response than a MIMO control strategy. This ratio control strategy is able to circumvent the problem of oxygen starvation, and the increase in average solid temperature is small as compared to the MIMO control strategy.

  14. Water exchange for screening colonoscopy increases adenoma detection rate: a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Přemysl; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Radaelli, Franco; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Liggi, Mauro; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Smajstrla, Vit; Urban, Ondřej; Erriu, Matteo; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-03-10

    Background and study aims Single-center studies, which were retrospective and/or involved unblinded colonoscopists, have suggested that water exchange, but not water immersion, compared with air insufflation significantly increases the adenoma detection rate (ADR), particularly in the proximal and right colon. Head-to-head comparison of the three techniques with ADR as primary outcome and blinded colonoscopists has not been reported to date. In a randomized controlled trial with blinded colonoscopists, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the three insertion techniques on ADR. Patients and methods A total of 1224 patients aged 50 - 70 years (672 males) and undergoing screening colonoscopy were randomized 1:1:1 to water exchange, water immersion, or air insufflation. Split-dose bowel preparation was adopted to optimize colon cleansing. After the cecum had been reached, a second colonoscopist who was blinded to the insertion technique performed the withdrawal. The primary outcome was overall ADR according to the three insertion techniques (water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation). Secondary outcomes were other pertinent overall and right colon procedure-related measures. Results Baseline characteristics of the three groups were comparable. Compared with air insufflation, water exchange achieved a significantly higher overall ADR (49.3 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 44.3 % - 54.2 % vs. 40.4 % 95 %CI 35.6 % - 45.3 %; P  = 0.03); water exchange showed comparable overall ADR vs. water immersion (43.4 %, 95 %CI 38.5 % - 48.3 %; P  = 0.28). In the right colon, water exchange achieved a higher ADR than air insufflation (24.0 %, 95 %CI 20.0 % - 28.5 % vs. 16.9 %, 95 %CI 13.4 % - 20.9 %; P  = 0.04) and a higher advanced ADR (6.1 %, 95 %CI 4.0 % - 9.0 % vs. 2.5 %, 95 %CI 1.2 % - 4.6 %; P = 0.03). Compared with air insufflation, the mean number of adenomas

  15. Controlling the conductivity and stability of azoles: Proton and hydroxide exchange functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloux, Brian Leonard

    For low temperature hydrogen fuel cells to achieve widespread adoption in transport applications, it is necessary to both decrease their cost and improve the range of environmental conditions under which they effectively operate. These problems can be addressed, respectively, by either switching the catalyst from platinum to a less expensive metal, or by reducing the polymer exchange membrane's reliance upon water for proton conduction. This work focuses on understanding the chemistry and physics that limit cation stability in alkaline environments and that enable high proton conductivity in anhydrous polymer exchange membranes. Polystyrenic 1H-azoles (including 1H-tetrazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, and 1H-imidazoline) were synthesized to investigate whether pKa and pKb of an amophoteric, proton-conductive group have a systematic effect on anhydrous proton conductivity. It was discovered that the 1H-tetrazole (PS-Tet) exhibited distinct phase separation not seen in its carboxylic acid analog (PSHA) or reported for other 1 H-azole--containing homopolymers in literature. The resulting microstructured polymer, hypothesized to be the result of regions of high and low clustering of azoles, analogous to the multiplet-cluster model of ionomer microstructure, resulted in proton conductivity coupled with simultaneous rubbery behavior of the polymer well above its glass transition (Tg). Phase separation was similarly observed in PS-Tri and PS-ImH2 (the triazole- and imidazoline-containing polymers); soft phases with similar Tgs and hard phases with varying Tgs lend support to this hypothesis of aggregation-driven phase separation. Electrode polarization exhibited in the impedance spectra of PS-Tet and PS-HA was modeled to determine the extent of proton dissociation in undoped 1H-tetrazoles and carboxylic acids. Dry polymers (0% relative humidity) retained ~1% by weight residual water, which was observed to act as the proton acceptor in both cases. Despite doping by residual water

  16. Precision Control of the Electron Longitudinal Bunch Shape Using an Emittance-Exchange Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, G.; Cho, M. H.; Namkung, W.; Power, J. G.; Doran, D. S.; Wisniewski, E. E.; Conde, M.; Gai, W.; Liu, W.; Whiteford, C.; Gao, Q.; Kim, K.-J.; Zholents, A.; Sun, Y.-E.; Jing, C.; Piot, P.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the experimental generation of relativistic electron bunches with a tunable longitudinal bunch shape. A longitudinal bunch-shaping (LBS) beam line, consisting of a transverse mask followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) beam line, is used to tailor the longitudinal bunch shape (or current profile) of the electron bunch. The mask shapes the bunch's horizontal profile, and the EEX beam line converts it to a corresponding longitudinal profile. The Argonne wakefield accelerator rf photoinjector delivers electron bunches into a LBS beam line to generate a variety of longitudinal bunch shapes. The quality of the longitudinal bunch shape is limited by various perturbations in the exchange process. We develop a simple method, based on the incident slope of the bunch, to significantly suppress the perturbations.

  17. Nitroguanidine Wastewater Pollution Control Technology: Phase III. Ion Exchange and Carbon Adsorption Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    these :.ons as well as NQ. I/’ I . , I * MATERIALS AND METHODS RESINS AND CARBONS Three ion-exchange materials were studied: clinoptilolite , an...SD are synthetic cross-linked resins provided as moist spherical beads nominally of 50 percent water content. The clinoptilolite was supplied presized...to the nearest mg and maintained at the test temperature for at least 24 hours prior to use. Carbons and clinoptilolite were considered dry as

  18. Digital Control of Exchange Interaction in a Spin-based Silicon Quantum Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-19

    investigate dc and ac properties of single and double vertical Si quantum dots with 3D confinement. The dots constitute the main building blocks of a...quantum computing, quantyum dots, Majorana fermions Leonid P. Rokhinson, James C. Sturm Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne Sponsored Programs...of Exchange Interaction in a Spin-based Silicon Quantum Computer Report Title ABSTRACT We propose to investigate dc and ac properties of single and

  19. Chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and clinical trial technical support for influenza vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco

    2016-10-26

    With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs.

  20. Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan in Support of BNFL Part B: Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-08-23

    This task will address four items related to ion exchange stability: (1) process upset evaluation of resin in contact with 1 molar sodium permanganate at 25 and 40 degrees C, (2) accelerated aging with nitric acid solution used during normal regeneration operations, (3) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with 5 molar nitric acid at room temperature, and (4) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with deionized water at 60 plus/minus 5 degrees C.

  1. Perfect spin filtering controlled by an electric field in a bilayer graphene junction: Effect of layer-dependent exchange energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitakorn, Jatiyanon; I-Ming, Tang; Bumned, Soodchomshom

    2016-07-01

    Magneto transport of carriers with a spin-dependent gap in a ferromagnetic-gated bilayer of graphene is investigated. We focus on the effect of an energy gap induced by the mismatch of the exchange fields in the top and bottom layers of an AB-stacked graphene bilayer. The interplay of the electric and exchange fields causes the electron to acquire a spin-dependent energy gap. We find that, only in the case of the anti-parallel configuration, the effect of a magnetic-induced gap will give rise to perfect spin filtering controlled by the electric field. The resolution of the spin filter may be enhanced by varying the bias voltage. Perfect switching of the spin polarization from + 100% to -100% by reversing the direction of electric field is predicted. Giant magnetoresistance is predicted to be easily realized when the applied electric field is smaller than the magnetic energy gap. It should be pointed out that the perfect spin filter is due to the layer-dependent exchange energy. This work points to the potential application of bilayer graphene in spintronics. Project supported by the Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute (KURDI) and Thailand Research Fund (TRF) (Grant No. TRG5780274).

  2. Functionalized Mesoporous Silica via an Aminosilane Surfactant Ion Exchange Reaction: Controlled Scaffold Design and Nitric Oxide Release

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide-releasing mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared using an aminosilane-template surfactant ion exchange reaction. Initially, bare silica particles were synthesized under basic conditions in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). These particles were functionalized with nitric oxide (NO) donor precursors (i.e., secondary amines) via the addition of aminosilane directly to the particle sol and a commensurate ion exchange reaction between the cationic aminosilanes and CTAB. N-Diazeniumdiolate NO donors were formed at the secondary amines to yield NO-releasing MSNs. Tuning of the ion exchange-based MSN modification approach allowed for the preparation of monodisperse particles ranging from 30 to 1100 nm. Regardless of size, the MSNs stored appreciable levels of NO (0.4–1.5 μmol mg–1) with tunable NO release durations (1–33 h) dependent on the aminosilane modification. Independent control of NO release properties and particle size was achieved, demonstrating the flexibility of this novel MSN synthesis over conventional co-condensation and surface grafting strategies. PMID:26717238

  3. Parametric performance studies on fluidized-bed heat exchangers. Task I. Fouling characteristics. Yearly technical progress report, 28 July 1981-31 July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-09-01

    Analyses and experiments are being performed in this program to investigate the heat transfer performance of single and multi-stage shallow fluidized beds for application to the recovery of heat from sources such as waste heat, and coal combustion or coal gasification. The work, which is an extension of that done previously under contracts EC-77-C-03-1433 and DE-AC03-79-ET11348, consists of three tasks. In Task 1, tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of liquid condensate fouling on fluidized bed heat exchanger performance. Liquid condensates used in these tests were water and glycerol (which is more viscous than water). The tests showed that fluidized bed heat exchanger performance is degraded by condensation within the bed and the degradation is caused by bed particles adhering to the heat exchanger surface, not by particle agglomeration. Liquid condensate did not continuously build up within the bed. After a period of dry-out, heat transfer equal to that obtained prior to condensation was again obtained. 8 figures, 1 table.

  4. Controlling factors of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange at a semi-natural peatland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummer, C.; Richter, U.; Smith, J. J.; Delorme, J. P.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate net biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia. During a three month field campaign from February to May 2014, we tested the performance of a quantum cascade laser within an eddy-covariance setup. The laser was operated at a semi-natural peatland site that is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and intensive livestock production (~1 km distance). Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 15 ppb. Different concentration patterns could be identified. The variability was closely linked to the timing of management practices and the prevailing local climate, particularly wind direction, temperature and surface wetness with the latter indicating higher non-stomatal uptake under wet conditions leading to decreased concentrations. Average ammonia fluxes were around -15 ng N m-2 s-1 at the beginning of the campaign in February and shifted towards a neutral average exchange regime of -1 to 0 ng N m-2 s-1 in April and May. Intriguingly, during the time of decreasing ammonia uptake, concentrations were considerably rising, which clearly indicated N saturation in the predominant vegetation such as bog heather, purple moor-grass, and cotton grass. The cumulative net uptake for the period of investigation was ~300 g N ha-1. This stresses the importance of a thorough method inter-comparison, e.g. with denuder systems in combination with dry deposition modeling. As previous results from the latter methods showed an annual uptake of ~9 kg N ha-1 for the same site, the implementation of adequate ammonia compensation point parameterizations become crucial in surface-atmosphere exchange schemes for bog vegetation. Through their high temporal resolution, robustness and continuous measurement mode, quantum cascade lasers will help assessing the effects of atmospheric N loads to vulnerable N-limited ecosystems such as peatlands.

  5. Controlled Under Pressure: Understanding Spin Orbit Coupling and Exchange Anisotropy in Organic Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The application of high pressure in the study of molecule-based materials has gained considerable interest, in part due to their high compressibilities, but also because the relevant electronic/magnetic degrees of freedom are often very sensitive to pressure. For example, small changes in the coordination environment around a magnetic transition metal ion can produce quite dramatic variations in both the on-site spin-orbit anisotropy as well as the exchange interactions between such ions when assembled into clusters or 3D networks. This has spurred the development of sophisticated spectroscopic tools that can be integrated with high-pressure instrumentation. The study of magnetic structure/property relations requires not only precise crystallographic data, but also detailed spectroscopic information concerning the unpaired electrons that give rise to the magnetic properties. This invited talk will begin with a brief description of the development and application of methods enabling EPR studies of oriented single-crystal samples subjected to hydrostatic pressures of up to 3.5 GPa. After an introductory example, the remainder of the talk will focus on a family of heavy atom organic radical ferromagnets (containing S and Se heteroatoms) that hold records for both the highest transition temperature and coercivity (for organic magnets). The latter is the result of an unexpectedly high magnetic anisotropy, attributable to spin-orbit-mediated exchange (hopping) processes., Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements reveal a continuous increase in the magnetic anisotropy with increasing pressure in the all Se compound, in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations based on the known pressure-dependence of its structure. The large value of anisotropic exchange terms in this heavy atom organic ferromagnet emphasizes the important role of spin-orbit coupling in a wide range of organics where this effect is usually considered to be small. This work was supported by the

  6. Vibration Control of Space Structures VCOSS B: Momentum Exchange and Truss Dampening.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    VCOSS B: M-CTMNtIIM(CHANGE AND TRUSS DAMPEN~ING FINIAL 8/81-7/83 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(&)8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) R...of the Contract No. F33615-81-C-3235. This report covers the period froan 1 August 1981 througrh 1 July 1983. The technical monitor was Jerrrie...and their description; are listed in Tablo II. As expected, all the isolator modes now have mucl lower frequencies than the solar paiel modes. However

  7. Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable vascular thermal radiator.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S

    2009-07-24

    The toco toucan (Ramphastos toco), the largest member of the toucan family, possesses the largest beak relative to body size of all birds. This exaggerated feature has received various interpretations, from serving as a sexual ornament to being a refined adaptation for feeding. However, it is also a significant surface area for heat exchange. Here we show the remarkable capacity of the toco toucan to regulate heat distribution by modifying blood flow, using the bill as a transient thermal radiator. Our results indicate that the toucan's bill is, relative to its size, one of the largest thermal windows in the animal kingdom, rivaling elephants' ears in its ability to radiate body heat.

  8. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  9. A Methodology for Evaluating Technical Performance Parameter Design Margins to Control Earth and Space Science Instrument Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Selden, Felicia L.

    Costs of aerospace missions have increased over the last twenty years, placing the future of the space program in jeopardy. A potential source for such growth can be attributed to the complex multidisciplinary and challenging nature of earth and space science instrument development. Design margins are additional resources carried in technical performance parameters to mitigate uncertainties throughout the product lifecycle. Margins are traditionally derived and allocated based upon historical experience intrinsic to organizations, as opposed to quantitative methods, jeopardizing the development of low-cost space-based instruments. This dissertation utilizes a methodology to evaluate the interrelationships between pre-launch and actual launch margins for the key technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate to identify the extent to which excessive or insufficient margins are used in the design of space-based instruments in an effort to control instrument cost growth. The research examined 62 space-based instruments from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, and universities. Statistical analysis consisting of paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were utilized to determine the degree to which space-based instruments are over or under designed by the use of excessive or insufficient design margins and to determine the effect of design margins for the technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate on the percentage instrument cost growth from the preliminary design phase to launch. Findings confirm, that in the implementation of space-based instruments, design margins are allocated to technical performance parameters above suggested government/industry standards, impacting the development of low-cost space-based instruments. The findings provide senior leadership, systems engineers, project managers, and resource managers with the ability to determine where

  10. Aquatic Plant Control Program. Technical Report 7. Aquatic-Use Patterns for 2,4-D Dimethylamine and Integrated Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Aquatic weed control, D2-4 herbicide, Acetic acid/2-4 dichlorophenoxy, Chlorine aromatic compounds, Alligatorweed, Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes , Dimethylamine, Water pollution control, Pesticide residues

  11. Owner controlled data exchange in nutrigenomic collaborations: the NuGO information network.

    PubMed

    Harttig, Ulrich; Travis, Anthony J; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Renkema, Marten; van Ommen, Ben; Boeing, Heiner

    2009-06-01

    New 'omics' technologies are changing nutritional sciences research. They enable to tackle increasingly complex questions but also increase the need for collaboration between research groups. An important challenge for successful collaboration is the management and structured exchange of information that accompanies data-intense technologies. NuGO, the European Nutrigenomics Organization, the major collaborating network in molecular nutritional sciences, is supporting the application of modern information technologies in this area. We have developed and implemented a concept for data management and computing infrastructure that supports collaboration between nutrigenomics researchers. The system fills the gap between "private" storing with occasional file sharing by email and the use of centralized databases. It provides flexible tools to share data, also during experiments, while preserving ownership. The NuGO Information Network is a decentral, distributed system for data exchange based on standard web technology. Secure access to data, maintained by the individual researcher, is enabled by web services based on the the BioMoby framework. A central directory provides information about available web services. The flexibility of the infrastructure allows a wide variety of services for data processing and integration by combining several web services, including public services. Therefore, this integrated information system is suited for other research collaborations.

  12. Controlling Disorder and Superconductivity in Titanium Oxynitride Nanoribbons with Anion Exchange.

    PubMed

    Sluban, Melita; Umek, Polona; Jagličić, Zvonko; Buh, Jože; Šmitek, Petra; Mrzel, Aleš; Bittencourt, Carla; Guttmann, Peter; Delville, Marie-Helene; Mihailović, Dragan; Arčon, Denis

    2015-10-27

    In recent years, conversion chemical reactions, which are driven by ion diffusion, emerged as an important concept for formation of nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate that the slow anion diffusion in anion exchange reactions can be efficiently used to tune the disorder strength and the related electronic properties of nanoparticles. This paradigm is applied to high-temperature formation of titanium oxynitride nanoribbons, Ti(O,N), transformed from hydrogen titanate nanoribbons in an ammonia atmosphere. The nitrogen content, which determines the chemical disorder through random O/N occupancy and ion vacancies in the Ti(O,N) composition, increases with the reaction time. The presence of disorder has paramount effects on resistivity of Ti(O,N) nanoribbons. Atypically for metals, the resistivity increases with decreasing temperature due to the weak localization effects. From this state, superconductivity develops below considerably or completely suppressed critical temperatures, depending on the disorder strength. Our results thus establish the remarkable versatility of anion exchange for tuning of the electronic properties of Ti(O,N) nanoribbons and suggest that similar strategies may be applied to a vast number of nanostructures.

  13. Assessment of the possibility of establishing material cycling in an experimental model of the bio-technical life support system with plant and human wastes included in mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-05-01

    A pilot model of a bio-technical life support system (BTLSS) including human and plant wastes has been developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). This paper describes the structure of the photosynthesizing unit of the system, which includes wheat, chufa and vegetables. The study substantiates the simultaneous use of neutral and biological substrates for cultivating plants. A novel physicochemical method for the involvement of human wastes in the cycling has been employed, which enables the use of recycled products as nutrients for plants. Inedible plant biomass was subjected to biological combustion in the soil-like substrate (SLS) and was thus involved in the system mass exchange; NaCl contained in native urine was returned to the human through the consumption of Salicornia europaea, an edible salt-concentrating plant. Mass transfer processes in the studied BLSS have been examined for different chemical components.

  14. Telerobotic control of a mobile coordinated robotic server. M.S. Thesis Annual Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The annual report on telerobotic control of a mobile coordinated robotic server is presented. The goal of this effort is to develop advanced control methods for flexible space manipulator systems. As such, an adaptive fuzzy logic controller was developed in which model structure as well as parameter constraints are not required for compensation. The work builds upon previous work on fuzzy logic controllers. Fuzzy logic controllers have been growing in importance in the field of automatic feedback control. Hardware controllers using fuzzy logic have become available as an alternative to the traditional PID controllers. Software has also been introduced to aid in the development of fuzzy logic rule-bases. The advantages of using fuzzy logic controllers include the ability to merge the experience and intuition of expert operators into the rule-base and that a model of the system is not required to construct the controller. A drawback of the classical fuzzy logic controller, however, is the many parameters needed to be turned off-line prior to application in the closed-loop. In this report, an adaptive fuzzy logic controller is developed requiring no system model or model structure. The rule-base is defined to approximate a state-feedback controller while a second fuzzy logic algorithm varies, on-line, parameters of the defining controller. Results indicate the approach is viable for on-line adaptive control of systems when the model is too complex or uncertain for application of other more classical control techniques.

  15. Quality Control. Supervising. Technical Aspects of Supervision. The Choice Series #35. A Self Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Fred

    This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in improving their knowledge and skills in the area of quality control. Discussed in the first three sections are the following topics: quality and control (quality, measuring and achieving quality, controlling resources, and quality consciousness); quality control and…

  16. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  17. Energy-Exchange Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  18. Changing controls on oceanic radiocarbon: New insights on shallow-to-deep ocean exchange and anthropogenic CO2 uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Gruber, N.; Key, R.; Khatiwala, S.; Giraud, X.

    2012-10-01

    The injection of radiocarbon (14C) into the atmosphere by nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s has provided a powerful tracer to investigate ocean physical and chemical processes. While the oceanic uptake of bomb-derived 14C was primarily controlled by air-sea exchange in the early decades after the bomb spike, we demonstrate that changes in oceanic 14C are now primarily controlled by shallow-to-deep ocean exchange, i.e., the same mechanism that governs anthropogenic CO2 uptake. This is a result of accumulated bomb 14C uptake that has rapidly decreased the air-sea gradient of 14C/C (Δ14C) and shifted the main reservoir of bomb 14C from the atmosphere to the upper ocean. The air-sea Δ14C gradient, reduced further by fossil fuel dilution, is now weaker than before weapons testing in most regions. Oceanic 14C, and particularly its temporal change, can now be used to study the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. We examine observed changes in oceanic Δ14C between the WOCE/SAVE (1988-1995) and the CLIVAR (2001-2007) eras and simulations with two ocean general circulation models, the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean Model (ECCO). Observed oceanic Δ14C and its changes between the 1980s-90s and 2000s indicate that shallow-to-deep exchange is too efficient in ECCO and too sluggish in CCSM. These findings suggest that mean global oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 between 1990 and 2007 is bounded by the ECCO-based estimate of 2.3 Pg C yr-1 and the CCSM-based estimate of 1.7 Pg C yr-1.

  19. Synthesis of L1{sub 0}-FePt perpendicular films with controllable coercivity and intergranular exchange coupling by interfacial microstructure control

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Chun; Zhang En; Yang Meiyin; Li Ning; Jiang Yong; Yu Guanghua; Li Baohe

    2010-06-15

    A series of FePtBi/Au multilayers were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The interfacial microstructure control of Bi and Au atoms and its effect on comprehensive properties of L1{sub 0}-FePt perpendicular films were carefully studied. Results show that: perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the L1{sub 0}-FePt film can be remarkably enhanced with the epitaxial inducement of Au atoms. On the other hand, intergranular exchange coupling (IEC) of the film is greatly decreased due to the isolation of FePt particles by nonmagnetic Au particles. Moreover, the controllable coercivity of the film can be realized by adjusting ordering degree of the film through diffusion of Bi atoms. Thus, an L1{sub 0}-FePt perpendicular film with controllable coercivity and no IEC is realized with the interfacial microstructure control of surfactant Bi and Au atoms.

  20. Use of radon and cosmogenic radionuclides as indicators of exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. Final technical report, 1 January 1984-31 October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kritz, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This research grant covered participation in the operational phase of NASA's Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP), a multi-agency airborne science program conducted aboard NASA U-2 and ER-2 high altitude research aircraft. The primary goals of STEP were to investigate the mechanisms of irreversible movement of mass, trace gases, and aerosols from the troposphere into the stratosphere, and to explain the observed dryness of the stratosphere. Three flight experiments were conducted to address these questions: two extratropical experiments, in 1984 and 1986, and a tropical experiment, in 1987. The cosmogenic radionuclides Be-7 and P-32, produced in the stratosphere by cosmic rays, and Rn-222 (radon), emitted from continental soils, were well-suited as tracers of intra-stratospheric air mass movements, and to follow episodes of troposphere to stratosphere exchange. Measurements of Be-7 and P-32 were made in all three STEP experiments. Measurements of radon were made in the tropical experiment only. The equipment worked well, and produced a valuable data set in support of the STEP objectives, as indicated by the 'quick-look' results outlined.

  1. Two beam energy exchange in hybrid liquid crystal cells with photorefractive field controlled boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, V. Yu.; Pinkevych, I. P.; Subota, S. I.; Evans, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theory describing energy gain when two light beams intersect in a hybrid nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell with photorefractive crystalline substrates. A periodic space-charge field induced by interfering light beams in the photorefractive substrates penetrates into the LC layer and reorients the director. We account for two main mechanisms of the LC director reorientation: the interaction of the photorefractive field with the LC flexopolarization and the director easy axis at the cell boundaries. It is shown that the resulting director grating is a sum of two in-phase gratings: the flexoelectric effect driven grating and the boundary-driven grating. Each light beam diffracts from the induced gratings leading to an energy exchange between beams. We evaluate the signal beam gain coefficient and analyze its dependence on the director anchoring energy and the magnitude of the director easy axis modulation.

  2. Controllable Synthesis of Mn6+ Doped Nanoparticles by a Facile Anion Exchange Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Yang; Liao, Chenxing; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) is attracting extensive attention. Mn6+ doped BaSO4 with broadband emission from 900 nm to 1400 nm is emerging as a new class of NIR phosphor for fluorescence imaging. Manganese has diverse valence states, thus it is difficult to prevent valence change of Mn6+ during traditional synthesis process. In this work, BaSO4:Mn6+ nanoparticles with uniform size and morphology were first successfully prepared through a fast liquid-solid solution route at room temperature. The nanoparticles exhibit broadband NIR emission from Mn6+ when excited by 808 nm lasers. This convenient strategy, based on an efficient anion exchange reaction, is proved effective for synthesizing nano-sized materials. The results reveal that our strategy has great potential in fabricating special valence state ion doped nanomaterials.

  3. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  4. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  5. Patterns and controls of CO2 exchange from developed land in the mid-continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, J. P.; Balogun, A. A.; Bauer, M. E.; Peters, E. B.; Wu, J.

    2006-12-01

    heat stress conditions. Differences in daytime net CO2 uptake (primarily due to stomatal control on uptake during warm afternoons) more strongly controlled the daily net exchange than did differences in respiration. New QuickBird and Landsat imagery was acquired concurrently with the 2006 field sampling campaign to develop an improved classification and a set of biophysically driven algorithms to scale carbon exchange from the major classes of residential developed land.

  6. Phase 1 engineering and technical data report for the thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A shuttle EVLSS Thermal Control System (TCS) is defined. Thirteen heat rejection subsystems, thirteen water management subsystems, nine humidity control subsystems, three pressure control schemes and five temperature control schemes are evaluated. Sixteen integrated TCS systems are studied, and an optimum system is selected based on quantitative weighting of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected sybsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, a bubble expansion tank for water management, and a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control. Design of the selected subsystem prototype hardware is presented.

  7. Innovative traffic control: Technology practice in Europe. International technology exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Tignor, S.C.; Brown, L.L.; Butner, J.L.; Cunard, R.; Davis, S.C.

    1999-08-01

    This summary report describes a may 1998 transportation technology scanning tour of four European countries. The tour was co-sponsored by FHWA, AASHTO, and TRB. The tour team consisted of 10 traffic engineers who visited England, France, Germany, and Sweden to observe traffic control devices and methodology and to determine if any European practices should and could be recommended for use in the United States. This report is organized into five key chapters: Traffic Control Devices, Freeway Control, Operational Practices, Information Management, and Administrative Practices. Among the devices and practices recommended for further study for US adoption are specific freeway pavement markings, variable speed control, lane control signals, intelligent speed adaptation, innovative intersection control, and variable message signs that incorporate pictograms. The report includes statements for proposed research problems.

  8. Results of in-situ biofouling control, and corrosion test at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico and its significance on OTEC heater exchanger design

    SciTech Connect

    Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.; Tosteson, T.R.

    1983-06-01

    Because Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) operates at a low thermodynamic efficiency, heat exchangers represent a major portion of the overall cost of an OTEC power plant. For this reason, the commercial viability of OTEC depends on the design of efficient and inexpensive heat exchangers which have an operational life expectancy of 20 to 30 years and which can be maintained at a high level of efficiency by the use of effective biofouling control. Summarized here are the results of experiments conducted by the Center for Energy and Environment Research of the University of Puerto Rico to: determine the nature of the biofilm which develops on heat exchanger surfaces exposed to running seawater, test the effectiveness of brush cleaning and chlorination in controlling biofouling on these surfaces and study the corrosion behavior of zinc protected aluminum alloys under OTEC conditions in an attempt to qualify them for use in low cost OTEC heat exchangers.

  9. 76 FR 43890 - Technical Amendment to Commission Procedures for Filing Applications for Orders for Exemptive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... for Exemptive Relief Under Section 36 of the Exchange Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. ] SUMMARY: The Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC''...

  10. Sediment-water exchange of nutrients in the Marsdiep basin, western Wadden Sea: Phosphorus limitation induced by a controlled release?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leote, Catarina; Epping, Eric H. G.

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the release of inorganic phosphorus from the sediments and assess its contribution to present primary production, a basin-wide study of the Marsdiep (western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands) was performed. Two distinct sedimentary zones were identified: a depositional area characterized by a high content of silt and organic carbon and a small grain size and the majority of the area, composed of fine/medium sand and a low organic carbon content. The sediment-water exchange was higher in the fine grained depositional area and based on a relationship found between the release of inorganic phosphorus and the silt content, a total annual release of 1.0×107 mol P was estimated for the whole Marsdiep basin. A spatial variability in the processes controlling the nutrient release was found. The exchange in the depositional area resulted mainly from molecular diffusive transport, with mineralization and sorption determining the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the porewater. For the coarser sediment stations the activity of macrofauna clearly enhanced the fluxes. Given the relative demand of nutrients (N:P:Si) for phytoplankton growth, the release was phosphorus deficient during most of the year. Nevertheless, it increased from February until September, in parallel with the increase in temperature and light, thus having the potential to fuel primary production during their seasonal growth period. In terms of absolute values, our results show that the present exchange, enhanced by the activity of macrofauna has the potential to fuel a significant fraction of the recent levels of primary productivity.

  11. Controlled rotation mechanism of DNA strand exchange by the Hin serine recombinase

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Botao; McLean, Meghan M.; Lei, Xianbin; Marko, John F.; Johnson, Reid C.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand exchange by serine recombinases has been proposed to occur by a large-scale rotation of halves of the recombinase tetramer. Here we provide the first direct physical evidence for the subunit rotation mechanism for the Hin serine invertase. Single-DNA looping assays using an activated mutant (Hin-H107Y) reveal specific synapses between two hix sites. Two-DNA “braiding” experiments, where separate DNA molecules carrying a single hix are interwound, show that Hin-H107Y cleaves both hix sites and mediates multi-step rotational relaxation of the interwinding. The variable numbers of rotations in the DNA braid experiments are in accord with data from bulk experiments that follow DNA topological changes accompanying recombination by the hyperactive enzyme. The relatively slow Hin rotation rates, combined with pauses, indicate considerable rotary friction between synapsed subunit pairs. A rotational pausing mechanism intrinsic to serine recombinases is likely to be crucial for DNA ligation and for preventing deleterious DNA rearrangements. PMID:27032966

  12. Competitive ion-exchange adsorption of proteins: competitive isotherms with controlled competitor concentration.

    PubMed

    Cano, Tony; Offringa, Natalie D; Willson, Richard C

    2005-06-24

    The competitive adsorption processes inevitably present in chromatographic separations of complex mixtures have not been extensively studied. This is partly due to the difficulty of measuring true competitive isotherms, in which all system parameters (including competitor concentrations) are held constant. We report a novel approach to determining competitive protein adsorption isotherms in which the competitor concentration is held constant across the entire isotherm. By using the heme prosthetic group in cytochrome b5 as a quantitative spectrophotometric label, competitive isotherms between cytochrome b5 and alpha-lactalbumin can be constructed. Similarly, manganese-substituted protoporphyrin IX heme replacement allows the non-perturbing labeling of individual cytochrome b5 conservative surface charge mutants by replacement of a single atom in the interior of the protein. This labeling allows the study of competition between cytochrome b5 charge mutants of identical size and shape, which differ only in charge arrangement. Using these techniques, the effect of competing species on equilibrium behavior and the apparent heterogeneity of anion-exchange adsorbents in the presence of competitors can be quantitatively studied by fitting the data to two popular single-component binding models, the Temkin and the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) isotherms.

  13. Sensor guided control and navigation with intelligent machines. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Bijoy K.

    2001-03-26

    This item constitutes the final report on ''Visionics: An integrated approach to analysis and design of intelligent machines.'' The report discusses dynamical systems approach to problems in robust control of possibly time-varying linear systems, problems in vision and visually guided control, and, finally, applications of these control techniques to intelligent navigation with a mobile platform. Robust design of a controller for a time-varying system essentially deals with the problem of synthesizing a controller that can adapt to sudden changes in the parameters of the plant and can maintain stability. The approach presented is to design a compensator that simultaneously stabilizes each and every possible mode of the plant as the parameters undergo sudden and unexpected changes. Such changes can in fact be detected by a visual sensor and, hence, visually guided control problems are studied as a natural consequence. The problem here is to detect parameters of the plant and maintain st ability in the closed loop using a ccd camera as a sensor. The main result discussed in the report is the role of perspective systems theory that was developed in order to analyze such a detection and control problem. The robust control algorithms and the visually guided control algorithms are applied in the context of a PUMA 560 robot arm control where the goal is to visually locate a moving part on a mobile turntable. Such problems are of paramount importance in manufacturing with a certain lack of structure. Sensor guided control problems are extended to problems in robot navigation using a NOMADIC mobile platform with a ccd and a laser range finder as sensors. The localization and map building problems are studied with the objective of navigation in an unstructured terrain.

  14. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment. Technical Report 75-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    A study to test the effects of learner control of the sequencing of instructional tasks when using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems is described. Using a series of CAI modules to teach the COBOL programing language to military personnel, students were able to control various aspects of their learning environment. Among the research…

  15. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  16. Technical Report on Occupations in Numerically Controlled Metal-Cutting Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Employment Service.

    At the present time, only 5 percent of the short-run metal-cutting machining in the United States is done by numerically controlled machined tools, but within the next decade it is expected to increase by 50 percent. Numerically controlled machines use taped data which is changed into instructions and directs the machine to do certain steps…

  17. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  18. The Advantages of Abstract Control Knowledge in Expert System Design. Technical Report #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    This paper argues that an important design principle for building expert systems is to represent all control knowledge abstractly and separately from the domain knowledge upon which it operates. Abstract control knowledge is defined as the specifications of when and how a program is to carry out its operations, such as pursuing a goal, focusing,…

  19. A feedback linearization approach to spacecraft control using momentum exchange devices. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzielski, John Edward

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of nonlinear control theory have shown how coordiante changes in the state and input spaces can be used with nonlinear feedback to transform certain nonlinear ordinary differential equations into equivalent linear equations. These feedback linearization techniques are applied to resolve two problems arising in the control of spacecraft equipped with control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). The first application involves the computation of rate commands for the gimbals that rotate the individual gyroscopes to produce commanded torques on the spacecraft. The second application is to the long-term management of stored momentum in the system of control moment gyroscopes using environmental torques acting on the vehicle. An approach to distributing control effort among a group of redundant actuators is described that uses feedback linearization techniques to parameterize sets of controls which influence a specified subsystem in a desired way. The approach is adapted for use in spacecraft control with double-gimballed gyroscopes to produce an algorithm that avoids problematic gimbal configurations by approximating sets of gimbal rates that drive CMG rotors into desirable configurations. The momentum management problem is stated as a trajectory optimization problem with a nonlinear dynamical constraint. Feedback linearization and collocation are used to transform this problem into an unconstrainted nonlinear program. The approach to trajectory optimization is fast and robust. A number of examples are presented showing applications to the proposed NASA space station.

  20. 76 FR 11327 - Technical Amendments to Rule 17a-8: Financial Recordkeeping and Reporting of Currency and Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Currency and Foreign Transactions AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendments. SUMMARY: The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is adopting technical...

  1. Probing core and shell contributions to exchange bias in Co /Co3O4 nanoparticles of controlled size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, D.; Iglesias, Óscar; Majumdar, S.; Giri, Saurav

    2016-11-01

    Coupling at the interface of core/shell magnetic nanoparticles is known to be responsible for exchange bias (EB) and the relative sizes of core and shell components are supposed to influence the associated phenomenology. In this work, we have prepared core/shell structured nanoparticles with a total average diameter around ˜27 nm and a wide range of shell thicknesses through the controlled oxidation of Co nanoparticles well dispersed in an amorphous silica host. Structural characterizations give compelling evidence of the formation of Co3O4 crystallite phase at the shells surrounding the Co core. Field cooled hysteresis loops display nonmonotonous dependence of the exchange bias HE and coercive HC fields, that become maximum for a sample with an intermediate shell thickness, at which lattice strain is also maximum for both phases. The EB effects persist up to temperatures above the ordering temperature of the oxide shell. Results of our atomistic Monte Carlo simulations of particles with the same size and composition as in experiments are in agreement with the experimental observations and have allowed us to identify a change in the contribution of the interfacial surface spins to the magnetization reversal, giving rise to the observed maximum in HE and HC.

  2. A Data Base of Nutrient Use, Water Use, CO2 Exchange, and Ethylene Production by Soybeans in a Controlled Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Peterson, B. V.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.; Sharifi, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    A data set is given describing daily nutrient and water uptake, carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, ethylene production, and carbon and nutrient partitioning from a 20 sq m stand of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. McCall] for use in bioregenerative life support systems. Stand CO2 exchange rates were determined from nocturnal increases in CO2 (respiration) and morning drawdowns (net photosynthesis) to a set point of 1000 micromol/ mol each day (i.e., a closed system approach). Atmospheric samples were analyzed throughout growth for ethylene using gas chromatography with photoionization detection (GC/PH)). Water use was monitored by condensate production from the humidity control system, as well as water uptake from the nutrient solution reservoirs each day. Nutrient uptake data were determined from daily additions of stock solution and acid to maintain an EC of 0.12 S/m and pH of 5.8. Dry mass yields of seeds, pods (without seeds), leaves, stems, and roots are provided, as well as elemental and proximate nutritional compositions of the tissues. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar documenting set point adjustments and the occasional equipment or sensor failure.

  3. Pollution control technical manual: Lurgi oil shale retorting with open pit mining. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The Lurgi oil shale PCTM addresses the Lurgi retorting technology, developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany, in the manner in which this technology may be applied to the oil shales of the western United States. This manual proceeds through a description of the Lurgi oil shale plant proposed by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, characterizes the waste streams produced in each medium, and discusses the array of commercially available controls which can be applied to the Lurgi plant waste streams. From these generally characterized controls, several are examined in more detail for each medium in order to illustrate typical control technology operation. Control technology cost and performance estimates are presented, together with descriptions of the discharge streams, secondary waste streams and energy requirements. A summary of data limitations and needs for environmental and control technology considerations is presented.

  4. On the role of exchange of power and information signals in control and stability of the human-robot interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazerooni, H.

    1991-01-01

    A human's ability to perform physical tasks is limited, not only by his intelligence, but by his physical strength. If, in an appropriate environment, a machine's mechanical power is closely integrated with a human arm's mechanical power under the control of the human intellect, the resulting system will be superior to a loosely integrated combination of a human and a fully automated robot. Therefore, we must develop a fundamental solution to the problem of 'extending' human mechanical power. The work presented here defines 'extenders' as a class of robot manipulators worn by humans to increase human mechanical strength, while the wearer's intellect remains the central control system for manipulating the extender. The human, in physical contact with the extender, exchanges power and information signals with the extender. The aim is to determine the fundamental building blocks of an intelligent controller, a controller which allows interaction between humans and a broad class of computer-controlled machines via simultaneous exchange of both power and information signals. The prevalent trend in automation has been to physically separate the human from the machine so the human must always send information signals via an intermediary device (e.g., joystick, pushbutton, light switch). Extenders, however are perfect examples of self-powered machines that are built and controlled for the optimal exchange of power and information signals with humans. The human wearing the extender is in physical contact with the machine, so power transfer is unavoidable and information signals from the human help to control the machine. Commands are transferred to the extender via the contact forces and the EMG signals between the wearer and the extender. The extender augments human motor ability without accepting any explicit commands: it accepts the EMG signals and the contact force between the person's arm and the extender, and the extender 'translates' them into a desired position. In

  5. Dynamic C and N stocks - key factors controlling the C gas exchange of maize in heterogenous peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Hagemann, U.; Giebels, M.; Albiac Borraz, E.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2015-05-01

    The drainage and cultivation of fen peatlands create complex small-scale mosaics of soils with extremely variable soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and groundwater levels (GWLs). To date, the significance of such sites as sources or sinks for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 is still unclear, especially if the sites are used for cropland. As individual control factors such as GWL fail to account for this complexity, holistic approaches combining gas fluxes with the underlying processes are required to understand the carbon (C) gas exchange of drained fens. It can be assumed that the stocks of SOC and N located above the variable GWL - defined as dynamic C and N stocks - play a key role in the regulation of the plant- and microbially mediated CO2 fluxes in these soils and, inversely, for CH4. To test this assumption, the present study analysed the C gas exchange (gross primary production - GPP; ecosystem respiration - Reco; net ecosystem exchange - NEE; CH4) of maize using manual chambers for 4 years. The study sites were located near Paulinenaue, Germany, where we selected three soil types representing the full gradient of GWL and SOC stocks (0-1 m) of the landscape: (a) Haplic Arenosol (AR; 8 kg C m-2); (b) Mollic Gleysol (GL; 38 kg C m-2); and (c) Hemic Histosol (HS; 87 kg C m-2). Daily GWL data were used to calculate dynamic SOC (SOCdyn) and N (Ndyn) stocks. Average annual NEE differed considerably among sites, ranging from 47 ± 30 g C m-2 yr-1 in AR to -305 ± 123 g C m-2 yr-1 in GL and -127 ± 212 g C m-2 yr-1 in HS. While static SOC and N stocks showed no significant effect on C fluxes, SOCdyn and Ndyn and their interaction with GWL strongly influenced the C gas exchange, particularly NEE and the GPP : Reco ratio. Moreover, based on nonlinear regression analysis, 86% of NEE variability was explained by GWL and SOCdyn. The observed high relevance of dynamic SOC and N stocks in the aerobic zone for plant and soil gas exchange likely originates from the

  6. Dynamic C and N stocks - key factors controlling the C gas exchange of maize in a heterogenous peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Hagemann, U.; Giebels, M.; Albiac Borraz, E.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2014-11-01

    Drainage and cultivation of fen peatlands creates complex small-scale mosaics of soils with extremely variable soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and groundwater-level (GWL). To date, it remains unclear if such sites are sources or sinks for greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4, especially if used for cropland. As individual control factors like GWL fail to account for this complexity, holistic approaches combining gas fluxes with the underlying processes are required to understand the carbon (C) gas exchange of drained fens. It can be assumed that the stocks of SOC and N located above the variable GWL - defined as dynamic C and N stocks - play a key role in the regulation of plant- and microbially mediated C gas fluxes of these soils. To test this assumption, the present study analysed the C gas exchange (gross primary production - GPP, ecosystem respiration - Reco, net ecosystem exchange - NEE, CH4) of maize using manual chambers for four years. The study sites were located near Paulinenaue, Germany. Here we selected three soils, which represent the full gradient in pedogenesis, GWL and SOC stocks (0-1 m) of the fen peatland: (a) Haplic Arenosol (AR; 8 kg C m-2); (b) Mollic Gleysol (GL; 38 kg C m-2); and (c) Hemic Histosol (HS; 87 kg C m-2). Daily GWL data was used to calculate dynamic SOC (SOCdyn) and N (Ndyn) stocks. Average annual NEE differed considerably among sites, ranging from 47 ± 30 g C m-2 a-1 at AR to -305 ± 123 g C m-2 a-1 at GL and -127 ± 212 g C m-2 a-1 at HS. While static SOC and N stocks showed no significant effect on C fluxes, SOCdyn and Ndyn and their interaction with GWL strongly influenced the C gas exchange, particularly NEE and the GPP:Reco ratio. Moreover, based on nonlinear regression analysis, 86% of NEE variability was explained by GWL and SOCdyn. The observed high relevance of dynamic SOC and N stocks in the aerobic zone for plant and soil gas exchange likely originates from the effects of GWL-dependent N availability on C formation and

  7. Exchange coupling controlled ferrite with dual magnetic resonance and broad frequency bandwidth in microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jingguo; Liu, Chuyang; Ma, Ning; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Du, Piyi

    2013-08-01

    Ti-doped barium ferrite powders BaFe12-x Ti x O19 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The powders were also studied for their magnetic properties and microwave absorption. Results show that the Ti-doped barium ferrites (BFTO) exist in single phase and exhibit hexagonal plate-like structure. The anisotropy field Ha of the BFTO decreases almost linearly with the increase in Ti concentration, which leads to a shift of the natural resonance peak toward low frequency. Two natural resonance peaks appear, which can be assigned to the double values of the Landé factor g that are found to be ∼2.0 and ∼2.3 in the system and can be essentially attributed to the existence of Fe(3+) ions and the exchange coupling effect between Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) ions, respectively. Such a dual resonance effect contributes a broad magnetic loss peak and thus a high attenuation constant, and leads to a dual reflection loss (RL) peak over the frequency range between 26.5 and 40 GHz. The high attenuation constants are between 350 and 500 at peak position. The optimal RL reaches around -45 dB and the practicable frequency bandwidth is beyond 11 GHz. This suggests that the BFTO powders could be used as microwave absorbing materials with extraordinary properties.

  8. Exchange coupling controlled ferrite with dual magnetic resonance and broad frequency bandwidth in microwave absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jingguo; Liu, Chuyang; Ma, Ning; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Du, Piyi

    2013-01-01

    Ti-doped barium ferrite powders BaFe12−xTixO19 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) were synthesized by the sol–gel method. The phase structure and morphology were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The powders were also studied for their magnetic properties and microwave absorption. Results show that the Ti-doped barium ferrites (BFTO) exist in single phase and exhibit hexagonal plate-like structure. The anisotropy field Ha of the BFTO decreases almost linearly with the increase in Ti concentration, which leads to a shift of the natural resonance peak toward low frequency. Two natural resonance peaks appear, which can be assigned to the double values of the Landé factor g that are found to be ∼2.0 and ∼2.3 in the system and can be essentially attributed to the existence of Fe3+ ions and the exchange coupling effect between Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions, respectively. Such a dual resonance effect contributes a broad magnetic loss peak and thus a high attenuation constant, and leads to a dual reflection loss (RL) peak over the frequency range between 26.5 and 40 GHz. The high attenuation constants are between 350 and 500 at peak position. The optimal RL reaches around −45 dB and the practicable frequency bandwidth is beyond 11 GHz. This suggests that the BFTO powders could be used as microwave absorbing materials with extraordinary properties. PMID:27877595

  9. Analysis of the control structures for an integrated ethanol processor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biset, S.; Nieto Deglioumini, L.; Basualdo, M.; Garcia, V. M.; Serra, M.

    The aim of this work is to investigate which would be a good preliminary plantwide control structure for the process of Hydrogen production from bioethanol to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) accounting only steady-state information. The objective is to keep the process under optimal operation point, that is doing energy integration to achieve the maximum efficiency. Ethanol, produced from renewable feedstocks, feeds a fuel processor investigated for steam reforming, followed by high- and low-temperature shift reactors and preferential oxidation, which are coupled to a polymeric fuel cell. Applying steady-state simulation techniques and using thermodynamic models the performance of the complete system with two different control structures have been evaluated for the most typical perturbations. A sensitivity analysis for the key process variables together with the rigorous operability requirements for the fuel cell are taking into account for defining acceptable plantwide control structure. This is the first work showing an alternative control structure applied to this kind of process.

  10. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A:Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  11. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Scrubbers for Gaseous Pollutants Control Devices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  12. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Carbon Adsorber Control Device

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  13. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Fabric Filter Control Devices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  14. 32 CFR 250.9 - Notice to accompany the dissemination of export-controlled technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for items controlled by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), or the Department of... the ITAR is up to 2 years imprisonment, or a fine of $100,000, or both. Under 50 U.S.C., appendix...

  15. 32 CFR 250.9 - Notice to accompany the dissemination of export-controlled technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for items controlled by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), or the Department of... the ITAR is up to 2 years imprisonment, or a fine of $100,000, or both. Under 50 U.S.C., appendix...

  16. 32 CFR 250.9 - Notice to accompany the dissemination of export-controlled technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for items controlled by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), or the Department of... the ITAR is up to 2 years imprisonment, or a fine of $100,000, or both. Under 50 U.S.C., appendix...

  17. 32 CFR 250.9 - Notice to accompany the dissemination of export-controlled technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for items controlled by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), or the Department of... the ITAR is up to 2 years imprisonment, or a fine of $100,000, or both. Under 50 U.S.C., appendix...

  18. 32 CFR 250.9 - Notice to accompany the dissemination of export-controlled technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for items controlled by the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), or the Department of... the ITAR is up to 2 years imprisonment, or a fine of $100,000, or both. Under 50 U.S.C., appendix...

  19. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Control of Other Specific Compounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  20. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Digital proportional-integral-derivative velocity controller of a Mössbauer spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechousek, J.; Prochazka, R.; Mashlan, M.; Jancik, D.; Frydrych, J.

    2009-01-01

    The digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) velocity controller used in the Mössbauer spectrometer implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA) is based on the National Instruments CompactRIO embedded system and LabVIEW graphical programming tools. The system works as a remote system accessible via the Ethernet. The digital controller operates in real-time conditions, and the maximum sampling frequency is approximately 227 kS s-1. The system was tested with standard sample measurements of α-Fe and α-57Fe2O3 on two different electromechanical velocity transducers. The nonlinearities of the velocity scales in the relative form are better than 0.2%. The replacement of the standard analog PID controller by the new system brings the possibility of optimizing the control process more precisely.

  1. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Electrified Filter Bed Control Device

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  2. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Particulate Matter (PM) Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  3. Compliance Assurance Monitoring Technical Guidance Document Appendix A: Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Control Device

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  4. Enhanced proton conductivity of sulfonated poly(p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone) proton exchange membranes with controlled microblock structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingyi; Xu, Tong; Qian, Huidong; Zheng, Jifu; Shi, Ce; Li, Yunqi; Zhang, Suobo

    2015-03-01

    A new series of sulfonated poly(p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone)s (s, m, l-SPP-co-PAEKs) microblock polymers containing different hydrophobic units with precisely defined lengths have been prepared via the nickel (0) catalyzed coupling copolymerization and characterized to act as proton exchange membranes. By controlling the length and chemical structure of the hydrophobic units in the copolymers, these novel microblock polymers can exhibit well-developed nanophase morphologies and large length-scale of the ionic channels, resulting in the improvement of the proton conductivity in both the wet and dry state. Moreover, the membrane l-SPP-co-PAEK 1.80 with the largest hydrophobic micro-block length shows high proton conductivity, excellent dimensional stability, low glass-transition temperature (Tg), good oxidative stability and superior cell performance.

  5. Plant carbon-nutrient interactions control CO{sub 2} exchange in Alaskan wet sedge tundra ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.C.; Shaver, G.R.; Cades, D.H.; Rastetter, E.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Giblin, A.; Laundre, J.; Stanley, A.

    2000-02-01

    The authors explored the long-term (8-yr) effects of separate field manipulations of temperature and nutrient availability on carbon balance in wet sedge tundra near the Arctic Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Their goals were (1) to assess the relative importance of chronic warming (with field greenhouses) and increased N and P availability (by fertilization) in controlling gross ecosystem photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and ultimately ecosystem C balance; and (2) to attempt to partition ecosystem responses to these treatments between plant and soil contributions. The authors present results of the effects of these manipulations on whole-system CO{sub 2} exchange over seasonal and duel cycles, and on nonrhizosphere soil microbial respiration using in situ soil incubations.

  6. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  7. Mechanical Engineering Department. Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Simecka, W.B.; Condouris, R.A.; Talaber, C.

    1980-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the Department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each Division in the Department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the Division accomplishing the work.

  8. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  9. Mechanical engineering department technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.B. Denney, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to: (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical acievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each division in the department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the division accomplishing the work.

  10. Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.B.; Denney, R.M.

    1981-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to inform readers of various technical activities within the Department, promote exchange of ideas, and give credit to personnel who are achieving the results. The report is presented in two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into seven sections, each of which reports on an engineering division and its specific activities related to nuclear tests, nuclear explosives, weapons, energy systems, engineering sciences, magnetic fusion, and materials fabrication.

  11. The boot software of the control unit of the near infrared spectrograph of the Euclid space mission: technical specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Sáenz-de-Tejada, Jaime; Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Pérez-Lizán, David; Fernández-Conde, Jesús; Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián.

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph and Photometer (NISP) is one of the instruments on board the ESA EUCLID mission. The Boot Software (BSW) is in charge of initialization and communications after a reset occurs at hard- ware level. The Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena and Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias are responsible of the Instrument Control Unit of the NISP (NI-ICU) in the Euclid Consortium. The NI-ICU BSW is developed by Universidad de Alcaĺa, and its main functions are: communication with the S/C for memory management, self-tests and start of a patchable Application Software (ASW). This paper presents the NI-ICU BSW status of definition and design at the end of the Technical Specification phase.

  12. Tracking instrument and control for solar concentrators. Final technical report, October 1979-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J; Kuhlman, J

    1981-01-31

    The tracker uses a single photo sensor, and a rotating aperature to obtain tracking accuracies better than 1.5 mrads (0.1 degs). Peak signal detection is used to eliminate tracking of false sources, i.e., clouds, etc. A prism is employed to obtain an extended field of view (150 degs axially - 360 degs radially). The tracker digitally measures the Suns displacement angle relative to the concentrator axis, and repositions it incrementally. This arrangement permits the use of low cost non-servo motors. The local controller contains microprocessor based electronics, incorporating digital signal processing. A single controller may be time shared by a maximum of sixteen trackers, providing a high performance, cost effective solar tracking system, suitable for both line and point focus concentrators. An installation may have the local controller programmed as a standalone unit or slaved to a central controller. When used with a central controller, dynamic data monitoring and logging is available, together with the ability to change system modes and parameters, as desired.

  13. PV batteries and charge controllers: Technical issues, costs, and market trends

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P.; Hund, T.D.; Harrington, S.R.

    1997-11-01

    A survey of US system integrators, charge controller manufacturers, and battery manufacturers was conducted in 1996 to determine market and application trends. This survey was sponsored by the USDOE. Results from 21 system integrators show a 1995 PV battery sales of $4.76 million. Using the survey results, a top down market analysis was conducted with a total predicted US battery market of $34.7 million and a world wide market of US $302 million. The survey also indicated that 71% (of dollars) were spent on VRLA and 29% on flooded lead-acid batteries. Eighty percent of charge controllers were ON-OFF, vs. PWM or constant voltage.

  14. Waterford SES unit No. 3 control room design review/audit technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.

    1981-06-01

    As part of the NRC staff actions following the TMI-2 accident (Item I.D.1, NUREG-0660, Vol. 1, May 1980), it is required that all licensees and applicants for operating licenses conduct a Detailed Control Room Design Review (DCRDR) to identify and correct human factors design deficiencies. Louisiana Power and Light Co. (LP and L) performed a preliminary assessment of the Waterford SES Unit No. 3 control room and submitted its findings to the NRC in a report dated April 15, 1981, for review and evaluation. The Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) performed an interim review of the LP and L preliminary assessment report.

  15. Ultra-low-volume ground aerosols of technical malathion for the control of Aedes aegypti L

    PubMed Central

    Pant, C. P.; Mount, G. A.; Jatanasen, Sujarti; Mathis, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    The efficacy of malathion aerosols applied from the ground was evaluated for the control of Ae. aegypti. Several techniques for applying the aerosols to an inhabited locality were investigated, and it was found that excellent control of adult mosquitos could be obtained with a dosage of 438 ml/ha. Two treatments carried out 3 days apart enabled the adult mosquito population to be reduced by 99%, and it took about 2 weeks to regain its pretreatment level. Schedules of treatment and strategies to be applied during an epidemic are discussed. PMID:5317014

  16. Technical Standards for Command and Control Information Systems (CCISs) and Information Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    from most vendors. Since the de facto standard is now in Release 5 , NIST plans to issue FIPS 158- 1 soon. [Ref. Kuhn 1991] The Display Industry...System (ACCS) 1 * 5 The Air Command and Control System (ACCS) is a system to support air operations planning , tasking, and execution throughout ACE from...Systems, AC/317-D123, NAC1SC, April 1988, NATO UNCLASSIfIED. [NACISC 19M9] NATO Consultation, Command and Control (C0) Master Plan (U). Edition 1 , AC

  17. TECHNICAL CHALLENGES INVOLVED IN IMPLEMENTATION OF VOC REACTIVITY-BASED CONTROL OF OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The control of VOC emissions based on their individual contribution to ozone formation has been the subject of intensive discussion and research in the past five years, and has gained a large degree of acceptance in the air pollution regulatory community for certain industrial op...

  18. New technical facilities for equipping power industry plants with automatic control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviderskii, A. G.; Herpel, H.

    2008-10-01

    The specific features of SPPA-T3000, a new instrumentation and control system intended for automation of processes in power engineering, are briefly described. Distinctive features of the system architecture, central to which is using the model of web systems, are singled out.

  19. Technical report on "BES Early Career. Control Graphene Electronic Structure for Energy Technology"

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng

    2015-07-11

    Graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon, exhibits incredible structural flexibility, electrical transport, and optical responses. And remarkably, the graphene electronic structure can be varied through interlayer coupling, nanoscale patterning, and electrical gating. In this project we made significant contribution to better understand and control physical properties of graphene and other novel two-dimensional layered materials.

  20. Practical optimal flight control system design for helicopter aircraft. Volume 1: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Riedel, S. A.; Mcruer, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method by which modern and classical theory techniques may be integrated in a synergistic fashion and used in the design of practical flight control systems is presented. A general procedure is developed, and several illustrative examples are included. Emphasis is placed not only on the synthesis of the design, but on the assessment of the results as well.

  1. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lāna'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states.

  2. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and Lāna‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  3. The use of training and technical assistance to drive and improve performance of California's Tobacco Control Program.

    PubMed

    Roeseler, April; Hagaman, Tonia; Kurtz, Caroline

    2011-11-01

    The California Department of Public Health, California Tobacco Control Program uses a social norm-change strategy to reduce the uptake and continued use of tobacco products. The statewide media campaign frames the message, community-level projects implement advocacy campaigns, and statewide-funded projects build the capacity of community-level projects. The California Tobacco Control Program's technical assistance (TA) system has evolved over time because of changing needs, evaluation findings, and budget considerations. However, TA services continue to strategically align with four statewide policy priorities: to eliminate secondhand smoke exposure, to counter protobacco influences, to reduce the availability of tobacco, and to promote cessation services. TA is the engine powering social change across California by playing a key role in the uptake of a single policy to facilitating the adoption of hundreds of tobacco control policies statewide. The inclusion of expert and peer-to-peer TA models broadly disseminates both evidence-based and tacit community-based knowledge. Comprehensive TA also levels the playing field for organizations and communities to effectively implement policy interventions. Together these approaches accelerate change throughout California communities.

  4. Genetic control of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Valley J.

    2001-04-01

    Some microorganisms can use nitrate as the sole source of nitrogen for biosynthesis. This project focused on the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium found in soil and water. Mutagenesis and molecular cloning identified the nasFEDCBA operon encoding enzymes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium, and the adjacent nasR regulatory gene. Analysis of nasF operon expression revealed that transcription is activated by the Ntr (general nitrogen regulation ) system in response to nitrogen limitation. Transcription antitermination control in response to nitrate and nitrite is mediated by the NasR protein. Additional work established that the NasR protein is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with nasF operon leader RNA to control transcription readthrough.

  5. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the nuclear power plant operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation's energy and environmental security.

  6. Rapid regulatory control of plant cell expansion and wall relaxation. Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1991-08-14

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the biophysical and cellular mechanisms that control plant cell expansion. At present we are attempting to characterize the kinetics of the system(s) responsible for regulatory and compensatory behavior of growing cells and tissues. This work is significantly because it indicates that biochemical loosening and biophysical stress relaxation of the wall are part of a feedback loop controlling growth. This report briefly summarizes the efforts and results of the past 12 months. In large part, we have been trying to analyze the nature of growth rate ``noise,`` i.e. spontaneous and often erratic variations in growth rate. We are obtaining evidence that such ``noise`` is not random, but rather reveals an underlying growth mechanism with complex dynamics.

  7. Emissions and fuel economy effects of vehicle exhaust emission control device (revision). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.

    1998-10-01

    This report describes testing by EPA of the Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Device (VEECD) retrofit device under Section 32918 of Title 49 U.S.C. Retrofit Devices (RD). The VEECD is described by the developer in the international patent application as an embodiment of air bleed principle. It is intended to be retrofitted to vehicles produced without any, or with earlier-technology emission control systems. The developer claims (RD Application Appendix A) that the valve significantly reduces CO and HC emissions without substantially increasing CO{sub 2} or NOx emissions. Incidental city fuel economy enhancement was also claimed. Non-FTP test data obtained for 1986/87 European vehicles from two laboratories in the UK was submitted. This data (Appendix B) was analyzed using the t-test for the difference of constant speed data (30/60/85MPH) at 95% confidence level.

  8. Control system failure monitoring using generalized parity relations. M.S. Thesis Interim Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanschalkwyk, Christiaan Mauritz

    1991-01-01

    Many applications require that a control system must be tolerant to the failure of its components. This is especially true for large space-based systems that must work unattended and with long periods between maintenance. Fault tolerance can be obtained by detecting the failure of the control system component, determining which component has failed, and reconfiguring the system so that the failed component is isolated from the controller. Component failure detection experiments that were conducted on an experimental space structure, the NASA Langley Mini-Mast are presented. Two methodologies for failure detection and isolation (FDI) exist that do not require the specification of failure modes and are applicable to both actuators and sensors. These methods are known as the Failure Detection Filter and the method of Generalized Parity Relations. The latter method was applied to three different sensor types on the Mini-Mast. Failures were simulated in input-output data that were recorded during operation of the Mini-Mast. Both single and double sensor parity relations were tested and the effect of several design parameters on the performance of these relations is discussed. The detection of actuator failures is also treated. It is shown that in all the cases it is possible to identify the parity relations directly from input-output data. Frequency domain analysis is used to explain the behavior of the parity relations.

  9. Collaborative distributed sensor management and information exchange flow control for multitarget tracking using Markov decision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, Dimitry; Kirubarajan, T.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of collaborative management of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) for multitarget tracking. In addition to providing a solution to the problem of controlling individual UAVs, we present a method for controlling the information flow among them. The latter provides a solution to one of the main problems in decentralized tracking, namely, distributed information transfer and fusion among the participating platforms. The problem of decentralized cooperative control considered in this paper is an optimization of the information obtained by a number of UAVs, carrying out surveillance over a region, which includes a number of confirmed and suspected moving targets with the goal to track confirmed targets and detects new targets in the area. Each UAV has to decide on the most optimal path with the objective to track as many targets as possible, maximizing the information obtained during its operation with the maximum possible accuracy at the lowest possible cost. Limited communication between UAVs and uncertainty in the information obtained by each UAV regarding the location of the ground targets are addressed in the problem formulation. In order to handle these issues, the problem is presented as an operation of a group of decision makers. Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) are incorporated into the solution. A decision mechanism for collaborative distributed data fusion provides each UAV with the required data for the fusion process while substantially reducing redundancy in the information flow in the overall system. We consider a distributed data fusion system consisting of UAVs that are decentralized, heterogenous, and potentially unreliable. Simulation results are presented on a representative multisensor-multitarget tracking problem.

  10. Surfactant control of gas transfer velocity along an offshore coastal transect: results from a laboratory gas exchange tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, R.; Schneider-Zapp, K.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the physical and biogeochemical controls of air-sea gas exchange is necessary for establishing biogeochemical models for predicting regional- and global-scale trace gas fluxes and feedbacks. To this end we report the results of experiments designed to constrain the effect of surfactants in the sea surface microlayer (SML) on the gas transfer velocity (kw; cm h-1), seasonally (2012-2013) along a 20 km coastal transect (North East UK). We measured total surfactant activity (SA), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the SML and in sub-surface water (SSW) and we evaluated corresponding kw values using a custom-designed air-sea gas exchange tank. Temporal SA variability exceeded its spatial variability. Overall, SA varied 5-fold between all samples (0.08 to 0.38 mg L-1 T-X-100), being highest in the SML during summer. SML SA enrichment factors (EFs) relative to SSW were ˜ 1.0 to 1.9, except for two values (0.75; 0.89: February 2013). The range in corresponding k660 (kw for CO2 in seawater at 20 °C) was 6.8 to 22.0 cm h-1. The film factor R660 (the ratio of k660 for seawater to k660 for "clean", i.e. surfactant-free, laboratory water) was strongly correlated with SML SA (r ≥ 0.70, p ≤ 0.002, each n = 16). High SML SA typically corresponded to k660 suppressions ˜ 14 to 51 % relative to clean laboratory water, highlighting strong spatiotemporal gradients in gas exchange due to varying surfactant in these coastal waters. Such variability should be taken account of when evaluating marine trace gas sources and sinks. Total CDOM absorbance (250 to 450 nm), the CDOM spectral slope ratio (SR = S275 - 295/S350 - 400), the 250 : 365 nm CDOM absorption ratio (E2 : E3), and Chl a all indicated spatial and temporal signals in the quantity and composition of organic matter in the SML and SSW. This prompts us to hypothesise that spatiotemporal variation in R660 and its relationship with SA is a consequence of compositional

  11. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}4, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B and W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  12. Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference

    PubMed Central

    Guehl, Jean-Marc; Aussenac, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    The responses of steady state CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (ΔW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and gs decreased when ΔW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa−1. In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and gs decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa−1, respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure (Ci) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when ΔW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high ΔW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while Ci remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of gs to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus ΔW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to ΔW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505). PMID:16665243

  13. Seasonal patterns and control of gas exchange in local populations of the Mediterranean evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexas, Jaume; Gulías, Javier; Jonasson, Sven; Medrano, Hipólito; Mus, Mauricio

    2001-02-01

    We examined temporal and spatial variations in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency, sub-stomatal CO 2 concentration, apparent carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence in the Mediterranean shrub Pistacia lentiscus. The study was done at the extremes of a precipitation and temperature gradient on the coast and in the mountains of Mallorca, Spain, with gas exchange measurements at different times of the year, and combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in a controlled experiment. The objectives were to relate annual variation in photosynthetic functions to environmentally induced constraints and to quantify to which extent local differences in climate can affect photosynthesis in shrub populations. In the mountain population, net photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn, when water was abundant and temperature was moderately high. It was reduced in winter paralleling reduced carboxylation efficiency. Photosynthesis was at the annual minimum in summer at both sites due to drought-induced stomata closure combined with impaired function of the Calvin cycle. The coastal population maintained high photosynthesis in mid winter but had a pronounced decline in spring, and the summer decline lasted longer than in the mountains. Integrated over the seasons, net photosynthesis was about 25 % lower in the coastal than in the mountain population, in spite of maintained high mid winter photosynthesis. Hence, the reduction at the coast was mainly due to early onset of drought in spring and a long period of summer drought, showing that local climatic differences can cause pronounced spatial differences in plant carbon balance. As a consequence, similar differences probably also occur as a function of year-to-year variability of precipitation patterns and temperatures.

  14. Use of water exchange information to improve chemical control of eurasian watermilfoil in Pacific Northwest rivers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Getsinger, K.D.; Sisneros, D.; Tumer, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The submersed plant Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), continues to adversely impact areas in the high water exchange environment of the Columbia River system. Studies designed to characterize water movement and to evaluate a slow release matrix device (SRMD) for improving the chemical control of that target plant were conducted in the Pend Oreille and Columbia Rivers, Washington, in August 1990. A series of rhodamine WT dye treatments were applied (using conventional, liquid application techniques) to 4-ha plots representing milfoil-dominated riverine and cove sites to estimate potential herbicide contact time. In addition, dye-impregnated SRMDs were deployed in 0.4-ha plots and evaluated for their potential as slow-release herbicide carriers. Dye dissipation data were used to calculate water-exchange half-lives in plots treated with conventional application techniques. Mean half-lives ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 hr in riverine plots, to 36.3 hr in a plot situated in a protected embayment. Half-lives from these 4-ha plots were two to four times longer than half-lives measured in smaller plots (0.4 ha) from previous dye studies conducted in similar locations. In most cases, dye release rates from SRMDs provided water concentrations near the target level of 10 micrograms/L through 7 days after deployment (DAD). Dye concentrations peaked at 105 to 130 micrograms/L at 2 DAD in Plot I (main channel plot) and 4.5 to 82 micrograms/L at I DAD in Plot 2 (side channel plot).

  15. Ion-exchange controls the kinetics of deswelling of polyelectrolyte microgels in solutions of oppositely charged surfactant.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter; Hansson, Per

    2005-12-22

    The kinetics of deswelling of sodium polyacrylate microgels (radius 30-140 microm) in aqueous solutions of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide is investigated by means of micropipet-assisted light microscopy. The purpose of the study is to test a recent model (J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 9203) proposing that the rate of the volume change is controlled by the transport of surfactant from the solution to the gel core (ion exchange) via the surfactant-rich surface phase appearing in the gel during the volume transition. Equilibrium swelling characteristics of the gel network in surfactant-free solutions and with various amounts of surfactant present are presented and discussed with reference to related systems. A relationship between gel volume and degree of surfactant binding is determined and used in theoretical predictions of the deswelling kinetics. Experimental data for single gel beads observed during deswelling under conditions of forced convection are presented and compared with model calculations. It is demonstrated that the dependences of the kinetics on initial gel size, the surfactant concentration in the solution, and the liquid flow rate are well accounted for by the model. It is concluded that the deswelling rates of the studied gels are strongly influenced by the mass transport of surfactant between gel and solution (stagnant layer diffusion), but only to a minor extent by the transport through the surface phase. The results indicate that, during the volume transition, swelling equilibrium (network relaxation/transport of water) is established on a relatively short time scale and, therefore, can be treated as independent of the ion-exchange kinetics. Theoretical aspects of the kinetics and mechanisms of surfactant transport through the surface phase are discussed.

  16. Technical Standards for the ATCCIS (Army Tactical Command and Control Information System) Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    CLNP) apply to each of the four LAN options. The X.25 PLP in ISO 8208 or 8878 in Layer 3 and the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) in Layer 2 are...3309 ISO 8208 ISO 8073 V.35 ISO 4335 ISO 8878 V.36 IS07478 DIS 2110 IS07776 ISO 2593 ISO 7809 DIS 4902 IS08471 O 8885 Permanent Access to PSDN: End...System X.21 ISO 3309 ISO 8208 ISO 8073 DIS 490 IS0 4335 ISO 8878 ISO 7478 X.25 ISO 7776 ISO 7809 ISO 8471 IS0 8885 X.25 PSDN X.25 X.25 X.25 Permanent

  17. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-04-18

    Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  20. Technical advance: stringent control of transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using the Top10 promoter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, J.; Scott, A. C.; Thompson, W. F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We show that the tightly regulated tetracycline-sensitive Top10 promoter system (Weinmann et al. Plant J. 1994, 5, 559-569) is functional in Arabidopsis thaliana. A pure breeding A. thaliana line (JL-tTA/8) was generated which expressed a chimeric fusion of the tetracycline repressor and the activation domain of Herpes simplex virus (tTA), from a single transgenic locus. Plants from this line were crossed with transgenics carrying the ER-targeted green fluorescent protein coding sequence (mGFP5) under control of the Top10 promoter sequence. Progeny from this cross displayed ER-targeted GFP fluorescence throughout the plant, indicating that the tTA-Top10 promoter interaction was functional in A. thaliana. GFP expression was repressed by 100 ng ml-1 tetracycline, an order of magnitude lower than the concentration used previously to repress expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Moreover, the level of GFP expression was controlled by varying the concentration of tetracycline in the medium, allowing a titred regulation of transgenic activity that was previously unavailable in A. thaliana. The kinetics of GFP activity were determined following de-repression of the Top10:mGFP5 transgene, with a visible ER-targeted GFP signal appearing from 24 to 48 h after de-repression.

  1. The Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio controls leukocyte transendothelial migration by promoting docking structure formation.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Jos; Kroon, Jeffrey; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van Alphen, Floris P J; de Jong, Renske J; Kostadinova, Elena; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L; van Buul, Jaap D

    2012-08-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration involves the active participation of the endothelium through the formation of apical membrane protrusions that embrace adherent leukocytes, termed docking structures. Using live-cell imaging, we find that prior to transmigration, endothelial docking structures form around 80% of all neutrophils. Previously we showed that endothelial RhoG and SGEF control leukocyte transmigration. In this study, our data reveal that both full-length Trio and the first DH-PH (TrioD1) domain of Trio, which can activate Rac1 and RhoG, interact with ICAM-1 and are recruited to leukocyte adhesion sites. Moreover, upon clustering of ICAM-1, the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio activates Rac1, prior to activating RhoG, in a filamin-dependent manner. We further show that docking structure formation is initiated by ICAM-1 clustering into ring-like structures, which is followed by apical membrane protrusion. Interestingly, we find that Rac1 is required for ICAM-1 clustering, whereas RhoG controls membrane protrusion formation. Finally, silencing endothelial Trio expression or reducing TrioD1 activity without affecting SGEF impairs both docking structure formation and leukocyte transmigration. We conclude that Trio promotes leukocyte transendothelial migration by inducing endothelial docking structure formation in a filamin-dependent manner through the activation of Rac1 and RhoG.

  2. High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Devices using Trap-Controlled Quantum-Dot Ink prepared via Phase-Transfer Exchange.

    PubMed

    Aqoma, Havid; Al Mubarok, Muhibullah; Hadmojo, Wisnu Tantyo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2017-03-07

    Colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices are promising candidates for low-cost power sources owing to their low-temperature solution processability and bandgap tunability. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of >10% is achieved for these devices; however, there are several remaining obstacles to their commercialization, including their high energy loss due to surface trap states and the complexity of the multiple-step CQD-layer-deposition process. Herein, high-efficiency photovoltaic devices prepared with CQD-ink using a phase-transfer-exchange (PTE) method are reported. Using CQD-ink, the fabrication of active layers by single-step coating and the suppression of surface trap states are achieved simultaneously. The CQD-ink photovoltaic devices achieve much higher PCEs (10.15% with a certified PCE of 9.61%) than the control devices (7.85%) owing to improved charge drift and diffusion. Notably, the CQD-ink devices show much lower energy loss than other reported high-efficiency CQD devices. This result reveals that the PTE method is an effective strategy for controlling trap states in CQDs.

  3. Dual drug load and release behavior on ion-exchange fiber: influencing factors and prediction method for precise control of the loading amount.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Gao, Yanan; Liu, Tiaotiao; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Hongzhuo; Li, Sanming

    2015-01-01

    Ion-exchange fiber undergoes a stoichiometric exchange reaction and has large exchange capability, which makes it a promising candidate as a multiple drug carrier. Because combinatorial effects can act synergistically, additively or antagonistically depending on the ratio of the agents being combined, the objective of this study was to learn the dual drug loading of ion-exchange fiber and develop a mathematical method for precisely control of the loading amount. Atenolol and Gatifloxacin, with different loading behaviors into strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1, were used to build a representative of dual loading. Not suitable pH value of drug solutions could make simultaneous loading fail, while the change of drug solution volume hardly affected the equilibrium. Ion-exchange groups occupied by the drug which owned lower affinity to fiber could be grabbed by the higher affinity drug, indicating the existence of competition between drugs. Thermodynamic model was introduced to guide the loading prediction and a favorable relevance had been shown between determined and predicted data. The release behaviors of each drug from dual drug-fiber complex were similar to those from single drug-fiber complexes.

  4. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  5. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing model of the stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1988-06-16

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirial data suggests that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a process and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning.

  6. Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1995-12-01

    Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

  7. [Scientific and technical evaluation of Mexico's General Law for Tobacco Control].

    PubMed

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2010-01-01

    The General Law for Tobacco Control, signed in February 2008, aims to protect the Mexican population against the negative effects associated with tobacco consumption and to guarantee the non-smoker's rights to live and relate in 100% smoke-free environments. The Law supports the development of smoke-free areas, but it also allows for indoor smoking areas. The present essay examines the Law and its Rule of Procedure, article by article, evaluating its capability to assure the protection of the population against the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. The analysis reveals conceptual and operative important imprecision, but mainly, discusses in detail the reasons why indoor smoking areas represent a health risk for the population. It concludes that the Law must be reformed, eliminating the provision of indoor smoking areas, any kind of roof in outdoor smoking areas and establishing a minimum distance between these areas and the 100% smoke-free environments.

  8. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental control technology. Final technical monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block. A second phase of the lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG) was also conducted simultaneously on the Pilot System this month. This month the ECTC was off-line from 6/9 through 6/19 to complete a Facility retrofit project. During this brief outage, modifications were made to the ECTC Flue Gas Handling System to enhance the facility capabilities, and to prepare for future High Velocity Wet FGD Testing. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the low temperature performance testing resumed this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the new SCR catalysts.

  9. Air strippers and their emissions control at Superfund sites. Technical report, February-April 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, B.L.; Branscome, M.

    1988-08-01

    Air stripping, a traditional means of making slightly contaminated ground water potable, is being applied increasingly to more-severe groundwater pollution at remedial action sites. Concentrations of volatile and semivolatile compounds at such sites may reach hundreds of parts per million. As a result, several changes have resulted in air-stripping technology. New air stripping technologies are being employed to achieve very high (>99% removal of volatile compounds and to increase the removal of semivolatiles. New stripper designs are being investigated for compactness and mobility. In addition, emissions controls are being added because air-pollution impacts are larger. The paper discusses these trends and provides examples from ground-water cleanup at remedial-action sites in the United States.

  10. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  11. Shifting from presumptive to test-based management of malaria - technical basis and implications for malaria control in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Baiden, F; Malm, K; Bart-Plange, C; Hodgson, A; Chandramohan, D; Webster, J; Owusu-Agyei, S

    2014-06-01

    The presumptive approach was the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended to the management of malaria for many years and this was incorporated into syndromic guidelines such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI). In early 2010 however, WHO issued revised treatment guidelines that call for a shift from the presumptive to the test-based approach. Practically, this implies that in all suspected cases, the diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria should be confirmed using rapid test before treatment is initiated. This revision effectively brings to an end an era of clinical practice that span several years. Its implementation has important implications for the health systems in malaria-endemic countries. On the basis of research in Ghana and other countries, and evidence from program work, the Ghana National Malaria Control Program has issued revised national treatment guidelines that call for implementation of test-based management of malaria in all cases, and across all age groups. This article reviews the evidence and the technical basis for the shift to test-based management and examines the implications for malaria control in Ghana.

  12. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue deoxygenation during exercise in type 1 diabetes patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Juha E; Koponen, Anne S; Pullinen, Katri; Hägglund, Harriet; Aho, Jyrki M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Tikkanen, Heikki O

    2012-05-31

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate whether leg and arm skeletal muscle and cerebral deoxygenation differ during incremental cycling exercise in men with type 1 diabetes (T1D, n=10, mean±SD age 33±7 years) and healthy control men (matched by age, anthrometry, and self-reported physical activity, CON, n=10, 32±7 years) to seek an explanation for lower aerobic capacity (˙VO2peak) often reported in T1D. T1D had lower ˙VO2peak (35±4mlkg(-1)min(-1) vs. 43±8mlkg(-1)min(-1), P<0.01) and peak work rate (219±33W vs. 290±44W, P<0.001) than CON. Leg muscle deoxygenation (↑ [deoxyhemoglobin]; ↓ tissue saturation index) was greater in T1D than CON at a given absolute submaximal work rate, but not at peak exercise, while arm muscle and cerebral deoxygenation were similar. Thus, in T1D compared with CON, faster leg muscle deoxygenation suggests limited circulatory ability to increase O(2) delivery as a plausible explanation for lower ˙VO2peak and earlier fatigue in T1D.

  13. Control of a Uranium-Hydride Reactor with Deuterium-Hydrogen Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.

    2013-12-24

    A 70 MWt reactor is evaluated that utilizes uranium-hydride fuel and is cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The concept utilizes a high-density, high-density-fuel outer annulus which surrounds a lowdensity, powder-fuel central core. Prior to reactor startup, the entire core is initially saturated with deuterium (UD3). To start the reactor, hydrogen flows through the central, low density powder (with protons gradually replacing deuterons) until criticality is reached. Over the remaining lifetime of the reactor, with the goal of 10 years, hydrogen is continually added to the outer, high-density core to compensate for burnup reactivity loss. Throughout lifetime, the inner region serves as a standard control/shutdown rod, with the ability to replace the H with D relatively quickly (because of the low density, high surface area of the fuel). The scope of this work is to determine if a reactor could be designed to meet the above guidelines and if possible estimate the size of the smallest reactor that could meet the guidelines.

  14. Biophysical controls of carbon exchange in old growth Mountain Ash stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term measurements of CO2, H2O and energy fluxes over a range of terrestrial ecosystem types and maturity are necessary in determining the regional and global carbon budgets. Previous studies from temperate forests have generally shown that the net uptake of carbon (NEE) of ecosystems decreases with stand age, and in old growth forests carbon cycling has often been assumed to be in equilibrium. However, results from the Northern Hemisphere, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that old growth forests are a greater sink than first thought. Changes in stand structure, detritus matter and microclimate between young and old growth forests greatly contribute to the variation in the net fluxes of CO2 and H2O. The role of old growth temperate forests in Australia is uncertain and may function remarkably different to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. An undisturbed old growth, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) has been selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plant), and fully developed trees can reach heights of more than 100 metres. Mountain Ash forests also occupy a large proportion of Victoria's catchments, making them a crucial resource for the sustainable management and quality of Melbourne's drinking water. This study uses the Eddy Covariance method, which will measure the carbon, water, energy fluxes. The site has been running since August 2005 and we present 18 months of preliminary results from the site. The central theme of this study is to investigate the climatic and biophysical factors that control carbon, water and energy cycles over a range of time scales. Ultimately, this approach will allow us to better understand how these uniquely Australian ecosystems may respond to global climate change.

  15. Growth and gas exchange by lettuce stands in a closed, controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Sager, J C; Yorio, N C; Knott, W M; Berry, W L

    1994-05-01

    Two studies were conducted in which 'Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was grown hydroponically from seed to harvest in a large (20-m2), atmospherically closed growth chamber for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program. The first study used metal-halide (MH) lamps [280 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)], whereas the second used high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (293 micromoles m-2 s-1). Both studies used a 16-hour photoperiod, a constant air temperature (22 to 23C), and 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 during the light period. In each study, canopy photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) rates were highly correlated to canopy cover, with absolute rates peaking at harvest (28 days after planting ) at 17 micromoles CO2/m2 per sec and 4 liters m-2 day-1, respectively. When normalized for actual canopy cover, photosynthesis and ET rates per unit canopy area decreased with age (between 15 and 28 days after planting). Canopy cover increased earlier during the study with HPS lamps, and final shoot yields averaged 183 g fresh mass (FM)/plant 8.8 g dry mass (DM)/plant. Shoot yields in the first study with MH lamps averaged 129 g FM/plant and 6.8 g DM/plant. Analysis of leaf tissue showed that ash levels from both studies averaged 22% and K levels ranged from 15% to 17% of tissue DM. Results suggest that lettuce should be easily adaptable to a CELSS with moderate lighting and that plant spacing or transplant schemes are needed to maximize canopy light interception and sustained efficient CO2 removal and water production.

  16. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  17. Advanced in-duct sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, M.R.; Withium, J.A.; Rosenhoover, W.A.; Maskew, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this research project was to develop a second generation duct sorbent injection technology as a cost-effective compliance option for the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Research and development work was focused on the Advanced Coolside process, which showed the potential for exceeding the original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization. Process development was conducted in a 1000 acfm pilot plant. The pilot plant testing showed that the Advanced Coolside process can achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal at sorbent utilizations up to 75%. The testing also showed that the process has the potential to achieve very high removal efficiency (90 to >99%). By conducting conceptual process design and economic evaluations periodically during the project, development work was focused on process design improvements which substantially lowered process capital and operating costs, A final process economic study projects capital costs less than one half of those for limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. Projected total SO{sub 2} control cost is about 25% lower than wet FGD for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal. A waste management study showed the acceptability of landfill disposal; it also identified a potential avenue for by-product utilization which should be further investigated. Based on the pilot plant performance and on the above economic projections, future work to scale up the Advanced Coolside process is recommended.

  18. Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries. Technical report, Jan 89-Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  19. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Technology Control Center, report to the Steering committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report describes test for air pollution control of flue gas and mercury as a result of coal combustion. The NYSEG Kintigh Station provided flue gas to the Center 100% of the time during this performance period. As the Kintigh Station operated with a variety of coals, fluctuations in the Center`s inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations were experienced. Safety training for the month was conducted by the O&M Superintendent, Maintenance Supervisor and Shift Supervisors. {open_quotes}Personal Protective Equipment{close_quotes} was the topic of the month. Inspections of the ECTC Facility and safety equipment (SCR air-packs, fire extinguishers, etc.) were completed and recorded this month. All systems were found to be in good condition. By continuing to emphasize safe work habits at the Center, we have raised the total number of days without a lost time injury to 1426 as of 4/30/96. The monthly safety meeting with the NYSEG Kintigh Station was held on April 30, 1996 with both NYSEG and ECTC representatives. The topics of discussion included an overview of NYSEG`s upcoming alternate fuel burn, an update on plant staffing changes, and a discussion of future safety training activities.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  1. Let's get technical! Gaming and technology for weight control and health promotion in children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Frankel, Leslie

    2012-02-01

    Most children, including lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority children, play video games, use computers, and have cell phones, and growing numbers have smart phones and electronic tablets. They are comfortable with, even prefer, electronic media. Many expect to be entertained and have a low tolerance for didactic methods. Thus, health promotion with children needs to incorporate more interactive media. Interactive media for weight control and health promotion among children can be broadly classified into web-based educational/therapeutic programs, tailored motivational messaging systems, data monitoring and feedback systems, active video games, and diverse forms of interactive multimedia experiences involving games. This article describes the primary characteristics of these different technological methods; presents the strengths and weaknesses of each in meeting the needs of children of different ages; emphasizes that we are in the earliest stages of knowing how best to design these systems, including selecting the optimal requisite behavioral change theories; and identifies high-priority research issues. Gaming and technology offer many exciting, innovative opportunities for engaging children and promoting diet and physical activity changes that can contribute to obesity prevention and weight loss maintenance. Research needs to clarify optimal procedures for effectively promoting change with each change procedure.

  2. Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mari; And Others

    This manual was developed to train Peace Corps volunteers and other community health workers in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the control of diarrheal diseases. Using a competency-based format, the manual contains six training modules (organized in 22 sessions) that focus on interrelated health education and technical content areas. Each…

  3. The Effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Training for Teachers of Children with Autism: A Pragmatic, Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Gordon, R. Kate; Pasco, Greg; Wade, Angie; Charman, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of expert training and consultancy for teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder in the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Method: Design: Group randomised, controlled trial (3 groups: immediate treatment, delayed treatment, no treatment). Participants: 84 elementary school…

  4. Contrasting guest binding interaction of cucurbit[7-8]urils with neutral red dye: controlled exchange of multiple guests.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Mhejabeen; Choudhury, Sharmistha Dutta; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas

    2010-07-14

    Interactions among macrocyclic hosts and dyes/drugs have been explored extensively for their direct usage in controlled uptake and release of large number of potential drug molecules. In this paper we report the non-covalent interaction of cucurbit[8]uril macrocycle (CB8) with a biologically important dye, neutral red, by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. A comparative analysis with the complexation behaviour of the dye with CB7, the lower homologue of CB8, indicates contrasting guest binding behaviour with significant changes in the photophysical characteristics of the dye. While CB7 interaction leads to a 1 ratio 1 stoichiometry resulting in approximately 6 fold enhancement in the fluorescence emission of the dye, CB8 displays signatures for a 1 ratio 2 host-guest stoichiometry with drastic reduction in the fluorescence emission. Apart from the evaluation of approximately 2 unit shift in the protolytic equilibrium on complexation (pK(a) shift), the measurements with tryptophan established a selective guest exchange to favour a co-localized dimer inside the CB8 cavity. In a protein medium (BSA), the 1 ratio 2 complex was converted to a 1 ratio 1 ratio 1 CB8-NRH(+)-BSA complex. The finding that NRH(+) can be transferred from CB8 to BSA, even though the binding constant for NRH(+)-CB8 is much higher than NRH(+)-BSA, is projected for a controlled slow release of NRH(+) towards BSA. Since the release and activity of drugs can be controlled by regulating the protolytic equilibrium, the macromolecular encapsulation and release of NRH(+) demonstrated here provide information relevant to host-guest based drug delivery systems and its applications.

  5. Final Technical Report: Genetic and Molecular Analysis of a new control pathway in assimilate partitioning.

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, Daniel, R.

    2009-03-10

    Assimilate partitioning refers to the systemic distribution of photoassimilate from sites of primary assimilation (source tissue) to import-dependent tissues and organs (sinks). One of the defining questions in this area is how plants balance source productivity with sink demand. We discovered a sucrose-sensing signal transduction pathway that controls the activity of BvSUT1, a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. Sucrose symporters are responsible for sucrose accumulation in the phloem of many plants and, therefore, they mediate the pivotal step in the long-distance transport of photoassimilate to non-photosynthetic tissues, such as roots and seed. We previously showed that sucrose transport activity is directly proportional to the transcription rate of BvSUT1 and that symporter mRNA and protein have high rates of turnover with half-lives on the order of 2 h. We further demonstrated that symporter transcription is regulated by sucrose levels in the leaf and that sucrose-dependent regulation of BvSUT1 transcription is mediated, at least in part, by a protein phosphorylation relay pathway. The goal of the experiments during this current grant were to use genetic and molecular approaches to identify essential components of this vital regulatory system. The initial objectives were to: (1) to characterize Arabidopsis mutants we've isolated that are resistant to growth inhibition by sucrose analogues that are recognized by the sucrose-sensor, (2) to screen for loss of function mutants in BvSUT1-promoter:luciferase transgenic plants that no longer respond to sucrose accumulation in the leaf using non-destructive visualization of luciferase activity, (3) to use gel mobility-shift assays and nuclease protection experiments to identify cis elements in the symporter promoter and DNA-binding proteins that are involved in sucrose regulation of symporter expression.

  6. Technical support for digital systems technology development. Task order 1: ISP contention analysis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Ogier, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Alternatives for realizing a packet-based network switch for use on a frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) geostationary communication satellite were investigated. Each of the eight downlink beams supports eight directed dwells. The design needed to accommodate multicast packets with very low probability of loss due to contention. Three switch architectures were designed and analyzed. An output-queued, shared bus system yielded a functionally simple system, utilizing a first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory per downlink dwell, but at the expense of a large total memory requirement. A shared memory architecture offered the most efficiency in memory requirements, requiring about half the memory of the shared bus design. The processing requirement for the shared-memory system adds system complexity that may offset the benefits of the smaller memory. An alternative design using a shared memory buffer per downlink beam decreases circuit complexity through a distributed design, and requires at most 1000 packets of memory more than the completely shared memory design. Modifications to the basic packet switch designs were proposed to accommodate circuit-switched traffic, which must be served on a periodic basis with minimal delay. Methods for dynamically controlling the downlink dwell lengths were developed and analyzed. These methods adapt quickly to changing traffic demands, and do not add significant complexity or cost to the satellite and ground station designs. Methods for reducing the memory requirement by not requiring the satellite to store full packets were also proposed and analyzed. In addition, optimal packet and dwell lengths were computed as functions of memory size for the three switch architectures.

  7. 77 FR 42176 - Technical Amendment to Rules for the Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Municipal Advisors AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is making a technical amendment to rules... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND...

  8. Implementing Selective Waste Collection: The Articulation between Pedagogical Theory and Practice in the Pollution and Ecology Class in the Environmental Control Technical Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocas, Giselle; Gonzalez, Wania R. Coutinho; Araujo, Flavia Monteiro de Barros

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of selective waste collection in a school located on the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The participants consisted mainly of 64 students taking an Environmental Control technical course during 2007 and 2008. By addressing selective waste collection, the pedagogical proposal aimed at: a) enabling…

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Critical Thinking Skills and Affective Control in Child Training Students of the Female Technical and Vocational College in the City of Broujerd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmaeili, Zohreh; Bagheri, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    This study is a descriptive-correlational study with the purpose of evaluating the relationship between critical thinking skills and affective control in child training students of the female technical and Vocational College in the city of Broujerd. Statistical population of this study consisted of all students in the field of child training of…

  10. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  11. Environment or development? Lifetime net CO2 exchange and control of the expression of Crassulacean acid metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2007-01-01

    The relative influence of plant age and environmental stress signals in triggering a shift from C(3) photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in the annual halophytic C(3)-CAM species Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was explored by continuously monitoring net CO(2) exchange of whole shoots from the seedling stage until seed set. Plants exposed to high salinity (400 mm NaCl) in hydroponic culture solution or grown in saline-droughted soil acquired between 11% and 24% of their carbon via net dark CO(2) uptake involving CAM. In contrast, plants grown under nonsaline, well-watered conditions were capable of completing their life cycle by operating in the C(3) mode without ever exhibiting net CO(2) uptake at night. These observations are not consistent with the widely expressed view that the induction of CAM by high salinity in M. crystallinum represents an acceleration of preprogrammed developmental processes. Rather, our study demonstrates that the induction of the CAM pathway for carbon acquisition in M. crystallinum is under environmental control.

  12. Synthesis of transport layers with controlled anisotropy and application thereof to study proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Devin; Mérida, Walter

    2016-04-01

    We report on a novel method for the synthesis of fibre-based proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell porous transport layers (PTLs) with controllable fibre alignment. We also report the first application of such layers as diagnostics tools to probe the effect of within-plane PTL anisotropy upon PEM fuel cell performance. These structures are realized via adaptation of electrospinning technology. Electrospun layers with progressive anisotropy magnitude are produced and evaluated. This novel approach is distinguished from the state-of-the-art because an equivalent study using commercially available materials is impossible due to lack of structurally similar substrates with different anisotropies. The anisotropy is visualized via scanning electron microscopy, and quantified using electrical resistivity. The capacity is demonstrated to achieve fibre alignment, and the associated impact on transport properties. A framework is presented for assessing the in-situ performance, whereby transport layer orientation versus bipolar plate flow-field geometry is manipulated. While an effect upon the commercial baseline cannot be discerned, electrospun transport layers with greater anisotropy magnitude suggest greater sensitivity to orientation; where greater performance is obtained with fibres cross-aligned to flow-field channels. Our approach of electrospun transport enables deterministic structures by which fuel cell performance can be explained and optimized.

  13. Non-chemical biofouling control in heat exchangers and seawater piping systems using acoustic pulses generated by an electrical discharge.

    PubMed

    Brizzolara, Robert A; Nordham, David J; Walch, Marianne; Lennen, Rebecca M; Simmons, Ron; Burnett, Evan; Mazzola, Michael S

    2003-02-01

    Acoustic pulses generated by an electrical discharge (pulsed acoustics) were investigated as a means for biofouling control in two test formats, viz. a 5/8" outside diameter titanium tube and a mockup heat exchanger. The pulsed acoustic device, when operated at 17 kV, demonstrated 95% inhibition of microfouling over a 20 ft length of titanium tube over a 4-week period, comparable to chlorination in combination with a high-velocity flush. The pulsed acoustic device inhibited microfouling over a downstream distance of 15 ft, therefore, a single pulsed acoustic device is theoretically capable of protecting at least 30 ft of tube from microfouling (15 ft on either side of the device). A correlation between acoustic intensity in the frequency range 0.01-1 MHz and the level of biofouling inhibition was observed. The threshold acoustic intensity for microfouling inhibition was determined for this frequency range. It was also observed that the orientation of the device is critical to obtaining microfouling inhibition.

  14. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal test block (TER) as the Pilot was operated under forced oxidation conditions. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued as investigations into various activated carbons, metal amalgams, and impinger capture solutions were conducted. Following these studies, a brief test of the Pilot High Velocity FGD configuration (PHV) was conducted. This test block will be continued at the end of the month after the Fall outage is completed. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. During this month`s outage, the inlet and outlet damper plates were sealed to isolate the SCR system from flue gas. Also, the internals of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE) and catalyst reactor tower were inspected and cleaned so that the system could be available for future test activities. Monthly inspections of all SCR system equipment placed in this cold-standby mode, as well as the fire safety systems in the SCR building, will continue to be conducted by the ECTC maintenance department and will include manual rotation of the booster fan.

  15. Inorganic N and P dynamics of Antarctic glacial meltwater streams as controlled by hyporheic exchange and benthic autotrophic communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Runkel, R.L.; Tate, C.M.; Duff, J.H.; Moorhead, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of South Victoria Land, Antarctica, contain numerous glacial meltwater streams that drain into lakes on the valley floors. Many of the streams have abundant perennial mats of filamentous cyanobacteria. The algal mats grow during streamflow in the austral summer and are in a dormant freeze-dried state during the rest of the year. NO3 and soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations were lower in streams with abundant algal mats than in streams with sparse algal mats. NO3 and SRP concentrations were higher in the hyporheic zone of a stream with abundant algal mats than in the stream itself. An experimental injection of LiCl, NaNO3, and K3PO4 was conducted in Green Creek, which has abundant algal mats. Substantial hyporheic exchange occurred. The NO3 and PO4 concentrations at 50 m below the injection were 55 ??M and 18 ??M, respectively, during the experiment. NO3 and PO4 concentrations were below the detection limit of 1 to 2 ??M at a site 497 m below the injection during the Cl tracer arrival, indicating a high capacity for nutrient uptake by algal communities. NO2 and NH4 were present at sites 226 and 327 m below the injection, indicating that, in addition to denitrification and algal uptake, dissimilatory NO3 reduction to NO2 and NH4 may be a NO3 sink during transport. Transport modelling with nutrient uptake represented as a 1st-order process yielded reach-scale parameters of 4.3 ?? 10-5 to 3.9 ?? 10-4/s and 1.4 ?? 10-4 to 3.8 ?? 10 -4/s for uptake of NO3 and PO4, respectively. The best match with the observed data was a model in which PO4 uptake occurred only in the main channel and NO3 uptake occurred in the main channel and in the hyporheic zone. Hyporheic NO3 uptake was 7 to 16% of the total uptake for the different stream reaches. These results demonstrate that nutrient flux to the lakes is controlled by hyporheic exchange and nutrient uptake by algal mats in dry valley streams. Streams without algal mats contribute more nutrients to the

  16. Technical Training for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  17. SeaQuaKE: Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    SeaQuaKE: Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange Technical Progress Report No. 3 Prepared for: Office...From - To) September 2014  November 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SeaQuaKE: Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange Technical Progress Report No. 1...ONRBAA13-001 14. ABSTRACT This is the 3rd quarterly Technical Progress Report summarizing progress on the Sea-optimized Quantum Key Exchange (SeaQuaKE

  18. Adsorption of peptides and small proteins with control access polymer permeation to affinity binding sites. Part II: Polymer permeation-ion exchange separation adsorbents with polyethylene glycol and strong anion exchange groups.

    PubMed

    González-Ortega, Omar; Porath, Jerker; Guzmán, Roberto

    2012-03-02

    In chromatographic separations, the most general problem in small biomolecule isolation and purification is that such biomolecules are usually found in extremely low concentrations together with high concentrations of large molecular weight proteins. In the first part of this work, adsorption and size exclusion chromatography (AdSEC) controlled access media, using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a semi-permeable barrier on a polysaccharide Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) matrix was synthesized and used to develop chromatographic adsorbents that preferentially adsorb and separate low molecular weight biomolecules while rejecting large molecular weight proteins. In this second part, we expand the concept of controlled access polymer permeation adsorption (CAPPA) media by grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) on a high capacity polysaccharide ion exchange (IEX) chromatographic resin where PEG acts as a semi-permeable barrier that preferentially allows the permeation of small molecules while rejecting large ones. The IEX resin bearing quaternary ammonium groups binds permeated biomolecules according to their ion exchange affinity while excluding large biomolecules by the PEG barrier and thus cannot compete for the binding sites. This new AdSEC media was used to study the retention of peptides and proteins covering a wide range of molecular weights from 1 to 150 kDa. The effect of protein molecular weight towards retention by ion exchange was performed using pure protein solutions. Recovery of insulin from insulin-spiked human serum and insulin-spiked human urine was evaluated under polymer controlled permeation conditions. The CAPPA media consisted of agarose beads modified with amino-PEG-methoxy and with trimethyl ammonium groups, having chloride capacities between 20 and 40 μeq/mL and were effective in rejecting high molecular weight proteins while allowing the preferential adsorption of small proteins and peptides.

  19. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  20. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-12-31

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  1. Simultaneous achievement of high perpendicular exchange bias and low coercivity by controlling ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interfacial magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratsuchi, Yu; Kuroda, Wataru; Nguyen, Thi Van Anh; Kotani, Yoshinori; Toyoki, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kohji; Nakatani, Ryoichi

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of Pt and Au spacer layers on the perpendicular exchange bias field and coercivity of Pt/Co/(Pt or Au)/Cr2O3/Pt films. When using a Pt-spacer, the perpendicular exchange bias was highly degraded to less than 0.1 erg/cm2, which was about half that of the Au-spacer system. The Au spacer also suppressed the enhancement in coercivity that usually occurs at around room temperature when using Pt. It is suggested that this difference in exchange bias field is due to in-plane interfacial magnetic anisotropy at the Pt/Cr2O3 interface, which cants the interfacial Cr spin from the surface normal and results in degradation in the perpendicular exchange bias.

  2. The control of actin nucleotide exchange by thymosin beta 4 and profilin. A potential regulatory mechanism for actin polymerization in cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J; Furman, M I; Wachsstock, D; Safer, D; Nachmias, V T; Pollard, T D

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence for a new mechanism by which two major actin monomer binding proteins, thymosin beta 4 and profilin, may control the rate and the extent of actin polymerization in cells. Both proteins bind actin monomers transiently with a stoichiometry of 1:1. When bound to actin, thymosin beta 4 strongly inhibits the exchange of the nucleotide bound to actin by blocking its dissociation, while profilin catalytically promotes nucleotide exchange. Because both proteins exchange rapidly between actin molecules, low concentrations of profilin can overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of thymosin beta 4 on the nucleotide exchange. These reactions may allow variations in profilin concentration (which may be regulated by membrane polyphosphoinositide metabolism) to control the ratio of ATP-actin to ADP-actin. Because ATP-actin subunits polymerize more readily than ADP-actin subunits, this ratio may play a key regulatory role in the assembly of cellular actin structures, particularly under circumstances of rapid filament turnover. Images PMID:1330091

  3. Data Collection of and Recommendation for the Technical Document Storage and Retrieval System at Ships Parts Control Center (SPCC).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Technical Data Support Section ( TDSS , Code 5652) of SPCC has the responsibility of receiving and maintaining a large quantity of technical documents...and providing designated users with copies of these documents when requested. TDSS performs an essential and important function within SPCC and for...activities at SPCC and oLher DOD agencies. Although TDSS appears to be doing the best possible job under current circumstances, the overwhelming size of the

  4. SAM Technical Contacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  5. Assessment of the Microbial Control Measures for the Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Condensing Heat Exchanger of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Steele, John W.; Marsh, Robert W.; Callahan, David M.; VonJouanne, Roger G.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997 NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began a test with the objective of monitoring the growth of microorganisms on material simulating the surface of the International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX). The test addressed the concerns of potential uncontrolled microbial growth on the surface of the THC CHX subsystem. For this study, humidity condensate from a closed manned environment was used as a direct challenge to the surfaces of six cascades in a test set-up. The condensate was collected using a Shuttle-type CHX within the MSFC End-Use Equipment Testing Facility. Panels in four of the six cascades tested were coated with the ISS CHX silver impregnated hydrophilic coating. The remainder two cascade panels were coated with the hydrophilic coating without the antimicrobial component, silver. Results of the fourteen-month study are discussed in this paper. The effects on the microbial population when drying vs. not-drying the simulated THC CHX surface are also discussed.

  6. "Technical" Writing vs. Technical "Writing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, J. W.

    Technical writers must have a working knowledge of technology in order to rearrange material others provide, but they do not have the expertise needed to originate materials; that is the job of the technical author. Another job function is that of technical editor--a person who can write, can perform the policy making tasks of an editor, and who…

  7. Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development. Final report, January 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Marsala, J.; Spatz, M.

    1988-02-01

    The work presented in the report includes: (1) the development of a heat-pipe condensing heat exchanger; (2) the development of a nominal 100,000-Btu/hr modulating air/gas valve; (3) the experimental performance studies of water/copper thermosyphons; (4) the field operation of a six-zone warm-air heating system; (5) the adaptation of a conventional venturi-type burner to modulation; and (6) the results of a one-day workshop for manufacturers of HVAC equipment on heat-pipe heat exchangers. Several of the accomplishments of the project included: A unique air/gas valve was adapted to furnaces with heat-pipe and drum-type heat exchangers, providing these furnaces with over a 5-to-1 turndown capability. A six-zone warm-air heating system was tested for two winters with the modulating furnaces previously described. A data base for the application of copper/water thermosyphons was started. A ten-tube heat-pipe heat exchanger was incorporated into a conventional clam-shell furnace as its second-stage condensing heat exchanger with only a small increase in the furnace's dimensions.

  8. Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandin, Charles-Andre; Ratke, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    The Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations which supports research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting), and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Research Summary: Materials Science Laboratory - Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing (CETSOL) and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MICAST) are two complementary investigations which will examine different growth patterns and evolution of microstructures during crystallization of metallic alloys in microgravity. The aim of these experiments is to deepen the quantitative understanding of the physical principles that govern solidification processes in cast alloys by directional solidification.

  9. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  10. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smidts, Carol; Huang, Funqun; Li, Boyuan; Li, Xiang

    2016-03-25

    elicitation for each of the software dependability attributes. The measures extracted are presented in this chapter. Stage 4 (Chapter 5): Assessment of the coverage of the causal maps via measures. Coverage was assessed to determine whether the measures obtained were sufficient to quantify software dependability, and what measures are further required. Stage 5 (Chapter 6): Identification of “missing” measures and measurement approaches for concepts not covered. New measures, for concepts that had not been covered sufficiently as determined in Stage 4, were identified using supplementary expert opinion elicitation as well as literature reviews. Stage 6 (Chapter 7): Building of a detailed quantification model based on the causal maps and measurements obtained. Ability to derive such a quantification model shows that the causal models and measurements derived from the previous stages (Stage 1 to Stage 5) can form the technical basis for developing dependability quantification models. Scope restrictions have led us to prioritize this demonstration effort. The demonstration was focused on a critical system, i.e. the reactor protection system. For this system, a ranking of the software dependability attributes by nuclear stakeholders was developed. As expected for this application, the stakeholder ranking identified safety as the most critical attribute to be quantified. A safety quantification model limited to the requirements phase of development was built. Two case studies were conducted for verification. A preliminary control gate for software safety for the requirements stage was proposed and applied to the first case study. The control gate allows a cost effective selection of the duration of the requirements phase.

  11. Structural Dynamics and Control Interaction of Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S. (Editor); Scofield, Harold N. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop on structural dynamics and control interaction of flexible structures was held to promote technical exchange between the structural dynamics and control disciplines, foster joint technology, and provide a forum for discussing and focusing critical issues in the separate and combined areas. Issues and areas of emphasis were identified in structure-control interaction for the next generation of flexible systems.

  12. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  13. Vestibular hair bundles control pH with (Na+, K+)/H+ exchangers NHE6 and NHE9.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennifer K; Brett, Christopher L; Chyou, Anthony; Kallay, Laura M; Sakaguchi, Masao; Rao, Rajini; Gillespie, Peter G

    2006-09-27

    In hair cells of the inner ear, robust Ca2+/H+ exchange mediated by plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase would rapidly acidify mechanically sensitive hair bundles without efficient removal of H+. We found that, whereas the basolateral membrane of vestibular hair cells from the frog saccule extrudes H+ via an Na+-dependent mechanism, bundles rapidly remove H+ in the absence of Na+ and HCO3(-), even when the soma is acidified. K+ was fully effective and sufficient for H+ removal; in contrast, Rb+ failed to support pH recovery. Na+/H+-exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) was present on hair-cell soma membranes and was likely responsible for Na+-dependent H+ extrusion. NHE6 and NHE9 are organellar isoforms that can appear transiently on plasma membranes and have been proposed to mediate K+/H+ exchange. We identified NHE6 in a subset of hair bundles; NHE9 was present in all bundles. Heterologous expression of these isoforms in yeast strains lacking endogenous exchangers conferred pH-dependent tolerance to high levels of KCl and NaCl. NHE9 preferred cations in the order K+, Na+ > Rb+, consistent with the relative efficacies of these ions in promoting pH recovery in hair bundles. Electroneutral K+/H+ exchange, which we propose is performed by NHE9 in hair bundles, exploits the high-K+ endolymph, responds only to pH imbalance across the bundle membrane, is unaffected by the +80 mV endocochlear potential, and uses mechanisms already present in the ear for K+ recycling. This mechanism allows the hair cell to remove H+ generated by Ca2+ pumping without ATP hydrolysis in the cell.

  14. The Oak Ridge Technical Information Center: A trailblazer in federal documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Vaden, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This document attempts to record the history of US AEC`s Technical Information Center, from its conception (1947) to 1977. This organization centralizes and manages the issues related to control and dissemination of technical information, to fulfill the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. TIC tried to search out and install efficient and economical systems for servicing the various technical information programs. It coordinated a direct organization-to-organization information exchange program, and it also participated in official bilateral exchange programs and in developing information systems for IAEA and Euratom. The work, planning, and strategies employed to achieve goals are chronicled in this document, with 18 chapters arranged into four sections according to different presidential administrations.

  15. The Oak Ridge Technical Information Center: A trailblazer in federal documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Vaden, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This softbound book attempts to record the history of US AEC's Technical Information Center, from its conception (1947) to 1977. This organization centralizes and manages the issues related to control and dissemination of technical information, to fulfill the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. TIC tried to search out and install efficient and economical systems for servicing the various technical information programs. It coordinated a direct organization-to-organization information exchange program, and it also participated in official bilateral exchange programs and in developing information systems for IAEA and Euratom. The work, planning, and strategies employed to achieve goals are chronicled in this book, whose 18 chapters are arranged into four sections according to different presidential administrations.

  16. Magnesium retention on the soil exchange complex controlling Mg isotope variations in soils, soil solutions and vegetation in volcanic soils, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opfergelt, S.; Burton, K. W.; Georg, R. B.; West, A. J.; Guicharnaud, R. A.; Sigfusson, B.; Siebert, C.; Gislason, S. R.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical cycle of magnesium (Mg) is not only crucial for terrestrial ecology, as this element is a key nutrient for plants, but also for quantifying chemical weathering fluxes of Mg and associated atmospheric CO2 consumption, requiring distinction of biotic from abiotic contributions to Mg fluxes exported to the hydrosphere. Here, Mg isotope compositions are reported for parent basalt, bulk soils, clay fractions, exchangeable Mg, seasonal soil solutions, and vegetation for five types of volcanic soils in Iceland in order to improve the understanding of sources and processes controlling Mg supply to vegetation and export to the hydrosphere. Bulk soils (δ26Mg = -0.40 ± 0.11‰) are isotopically similar to the parent basalt (δ26Mg = -0.31‰), whereas clay fractions (δ26Mg = -0.62 ± 0.12‰), exchangeable Mg (δ26Mg = -0.75 ± 0.14‰), and soil solutions (δ26Mg = -0.89 ± 0.16‰) are all isotopically lighter than the basalt. These compositions can be explained by a combination of mixing and isotope fractionation processes on the soil exchange complex. Successive adsorption-desorption of heavy Mg isotopes leads to the preferential loss of heavy Mg from the soil profile, leaving soils with light Mg isotope compositions relative to the parent basalt. Additionally, external contributions from sea spray and organic matter decomposition result in a mixture of Mg sources on the soil exchange complex. Vegetation preferentially takes up heavy Mg from the soil exchange complex (Δ26Mgplant-exch = +0.50 ± 0.09‰), and changes in δ26Mg in vegetation reflect changes in bioavailable Mg sources in soils. This study highlights the major role of Mg retention on the soil exchange complex amongst the factors controlling Mg isotope variations in soils and soil solutions, and demonstrates that Mg isotopes provide a valuable tool for monitoring biotic and abiotic contributions of Mg that is bioavailable for plants and is exported to the hydrosphere.

  17. 47 CFR 27.70 - Information exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Information exchange. 27.70 Section 27.70 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.70 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public...

  18. 47 CFR 27.70 - Information exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Information exchange. 27.70 Section 27.70 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.70 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public...

  19. 47 CFR 27.70 - Information exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Information exchange. 27.70 Section 27.70 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.70 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public...

  20. 47 CFR 27.70 - Information exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information exchange. 27.70 Section 27.70 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.70 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public...

  1. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIGIOLA, NICHOLAS F.

    THE CONSENSUS OF OUR NATION'S LEADERS AFFIRMS THAT THE COUNTRY'S GREATEST TECHNICAL EDUCATION VOID IS IN THE AREA BETWEEN THE 12TH GRADE AND THE BACCALAUREATE DEGREE. THE IMPACT OF ACCELERATED PROGRESS IN TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS MAKES TECHNICAL EDUCATION MANDATORY IF THE MANPOWER SHORTAGE IS NOT TO BECOME A NATIONAL EMERGENCY. BECAUSE NEARLY 80…

  2. Technical Reports and Non-depository Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Suzanne N.

    1994-01-01

    Lists and annotates 42 technical reports prepared by various government agencies and disseminated by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) during 1993. An introductory discussion addresses the trend toward electronic information exchange and proposed changes in the way NTIS distributes materials. (KRN)

  3. Monitoring allostery in D2O: a necessary control in studies using hydrogen/deuterium exchange to characterize allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Prasannan, Charulata B; Artigues, Antonio; Fenton, Aron W

    2011-08-01

    There is currently a renewed focus aimed at understanding allosteric mechanisms at atomic resolution. This current interest seeks to understand how both changes in protein conformations and changes in protein dynamics contribute to relaying an allosteric signal between two ligand binding sites on a protein (e.g., active and allosteric sites). Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), by monitoring protein dynamics directly, and hydrogen/deuterium exchange, by monitoring solvent accessibility of backbone amides, offer insights into protein dynamics. Unfortunately, many allosteric proteins exceed the size limitations of standard NMR techniques. Although hydrogen/deuterium exchange as detected by mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) offers an alternative evaluation method, any application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange requires that the property being measured functions in both H(2)O and D(2)O. Due to the promising future H/DX-MS has in the evaluation of allosteric mechanisms in large proteins, we demonstrate an evaluation of allosteric regulation in D(2)O. Exemplified using phenylalanine inhibition of rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase, we find that binding of the inhibitor is greatly reduced in D(2)O, but the effector continues to elicit an allosteric response.

  4. Calculation of the Helfferich number to identify the rate-controlling step of ion exchange for a batch process

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, K.

    1995-08-01

    The Helfferich number He is used frequently as a valuable criterion to decide whether for an ion exchange process film diffusion or particle diffusion of the ions is the rate-determining step. The corresponding equation given by Helfferich is restricted, however, for the boundary condition of an infinite solution volume. In the present paper, the Helfferich number is calculated also for a finite solution volume, i.e., for a typical batch process. Because the resulting equation can be solved only numerically, the results are presented in graphical form. It is also examined for which batch processes the conventional Helfferich number already yields a conservative and thus a very simple and useful estimate of the rate-determining step. Information on the kinetics of ion exchange reactions is required not only for the economic employment of synthetic ion exchangers in the industry and the laboratory but also for a better understanding of these processes in natural systems, as, e.g., the sorption of nutrient and toxic ions by the soil.

  5. Development of a multicomponent film diffusion controlled mixed bed ion exchange column model applicable to variable influent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, Dennis Frank

    2000-10-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to develop a generalized rate model to handle multicomponent mixed-bed ion exchange (MBIE) with multivalent dissociative species and variable influent conditions. To achieve this goal, mass transfer mechanisms of weak electrolytes in ion exchange column have been studied; and based on which, rate expressions for weak electrolyte transfer have been proposed. In addition, the column material balance has been derived in terms of the constituent species concentrations only. Finally, generalized dissociation equilibrium equations for several types of weak electrolyte constituents were implemented, and the effluent concentrations were determined by solving column material balance equations along with the rate expressions. Findings and conclusions. The mixed bed ion exchange column model has been successfully programmed into a computer program and is capable of predicting the effluent concentration histories, dynamic resin loading, solution, and rate profiles. The column material balance has been satisfied to within 1% for all chemistries studied. The model is capable of simulating variable influent contaminant concentrations and flow rates by sequentially using the loading profiles of previous simulations. The model maintains electroneutrality at all times. Dissociative species transfer is adequate for many systems, but additional work is required to incorporate molecular constituent mass transfer.

  6. Technical assessment of high energy astronomy Observatory-B (HEAO-B) Attitude Control and and Determination Subsystem (ACDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The HEAO-B ACDS Review Team completed its four month assessment of the technical adequacy of the HEAO-B ACDS. As a result of its detailed analysis of the ACDS, the team found no reason why the ACDS will not perform its specified functions adequately. However, 23 concerns that point to potential difficulties were found and delineated; 18 of these are in the form of review item discrepancies.

  7. Applicability of existing C3 (command, control and communications) vulnerability and hardness analyses to sentry system issues. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    1983-01-13

    This report is a compilation of abstracts resulting from a literature search of reports relevant to Sentry Ballistic missile system C3 vulnerability and hardness. Primary sources consulted were the DOD Nuclear Information Analysis Center (DASIAC) and the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Approximately 175 reports were reviewed and abstracted, including several related to computer programs for estimating nuclear effects on electromagnetic propagation. The reports surveyed were ranked in terms of their importance for Sentry C3 VandH issues.

  8. Synthesis and controllable oxidation of monodisperse cobalt-doped wüstite nanoparticles and their core-shell stability and exchange-bias stabilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kamali, Saeed; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2015-09-14

    Cobalt-doped wüstite (CWT), Co0.33Fe0.67O, nanoparticles were prepared via the thermal decomposition of CoFe2-oleate complexes in organic solvents. A controllable oxidation process was then performed to obtain Co0.33Fe0.67O/CoFe2O4 core-shell structures with different core-to-shell volume ratios and exchange bias properties. The oxidized core-shell samples with a ∼4 nm CoFe2O4 shell showed good resistance to oxygen transmission. Thus, it is inferred that the cobalt ferrite shell provides a better oxidation barrier performance than magnetite in the un-doped case. The hysteresis loops of the oxidized 19 nm samples exhibited a high exchange bias field (H(E)), an enhanced coercivity field (H(C)), and a pronounced vertical shift, thus indicating the presence of a strong exchange bias coupling effect. More importantly, the onset temperature of H(E) was found to be higher than 200 K, which suggests that cobalt doping increases the Néel temperature (T(N)) of the CWT core. In general, the results show that the homogeneous dispersion of Co in iron precursors improves the stability of the final CWT nanoparticles. Moreover, the CoFe2O4 shells formed following oxidation increase the oxidation resistance of the CWT cores and enhance their anisotropy energy.

  9. Simultaneous determination of iodide and iodate in povidone iodine solution by ion chromatography with homemade and exchange capacity controllable columns and column-switching technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Zhu, Zuoyi; Subhani, Qamar; Yan, Wenwu; Guo, Weiqiang; Zhu, Yan

    2012-08-17

    A simple ion chromatographic method for simultaneous detection of iodide and iodate in a single running was proposed, with columns packed with homemade functionalized polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resins and column-switching technique. Homemade resins were functionalized with controllable amounts of quaternary ammonium groups. The low-capacity anion-exchange column and high-capacity anion-exchange column were prepared, due to the resins having different exchange capacities. With this method, iodide and iodate in povidone iodine solution were detected simultaneously in a short time with iodide being eluted off first. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.01 mg/L to 100 mg/L were analyzed. Each anion exhibited satisfactory linearity, with correlation coefficient r ≥ 0.9990. The detection limits (LODs) for iodide and iodate obtained by injecting 100 μL of sample were 5.66 and 14.83 μg/L (S/N=3), respectively. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 101.2% and 100.6% for iodide and iodate.

  10. Recent Experiences of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Guidance Navigation and Control (GN and C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independently funded NASA Program whose dedicated team of technical experts provides objective engineering and safety assessments of critical, high risk projects. NESC's strength is rooted in the diverse perspectives and broad knowledge base that add value to its products, affording customers a responsive, alternate path for assessing and preventing technical problems while protecting vital human and national resources. The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is one of fifteen such discipline-focused teams within the NESC organization. The TDT membership is composed of GN&C specialists from across NASA and its partner organizations in other government agencies, industry, national laboratories, and universities. This paper will briefly define the vision, mission, and purpose of the NESC organization. The role of the GN&C TDT will then be described in detail along with an overview of how this team operates and engages in its objective engineering and safety assessments of critical NASA.

  11. Exchange Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  12. Gas exchange

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... during exhalation. Gas exchange is the delivery of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream, and the ... share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory ...

  13. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  14. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW of CHLORDANE ( TECHNICAL ) ( CAS No . 12789 - 03 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 1997 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC TABLE OF CONTENTS Authors and Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature.

  16. Experimental Null Method to Guide the Development of Technical Procedures and to Control False-Positive Discovery in Quantitative Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaomeng; Hu, Qiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jianmin; Qu, Jun

    2015-10-02

    Comprehensive and accurate evaluation of data quality and false-positive biomarker discovery is critical to direct the method development/optimization for quantitative proteomics, which nonetheless remains challenging largely due to the high complexity and unique features of proteomic data. Here we describe an experimental null (EN) method to address this need. Because the method experimentally measures the null distribution (either technical or biological replicates) using the same proteomic samples, the same procedures and the same batch as the case-vs-contol experiment, it correctly reflects the collective effects of technical variability (e.g., variation/bias in sample preparation, LC-MS analysis, and data processing) and project-specific features (e.g., characteristics of the proteome and biological variation) on the performances of quantitative analysis. To show a proof of concept, we employed the EN method to assess the quantitative accuracy and precision and the ability to quantify subtle ratio changes between groups using different experimental and data-processing approaches and in various cellular and tissue proteomes. It was found that choices of quantitative features, sample size, experimental design, data-processing strategies, and quality of chromatographic separation can profoundly affect quantitative precision and accuracy of label-free quantification. The EN method was also demonstrated as a practical tool to determine the optimal experimental parameters and rational ratio cutoff for reliable protein quantification in specific proteomic experiments, for example, to identify the necessary number of technical/biological replicates per group that affords sufficient power for discovery. Furthermore, we assessed the ability of EN method to estimate levels of false-positives in the discovery of altered proteins, using two concocted sample sets mimicking proteomic profiling using technical and biological replicates, respectively, where the true

  17. Metagenomic Investigation of Plasma in Individuals with ME/CFS Highlights the Importance of Technical Controls to Elucidate Contamination and Batch Effects.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ruth R; Uyaguari-Diaz, Miguel; McCabe, Mark N; Montoya, Vincent; Gardy, Jennifer L; Parker, Shoshana; Steiner, Theodore; Hsiao, William; Nesbitt, Matthew J; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M

    2016-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease causing indefinite fatigue. ME/CFS has long been hypothesised to have an infectious cause; however, no specific infectious agent has been identified. We used metagenomics to analyse the RNA from plasma samples from 25 individuals with ME/CFS and compare their microbial content to technical controls as well as three control groups: individuals with alternatively diagnosed chronic Lyme syndrome (N = 13), systemic lupus erythematosus (N = 11), and healthy controls (N = 25). We found that the majority of sequencing reads were removed during host subtraction, thus there was very low microbial RNA content in the plasma. The effects of sample batching and contamination during sample processing proved to outweigh the effects of study group on microbial RNA content, as the few differences in bacterial or viral RNA abundance we did observe between study groups were most likely caused by contamination and batch effects. Our results highlight the importance of including negative controls in all metagenomic analyses, since there was considerable overlap between bacterial content identified in study samples and control samples. For example, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodes were found in both study samples and plasma-free negative controls. Many of the taxonomic groups we saw in our plasma-free negative control samples have previously been associated with diseases, including ME/CFS, demonstrating how incorrect conclusions may arise if controls are not used and batch effects not accounted for.

  18. Metagenomic Investigation of Plasma in Individuals with ME/CFS Highlights the Importance of Technical Controls to Elucidate Contamination and Batch Effects

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ruth R.; Uyaguari-Diaz, Miguel; McCabe, Mark N.; Montoya, Vincent; Gardy, Jennifer L.; Parker, Shoshana; Steiner, Theodore; Hsiao, William; Nesbitt, Matthew J.; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease causing indefinite fatigue. ME/CFS has long been hypothesised to have an infectious cause; however, no specific infectious agent has been identified. We used metagenomics to analyse the RNA from plasma samples from 25 individuals with ME/CFS and compare their microbial content to technical controls as well as three control groups: individuals with alternatively diagnosed chronic Lyme syndrome (N = 13), systemic lupus erythematosus (N = 11), and healthy controls (N = 25). We found that the majority of sequencing reads were removed during host subtraction, thus there was very low microbial RNA content in the plasma. The effects of sample batching and contamination during sample processing proved to outweigh the effects of study group on microbial RNA content, as the few differences in bacterial or viral RNA abundance we did observe between study groups were most likely caused by contamination and batch effects. Our results highlight the importance of including negative controls in all metagenomic analyses, since there was considerable overlap between bacterial content identified in study samples and control samples. For example, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodes were found in both study samples and plasma-free negative controls. Many of the taxonomic groups we saw in our plasma-free negative control samples have previously been associated with diseases, including ME/CFS, demonstrating how incorrect conclusions may arise if controls are not used and batch effects not accounted for. PMID:27806082

  19. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (P<0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (P<0·001) were reduced after 8 weeks, compared with the C-diet group. The difference in change between the two groups at the end of the study was -9 and -11 % in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  20. Reverse ion exchange as a major process controlling the groundwater chemistry in an arid environment: a case study from northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Faisal K; Nazzal, Yousef; Jafri, Muhammad Kamran; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmed, Izrar

    2015-10-01

    Assessment of groundwater quality is of utmost significance in arid regions like Saudi Arabia where the lack of present-day recharge and high evaporation rates coupled with increasing groundwater withdrawal may restrict its usage for domestic or agricultural purposes. In the present study, groundwater samples collected from agricultural farms in Hail (15 samples), Al Jawf (15 samples), and Tabuk (30 samples) regions were analyzed for their major ion concentration. The objective of the study was to determine the groundwater facies, the main hydrochemical process governing the groundwater chemistry, the saturation index with respect to the principal mineral phases, and the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational use. The groundwater samples fall within the Ca-Cl type, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl type, and Na-Cl type. Evaporation and reverse ion exchange appear to be the major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry though reverse ion exchange process is the more dominating factor. The various ionic relationships confirmed the reverse ion exchange process where the Ca and Mg in the aquifer matrix have been replaced by Na at favorable exchange sites. This phenomenon has accounted for the dominance of Ca and Mg ions over Na ion at all the sites. The process of reverse ion exchange was further substantiated by the use of modified Piper diagram (Chadha's classification) and the chloro-alkaline indices. Evaporation as a result of extreme aridity has resulted in the groundwater being oversaturated with aragonite/calcite and dolomite as revealed by the saturation indices. The groundwater samples were classified as safe (less than 10) in terms of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values, good (less than 1.25) in terms of residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values, and safe to moderate (between 0 and 3) in terms of Mg hazard for irrigation purposes. Though the high salinity groundwater in the three regions coupled with low SAR values are good for the soil structure, it can have a

  1. 78 FR 1901 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Make Non-Substantive, Technical Corrections to ISE Rules... Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... technical corrections include updating ISE rule number citations and cross references,...

  2. Analysis of a display and control system man-machine interface concept. Volume 1: Final technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the feasibility of utilizing a simplified man machine interface concept to manage and control a complex space system involving multiple redundant computers that control multiple redundant subsystems. The concept involves the use of a CRT for display and a simple keyboard for control, with a tree-type control logic for accessing and controlling mission, systems, and subsystem elements. The concept was evaluated in terms of the Phase B space shuttle orbiter, to utilize the wide scope of data management and subsystem control inherent in the central data management subsystem provided by the Phase B design philosophy. Results of these investigations are reported in four volumes.

  3. Modification of a method-of-characteristics solute-transport model to incorporate decay and equilibrium-controlled sorption or ion exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, D.J.; Konikow, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water (Konikow and Bredehoeft, 1978) has been modified to incorporate the following types of chemical reactions: (1) first-order irreversible rate-reaction, such as radioactive decay; (2) reversible equilibrium-controlled sorption with linear, Freundlich, or Langmuir isotherms; and (3) reversible equilibrium-controlled ion exchange for monovalent or divalent ions. Numerical procedures are developed to incorporate these processes in the general solution scheme that uses method-of- characteristics with particle tracking for advection and finite-difference methods for dispersion. The first type of reaction is accounted for by an exponential decay term applied directly to the particle concentration. The second and third types of reactions are incorporated through a retardation factor, which is a function of concentration for nonlinear cases. The model is evaluated and verified by comparison with analytical solutions for linear sorption and decay, and by comparison with other numerical solutions for nonlinear sorption and ion exchange.

  4. Production of stable bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange: scalability from bench to large-scale manufacturing by application of standard approaches.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Michael J; van den Bremer, Ewald T J; van Kampen, Muriel D; Kundu, Amitava; Kopfmann, Peter; Etter, Eric; Stinehelfer, David; Long, Justin; Lannom, Tom; Noordergraaf, Esther H; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Labrijn, Aran F; Schuurman, Janine; van Berkel, Patrick H C; Parren, Paul W H I

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bispecific antibodies can be challenging for a variety of reasons. For example, protein expression problems, stability issues, or the use of non-standard approaches for manufacturing can result in poor yield or poor facility fit. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of standard antibody platforms for large-scale manufacturing of bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange. Two parental antibodies that each contain a single matched point mutation in the CH3 region were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and manufactured at 1000 L scale using a platform fed-batch and purification process that was designed for standard antibody production. The bispecific antibody was generated by mixing the two parental molecules under controlled reducing conditions, resulting in efficient Fab-arm exchange of>95% at kg scale. The reductant was removed via diafiltration, resulting in spontaneous reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds. Aside from the bispecific nature of the molecule, extensive characterization demonstrated that the IgG1 structural integrity was maintained, including function and stability. These results demonstrate the suitability of this bispecific IgG1 format for commercial-scale manufacturing using standard antibody manufacturing techniques.

  5. Environmental and canopy control of leaf level gas exchange of two evergreen tree species in a semiarid rangeland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendevis, M. A.; Owens, M.; Heilman, J.; McInnes, K.

    2006-05-01

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus asheii) and plateau live oak (Quercus virginiana var fusiformis) have encroached into the historical grasslands of the Edwards Plateau of central Texas. The increased tree density may impact local water budgets because the area is the recharge zone for the Edwards Aquifer, the drinking water source for large municipalities like Austin and San Antonio. On the other hand, the trees have the capability of sequestering a greater amount of carbon than the historic grasslands. This study is a part of a larger NIGEC project examining the energy fluxes of the Oak-Juniper ecosystem. Four trees of each species were permanently marked and sampled with a leaf-level gas exchange system every 5 to 6 weeks throughout an entire year. Each tree was sampled on the northwest and southeast sides of the canopy, and at each location both sun-lit and shaded leaves were sampled. Averaged (± SE) over the entire year, live oak had significantly greater carbon assimilation rates than Ashe juniper (13.12 ± 0.6 vs. 6.47 ± 0.4 µmol CO2/m2/s, respectively). Oak trees exhibited a greater seasonal flux in carbon assimilation than juniper. Carbon assimilation was least in October 2005 for both species (2.47 and 6.46 µmol CO2/m2/s for juniper and oak, respectively) and greatest in November 2004 for juniper (13.02 µmol CO2/m2/s) and in April 2005 for oak (21.64 µmol CO2/m2/s). Sun-lit leaves also had a consistently greater assimilation rate (P<0.01) Transpirational water loss followed the same pattern with seasonal differences (P<0.0001) and canopy level (P<0.01) as critical factors. Xylem water potentials varied significantly by tree species and the month of observation. Juniper trees were initially less water stressed than the oak trees, but when precipitation was low near the end of the observation period the juniper trees showed a much larger increase in water stress. This was reflected in the higher transpiration and photosynthetic rates observed for oak trees

  6. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  7. Vacuum powered heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, R.F.

    1986-06-24

    In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

  8. Organic nanofibers containing insect pheromone disruptants: a novel technical approach to controlled release dispensers with potential for process mechanization.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Lindner, I; Greiner, A; Wendorff, J H; Hellmann, C; Dersch, R; Kratt, A; Kleeberg, H; Leithold, G

    2011-01-01

    Beginning fifty years ago, the search for suitable dispensers containing insect pheromones grew with the availability of these synthetic biotechnical tools. Many economic entomologists and application engineers dearly wish they had the "smart, intelligent and ideal dispenser". More or less suitable approximations are available commercially, but none so far meets all demands. Under economic strictures, novel inexpensive systems would be advantageous with release characteristics tailored to the specific life histories of pest insects, the plants considered and the numerous requirements of growers alike. Simultaneously, their field distribution should be mechanizable and be accomplished by one (or very few) application runs. The dispensers should be biodegradable, biocompatible, sustainably applicable, and they should be based on renewable resources. This report presents first results of a novel organic, electrospun nanofiber dispenser with dimensions in the upper nanometer range. Its load of pheromone can be adjusted to be sufficient for 7 weeks of constant disruptive action in vineyards and can be directed against the European Grape Vine Moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) which here serves as a readily available model. Mating disruption in L. botrana and the related Eupoecilia ambiguella is a well studied and developed engineering process. Equally, nanofiber production by electrospinning (for a comprehensive review see Greiner and Wendorff, 2007A, B) is well known and already has numerous applications in filtration technology, air conditioning, and medical wound dressing. Our goal was to bring together and successfully mate these (partly incompatible) technologies via technical tricks of a proprietary nature. Even though the lifetime and effectiveness of currently available nanofibers still must be doubled, the rather complicated system of their production and analysis is known well enough to identify the parameters that need future adjustment. Another

  9. Strategic Mobility 21 Technical Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-06

    UNCLASSIFIED Strategic Mobility 21 Technical Plan Contractor Report 0003 Prepared for: Office of Naval Research 875 North Randolph...technical documents or documents containing export-controlled technical data as provided in DoD Directive 5230.25. Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) REPORT ...DOCUMENTATION PAGE Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information

  10. The second extracellular loop of GPCRs determines subtype-selectivity and controls efficacy as evidenced by loop exchange study at A2 adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Benjamin F; Schiedel, Anke C; Thimm, Dominik; Hinz, Sonja; Sherbiny, Farag F; Müller, Christa E

    2013-05-01

    The second extracellular loop (EL2) of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which represent important drug targets, may be involved in ligand recognition and receptor activation. We studied the closely related adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes A2A and A2B by exchanging the complete EL2 of the human A2BAR for the EL2 of the A2AAR. Furthermore, single amino acid residues (Asp148(45.27), Ser149(45.28), Thr151(45.30), Glu164(45.43), Ser165(45.44), and Val169(45.48)) in the EL2 of the A2BAR were exchanged for alanine. The single mutations did not lead to any major effects, except for the T151A mutant, at which NECA showed considerably increased efficacy. The loop exchange entailed significant effects: The A2A-selective agonist CGS21680, while being completely inactive at A2BARs, showed high affinity for the mutant A2B(EL2-A2A)AR, and was able to fully activate the receptor. Most strikingly, all agonists investigated (adenosine, NECA, BAY60-6583, CGS21680) showed strongly increased efficacies at the mutant A2B(EL2-A2A) as compared to the wt AR. Thus, the EL2 of the A2BAR appears to have multiple functions: besides its involvement in ligand binding and subtype selectivity it modulates agonist-bound receptor conformations thereby controlling signalling efficacy. This role of the EL2 is likely to extend to other members of the GPCR family, and the EL2 of GPCRs appears to be an attractive target structure for drugs.

  11. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  12. Multiple year effects of a biological control agent (Diorhabda carinulata) on Tamarix (saltcedar) ecosystem exchanges of carbon dioxide and water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of Tamarix spp. (saltcedar) with Diorhabda carinulata (the northern tamarisk beetle) is currently underway in several western states U.S.A. through historical releases and the natural migration of this insect. Given the widespread dispersal of this biological control agent and its...

  13. Flight Simulation Model Exchange. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center Review Board sponsored an assessment of the draft Standard, Flight Dynamics Model Exchange Standard, BSR/ANSI-S-119-201x (S-119) that was conducted by simulation and guidance, navigation, and control engineers from several NASA Centers. The assessment team reviewed the conventions and formats spelled out in the draft Standard and the actual implementation of two example aerodynamic models (a subsonic F-16 and the HL-20 lifting body) encoded in the Extensible Markup Language grammar. During the implementation, the team kept records of lessons learned and provided feedback to the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee representative. This document contains the appendices to the main report.

  14. Flight Simulation Model Exchange. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center Review Board sponsored an assessment of the draft Standard, Flight Dynamics Model Exchange Standard, BSR/ANSI-S-119-201x (S-119) that was conducted by simulation and guidance, navigation, and control engineers from several NASA Centers. The assessment team reviewed the conventions and formats spelled out in the draft Standard and the actual implementation of two example aerodynamic models (a subsonic F-16 and the HL-20 lifting body) encoded in the Extensible Markup Language grammar. During the implementation, the team kept records of lessons learned and provided feedback to the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Modeling and Simulation Technical Committee representative. This document contains the results of the assessment.

  15. Ion exchange membrane bioreactor for selective removal of nitrate from drinking water: control of ion fluxes and process performance.

    PubMed

    Velizarov, Svetlozar; Crespo, João G; Reis, Maria A

    2002-01-01

    An ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB), consisting of a monoanion permselective membrane dialyzer coupled to a stirred anoxic vessel with an enriched mixed denitrifying culture, has been studied for nitrate removal from drinking water. The influence of nitrate and chloride concentrations on the selectivity of nitrate transport in the IEMB process was investigated. With appropriate dosing of chloride ions to the IEMB biocompartment, it was possible to regulate the net bicarbonate flux in the system, thus maintaining the bicarbonate concentration in the treated water at the desired level. The latter was not possible to achieve in Donnan dialysis, operated as a single process in which, besides the lower nitrate removal efficiency found, bicarbonate was co-extracted together with nitrate from the polluted water stream. Residual carbon source (ethanol) and nitrite were not detected in the treated water produced in the IEMB system. With a concentration of nitrate in the polluted water three times higher than the maximum contaminant level of 50 mg L(-1) allowed, the IEMB process was successfully operated for a period of 1 month before exceeding this limit.

  16. Guidelines for Controlling Indoor Air Quality Problems Associated with Kilns, Copiers, and Welding in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Guidelines for controlling indoor air quality problems associated with kilns, copiers, and welding in schools are provided in this document. Individual sections on kilns, duplicating equipment, and welding operations contain information on the following: sources of contaminants; health effects; methods of control; ventilation strategies; and…

  17. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  18. What Controls the Net Forest-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbonyl Sulfide? Results from 2 Years of Eddy Flux Measurements and SiB Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, R. A.; Commane, R.; Baker, I. T.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is currently a focus of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based measurements as well as of model development, owing mainly to its potential use as a large-scale proxy for gross primary production (GPP). OCS is taken up by leaves and either taken up or emitted by soils, depending on the circumstances. Because OCS is destroyed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase within the leaf rather than by any light-dependent reaction, the leaf uptake is expected to be related to the conductance of the diffusive pathway into the leaf (stomata + mesophyll + leaf boundary air layer) rather than to GPP directly, though GPP and the diffusive conductance are often strongly correlated. Here we use 2 years of eddy covariance measurements of the net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of OCS, along with measurements of the vertical profile of OCS within the forest, to investigate the controls on ecosystem-scale OCS uptake and emission. We compare the OCS measurements, and simultaneous CO2 isotope flux and profile measurements, to predictions from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, which has been used to simulate OCS and 13CO2 fluxes for both vegetation and soils but has not yet been systematically tested against these relatively novel tracers. We thereby address the key question: How can measurements of the net ecosystem-atmosphere OCS exchange contribute to empirical quantification of stomatal conductance and GPP and to improving process-based ecosystem models?

  19. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE6 modulates endosomal pH to control processing of amyloid precursor protein in a cell culture model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Hari; Rao, Rajini

    2015-02-27

    Early intervention may be key to safe and effective therapies in patients with Alzheimer disease. Endosomal dysfunction is an early step in neurodegeneration. Endosomes are a major site of production of Aβ peptide from the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by clipping enzymes (β- and γ-secretases). The β-secretase enzyme BACE1 requires acidic lumen pH for optimum function, and acid pH promotes Aβ aggregation. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE6 provides a leak pathway for protons, limiting luminal acidification by proton pumps. Like APP, NHE6 expression was induced upon differentiation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and localized to an endosomal compartment. Therefore, we investigated whether NHE6 expression altered APP localization and processing in a stably transfected cell culture model of human APP expression. We show that co-expression with NHE6 or treatment with the Na(+)/H(+) ionophore monensin shifted APP away from the trans-Golgi network into early and recycling endosomes in HEK293 cells. NHE6 alkalinized the endosomal lumen, similar to monensin, and significantly attenuated APP processing and Aβ secretion. In contrast, Aβ production was elevated upon NHE6 knockdown. We show that NHE6 transcript and protein levels are lowered in Alzheimer brains relative to control. These findings, taken together with emerging genetic evidence linking endosomal Na(+)/H(+) exchangers with Alzheimer disease, suggest that proton leak pathways may regulate Aβ generation and contribute to disease etiology.

  20. Preparation of hydrophilic interaction/ion-exchange mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase with adjustable selectivity by controlling different ratios of the co-monomers.

    PubMed

    Bo, Chunmiao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2017-03-03

    Development of mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) stationary phase with adjustable selectivity is beneficial to meet the needs of complex samples. In this work, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) using the mixture of two functional monomers was proposed as a new preparation strategy for MMC stationary phase with adjustable selectivity. The mixture of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NASS) and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) underwent SI-ATRP to bond poly(NASS-co-DMAEMA) on the surface of silica to prepare hydrophilic interaction/ion-exchange mixed-mode stationary phase. Various analytes (neutral, acidic, basic analytes and strong polar nucleosides) were employed to investigate the retention behaviors. The influences of water content and pH of the mobile phase on the retention validated the mixed-mode retention mechanisms of HILIC and ion-exchange. The charge and polarity of stationary phase as well as the separation selectivity were conveniently manipulated by the ratio of NASS to DMAEMA monomer, and the use of DMAEMA in the mixture additionally endowed the column with the temperature-responsive characteristics. Moreover, the application of the developed column was demonstrated by the successful separation of nucleosides, β-agonists and safflower injection. In a word, the proposed strategy can be potentially applied in the controllable preparation of MMC stationary phase with adjustable selectivity.

  1. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Eugenio

    2014-05-02

    The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  3. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  4. Water management controls net carbon exchange in drained and flooded agricultural peatlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatala, J.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Draining peatlands for agricultural cultivation creates an ecosystem shift with some of the fastest rates and largest magnitudes of carbon loss attributable to land-use change, yet peatland drainage is practiced around the world due to the high economic benefit of fertile soil. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained at the end of the 19th century for agriculture and human settlement, and as a result, has lost 5-8m of peat soil due to oxidation. To reverse subsidence and capture carbon, there is increasing interest in converting drained agricultural land-uses back to flooded conditions to inhibit further peat oxidation. However, this method remains relatively untested at the landscape-scale. This study analyzed the short-term effects of drained to flooded land-use conversion on the balance of carbon, water, and energy over two years at two landscapes in the Delta. We used the eddy covariance method to compare CO2, CH4, H2O, and energy fluxes under the same meteorological conditions in two different land-use types: a drained pasture grazed by cattle, and a flooded newly-converted rice paddy. By analyzing differences in the fluxes from these two land-use types we determined that water management and differences in the plant canopy both play a fundamental role in governing the seasonal pattern and the annual budgets of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at these two sites. While the pasture was a source of carbon to the atmosphere in both years, the rice paddy captured carbon through NEE, even after considering losses from CH4. Especially during the fallow winter months, flooding the soil at the rice paddy inhibited loss of CO2 through ecosystem respiration when compared with the carbon exchange from the drained pasture.

  5. An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, air addition rate, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in video-based sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the third quarter of this project, work continued on the testing and calibration of the video-based ash analyzer, and a plant sampling campaign was conducted to provide data for the development of a mathematical process model and the model-based control algorithms.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  7. Technical evaluation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S A; Vogel, G J; Gehl, S M; Hanway, Jr, J E; Henry, R F; Parker, K M; Smyk, E B; Swift, W M; Podolski, W F

    1982-04-01

    The technology of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, particularly in its application to a coal-burning combined-cycle plant, is evaluated by examining the technical status of advanced-concept plant components - boiler system (combustor, air-handling and air-injection equipment, and heat exchangers); solids handling, injection, and ejection system; hot-gas cleanup equipment; instrumentation/control system; and the gas turbine - along with materials of plant construction. Environmental performance as well as energy efficiency are examined, and economic considerations are reviewed briefly. The evaluation concludes with a broad survey of the principal related research and development programs in the United States and other countries, a foreview of the most likely technological developments, and a summary of unresolved technical issues and problems.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}7 for the period: April 1 to June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost- effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays.

  10. Modeling of a data exchange process in the Automatic Process Control System on the base of the universal SCADA-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topolskiy, D.; Topolskiy, N.; Solomin, E.; Topolskaya, I.

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the authors discuss some ways of solving energy saving problems in mechanical engineering. In authors' opinion one of the ways of solving this problem is integrated modernization of power engineering objects of mechanical engineering companies, which should be intended for the energy supply control efficiency increase and electric energy commercial accounting improvement. The author have proposed the usage of digital current and voltage transformers for these purposes. To check the compliance of this equipment with the IEC 61850 International Standard, we have built a mathematic model of the data exchange process between measuring transformers and a universal SCADA-system. The results of modeling show that the discussed equipment corresponds to the mentioned Standard requirements and the usage of the universal SCADA-system for these purposes is preferable and economically reasonable. In modeling the authors have used the following software: MasterScada, Master OPC_DI_61850, OPNET.

  11. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133-xenon clearance from exercising muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Clark, S.R.; Goldberg, L.; Nelson, D.; Bonafede, R.P.; Porter, J.; Specht, D.

    1989-04-01

    Aerobic fitness was evaluated in 25 women with fibrositis, by having them exercise to volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Compared with published standards, greater than 80% of the fibrositis patients were not physically fit, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake. Compared with matched sedentary controls, fibrositis patients accurately perceived their level of exertion in relation to oxygen consumption and attained a similar level of lactic acidosis, as assessed by their respiratory quotient and ventilatory threshold. Exercising muscle blood flow was estimated by 133-xenon clearance in a subgroup of 16 fibrositis patients and compared with that in 16 matched sedentary controls; the fibrositis patients exhibited reduced 133-xenon clearance. These results indicate a need to include aerobic fitness as a matched variable in future controlled studies of fibrositis and suggest that the detraining phenomenon may be of relevance to the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  12. An Advanced Control System for Fine Coal Flotation. Sixth quarter, technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-10-27

    Over the past thirty years, process control has spread from the chemical industry into the fields of mineral and coal processing. Today, process control computers, combined with improved instrumentation, are capable of effective control in many modem flotation circuits. Unfortunately, the classical methods used in most control strategies have severe limitations when used in froth flotation. For example, the nonlinear nature of the flotation process can cause single-input, single-output lines to battle each other in attempts to achieve a given objective. Other problems experienced in classical control schemes include noisy signals from sensors and the inability to measure certain process variables. For example, factors related to ore type or water chemistry, such as liberation, froth stability, and floatability, cannot be measured by conventional means. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate an advanced control system for fine coal flotation. The demonstration is being carried out at an existing coal preparation plant by a team consisting of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI&SU) as the prime contractor and J.A. Herbst and Associates as a subcontractor. The objectives of this work are: (1) to identify through sampling, analysis, and simulation those variables which can be manipulated to maintain grades, recoveries, and throughput rates at levels set by management; (2) to develop and implement a model-based computer control strategy that continuously adjusts those variables to maximize revenue subject to various metallurgical, economic, and environmental constraints; and (3) to employ a video-based optical analyzer for on-line analysis of ash content in fine coal slurries.

  13. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}8, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in Babcock and Wilcox`s state-of-the-art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; and establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  14. Regulated Localization Is Sufficient for Hormonal Control of Regulator of G Protein Signaling Homology Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (RH-RhoGEFs)*

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Angela M.; Gutowski, Stephen; Sternweis, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The regulator of G protein signaling homology (RH) Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) (p115RhoGEF, leukemia-associated RhoGEF, and PDZ-RhoGEF) contain an RH domain and are specific GEFs for the monomeric GTPase RhoA. The RH domains interact specifically with the α subunits of G12 heterotrimeric GTPases. Activated Gα13 modestly stimulates the exchange activity of both p115RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF but not PDZ-RhoGEF. Because all three RH-RhoGEFs can localize to the plasma membrane upon expression of activated Gα13, cellular localization of these RhoGEFs has been proposed as a mechanism for controlling their activity. We use a small molecule-regulated heterodimerization system to rapidly control the localization of RH-RhoGEFs. Acute localization of the proteins to the plasma membrane activates RhoA within minutes and to levels that are comparable with activation of RhoA by hormonal stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors. The catalytic activity of membrane-localized RhoGEFs is not dependent on activated Gα13. We further show that the conserved RH domains can rewire two different RacGEFs to activate Rac1 in response to a traditional activator of RhoA. Thus, RH domains act as independent detectors for activated Gα13 and are sufficient to modulate the activity of RhoGEFs by hormones via mediating their localization to substrate, membrane-associated RhoA. PMID:24855647

  15. Comprehensive study of Al-induced layer-exchange growth for orientation-controlled Si crystals on SiO{sub 2} substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

    2014-11-07

    Orientation-controlled crystalline Si films on insulating substrates are strongly required to achieve high-performance thin-film devices for next-generation electronics. We have comprehensively investigated the layer-exchange kinetics of Al-induced crystallization (AIC) in stacked structures, i.e., amorphous-Si/Al-oxide/Al/SiO{sub 2}-substrates, as a function of the air-exposure time of Al surfaces (t{sub air}: 0–24 h) to form Al-oxide interface-layers, the thickness of Al and Si layers (d{sub Al,} d{sub Si}: 50–200 nm), the annealing temperature (450–500 °C), and the annealing time (0–50 h). It has been clarified that longer t{sub air} (>60 min) and/or thinner d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (<50 nm) lead to the (111) oriented growth; in contrast, shorter t{sub air} (<60 min) and/or thicker d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (>100 nm) lead to the (100) oriented growth. No correlation between the annealing temperature and the crystal orientation is observed. Detailed analysis reveals that the layer-exchange kinetics are dominated by “supply-limited” processing, i.e., diffusion of Si atoms into Al layers through Al-oxide layer. Based on the growth rate dependent Si concentration profiles in Al layers, and the free-energy of Si at Al-oxide/Al or Al/SiO{sub 2} interfaces, a comprehensive model for layer-exchange growth is proposed. This well explains the experimental results of not only Si-AIC but also another material system such as gold-induced crystallization of Ge. In this way, a growth technique achieving the orientation-controlled Si crystals on insulating substrates is established from both technological and scientific points of view.

  16. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-16

    This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

  17. The influence of biological and technical factors on quantitative analysis of amyloid PET: Points to consider and recommendations for controlling variability in longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mark E; Chiao, Ping; Klein, Gregory; Matthews, Dawn; Thurfjell, Lennart; Cole, Patricia E; Margolin, Richard; Landau, Susan; Foster, Norman L; Mason, N Scott; De Santi, Susan; Suhy, Joyce; Koeppe, Robert A; Jagust, William

    2015-09-01

    In vivo imaging of amyloid burden with positron emission tomography (PET) provides a means for studying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and related diseases. Measurement of subtle changes in amyloid burden requires quantitative analysis of image data. Reliable quantitative analysis of amyloid PET scans acquired at multiple sites and over time requires rigorous standardization of acquisition protocols, subject management, tracer administration, image quality control, and image processing and analysis methods. We review critical points in the acquisition and analysis of amyloid PET, identify ways in which technical factors can contribute to measurement variability, and suggest methods for mitigating these sources of noise. Improved quantitative accuracy could reduce the sample size necessary to detect intervention effects when amyloid PET is used as a treatment end point and allow more reliable interpretation of change in amyloid burden and its relationship to clinical course.

  18. Measurement and control of electrostatic charges on solids in a gaseous suspension. Technical progress report No. 1, July 15-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, S.; Nguyen, T.

    1984-10-01

    This technical report summarizes the work performed during the period of July 15 (project starting date) to September 30, 1984. An improved continuous two-phase test loop with a cyclone-venturi configuration has been designed, fabricated, and installed at the Mechanical Engineering Department, CUA. It is made of a uniform material (copper), and is specifically designed for studying the electrostatic charging and control of powders. Steady flows of solid-gas suspensions with conveying velocity up to 28 m/s can be achieved at the horizontal test section. The design feature and performance of this loop are presented. A preliminary design of the upgraded Faraday cage for measuring the individual particle charge has also been made. Efforts in developing the associated signal processing circuits and testing the Faraday cage system will continue. 8 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  19. Modelling and assessment of advanced processes for integrated environmental control of coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, J.G.; Bloyd, C.N.; McMichael, F.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1984-07-01

    The key objective of this research is the development of a computer based model for the assessment of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for conventional and advanced coal fired power plant designs. Efforts during the period April 1-June 30, 1984 focused on, (1) testing of a preliminary integrated model linking pre-combustion and post-combustion control options for conventional plants; (2) documentation of the analytical models of existing control technology options; (3) development and preliminary testing of a second model design for the propagation and analysis of uncertainty; and (4) development of new analytical models needed for IEC assessments. Activities and accomplishments in each of these areas are described. 4 references, 13 figures, 4 tables.

  20. An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-03-04

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on- line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-base control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the fifth quarter of this project, all work was on hold pending the final novation of the contract to Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

  1. Development and Exchange of Instructional Resources in Water Quality Control Programs, IV: Selecting Instructional Media and Instructional Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, W. Harry; And Others

    This document is one of a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. A system is presented to assist in standardizing the production of lesson plans and instructional materials in the water quality control field. A procedure for selecting appropriate instructional media…

  2. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Rittman, P.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  3. Technical Evaluation Report on the Guidance and Control Panel Symposium (52nd) on Software for Guidance and Control Held in Thessaloniki, Greece on 7 - 10 May 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Admistration Boeing Military Airplanes Seattle, Washington U.S.A. ’..0 INTRODUCTION The 52nd Guidance and Control Panel (GCP) Symposium was held in...how the predictive functional control technique has been used to design control laws , and a paper on the U.S. Naval Weapons Center Analyst Workbench...all the detail of the algorithms of the system control laws . Item "c" is then enriched in detail as the design progresses. At the end of this process

  4. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT OF MARSSIM FIELD CALIBRATION FOR QUANTIFICATION OF CS-137 VOLUMETRICALLY CONTAMINATED SOILS IN THE BC CONTROLLED AREA USING 2 BY 2 SODIUM IODIDE DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    PAPPIN JL

    2007-10-26

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Technical Basis and Documentation for Field Calibrations of radiation measurement equipment for use in the MARSSIM Seeping Surveys of the BC Controlled Area (BCCA). The Be Controlled Area is bounded on tt1e north by (but does not include) the BCCribs & Trenches and is bounded on the south by Army Loop Road. Parts of the BC Controlled Area are posted as a Contamination Area and the remainder is posted as a Soil Contamination Area. The area is approximately 13 square miles and divided into three zones (Zone A , Zone B. and Zone C). A map from reference 1 which shows the 3 zones is attached. The MARSSIM Scoping Surveys are intended 10 better identify the boundaries of the three zones based on the volumetric (pCi/g) contamination levels in the soil. The MARSSIM Field Calibration. reference 2. of radiation survey instrumentation will determine the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) and an algorithm for converting counts to pCi/g. The instrumentation and corresponding results are not intended for occupational radiation protection decisions or for the release of property per DOE Order 5400.5.

  5. Final Technical Report Quantification and Standardization of Pattern Properties for the Control of the Lost Foam Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Michaels

    2005-09-30

    This project takes a fresh look at the ''white side'' of the lost foam casting process. We have developed the gel front hypothesis for foam pyrolysis behavior and the magnetic metal pump method for controlling lost foam casting metal fill event. The subject of this report is work done in the improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process. The original objective of this project was to improve the control of metal fill by understanding the influence of foam pattern and coating properties on the metal fill event. Relevant pattern properties could then be controlled, providing control of the metal fill event. One of the original premises of this project was that the process of metal fill was relatively well understood. Considerable previous work had been done to develop fluid mechanical and heat transfer models of the process. If we could just incorporate measured pattern properties into these models we would be able predict accurately the metal fill event. As we began to study the pyrolysis behavior of EPS during the metal fill event, we discovered that the chemical nature of this event had been completely overlooked in previous research. Styrene is the most prevalent breakdown product of EPS pyrolysis and it is a solvent for polystyrene. Much of the styrene generated by foam pyrolysis diffuses into intact foam, producing a molten gel of mechanically entangled polystyrene molecules. Much of the work of our project has centered on validation of this concept and producing a qualitative model of the behavior of EPS foam undergoing pyrolysis in a confined environment. A conclusion of this report is that styrene dissolution in EPS is a key phenomenon in the pyrolysis process and deserves considerable further study. While it is possible to continue to model the metal fill event parametrically using empirical data, we recommend that work be undertaken by qualified researchers to directly characterize and quantify this phenomenon for the benefit of modelers, researchers, and

  6. Economic and institutional aspects of risk and liability in the control of ground-water pollution. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, T.D.; Segerson, K.

    1987-01-01

    Two alternative means of controlling negative externalities (pollution), namely the use of ex ante regulation and the use of ex post liability, are compared. Alternative forms of liability, in particular strict liability and negligence, are discussed. The different approaches are first compared using theoretical models of externalities to determine when one might be theoretically preferred to another. The results of the theoretical analysis suggest that, because no single alternative is a perfect control mechanism, the joint use of regulation, and some form of liability is perhaps best. The results are used as background information in an analysis of two case studies of groundwater pollution. The first is contamination from the Kohler Company landfill in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. The second is contamination from a municipally owned landfill in Onalaska, Wisconsin.

  7. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-09-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  8. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  9. Enhanced control of mercury and other HAPs by innovative modifications to wet FGD processes. First quarter 1996 technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, T.R.; Hargrove, O.W.

    1996-06-03

    The overall objective of this project is to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal- fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This project focuses on three research areas: (1) catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury, (2) enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets, and (3) enhanced mercury removal by additional of additives to FGD process liquor.

  10. Exchange of natural enemies for biological control: is it a rocky road?-the road in the Euro-Mediterranean region and the South American common market.

    PubMed

    Coutinot, D; Briano, J; Parra, J R P; de Sá, L A N; Cônsoli, F L

    2013-02-01

    The access and benefit sharing (ABS) regulations from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for the use of natural resources became an important issue because the biodiversity of developing countries was heavily accessed and unilaterally exploited by pharmaceutical and seed companies. However, natural enemies used for biological control are living and unmodified genetic resources which cannot be patented and have been treated as resources such as drugs, seeds, or other commercial products. Consequently, the ABS requirements have limited not only the use of natural enemies but also the positive effects that scientifically supported biological control strategies have on the society, the environment, and the economy, reducing problems of pesticide residues, water and soil contamination, and non-target effects. During the last several years, the biological control scientific community has faced new and extremely complicated legislation dictated by a high and diverse number of governmental agencies at different levels, making the access to natural resources for biocontrol purposes a rocky road. Society at large should be aware of how the strict ABS regulations affect the use of natural enemies as biological resources to secure food production, food safety, and global environmental protection. We discuss in here the current difficulties derived from CBD for the exchange of natural enemies taking as example the Euro-Mediterranean region, Argentina, and Brazil to demonstrate how long and diverse are the steps to be followed to obtain the required permits for access and exportation/importation of natural enemies. We then argue that the public visibility of biocontrol strategies should be increased and their benefits highlighted in order to persuade legislators for the development of a less bureaucratic, more expedient, and more centralized regulatory frame, greatly favoring the practice and benefits of biological control. We finally propose a general framework in

  11. Soviet measurements of strategic balance and arms control. Sanitized. Technical report, 1 April 1984-30 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, J.K.; Battilega, J.; Bennett, S.; Summers, M.

    1986-04-21

    This sanitized report concludes that, although the requirements and concerns of the Soviet military are not the only factors that influence the positions that the Soviet arms control negotiators offer, it is unlikely that the Soviet Union will agree to arms control provisions that measurably reduce the ability of the military forces of the Soviet Union to fulfill the requirements for military capability that are formally levied through military doctrine. Topics include: Elements of the Soviet view of the strategic balance -- The Soviet framework for assessing military adequacy, Strategic missions of the Soviet armed forces, Measurements of the correlation of forces, and Assessment of mission adequacy; Some implications of the Soviet assessment methods for arms control -- Limiting the rate of change of the threat, Prevent introduction of new kinds of systems, Maintain freedom to determine mix of delivery systems, Strive to define the framework for the negotiations consistent with the Soviet planning framework, Try to get and increase in the warning of enemy actions, and Minimize the intrusiveness of verification methods; Some major changes in the threat that impact Soviet assessments -- The principal changes since 1982, Pershing II and GLCM deployments, Long-range ALCM, ICBM modernization, and The Militarization of Space.

  12. An advanced control system for fine coal flotation. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1997-03-04

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as reagent dosage, pulp density and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the fourth quarter of this project, a final attempt was made to calibrate a video-based ash analyzer for use in this application. It was concluded that the low ash content and the coarse particle size of the flotation tailings slurry at the Maple Meadow plant site made the video-based system unsuitable for this application. Plans are now underway to lease a nuclear-based analyzer as the primary sensor for this project.

  13. A technical, economic, and environmental assessment of amine-based CO2 capture technology for power plant greenhouse gas control.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anand B; Rubin, Edward S

    2002-10-15

    Capture and sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO2 absorption system for postcombustion flue gas applications have been developed and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multipollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO2 capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO2 storage. The CO2 avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO2 capture cost was afforded by the SO2 emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multipollutant environmental management.

  14. A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

    2002-10-01

    Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

  15. On-chip controlled surfactant-DNA coil-globule transition by rapid solvent exchange using hydrodynamic flow focusing.

    PubMed

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Mărculescu, Cătălin; Venkataraman, Shrinivas; Languille, Baptiste; Yu, Hanry; Tresset, Guillaume

    2014-11-11

    This paper presents a microfluidic method for precise control of the size and polydispersity of surfactant-DNA nanoparticles. A mixture of surfactant and DNA dispersed in 35% ethanol is focused between two streams of pure water in a microfluidic channel. As a result, a rapid change of solvent quality takes place in the central stream, and the surfactant-bound DNA molecules undergo a fast coil-globule transition. By adjusting the concentrations of DNA and surfactant, fine-tuning of the nanoparticle size, down to a hydrodynamic diameter of 70 nm with a polydispersity index below 0.2, can be achieved with a good reproducibility.

  16. Weathering reactions and hyporheic exchange controls on stream water chemistry in a glacial meltwater stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gooseff, M.N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Lyons, W.B.; Blum, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, dilute glacial meltwater flows down well-established streambeds to closed basin lakes during the austral summer. During the 6-12 week flow season, a hyporheic zone develops in the saturated sediment adjacent to the streams. Longer Dry Valley streams have higher concentrations of major ions than shorter streams. The longitudinal increases in Si and K suggest that primary weathering contributes to the downstream solute increase. The hypothesis that weathering reactions in the hyporheic zone control stream chemistry was tested by modeling the downstream increase in solute concentration in von Guerard Stream in Taylor Valley. The average rates of solute supplied from these sources over the 5.2 km length of the stream were 6.1 ?? 10-9 mol Si L-1 m-1 and 3.7 ?? 10-9 mol K L-1 m-1, yielding annual dissolved Si loads of 0.02-1.30 tool Si m-2 of watershed land surface. Silicate minerals in streambed sediment were analyzed to determine the representative surface area of minerals in the hyporheic zone subject to primary weathering. Two strategies were evaluated to compute sediment surface area normalized weathering rates. The first applies a best linear fit to synoptic data in order to calculate a constant downstream solute concentration gradient, dC/dx (constant weathering rate contribution, CRC method); the second uses a transient storage model to simulate dC/dx, representing both hyporheic exchange and chemical weathering (hydrologic exchange, HE method). Geometric surface area normalized dissolution rates of the silicate minerals in the stream ranged from 0.6 ?? 10-12 mol Si m-2 s-1 to 4.5 ?? 10-12 mol Si m-2 s-1 and 0.4 ?? 10-12 mol K m-2 s-1 to 1.9 ?? 10-12 mol K m-2 s-1. These values are an order of magnitude lower than geometric surface area normalized weathering rates determined in laboratory studies and are an order of magnitude greater than geometric surface area normalized weathering rates determined in a warmer, wetter

  17. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  18. Intriguing photo-control of exchange bias in BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kil Dong; Lee, Tae Kwon; Jung, Jong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To date, electric fields have been widely used to control the magnetic properties of BiFeO3-based antiferromagnet/ferromagnet heterostructures through application of an exchange bias. To extend the applicability of exchange bias, however, an alternative mechanism to electric fields is required. Here, we report the photo-control of exchange bias in BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 thin films on an SrTiO3 substrate. Through an ex situ pulsed laser deposition technique, we successfully synthesized epitaxial BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates. By measuring magnetoresistance under light illumination, we investigated the effect of light illumination on resistance, exchange bias, and coercive field in BiFeO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 thin films. After illumination of red and blue lights, the exchange bias was sharply reduced compared to that measured in the dark. With increasing light intensity, the exchange bias under red and blue lights initially decreased to zero and then appeared again. It is possible to reasonably explain these behaviors by considering photo-injection from SrTiO3 and the photo-conductivity of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3. This study may provide a fundamental understanding of the mechanism underlying photo-controlled exchange bias, which is significant for the development of new functional spintronic devices.

  19. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}6 for the period: January 1 to March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, George A.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self- consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  20. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}5 for the period October 1 to December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, George A.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five year project aimed at the development of practical, cost- effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  1. Charge heterogeneity profiling of monoclonal antibodies using low ionic strength ion-exchange chromatography and well-controlled pH gradients on monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Mohammad; Nordborg, Anna; Gaspar, Andras; Lacher, Nathan A; Wang, Qian; He, Xiaoping Z; Haddad, Paul R; Hilder, Emily F

    2013-11-22

    In this work, the suitability of employing shallow pH gradients generated using single component buffer systems as eluents through cation-exchange (CEX) monolithic columns is demonstrated for the high-resolution separation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variants in three different biopharmaceuticals. A useful selection of small molecule buffer species is described that can be used within very narrow pH ranges (typically 1 pH unit) defined by their buffer capacity for producing controlled and smooth pH profiles when used together with porous polymer monoliths. Using very low ionic strength eluents also enabled direct coupling with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The results obtained by the developed pH gradient approach for the separation of closely related antibody species appear to be consistent with those obtained by imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (iCE) in terms of both resolution and separation profile. Both determinants of resolution, i.e., peak compression and peak separation contribute to the gains in resolution, evidently through the Donnan potential effect, which is increased by decreasing the eluent concentration, and also through the way electrostatic charges are distributed on the protein surface. Retention mechanisms based on the trends observed in retention of proteins at pH values higher than the electrophoretic pI are also discussed using applicable theories. Employing monolithic ion-exchangers is shown to enable fast method development, short analysis time, and high sample throughput owing to the accelerated mass transport of the monolithic media. The possibility of short analysis time, typically less than 15 min, and high sample throughput is extremely useful in the assessment of charge-based changes to the mAb products, such as during manufacturing or storage.

  2. 25 CFR 41.10 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.10 Technical assistance... Community College's request in writing. In any case, where the type and source of technical assistance is... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Technical assistance. 41.10 Section 41.10 Indians...

  3. Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.C.

    1996-07-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The observed experimental results indicated that metal capture by sorbents can be as high as 91% depending on the metal species and sorbent involved. All three sorbents tested, i.e., bauxite, zeolite and lime, were observed to be capable of capturing lead and cadmium in a various degree. Zeolite and lime were able to capture chromium. Results from thermodynamic equilibrium simulations suggested the formation of metal-sorbent compounds such as Pb{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(s), CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) and CdSiO{sub 3}(s) under the combustion conditions. Additional experiments are being carried out to provide more statistically representative results for better understanding the metal capture process.

  4. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 38; SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Quality Control Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); McClain, Charles R.; Darzi, Michael; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E.; Firestone, James K.; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Schieber, Brian D.; Woodward, Robert H.; Yeh, Eueng-nan

    1996-01-01

    This document provides five brief reports that address several quality control procedures under the auspices of the Calibration and Validation Element (CVE) within the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project. Chapter 1 describes analyses of the 32 sensor engineering telemetry streams. Anomalies in any of the values may impact sensor performance in direct or indirect ways. The analyses are primarily examinations of parameter time series combined with statistical methods such as auto- and cross-correlation functions. Chapter 2 describes how the various onboard (solar and lunar) and vicarious (in situ) calibration data will be analyzed to quantify sensor degradation, if present. The analyses also include methods for detecting the influence of charged particles on sensor performance such as might be expected in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Chapter 3 discusses the quality control of the ancillary environmental data that are routinely received from other agencies or projects which are used in the atmospheric correction algorithm (total ozone, surface wind velocity, and surface pressure; surface relative humidity is also obtained, but is not used in the initial operational algorithm). Chapter 4 explains the procedures for screening level-, level-2, and level-3 products. These quality control operations incorporate both automated and interactive procedures which check for file format errors (all levels), navigation offsets (level-1), mask and flag performance (level-2), and product anomalies (all levels). Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the match-up data set development for comparing SeaWiFS level-2 derived products with in situ observations, as well as the subsequent outlier analyses that will be used for evaluating error sources.

  5. Waste treatment by selective mineral ion exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, Aurelie

    2007-07-01

    STMI, subsidiary company of the AREVA Group with over 40 years in the D and D business, has been continuously innovating and developing new decontamination techniques, with the objectives of achieving more efficient decontaminations on a growing spectrum of media. In the field of liquid waste treatment, STMI manufactures uses and commercialises selective inorganic ion exchangers (RAN). These are hydrated synthetic inorganic compounds prepared from very pure raw materials. Different types of RANs (POLYAN, OXTAIN, Fe-Cu, Fe-CoK, Si-Fe-CoK) can be used to trap a large number of radioactive elements in contaminated effluents. Different implementations could be applied depending on technical conditions. STMI's offers consist in building global solution and preliminary design of installation either in dispersed form (batch) or in column (cartridge filtration). Those products are used all over the world not only in the nuclear business (Canada, US, Belgium, France...) but also in other fields. Indeed, it provides competitive solutions to many domains of application especially water pollution control, liquid waste treatment in the nuclear business by decreasing the activity level of waste. The following paper will focus on the theoretical principle of the mineral exchanger, its implementation and the feed back collected by STMI. (author)

  6. Build, install and demonstrate a variable stroke pump control and windmill system: 2nd quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-30

    Most of the time during the second quarter has been spent on the new gear drive. At the end of the 1st quarter the VSM (Variable Stroke Mechanism) was approximately 50% complete. Some work was done the second quarter on the VSM. An all steel mount was nearly completed for the hydraulic cyclinder. The purchased parts to finish the plumbing are on hand, the feedback control chain purchased, and one of the two pulleys was made. A safety device, that could be optional, is being designed and constructed. This addition would prevent damage to the equipment if all of the hydraulic fluid were lost for some reason.

  7. Desertification control and renewable-resource management in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of west africa. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Falloux, F.; Mukendi, A.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of papers presented at the 'Workshop on Desertification Control and Renewable Resource Management' held in Oslo, Norway in June 1986, and sponsored by the Norwegian Ministry of Development Cooperation, the Canadian International Development Agency and the World Bank. The main objective of the workshop was to develop workable guidelines for addressing the problem of resource depletion in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa. Major policy areas covered include land tenure, water management, household energy use, production systems, and migration.

  8. Floating-point coprocessor for fault detection and isolation in electronically controlled internal combustion engines. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T.L.; Ribbens, W.B.

    1991-09-01

    The report details the design of a floating-point coprocessor intended for real-time fault detection in electronically controlled internal combustion engines. The fault detection strategies are based on dynamic models of various engine subsystems and require the use of state estimators. The coprocessor can be operated at a clock rate of 24 MHz, and is capable of operating up to sixteen state estimators in real time. The design is suitable for application to internal combustion engines used for vehicle propulsion or power generation, whether diesel or spark ignited.

  9. Assessment of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Potential in the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Heat Exchanger Materials: A 6-Momths Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Macuch, Patrick; McKrell, Thomas; VanDerSchijff, Ockert J.; Mitchell, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The fluid in the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is water based. The fluid in the ISS Laboratory Module and Node 1 initially contained a mix of water, phosphate (corrosion control), borate (pH buffer), and silver sulfate (Ag2SO4) (microbial control) at a pH of 9.5+/-0.5. Over time, the chemistry of the fluid changed. Fluid changes included a pH drop from 9.5 to 8.3 due to diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) through Teflon(reistered Trademark) (DuPont) hoses, increases in dissolved nickel (Ni) levels, deposition of silver (Ag) to metal surfaces, and precipitation of the phosphate (PO4) as nickel phosphate (NiPO4). The drop in pH and unavailability of a antimicrobial has provided an environment conducive to microbial growth. Microbial levels in the fluid have increased from >10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/100 ml to 10(exp 6) CFUs/100 ml. The heat exchangers in the IATCS loops are considered the weakest point in the loop because of the material thickness (=7 mil). It is made of a Ni-based braze filler/CRES 347. Results of a preliminary test performed at Hamilton Sundstrand indicated the possibility of pitting on this material at locations where Ag deposits were found. Later, tests have confirmed that chemical corrosion of the materials is a concern for this system. Accumulation of micro-organisms on surfaces (biofilm) can also result in material degradation and can amplify the damage caused by the chemical corrosion, known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). This paper will discuss the results of a 6-mo test performed to characterize and quantify the damage from microbial accumulation on the surface of the ISS/ATCS heat exchanger materials. The test was designed to quantify the damage to the materials under worst-case conditions with and without micro-organisms present at pH 8.3 and 9.5.

  10. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  11. JCL (job control language) procedures to run the HULL code on the Cyber 205 computer installed on CSIRONET. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The HULL code is a suite of programs for solving problems of hydrodynamic flow. HULL is a self contained system, with internal maintenance and editing facilities, currently capable of running on a number of computer sited through the world. A utility for the HULL system called SAIL manages the internally coded system, and is used to generate Fortran programs appropriate to the problem being solved. The Materials Research Laboratories obtained a current version of the HULL system early in 1986 from Eglin AFB, through TTCP channels. This version (HULL 120) is capable of solving problems in two or three dimensions, using Eulerian or Lagrangian equations of motion, or a combination of both. Hull 120 has models for elastic/plastic material behaviour, and explosive burn routines, HULL 120 is currently being installed and tested on a Control Data Cyber 205 supercomputer on the CSIRONET network. Part of the installation involves embedding into the HUll system the necessary parameters and changes to make HULL-generated code run correctly on the 205. This process is not yet complete, and will be reported separately. A second part of the installation involves writing the job control language to run HULL. This report describes a complex set of JCL procedures developed at MRL to run HULL programs on the CSIRONET Cyber 205.

  12. Water contamination control: Guide for project planning and financing. Technical paper. Control de la contaminacion del agua: Guias para la planificacion y financiamiento de proyectos

    SciTech Connect

    Palange, R.C.; Zavala, A.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides guidelines for administrators, supervisors, and others involved in decision making to satisfy the need for facilities to control water contamination, but who possibly lack specialized training in engineering, economics, financial administration, or other pertinent specialties.

  13. Pollution control technical manual: modified 'in situ' oil shale retorting combined with Lurgi surface retorting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using Lurgi surface retorting technology (developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany) and the Modified In Situ process (developed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.) proposed by Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. and Tenneco Shale Oil Company for use in the development of their Federal oil shale lease Tract C-b in western Colorado. Since details regarding waste streams and control technologies for the Lurgi process are presented in a separate PCTM, this document focuses principally on the Modified In Situ process.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of a reactive baffle approach to NOx control. Final technical report, February-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.G.; Van Stone, D.A.; Little, R.C.; Peterson, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    Vermiculite, vermiculite coated with magnesia, and activated carbon sorbents have successfully removed NOx (and carbon monoxide and particles) from combustion exhausts in a subscale drone jet engine test cell (JETC), but back pressure so generated elevated the temperature of the JETC and of the engine. The objective of this effort was to explore the feasibility of locating the sorbents in the face of the duct or of baffles parallel to the direction of flow within the ducts. Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are stationary sources of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), soot, and unburned or partially oxidized carbon compounds that form as byproducts of imperfect combustion. Regulation of NOx emissions is being considered for implementation under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Several principles have been examined as candidate methods to control NOx emissions from JETCs.

  15. Control of pyrite surface chemistry in physical coal cleaning. Twelfth quarterly technical progress report, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Richardson, P.R.

    1992-12-31

    Over the past 10 years, much research has provided convincing evidence that one major difficulty in using froth flotation to separate pyrite from coal is the ``self-induced`` flotation of pyrite. Numerous studies have attempted to identify reactions that occur under moderate oxidizing conditions, which lead to self-induced flotation, and to identify the oxidization products. During the past two report periods, it was established that: (1) freshly fractured pyrite surfaces immediately assume, at fracture, an electrode potential several hundred millivolts more negative than the usual steady state mixed potentials. Within minutes after fracture, the electrodes oxidize and reach higher steady state potentials. It was also shown, by photocurrent measurements, that a negative surface charge (upward band bending) already exists on freshly fractured pyrite, and (2) particle bed electrodes can be used to control the oxidation of pyrite and to precisely determine the electrochemical conditions where flotation occurs, or is depressed. By circulating the solution phase to an ultraviolet spectrometer, soluble products produced on pyrite by oxidation and reduction can be determined, e.g., HS{sup {minus}} was identified as a soluble cathodic reduction product. These and other studies have provided considerable information concerning the anodic oxidation of pyrite. Much less is known about the mechanism and kinetics of oxygen reduction, the other half of the mixed potential reaction. To better understand pyrite oxidation kinetics and determine if oxygen reduction is rate determining, studies have been conducted during this report period on the oxygen reduction reaction with pyrite. In addition, to provide further support that the potential of particle bed electrodes can be controlled, the electro-adsorption and desorption of an organic surfactant was studied.

  16. Structural Dynamics and Control Interaction of Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S. (Editor); Scofield, Harold N. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A Workshop was held to promote technical exchange between the structural dynamic and control disciplines, foster joint technology, and provide a forum for discussing and focusing critical issues in the separate and combined areas. The workshop was closed by a panel meeting. Panel members' viewpoints and their responses to questions are included.

  17. Biophysical controls on interannual variability in ecosystem-scale CO2 and CH4 exchange in a California rice paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Sara Helen; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Sturtevant, Cove; Oikawa, Patricia Y.; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    We present 6.5 years of eddy covariance measurements of fluxes of methane (FCH4) and carbon dioxide (FCO2) from a flooded rice paddy in Northern California, USA. A pronounced warming trend throughout the study associated with drought and record high temperatures strongly influenced carbon (C) budgets and provided insights into biophysical controls of FCO2 and FCH4. Wavelet analysis indicated that photosynthesis (gross ecosystem production, GEP) induced the diel pattern in FCH4, but soil temperature (Ts) modulated its amplitude. Forward stepwise linear models and neural networking modeling were used to assess the variables regulating seasonal FCH4. As expected due to their competence in modeling nonlinear relationships, neural network models explained considerably more of the variance in daily average FCH4 than linear models. During the growing season, GEP and water levels typically explained most of the variance in daily average FCH4. However, Ts explained much of the interannual variability in annual and growing season CH4 sums. Higher Ts also increased the annual and growing season ratio of FCH4 to GEP. The observation that the FCH4 to GEP ratio scales predictably with Ts may help improve global estimates of FCH4 from rice agriculture. Additionally, Ts strongly influenced ecosystem respiration, resulting in large interannual variability in the net C budget at the paddy, emphasizing the need for long-term measurements particularly under changing climatic conditions.

  18. Involvement of ClC-3 chloride/proton exchangers in controlling glutamatergic synaptic strength in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Raul E; Alekov, Alexi K; Filippov, Mikhail; Hegermann, Jan; Fahlke, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    ClC-3 is a member of the CLC family of anion channels and transporters that localizes to early and late endosomes as well as to synaptic vesicles (SV). Its genetic disruption in mouse models results in pronounced hippocampal and retinal neurodegeneration, suggesting that ClC-3 might be important for normal excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission in central neurons. To characterize the role of ClC-3 in glutamate accumulation in SV we compared glutamatergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons from WT and Clcn3-/- mice. In Clcn3-/- neurons the amplitude and frequency of miniature as well as the amplitudes of action-potential evoked EPSCs were significantly increased as compared to WT neurons. The low-affinity competitive AMPA receptor antagonist γ-DGG reduced the quantal size of synaptic events more effectively in WT than in Clcn3-/- neurons, whereas no difference was observed for the high-affinity competitive non-NMDA antagonist NBQX. Paired pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs were significantly reduced, whereas the size of the readily releasable pool was not affected by the genetic ablation of ClC-3. Electron microscopy revealed increased volumes of SV in hippocampi of Clcn3-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that ClC-3 controls fast excitatory synaptic transmission by regulating the amount of neurotransmitter as well as the release probability of SV. These results provide novel insights into the role of ClC-3 in synaptic transmission and identify excessive glutamate release as a likely basis of neurodegeneration in Clcn3-/-.

  19. [Quality control of the micro-ELISA technic applied to the diagnosis of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Mauricio, I; Campino, L; Abranches, P

    1995-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is, in Portugal, a zoonosis with the dog as reservoir. A quality control of the technique of micro-ELISA was carried out, using as reference the technique of IFI, the most commonly used for the diagnosis of this protozoosis, both for human and canine sera. Three different methods were used to estimate the cut-off point: X + 2sd (average for negative sera plus two standard deviation), P/N and J index. As quality parameteres were used sensitivity, specificity, efficacy and positive predictive value. The cut-off point for human sera was established at 0.100 A, with 100% sensitivity, 90.5% specificity, 95.3% efficacy and 91.4% positive predictive value, and for canine sera in 0.200 A, with 80.0% sensitivity, 94.3% specificity, 87.7% efficacy and 96.6% positive predictive value. Reproducibility was not fully satisfactory and two different ways of improving it are proposed: P/N and a correction factor. A statistically significant correlation was observed between micro-ELISA's absorbances and IFI titres regarding human sera, though it was not possible to do the same for dog sera.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, November 1995. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Pilot High Velocity (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurement studies involving the EPA Draft Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber system was utilized in the TER test configuration this month while the 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber unit remained in a state of cold-standby. A monthly inspection was conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems in the SCR building. These inspections will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff each month.