Science.gov

Sample records for controlled afterloading apparatus

  1. Control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

  2. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  3. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  4. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  5. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat [NE Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  6. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

  7. Radiation design and control features of a hospital room for a low dose rate remote afterloading unit

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, G.P.; Corrigan, K.W.

    1995-09-01

    We have renovated, and used for four years, a small 3.4 m x 4.3 m conventional patient second floor hospital room to accommodate a low dose rate remote afterloading unit containing 13 GBq (0.35 Ci) of {sup 137}Cs. Supplemental room shielding consists of a power assisted door (536 kg, 1.7 cm thickness of lead), 1.3 cm lead wall shielding at selected wall locations and on a projector shield beneath the bed, and 0.6 cm of lead over the floor above. Radiation control features consisted of a room interior radiation detector independent of the remote afterloading unit, a redundant patient/nurse communication system, a remote control system, a door interlock system to insert and retract the radioactive pellets, and a visible and audible status indictator system located at a nearby nurses` work station. Renovation costs (in 1990 dollars) were $383 per square foot; total project costs were $187,000. Nursing personnel radiation exposure was reduced from about 6 {mu}Sv (mg Ra eq){sup -1} (0.6 mrem (mg Ra eq){sup -1}) to about 0.7 {mu}Sv (mg Ra eq){sup -1} (0.07 mrem (mg Ra eq){sup -1}), almost a tenfold reduction. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  9. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  10. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  11. Remote control apparatus for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, A.

    1989-01-10

    A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

  12. INDICATING, RECORDING, AND CONTROLLING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, C.H.; Hall, J.

    1950-12-26

    An accurate and sensitive apparatus for indicating the difference between two fluid pressures is described. The specific device suspended from flexible strip type springs to control the fluid pressure in a main line. The mechanical linkage is biased in a position by the pressure from the two sources under measurement, the pressures acting in opposite directions on the linkage. A second pressure acts on the linkage derived from the main line, such that a change in the pressure differential between the two measured lines will move the linkage to change the valve flow, altering the main line pressure which in turn repositions the linkage. By metering the main line pressure, the pressure differential between the two lines is continuously monitored and measured.

  13. Apparatus for control of mercury

    DOEpatents

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  14. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Fric, Thomas Frank [Greer, SC; Lyons, James Patrick Francis [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Holley, William Edwin [Greer, SC; Barbu, Corneliu [Guilderland, NY

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling electroslag remelting

    DOEpatents

    Maguire, Michael C.; Zanner, Frank J.; Damkroger, Brian K.; Miszkiel, Mark E.; Aronson, Eugene A.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for controlling electrode immersion depth in an electroslag remelting furnace. The phase difference of the alternating current circuit established in the furnace is calculated in real time and employed to more accurately control immersion depth than possible with voltage-swing systems.

  16. Electrical charging control apparatus and method, and solar to electrical energy conversion apparatus incorporating such charging control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Staler, T.; Yerkes, J.W.

    1984-06-05

    Electrical charging control apparatus regulates the charging of a rechargeable battery by a solar panel. The control of the charging is through a relay which when closed directly connects the output and charging terminal of the solar panel to the output and charging terminal of the battery to permit the charging of the battery by the solar panel. Such coupling is in turn under the terminals are in a coupling prevention relationship chosen to prevent significant discharging of the battery through the solar panel; of breaker apparatus which breaks a coupling after a predetermined period of time; and of additional signal-tester apparatus which causes a termination of the coupling when the signal at the connected terminals reaches a chosen charging termination threshold. The breaking of the coupling, which can result in a periodic breaking, permits the testing for discharging prevention. A charging control method is in accordance with the above outlined method of operation of the charging control apparatus.

  17. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling a microturbine

    DOEpatents

    Garces, Luis Jose; Cardinal, Mark Edward; Sinha, Gautam; Dame, Mark Edward

    2005-08-02

    An apparatus for controlling a microturbine, the apparatus including: a rectifier adapted for converting at least one generated voltage from the microturbine to a DC link voltage; an inverter adapted for converting the DC link voltage to at least one inverter output voltage, the at least one inverter output voltage being electrically coupled to an external power bus; a starter drive adapted for converting at least one starter input voltage to at least one starter output voltage, the at least one starter input voltage being electrically coupled to the external power bus, the at least one starter output voltage being electrically coupled to the microturbine.

  19. Apparatus for controlling nuclear core debris

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear reactor apparatus for containing, cooling, and dispersing reactor debris assumed to flow from the core area in the unlikely event of an accident causing core meltdown. The apparatus includes a plurality of horizontally disposed vertically spaced plates, having depressions to contain debris in controlled amounts, and a plurality of holes therein which provide natural circulation cooling and a path for debris to continue flowing downward to the plate beneath. The uppermost plates may also include generally vertical sections which form annular-like flow areas which assist the natural circulation cooling.

  20. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  1. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1989-03-14

    This patent describes a motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  2. Rock sampling. [apparatus for controlling particle size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, P. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    An apparatus for sampling rock and other brittle materials and for controlling resultant particle sizes is described. The device includes grinding means for cutting grooves in the rock surface and to provide a grouping of thin, shallow, parallel ridges and cutter means to reduce these ridges to a powder specimen. Collection means is provided for the powder. The invention relates to rock grinding and particularly to the sampling of rock specimens with good size control.

  3. Diffusion-controlled apparatus for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Diffusion-Controlled Apparatus for Microgravity (DCAM) was developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. A semi-permeable plug or fuse at the center controls the rate at which a precipitant diffuses from the reservoir chamber into the solution chamber , thus prompting protein molecules in the solution to form crystals. The principal investigator is Dr. Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals in Huntsville, AL.

  4. Illumination control apparatus for compensating solar light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An illumination control apparatus is presented for supplementing light from solar radiation with light from an artificial light source to compensate for periods of insufficient levels of solar light. The apparatus maintains a desired illumination level within an interior space comprising an artificial light source connected to an electrical power source with a switch means for selectively energizing said light source. An actuator means for controlling the on-off operation of the switch means is connected to a light sensor which responses to the illumination level of the interior space. A limit switch carried adjacent to the actuator limits the movement of the actuator within a predetermined range so as to prevent further movement thereof during detection of erroneous illumination conditions.

  5. Temperature-Control Apparatus For Hydrogen Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.; Mattison, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-control apparatus maintains hydrogen maser at nearly constant temperature during long-term operational test. Designed to maintain, in small cylindrical vacuum tank containing maser, nearly isothermal condition when test conducted in air. Provides approximation of more nearly isothermal condition expected to be maintained in intended application, in which maser operated in vacuum environment and losses of heat reduced further by multilayer reflective insulation.

  6. Apparatus and methods for humidity control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinauer, William R. (Inventor); Otis, David R. (Inventor); El-Wakil, Mohamed M. (Inventor); Vignali, John C. (Inventor); Macaulay, Philip D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus is provided which controls humidity in a gas. The apparatus employs a porous interface that is preferably a manifolded array of stainless steel tubes through whose porous surface water vapor can pass. One side of the porous interface is in contact with water and the opposing side is in contact with gas whose humidity is being controlled. Water vapor is emitted from the porous surface of the tubing into the gas when the gas is being humidified, and water vapor is removed from the gas through the porous surfaces when the gas is being dehumidified. The temperature of the porous interface relative to the gas temperature determines whether humidification or dehumidification is being carried out. The humidity in the gas is sensed and compared to the set point humidity. The water temperature, and consequently the porous interface temperature, are automatically controlled in response to changes in the gas humidity level above or below the set point. Any deviation from the set point humidity is thus corrected.

  7. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRON BEAM HEATING CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Jones, W.H.; Reece, J.B.

    1962-09-18

    An improved electron beam welding or melting apparatus is designed which utilizes a high voltage rectifier operating below its temperature saturation region to decrease variations in electron beam current which normally result from the gas generated in such apparatus. (AEC)

  8. Electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Koshizawa, T.

    1989-04-25

    This patent describes an electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus having a shift schedule map for commanding an optimum gear position based on a vehicle speed signal and an accelerator opening signal, the electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus comprising: first means for comparing a gear position commanded by the shift schedule map with a present gear position; second means for effecting a gear shift to a gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position and for restraining a gear shift to the commanded gear position for a prescribed period of time, if the commanded gear position requires an upshift to a gear position which is two or more gear positions higher than the present gear position as a result of the comparison performed by the first means; and third means for holding the gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position until an accelerator pedal is depressed again, when the accelerator opening signal indicates an idling position while the gear shift up to the gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position, is being effected by the second means.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.R.

    1980-06-27

    A method and apparatus for precisely controlling the rate (and hence amount) of fluid flow are given. The controlled flow rate is finely adjustable, can be extremely small (on the order of microliter-atmospheres per second), can be adjusted to zero (flow stopped), and is stable to better than 1% with time. The dead volume of the valve can be made arbitrarily small, in fact essentially zero. The valve employs no wearing mechanical parts (including springs, stems, or seals). The valve is finely adjustable, has a flow rate dynamic range of many decades, can be made compatible with any fluid, and is suitable for incorporation into an open or closed loop servo-control system.

  10. Automatic control of oscillatory penetration apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lucon, Peter A

    2015-01-06

    A system and method for controlling an oscillatory penetration apparatus. An embodiment is a system and method for controlling a sonic drill having a displacement and an operating range and operating at a phase difference, said sonic drill comprising a push-pull piston and eccentrics, said method comprising: operating the push-pull piston at an initial push-pull force while the eccentrics are operated at a plurality of different operating frequencies within the operating range of the sonic drill and measuring the displacement at each operating frequency; determining an efficient operating frequency for the material being drilled and operating the eccentrics at said efficient operating frequency; determining the phase difference at which the sonic drill is operating; and if the phase difference is not substantially equal to minus ninety degrees, operating the push-pull piston at another push-pull force.

  11. Method and apparatus for large motor control

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Chris R.; Nelson, Ronald O.

    2003-08-12

    Apparatus and method for providing digital signal processing method for controlling the speed and phase of a motor involves inputting a reference signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of a time based signal; modifying the reference signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the reference signal; inputting a feedback signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of the operation of said motor; modifying the feedback signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the feedback signal; analyzing the modified reference signal and the modified feedback signal to determine the frequency of the modified reference signal and of the modified feedback signal and said relative phase between said modified reference signal and said modified feedback signal; and outputting control signals to the motor for adjusting said speed and phase of the motor based on the frequency determination and determination of the relative phase.

  12. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Rollin G.; Kortegaard, Bert L.; Jones, David F.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously controlling a plurality of stepper motors. Addressing circuitry generates address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence. Memory circuits respond to the address data for each motor by accessing a corresponding memory location containing a first operational data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, speed data, and rate of speed change. First logic circuits respond to the first data set to generate a motor step command. Second logic circuits respond to the command from the first logic circuits to generate a third data set for replacing the first data set in memory with a current operational motor status, which becomes the first data set when the motor is next addressed.

  13. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J [Grand Forks, ND; Zhuang, Ye [Grand Forks, ND; Almlie, Jay C [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  14. Apparatus for controlling system state based on unique identifiers

    DOEpatents

    Drotning, William D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus allows workers to assert and release control over the energization of a system. The apparatus does not require the workers to carry any additional paraphernalia, and is not be easily defeated by other workers. Users asserting and releasing control present tokens uniquely identifying each user to a reader, and the apparatus prevents transition of the system to an undesired state until an appropriate number of users are currently asserting control. For example, a dangerous manufacturing robot can be prevented from energizing until all the users that have asserted control when entering the robot's controlled space have subsequently released control when leaving the robot's controlled space.

  15. Apparatus for and method of controlling sputter coating

    SciTech Connect

    Boys, R.

    1985-02-19

    The magnetic field of a magnetron sputter coating apparatus is controlled in response to measurements of plasma parameters to control deposition parameters, such as sputter deposition rate and material deposition thickness profile. From time to time the apparatus is standardized to change preset values for parameters of the plasma to manage the deposition parameters.

  16. Remote afterloading for neutron brachytherapy using californium-252.

    PubMed

    Tacev, Taco; Grigorov, Grigor; Papírek, Tomás; Kolarík, Vladimír

    2003-02-01

    Despite a pronounced technical process attained in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms, no remarkable improvement in the treatment results has been achieved. The reason for this stagnation is the interaction between tumor cell and photon radiation. Tumor resistance against photon bombardment can be broken down by applying high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation-based treatment. The discovery of californium-252 ((252)Cf) nuclide, a source of gamma neutron radiation, established a precondition for using neutrons in tumor brachytherapy. The design of a remote afterloading device using (252)Cf sources remains an unsolved problem. The afterloading device has been designed as a stationary radiator which is composed of three mutually interconnected units: 1. the control and drive unit consisting of a control computer and a motor-driven bowden system carrying the (252)Cf source; 2. the source which is housed in a watertight concrete vessel-storage strong room, situated in the ground at a depth of 25 cm beneath the patient's bed; 3. the afterloading application module installed in the irradiation room. Remote afterloading allows simple, inexpensive and highly efficient radiation protection and work safety for the operating personnel. The sources may be moved arbitrarily during treatment with a position accuracy of 0.5-1.0 mm within a distance of 520 cm from the source storage position in the strong room to the application position. Both afterloading systems' unused indexer outputs are protected electronically and mechanically against any unintentional movement of the source outside the application tubes. The technologic concept of the present automatic afterloading device for neutron brachytherapy represents a possible option from the range of conceivable design variants, which - while minimizing technologic and economic requirements - provides the operating personnel with optimum protection and work safety, thus extending the applicability of high LET radiation

  17. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P. [Trafford, PA; Tilbrook, Roger W. [Monroeville, PA; Heylmun, Neal F. [Pittsburgh, PA

    1977-07-19

    Apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed.

  18. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1977-07-19

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures.

  19. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, James R.; Dodson, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846.

  20. Method and apparatus for controlling gas evolution from chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Skorpik, J.R.; Dodson, M.G.

    1999-05-25

    The present invention is directed toward monitoring a thermally driven gas evolving chemical reaction with an acoustic apparatus. Signals from the acoustic apparatus are used to control a heater to prevent a run-away condition. A digestion module in combination with a robotic arm further automate physical handling of sample material reaction vessels. The invention is especially useful for carrying out sample procedures defined in EPA Methods SW-846. 8 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling carrier envelope phase

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Li, Chengquan [Sunnyvale, CA; Moon, Eric [Manhattan, KS

    2011-12-06

    A chirped pulse amplification laser system. The system generally comprises a laser source, a pulse modification apparatus including first and second pulse modification elements separated by a separation distance, a positioning element, a measurement device, and a feedback controller. The laser source is operable to generate a laser pulse and the pulse modification apparatus operable to modify at least a portion of the laser pulse. The positioning element is operable to reposition at least a portion of the pulse modification apparatus to vary the separation distance. The measurement device is operable to measure the carrier envelope phase of the generated laser pulse and the feedback controller is operable to control the positioning element based on the measured carrier envelope phase to vary the separation distance of the pulse modification elements and control the carrier envelope phase of laser pulses generated by the laser source.

  2. Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Church, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.

  3. Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Church, J.P.

    1993-03-30

    Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.

  4. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  5. Apparatus for controlling transmission gear shift selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.M.

    1986-07-29

    In an automotive engine having an electrical power source and an automatic or semi-automatic transmission including a manually operated transmission gear shift lever having at least two forward drive positions, an apparatus is described which consists of: (a) a speed sensing means for sensing the rotation speed of the engine and generating an output signal when the engine reaches a preselected rotational speed; and (b) a gear shifting means for changing the shift positions of the gear shift lever from a first drive position to a second drive position automatically in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, the gear shifting means including (i) a latch actuable between open and closed positions, (ii) a normally de-energized solenoid having a plunger connected to the latch and operable to move the latch to the open position when the solenoid is energized by the electrical power source, (iii) a relay means for allowing the energizing of the solenoid by the power source in response to the output signal from the speed sensing means, and (iv) an actuating means, including a spring biased linkage mechanism operably connected to the gear shift lever and the latch, for actuating the movement of the gear shift lever from the first drive position to the second drive position in response to movement of the latch from the closed to the open position, thereby causing gear shifting to occur when the engine reaches the preselected rotational speed.

  6. Phase change thermal control materials, method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for metabolic cooling and insulation of a user in a cold environment. In its preferred embodiment the apparatus is a highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The apparatus can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The apparatus may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the apparatus also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ROD DRIVE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Oakes, L.C.; Walker, C.S.

    1959-12-15

    ABS>A suspension mechanism between a vertically movable nuclear reactor control rod and a rod extension, which also provides information for the operator or an automatic control signal, is described. A spring connects the rod extension to a drive shift. The extension of the spring indicates whether (1) the rod is at rest on the reactor, (2) the rod and extension are suspended, or (3) the extension alone is suspended, the spring controlling a 3-position electrical switch.

  8. Control apparatus for spectral energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Automatic light-controlling system for dc arc emission spectrographs controls the vaporization rate of the sample and stabilizes the dc arc. The output energy is regulated such that advantage can be taken of the highly sensitive dc arc source without sacrificing the desired precision.

  9. The external work-pressure time integral relationships and the afterload dependence of Frank-Starling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sela, Gali; Landesberg, Amir

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the Frank-Starling Law of the heart are elusive and the prevalent notion suggests that it is afterload independent. However, isolated fiber studies reveal that the afterload determines cardiac function through cross-bridge dependent mechanisms. The study explores the roles of the afterload, in situ. The LV was exposed by left-thoracotomy in adult sheep (72.6+/-8.2 kg, n=8). Pressure transducers were inserted into the LV and aorta, a flowmeter was placed around the aortic root, and the LV volume was assessed by sonocrystals. Occluders around the aorta and the inferior vena cava enabled control of the afterload and preload. Different afterloads were imposed by partial aortic occlusions. Transient inferior vena cava occlusions (IVCOs) were preformed whenever the afterload was steady. A highly linear relationship was found between the external work (EW) and pressure time integral (PTI) (R(2)=0.98+/-0.01) during each transient IVCO (n=48). The slope of the EW-PTI relationship (WPTiR) was preload independent since, for any given afterload, the EW and PTI lay on a straight line. Interestingly, the slope of the WPTiR was afterload dependant: The slope was 33.3+/-4.1 mJ/mmHg.s at baselines and decreased by 1.0+/-0.50 mJ/mmHg.s with every 1 mmHg.min/L increase in the peripheral resistance. A unique WPTiR was obtained during both the occlusion and release phases of each IVCO, while two distinct EW-preload or PTI-preload relationships were observed. The novel WPTiR ties the Frank (pressure development) and Starling (EW production) phenomena together. The dependence of the WPTiR on the afterload highlights the adaptive control of the Frank-Starling mechanisms to changes in the afterload.

  10. Control apparatus for hot gas engine

    DOEpatents

    Stotts, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    A mean pressure power control system for a hot gas (Stirling) engine utilizing a plurality of supply tanks for storing a working gas at different pressures. During pump down operations gas is bled from the engine by a compressor having a plurality of independent pumping volumes. In one embodiment of the invention, a bypass control valve system allows one or more of the compressor volumes to be connected to the storage tanks. By selectively sequencing the bypass valves, a capacity range can be developed over the compressor that allows for lower engine idle pressures and more rapid pump down rates.

  11. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REACTOR SAFETY CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Huston, N.E.

    1961-06-01

    A self-contained nuclear reactor fuse controlled device tron absorbing material, normally in a compact form but which can be expanded into an extended form presenting a large surface for neutron absorption when triggered by an increase in neutron flux, is described.

  12. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1960-01-26

    A method is described for controlling the position of the ion beams in a calutron used for isotope separation. The U/sup 238/ beams is centered over the U/sup 235/ receiving pocket, the operator monitoring the beam until a maximum reading is achieved on the meter connected to that pocket. Then both beams are simultaneously shifted by a preselected amount to move the U/sup 235/ beam over the U/sup 235/ pocket. A slotted door is placed over the entrance to that pocket during the U/sup 238/ beam centering to reduce the contamination to the pocket, while allowing enough beam to pass for monitoring purposes.

  13. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-03-28

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  14. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  15. Apparatus and Process for Controlled Nanomanufacturing Using Catalyst Retaining Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the controlled fabrication of nanostructures using catalyst retaining structures is disclosed. The apparatus includes one or more modified force microscopes having a nanotube attached to the tip portion of the microscopes. An electric current is passed from the nanotube to a catalyst layer of a substrate, thereby causing a localized chemical reaction to occur in a resist layer adjacent the catalyst layer. The region of the resist layer where the chemical reaction occurred is etched, thereby exposing a catalyst particle or particles in the catalyst layer surrounded by a wall of unetched resist material. Subsequent chemical vapor deposition causes growth of a nanostructure to occur upward through the wall of unetched resist material having controlled characteristics of height and diameter and, for parallel systems, number density.

  16. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control.

    PubMed

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  17. Apparatus for electrode current control in linear MHD generators

    DOEpatents

    Demirjian, Ara M.; Solbes, Albert

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for controlling a plurality of opposing, electrode, direct-currents at pre-set locations across a channel that comprises a converter for converting each electrode current into first and second periodic control signals which are 180.degree. out of phase with respect to each other and which have equal magnitudes corresponding to the magnitude of the associated electrode current; and couplers for magnetically coupling individual ones of the first control signals and for magnetically coupling individual ones of the second signals such that the corresponding electrode currents are equalized or rendered proportional by balancing the same in the same or constant ratios in accordance with the locations of the electrode currents.

  18. Apparatus for controlling fluid flow in a conduit wall

    DOEpatents

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2003-05-13

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  19. Afterloading: The Technique That Rescued Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aronowitz, Jesse N.

    2015-07-01

    Although brachytherapy had been established as a highly effective modality for the treatment of cancer, its application was threatened by mid-20th century due to appreciation of the radiation hazard to health care workers. This review examines how the introduction of afterloading eliminated exposure and ushered in a brachytherapy renaissance.

  20. Estimation of Filling and Afterload Conditions by Pump Intrinsic Parameters in a Pulsatile Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    A physiological control algorithm is being developed to ensure an optimal physiological interaction between the ReinHeart total artificial heart (TAH) and the circulatory system. A key factor for that is the long-term, accurate determination of the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. This study presents a method to determine estimation models for predicting hemodynamic parameters (pump chamber filling and afterload) from both left and right cardiovascular circulations. The estimation models are based on linear regression models that correlate filling and afterload values with pump intrinsic parameters derived from measured values of motor current and piston position. Predictions for filling lie in average within 5% from actual values, predictions for systemic afterload (AoPmean , AoPsys ) and mean pulmonary afterload (PAPmean ) lie in average within 9% from actual values. Predictions for systolic pulmonary afterload (PAPsys ) present an average deviation of 14%. The estimation models show satisfactory prediction and confidence intervals and are thus suitable to estimate hemodynamic parameters. This method and derived estimation models are a valuable alternative to implanted sensors and are an essential step for the development of a physiological control algorithm for a fully implantable TAH.

  1. Dynamically controlled crystallization method and apparatus and crystals obtained thereby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnowitz, Leonard (Inventor); Steinberg, Emanuel (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for dynamically controlling the crystallization of molecules including a crystallization chamber (14) or chambers for holding molecules in a precipitant solution, one or more precipitant solution reservoirs (16, 18), communication passages (17, 19) respectively coupling the crystallization chamber(s) with each of the precipitant solution reservoirs, and transfer mechanisms (20, 21, 22, 24, 26, 28) configured to respectively transfer precipitant solution between each of the precipitant solution reservoirs and the crystallization chamber(s). The transfer mechanisms are interlocked to maintain a constant volume of precipitant solution in the crystallization chamber(s). Precipitant solutions of different concentrations are transferred into and out of the crystallization chamber(s) to adjust the concentration of precipitant in the crystallization chamber(s) to achieve precise control of the crystallization process. The method and apparatus can be used effectively to grow crystals under reduced gravity conditions such as microgravity conditions of space, and under conditions of reduced or enhanced effective gravity as induced by a powerful magnetic field.

  2. Pre- and afterload reduction in chronic mitral regurgitation: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of the acute and 2 weeks' effect of nifedipine or isosorbide dinitrate treatment on left ventricular function and the severity of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Kelbaek, H; Aldershvile, J; Skagen, K; Hildebrandt, P; Nielsen, S L

    1996-06-01

    1. The acute effect and effect of 14 days' treatment with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and nifedipine (NIF) was evaluated by radionuclide cardiography in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation and sinus rhythm. 2. In 23 patients with clinically stable disease blood pressure was lowered by 15% and left ventricular volume was reduced by 16-20% after 20 mg sublingual ISDN causing combined pre- and afterload reduction. Afterload reduction alone induced by 10 mg NIF resulted in an acute 9% decrease in left ventricular endsystolic volume, whereas forward stroke volume increased by 30%, and regurgitation fraction tended to decrease. No haemodynamic effects could be detected after 14 days' treatment with 20 mg ISDN orally twice daily (preload reduction), whereas 20 mg NIF twice daily (afterload reduction) caused an increase in forward stroke volume (18%) and a decrease in both regurgitant volume (20%) and regurgitation fraction (22%) without affecting blood pressure or heart rate. 3. ISDN and NIF have beneficial acute haemodynamic effects in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation probably due to their pre- and afterload reducing properties. The reduction in regurgitation induced by NIF appears to be sustained after 14 days therapy.

  3. Accelerometer method and apparatus for integral display and control functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Vibration analysis has been used for years to provide a determination of the proper functioning of different types of machinery, including rotating machinery and rocket engines. A determination of a malfunction, if detected at a relatively early stage in its development, will allow changes in operating mode or a sequenced shutdown of the machinery prior to a total failure. Such preventative measures result in less extensive and/or less expensive repairs, and can also prevent a sometimes catastrophic failure of equipment. Standard vibration analyzers are generally rather complex, expensive, and of limited portability. They also usually result in displays and controls being located remotely from the machinery being monitored. Consequently, a need exists for improvements in accelerometer electronic display and control functions which are more suitable for operation directly on machines and which are not so expensive and complex. The invention includes methods and apparatus for detecting mechanical vibrations and outputting a signal in response thereto. The apparatus includes an accelerometer package having integral display and control functions. The accelerometer package is suitable for mounting upon the machinery to be monitored. Display circuitry provides signals to a bar graph display which may be used to monitor machine condition over a period of time. Control switches may be set which correspond to elements in the bar graph to provide an alert if vibration signals increase over the selected trip point. The circuitry is shock mounted within the accelerometer housing. The method provides for outputting a broadband analog accelerometer signal, integrating this signal to produce a velocity signal, integrating and calibrating the velocity signal before application to a display driver, and selecting a trip point at which a digitally compatible output signal is generated. The benefits of a vibration recording and monitoring system with controls and displays readily

  4. Accelerometer method and apparatus for integral display and control functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    Vibration analysis has been used for years to provide a determination of the proper functioning of different types of machinery, including rotating machinery and rocket engines. A determination of a malfunction, if detected at a relatively early stage in its development, will allow changes in operating mode or a sequenced shutdown of the machinery prior to a total failure. Such preventative measures result in less extensive and/or less expensive repairs, and can also prevent a sometimes catastrophic failure of equipment. Standard vibration analyzers are generally rather complex, expensive, and of limited portability. They also usually result in displays and controls being located remotely from the machinery being monitored. Consequently, a need exists for improvements in accelerometer electronic display and control functions which are more suitable for operation directly on machines and which are not so expensive and complex. The invention includes methods and apparatus for detecting mechanical vibrations and outputting a signal in response thereto. The apparatus includes an accelerometer package having integral display and control functions. The accelerometer package is suitable for mounting upon the machinery to be monitored. Display circuitry provides signals to a bar graph display which may be used to monitor machine condition over a period of time. Control switches may be set which correspond to elements in the bar graph to provide an alert if vibration signals increase over the selected trip point. The circuitry is shock mounted within the accelerometer housing. The method provides for outputting a broadband analog accelerometer signal, integrating this signal to produce a velocity signal, integrating and calibrating the velocity signal before application to a display driver, and selecting a trip point at which a digitally compatible output signal is generated. The benefits of a vibration recording and monitoring system with controls and displays readily

  5. Methods and apparatus for controlling dispersions of nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Golovin, Andrii B

    2014-10-21

    Electrically reconfigurable metamaterial with spatially varied refractive index is proposed for applications such as optical devices and lenses. The apparatus and method comprises a metamaterial in which the refractive indices are modified in space and time by applying one or more electric fields. The metamaterials are electrically controllable and reconfigurable, and consist of metal (gold, silver, etc.) particles of different shapes, such as rods, with dimension much smaller than the wavelength of light, dispersed in a dielectric medium. The metamaterial is controlled by applying a non-uniform electric field that causes two effects: (1) It aligns the metallic anisometric particles with respect to the direction of the applied electric field and (2) It redistributes particles in space, making their local concentration position dependent.

  6. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  7. Accelerometer Method and Apparatus for Integral Display and Control Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting mechanical vibrations and outputting a signal in response thereto is discussed. An accelerometer package having integral display and control functions is suitable for mounting upon the machinery to be monitored. Display circuitry provides signals to a bar graph display which may be used to monitor machine conditions over a period of time. Control switches may be set which correspond to elements in the bar graph to provide an alert if vibration signals increase in amplitude over a selected trip point. The circuitry is shock mounted within the accelerometer housing. The method provides for outputting a broadband analog accelerometer signal, integrating this signal to produce a velocity signal, integrating and calibrating the velocity signal before application to a display driver, and selecting a trip point at which a digitally compatible output signal is generated.

  8. Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.

    2007-10-30

    A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.

  9. Dynamically controlled crystallization method and apparatus and crystals obtained thereby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnowitz, Leonard (Inventor); Steinberg, Emanuel (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for dynamically controlling the crystallization of proteins including a crystallization chamber or chambers for holding a protein in a salt solution, one or more salt solution chambers, two communication passages respectively coupling the crystallization chamber with each of the salt solution chambers, and transfer mechanisms configured to respectively transfer salt solution between each of the salt solution chambers and the crystallization chamber. The transfer mechanisms are interlocked to maintain the volume of salt solution in the crystallization chamber substantially constant. Salt solution of different concentrations is transferred into and out of the crystallization chamber to adjust the salt concentration in the crystallization chamber to achieve precise control of the crystallization process.

  10. Apparatus for controlling an engine in a hydraulically driven vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, T.

    1987-01-27

    An apparatus is described for controlling the internal combustion engine of a hydraulically driven vehicle comprising: a transmission mechanism for transmitting the operation of a fuel control lever to a governor control lever and having a loose spring mechanism with a loose spring therein: a hydraulic decelerator cylinder connected to the transmission mechanism and having a spring and piston therein. The deceleration cylinder spring has a slightly larger spring force than the loose spring in the loose spring mechanism and applies a force absorbing action, in the absence of hydraulic force acting on the piston, to set the governor control lever in its deceleration position when the fuel control lever is moved to its full engine speed position and for moving the governor control lever to its full engine speed position when hydraulic force is applied to the piston; an electromagnetic valve for applying fluid pressure from a control pump driven by the engine to the piston in the decelerator cylinder and releasing the fluid pressure; and an electric circuit including switches operationally associated with levers for operating a hydraulic valve.

  11. Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2016-05-03

    Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.

  12. Apparatus and methods for controlling electron microscope stages

    SciTech Connect

    Duden, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for generating an image of a specimen with a microscope (e.g., TEM) are disclosed. In one aspect, the microscope may generally include a beam generator, a stage, a detector, and an image generator. A plurality of crystal parameters, which describe a plurality of properties of a crystal sample, are received. In a display associated with the microscope, an interactive control sphere based at least in part on the received crystal parameters and that is rotatable by a user to different sphere orientations is presented. The sphere includes a plurality of stage coordinates that correspond to a plurality of positions of the stage and a plurality of crystallographic pole coordinates that correspond to a plurality of polar orientations of the crystal sample. Movement of the sphere causes movement of the stage, wherein the stage coordinates move in conjunction with the crystallographic coordinates represented by pole positions so as to show a relationship between stage positions and the pole positions.

  13. Method and apparatus for configuration control of redundant robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus to control a robot or manipulator configuration over the entire motion based on augmentation of the manipulator forward kinematics is disclosed. A set of kinematic functions is defined in Cartesian or joint space to reflect the desirable configuration that will be achieved in addition to the specified end-effector motion. The user-defined kinematic functions and the end-effector Cartesian coordinates are combined to form a set of task-related configuration variables as generalized coordinates for the manipulator. A task-based adaptive scheme is then utilized to directly control the configuration variables so as to achieve tracking of some desired reference trajectories throughout the robot motion. This accomplishes the basic task of desired end-effector motion, while utilizing the redundancy to achieve any additional task through the desired time variation of the kinematic functions. The present invention can also be used for optimization of any kinematic objective function, or for satisfaction of a set of kinematic inequality constraints, as in an obstacle avoidance problem. In contrast to pseudoinverse-based methods, the configuration control scheme ensures cyclic motion of the manipulator, which is an essential requirement for repetitive operations. The control law is simple and computationally very fast, and does not require either the complex manipulator dynamic model or the complicated inverse kinematic transformation. The configuration control scheme can alternatively be implemented in joint space.

  14. Use of the afterloading technique for intraoral radiation carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Minsley, G.E.; Rothenberg, S.

    1985-05-01

    A method for fabrication of a radiation carrier with an adaptation of the afterloading technique has been described. The use of the afterloading technique allows for quick and easy placement of multiple radioactive sources; thus, time and exposure to the radiotherapist and the patient are minimized during the period of placement and activation of the prosthesis at the time of therapy.

  15. Apparatus for controlling condensate level in steam retort

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.D.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for controlling the level of steam condensate in a steam retort comprising: drain valve means operable to regulate drainage of the condensate from the retort; and control means for operating the drain valve means in response to the condensate level in the retort, the control means comprising: sensing means for providing a first signal when condensate rises to a predetermined level to effect opening of the drain valve means and for providing a second signal when condensate falls below the predetermined level to effect closing of the drain valve means; the sensing means comprising magnetic float switch means comprising: a non-magnetic steam having a chamber therein and extendable into the steam retort in a fixed position; a magnetic reed switch disposed within the chamber in the stem; means for mounting the reed switch in a fixed position within the stem; a float movably mounted exteriorly of the steam and movable in response to the level of the condensate in the steam retort; and a magnet connected to the float and movable in response thereto for effecting operation of the reed switch.

  16. Fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nishimaki, H.; Omori, T.; Sekijima, H.

    1988-07-26

    A fuel injection control apparatus for use in an engine is described including: a compression plunger, defining a compression pump chamber and driven in accordance with the rotation of the engine, for expelling fuel filled in the compression pump chamber; an injection plunger, which defines an injection pump chamber and is driven by the pressure of the fuel expelled from the compression pump chamber, a quantity of fuel determined to correspond with engine conditions being filled in the injection pump chamber; a fuel injector to which the fuel filled in the injection pump chamber is supplied in accordance with an operation of the injection plunger, and which is opened by the pressure of the fuel to inject the quantity-controlled fuel; a timing passage which communicates with the compression pump chamber and is closed when compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression plunger is driven; a delta port which communicates with the compression pump chamber, the delta port being closed by the compression plunger after the timing passage is closed, when the compression plunger is driven, so that an increase of fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber is delayed until after fuel is discharged from the compression pump chamber and the timing passage is closed.

  17. Apparatus for diffusion controlled dialysis under microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus for implementing crystal growth by allowing mixing of solutions under microgravity conditions includes a housing within which a number of pairs of chambers are formed. The chambers of each pair are aligned and a rotary valve is positioned between the chambers of each pair. When the valve is in a first position one chamber of each pair may communicate with the other chamber. A separate valve is provided for each pair of chambers so that each pair of chambers may be activated independently of the others and sequentially at selected intervals. Protein solution may be located within a small cavity in a cap which closes one of the chambers of a pair, and the cavity in the cap is closed by a dialysis membrane. The length of certain pairs of chambers may differ from the length of other pairs of chambers to optimize conditions for various dialysis productions, and wicking material may be incorporated into selected chambers for controlling the critical approach to supersaturation.

  18. Supercharge pressure control apparatus of a supercharged engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, W.

    1987-01-20

    A supercharge pressure control apparatus is described for a supercharged engine, comprising: a supercharge turbine associated with an exhaust passage of the engine; a supercharge compressor associated with an intake passage of the engine for compressing a gas which is supplied through the intake passage to the engine, the compressor being driven by the turbine; bypass means associated with the exhaust passage for selectively permitting some of the exhaust gasses discharged from the engine and flowing through the exhaust passage to bypass the turbine, the bypass means including a bypass passage communicating with the exhaust passage for bypassing the turbine, and a bypass valve for controlling the opening and closing of the bypass passage; actuator means for controlling the opening and closing of the bypass valve, the actuator means including means associated therewith for normally maintaining the bypass valve in a closed position. The actuator means also includes pressure responsive means for responding to the pressure of the gas in the intake passage for effecting selective opening of the bypass valve; first means for sensing the pressure of the gas in the intake passage at a first location disposed a substantial distance downstream of the compressor for activating the actuator means to effect opening of the bypass valve when the pressure in the intake passage at the first location exceeds a preset level; and second means for sensing the pressure of the gas in the intake passage at a second location which is upstream a substantial distance from the first location but is disposed downstream of but closely adjacent to the compressor.

  19. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  20. Fuel injection control apparatus for use to engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Kano, H.; Ohmori, T.

    1987-06-30

    A fuel injection control apparatus is described for use in an engine comprising: a compression plunger driven in response to fuel injection timing which corresponds to the rotation of an engine; a compression pump chamber which is filled with fuel and whose volume is compressed when the compression plunger is driven; an injection plunger driven by fuel which is pushed out of the compression pump chamber by the operation of the compression plunger; an injection pump chamber defined by the injection plunger; means for filling the injection pump chamber with fuel whose amount has been determined in accordance with the conditions of the operation of the engine; a timing plunger slidable between a stop position and a full position, the amount of fuel the filling means provides to the injection pump chamber cooperating with the injection plunger to mechanically set the timing plunger at the full position corresponding to the amount of fuel to be injected. The timing plunger contacts the face on which the fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts at the full position when the compression plunger is not driven, the fuel in the compression pump chamber moves the timing plunger as fuel is pushed out of the compression pump chamber. The fuel pressure in the compression pump chamber acts on the injection plunger when the timing plunger is moved to the stop position; and fuel injection means, responsive to the operation of the compression plunger, for moving the timing plunger from the full position to the stop position, then raising the pressure of the compression pump chamber to drive the injection plunger. In this high pressure state it delivers the fuel in the injection pump chamber and injects it into an engine cylinder.

  1. Writing apparatus controlled by head movements for motor handicapped people.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, P H; Meyer, F; Sanders, A H; Sanders, H A; Mélotte, H E; Bouma, H

    1979-03-01

    For a motor disabled person who cannot use his arms and hands we have constructed a device that enables him to operate a typewriter by means of head movements, via a forehead lamp. The text is first displayed on a picture screen and, after introducing any corrections, typed on a printer. This writing apparatus has been used very intensively for one year now, and evaluation laid down by the user himself has been included in the present paper. Several factors relevant to a large-scale application of this apparatus are discussed.

  2. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  3. Automatic grinding apparatus to control uniform specimen thicknesses

    DOEpatents

    Bryner, Joseph S.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is directed to a new and improved grinding apparatus comprising (1) a movable grinding surface, (2) a specimen holder, (3) a displacing device for moving the holder and/or grinding surface toward one another, and (4) at least three devices for limiting displacement of the holder to the grinding surface.

  4. Automatic grinding apparatus to control uniform specimen thicknesses

    DOEpatents

    Bryner, J.S.

    1981-01-07

    This invention is directed to a new and improved grinding apparatus comprisng: (1) a movable grinding surface; (2) a specimen holder; (3) a dislacing means for moving the holder and/or grinding surface toward one another; and (4) at least three means for limiting displacement of the holder to the grinding surface.

  5. [From endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus: a secretory pathway controlled by signal molecules].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiasheng; Luo, Jianhong; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2013-07-01

    Protein transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus has long been known to be a central process for protein quality control and sorting. Recent studies have revealed that a large number of signal molecules are involved in regulation of membrane trafficking through ER, ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and Golgi apparatus. These molecules can significantly change the transport rate of proteins by regulating vesicle budding and fusion. Protein transport from ER to Golgi apparatus is not only controlled by signal pathways triggered from outside the cell, it is also regulated by feedback signals from the transport pathway.

  6. Electronic control system for control of electronic electric shift apparatus for manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tury, E.L.; Thoe, G.A.

    1989-04-18

    An electrical control apparatus is described for control of a manual transmission apparatus in a motor vehicle having a plurality of transmission states selected by the position of a shift select lever, the electrical control apparatus comprising: a first electric motor; means drive by the first electric motor and operative in response to energization of the first electric motor to move the shift select lever laterally between left, center, and right locations; a second electric motor; means driven by the second electric motor and operative in response to energization of the second electric motor to move the shift select lever longitudinally between forward, neutral, and rearward locations; operator input means operative to generate a desired transmission sate signal corresponding to manual operator input; a first transmission state sensing means for indicating the left, center, or right location of the shift select lever; a second transmission state sensing means for indicating the forward, neutral or rearward location of the shift select lever; and a logic control unit connected to the operator input means and the first and second transmission state sensing means for generation of a sequence of motor drive signals corresponding to the sequence of motions required for movement of the shift select lever from the present transmission state to the desired transmission state when the desired transmission state differs from the present transmission state, the motor drive signals including a clockwise motor drive signal, a counter-clockwise motor drive signal, a shift up motor drive signal and a shift down motor drive signal.

  7. Considerations on afterload management for patients with centrifugal ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Kouatli, Yasser; Neill, Sean; Pagani, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This case report illustrates the challenges in managing patients with centrifugal ventricular assist devices (VADs). As these devices have evolved, their physical properties have changed, impacting patient management. Levitated centrifugal pumps have a non-linear response to afterloads. The device output will decrease significantly in the presence of high systemic vascular resistance. Blood pressure control is integral to the management of patients in the immediate and later postoperative period.

  8. Method and apparatus for control of a magnetic structure

    DOEpatents

    Challenger, Michael P.; Valla, Arthur S.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus for independently adjusting the spacing between opposing magnet arrays in charged particle based light sources. Adjustment mechanisms between each of the magnet arrays and the supporting structure allow the gap between the two magnet arrays to be independently adjusted. In addition, spherical bearings in the linkages to the magnet arrays permit the transverse angular orientation of the magnet arrays to also be adjusted. The opposing magnet arrays can be supported above the ground by the structural support.

  9. Thermal response simulation for tuning PID controllers in a 1016 mm guarded hot plate apparatus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, William C; Zarr, Robert R

    2011-07-01

    A mathematical model has been developed and used to simulate the controlled thermal performance of a large guarded hot-plate apparatus. This highly specialized apparatus comprises three interdependent components whose temperatures are closely controlled in order to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation materials. The simulation model was used to investigate control strategies and derive controller gain parameters that are directly transferable to the actual instrument. The simulations take orders-of-magnitude less time to carry out when compared to traditional tuning methods based on operating the actual apparatus. The control system consists primarily of a PC-based PID control algorithm that regulates the output voltage of programmable power amplifiers. Feedback parameters in the form of controller gains are required for the three heating circuits. An objective is to determine an improved set of gains that meet temperature control criteria for testing insulation materials of interest. The analytical model is based on aggregated thermal capacity representations of the primary components and includes the same control algorithm as used in the actual hot-plate apparatus. The model, accounting for both thermal characteristics and temperature control, was validated by comparisons with test data. The tuning methodology used with the simulation model is described and results are presented. The resulting control algorithm and gain parameters have been used in the actual apparatus without modification during several years of testing materials over wide ranges of thermal conductivity, thickness, and insulation resistance values.

  10. Method and apparatus for maintaining thermal control in plasma conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for determining the effects of exposure of oxygen plasma on a thin film polymer whose bulk is maintained at a predetermined temperature. The apparatus includes a chamber having a specimen therein. A plasma environment is provided in the chamber. A closure member is provided for sealing the chamber after the specimen is introduced into the chamber. The closure member also serves as a support for the test apparatus which includes a cooling coil. A platform having the test specimen thereon is supported on the cooling coil to be cooled by coolant flowing through the cooling coils. A thermoelectric module is supported on the platform to assist in maintaining a low test temperature for the test samples. The temperature of the sample is monitored by a thermocouple probe which is in contact with the sample. Any change in bulk sample temperature caused by the thermocouple probe is quickly adjusted to maintain the initial bulk temperature by the thermoelectric module.

  11. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOEpatents

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  12. Technique of after-loading interstitial implants.

    PubMed

    Syed, A M; Feder, B H

    1977-01-01

    Interstitial implants are either removable or permanent (and occasionally a combination of both). Permanent implants are generally utilized where tumors are not accessible enough to permit easy removal of sources or where accurate source distribution is less critical. They are useful for cancers of the lung, pancreas, prostate, bladder, lymph nodes, etc. Radon and gold-198 have been largely replaced by iodine-125. Our major interests are in the removable after-loading iridium-192 implant techniques. Template (steel guide) and non-template (plastic tube) techniques are utilized. Templates are preferred where the tumor volume can only be approached from one side and where accurate positioning of sources would otherwise be difficult. They are useful for cancers of the cervix, vagina, urethra, and rectum. Non-template (plastic tube) techniques are preferred where the tumor volume can be approached from at least two sides and where templates are either not feasible or not essential for accurate positioning of sources. The single needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of lip, nodes, and breast (plastic button) and for cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx (gold button). The paired needle non-template approach is useful for cancers of the gum, retromolar trigone, and base of tongue (loop technique) and for cancers of the palate (arch technique). Procedures for each technique are described in detail.

  13. Radiation protection design philosophy for a door interlock system for shared room remote afterloading brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, M K; Gillies, B A; McParland, C S

    1995-12-01

    A single remote afterloading system can sometimes be used for the radiation treatment of two or more patients in separate rooms simultaneously. This configuration poses certain radiation protection problems, especially in a busy clinic where some of the treatment rooms have to be used for other non-radiation related patients even though not all radiation treatments have been completed. In this report we describe a door interlock system that has been designed to allow for radiation protection purposes during radiation treatment but is disabled when the radiation treatment is completed--with enough safeguard built in to prevent accidental bypass of the interlock. In addition, the quality control procedures of the radiation monitor devices for these treatment rooms are described. These radiation protection procedures could be generalized to other remote afterloading systems.

  14. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Josten, N.E.; Svoboda, J.M.

    1999-05-25

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency. 13 figs.

  15. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Josten, Nicholas E.; Svoboda, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency.

  16. Pulmonary vascular collagen content, not cross-linking, contributes to right ventricular pulsatile afterload and overload in early pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijie; Schreier, David A; Abid, Hinnah; Hacker, Timothy A; Chesler, Naomi C

    2017-02-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is associated with pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling and right ventricular (RV) overload. We have previously uncovered collagen-mediated mechanisms of proximal PA stiffening in early HPH by manipulating collagen degradation and cross-linking using a transgenic mouse strain and a potent collagen cross-link inhibitor, β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). However, the roles of collagen in distal PA remodeling, overall RV afterload, and RV hypertrophy in HPH remain unknown. Here, we used the same experimental strategy to investigate the effect of pulmonary vascular collagen content and cross-linking on steady and pulsatile RV afterload and on RV hypertrophy in early HPH. Collagenase-resistant mice (Col1a1(R/R)) and their littermate controls (Col1a1(+/+)) were exposed to normobaric hypoxia for 10 days with or without BAPN treatment. In vivo pulmonary vascular impedance, a comprehensive measure of RV afterload, was measured via simultaneous RV catheterization and echocardiography. Morphology and collagen accumulation were examined using histological techniques and ELISA in lungs and RVs. In both mouse strains, BAPN did not limit increases in pulmonary arterial pressure or pulmonary vascular resistance, indicating a negligible effect of either collagen content or cross-linking on steady RV afterload. However, BAPN prevented the increase in pulse pressure and RV hypertrophy in Col1a1(+/+) mice and these effects were absent in Col1a1(R/R) mice, suggesting a role for PA collagen content, not cross-linking, in the pulsatile RV afterload. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between pulse pressure and RV hypertrophy, indicating an important role for pulsatile RV afterload in RV overload in early HPH.

  17. Apparatus for high flux photocatalytic pollution control using a rotating fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim Z.; Martin, Eric

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus based on optimizing photoprocess energetics by decoupling of the process energy efficiency from the DRE for target contaminants. The technique is applicable to both low- and high-flux photoreactor design and scale-up. An apparatus for high-flux photocatalytic pollution control is based on the implementation of multifunctional metal oxide aerogels and other media in conjunction with a novel rotating fluidized particle bed reactor.

  18. Apparatus for externally controlled closed-loop feedback digital epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Eres, Djula; Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for digital epitaxy. The apparatus includes a pulsed gas delivery assembly that supplies gaseous material to a substrate to form an adsorption layer of the gaseous material on the substrate. Structure is provided for measuring the isothermal desorption spectrum of the growth surface to monitor the active sites which are available for adsorption. The vacuum chamber housing the substrate facilitates evacuation of the gaseous material from the area adjacent the substrate following exposure. In use, digital epitaxy is achieved by exposing a substrate to a pulse of gaseous material to form an adsorption layer of the material on the substrate. The active sites on the substrate are monitored during the formation of the adsorption layer to determine if all the active sites have been filled. Once the active sites have been filled on the growth surface of the substrate, the pulse of gaseous material is terminated. The unreacted portion of the gas pulse is evacuated by continuous pumping. Subsequently, a second pulse is applied when availability of active sites is determined by studying the isothermal desorption spectrum. These steps are repeated until a thin film of sufficient thickness is produced.

  19. Apparatus for externally controlled closed-loop feedback digital epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Eres, D.; Sharp, J.W.

    1996-07-30

    A method and apparatus for digital epitaxy are disclosed. The apparatus includes a pulsed gas delivery assembly that supplies gaseous material to a substrate to form an adsorption layer of the gaseous material on the substrate. Structure is provided for measuring the isothermal desorption spectrum of the growth surface to monitor the active sites which are available for adsorption. The vacuum chamber housing the substrate facilitates evacuation of the gaseous material from the area adjacent the substrate following exposure. In use, digital epitaxy is achieved by exposing a substrate to a pulse of gaseous material to form an adsorption layer of the material on the substrate. The active sites on the substrate are monitored during the formation of the adsorption layer to determine if all the active sites have been filled. Once the active sites have been filled on the growth surface of the substrate, the pulse of gaseous material is terminated. The unreacted portion of the gas pulse is evacuated by continuous pumping. Subsequently, a second pulse is applied when availability of active sites is determined by studying the isothermal desorption spectrum. These steps are repeated until a thin film of sufficient thickness is produced. 5 figs.

  20. 10 CFR 35.690 - Training for use of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and...) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (B) Radiation protection; (C) Mathematics pertaining to the use and... administrative controls to prevent a medical event involving the use of byproduct material; (D) Implementing...

  1. 10 CFR 35.690 - Training for use of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and...) Radiation physics and instrumentation; (B) Radiation protection; (C) Mathematics pertaining to the use and... administrative controls to prevent a medical event involving the use of byproduct material; (D) Implementing...

  2. Method and apparatus for the automated testing of vehicle fuel evaporation control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.N.; Timmerman, G.

    1993-08-31

    Apparatus is described for testing a vehicle fuel evaporation control system comprising a fuel tank, a fuel vapor collection canister and a canister purge control valve, the apparatus comprising an inert gas source, means for connecting said source to the automobile fuel evaporation control system under test, means for monitoring the flow of said inert gas into said fuel evaporation control system, means for determining the integrity of said canister by detection of the outflow of said inert gas from said canister, and monitoring means connected to the exhaust pipe of the automobile to determine the presence of said inert gas in the engine exhaust.

  3. New apparatus for the precise temperature control in 3He refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kiyonori; Yoshida, Hisashi; Suzui, Mitsukazu

    1998-01-01

    A new, simple, and low cost apparatus was developed to control the temperature in the very low-temperature region (0.3-3.3 K) using a 3He refrigerator. A low temperature was obtained by controlling the 3He vapor pressure. The apparatus consists of a set of valves, an automated microvalve, a manually operated auxiliary valve, a controller including a one-board microcomputer, and a set of pressure transducers. The temperature was easily controlled by this apparatus. The temperature stability was 0.95% at 1.04 K by controlling the 3He vapor pressure. The temperature drift was typically 0.02 K at 0.85 K.

  4. Microresonator and associated method for producing and controlling photonic signals with a photonic bandgap delay apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard Lynn (Inventor); Jones, Darryl Keith (Inventor); Keys, Andrew Scott (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    By applying a photonic signal to a microresonator that includes a photonic bandgap delay apparatus having a photonic band edge transmission resonance at the frequency of the photonic signal, the microresonator imparts a predetermined delay to the photonic signal. The photonic bandgap delay apparatus also preferably has a photonic band edge transmission resonance bandwidth which is at least as wide as the bandwidth of the photonic signal such that a uniform delay is imparted over the entire bandwidth of the photonic signal. The microresonator also includes a microresonator cavity, typically defined by a pair of switchable mirrors, within which the photonic bandgap delay apparatus is disposed. By requiring the photonic signal to oscillate within the microresonator cavity so as to pass through the photonic bandgap delay apparatus several times, the microresonator can controllably impart an adjustable delay to the photonic signal.

  5. Assessment of right ventricular afterload by pressure waveform analysis in acute pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Grignola, Juan C; Domingo, Enric; Devera, Lucía; Ginés, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To characterize hydraulic right ventricle (RV) afterload by pulmonary arterial pressure waveform analysis in an acute pulmonary hypertension (PH) model. METHODS: Pulmonary artery (PA) flow and pressure were recorded in six anesthetized sheep. Acute isobaric PH was induced by phenylephrine (active) and PA mechanical constriction (passive). We estimated the amplitude of the forward and reflected pressure waves according to the inflection point. In most cases the inflection pressure was smooth, thus the inflection point was defined as the time at which the first derivative of pulmonary arterial pressure reached its first minimum. We calculated the input and characteristic (ZC, time-domain Li method) impedances, the capacitance index (stroke volume/pulse pressure), the augmentation index (AI) (reflected pressure/pulse pressure), the fractional pulse pressure (pulse pressure/mean pressure) and the wasted energy generated by the RV due to wave reflection during ejection (EW). RESULTS: Pulse pressure, fractional pulse pressure, AI and ZC increased and capacitance index decreased during passive PH with respect to control (P < 0.05). In contrast, ZC and the capacitance index did not change and EW and the AI decreased during active PH. Pulse pressure correlated with EW and ZC and the AI was correlated with EW (r > 0.6, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PA pressure waveform analysis allows the quantification of the dynamic RV afterload. Prospective clinical studies will be necessary to validate this time-domain approach to evaluate the dynamic RV afterload in chronic PH. PMID:22053220

  6. Method and apparatus for controlling LCL converters using asymmetric voltage cancellation techniques

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee Devro; Sharp, Bryan Thomas; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-01-26

    A method and apparatus for LCL resonant converter control utilizing Asymmetric Voltage Cancellation is described. The methods to determine the optimal trajectory of the control variables are discussed. Practical implementations of sensing load parameters are included. Simple PI, PID and fuzzy logic controllers are included with AVC for achieving good transient response characteristics with output current regulation.

  7. Dual Endothelin Receptor Blockade Abrogates Right Ventricular Remodeling and Biventricular Fibrosis in Isolated Elevated Right Ventricular Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Eva Amalie; Sun, Mei; Honjo, Osami; Hjortdal, Vibeke E.; Redington, Andrew N.; Friedberg, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is usually fatal due to right ventricular failure and is frequently associated with co-existing left ventricular dysfunction. Endothelin-1 is a powerful pro-fibrotic mediator and vasoconstrictor that is elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Endothelin receptor blockers are commonly used as pulmonary vasodilators, however their effect on biventricular injury, remodeling and function, despite elevated isolated right ventricular afterload is unknown. Methods Elevated right ventricular afterload was induced by progressive pulmonary artery banding. Seven rabbits underwent pulmonary artery banding without macitentan; 13 received pulmonary artery banding + macitentan; and 5 did not undergo inflation of the pulmonary artery band (sham-operated controls). Results: Right and left ventricular collagen content was increased with pulmonary artery banding compared to sham-operated controls and ameliorated by macitentan. Right ventricular fibrosis signaling (connective tissue growth factor and endothelin-1 protein levels); extra-cellular matrix remodeling (matrix-metalloproteinases 2 and 9), apoptosis and apoptosis-related peptides (caspases 3 and 8) were increased with pulmonary artery banding compared with sham-operated controls and decreased with macitentan. Conclusion Isolated right ventricular afterload causes biventricular fibrosis, right ventricular apoptosis and extra cellular matrix remodeling, mediated by up-regulation of endothelin-1 and connective tissue growth factor signaling. These pathological changes are ameliorated by dual endothelin receptor blockade despite persistent elevated right ventricular afterload. PMID:26765263

  8. Method and apparatus for wind turbine air gap control

    DOEpatents

    Grant, James Jonathan; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Qu, Ronghai

    2007-02-20

    Methods and apparatus for assembling a wind turbine generator are provided. The wind turbine generator includes a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis, a rotor rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis wherein the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to a radially outer periphery of the rotor such that an airgap is defined between the stator windings and the magnetic elements and the plurality of magnetic elements including a radially inner periphery having a first diameter. The wind turbine generator also includes a bearing including a first member in rotatable engagement with a radially inner second member, the first member including a radially outer periphery, a diameter of the radially outer periphery of the first member being substantially equal to the first diameter, the rotor coupled to the stator through the bearing such that a substantially uniform airgap is maintained.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling combustor temperature during transient load changes

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Chalfant, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus includes a fast acting air bypass valve connected in parallel with an air inlet to the combustor. A predetermined excess quantity of air is supplied from an air source to a series connected fuel cell and combustor. The predetermined excess quantity of air is provided in a sufficient amount to control the temperature of the combustor during start-up of the fuel processor when the load on the fuel cell is zero and to accommodate any temperature transients during operation of the fuel cell.

  10. Apparatus for damping operator induced oscillations of a controlled system. [flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Smith, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Flight control-related apparatus for damping operator induced oscillations of a controlled system responding to an operator controlled signal is described. The device utilizes a lag-lead filter for frequency and amplitude estimation of the control input, and a rectification and smoothing filter for producing a signal proportional to the absolute value of the frequency and amplitude estimate for use in suppression of the control system output signal. In one embodiment, this is accomplished by computing a correction signal in a correction generating section. In a second embodiment, a second rectification and smoothing filter produces a signal proportional to the absolute value of the controlled input signal. A ratio of the outputs of the first and second rectification and smoothing filters is then used in a generator to generate a gain factor k sub q for the control system to reduce the gain of the output signal of the control system, thereby to provide a damped control output signal without rate limiting the controlled element.

  11. RNAi screening reveals a large signaling network controlling the Golgi apparatus in human cells.

    PubMed

    Chia, Joanne; Goh, Germaine; Racine, Victor; Ng, Susanne; Kumar, Pankaj; Bard, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus has many important physiological functions, including sorting of secretory cargo and biosynthesis of complex glycans. These functions depend on the intricate and compartmentalized organization of the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate Golgi architecture, we developed a quantitative morphological assay using three different Golgi compartment markers and quantitative image analysis, and performed a kinome- and phosphatome-wide RNAi screen in HeLa cells. Depletion of 159 signaling genes, nearly 20% of genes assayed, induced strong and varied perturbations in Golgi morphology. Using bioinformatics data, a large regulatory network could be constructed. Specific subnetworks are involved in phosphoinositides regulation, acto-myosin dynamics and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Most gene depletion also affected Golgi functions, in particular glycan biosynthesis, suggesting that signaling cascades can control glycosylation directly at the Golgi level. Our results provide a genetic overview of the signaling pathways that control the Golgi apparatus in human cells.

  12. RNAi screening reveals a large signaling network controlling the Golgi apparatus in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Joanne; Goh, Germaine; Racine, Victor; Ng, Susanne; Kumar, Pankaj; Bard, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus has many important physiological functions, including sorting of secretory cargo and biosynthesis of complex glycans. These functions depend on the intricate and compartmentalized organization of the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate Golgi architecture, we developed a quantitative morphological assay using three different Golgi compartment markers and quantitative image analysis, and performed a kinome- and phosphatome-wide RNAi screen in HeLa cells. Depletion of 159 signaling genes, nearly 20% of genes assayed, induced strong and varied perturbations in Golgi morphology. Using bioinformatics data, a large regulatory network could be constructed. Specific subnetworks are involved in phosphoinositides regulation, acto-myosin dynamics and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Most gene depletion also affected Golgi functions, in particular glycan biosynthesis, suggesting that signaling cascades can control glycosylation directly at the Golgi level. Our results provide a genetic overview of the signaling pathways that control the Golgi apparatus in human cells. PMID:23212246

  13. 10 CFR 35.2632 - Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma... MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2632 Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma..., remote afterloader unit, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery unit full calibrations required by §§ 35.632...

  14. Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1992-01-01

    An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the intensity of the laser light used to control the resistance of the photodetector. An optical delay path is provided through which the second portion of the beam travels before reaching the light intensity controlling device. The control voltage is supplied by a variable power supply. The apparatus may be tuned to properly attenuate the laser beam passing through the intensity controlling device by adjusting the power supply, the optical delay path, or the light attenuating means.

  15. An afterloading technique suitable for carcinomas of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Beorchia, A; Fongione, S; Pizzi, G; Guglielmi, R; Mandoliti, G; Cereghini, M; Ceschia, T; Contento, G

    1991-05-01

    The authors describe an afterloading brachytherapy to treat oral cavity carcinomas. Catheters for arterial/venous catheterization are inserted percutaneously in the target volume. The internal needles are then removed and replaced with iridium wires inside tubes to form wire loops. This technique has proven to be simple, quick and safe.

  16. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING DIRECT-CYCLE NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Reed, G.A.

    1961-01-10

    A control arrangement is offered for a boiling-water reactor. Boric acid is maintained in the water in the reactor and the amount in the reactor is controlled by continuously removing a portion of the water from the reactor, concentrating the boric acid by evaporating the water therefrom, returning a controlled amount of the acid to the reactor, and simultaneously controlling the water level by varying the rate of spent steam return to the reactor.

  17. Method and apparatus for automatic control of a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of joints adapted for force control with respect to an object acted upon by the robot, a graphical user interface (GUI) for receiving an input signal from a user, and a controller. The GUI provides the user with intuitive programming access to the controller. The controller controls the joints using an impedance-based control framework, which provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot in response to the input signal. A method for controlling the robotic system includes receiving the input signal via the GUI, e.g., a desired force, and then processing the input signal using a host machine to control the joints via an impedance-based control framework. The framework provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot, and allows for functional-based GUI to simplify implementation of a myriad of operating modes.

  18. Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish

    2006-10-10

    An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.

  19. Vestibular Stimulation for ADHD: Randomized Controlled Trial of Comprehensive Motion Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Crowl, Lindsay; Bozzolo, Hernan; Peruggia, Mario; Ramadan, Yaser; Bornstein, Robert; Hollway, Jill A.; Thompson, Susan; Malone, Krista; Hall, Kristy L.; Shelton, Sara B.; Bozzolo, Dawn R.; Cook, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research evaluates effects of vestibular stimulation by Comprehensive Motion Apparatus (CMA) in ADHD. Method: Children ages 6 to 12 (48 boys, 5 girls) with ADHD were randomized to thrice-weekly 30-min treatments for 12 weeks with CMA, stimulating otoliths and semicircular canals, or a single-blind control of equal duration and…

  20. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  1. ECR apparatus with magnetic coil for plasma refractive index control

    DOEpatents

    Berry, L.A.

    1994-04-26

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figures.

  2. ECR apparatus with magnetic coil for plasma refractive index control

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Lee A.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  3. Method and apparatus for loss of control inhibitor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A'Harrah, Ralph C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Active and adaptive systems and methods to prevent loss of control incidents by providing tactile feedback to a vehicle operator are disclosed. According to the present invention, an operator gives a control input to an inceptor. An inceptor sensor measures an inceptor input value of the control input. The inceptor input is used as an input to a Steady-State Inceptor Input/Effector Output Model that models the vehicle control system design. A desired effector output from the inceptor input is generated from the model. The desired effector output is compared to an actual effector output to get a distortion metric. A feedback force is generated as a function of the distortion metric. The feedback force is used as an input to a feedback force generator which generates a loss of control inhibitor system (LOCIS) force back to the inceptor. The LOCIS force is felt by the operator through the inceptor.

  4. Method and apparatus for loss of control inhibitor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A'Harrah, Ralph C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Active and adaptive systems and methods to prevent loss of control incidents by providing tactile feedback to a vehicle operator are disclosed. According to the present invention, an operator gives a control input to an inceptor. An inceptor sensor measures an inceptor input value of the control input. The inceptor input is used as an input to a Steady-State Inceptor Input/Effector Output Model that models the vehicle control system design. A desired effector output from the inceptor input is generated from the model. The desired effector output is compared to an actual effector output to get a distortion metric. A feedback force is generated as a function of the distortion metric. The feedback force is used as an input to a feedback force generator which generates a loss of control inhibitor system (LOCIS) force back to the inceptor. The LOCIS force is felt by the operator through the inceptor.

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling cross contamination of microfluid channels

    DOEpatents

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.

    2006-02-07

    A method for controlling fluid flow at junctions in microchannel systems. Control of fluid flow is accomplished generally by providing increased resistance to electric-field and pressure-driven flow in the form of regions of reduced effective cross-sectional area within the microchannels and proximate a channel junction. By controlling these flows in the region of a microchannel junction it is possible to eliminate sample dispersion and cross contamination and inject well-defined volumes of fluid from one channel to another.

  6. Impact of increased hematocrit on right ventricular afterload in response to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Schreier, David A; Hacker, Timothy A; Hunter, Kendall; Eickoff, Jens; Liu, Aiping; Song, Gouqing; Chesler, Naomi

    2014-10-15

    Chronic hypoxia causes chronic mountain sickness through hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and increased hematocrit. Here, we investigated the impact of increased hematocrit and HPH on right ventricular (RV) afterload via pulmonary vascular impedance. Mice were exposed to chronic normobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen) for 10 (10H) or 21 days (21H). After baseline hemodynamic measurements, ∼500 μl of blood were extracted and replaced with an equal volume of hydroxyethylstarch to normalize hematocrit and all hemodynamic measurements were repeated. In addition, ∼500 μl of blood were extracted and replaced in control mice with an equal volume of 90% hematocrit blood. Chronic hypoxia increased input resistance (Z0 increased 82% in 10H and 138% in 21H vs. CTL; P < 0.05) and characteristic impedance (ZC increased 76% in 10H and 109% in 21H vs. CTL; P < 0.05). Hematocrit normalization did not decrease mean pulmonary artery pressure but did increase cardiac output such that both Z0 and ZC decreased toward control levels. Increased hematocrit in control mice did not increase pressure but did decrease cardiac output such that Z0 increased. The paradoxical decrease in ZC with an acute drop in hematocrit and no change in pressure are likely due to inertial effects secondary to the increase in cardiac output. A novel finding of this study is that an increase in hematocrit affects the pulsatile RV afterload in addition to the steady RV afterload (Z0). Furthermore, our results highlight that the conventional interpretation of ZC as a measure of proximal artery stiffness is not valid in all physiological and pathological states. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. APPARATUS FOR CONTROL OF HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Heard, H.G.

    1961-10-24

    A particle beam positioning control for a synchrotron or the like is described. The control includes means for selectively impressing a sinusoidal perturbation upon the rising voltage utilized to sweep the frequency of the f-m oscillator which is conventionally coupled to the accelerating electrode of a synchrotron. The perturbation produces a variation in the normal rate of change of frequency of the accelerating voltage applied to the accelerating electrode, resulting in an expansion or contraction of the particle beam orbit diameter during the perturbation. The beam may thus be controlled such that a portion strikes a target positioned close to the expanded or contracted orbit diameter and returns to the original orbit for further acceleration to the final energy. (AEC)

  8. An airfoil pitch apparatus-modeling and control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    1989-03-01

    The study of dynamic stall of rapidly pitching airfoils is being conducted at NASA Ames Research Center. Understanding this physical phenomenon will aid in improving the maneuverability of fighter aircraft as well as civilian aircraft. A wind tunnel device which can linearly pitch and control an airfoil with rapid dynamic response is needed for such tests. To develop a mechanism capable of high accelerations, an accurate model and control system is created. The model contains mathematical representations of the mechanical system, including mass, spring, and damping characteristics for each structural element, as well as coulomb friction and servovalve saturation. Electrical components, both digital and analog, linear and nonlinear, are simulated. The implementation of such a high-performance system requires detailed control design as well as state-of-the-art components. This paper describes the system model, states the system requirements, and presents results of its theoretical performance which maximizes the structural and hydraulic aspects of this system.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  11. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Christopher Francis; Meeks, Ellen; Kee, Robert; McCarty, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  12. Fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus and valving for controlling same

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.; Toews, Hans G.

    1993-01-01

    A control valve assembly for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart's piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. One embodiment of the invention utilized two pairs of fluid-driven free-piston devices whereby a bipropellant liquid propulsion system may be operated, so as to provide continuous flow of both fuel and oxidizer liquids when used in rocket applications, for example.

  13. Valving for controlling a fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1995-06-27

    A pair of control valve assemblies is described for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve assembly is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart`s piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. Each of the valve assemblies uses an intake-exhaust valve and a signal valve with the signal valve of one pump being connected to be pressure responsive to the piston of the opposite cylinder or pump. 15 figs.

  14. Valving for controlling a fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.

    1995-01-01

    A pair of control valve assemblies for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve assembly is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart's piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. Each of the valve assemblies uses an intake-exhaust valve and a signal valve with the signal valve of one pump being connected to be pressure responsive to the piston of the opposite cylinder or pump.

  15. Valving for controlling a fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1995-06-27

    A pair of control valve assemblies is described for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve assembly is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart`s piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. Each of the valve assemblies uses an intake-exhaust valve and a signal valve with the signal valve of one pump being connected to be pressure responsive to the piston of the opposite cylinder or pump. 15 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for adaptive force and position control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses systematic methods and apparatus for the design of real time controllers. Real-time control employs adaptive force/position by use of feedforward and feedback controllers, with the feedforward controller being the inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and containing only proportional-double-derivative terms is disclosed. The feedback controller, of the proportional-integral-derivative type, ensures that manipulator joints follow reference trajectories and the feedback controller achieves robust tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories, all in real time. The adaptive controller includes adaptive force and position control within a hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controller, for force control, achieves tracking of desired force setpoints, and the adaptive position controller accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by adaptation laws.

  17. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling the temperature in thermoforming machines

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, J.

    1985-04-02

    The temperature of upper and lower parts of a forming tool making deep-drawn thermoplastic articles is controlled with a system which performs the steps of passing a coolant of predetermined total volume through the upper part and the lower part of the forming tool; measuring the temperature of the upper and lower parts; determining the actual temperature difference between the upper and lower parts; comparing the actual temperature difference with a predetermined desired temperature difference; generating a signal representing the magnitude of deviation between the actual and desired temperature differences; and, as a function of the signal, increasing the volume of coolant passing through one of the forming tool parts and decreasing the volume of coolant passing through the other of the forming tool parts for reducing the magnitude of deviation while maintaining the total volume unchanged.

  19. Internal sleeve air release control apparatus in seismic air gun

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.C.; Thomson, J.T.

    1981-01-27

    Disclosed is a seismic source device, known in the industry as an air gun, having internal sleeve and shuttle control for allowing a predetermined discharge of compressed air into water for purposes of seismic exploration. The shuttle engages an internal sleeve having ports that momentarily align with exhaust ports and then moves past, sealing off the exhaust ports before all of the compressed air in the firing chamber of the air gun is exhausted. By preventing further discharge of air with little or no loss in acoustic output, pulses are greatly reduced, thereby enhancing the operation of the entire system. Further by preventing all the air in the firing chamber from being discharged, the system becomes more efficient and more cost effective.

  20. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.J.

    1998-06-02

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H{sup {minus}} beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H{sup {minus}} beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H{sup {minus}} beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H{sup {minus}} beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H{sup {minus}} beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H{sup {minus}} beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser. 9 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser.

  2. Method and apparatus for recirculation with control of synchrotron radiation

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Tennant, Christopher

    2016-08-02

    A method for controlling beam quality degradation from ISR and CSR and stabilizing the microbunching instability (.mu.BI) in a high brightness electron beam. The method includes providing a super-periodic second order achromat line with each super period being individually linearly achromatic and isochronous, setting individual superperiod tunes to rational fractions of an integer (such as 4.sup.th or 6.sup.th integers), setting individual bend angles to be as small as practical to reduce driving terms due to dispersion and dispersive angle, and setting bend radii as large enough to suppress ISR but not negatively affect the radial dependence of CSR. The method includes setting the structure of the individual superperiods to minimize bend plane beam envelope values in the dipoles to reduce betatron response to a CSR event at a dispersed location, increasing beam angular divergence, and creating dispersion nodes in the dipoles to similarly reduce response to CSR events, and limit R.sub.56 modulation in order to mitigate .mu.BI.

  3. Effects of transient increased afterload during experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, H; Kloner, R A; Alker, K J; Schoen, F J; Braunwald, E

    1985-02-15

    Alterations in afterload may occur during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it is unknown whether such alterations cause long-term changes in the left ventricular topography or alter healing of the AMI. AMI was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in open-chest dogs. Eight dogs were randomized to a methoxamine group with an infusion dose of 30 micrograms/kg/min starting 1 hour after ligation for 4 hours to increase systemic systolic pressure by 40 to 50 mm Hg, and 8 were randomized to a saline control group (n = 8). Seven days later the dogs were killed and the hearts examined. The ratio of infarct wall thickness to noninfarct wall thickness was 1.13 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in control dogs and was 0.98 +/- 0.03 in the dogs treated with methoxamine (p less than 0.005). An expansion index was determined as previously reported and expansion was considered to have occurred if this index exceeded 1.09. The expansion index was 0.98 +/- 0.06 in the control group and 1.18 +/- 0.07 in the methoxamine group (p less than 0.05). Histologic analysis suggested a lag in the healing rate in the methoxamine-treated dogs. Thus, early, brief increases in afterload cause infarct expansion and thinning and appears to slow the early healing phase of AMI in dogs.

  4. On the Development of a Unique Arc Jet Test Apparatus for Control Surface Seal Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm; Baker, Gus; Erker, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn has developed a unique test apparatus capable of evaluating control surface seal and flap designs under simulated reentry heating conditions in NASA Johnson's arc jet test facility. The test apparatus is capable of testing a variety of seal designs with a variety of control surface materials and designs using modular components. The flap angle can be varied during testing, allowing modification of the seal environment while testing is in progress. The flap angle is varied using an innovative transmission system which limits heat transfer from the hot flap structure to the motor, all while keeping the components properly aligned regardless of thermal expansion. A combination of active and passive cooling is employed to prevent thermal damage to the test fixture while still obtaining the target seal temperature.

  5. Gynaecological treatments using the Selectron remote afterloading system.

    PubMed

    Dean, E M; Lambert, G D; Dawes, P J

    1988-11-01

    The Manchester method of gynaecological treatment using radium 226, ovoids and a flexible intrauterine tube has been used in many centres. In Newcastle, the Manchester technique was used until 1971, when a manually afterloaded system (MAS) using caesium 137 and two source trains was introduced. In 1985, the MAS was replaced by the Selectron remote afterloading system (RAS), which also uses caesium-137 sources. The dosimetry of this remote system has been designed to produce the same shape of isodose distributions as the MAS, but shorter treatment times. The applicator design and the dosimetry of the system used in Newcastle are discussed. Dose rates achieved by the RAS are more than double those currently produced by the MAS, and a reduction in prescribed dose of 10-20% is being made. The percentage of ward staff receiving monthly doses of more than 0.2 mSv has fallen from 78% to 18% since the introduction of the remote afterloading system. The almost-cylindrical isodose distributions facilitate matching of external beam treatments using a central lead wedge to the intracavitary treatments, and work is in progress to develop this technique.

  6. Method and apparatus for controlled size distribution of gel microspheres formed from aqueous dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Ryon, Allen D.; Haas, Paul A.; Vavruska, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for making a population of dense, closely size-controlled microspheres by sol-gel procedures wherein said microspheres are characterized by a significant percentage of said population being within a predetermined, relatively narrow size range. Microsphere populations thus provided are useful in vibratory-packed processes for nuclear fuels to be irradiated in LWR- and FBR-type nuclear reactors.

  7. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-05-01

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error.

  8. Apparatus for use in rapid and accurate controlled-potential coulometric analysis

    DOEpatents

    Frazzini, Thomas L.; Holland, Michael K.; Pietri, Charles E.; Weiss, Jon R.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for controlled-potential coulometric analysis of a solution includes a cell to contain the solution to be analyzed and a plurality of electrodes to contact the solution in the cell. Means are provided to stir the solution and to control the atmosphere above it. A potentiostat connected to the electrodes controls potential differences among the electrodes. An electronic circuit connected to the potentiostat provides analog-to-digital conversion and displays a precise count of charge transfer during a desired chemical process. This count provides a measure of the amount of an unknown substance in the solution.

  9. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  10. Method and apparatus for convection control of metallic halide vapor density in a metallic halide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, T. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed in which a reservoir containing copper chloride is heated so that the copper chloride is maintained in a liquid form. The apparatus includes a means for flowing a buffer gas (which in the exemplary embodiment is neon) over the liquid copper chloride to provide a mixture of copper chloride vapor and neon above the liquid copper chloride. A conduit provides fluid communication between the reservoir containing the copper chloride vapor/neon mixture and the laser. The copper chloride vapor density in the laser is related to the liquid copper chloride temperature and the neon flow rate through the reservoir. In accordance with a further feature of the exemplary embodiment, neon is also provided directly to the laser in order to provide a further means of controlling the copper chloride vapor density in the laser.

  11. Ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Ann N.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1998-01-01

    An ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits. The ion-beam apparatus comprises a stage for holding one or more integrated circuits (ICs); a source means for producing a focused ion beam; and a beam-directing means for directing the focused ion beam to irradiate a predetermined portion of the IC for sufficient time to provide an ion-beam-generated electrical input signal to a predetermined element of the IC. The apparatus and method have applications to failure analysis and developmental analysis of ICs and permit an alteration, control, or programming of logic states or device parameters within the IC either separate from or in combination with applied electrical stimulus to the IC for analysis thereof. Preferred embodiments of the present invention including a secondary particle detector and an electron floodgun further permit imaging of the IC by secondary ions or electrons, and allow at least a partial removal or erasure of the ion-beam-generated electrical input signal.

  12. Ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, A.N.; Soden, J.M.

    1998-12-01

    An ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits are disclosed. The ion-beam apparatus comprises a stage for holding one or more integrated circuits (ICs); a source means for producing a focused ion beam; and a beam-directing means for directing the focused ion beam to irradiate a predetermined portion of the IC for sufficient time to provide an ion-beam-generated electrical input signal to a predetermined element of the IC. The apparatus and method have applications to failure analysis and developmental analysis of ICs and permit an alteration, control, or programming of logic states or device parameters within the IC either separate from or in combination with applied electrical stimulus to the IC for analysis thereof. Preferred embodiments of the present invention including a secondary particle detector and an electron floodgun further permit imaging of the IC by secondary ions or electrons, and allow at least a partial removal or erasure of the ion-beam-generated electrical input signal. 4 figs.

  13. A pulse-width modulation controlled wire-mesh heater apparatus for investigation of solid fuel pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David Ray; Whitty, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    A novel wire mesh heater apparatus has been developed to study the devolatilization of solid fuels under pressurized conditions at well-controlled heating rates on the order of 1000 K/s. The apparatus combines direct current and pulse-width modulation with a fast-acting and high current-capacity relay to achieve operating frequencies up to 2000 Hz. This frequency allows much quicker feedback and tighter control of temperature than conventional ac-based systems that operate at 50 to 60 Hz. The present apparatus has been successfully operated at 63 bars with final temperatures of 1473 K and heating rates of 1100 K/s.

  14. TU-C-201-02: Clinical Implementation of HDR: Afterloader and Applicator Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Esthappan, J.

    2015-06-15

    Recent use of HDR has increased while planning has become more complex often necessitating 3D image-based planning. While many guidelines for the use of HDR exist, they have not kept pace with the increased complexity of 3D image-based planning. Furthermore, no comprehensive document exists to describe the wide variety of current HDR clinical indications. This educational session aims to summarize existing national and international guidelines for the safe implementation of an HDR program. A summary of HDR afterloaders available on the market and their existing applicators will be provided, with guidance on how to select the best fit for each institution’s needs. Finally, the use of checklists will be discussed as a means to implement a safe and efficient HDR program and as a method by which to verify the quality of an existing HDR program. This session will provide the perspective of expert HDR physicists as well as the perspective of a new HDR user. Learning Objectives: Summarize national and international safety and staffing guidelines for HDR implementation Discuss the process of afterloader and applicator selection for gynecologic, prostate, breast, interstitial, surface treatments Learn about the use of an audit checklist tool to measure of quality control of a new or existing HDR program Describe the evolving use of checklists within an HDR program.

  15. Thermal monitoring, measurement, and control system for a Volatile Condensable Materials (VCM) test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermal monitoring and control concept is described for a volatile condensable materials (VCM) test apparatus where electric resistance heaters are employed. The technique is computer based, but requires only proportioning ON/OFF relay control signals supplied through a programmable scanner and simple quadrac power controllers. System uniqueness is derived from automatic temperature measurements and the averaging of these measurements in discrete overlapping temperature zones. Overall control tolerance proves to be better than + or - 0.5 C from room ambient temperature to 150 C. Using precisely calibrated thermocouples, the method provides excellent temperature control of a small copper VCM heating plate at 125 + or - 0.2 C over a 24 hr test period. For purposes of unattended operation, the programmable computer/controller provides a continual data printout of system operation. Real time operator command is also provided for, as is automatic shutdown of the system and operator alarm in the event of malfunction.

  16. Novel apparatus and methods for performing remotely controlled particle-solid interaction experiments at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, H. F.; Deveney, E. F.; Jones, N. L.; Vane, C. R.; Datz, S.; Knudsen, H.; Grafström, P.; Schuch, R.

    1997-04-01

    Recent atomic physics studies involving ultrarelativistic Pb ions required solid target positioners, scintillators, and a sophisticated data acquisition and control system placed in a remote location at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron near Geneva, Switzerland. The apparatus, installed in a high-radiation zone underground, had to (i) function for months, (ii) automatically respond to failures such as power outages and particle-induced computer upsets, and (iii) communicate with the outside world via a telephone line. The heart of the apparatus developed was an Apple Macintosh-based CAMAC system that answered the telephone and interpreted and executed remote control commands that (i) sensed and set targets, (ii) controlled voltages and discriminator levels for scintillators, (iii) modified data acquisition hardware logic, (iv) reported control information, and (v) automatically synchronized data acquisition to the CERN spill cycle via a modem signal and transmitted experimental data to a remote computer. No problems were experienced using intercontinental telephone connections at 1200 baud. Our successful "virtual laboratory" approach that uses off-the-shelf electronics is generally adaptable to more conventional bench-type experiments.

  17. Method and apparatus for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlled size distribution of gel microspheres formed from aqueous dispersions. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.; Vavruska, J.S.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for making a population of dense, closely size-controlled microspheres by sol-gel procedures wherein said microspheres are characterized by a significant percentage of said population being within a predetermined, relatively narrow size range. This is accomplished by subjecting aqueous dispersions of a sol, within a water-immiscible organic liquid to a turbulent flow. Microsphere populations thus provided are useful in vibratory-packed processes for nuclear fuels to be irradiated in LWR- and FBR-type nuclear reactors.

  19. Computer-controlled apparatus for automated development of continuous flow methods

    PubMed Central

    Wentzell, Peter D.; Hatton, Michael J.; Shiundu, Paul M.; Ree, Ronald M.; Betteridge, D.; Sly, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    An automated apparatus to assist in the development of analytical continuous flow methods is described. The system is capable of controlling and monitoring a variety of pumps, valves, and detectors through an IBM PC-AT compatible computer. System components consist of two types of peristaltic pumps (including a multiple pump unit), syringe pumps, electrically and pneumatically actuated valves, and an assortment of spectrophotometric and electrochemical detectors. Details of the interface circuitry are given where appropriate. To demonstrate the utility of the system, an automatically generated response surface is presented for the flow injection determination of iron(II) by its reaction with 1,10-phenanthroline. PMID:18924682

  20. Method and apparatus for controlling an earthworking implement to preserve a crown on a road surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staub, Michael D. (Inventor); Alster, Louis G. (Inventor); Lundquist, Steve D. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling an earthworking implement on an earthworking machine to preserve a crown on the surface of a road, including determining the position of the crown on the road surface, choosing a sloped grade on one side of the crown, positioning the earthworking implement on the sloped grade so that a first end of the earthworking implement is on the road surface. The processor determines a desired position of a second end of the earthworking implement so that the second end overlaps the crown and the earthworking implement does not cut the crown.

  1. Computer implemented method, and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Kenneth William (Inventor); Taylor, James Clayton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The invention described here in is a computer-implemented method and apparatus for controlling a hand-held tool. In particular, the control of a hand held tool is for the purpose of controlling the speed of a fastener interface mechanism and the torque applied to fasteners by the fastener interface mechanism of the hand-held tool and monitoring the operating parameters of the tool. The control is embodied in intool software embedded on a processor within the tool which also communicates with remote software. An operator can run the tool, or through the interaction of both software, operate the tool from a remote location, analyze data from a performance history recorded by the tool, and select various torque and speed parameters for each fastener.

  2. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Keller, Jay O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant.

  3. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant. 10 figs.

  4. Control of development of the oral apparatus of Paramecium during sexual reproduction: an embryological perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, S F; Fujishima, M

    1989-08-01

    This study shows that development of the new soma during sexual reproduction in ciliates can be conceptualized on the same basis as embryogenesis in multicellular organisms. In conjugating Paramecium, development of a new oral apparatus takes place during fertilization and the first three divisions of the zygotic nucleus and completes well before the postsexual cell undergoes the first cell fission. The control of oral development is analyzed by microsurgical removal of the zygotic nucleus or the postzygotic nuclei from conjugants. The enucleated exconjugants can pass through an early hurdle in oral development (the initiation of oral membranelle assembly) and subsequently develop an oral apparatus. Such oral apparatuses nevertheless exhibit structural and functional abnormalities including fragmentation and misalignment of oral membranelles, absence of the postoral microtubular bundle, reduction in the length of buccal cavity, and impaired phagocytosis. Other stomatogenic aspects, such as the arrangement of basal bodies in the oral membranelles, remain unaffected. The two groups of exconjugants, one derived from cells enucleated at the zygotic stage, and the other at the postzygotic stage, exhibit the same types of oral abnormality. We conclude that (i) the zygotic nucleus is not essential for the initiation of oral membranelle assembly. The existence of zygotic signals for subsequent oral development is not ruled out, but these are insufficient. (ii) Postzygotic nuclei, as well as maternal nuclei (the old somatic nucleus and meiotic derivatives of the germ nucleus), control oral development. This reveals a parallelism between postsexual development in ciliates and the early embryology of multicellular organisms, in their reliance on information provided by maternal, as well as early postzygotic nuclei. (iii) The activity of the old somatic nucleus alone is not sufficient for the later stages of oral development. Probably, some stomatogenic functions of the old

  5. 10 CFR 35.633 - Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units. 35.633 Section 35.633 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.633...

  6. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery...

  7. 10 CFR 35.633 - Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units. 35.633 Section 35.633 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.633...

  8. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and...

  9. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and...

  10. 10 CFR 35.633 - Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units. 35.633 Section 35.633 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.633...

  11. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery...

  12. 10 CFR 35.633 - Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units. 35.633 Section 35.633 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.633...

  13. 10 CFR 35.633 - Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Full calibration measurements on remote afterloader units. 35.633 Section 35.633 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.633...

  14. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and...

  15. 10 CFR 35.643 - Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units. 35.643 Section 35.643 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.643 Periodic...

  16. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery...

  17. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery...

  18. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and...

  19. 10 CFR 35.643 - Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units. 35.643 Section 35.643 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.643 Periodic...

  20. 10 CFR 35.643 - Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units. 35.643 Section 35.643 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.643 Periodic...

  1. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.647 Section 35.647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery...

  2. 10 CFR 35.643 - Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units. 35.643 Section 35.643 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.643 Periodic...

  3. 10 CFR 35.2605 - Records of installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair of remote afterloader units...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... repair of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.2605... units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. A licensee shall retain a record of the installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

  4. 10 CFR 35.2605 - Records of installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair of remote afterloader units...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... repair of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.2605... units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. A licensee shall retain a record of the installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

  5. 10 CFR 35.2643 - Records of periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units. 35.2643 Section 35.2643 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2643 Records of periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units. (a) A licensee...

  6. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  7. Cardiac output during high afterload artificial lung attachment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Sato, Hitoshi; Griffith, Grant W; Cook, Keith E

    2009-01-01

    Attachment of thoracic artificial lungs (TALs) can increase right ventricular (RV) afterload and decrease cardiac output (CO) under certain conditions. However, there is no established means of predicting the extent of RV dysfunction. The zeroth harmonic impedance modulus, Z0, was thus examined to determine its effectiveness at predicting CO during high afterload TAL attachment. The MC3 Biolung was attached in four adult sheep groups based on baseline (BL) pulmonary vascular resistance and TAL attachment mode: normal, parallel (n=7); normal, series (n=7); chronic pulmonary hypertension, parallel (n=5), and chronic pulmonary hypertension, series (n=5). The resistance of each attachment mode was increased incrementally and instantaneous pulmonary system hemodynamic data were acquired at each increment. The change in Z0 from BL, DeltaZ0, and percent change in CO (DeltaCO%) were then calculated to determine their relationship. The DeltaCO% varied significantly with DeltaZ0 (p<10(-40)) and DeltaZ02 (p<10(-4)) but not with the attachment and pulmonary hemodynamics group. The relationship between the variables for all sheep groups was DeltaCO%=0.215DeltaZ0(2)-7.14DeltaZ0+2.94 (R2=0.82) for DeltaZ0 in mm Hg/(L/min). Therefore, Z0 is an effective index for determining the CO during TAL attachment in both attachment modes with and without elevated pulmonary vascular resistance.

  8. System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Romine, Peter L. (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A control is provided for a friction stir welding apparatus comprising a pin tool which includes a shoulder and a rotating pin extending outwardly from the shoulder of the pin tool and which, in use, is plunged into a workpiece formed contacting workpiece members to stir weld the members together. The control system controls the penetration of the pin tool into the workpiece members which are mounted on a support anvil. The control system includes a pin length controller for controlling pin length relative to the shoulder and for producing a corresponding pin length signal. A pin force sensor senses the force being exerted on the pin during welding and produces a corresponding actual pin force signal. A probe controller controls a probe extending outwardly from the pin, senses a parameter related to the distance between the probe and the supporting anvil and produces a corresponding probe signal. A workpiece standoff sensor senses the standoff distance between the workpiece and the standoff sensor and produces a corresponding standoff signal. A control unit receives the various signals, together with a weld schedule, and, based on these signals and the weld schedule, controls the pin length controller so as to control pin penetration into the workpiece.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling current in inductive loads such as large diameter coils

    DOEpatents

    Riveros, Carlos A.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling electric current in loads that are essentially inductive, such that sparking and "ringing" current problems are reduced or eliminated. The circuit apparatus employs a pair of solid state switches (each of which switch may be an array of connected or parallel solid state switching devices such as transistors) and means for controlling those switches such that a power supply supplying two d.c. voltages (e.g. positive 150 volts d.c. and negative 150 volts d.c.) at low resistance may be connected across an essentially inductive load (e.g. a 6 gauge wire loop one hundred meters in diameter) alternatively and such that the first solid state switch is turned off and the second is turned on such that both are not on at the same time but the first turned on and the other on in less time than the inductive time constant (L/R) so that the load is essentially always presented with a low resistance path across its input. In this manner a steady AC current may be delivered to the load at a frequency desired. Shut-off problems are avoided by gradually shortening the period of switching to less than the time constant so that the maximum energy contained in the inductive load is reduced to approximately zero and dissipated in the inherent resistance. The invention circuit may be employed by adjusting the timing of switching to deliver a desired waveform (such as sinusoidal) to the load.

  10. Method and apparatus for discharging treated coal and controlling emissions from a heavy oil spray system

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, J.L.

    1986-10-07

    An apparatus is described for discharging heavy oil-treated particulate coal and controlling emissions from a heavy oil spray contacting vessel for contacting particulate coal and heavy oil. The contacting vessel includes a contacting zone into which the heavy oil is injected as a mist to initimately contact the coal as the coal falls through the contacting zone. The apparatus consists of: (a) a discharge chute positioned to receive the heavy oil-treated coal from the lower end of the contacting vessel and discharge the heavy oil-treated coal from a discharge chute outlet positioned on the lower end of the discharge chute; (b) a conveyor belt positioned at a distance beneath the discharge chute outlet so that when the conveyor belt is stopped, a bed of the heavy oil-treated coal is retained in the discharge chute and when the conveyor belt is activated controlled quantities of the heavy oil-treated coal are discharged through the discharge chute outlet at a rate such that the bed of heavy oil-treated coal is retained in the discharge chute; and, (c) a drive means for driving the conveyor belt at a selected rate.

  11. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  12. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  13. Measurement of the UH-60A Hub Large Rotor Test Apparatus Control System Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kufeld, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this report is to provides details of the measurement of the control system stiffness of the UH-60A rotor hub mounted on the Large Rotor Test Apparatus (UH-60A/LRTA). The UH-60A/LRTA was used in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel to complete the full-scale wind tunnel test portion of the NASA / ARMY UH-60A Airloads Program. This report describes the LRTA control system and highlights the differences between the LRTA and UH-60A aircraft. The test hardware, test setup, and test procedures are also described. Sample results are shown, including the azimuthal variation of the measured control system stiffness for three different loadings and two different dynamic actuator settings. Finally, the azimuthal stiffness is converted to fixed system values using multi-blade transformations for input to comprehensive rotorcraft prediction codes.

  14. Control apparatus of an intake air amount in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, M.; Kimura, T.

    1986-04-08

    A control apparatus is described of an intake air amount in an internal combustion engine comprising: a bypass air passageway which is arranged in parallel to an intake pipe to lead the intake air into the internal combustion engine, the bypass air passageway being formed to bypass a throttle valve portion of the intake pipe; an air control valve having an actuator to control the amount of air flowing through the air passageway and an exciting coil to drive and control the actuator in accordance with an amount of an exciting current; drive means for generating a pulse-like drive current which is controlled due to its duty ratio and supplying the drive current to the exciting coil of the air control valve; temperature detecting means for detecting temperature information corresponding to a temperature of the exciting coil of the air control valve; calculation storage means for calculating and storing a correction value of an amount of feedback control to allow the present rotating speed of the internal combustion engine in its idle state to approach an idle objective rotating speed in the states whereby a feedback control condition was set and whereby a value of the temperature information detected by the temperature detecting means lies within a specified temperature range, the stored correction value being used for calculation of a control amount upon open loop control; and control means for setting the duty ratio of the pulse-like drive current which is generated by the drive means in accordance with the control amount for the feedback control and open loop control, thereby controlling the amount of the air which flows through the bypass air passageway.

  15. Afterload-dependent flow fluctuation of centrifugal pump: should it be actively fixed?

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Akazawa, T; Nishinaka, T; Aomi, S; Endo, M; Koyanagi, H

    1998-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical meaning and effects of afterload-dependent flow fluctuation in a centrifugal pump, concomitant measurement of flow rate and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO2) was performed in 5 cases of open heart surgery in which the patients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with the Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump. Continuous measurement of SVO2 using the 3M CDI System 100 was performed with a disposable cuvette incorporated into the drainage circuit. After the target flow rate of 2.4 L/min/m2 was obtained under a nonbeating condition, the pump rotational speed was fixed. During the cooling and low temperature period, SVO2 decreased as the flow rate spontaneously decreased but still stayed around 80% even with a 15-20% decrease in blood flow rate. This indicates that a luxury perfusion condition is ensured as long as the body temperature is kept low. In contrast, during the rewarming period, SVO2 decreased to around 70-75% despite a 15-25% spontaneous increase in flow rate. Although this level of SVO2 still indicates adequate systemic perfusion, there is a possibility of regional hypoperfusion in patients with such conditions as cerebrovascular disease. In conclusion, although diligent adjustment of the physiological fluctuating flow rate in the centrifugal pump seems unnecessary during conventional open heart surgery, manual control may be necessary especially during the rewarming period, normothermic surgery, or circulatory assist for shocked patients. From this study, we also conclude that the major benefit of the afterload-independent autoflow control system of the centrifugal pump is the improvement of safety in terms of the fixed reservoir level and the handling of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  16. Introducing a new paradigm for accelerators and large experimental apparatus control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Zani, F.; Bisegni, C.; Di Pirro, G.; Foggetta, L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Stecchi, A.

    2012-11-01

    The integration of web technologies and web services has been, in the recent years, one of the major trends in upgrading and developing distributed control systems for accelerators and large experimental apparatuses. Usually, web technologies have been introduced to complement the control systems with smart add-ons and user friendly services or, for instance, to safely allow access to the control system to users from remote sites. Despite this still narrow spectrum of employment, some software technologies developed for high-performance web services, although originally intended and optimized for these particular applications, deserve some features suggesting a deeper integration in a control system and, eventually, their use to develop some of the control system’s core components. In this paper, we present the conceptual design of a new control system for a particle accelerator and associated machine data acquisition system, based on a synergic combination of a nonrelational key/value database and network distributed object caching. The use of these technologies, to implement respectively continuous data archiving and data distribution between components, brought about the definition of a new control system concept offering a number of interesting features such as a high level of abstraction of services and components and their integration in a framework that can be seen as a comprehensive service provider that both graphical user interface applications and front-end controllers join for accessing and, to some extent, expanding its functionalities.

  17. A crystallization apparatus for temperature-controlled flow-cell dialysis with real-time visualization

    PubMed Central

    Junius, Niels; Oksanen, Esko; Terrien, Maxime; Berzin, Christophe; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Budayova-Spano, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Many instrumentation developments in crystallization have concentrated on massive parallelization assays and reduction of sample volume per experiment to find initial crystallization conditions. Yet improving the size and diffraction quality of the crystals for diffraction studies often requires decoupling of crystal nucleation and growth. This in turn requires the control of variables such as precipitant and protein concentration, equilibration rate, and temperature, which are all difficult parameters to control in the existing setups. The success of the temperature-controlled batch method, originally developed to grow very large crystals for neutron crystallography, demonstrated that the rational optimization of crystal growth has potential in structural biology. A temperature-controlled dialysis button has been developed for our previous device, and a prototype of an integrated apparatus for the rational optimization of crystal growth by mapping and manipulating temperature–precipitant concentration phase diagrams has been constructed. The presented approach differs from the current paradigm, since it involves serial instead of parallel experiments, exploring multiple crystallization conditions with the same protein sample. The sample is not consumed in the experiment and the conditions can be changed in a reversible fashion, using dialysis with a flowing precipitant reservoir as well as precise temperature control. The control software allows visualization of the crystals, as well as control of the temperature and composition of the crystallization solution. The rational crystallization optimization strategies presented here allow tailoring of crystal size, morphology and diffraction quality, significantly reducing the time, effort and amount of expensive protein material required for structure determination. PMID:27275137

  18. A computer controlled chemical bevel etching apparatus: applications to Auger analysis of multi-layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gomati, M.; Gelsthorpe, A.; Srnanek, R.; Liday, J.; Vogrincic, P.; Kovac, J.

    1999-04-01

    Analysis of thin layer structures can be achieved by chemically etching a bevel and subsequently analysing the surface. However non-linear bevels often result due to differing etch rates of the materials leading to incorrect analysis results. We report on a computer controlled stepper motor reactor whereby the specimen is lowered into the etchant at a rate which compensates for the different etch rates of the various layers constituting the sample. The apparatus is used to produce linear bevels of various magnifications on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. The etchant of H 3PO 4/H 2O 2/H 2O is used for bevel preparation capped by a water layer to suppress the meniscus. Application of the technique to Multi Quantum Wells (MQW) and Bragg diffraction layers is shown. The depth resolution of the bevelled samples are analysed by AES and a comparison is made to conventional ion sputtering techniques.

  19. Apparatus and method for closed-loop control of reactor power in minimum time

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Jr., John A.

    1988-11-01

    Closed-loop control law for altering the power level of nuclear reactors in a safe manner and without overshoot and in minimum time. Apparatus is provided for moving a fast-acting control element such as a control rod or a control drum for altering the nuclear reactor power level. A computer computes at short time intervals either the function: .rho.=(.beta.-.rho.).omega.-.lambda..sub.e '.rho.-.SIGMA..beta..sub.i (.lambda..sub.i -.lambda..sub.e ')+l* .omega.+l* [.omega..sup.2 +.lambda..sub.e '.omega.] or the function: .rho.=(.beta.-.rho.).omega.-.lambda..sub.e .rho.-(.lambda..sub.e /.lambda..sub.e)(.beta.-.rho.)+l* .omega.+l* [.omega..sup.2 +.lambda..sub.e .omega.-(.lambda..sub.e /.lambda..sub.e).omega.] These functions each specify the rate of change of reactivity that is necessary to achieve a specified rate of change of reactor power. The direction and speed of motion of the control element is altered so as to provide the rate of reactivity change calculated using either or both of these functions thereby resulting in the attainment of a new power level without overshoot and in minimum time. These functions are computed at intervals of approximately 0.01-1.0 seconds depending on the specific application.

  20. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  1. 10 CFR 35.643 - Periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., assure proper operation of— (1) Electrical interlocks at each remote afterloader unit room entrance; (2... the source position; (6) Timer accuracy; (7) Clock (date and time) in the unit's computer; and...

  2. Adaptive right ventricular performance in response to acutely increased afterload in a lamb model of congenital heart disease: evidence for enhanced Anrep effect

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rebecca C.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Oishi, Peter E.; Bennett, Stephen; Maki, Jun; Sun, Christine; Johengen, Michael; He, Youping; Raff, Gary W.; Redington, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease survive longer with preserved right ventricular (RV) function compared with those with primary pulmonary hypertension. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that superior RV performance can be demonstrated, at baseline and when challenged with increased RV afterload, in lambs with chronic left-to-right cardiac shunts compared with control lambs. A shunt was placed between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in fetal lambs (shunt). RV pressure-volume loops were obtained 4 wk after delivery in shunt and control lambs, before and after increased afterload was applied using pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Baseline stroke volume (8.7 ± 1.8 vs. 15.8 ± 2.7 ml, P = 0.04) and cardiac index (73.0 ± 4.0 vs. 159.2 ± 25.1 ml·min−1·kg−1, P = 0.02) were greater in shunts. After PAB, there was no difference in the change in cardiac index (relative to baseline) between groups; however, heart rate (HR) was greater in controls (168 ± 7.3 vs. 138 ± 6.6 beats/min, P = 0.01), and end-systolic elastance (Ees) was greater in shunts (2.63 vs. 1.31 × baseline, P = 0.02). Control lambs showed decreased mechanical efficiency (71% baseline) compared with shunts. With acute afterload challenge, both controls and shunts maintained cardiac output; however, this was via maladaptive responses in controls, while shunts maintained mechanical efficiency and increased contractility via a proposed enhanced Anrep effect—the second, slow inotropic response in the biphasic ventricular response to increased afterload, a novel finding in the RV. The mechanisms related to these physiological differences may have important therapeutic implications. PMID:24561861

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling electrode gap during vacuum consumable arc remelting

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, R.W.; Maroone, J.P.; Tipping, D.W.; Zanner, F.J.

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  4. Mock-up Test of Remote Controlled Dismantling Apparatus for Large-sized Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, M.; Myodo, M.; Okane, S.; Miyajima, K.

    2002-02-26

    The remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedure for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various data were obtained from the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF.

  5. Rapid Quench Cold-Seal Apparatus with Computer-Controlled Pressure and Temperature Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A.; Senkovich, D.

    2007-12-01

    We have constructed two computer-controlled, rapid quench, hydrothermal apparatuses that are ideal for experimentation on volcanological, geothermal, and ore deposit research problems. The devices can achieve maximum pressures of about 2 kbar and temperatures to 1100C, have the ability for experiments to be quenched very rapidly in a water-cooled environment, and are interfaced with computers which can control any regimen of pressure and/or temperature cycling that may be desired, accomplished via Lab-View software and data acquisition and motion control boards from National Instruments. The rapid quench aspects of the design were developed originally by Dr. Phil Ihinger and have subsequently been adopted by many labs around the world; a good summary description of these aspects of the equipment, and the use of filler-rods for controlling redox conditions in such equipment, are provided by Matthews et al. (2004, Am. Mineral., 88: 701-707). Our design has fixed Rene 41 pressure vessels, furnaces that are raised and lowered by computer controlled pneumatic cylinders and water cooling systems that are controlled by computer operated solenoid valves. The novel feature of our design is the pressure generation and control systems. We coupled the seal-ends of commercially available (HIP) pressure generators to shop-built linear actuators consisting of nearly frictionless ball lead screws within thick walled stainless steel housings. These in turn are driven by NEMA size 23 stepper motors coupled to 100:1 gear reduction units. The actuators require 21 revolutions to achieve their full stroke of 12.7 cm which displaces about 10 cc of fluid. Operating the motors at the relatively low resolution of 800 steps per revolution leads to about 132,000 steps per cm of travel of the pressure-generating piston, providing exceptionally high precision and excellent pressure control. Instantaneous decompression can be achieved by simply opening a valve while motor-controlled

  6. The golgin tether giantin regulates the secretory pathway by controlling stack organization within Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Koreishi, Mayuko; Gniadek, Thomas J; Yu, Sidney; Masuda, Junko; Honjo, Yasuko; Satoh, Ayano

    2013-01-01

    Golgins are coiled-coil proteins that play a key role in the regulation of Golgi architecture and function. Giantin, the largest golgin in mammals, forms a complex with p115, rab1, GM130, and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), thereby facilitating vesicle tethering and fusion processes around the Golgi apparatus. Treatment with the microtubule destabilizing drug nocodazole transforms the Golgi ribbon into individual Golgi stacks. Here we show that siRNA-mediated depletion of giantin resulted in more dispersed Golgi stacks after nocodazole treatment than by control treatment, without changing the average cisternal length. Furthermore, depletion of giantin caused an increase in cargo transport that was associated with altered cell surface protein glycosylation. Drosophila S2 cells are known to have dispersed Golgi stacks and no giantin homolog. The exogenous expression of mammalian giantin cDNA in S2 cells resulted in clustered Golgi stacks, similar to the Golgi ribbon in mammalian cells. These results suggest that the spatial organization of the Golgi ribbon is mediated by giantin, which also plays a role in cargo transport and sugar modifications.

  7. Process for controlling nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Atsukawa, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Sera, T.; Seto, T.; Ukawa, N.

    1981-11-24

    In a process and an apparatus for controlling oxides of nitrogen in exhaust gases from combustion equipment by decomposing the oxides, in the presence of oxygen, with ammonia blown into the equipment and associated ducting at temperatures within the range from 700 to 1300/sup 0/C, a catalyst assembly is arranged, with the catalytic surfaces of the component units substantially in parallel to the direction of exhaust gas flow, in a region where the temperature of the gas after the decomposing treatment is between 300 and 500/sup 0/C, and the gas after the decomposing treatment is caused to pass through the catalyst assembly to decompose residual nitrogen oxides and ammonia in the gas to innocuous substances. An additional supply of ammonia, in an amount from 0.5 to 1.5 times equivalent (In molar ratio) to the amount of nitrogen oxides in moles in the gas is introduced into the space immediately upstream of the catalyst assembly, thereby to accelerate the decomposition of the oxides in the gas to make it harmless.

  8. A computer-controlled apparatus for Seebeck inhomogeneity testing of sheathed thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Bauserman, Willard A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) thermocouple assemblies are used throughout industry and research facilities as a method of temperature measurement where requirements for either harsh environmental conditions exist, or where rigidity of the measurement probe is required. Seebeck inhomogeneity is the abnormal variation of the Seebeck coefficient from point to point in a material. It is not disclosed in conventional calibration. A standardized method of measuring thermoelectric inhomogeneity along the thermocouple probe length is not available. Therefore, calibration for sheathed probes normally does not include testing of probe inhomogeneity. The measurement accuracy would be severely impacted if significant inhomogeneity and a temperature gradient were present in the same region of the probe. A computer-controlled system for determining inhomogeneities was designed, fabricated, and tested. This system provides an accurate method for the identification of the location of inhomogeneity along the length of a sheathed thermocouple and for the quantification of the inhomogeneity. This paper will discuss the apparatus and procedure used to perform these tests and will present data showing tests performed on sheathed thermocouple probes.

  9. Methods and apparatus for controlling respective load currents of multiple series-connected loads

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Michael; Lys, Ihor

    2014-05-27

    A lighting apparatus (100) includes one or more first LEDs (202) for generating a first spectrum of radiation (503), and one or more second LEDs (204) for generating a second different spectrum radiation (505). The first and second LEDs are electrically connected in series between a first node (516A) and a second node (516B), between which a series current (550) flows with the application of an operating voltage (516) across the nodes. A controllable current path (518) is connected in parallel with one or both of the first and second LEDs so as to at least partially divert the series current, such that a first current (552) through the first LED(s) and a second current (554) through the second LED(s) are different. Such current diversion techniques may be employed to compensate for shifts in color or color temperature of generated light during thermal transients, due to different temperature-dependent current-to-flux relationships for different types of LEDs.

  10. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    DOEpatents

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  11. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

  12. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three pieces of scientific apparatus and their demonstrational use: a high temperature apparatus for positron annihilation studies, a digitally synthesized classroom variable star, and a demonstration of plasma laser-beam focusing using paint stripper flames. (GA)

  13. Regional myocardial function and response to acute afterload increase in chronically anemic fetal sheep: evaluation by two-dimensional strain echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Bernard, Leah S; Hashima, Jason N; Deng, You-Bin; Zhou, Zhiwen; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hohimer, A Roger; Davis, Lowell E; Shentu, Weihui; Sahn, David J; Rasanen, Juha

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that in chronic fetal anemia, remodeling of the myocardium is related to abnormalities in regional wall motion and acutely increased afterload further disturbs myocardial strain. Chronic anemia was induced in one fetus of each of seven sheep twin pregnancies. The fetuses were studied by two-dimensional (2-D) strain echocardiography at baseline and during increased afterload via angiotensin II (AT II) infusion. At baseline, the peak systolic longitudinal, radial and circumferential strains in the left ventricular lateral wall in anemic fetuses were lower than those in the controls (all p<0.05). During AT II, the circumferential strain of right ventricular free wall decreased significantly both in the control and anemic fetuses. Left ventricular free wall systolic strains were not affected by AT II. Fetal myocardial remodeling in chronic anemia decreases left ventricular systolic free wall strains. The myocardial adaptation does not change ventricular responses to acutely increased afterload. Copyright © 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Apparatus for controlling the flow of exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine with a turbocharger and a catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, K.; Omata, K.

    1984-03-20

    An apparatus for controlling the flow of the exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine including a turbocharger, a catalytic converter in an exhaust duct, and a throttle valve in an intake duct, wherein the apparatus comprises a bypass passage bypassing a turbine of the turbocharger, a waste gate valve which controls the amount of the exhaust gas passing therethrough, an actuator for actuating the waste gate valve which has first and second pressure chambers separated from one another, and a switching valve which selectively connects the second pressure chamber to the atmosphere or to the intake vacuum area, the first pressure chamber being connected to the delivery pressure area of the turbocharger by means of a conduit which is connected to an atmospheric pressure area via a restriction.

  15. Impact of Afterload on the Assessment of Severity of Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Sohn, Dae-Won

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aortic stenosis (AS) is increasingly diagnosed in current aging society. Echocardiography is the most important tool in the assessment of AS and its severity. However, load-dependency of Doppler measurement could affect the accuracy of AS severity assessment. We tried to evaluate the impact of afterload on the assessment of AS severity by modification of afterload using pneumatic compression (Pcom). METHODS Forty patients diagnosed as moderate or severe AS [effective orifice area of aortic valve (EOAAV) by continuity equation of < 1.5 cm2] were consecutively enrolled. Patients with severely uncontrolled hypertension, severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and other significant valve disease were excluded. Comprehensive echocardiography was performed at baseline to assess AS severity. Then, pneumatic compression of the lower extremities by 100 mmHg was applied to increase LV afterload. After 3 minutes, echocardiography was repeated to assess AS severity. RESULTS Mean blood pressure was significantly increased under Pcom (p < 0.001), while heart rate remained unchanged. Peak aortic valve velocity (Vmax) was slightly, but significantly decreased under Pcom (p = 0.03). However, Doppler velocity index and EOAAV by continuity equation were not affected by Pcom. CONCLUSION AS severity assessment by echocardiography was not dependent on the change of LV afterload imposed by Pcom. AV Vmax was slightly decreased with LV afterload increment, but these changes were too small to alter treatment plan of AS patients. EOAAV and Doppler velocity index are more stable parameters for AS severity assessment. PMID:22787524

  16. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  17. Alumina ceramic as a biomaterial for use in afterloading radiation catheters for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F T; Salcman, M; Broadwell, R D; Sewchand, W; Neuberth, G

    1989-08-01

    A major technical challenge to the use of interstitial hyperthermia in malignant brain tumors is the production of a well-defined, uniform hyperthermal field. In theory, A 915-MHz microwave antenna should allow fewer antennas to be used and cause less mechanical brain damage; however, standard radiation afterloading catheters require antennas to be 12 cm long; this is clearly impractical for intracranial use. Since alumina ceramic (Al2O3) catheters permit short microwave antennas (3-5 cm in length) to function properly in neural tissue, it is important to test the biocompatibility of alumina for use in combined interstitial microwave hyperthermia and brachytherapy. A 5-mm length of alumina catheter was implanted into the brains of 15 white rats. The animals were killed at 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days. Histological examination revealed only minor mechanical damage and no encapsulation until 1 month; even then, the glial wall was only a few cell layers thick. Five animals received implants and were killed at similar intervals for x-ray microanalysis with the scanning electron microscope. No migration of aluminum into the brain was detected when compared with two control animals that did not receive implants and an alumina blank. Although we measured 50% attenuation of the radiation from iridium-192 sources in alumina catheters as compared with conventional ones, alumina catheters can still be used for interstitial radiation by increasing either the activity of the seeds or the duration of treatment.

  18. Reduction in radiation exposure to nursing personnel with the use of remote afterloading brachytherapy devices

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, P.W.; Perez, C.A.; Eichling, J.; Purdy, J.; Slessinger, E. )

    1991-03-01

    The radiation exposure to nursing personnel from patients with brachytherapy implants on a large brachytherapy service were reviewed. Exposure to nurses, as determined by TLD monitors, indicates a 7-fold reduction in exposure after the implementation of the use of remote afterloading devices. Quarterly TLD monitor data for six quarters prior to the use of remote afterloading devices demonstrate an average projected annual dose equivalent to the nurses of 152 and 154 mrem (1.5 mSv). After the implementation of the remote afterloading devices, the quarterly TLD monitor data indicate an average dose equivalent per nurse of 23 and 19 mrem (0.2 mSv). This is an 87% reduction in exposure to nurses with the use of these devices (p less than 0.01).

  19. 10 CFR 35.610 - Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.610 Section 35.610 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units...

  20. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  1. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  2. 10 CFR 35.610 - Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.610 Section 35.610 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units...

  3. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  4. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma...

  5. 10 CFR 35.610 - Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.610 Section 35.610 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units...

  6. 10 CFR 35.610 - Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.610 Section 35.610 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units...

  7. 10 CFR 35.610 - Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety procedures and instructions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.610 Section 35.610 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units...

  8. 10 CFR 35.2630 - Records of dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.2630 Section 35.2630... dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2630 - Records of dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.2630 Section 35.2630... dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

  10. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  11. Dose rate in brachytherapy using after-loading machine: pulsed or high-dose rate?

    PubMed

    Hannoun-Lévi, J-M; Peiffert, D

    2014-10-01

    Since February 2014, it is no longer possible to use low-dose rate 192 iridium wires due to the end of industrial production of IRF1 and IRF2 sources. The Brachytherapy Group of the French society of radiation oncology (GC-SFRO) has recommended switching from iridium wires to after-loading machines. Two types of after-loading machines are currently available, based on the dose rate used: pulsed-dose rate or high-dose rate. In this article, we propose a comparative analysis between pulsed-dose rate and high-dose rate brachytherapy, based on biological, technological, organizational and financial considerations.

  12. Apparatus for controlling the air fuel mixture of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, H.; Kimata, K.; Nakazeki, T.

    1980-06-03

    A fuel feeding apparatus for internal combustion engines comprises an area type air flow rate measuring section in which the air flow rate is dependent on the displacement of an air flow rate detecting valve, and a fuel flow rate measuring and distributing section in which a variable orifice defined by a rotor and a stator determines the fuel flow rate proportional to the air flow rate. This apparatus is characterized by the provision of an exhaust gas sensor disposed in the exhaust pipe for the detection of the oxygen concentration of the exhaust gas in order to achieve the complete combustion of fuel in the internal combustion engine, the output signal from the exhaust gas sensor being used to compensate the fuel feeding pressure and a spring force which acts on the pressure difference setting diaphragm of a servo-mechanism.

  13. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling third harmonic voltage when operating a multi-space machine in an overmodulation region

    DOEpatents

    Perisic, Milun; Kinoshita, Michael H; Ranson, Ray M; Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2014-06-03

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for controlling third harmonic voltages when operating a multi-phase machine in an overmodulation region. The multi-phase machine can be, for example, a five-phase machine in a vector controlled motor drive system that includes a five-phase PWM controlled inverter module that drives the five-phase machine. Techniques for overmodulating a reference voltage vector are provided. For example, when the reference voltage vector is determined to be within the overmodulation region, an angle of the reference voltage vector can be modified to generate a reference voltage overmodulation control angle, and a magnitude of the reference voltage vector can be modified, based on the reference voltage overmodulation control angle, to generate a modified magnitude of the reference voltage vector. By modifying the reference voltage vector, voltage command signals that control a five-phase inverter module can be optimized to increase output voltages generated by the five-phase inverter module.

  14. Detection Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H L

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns a sensitive apparatus for detecting and counting neutrons, particularly neutrons liberated in an alpha, neutron reaction. The apparatus includes an improved ionization chamber structure together with an improved combination alpha-particle source and holder for the material under test.

  15. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  16. 10 CFR 35.2632 - Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the teletherapy unit... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. 35.2632 Section 35.2632 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  17. 10 CFR 35.2632 - Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the teletherapy unit... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. 35.2632 Section 35.2632 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2632 - Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the teletherapy unit... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. 35.2632 Section 35.2632 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  19. 10 CFR 35.2632 - Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the teletherapy unit... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of teletherapy, remote afterloader, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery full calibrations. 35.2632 Section 35.2632 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  20. 10 CFR 35.2605 - Records of installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair of remote afterloader units...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair of remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.2605 Section 35.2605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records §...

  1. 10 CFR 35.2647 - Records of additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.2647 Section 35.2647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2647 Records of additional technical requirements for mobile...

  2. Right ventricular afterload and the role of nitric oxide metabolism in left-sided heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Matthias; Tang, W H Wilson

    2013-10-01

    Awareness has grown in recent years that right ventricular (RV) function is equally important as left ventricular (LV) function in the setting of left-sided heart disease. RV dysfunction can be the consequence of an increased afterload imposed by the failing LV. The concept of "afterload" is physically most correctly described by vascular input impedance. However, for clinical purposes, afterload is most often modeled to consist of 3 components; pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC), and characteristic impedance. Whereas PVR is historically most described, PAC (which represents the distensibility of the vasculature) has rapidly gained recognition for its prognostic ability in both pulmonary arterial hypertension and left-sided heart disease. Owing to the specific anatomy of the pulmonary circulation, PVR and PAC have an inverse hyperbolic relationship, which position can be shifted by varying wedge pressures. Knowledge of the afterload components helps one to understand how elevated left-sided filling pressures increase pulsatile load on the RV. An increase in resistive load (known as "reactive" or "out-of-proportion" pulmonary hypertension) ultimately complements the increase in pulsatile load. Perturbations in nitric oxide metabolism are thought to be crucial in this evolution and have therefore been sought as a major therapeutic target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 10 CFR 35.2643 - Records of periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of periodic spot-checks for remote afterloader units. 35.2643 Section 35.2643 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL... monitors, source exposure indicator lights, viewing and intercom systems, and clock and decayed source...

  4. 10 CFR 35.2647 - Records of additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units. 35.2647 Section 35.2647 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF... of each entrance door electrical interlock, radiation monitors, source exposure indicator lights...

  5. A compilation of current regulations, standards and guidelines in remote afterloading brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, J.P.; Simion, G.P.; Kozlowski, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    Over a dozen government and professional organizations in the United States and Europe have issued regulations and guidance concerning quality management in the practice of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Information from the publications of these organizations was collected and collated for this report. This report provides the brachytherapy licensee access to a broad field of quality management information in a single, topically organized document.

  6. Method and Apparatus for the Portable Identification Of Material Thickness And Defects Along Uneven Surfaces Using Spatially Controlled Heat Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, Thomas L. (Inventor); Jacobstein, A. Ronald (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing a material such as the water-wall tubes in boilers includes the use of a portable thermal line heater having radiation shields to control the amount of thermal radiation that reaches a thermal imager. A procedure corrects for variations in the initial temperature of the material being inspected. A method of calibrating the testing device to determine an equation relating thickness of the material to temperatures created by the thermal line heater uses empirical data derived from tests performed on test specimens for each material type, geometry, density, specific heat, speed at which the line heater is moved across the material and heat intensity.

  7. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  8. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, R.H.; Chai, J.; Lang, J.H.; Hagman, W.H.; Umans, S.D.; Saarela, O.J.

    1997-01-14

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit. 28 figs.

  9. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, Richard H.; Chai, Jangbom; Lang, Jeffrey H.; Hagman, Wayne H.; Umans, Stephen D.; Saarela, Olli J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit.

  10. Packard's Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Packard's Falling Body Apparatus, invented by John C. Packard, which is essentially an inclined plane combined with a simple and elegant method of measuring the relative time of descent of a steel ball. (JRH)

  11. Packard's Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Packard's Falling Body Apparatus, invented by John C. Packard, which is essentially an inclined plane combined with a simple and elegant method of measuring the relative time of descent of a steel ball. (JRH)

  12. Reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  13. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Includes five brief articles on: solar-heating demonstration equipment, mercury or sodium vapor lamp spectroscopy, an apparatus for simulating variable stars, a voltage-to-frequency converter, and an introductory absorption experiment for low-energy beta particles. (MLH)

  14. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

  15. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a technique to produce samples for x-ray diffraction studies on the Tel-X-Ometer 80 x-ray apparatus from readily available crystalline powders and discusses observations of transverse modes of an optical resonator. (SK)

  16. Apparatus and Method for Measuring Air Temperature Ahead of an Aircraft for Controlling a Variable Inlet/Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method employ remote sensing to measure the air temperature a sufficient distance ahead of the aircraft to allow time for a variable inlet/engine assembly to be reconfigured in response to the measured temperature, to avoid inlet unstart and/or engine compressor stall. In one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention has a remote sensor for measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle and an inlet control system for varying the inlet. The remote sensor determines a change in temperature value using at least one temperature measurement and prior temperature measurements corresponding to the location of the aircraft. The control system uses the change in air temperature value to vary the inlet configuration to maintain the position of the shock wave during the arrival of the measured air in the inlet. In one embodiment, the method of the invention includes measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle, determining an air temperature at the vehicle from prior air temperature measurements, determining a change in temperature value using the air temperature at the vehicle and the at least one air temperature measurement ahead of the vehicle, and using the change in temperature value to-reposition the airflow inlet, to cause the shock wave to maintain substantially the same position within the inlet as the airflow temperature changes within the inlet.

  17. Apparatus to control and visualize the impact of a high-energy laser pulse on a liquid target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alexander L.; Lohse, Detlef; Versluis, Michel; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2017-09-01

    We present an experimental apparatus to control and visualize the response of a liquid target to a laser-induced vaporization. We use a millimeter-sized drop as target and present two liquid-dye solutions that allow a variation of the absorption coefficient of the laser light in the drop by seven orders of magnitude. The excitation source is a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at its frequency-doubled wavelength emitting nanosecond pulses with energy densities above the local vaporization threshold. The absorption of the laser energy leads to a large-scale liquid motion at time scales that are separated by several orders of magnitude, which we spatiotemporally resolve by a combination of ultra-high-speed and stroboscopic high-resolution imaging in two orthogonal views. Surprisingly, the large-scale liquid motion upon laser impact is completely controlled by the spatial energy distribution obtained by a precise beam-shaping technique. The apparatus demonstrates the potential for accurate and quantitative studies of laser-matter interactions.

  18. Targeted deletion of Tsc1 causes fatal cardiomyocyte hyperplasia independently of afterload.

    PubMed

    Kayyali, Usamah S; Larsen, Christopher G; Bashiruddin, Sarah; Lewandowski, Sara L; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Warburton, Rod R; Parkhitko, Andrey A; Morrison, Tasha A; Henske, Elizabeth P; Chekaluk, Yvonne; Kwiatkowski, David J; Finlay, Geraldine A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high expression levels, the role of Tsc1 in cardiovascular tissue is ill defined. We launched this study to examine the role of Tsc1 in cardiac physiology and pathology. Mice in which Tsc1 was deleted in cardiac tissue and vascular smooth muscle (Tsc1c/cSM22cre(+/-)), developed progressive cardiomegaly and hypertension and died early. Hearts of Tsc1c/cSM22cre(+/-) mice displayed a progressive increase in cardiomyocyte number, and to a lesser extent, size between the ages of 1 and 6 weeks. In addition, compared to control hearts, proliferation markers (phospho-histone 3 and PCNA) were elevated in Tsc1c/cSM22cre(+/-) cardiomyocytes at 0-4 weeks, suggesting that cardiomyocyte proliferation was the predominant mechanism underlying cardiomegaly in Tsc1c/cSM22cre(+/-) mice. To examine the contribution of Tsc1 deletion in peripheral vascular smooth muscle to the cardiac phenotype, Tsc1c/cSM22cre(+/-) mice were treated with the antihypertensive, hydralazine. Prevention of hypertension had no effect on survival, cardiac size, or cardiomyocyte number in these mice. We furthermore generated mice in which Tsc1 was deleted only in vascular smooth muscle but not in cardiac tissue (Tsc1c/cSMAcre-ER(T2+/-)). The Tsc1c/cSMAcre-ER(T2+/-) mice also developed hypertension. However, their survival was normal and no cardiac abnormalities were observed. Our results suggest that loss of Tsc1 in the heart causes cardiomegaly, which is driven by increased cardiomyocyte proliferation that also appears to confer relative resistance to afterload reduction. These findings support a critical role for the Tsc1 gene as gatekeeper in the protection against uncontrolled cardiac growth.

  19. NMR logging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  20. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, T.G.; Offen, G.R.

    1992-11-24

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing SO[sub x] and NO[sub x] levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO[sub x] burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO[sub x] initially produced in the combustion of the coal. A selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300 F to 2000 F, and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200 F to 900 F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants. 7 figs.

  1. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Terry G.; Offen, George R.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing SO.sub.x and NO.sub.x levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO.sub.x burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO.sub.x initially produced in the combustion of the coal, a selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F., and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200.degree. F. to 900.degree. F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants.

  2. Mechanosignaling between central apparatus and radial spokes controls axonemal dynein activity

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Toshiyuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Yagi, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    Cilia/flagella are conserved organelles that generate fluid flow in eukaryotes. The bending motion of flagella requires concerted activity of dynein motors. Although it has been reported that the central pair apparatus (CP) and radial spokes (RSs) are important for flagellar motility, the molecular mechanism underlying CP- and RS-mediated dynein regulation has not been identified. In this paper, we identified nonspecific intermolecular collision between CP and RS as one of the regulatory mechanisms for flagellar motility. By combining cryoelectron tomography and motility analyses of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we show that binding of streptavidin to RS heads paralyzed flagella. Moreover, the motility defect in a CP projection mutant could be rescued by the addition of exogenous protein tags on RS heads. Genetic experiments demonstrated that outer dynein arms are the major downstream effectors of CP- and RS-mediated regulation of flagellar motility. These results suggest that mechanosignaling between CP and RS regulates dynein activity in eukaryotic flagella. PMID:24590175

  3. Apparatus Review: Cenco Wave Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Some apparatus from the 19th century illustrates the phenomena of physics so well that it crops up again in the 21st century. An example is the combined transverse and longitudinal wave machine in Fig. 1. This is in the current Cenco/Sargent-Welch catalog under the name of "Wave Apparatus" (Cat. No. WLS-1755-90) and sells for 49.95.

  4. 10 CFR 35.600 - Use of a sealed source in a remote afterloader unit, teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and..., teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic radiosurgery unit. A licensee shall use sealed sources in photon...

  5. 10 CFR 35.600 - Use of a sealed source in a remote afterloader unit, teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and..., teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic radiosurgery unit. A licensee shall use sealed sources in photon...

  6. 10 CFR 35.600 - Use of a sealed source in a remote afterloader unit, teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and..., teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic radiosurgery unit. A licensee shall use sealed sources in photon...

  7. 10 CFR 35.600 - Use of a sealed source in a remote afterloader unit, teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and..., teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic radiosurgery unit. A licensee shall use sealed sources in photon...

  8. 10 CFR 35.600 - Use of a sealed source in a remote afterloader unit, teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and..., teletherapy unit, or gamma stereotactic radiosurgery unit. A licensee shall use sealed sources in photon...

  9. Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus for Investigating Closed-Loop Control of Ankle Joint Muscle Contractions during Functional Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, John F; Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H; Zariffa, José; Robinson, Mark; Lynch, Cheryl; Popovic, Milos R

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of arm-free standing in individuals with paraplegia can be facilitated via functional electrical stimulation (FES). In developing adequate control strategies for FES systems, it remains challenging to test the performance of a particular control scheme on human subjects. In this study, we propose a testing platform for developing effective control strategies for a closed-loop FES system for standing. The Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus (IPSA) is a mechanical inverted pendulum, whose angular position is determined by the subject's ankle joint angle as controlled by the FES system while having the subject's body fixed in a standing frame. This approach provides a setup that is safe, prevents falling, and enables a research and design team to rigorously test various closed-loop controlled FES systems applied to the ankle joints. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the IPSA, we conducted a case series that employed the device for studying FES closed-loop controllers for regulating ankle joint kinematics during standing. The utilized FES system stimulated, in able-bodied volunteers, the plantarflexors as they prevent toppling during standing. Four different conditions were compared, and we were able to show unique performance of each condition using the IPSA. We concluded that the IPSA is a useful tool for developing and testing closed-loop controlled FES systems for regulating ankle joint position during standing.

  10. Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus for Investigating Closed-Loop Control of Ankle Joint Muscle Contractions during Functional Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, John F.; Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H.; Zariffa, José; Robinson, Mark; Lynch, Cheryl; Popovic, Milos R.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of arm-free standing in individuals with paraplegia can be facilitated via functional electrical stimulation (FES). In developing adequate control strategies for FES systems, it remains challenging to test the performance of a particular control scheme on human subjects. In this study, we propose a testing platform for developing effective control strategies for a closed-loop FES system for standing. The Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus (IPSA) is a mechanical inverted pendulum, whose angular position is determined by the subject's ankle joint angle as controlled by the FES system while having the subject's body fixed in a standing frame. This approach provides a setup that is safe, prevents falling, and enables a research and design team to rigorously test various closed-loop controlled FES systems applied to the ankle joints. To demonstrate the feasibility of using the IPSA, we conducted a case series that employed the device for studying FES closed-loop controllers for regulating ankle joint kinematics during standing. The utilized FES system stimulated, in able-bodied volunteers, the plantarflexors as they prevent toppling during standing. Four different conditions were compared, and we were able to show unique performance of each condition using the IPSA. We concluded that the IPSA is a useful tool for developing and testing closed-loop controlled FES systems for regulating ankle joint position during standing. PMID:27350992

  11. Irradiation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldie, C.H.; Fernald, R.A.

    1974-01-29

    An apparatus for introducing ionizing radiation into compressed gas insulation systems, such as high-voltage generators or transmission lines to smooth out electrical discontinuities, particularly those caused by foreign particulates that produce high gradients, and to increase the voltage holding capability of the system is described. The apparatus of the invention may also be used to regulate and stabilize the voltage of the system by varying the amount of applied load. A corona discharge device may also be used in conjunction with the invention. (Official Gazette)

  12. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  13. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  14. MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, P.G.

    1963-10-01

    Molding apparatus capable of coating multiple elements each molding cycle is described. The apparatus comprises a centrally disposed reservoir penetrated by a plurality of circumferentially arranged and radially extending passageways. These passageways, in turn, communicate with passages in a separable annular member that retains selectively configured molds and mold seating arrangements. Each mold, which is readily removable from its respective seat, is adapted to retain an element therein in spaced relation to the interior of the mold by utilizing element positioning means within the mold seat and the mold so that coating material may flow about the entire outer surface of the element. (AEC)

  15. The "plantar test" apparatus (Ugo Basile Biological Apparatus), a controlled infrared noxious radiant heat stimulus for precise withdrawal latency measurement in the rat, as a tool for humans?

    PubMed

    Montagne-Clavel, J; Oliveras, J L

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we precisely and automatically measured the withdrawal latency to noxious radiant heat application in unrestrained male rats and in human subjects of both sexes, by means of the "plantar test" apparatus (Ugo Basile Biological Apparatus). The infrared light stimulus of this tool was applied underneath the hindpaws of rats and the middle fingers of human subjects. With one right and one left stimulation every 10 min, we observed a decrease in latency over a 40-min testing period in rats; the latency reached a mean value of 5.08 +/- 0.25 sec after 40 min with a 36-W stimulus, which corresponded to 46.5 degrees C. In pilot experiments, also performed on rats, we showed that the opiate morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced remarkable increases of the withdrawal latency only in "naive" animals (i.e., ones that had never experienced the plantar test stimulus) and not in animals "habituated" to it. Among humans, we noted gender differences, such as less sensitivity to the infrared noxious radiant heat for women, particularly during the menstrual period. A difference from rats was that there was no significant latency modification along the 40-min testing period for either women or men, with a mean latency of 5.61 +/- 0.18 sec (47.5 degrees C) for the women and 4.39 +/- 0.10 sec (45.5 degrees C) for the men. These data confirm the reliability of the plantar test in rats, and demonstrate the possible use of an infrared source in human subjects as a noxious heat stimulus; the withdrawal reaction to this stimulus is emphasized as a good index of nociception in humans.

  16. ELECTRON MICROSCOPICAL STUDY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE DURING ISOTONIC (AFTERLOAD) AND ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION

    PubMed Central

    Knappeis, G. G.; Carlsen, F.

    1956-01-01

    Bundles of the curarized semitendinosus muscle of the frog were fixed during isotonic (afterload) and isometric contraction and the length of the A and I bands investigated by electron microscopy. The sarcomere length, during afterload contraction initiated at 25 per cent stretch, varied depending on the afterload applied between 3.0 and 1.2 µ, i.e. the shortening amounted to 5 to 50 per cent. The shortening involved both the A and I bands. Between a sarcomere length of 3.0 to 1.7 µ (shortening 5 to 35 per cent) the A bands remained practically constant at about 1.5 µ (6 to 8 per cent shortening); the length of the I bands decreased from 1.4 to 0.3 µ (80 per cent shortening). Below a sarcomere length of 1.7 to 1.2 µ the A bands shortened from 1.5 to 1.0 µ (from 6 to 8 to 25 per cent). At sarcomere lengths 1.6 to 1.2 µ the I band was replaced by a contraction band. During isometric contraction the A bands shortened by about 8 to 10 per cent; the I bands were correspondingly elongated. PMID:13319381

  17. Pulmonary vascular wall stiffness: An important contributor to the increased right ventricular afterload with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijie; Chesler, Naomi C

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with structural and mechanical changes in the pulmonary vascular bed that increase right ventricular (RV) afterload. These changes, characterized by narrowing and stiffening, occur in both proximal and distal pulmonary arteries (PAs). An important consequence of arterial narrowing is increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Arterial stiffening, which can occur in both the proximal and distal pulmonary arteries, is an important index of disease progression and is a significant contributor to increased RV afterload in PH. In particular, arterial narrowing and stiffening increase the RV afterload by increasing steady and oscillatory RV work, respectively. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the causes and consequences of pulmonary arterial stiffening in PH and its impact on RV function. We review direct and indirect techniques for measuring proximal and distal pulmonary arterial stiffness, measures of arterial stiffness including elastic modulus, incremental elastic modulus, stiffness coefficient β and others, the changes in cellular function and the extracellular matrix proteins that contribute to pulmonary arterial stiffening, the consequences of PA stiffening for RV function and the clinical implications of pulmonary vascular stiffening for PH progression. Future investigation of the relationship between PA stiffening and RV dysfunction may facilitate new therapies aimed at improving RV function and thus ultimately reducing mortality in PH.

  18. [New possibilities in radiotherapy of endobronchial tumors using the afterloading method in combination with laser technics].

    PubMed

    Schumacher, W; Koch, K; Frost, D; Michel, L; Plümecke, M; Lübbert, K; Mai, J; Krumhaar, D; Macha, H N; Stadler, M

    1985-11-01

    New possibilities for radiotherapy of bronchial carcinomas are provided by the combined application of the recently introduced afterloading method used hitherto in the treatment of stenosing processes of bronchial carcinomas and the neodyme-YAG laser which opens the stenosis in such a manner that the afterloading probe can be inserted. This new method allows to perform without complications or disadvantages further combined therapies such as percutaneous irradiation (telecobalt, linear accelerator or betatron). An irradiation scheme leading to a decisive tumor regression can be established due to the fast reventilation of the lung obtained by both methods. Surprisingly, three patients could be submitted despite the small-field radiotherapy to rather important lung operations such as lobectomy and pneumonectomy which were performed without complications or disadvantages. The patients were not operable without laser and afterloading therapy. This method was applied several times in the treatment of other diseases such as oesophageal cancer and stenosing cancer of the antrum. In these cases, a normal ingestion due to tumor regression was obtained rapidly.

  19. [Design of a 3D afterloading brachytherapy simulation system based on CT images].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Xu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Shu-Xu; Shi, Yu-Sheng; Qian, Jian-Yang

    2008-03-01

    To design a new afterloading brachytherapy simulation system based on CT images. This paper mainly focuses on the anthropomorphic pelvic phantom spiled by three pipelines and the nasopharyngeal carcinoma spiled by two pipelines. Microsoft Visual C++ was used to parse CT images for some information, then to reconstruct pipelines in the body of phantom or the patient and to give the three-dimensional coordinate of dwelling points. The dose distribution displayed on CT images was processed by the dose distribution calculation methods near single afterloading source and the dose optimization methods. VTK technology was used in the 3D display in the system. According to the reference points applied by doctors, the system can calculate reversely the dwelling time of dwelling points in pipelines and get satisfying dose distribution on CT images. Besides, it can reflect the 3D relationship between the dose volume and the normal tissues. This system overcomes some deficiencies of 2D afterloading brachytherapy simulation system based on X-ray films which are used widely in China. It supplies 3D display of dose distribution for clinical doctors. At present, the system is being tested in clinics.

  20. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  1. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  2. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  3. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

  4. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

  5. Thermoforming apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Perryman, L.M.

    1984-07-31

    Thermoforming apparatus having a heating station and a forming station provided with upper and lower heaters for softening the thermoplastics sheet material. One of the heaters is movable between the heating and forming stations and is arranged to convey heated sheets from the heating station of the forming station.

  6. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  7. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provided are reviews of science equipment/apparatus. Items reviewed include: Harris Micro-ecology tubes; Harris chromosome investigation kit; Harris trycult slides; a pressure cooker with thermometer; digital pH meter; digital scaler timer; electrical compensation calorimeter; and Mains alternating current ammeter. (JN)

  8. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

  9. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Reviews apparatus design and instructional uses for Fume Cupboard Monitor, Plant Tissue Culture Kit, various equipment for electronic systems course, Welwyn Microprocessor-Tutor, Sweep Function Generator SFG 606, and Harris manufacturers materials--Regulated Power Supply Units, Electronic Current and Voltage Meters, Gas Preparation Kit, and…

  10. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  11. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes experiments and apparatus to: (1) allow astronomy students to test resolution limit of their eyes at several wavelengths; (2) analyze laser mode phases by interferometry; (3) demonstrate a Cartesian diver with an overhead projector; and (4) generate conical beams of light for smoke-chamber demonstrations. (JN)

  12. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

  13. Apparatus Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents four short articles on: a power supply for the measurement of the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron; a modified centripetal force apparatus; a black box electronic unknown for the scientific instruments laboratory; and a simple scaling model for biological systems. (MLH)

  14. Apparatus Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some science apparatus: included are a gene kit to demonstrate aspects of population genetics and selection, an electronic thermometer for use in the field of environmental studies, an astrobrella to use in astronomy classes, and crystal display models of different substances for chemistry classes. (GA)

  15. Prehensile apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized.

  16. Prehensile apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  17. Apparatus for fixing latency

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Bartholomew, David B [Springville, UT; Moon, Justin [Bountiful, UT; Koehler, Roger O [Provo, UT

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus for fixing computational latency within a deterministic region on a network comprises a network interface modem, a high priority module and at least one deterministic peripheral device. The network interface modem is in communication with the network. The high priority module is in communication with the network interface modem. The at least one deterministic peripheral device is connected to the high priority module. The high priority module comprises a packet assembler/disassembler, and hardware for performing at least one operation. Also disclosed is an apparatus for executing at least one instruction on a downhole device within a deterministic region, the apparatus comprising a control device, a downhole network, and a downhole device. The control device is near the surface of a downhole tool string. The downhole network is integrated into the tool string. The downhole device is in communication with the downhole network.

  18. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  19. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  20. Method and apparatus for adaptive force and position control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The described and improved multi-arm invention of this application presents three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative multi-arm robots which coordinate control over a common load. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through a load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions; while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are compensated for by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by novel adaptation laws.

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling hybrid powertrain system in response to engine temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Ryan D; Spohn, Brian L; Lehmen, Allen J; Cerbolles, Teresa L

    2014-10-07

    A method for controlling a hybrid powertrain system including an internal combustion engine includes controlling operation of the hybrid powertrain system in response to a preferred minimum coolant temperature trajectory for the internal combustion engine.

  2. Convergent method of and apparatus for distributed control of robotic systems using fuzzy logic

    DOEpatents

    Feddema, John T.; Driessen, Brian J.; Kwok, Kwan S.

    2002-01-01

    A decentralized fuzzy logic control system for one vehicle or for multiple robotic vehicles provides a way to control each vehicle to converge on a goal without collisions between vehicles or collisions with other obstacles, in the presence of noisy input measurements and a limited amount of compute-power and memory on board each robotic vehicle. The fuzzy controller demonstrates improved robustness to noise relative to an exact controller.

  3. Polarization Imaging Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin K.; Chen, Qiushui

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus has shown promise as a prototype of instruments for medical imaging with contrast greater than that achievable by use of non-polarized light. The underlying principles of design and operation are derived from observations that light interacts with tissue ultrastructures that affect reflectance, scattering, absorption, and polarization of light. The apparatus utilizes high-speed electro-optical components for generating light properties and acquiring polarization images through aligned polarizers. These components include phase retarders made of OptoCeramic (registered TradeMark) material - a ceramic that has a high electro-optical coefficient. The apparatus includes a computer running a program that implements a novel algorithm for controlling the phase retarders, capturing image data, and computing the Stokes polarization images. Potential applications include imaging of superficial cancers and other skin lesions, early detection of diseased cells, and microscopic analysis of tissues. The high imaging speed of this apparatus could be beneficial for observing live cells or tissues, and could enable rapid identification of moving targets in astronomy and national defense. The apparatus could also be used as an analysis tool in material research and industrial processing.

  4. Electroplating method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Robert B.; Smith, William E. L.

    1978-06-20

    An apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm.

  5. Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Stephen M.; Miller, Samuel L.; Jensen, Brian D.; Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

  6. Microelectromechanical ratcheting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Stephen M.; Miller, Samuel L.; Jensen, Brian D.; Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) ratcheting apparatus is disclosed which includes an electrostatic or thermal actuator that drives a moveable member in the form of a ring gear, stage, or rack. Motion is effected by one or more reciprocating pawls driven by the actuator in a direction that is parallel to, in line with, or tangential to the path. The reciprocating pawls engage indexing elements (e.g. teeth or pins) on the moveable member to incrementally move the member along a curved or straight path with the ability to precisely control and determine the position of the moveable member. The MEM apparatus can be formed on a silicon substrate by conventional surface micromachining methods.

  7. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel [Torrance, CA; Nagashima, James M [Cerritos, CA; Perisic, Milun [Torrance, CA; Hiti, Silva [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-06-05

    A system is provided for controlling two alternating current (AC) machines via a five-phase PWM inverter module. The system comprises a first control loop, a second control loop, and a current command adjustment module. The current command adjustment module operates in conjunction with the first control loop and the second control loop to continuously adjust current command signals that control the first AC machine and the second AC machine such that they share the input voltage available to them without compromising the target mechanical output power of either machine. This way, even when the phase voltage available to either one of the machines decreases, that machine outputs its target mechanical output power.

  8. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  9. EXTRACTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, A.E.; Brigham, H.R.

    1958-10-28

    An apparatus whereby relatlvely volatile solvents may be contacted with volatile or non-volatile material without certaln attendant hazards is described. A suitable apparatus for handling relatively volatlle liqulds may be constructed comprising a tank, and a closure covering the tank and adapted to be securely attached to an external suppont. The closure is provided with a rigidly mounted motor-driven agitator. This agitator is connected from the driving motor lnto the lnterlor of the tank through a gland adapted to be cooled witb inert gas thereby eliminating possible hazard due to frictional heat. The closure is arranged so that the tank may be removed from it without materially dlsturbing the closure which, as described, carrles the motor driven agitator and other parts.

  10. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Norman R.; King, Lloyd L.; Jackson, Peter O.; Zulich, Alan W.

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface.

  11. Sampling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, N.R.; King, L.L.; Jackson, P.O.; Zulich, A.W.

    1989-07-18

    A sampling apparatus is provided for sampling substances from solid surfaces. The apparatus includes first and second elongated tubular bodies which telescopically and sealingly join relative to one another. An absorbent pad is mounted to the end of a rod which is slidably received through a passageway in the end of one of the joined bodies. The rod is preferably slidably and rotatably received through the passageway, yet provides a selective fluid tight seal relative thereto. A recess is formed in the rod. When the recess and passageway are positioned to be coincident, fluid is permitted to flow through the passageway and around the rod. The pad is preferably laterally orientable relative to the rod and foldably retractable to within one of the bodies. A solvent is provided for wetting of the pad and solubilizing or suspending the material being sampled from a particular surface. 15 figs.

  12. Method and an apparatus to control the lateral motion of a long metal bar being formed by a mechanical process such as rolling or drawing

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh; Huang, Hsun-Hau; Lin, Chang-Hung

    2007-10-02

    An adjustable guide, includes two or more mechanisms each having a rotatable retaining element containing a retaining groove with a variable radius in its perimeter surface. The grooves form a guidance path to control the lateral, i.e. non-axial, motion of a long bar moving along a longitudinal axis during a production process.The diameter of the guidance path varies according to the variable radii of the grooves. The guidance path increases in size at a predetermined rate, from a point of origin to an end point on the retaining groove. Rotating the retaining elements causes the diameter of the retaining grooves to change so that the size of the guidance path can be changed to match the diameter of the bar being rolled, size of the guidance path can be changed to fit the diameter of a new bar rolled without having to exchange the guide for a different sized guide, reduce fiction between the bar and the guide, a media, such as compressed air, can be injected between the retaining elements via orifices.Each retaining element is attached to a mounting apparatus. The mounting apparatus can be fixed or flexible. The flexible mounting apparatus includes one or more springs and one or more shock absorbers. A force neutral position of the flexible mounting apparatus is designed to be located on the predetermined ideal bar path line. The flexible mounting apparatus dissipates kinetic energy from the bar thereby reducing the bar's lateral motion relative to the ideal bar path line.The damping ratio of the mounting apparatus can be adjustable to alter the product's vibration mode to enable better control of the bar's lateral motion.

  13. Amplified wind turbine apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An invention related to the utilization of wind energy and increasing the effects thereof for power generation is described. Amplified wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein ambient inlet air is prerotated in a first air rotation chamber having a high pressure profile increasing the turbulence and Reynolds number thereof. A second rotation chamber adjacent and downstream of the turbine has a low pressure core profile whereby flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter exits the turbine apparatus through a draft anti-interference device. Interference with ambient winds at the outlet of the turbine apparatus is thus eliminated. Pivotable vanes controlled in response to prevailing wind direction admit air to the chambers and aid in imparting rotation. A central core may be utilized for creating the desired pressure profile in the chamber.

  14. Passive orientation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Martinez, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus that can return a payload to a known orientation after unknown motion, without requiring external power or complex mechanical systems. The apparatus comprises a faceted cage that causes the system to rest in a stable position and orientation after arbitrary motion. A gimbal is mounted with the faceted cage and holds the payload, allowing the payload to move relative to the stable faceted cage. The payload is thereby placed in a known orientation by the interaction of gravity with the geometry of the faceted cage, the mass of the system, and the motion of the payload and gimbal. No additional energy, control, or mechanical actuation is required. The apparatus is suitable for use in applications requiring positioning of a payload to a known orientation after arbitrary or uncontrolled motion, including remote sensing and mobile robot applications.

  15. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOEpatents

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  16. Incinerator apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.P.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an incinerator apparatus. It comprises: a primary incinerator chamber; a secondary incinerator chamber coupled to the primary incinerator chamber by a passageway; a primary air input into the incinerator chamber; a secondary air input into the secondary incinerator chamber; a plurality of flame detector ports opening into the secondary incinerator chamber and each flame detector port being spaced in a predetermined relationship to each other; and a plurality of ultraviolet flame detectors.

  17. CASTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  18. Hyperthermia apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Lawrence E.

    2000-01-01

    A hyperthermia apparatus, suitable for transurethral application, has an energy radiating element comprising a leaky-wave antenna. The leaky wave antenna radiation pattern is characterized by a surface wave which propagates along an aperture formed by openings (small in comparison to a wavelength) in the outer conductor of a transmission line. Appropriate design of the leaky wave antenna produces a uniform, broadside pattern of temperature elevation that uniformly heats all or part of the periurethral tissues.

  19. Centrifuge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sartory, Walter K.; Eveleigh, John W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocrit of the separated red cells is monitored to indicate the degree of separation taking place, thereby providing a basis for regulating the flow through the centrifuge.

  20. Method and apparatus for producing an aircraft flare path control signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft altitude, ground velocity, and altitude rate signals are input to a computer which, using a unique control law, generates a pitch control surface command signal suitable for guiding an aircraft on its flare path to a specified runway touchdown point despite varying wind conditions.

  1. Apparatus for controlling the scan width of a scanning laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    1996-01-01

    Swept-wavelength lasers are often used in absorption spectroscopy applications. In experiments where high accuracy is required, it is desirable to continuously monitor and control the range of wavelengths scanned (the scan width). A system has been demonstrated whereby the scan width of a swept ring-dye laser, or semiconductor diode laser, can be measured and controlled in real-time with a resolution better than 0.1%. Scan linearity, or conformity to a nonlinear scan waveform, can be measured and controlled. The system of the invention consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, three CAMAC interface modules, and a microcomputer running a simple analysis and proportional-integral control algorithm. With additional modules, multiple lasers can be simultaneously controlled. The invention also includes an embodiment implemented on an ordinary PC with a multifunction plug-in board.

  2. Apparatus for controlling the scan width of a scanning laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, G.W.

    1996-10-22

    Swept-wavelength lasers are often used in absorption spectroscopy applications. In experiments where high accuracy is required, it is desirable to continuously monitor and control the range of wavelengths scanned (the scan width). A system has been demonstrated whereby the scan width of a swept ring-dye laser, or semiconductor diode laser, can be measured and controlled in real-time with a resolution better than 0.1%. Scan linearity, or conformity to a nonlinear scan waveform, can be measured and controlled. The system of the invention consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, three CAMAC interface modules, and a microcomputer running a simple analysis and proportional-integral control algorithm. With additional modules, multiple lasers can be simultaneously controlled. The invention also includes an embodiment implemented on an ordinary PC with a multifunction plug-in board. 8 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for selectively controlling the speed of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roy Inge

    2001-02-27

    A control assembly 12 for use within a vehicle 10 having an engine 14 and which selectively controls the speed of the engine 14 in order to increase fuel efficiency and to effect relatively smooth starting and stopping of the engine. Particularly, in one embodiment, control assembly 12 cooperatively operates with a starter/alternator assembly 20 and is adapted for use with hybrid vehicles employing a start/stop powertrain assembly, wherein fuel efficiency is increased by selectively stopping engine operation when the vehicle has stopped.

  4. Synchronous temperature rate control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, synchronizes alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature.

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

    DOEpatents

    Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

    2015-09-08

    A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

  6. Apparatus for Controlling Low Power Voltages in Space Based Processing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low power voltage control circuit for use in space missions includes a switching device coupled between an input voltage and an output voltage. The switching device includes a control input coupled to an enable signal, wherein the control input is configured to selectively turn the output voltage on or off based at least in part on the enable signal. A current monitoring circuit is coupled to the output voltage and configured to produce a trip signal, wherein the trip signal is active when a load current flowing through the switching device is determined to exceed a predetermined threshold and is inactive otherwise. The power voltage control circuit is constructed of space qualified components.

  7. Synchronous compartment temperature control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Stephen J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, controls the cooling rate in one or both compartments to synchronize, alternating cycles of cooling the compartments to their set point temperatures.

  8. A simple apparatus for controlling nucleation and size in protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Kim M.; Smith, Robert; Carter, Daniel C.

    1988-01-01

    A simple device is described for controlling vapor equilibrium in macromolecular crystallization as applied to the protein crystal growth technique commonly referred to as the 'hanging drop' method. Crystal growth experiments with hen egg white lysozyme have demonstrated control of the nucleation rate. Nucleation rate and final crystal size have been found to be highly dependent upon the rate at which critical supersaturation is approached. Slower approaches show a marked decrease in the nucleation rate and an increase in crystal size.

  9. Method and Apparatus for Testing Microwave Devices and Circuits in a Controlled Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor); Toncich, Stanley S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A test system is disclosed that enables the testing of microwave components in a controlled environment without disturbing that environment. The system includes a test fixture which holds the calibration standards and the component being tested, and environmental control chamber, and a microwave switching system. The system provides a coaxial connection to microwave testing equipment, such as an automatic network analyzer (ANA) and facilitates both calibration and testing while maintaining environmental integrity.

  10. Transmembrane domain quality control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Briant, Kit; Johnson, Nicholas; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2017-01-01

    Multiple protein quality control systems operate to ensure that misfolded proteins are efficiently cleared from the cell. While quality control systems that assess the folding status of soluble domains have been extensively studied, transmembrane domain (TMD) quality control mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we have used chimeras based on the type I plasma membrane protein CD8 in which the endogenous TMD was substituted with transmembrane sequences derived from different polytopic membrane proteins as a mode to investigate the quality control of unassembled TMDs along the secretory pathway. We find that the three TMDs examined prevent trafficking of CD8 to the cell surface via potentially distinct mechanisms. CD8 containing two distinct non-native transmembrane sequences escape the ER and are subsequently retrieved from the Golgi, possibly via Rer1, leading to ER localisation at steady state. A third chimera, containing an altered transmembrane domain, was predominantly localised to the Golgi at steady state, indicating the existence of an additional quality control checkpoint that identifies non-native transmembrane domains that have escaped ER retention and retrieval. Preliminary experiments indicate that protein retained by quality control mechanisms at the Golgi are targeted to lysosomes for degradation.

  11. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release.

  12. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B.; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J.; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Orchard, Clive H.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  13. Low-Dose-Rate Californium-252 Neutron Intracavitary Afterloading Radiotherapy Combined With Conformal Radiotherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Min; Xu Hongde; Pan Songdan; Lin Shan; Yue Jianhua; Liu Jianren

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To study the efficacy of low-dose-rate californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) neutron intracavitary afterloading radiotherapy (RT) combined with external pelvic RT for treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The records of 96 patients treated for cervical cancer from 2006 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. For patients with tumors {<=}4 cm in diameter, external beam radiation was performed (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) until the dose reached 20 Gy, and then {sup 252}Cf neutron intracavitary afterloading RT (once/week) was begun, and the frequency of external beam radiation was changed to four times/week. For patients with tumors >4 cm, {sup 252}Cf RT was performed one to two times before whole-pelvis external beam radiation. The tumor-eliminating dose was determined by using the depth limit of 5 mm below the mucosa as the reference point. In all patients, the total dose of the external beam radiation ranged from 46.8 to 50 Gy. For {sup 252}Cf RT, the dose delivered to point A was 6 Gy/fraction, once per week, for a total of seven times, and the total dose was 42 Gy. Results: The mean {+-} SD patient age was 54.7 {+-} 13.7 years. Six patients had disease assessed at stage IB, 13 patients had stage IIA, 49 patients had stage IIB, 3 patients had stage IIIA, 24 patients had stage IIIB, and 1 patient had stage IVA. All patients obtained complete tumor regression (CR). The mean {+-} SD time to CR was 23.5 {+-} 3.4 days. Vaginal bleeding was fully controlled in 80 patients within 1 to 8 days. The mean {+-} SD follow-up period was 27.6 {+-} 12.7 months (range, 6-48 months). Five patients died due to recurrence or metastasis. The 3-year survival and disease-free recurrence rates were 89.6% and 87.5 %, respectively. Nine patients experienced mild radiation proctitis, and 4 patients developed radiocystitis. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate {sup 252}Cf neutron RT combined with external pelvic RT is effective for treating cervical cancer, with a low incidence of

  14. Low-dose-rate californium-252 neutron intracavitary afterloading radiotherapy combined with conformal radiotherapy for treatment of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xu, Hong-De; Pan, Song-Dan; Lin, Shan; Yue, Jian-Hua; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2012-07-01

    To study the efficacy of low-dose-rate californium-252 ((252)Cf) neutron intracavitary afterloading radiotherapy (RT) combined with external pelvic RT for treatment of cervical cancer. The records of 96 patients treated for cervical cancer from 2006 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. For patients with tumors ≤4 cm in diameter, external beam radiation was performed (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) until the dose reached 20 Gy, and then (252)Cf neutron intracavitary afterloading RT (once/week) was begun, and the frequency of external beam radiation was changed to four times/week. For patients with tumors >4 cm, (252)Cf RT was performed one to two times before whole-pelvis external beam radiation. The tumor-eliminating dose was determined by using the depth limit of 5 mm below the mucosa as the reference point. In all patients, the total dose of the external beam radiation ranged from 46.8 to 50 Gy. For (252)Cf RT, the dose delivered to point A was 6 Gy/fraction, once per week, for a total of seven times, and the total dose was 42 Gy. The mean ± SD patient age was 54.7 ± 13.7 years. Six patients had disease assessed at stage IB, 13 patients had stage IIA, 49 patients had stage IIB, 3 patients had stage IIIA, 24 patients had stage IIIB, and 1 patient had stage IVA. All patients obtained complete tumor regression (CR). The mean ± SD time to CR was 23.5 ± 3.4 days. Vaginal bleeding was fully controlled in 80 patients within 1 to 8 days. The mean ± SD follow-up period was 27.6 ± 12.7 months (range, 6-48 months). Five patients died due to recurrence or metastasis. The 3-year survival and disease-free recurrence rates were 89.6% and 87.5 %, respectively. Nine patients experienced mild radiation proctitis, and 4 patients developed radiocystitis. Low-dose-rate (252)Cf neutron RT combined with external pelvic RT is effective for treating cervical cancer, with a low incidence of complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  16. Computational analysis of the effect of the type of LVAD flow on coronary perfusion and ventricular afterload.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ki Moo; Kim, In Su; Choi, Seong Wook; Min, Byung Goo; Won, Yong Soon; Kim, Heon Young; Shim, Eun Bo

    2009-07-01

    We developed a computational model to investigate the hemodynamic effects of a pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD) on the cardiovascular system. The model consisted of 16 compartments for the cardiovascular system, including coronary circulation and LVAD, and autonomic nervous system control. A failed heart was modeled by decreasing the end-systolic elastance of the ventricle and blocking the mechanism controlling heart contractility. We assessed the physiological effect of the LVAD on the cardiovascular system for three types of LVAD flow: co-pulsation, counter-pulsation, and continuous flow modes. The results indicated that the pulsatile LVAD with counter-pulsation mode gave the most physiological coronary blood perfusion. In addition, the counter-pulsation mode resulted in a lower peak pressure of the left ventricle than the other modes, aiding cardiac recovery by reducing the ventricular afterload. In conclusion, these results indicate that, from the perspective of cardiovascular physiology, a pulsatile LVAD with counter-pulsation operation is a plausible alternative to the existing LVAD with continuous flow mode.

  17. SU-E-T-242: Design of a Novel Afterloader Clearance QA Device for Biliary HDR Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, JP; Deufel, CL

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Bile duct cancer affects 2–3 thousand people annually in the United States. Radiation therapy has been shown to double median survival, with combined external beam and intraluminal high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy being most effective. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary HDR, a less-invasive alternative to trans-hepatic brachytherapy, is delivered through a catheter that travels a tortuous path from nose to bile duct, requiring wire drive force and dexterity beyond typical afterloader performance specifications. Thus, specific afterloader quality assurance(QA) is recommended for this procedure. Our aim was to create a device and process for Varisource afterloader clearance QA with objectives that it be quantitative and can monitor afterloader performance over time, compare performance between two distinct afterloaders and potentially Result in a predictive nomogram for patient-specific clearance. Methods: Based on retrospective reconstruction of 20 ERCP patient anatomies, we designed a phantom to test afterloader ability to drive the source wire along an intended treatment path. The ability of the afterloader to fully extend the intended treatment path is a function of number and diameters of turns. We have determined experimentally that relative position of the turns does not impact performance. Results: Both patient and QA paths involve three common turns/loops: a large turn representing the stomach(10.8cm±2.0cm), an elliptical loop representing the duodenum(7.3cm±1.5cmx4.8cm±0.7cm), and a final turn at the end of the bile duct that may be tight for some patient-specific anatomies and absent in others(3.7cm±0.7cm, where present). Our phantom design uses anatomical average turn diameters for the stomach and duodenum then terminates in a turn of quantitatively selectable diameter. The smallest final turn diameter that an afterloader can pass is recorded as the QA parameter. Conclusion: With this device and QA process, we

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOEpatents

    Kubesh, John Thomas; Dodge, Lee Gene; Podnar, Daniel James

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  19. Start-up and control method and apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    A resonant free-piston Stirling engine having a new and improved start-up and control method and system. A displacer linear electrodynamic machine is provided having an armature secured to and movable with the displacer and having a stator supported by the Stirling engine housing in juxtaposition to the armature. A control excitation circuit is provided for electrically exciting the displacer linear electrodynamic machine with electrical excitation signals having substantially the same frequency as the desired frequency of operation of the Stirling engine. The excitation control circuit is designed so that it selectively and controllably causes the displacer electrodynamic machine to function either as a generator load to extract power from the displacer or the control circuit selectively can be operated to cause the displacer electrodynamic machine to operate as an electric drive motor to apply additional input power to the displacer in addition to the thermodynamic power feedback to the displacer whereby the displacer linear electrodynamic machine also is used in the electric drive motor mode as a means for initially starting the resonant free-piston Stirling engine.

  20. Method and apparatus for hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two or more robotic arms having end effectors rigidly attached to an object to be moved are disclosed. A hybrid position/force control system is provided for driving each of the robotic arms. The object to be moved is represented as having a total mass that consists of the actual mass of the object to be moved plus the mass of the moveable arms that are rigidly attached to the moveable object. The arms are driven in a positive way by the hybrid control system to assure that each arm shares in the position/force applied to the object. The burden of actuation is shared by each arm in a non-conflicting way as the arm independently control the position of, and force upon, a designated point on the object.

  1. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  2. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

  3. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel [Torrance, CA; Nagashima, James M [Cerritos, CA; Perisic, Milun [Torrance, CA; Hiti, Silva [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-02-14

    A system is provided for controlling two AC machines. The system comprises a DC input voltage source that provides a DC input voltage, a voltage boost command control module (VBCCM), a five-phase PWM inverter module coupled to the two AC machines, and a boost converter coupled to the inverter module and the DC input voltage source. The boost converter is designed to supply a new DC input voltage to the inverter module having a value that is greater than or equal to a value of the DC input voltage. The VBCCM generates a boost command signal (BCS) based on modulation indexes from the two AC machines. The BCS controls the boost converter such that the boost converter generates the new DC input voltage in response to the BCS. When the two AC machines require additional voltage that exceeds the DC input voltage required to meet a combined target mechanical power required by the two AC machines, the BCS controls the boost converter to drive the new DC input voltage generated by the boost converter to a value greater than the DC input voltage.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling crossflow in a double collector main coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.G.

    1986-07-08

    A method is described of controlling the crossflow of gases given off by a coal mass during the production of coke in a coke oven having a coke side collector main and a pusher side collector main comprising the steps of: (a) determining the temperature difference between the temperature in the coke side standpipe and the temperature in the pusher side standpipe, (b) determining the temperature difference between the temperature in the freespace adjacent the coke side of the coke oven and the temperature in the freespace adjacent the pusher side of the coke oven, (c) determining the temperature difference between the temperature of the heating wall of the coke oven adjacent the coke side of the coke oven and the temperature of the heating wall of the coke oven adjacent the pusher side of the coke oven, and (d) opening the coke side standpipe control valve and gooseneck damper and the pusher side standpipe control valve and gooseneck damper, if they are not in the open position, if the temperature difference of step (b) is substantially the same as the temperature difference of step (c) and the temperature difference of step (a) is greater than about 50/sup 0/F in order to control crossflow.

  5. APPARATUS FOR CONTROL OF A BOILING REACTOR RESPONSIVE TO STEAM DEMAND

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-07-23

    A method of controlling a fuel-rod-in-tube-type boilingwater reactor having nozzles at the point of water entry into the tube is described. Water is pumped into the nozzles by an auxiliary pump operated by steam from an interstage position of the associated turbine, so that the pumping speed is responsive to turbine demand. (AEC)

  6. The effects of isoflurane and halothane on left ventricular afterload in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hettrick, D A; Pagel, P S; Kersten, J R; Lowe, D; Warltier, D C

    1997-11-01

    The effects of volatile anesthetics, including isoflurane (ISO) and halothane (HAL), on determinants of left ventricular (LV) afterload have not been comprehensively described in experimental models of, or patients with, heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that ISO and HAL produce beneficial alterations in LV afterload when evaluated with aortic input impedance and interpreted using a three-element Windkessel model in dogs before and after development of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamics and aortic pressure and blood flow waveforms were recorded in the conscious state and during 1.1- and 1.5-minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) ISO and HAL anesthesia on separate days in chronically instrumented dogs (n = 6). Dogs were then paced at 220-240 bpm for 20 +/- 3 days (mean = SEM) to develop cardiomyopathy, and the experiments were repeated after pacing had been temporarily discontinued. ISO decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean aortic blood flow (MAQ), and total arterial resistance (R) and increased total arterial compliance (C) and characteristic aortic impedance (Zc) in dogs before pacing. HAL decreased MAP and MAQ and increased C but did not alter R and Zc. Chronic rapid LV pacing increased HR and LV end-diastolic pressure and decreased MAP, LV systolic pressure, and the peak rate of increase of LV pressure. MAQ, C, R, and Zc were unchanged. ISO and HAL decreased arterial pressure but did not affect C and Zc in the presence of LV dysfunction. HAL, but not ISO, increased R at 1.1 MAC, which indicates that this drug increases resistance to LV ejection. In contrast to findings in normal dogs, these results indicate that neither ISO nor HAL reduce arterial hydraulic resistance to LV ejection or favorably improve the rectifying properties of the aorta in dogs with pacing-induced cardiomyopathy. Isoflurane and halothane produce favorable alterations in the determinants of left ventricular afterload before, but not after, the production of

  7. Turbocharger apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Leavesley, M.G.

    1993-08-03

    Variable turbocharger apparatus is described comprising a compressor housing, a compressor mounted for rotation in the compressor housing, a turbine housing, a turbine mounted for rotation in the turbine housing, a first inlet for enabling air to be conducted to the compressor, an outlet for air from the compressor, a second inlet for enabling exhaust gases from an engine to be conducted to the turbine, a chamber which surrounds the turbine and which receives the exhaust gases from the second inlet before the exhaust gases are conducted to the turbine, a piston which is positioned between the turbine and the turbine housing and which is slidable backwards and forwards to form a movable wall separating the turbine from the chamber which surrounds the turbine, a bearing assembly for allowing the rotation of the compressor and the turbine, and a heat shield for shielding the bearing assembly from the exhaust gases, the piston having a plurality of vanes, the piston being such that in its closed position it terminates short of an adjacent part of the turbine housing so that there is always a gap between the end of the piston and the adjacent part of the turbine housing whereby exhaust gases from the chamber can always pass through the gap to act on the turbine, the piston being such that in its open position the gap is increased, and the piston being biased to its closed position against pressure from exhaust gases in the chamber during use of the variable turbocharger apparatus whereby the piston slides backwards and forwards to vary the gap in dependence upon engine operating conditions, and the variable turbocharger apparatus being such that the vanes on the piston enter into slots in the heat shield.

  8. SEPARATION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1962-03-13

    A furnace apparatus is designed for treating a nuclear reactor waste solution. The solution is sprayed onto a bed of burning petroleum coke which expels water, the more volatile fission products, and nitrogen oxides. Next, chlorine gas is introduced from below which causes aluminum to volatilize as aluminum chloride and along with it certain fission products including Nb/sup 95/ and Zr/sup 95/. These lose their radioactivity within four years and the long- lived radioactivity remains with the ash, which is stored. (AEC) V) nitrate. (P.C.H.)

  9. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  10. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  11. Detonating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    1. Apparatus for detonation of high explosive in uniform timing comprising in combination, an outer case, spark gap electrodes insulatedly supported in spaced relationship within said case to form a spark gap, high explosive of the class consisting of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and trimethylene trinitramine substantially free from material sensitive to detonation by impact compressed in surrounding relation to said electrodes including said spark gap under a pressure from about 100 psi to about 500 psi, said spark gap with said compressed explosive therein requiring at least 1000 volts for sparking, and means for impressing at least 1000 volts on said spark gap.

  12. Laser apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepf, G. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A laser apparatus having a pump laser device for producing pump laser energy upon being excited is disclosed. The pump laser device has a resonating cavity for oscillating and amplifying the pump laser energy. A source laser device is used for producing source laser energy upon being excited by the pump laser energy. The source laser device has a resonating cavity for oscillating and amplifying the source laser energy. The source laser's resonating cavity is coupled within a portion of the pump laser's resonating cavity.

  13. APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE POSITION OF AN ION BEAM IN A CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-01-01

    ABS>This patent relates to improvements in electric discharge devices of the calutron type for separation of the isotopes of an element from the freely occurring composition. The improvement constitutes means for the continuous control of the path of an ion beam to obtain maximum reception in a receiver compartment. Withdrawal of the ions from the source is accomplished by an accelerator electrode placed at a positive potential with respect to the receiver. The ions are projected through a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion towards a receiver. In order to obtain a signal representative of the magnitude of ions received from a particular ion-beam in its compartment, an electrode is disposed in the compartment. The signal from the compartment electrode controls the voltage of the acccleratimg electrodc through appropriate circuitry to maintain the path of the particular ion beam optimum for maximum ion current in the compartment.

  14. Method and apparatus for detection and control of prelasing in a Q-switched laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockard, George E.

    1992-12-01

    The present invention detects prelasing in a Q-switch laser and terminates laser operation upon such detection. A detector senses the presence of light beyond a Q-switch and generates an appropriate electrical signal. A comparison stage circuit compares this detector signal with an established threshold value indicative of prelasing and generates a trigger signal if this detector signal exceeds this threshold value. A control stage circuit receives both this trigger value and a sampled Q-switch signal indicative of an opening of the Q-switch. The control stage circuit terminates operation of the laser if the trigger signal from the comparison stage is received while the sampled Q-switch signal is being received to avoid the effects of prelasing. Appropriate delays and timing sequencies are established.

  15. Method and apparatus for detection and control of prelasing in a Q-switched laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockard, George E.

    1994-10-01

    The present invention detects prelasing in a Q-switch laser and terminates laser operation upon such detection. A detector senses the presence of light beyond a Q-switch and generates an appropriate electrical signal. A comparison stage circuit compares this detector signal with an established threshold value indicative of prelasing and generates a trigger signal if this detector signal exceeds this threshold value. A control stage circuit receives both this trigger value and a sampled Q-switch signal indicative of an opening of the Q-switch. The control stage circuit terminates operation of the laser if the trigger signal from the comparison stage is received while the sampled Q-switch signal is being received to avoid the effects of prelasing. Appropriate delays and timing sequences are established.

  16. Generating Apparatus for Gas Heat Pump System using Sensorless-Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Akio; Fujita, Kouetsu; Maeda, Toshihiro; Kato, Tomohiko

    A unique generating system for Gas heat pump system (GHP) is presented. The GHP is an air-conditioning system, in which the compressors are driven by a gas engine. The proposed system is applied to the outside unit of GHP to feed the electrical equipments inside. The system utilizes a permanent magnet synchronous generator, which is connected to the gas engine, to realize high-efficiency and small-size. The generator is controlled by a converter with sensorless control technology to eliminate the position sensor. Another major topic is the “free-run startup" technique to start the converter when the generator is rotating. The system configuration and principles of the techniques are set forth, followed by experimental results which show that the system works properly and successfully.

  17. Method and apparatus for detection and control of prelasing in a Q-switched laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, George E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention detects prelasing in a Q-switch laser and terminates laser operation upon such detection. A detector senses the presence of light beyond a Q-switch and generates an appropriate electrical signal. A comparison stage circuit compares this detector signal with an established threshold value indicative of prelasing and generates a trigger signal if this detector signal exceeds this threshold value. A control stage circuit receives both this trigger value and a sampled Q-switch signal indicative of an opening of the Q-switch. The control stage circuit terminates operation of the laser if the trigger signal from the comparison stage is received while the sampled Q-switch signal is being received to avoid the effects of prelasing. Appropriate delays and timing sequences are established.

  18. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  19. Novel method and apparatus for controlling aerodynamic performance of an operating axial-flow fluid machine

    SciTech Connect

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1980-07-11

    This invention is an improved method and arrangement for controlling the aerodynamic performance of an axial-flow fluid machine during its operation. In one form of the invention, the improved control is effected by providing the machine with at least one annular row of tandem airfoils, each consisting of a trailing vane and a fixed leading vane. The trailing vane and leading vane of the typical airfoil cooperatively define a gap whose width affects the boundary-layer flow over the airfoil and thus the gas-exist angle of the mainstream flow leaving the airfoil. The trailing vanes are affixed to a ring which is mounted for independent, arcuate movement about the axis of rotor rotation, so as to translate the trailing vanes circumferentially to alter the widths of their associated gaps. External means are provided for adjusting the position of the ring during operation of the machine in order to vary the gas-exist angles for the row of tandem airfoils and thereby control selected operating characteristics of the machine, such as suction volume or compression ratio.

  20. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Geppert, Steven; Slicker, James M.

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  1. Real-Time Reconfigurable Adaptive Speech Recognition Command and Control Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George A. (Inventor); Haynes, Dena S. (Inventor); Sommers, Marc J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An adaptive speech recognition and control system and method for controlling various mechanisms and systems in response to spoken instructions and in which spoken commands are effective to direct the system into appropriate memory nodes, and to respective appropriate memory templates corresponding to the voiced command is discussed. Spoken commands from any of a group of operators for which the system is trained may be identified, and voice templates are updated as required in response to changes in pronunciation and voice characteristics over time of any of the operators for which the system is trained. Provisions are made for both near-real-time retraining of the system with respect to individual terms which are determined not be positively identified, and for an overall system training and updating process in which recognition of each command and vocabulary term is checked, and in which the memory templates are retrained if necessary for respective commands or vocabulary terms with respect to an operator currently using the system. In one embodiment, the system includes input circuitry connected to a microphone and including signal processing and control sections for sensing the level of vocabulary recognition over a given period and, if recognition performance falls below a given level, processing audio-derived signals for enhancing recognition performance of the system.

  2. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, Steven (Inventor); Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  3. Methods, systems, and apparatus for storage, transfer and/or control of information via matter wave dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestergaard Hau, Lene (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods, systems and apparatus for generating atomic traps, and for storing, controlling and transferring information between first and second spatially separated phase-coherent objects, or using a single phase-coherent object. For plural objects, both phase-coherent objects have a macroscopic occupation of a particular quantum state by identical bosons or identical BCS-paired fermions. The information may be optical information, and the phase-coherent object(s) may be Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, or superconductors. The information is stored in the first phase-coherent object at a first storage time and recovered from the second phase-coherent object, or the same first phase-coherent object, at a second revival time. In one example, an integrated silicon wafer-based optical buffer includes an electrolytic atom source to provide the phase-coherent object(s), a nanoscale atomic trap for the phase-coherent object(s), and semiconductor-based optical sources to cool the phase-coherent object(s) and provide coupling fields for storage and transfer of optical information.

  4. Apparatus for controlling the firing of rectifiers in polyphase rectifying circuits

    DOEpatents

    Yarema, R.J.

    1979-09-18

    A polyphase rectifier is controlled with precision by a circuit that filters and shifts a reference signal associated with each phase and that starts a ramp signal at a zero crossing of the shifted reference signal. The difference between the ramp signal and an external trigger signal is used to generate a pulse that switches power rectifiers into conduction. The circuit reduces effects of variations that introduce subharmonics into a rectified signal and it can be used for constant or time-varying external trigger signals.

  5. Structure of a computer-controlled apparatus for reflection and transmission measurements using thin metallic sheets in the context of astronomical observations in the far ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeuerle, K.

    A measurement apparatus for testing relevant mirror and filter specimens in the UV region was automated and connected to a processor-computer, and four mirror specimens were subjected to reflection measurements whose results contributed to the selection of the best mirror coating for the far-UV telescope. The control devices of the apparatus are discussed, including the spectrograph, turntable and stepping motor control, detector and counters, pressure measurement devices, and exits. The control concept and its software is considered, including the user routines and all programs as well as detailed descriptions of hardware and relevant charts. The reflection measurements are discussed, addressing the calibration and adjustment of the spectrograph, the measurements of selected specimens, and the results.

  6. Heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.G.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes a heating apparatus. It comprises a housing, means for introducing water to a plurality of water conduits of the housing, a fireplace compartment disposed within the housing, the fireplace compartment being provided with a burner, a fin coil member disposed in the upper portion of the housing and communicating with the room environment for heat emitting, the fin coil member containing a serpentine configured fin coils disposed therein for absorbing heat from the water disposed in the water conduits, a heat chamber containing the water conduits, the heat chamber connected at one end to the fireplace compartment and at the other end to a chimney disposed at the middle of the the fireplace compartment for circulating hot combustion gases therethrough and for heating the water disposed in the water conduits, the combustion gases being vented from the chimney, and at least four turbo fans communicating with the heat chamber for blowing air across the fin coil member so as to heat the air and discharge it to the room environment, and reduce noise pollution of the heating apparatus.

  7. Methods and apparatuses for reagent delivery, reactive barrier formation, and pest control

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Tyler [Pasco, WA; Kaplan, Daniel I [Aiken, SC; Last, George [Richland, WA

    2002-07-09

    A reagent delivery method includes positioning reagent delivery tubes in contact with soil. The tubes can include a wall that is permeable to a soil-modifying reagent. The method further includes supplying the reagent in the tubes, diffusing the reagent through the permeable wall and into the soil, and chemically modifying a selected component of the soil using the reagent. The tubes can be in subsurface contact with soil, including groundwater, and can be placed with directional drilling equipment independent of groundwater well casings. The soil-modifying reagent includes a variety of gases, liquids, colloids, and adsorbents that may be reactive or non-reactive with soil components. The method may be used inter alia to form reactive barriers, control pests, and enhance soil nutrients for microbes and plants.

  8. Method and apparatus for controlling pitch and flap angles of a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Deering, Kenneth J.; Wohlwend, Keith P.

    2009-05-12

    A wind turbine with improved response to wind conditions is provided. Blade flap angle motion is accompanied by a change in pitch angle by an amount defining a pitch/flap coupling ratio. The coupling ratio is non-constant as a function of a flap angle and is preferably a substantially continuous, non-linear function of flap angle. The non-constant coupling ratio can be provided by mechanical systems such as a series of linkages or by configuring electronic or other control systems and/or angle sensors. A link with a movable proximal end advantageously is part of the mechanical system. The system can provide relatively large coupling ratios and relatively large rates of coupling ratio changes especially for near-feather pitches and low flap angles.

  9. Method and apparatus for control of coherent synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R; Tennant, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A modulated-bending recirculating system that avoids CSR-driven breakdown in emittance compensation by redistributing the bending along the beamline. The modulated-bending recirculating system includes a) larger angles of bending in initial FODO cells, thereby enhancing the impact of CSR early on in the beam line while the bunch is long, and 2) a decreased bending angle in the final FODO cells, reducing the effect of CSR while the bunch is short. The invention describes a method for controlling the effects of CSR during recirculation and bunch compression including a) correcting chromatic aberrations, b) correcting lattice and CSR-induced curvature in the longitudinal phase space by compensating T.sub.566, and c) using lattice perturbations to compensate obvious linear correlations x-dp/p and x'-dp/p.

  10. Deformation T-Cup: a new multi-anvil apparatus for controlled strain-rate deformation experiments at pressures above 18 GPa.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Simon A; Weidner, Donald J; McCormack, Richard J; Whitaker, Matthew L; Bailey, Edward; Li, Li; Vaughan, Michael T; Dobson, David P

    2014-08-01

    A new multi-anvil deformation apparatus, based on the widely used 6-8 split-cylinder, geometry, has been developed which is capable of deformation experiments at pressures in excess of 18 GPa at room temperature. In 6-8 (Kawai-type) devices eight cubic anvils are used to compress the sample assembly. In our new apparatus two of the eight cubes which sit along the split-cylinder axis have been replaced by hexagonal cross section anvils. Combining these anvils hexagonal-anvils with secondary differential actuators incorporated into the load frame, for the first time, enables the 6-8 multi-anvil apparatus to be used for controlled strain-rate deformation experiments to high strains. Testing of the design, both with and without synchrotron-X-rays, has demonstrated the Deformation T-Cup (DT-Cup) is capable of deforming 1-2 mm long samples to over 55% strain at high temperatures and pressures. To date the apparatus has been calibrated to, and deformed at, 18.8 GPa and deformation experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-rays at confining pressures up to 10 GPa at 800 °C .

  11. Apparatus for investigating the reactions of soft-bodied invertebrates to controlled humidity gradients

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Joshua; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background While many studies have assayed behavioral responses of animals to chemical, temperature and light gradients, fewer studies have assayed how animals respond to humidity gradients. Our novel humidity chamber has allowed us to study the neuromolecular basis of humidity sensation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Russell et al. 2014). New Method We describe an easy-to-construct, low-cost humidity chamber to assay the behavior of small animals, including soft-bodied invertebrates, in controlled humidity gradients. Results We show that our humidity-chamber design is amenable to soft-bodied invertebrates and can produce reliable gradients ranging 0.3–8% RH/cm across a 9-cm long x 7.5-cm wide gel-covered arena. Comparison with Existing Method(s) Previous humidity chambers relied on circulating dry and moist air to produce a steep humidity gradient in a small arena (e.g. Sayeed & Benzer, 1996). To remove the confound of moving air that may elicit mechanical responses independent of humidity responses, our chamber controlled the humidity gradient using reservoirs of hygroscopic materials. Additionally, to better observe the behavioral mechanisms for humidity responses, our chamber provided a larger arena. Although similar chambers have been described previously, these approaches were not suitable for soft-bodied invertebrates or for easy imaging of behavior because they required that animals move across wire or fabric mesh. Conclusion The general applicability of our humidity chamber overcomes limitations of previous designs and opens the door to observe the behavioral responses of soft-bodied invertebrates, including genetically powerful C. elegans and Drosophila larvae. PMID:25176025

  12. Apparatus for investigating the reactions of soft-bodied invertebrates to controlled humidity gradients.

    PubMed

    Russell, Joshua; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2014-11-30

    While many studies have assayed behavioral responses of animals to chemical, temperature and light gradients, fewer studies have assayed how animals respond to humidity gradients. Our novel humidity chamber has allowed us to study the neuromolecular basis of humidity sensation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Russell et al., 2014). We describe an easy-to-construct, low-cost humidity chamber to assay the behavior of small animals, including soft-bodied invertebrates, in controlled humidity gradients. We show that our humidity-chamber design is amenable to soft-bodied invertebrates and can produce reliable gradients ranging 0.3-8% RH/cm across a 9-cm long × 7.5-cm wide gel-covered arena. Previous humidity chambers relied on circulating dry and moist air to produce a steep humidity gradient in a small arena (e.g. Sayeed and Benzer, 1996). To remove the confound of moving air that may elicit mechanical responses independent of humidity responses, our chamber controlled the humidity gradient using reservoirs of hygroscopic materials. Additionally, to better observe the behavioral mechanisms for humidity responses, our chamber provided a larger arena. Although similar chambers have been described previously, these approaches were not suitable for soft-bodied invertebrates or for easy imaging of behavior because they required that animals move across wire or fabric mesh. The general applicability of our humidity chamber overcomes limitations of previous designs and opens the door to observe the behavioral responses of soft-bodied invertebrates, including genetically powerful C. elegans and Drosophila larvae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  14. Method and apparatus for monitoring and controlling a multiplicity of air guns for seismic surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Chelminski, S.V.

    1980-12-23

    Firing of a seismic source of the type called an air gun is detected by means of a fluid pressure sensor located in the housing of a solenoid actuated control valve. Through a pressurized gas support port the pressure sensor is in fluid contact with a shuttle-operating chamber of the air gun, and the sensor detects a surge in fluid pressure resulting from rapid motion of the shuttle. If a misfire or malfunction of the air gun is detected by means of the fluid pressure sensor, the malfunctioning air gun can be shut down by actuating the solenoid valve, which is a novel dual action solenoid valve, thereby preventing pressurized gas from being supplied to that particular air gun. The valve includes a valve stem with radial gas inlet ports and radial triggering ports. A solenoid plunger is movable to close one or the other of the sets of ports. A chamfered sealengaging lip and a shoulder on the plunger are in fluid contact with the gas inlet port and pressure forces on the lip and shoulder are balanced to reduce the electrical power requirements of the solenoid.

  15. Computer-controlled apparatus for measuring complex elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, T.; Date, M.; Ishida, K.; Ikeda, Y.

    1986-02-01

    Principles and design details are described for a fully automatic system measuring frequency and temperature spectra of the complex elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants of polymer films. A microcomputer is used to control all processes including wave generation, sampling, and calculations. A sinusoidal excitation wave is written onto a RAM, readout by an external clock, and applied to a sample via a D/A converter. The resulting signals related to force, deformation, charge, and voltage are simultaneously sampled using the same clock and are determined as complex quantities through Fourier transformation. Their ratios give corresponding complex response functions. A multifrequency signal consisting of eight sinusoidal waves with frequencies of common ratio 2 is used to obtain frequency spectra over two decades at a time. This system operates over a frequency range from 0.01 to 100 Hz for elastic and piezoelectric measurements and from 0.01 Hz to 10 kHz for dielectric measurements at temperatures from -160 to 250 °C with an accuracy of 0.1% in tan δ.

  16. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Volume 2, Function and task analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Callan, J.R.; Gwynne, J.W. III; Kelly, T.T.; Muckler, F.A.; Saunders, W.M.; Lepage, R.P.; Chin, E.; Schoenfeld, I.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-05-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the first phase of the project, which involved an extensive function and task analysis of RAB. This analysis identified the functions and tasks in RAB, made preliminary estimates of the likelihood of human error in each task, and determined the skills needed to perform each RAB task. The findings of the function and task analysis served as the foundation for the remainder of the project, which evaluated four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training and qualifications of RAB staff; and organizational practices and policies. At its completion, the project identified and prioritized areas for recommended NRC and industry attention based on all of the evaluations and analyses.

  17. Thermoforming apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wallsten, H.I.

    1984-10-16

    Apparatus for manufacturing articles is disclosed in which a preheated sheet of thermoplastic material is intermittently fed to present successive preheated portions of the sheet in a work station having a forming tool for forming articles in each successive sheet portion and a stamping tool for co-operating with the forming tool to stamp the formed articles from the sheet. The forming tool has a plurality of forming dies which are movable successively and cyclically into the work station for forming articles in respective successive sheet portions. After each forming operation the stamping tool is brought into engagement with a resilient counter-surface on the forming die to stamp from the sheet the articles formed by that die.

  18. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Joseph [Encino, CA; Oberg, Carl L [Canoga Park, CA; Russell, Larry H [Agoura, CA

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  19. MEASURING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Kohman, T.P.; Weissbourd, B.W.

    1959-02-17

    An ion chamber assembly is presented for measuring neutron emission of a relatively slow rate from a radioactive sample. The detecting apparatus comprises a container filled with neutron slowing material and having a cavity where a neutron source may be located centrally in the container. A plurality of ion chamber units are disposed equidistantly from the source and from each other for detecting the neutron radiation. Each of the ion chamber units has an ion chamber and a second chamber of substantially the same diameter as the ion chamber and in end-to-end relationship therewith. The second chamber contains paraffin and an axially disposed lead-in conductor for the ion chamber central electrode. The preamplifier circuit whose input is connected to the lead-in conductor is housed in a third container arranged in end-to-end relationship with the second chamber.

  20. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  1. Wind turbine apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, J.

    1985-10-08

    Wind turbine apparatus includes a plurality of sail elements secured to a circular frame rotatable in response to wind reacting with the sail elements and a control system for the sail elements includes a weight having cables extending from the weight to the sail elements. Movement of the weight in response to wind velocity results in a change in the sail elements exposed to the wind.

  2. Temperature control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen

    2003-08-05

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and non-silicon based materials to provide the thermal properties desired. For example, the chamber may combine a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  3. 10 CFR 35.2630 - Records of dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of dosimetry equipment used with remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.2630 Section 35.2630 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2630 Records...

  4. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit. 35.604 Section 35.604 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a...

  5. Calculation of muscle maximal shortening velocity by extrapolation of the force-velocity relationship: afterloaded versus isotonic release contractions.

    PubMed

    Bullimore, Sharon R; Saunders, Travis J; Herzog, Walter; MacIntosh, Brian R

    2010-10-01

    The maximal shortening velocity of a muscle (V(max)) provides a link between its macroscopic properties and the underlying biochemical reactions and is altered in some diseases. Two methods that are widely used for determining V(max) are afterloaded and isotonic release contractions. To determine whether these two methods give equivalent results, we calculated V(max) in 9 intact single fibres from the lumbrical muscles of the frog Xenopus laevis (9.5-15.5 °C, stimulation frequency 35-70 Hz). The data were modelled using a 3-state cross-bridge model in which the states were inactive, detached, and attached. Afterloaded contractions gave lower predictions of Vmax than did isotonic release contractions in all 9 fibres (3.20 ± 0.84 versus 4.11 ± 1.08 lengths per second, respectively; means ± SD, p = 0.001) and underestimated unloaded shortening velocity measured with the slack test by an average of 29% (p = 0.001, n = 6). Excellent model predictions could be obtained by assuming that activation is inhibited by shortening. We conclude that under the experimental conditions used in this study, afterloaded and isotonic release contractions do not give equivalent results. When a change in the V(max) measured with afterloaded contractions is observed in diseased muscle, it is important to consider that this may reflect differences in either activation kinetics or cross-bridge cycling rates.

  6. Laser apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Owen; Stogran, Edmund M.

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus is described wherein an active laser element, such as the disc of a face-pumped laser, is mounted in a housing such that the weight of the element is supported by glass spheres which fill a chamber defined in the housing between the walls of the housing and the edges of the laser element. The uniform support provided by the spheres enable the chamber and the pump side of the laser element to be sealed without affecting the alignment or other optical properties of the laser element. Cooling fluid may be circulated through the sealed region by way of the interstices between the spheres. The spheres, and if desired also the cooling fluid may contain material which absorbs radiation at the wavelength of parasitic emissions from the laser element. These parasitic emissions enter the spheres through the interface along the edge surface of the laser element and it is desirable that the index of refraction of the spheres and cooling fluid be near the index of refraction of the laser element. Thus support, cooling, and parasitic suppression functions are all accomplished through the use of the arrangement.

  7. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  8. Attachment Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Edward F.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention includes an attachment apparatus comprising a rotation limiting member adapted to be threaded onto a threaded member; and a preload nut adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. The rotation limiting member comprises a plurality of pins; and the preload nut comprises plurality of slots, preferably wherein the plurality of pins and the plurality of slots are the same in number, which is preferably three. The plurality of pins of the rotation limiting member are filled into a corresponding plurality of slots of the preload nut to form a rotatable unit adapted to be threaded onto the threaded member. In use, the rotatable unit is threaded onto the threaded member. The present invention thus provides a unitized removable device for holes, including holes other than circular in shape, which have an established depth before an end of, or before an enlargement of the hole. The configuration of some exposed part of the device, or the head, is shaped and formed for its intended purpose, such as clamping, anchor points, eye bolts, stud anchor, and the like. The device allows for the installation, preloading and removal of all components of the device, as a unit, without damage to the member for which attachment is required by simple rotations of some exposed part of the device.

  9. A pig model of acute right ventricular afterload increase by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Knai, Kathrine; Skjaervold, Nils Kristian

    2017-01-03

    The aim of this study was to construct a non-invasive model for acute right ventricular afterload increase by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Intact animal models are vital to improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute right ventricular failure. Acute right ventricular failure is caused by increased afterload of the right ventricle by chronic or acute pulmonary hypertension combined with regionally or globally reduced right ventricular contractile capacity. Previous models are hampered by their invasiveness; this is unfortunate as the pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure system that needs to be studied in closed chest animals. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a mechanism that causes vasoconstriction in alveolar vessels in response to alveolar hypoxia. In this study we explored the use of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction as a means to increase the pressure load on the right ventricle. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by lowering the FiO2 to levels below the physiological range in eight anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. The pigs were monitored with blood pressure measurements and blood gases. The mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAP) of the animals increased from 18.3 (4.2) to 28.4 (4.6) mmHg and the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) from 254 (76) dyns/cm(5) to 504 (191) dyns/cm(5), with a lowering of FiO2 from 0.30 to 0.15 (0.024). The animals' individual baseline mPAPs varied substantially as did their response to hypoxia. The reduced FiO2 level yielded an overall lowering in oxygen offer, but the global oxygen consumption was unaltered. We showed in this study that the mPAP and the PVR could be raised by approximately 100% in the study animals by lowering the FiO2 from 0.30 to 0.15 (0.024). We therefore present a novel method for minimally invasive (closed chest) right ventricular afterload manipulations intended for future studies of acute right ventricular failure. The method should in theory be reversible

  10. Mud separator valve apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.J.

    1981-12-08

    An automatic cleaning system is provided for a mud separator apparatus. Water and mud inputs to a mud pump feeding the separator are respectively controlled by two butterfly valves ganged for cooperation, and operated by a single valve actuator motor. When the mud separator is shut off, a time delay relay is actuated which keeps the mud separator rotor motor on line during a predetermined flush cycle. The valve actuator opens the water valve, and closes the mud valve, permitting the separator to be flushed with water. Activating the start button returns the valve actuator to the position in which the mud valve is open and the water valve is closed, thereby returning the apparatus to the mud separation cycle.

  11. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    DeNure, Charles R.

    2001-10-23

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  12. [In-phantom dosimetric measurements as quality control for brachytherapy: System check and constancy check].

    PubMed

    Kollefrath, Michael; Bruggmoser, Gregor; Nanko, Norbert; Gainey, Mark

    2015-06-01

    In brachytherapy dosimetric measurements are difficult due to the inherent dose-inhomogenieties. Typically in routine clincal practice only the nominal dose rate is determined for computer controlled afterloading systems. The region of interest lies close to the source when measuring the spatial dose distribution. In this region small errors in the postioning of the detector, and its finite size, lead to large measurement uncertainties that exacerbate the routine dosimetric control of the system in the clinic. The size of the measurement chamber, its energy dependence, and the directional dependence of the measurement apparatus are the factors which have a significant influence on dosimetry. Although ionisation chambers are relatively large, they are employed since similar chambers are commonly found on clincal brachytherapy units. The dose is determined using DIN 6800 [11] since DIN 6809-2 [12], which deals with dosimetry in brachytherapy, is antiquated and is currently in the process of revision. Further information regarding dosimetry for brachytherapy can be found in textbooks [1] and [2]. The measurements for this work were performed with a HDR (High-Dose-Rate) (192)Ir source, type mHDR V2, and a Microselectron Afterloader V2 both from Nucletron/Elekta. In this work two dosimetric procedures are presented which, despite the aforemention difficulties, should assist in performing checks of the proper operation of the system. The first is a system check that measures the dose distribution along a line and is to be performed when first bringing the afterloader into operation, or after significant changes to the system. The other is a dosimetric constancy check, which with little effort can be performed monhtly or weekly. It simultaneously verifies the positioning of the source at two positions, the functionality of the system clock and the automatic re-calculation of the source activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

    2013-06-07

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

  14. Well apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Akkerman, N.H.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes, for use in landing a well tool within a selected one of a plurality of vertically spaced landing nipples of a well conduit connected as part of a well string, wherein each nipple has a cylindrical bore of the same diameter as the others and a groove having an upwardly facing seat thereabout, a well apparatus comprising a wire line running tool, a landing tool connectible to the running tool for raising and lowering therewith within the well string, keys each having a downwardly facing shoulder and carried by the landing tool for radial movement between inner positions in which they move past the locking grooves and outer positions in which they may move upwardly through the nipples. They fit within the groove of any of the nipples to land the shoulders thereof on the seat of the groove, upon downward movement, spring means carried by the landing tool for shifting between a first position urging the keys to their inner positions, as the landing tool is lowered within the conduit and until the keys are beneath the groove in a selected nipple. A second position urges the keys to their outer positions, upon raising of the landing tool to lift the keys above the groove in the selected nipple, sensing means carried by the landing tool and urged radially outwardly to a position to engage the bore of a nipple as the landing tool is lowered to move the keys into a position opposite the groove of the selected nipple, and means on the landing tool which is responsive to movement of the sensing means into engagement with the bore and further lowering of the landing tool, following movement of the keys into the groove, for holding the keys within the locking groove of the selected nipple.

  15. Workover rig support apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, W.W.

    1984-08-28

    An apparatus is claimed for distributing the weight of a workover or maintenance apparatus connected to a Christmas tree over the surface of the portion of the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is attached, including a plate which rests upon the portion of the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is attached, and a rigid support extending upwardly from the plate, the rigid support being connectable to said workover apparatus. The apparatus may include plugs for plugging the other strings of tubing contained in the Christmas tree to which the workover apparatus is not attached, and devices for adjusting the length of the rigid support.

  16. Independent and interactive effects of preload and afterload on the pump function of the isolated lymphangion

    PubMed Central

    Scallan, Joshua P.; Wolpers, John H.; Muthuchamy, Mariappan; Zawieja, David C.; Gashev, Anatoliy A.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the responses of single, isolated lymphangions to selective changes in preload and the effects of changing preload on the response to an imposed afterload. The methods used were similar to those described in our companion paper. Step-wise increases in input pressure (Pin; preload) over a pressure range between 0.5 and 3 cmH2O, at constant output pressure (Pout), led to increases in end-diastolic diameter, decreases in end-systolic diameter, and increases in stroke volume. From a baseline of 1 cmH2O, Pin elevation by 2–7 cmH2O consistently produced an immediate fall in stroke volume that subsequently recovered over a time course of 2–3 min. Surprisingly, this adaptation was associated with an increase in the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, indicative of an increase in contractility. Lymphangions subjected to Pout levels exceeding their initial ejection limit would often accommodate by increasing diastolic filling to strengthen contraction sufficiently to match Pout. The lymphangion adaptation to various pressure combinations (Pin ramps with low or high levels of Pout, Pout ramps at low or intermediate levels of Pin, and combined Pin + Pout ramps) were analyzed using pressure-volume data to calculate stroke work. Under relatively low imposed loads, stroke work was maximal at low preloads (Pin ∼2 cmH2O), whereas at more elevated afterloads, the optimal preload for maximal work displayed a broad plateau over a Pin range of 5–11 cmH2O. These results provide new insights into the normal operation of the lymphatic pump, its comparison with the cardiac pump, and its potential capacity to adapt to increased loads during edemagenic and/or gravitational stress. PMID:22865389

  17. Normal age-related changes in left ventricular function: Role of afterload and subendocardial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Jehill D; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Wallace, Dorothy; Blamire, Andrew M; MacGowan, Guy A

    2016-11-15

    In normal ageing, both vascular and ventricular properties change, and how these affect left ventricular function is not clear. 96 subjects (ages 20-79) without cardiovascular disease underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for measurement of global function, diastolic function (E/A ratio), MR tagging for measurement of torsion to shortening ratio (TSR, ratio of epicardial torsion to endocardial circumferential shortening, with increase in TSR suggesting subendocardial dysfunction relative to the subepicardium), and phase contrast MR imaging measurement of central aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). The Vicorder device was used to measure carotid to femoral PWV. Univariate correlations established that the 4 principal age-related changes in the left ventricular function were: 1) diastolic function: E/A ratio (r: -0.61, p<0.00001); 2) global systolic function: cardiac output (r: -0.49, p<0.00001), 3) structure: end-diastolic volume index (r: -0.39, p<0.0001), and 4) systolic strains: TSR (r: 0.49, p<0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age was the dominant factor in predicting changes in cardiac output and E/A ratio (both p<0.01). Increased TSR was significantly related to reduced cardiac output and end-diastolic volume index (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). Measures of vascular stiffness were not significantly related to any of these variables, but increased effective arterial elastance (afterload) was significantly related to reduced E/A ratio (p<0.05). In this group of normal ageing subjects, afterload but not vascular stiffness is significantly related to diastolic dysfunction. Increased TSR, suggesting relative subendocardial dysfunction, has a significant role in reductions of cardiac output and end-diastolic volume index. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit causes a motor to rotate the wiper arm one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller as a component approaches the solder bath.

  19. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  20. Method and Apparatus for the Portable Identification of Material Thickness and Defects Using Spatially Controlled Heat Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and a portable apparatus for the nondestructive identification of defects in structures. The apparatus comprises a heat source and a thermal imager that move at a constant speed past a test surface of a structure. The thermal imager is off set at a predetermined distance from the heat source. The heat source induces a constant surface temperature. The imager follows the heat source and produces a video image of the thermal characteristics of the test surface. Material defects produce deviations from the constant surface temperature that move at the inverse of the constant speed. Thermal noise produces deviations that move at random speed. Computer averaging of the digitized thermal image data with respect to the constant speed minimizes noise and improves the signal of valid defects. The motion of thermographic equipment coupled with the high signal to noise ratio render it suitable for portable, on site analysis.

  1. Polarization imaging apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhao, Hongzhi (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set 11, a linear polarizer 14 with its optical axis 18, a first variable phase retarder 12 with its optical axis 16 aligned 22.5.degree. to axis 18, a second variable phase retarder 13 with its optical axis 17 aligned 45.degree. to axis 18, a imaging sensor 15 for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller 101 and a computer 102. Two variable phase retarders 12 and 13 were controlled independently by a computer 102 through a controller unit 101 which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor 15 when the phase retardations of VPRs 12 and 13 were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

  2. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  3. Wind turbine apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, J.

    1986-10-28

    This patent describes an air foil sail element apparatus, comprising, in combination: support rod means; and air foil means journaled for rotation on the support rod means, including a pivot rod spaced apart from the support rod means for controlling the pivoting of the air foil means, an interior form secured to the pivot rod, and a deformable outer skin secured to and disposed about the interior form and deformable against the interior form to change the camber of the air foil in response to wind.

  4. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  5. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  6. TIMING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, A.E.; Geisow, J.C.H.

    1956-04-17

    The timing device comprises an escapement wheel and pallet, a spring drive to rotate the escapement wheel to a zero position, means to wind the pretensioned spring proportional to the desired signal time, and a cam mechanism to control an electrical signal switch by energizing the switch when the spring has been wound to the desired position, and deenergizing it when it reaches the zero position. This device produces an accurately timed signal variably witain the control of the operator.

  7. Method and Apparatus for Encouraging Physiological Self-Regulation Through Modulation of an Operator's Control Input to a Video Game or Training Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor); Harris, Randall L., Sr. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for modulating the control authority (i.e., control function) of a computer simulation or game input device (e.g., joystick, button control) using physiological information so as to affect the user's ability to impact or control the simulation or game with the input device. One aspect is to use the present invention, along with a computer simulation or game, to affect physiological state or physiological self-regulation according to some programmed criterion (e.g., increase, decrease, or maintain) in order to perform better at the game task. When the affected physiological state or physiological self-regulation is the target of self-regulation or biofeedback training, the simulation or game play reinforces therapeutic changes in the physiological signal(s).

  8. Method and Apparatus for Encouraging Physiological Self-Regulation Through Modulation of an Operator's Control Input to a Video Game or Training Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palsson, Olafur S. (Inventor); Harris, Randall L., Sr. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for modulating the control authority (i.e., control function) of a computer simulation or game input device (e.g., joystick, button control) using physiological information so as to affect the user's ability to impact or control the simulation or game with the input device. One aspect is to use the present invention, along with a computer simulation or game, to affect physiological state or physiological self-regulation according to some programmed criterion (e.g., increase, decrease, or maintain) in order to perform better at the game task. When the affected physiological state or physiological self-regulation is the target of self-regulation or biofeedback training, the simulation or game play reinforces therapeutic changes in the physiological signal(s).

  9. Disparity of isoflurane effects on left and right ventricular afterload and hydraulic power generation in swine.

    PubMed

    Heerdt, P M; Gandhi, C D; Dickstein, M L

    1998-09-01

    The interaction between myocardial and vascular effects of anesthetics has a potential impact on how these drugs influence performance of the heart. Most studies have focused on volatile anesthetic effects on the left ventricle (LV) and systemic circulation. Whether the right ventricle (RV) and pulmonary circulation respond in a similar fashion, however, is unclear. In the present study, we therefore examined the dose-related effects of isoflurane on LV and RV contractility and total afterload and related changes to simultaneous effects on the hydraulic power generated by each chamber. Two groups of swine were studied: one received no additional treatment before isoflurane (ISO, n = 6), and the other received hexamethonium, atropine, and propranolol to produce autonomic blockade before isoflurane administration (ISO+AB, n = 4). For each experiment, measurements were made of RV and LV regional segment lengths and pressures, along with proximal aortic and pulmonary arterial (PA) blood flow and pressure during the administration of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane. Contractility was assessed by calculating the regional preload recruitable stroke work slope (PRSW). Afterload was characterized in both nonpulsatile and pulsatile terms by calculating aortic input impedance magnitude (Z). From these data, total arterial resistance (R), characteristic impedance (ZC), and vascular compliance (C) were determined with reference to a three-element Windkessel model of the circulation. Additionally, steady-state (WSS), oscillatory (WOS), and total (WT) hydraulic power output of each ventricle was calculated. In the ISO group, isoflurane produced a nearly threefold greater decrease of peak systolic pressure in the LV than in the RV, yet the dose-related decrease of regional PRSW was virtually the same in both chambers. In the aorta, isoflurane produced a maximal 25% reduction in R at 1.0 MAC and doubled C without a significant change

  10. Apparatus for producing alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, F.E.; Krieder, R.M.

    1983-09-06

    An apparatus and method for producing alcohol fuel in an efficient and continuous manner are provided. The apparatus and method utilize otherwise lost heat to reduce the amount of heat required to convert feed stock into alcohol fuel. The apparatus and method utilize the supply of feed stock from a hopper through an auger to a cooker vessel, and then in turn to enzyme and fermenting tanks or vessels, which in turn discharge fermented mash to a strainer for separation of the alcohol beer from the mash. The beer is then discharged to a level controlled beer tank which regulates a residue valve controlling the amount of residue liquid returned to the apparatus and maintained under process. From the beer tank, the flow of the beer is regulated by passage through a non-clogging control valve into a reflux column. A single control in the form of a sensible heat detector in the reflux column operates the non-clogging control valve and simultaneously regulates both the quantity of beer supplied to the reflux column and the amount of reflux supplied thereto. The reflux column utilizes highly efficient spreader and concentrator plates therein which are supplied with reflux from the incoming beer to enhance the efficiency of the reflux column. From the reflux column, uncondensed alcohol vapors may be withdrawn and then treated with a denaturing agent before being condensed so that pottable alcohol is never formed. Additionally, heat exchangers are utilized in the apparatus and method to recapture what would otherwise be lost heat, particularly from the hot residue liquid accumulated and discharged from the reflux column, for heating the various fluids in the apparatus and under process.

  11. Compensatory increase of left atrial external work to left ventricular dysfunction caused by afterload increase.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Katsuji; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Masuda, Kasumi; Sakurai, Daisuke; Higaki, Jitsuo; Nakatani, Satoshi

    2015-04-15

    Afterload mismatch can cause acute decompensation leading to an occurrence of acute heart failure. We investigated how the left atrium (LA) and left ventricle (LV) react to acute increases in afterload using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). LA strain and volume were obtained by STE in 10 dogs during banding of descending aorta (AoB). Simultaneously, LA pressure was measured by a micromanometer-tipped catheter. LA peak negative strain during LA contraction, strain change during LA relaxation (early reservoir strain), and that during LA dilatation (late reservoir strain) were obtained from LA longitudinal strain-volume curves. From pressure-strain curves, the areas of A-loop and V-loops were computed as the work during active contraction and relaxation (A-work) and that during passive filling and emptying (V-work). AoB increased LV systolic pressure (105 ± 15 vs. 163 ± 12 mmHg, P < 0.01) and mean LA pressure (3.8 ± 1.2 vs. 7.1 ± 2.0 mmHg, P < 0.01). LV global circumferential strain decreased (-18.8 ± 3.5 vs. -13.2 ± 3.5%, P < 0.01), but LV stroke volume was maintained (8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 9.6 ± 3.6 ml). LA peak negative strain (-2.9 ± 2.3 vs. -9.8 ± 4.0%, P < 0.01) and early reservoir strain (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 7.7 ± 2.4%, P < 0.05) increased by AoB, but late reservoir strain did not change (8.9 ± 3.4 vs. 6.1 ± 3.4%). A-work significantly increased (3.2 ± 2.0 vs. 19.2 ± 15.1 mmHg %, P < 0.01), whereas V-work did not change (13.3 ± 7.1 vs. 13.1 ± 7.7 mmHg %). In conclusion, LA external work during active contraction and relaxation increased as compensation for LV dysfunction during aortic banding. Atrial dysfunction may lead failure of this mechanism and hemodynamic decompensation.

  12. Right ventricular afterload sensitivity dramatically increases after left ventricular assist device implantation: a multi-center hemodynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Brian A.; Kalathiya, Rohan J.; Hsu, Steven; Loungani, Rahul; Davis, Mary E.; Coffin, Samuel T.; Haglund, Nicholas; Maltais, Simon; Keebler, Mary E.; Leary, Peter J.; Judge, Daniel P.; Stevens, Gerin R.; Rickard, John; Sciortino, Chris M.; Whitman, Glenn J.; Shah, Ashish S.; Russell, Stuart D.; Tedford, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) failure is a source of morbidity and mortality after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We sought to define hemodynamic changes in afterload and RV adaption to afterload both early after implantation and with prolonged LVAD support. Methods We reviewed right heart catheterization (RHC) data from participants who underwent continuous-flow LVAD implantation at our institutions (n=244), excluding those on inotropic or vasopressor agents, pulmonary vasodilators, or additional mechanical support at any RHC. Hemodynamic data was assessed at five time intervals: 1) pre-LVAD (within 6 months), 2) early post-LVAD (0–6 months), 3) 7–12 months, 4) 13–18 months and 3) very-late post-LVAD (18–36 months). Results Sixty participants met the inclusion criteria. All measures of right ventricular load (effective arterial elastance, pulmonary vascular compliance and pulmonary vascular resistance) improved between the pre- and early post-LVAD time periods. Despite decreasing load and pulmonary capillary artery pressure (PAWP), RAP remained unchanged and the RAP:PAWP ratio worsened early post-LVAD (0.44 [0.38, 0.63] versus 0.77 [0.59, 1.0], p<0.001), suggesting a worsening of RV adaptation to load. With continued LVAD support, both RV load and RAP:PAWP decreased in a steep, linear and dependent manner. Conclusion Despite reducing RV load, LVAD implantation leads to worsened RV adaptation. With continued LVAD support, both RV afterload and RV adaptation improve, and their relationship remains constant over time post-LVAD. These findings suggest the RV afterload sensitivity increases after LVAD implantation, which has important clinical implications for patients struggling with RV failure. PMID:27041496

  13. Helium ionization detection apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagai, R.

    1984-01-01

    In a gas chromatograph apparatus comprising a gas supply (He carrier gas), a sample injection apparatus, a chromatograph column, a He ion detector, and connecting tubes, a foreign gas (other than He) injection apparatus is installed between the sample injection apparatus and the detector. Mixing of the sample gas and foreign gas takes place readily, the sample gas is always maintained at a stable concentrator range, and accurate measurements are possible, especially at low sample gas concentrations.

  14. Apparatus for coating and impregnating filament with resin

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, S.C.; Pollard, R.E.

    1986-12-17

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for evenly coating and impregnating a filament with binder material. Dimension control and repeatability of the coating and impregnating characteristics are obtained with the apparatus.

  15. Apparatus for detecting leaks

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Eugene T.

    1976-02-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the position of and estimating the size of leaks in an evacuating apparatus comprising the use of a testing gas such as helium or hydrogen flowing around said apparatus whereby the testing gas will be drawn in at the site of any leaks.

  16. Apparatus for automated testing of biological specimens

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for performing automated testing of infections biological specimens is disclosed. The apparatus comprise a process controller for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands, and a test instrument suite comprising a means to treat the specimen to manifest an observable result, and a detector for measuring the observable result to generate specimen test results.

  17. Integrated Protein-Crystal-Growing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed apparatus for research on growth of protein crystals dispenses drops of protein and precipitating solutions, provides controlled environment for crystalization, and stores crystals. Intended for use in microgravity of outer space, concept of apparatus also useful in design of self-contained terrestrial experiments for remote and/or automatic execution.

  18. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  19. System, Apparatus, and Method for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Sr., Anthony D. (Inventor); Kohli, Rajiv (Inventor); Burns, Susan H. (Inventor); Damico, Stephen J. (Inventor); Gruber, David J. (Inventor); Hickey, Christopher J. (Inventor); Lee, David E. (Inventor); Robinson, Travis M. (Inventor); Smith, Jason T. (Inventor); Spehar, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for removal of orbital debris are provided. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a spacecraft control unit configured to guide and navigate the apparatus to a target. The apparatus also includes a dynamic object characterization unit configured to characterize movement, and a capture feature, of the target. The apparatus further includes a capture and release unit configured to capture a target and deorbit or release the target. The collection of these apparatuses is then employed as multiple, independent and individually operated vehicles launched from a single launch vehicle for the purpose of disposing of multiple debris objects.

  20. Ultrasonic inspection and deployment apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Michaels, Jennifer E.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Mech, Jr., Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic inspection apparatus for the inspection of metal structures, especially installed pipes. The apparatus combines a specimen inspection element, an acoustical velocity sensing element, and a surface profiling element, all in one scanning head. A scanning head bellows contains a volume of oil above the pipe surface, serving as acoustical couplant between the scanning head and the pipe. The scanning head is mounted on a scanning truck which is mobile around a circular track surrounding the pipe. The scanning truck has sufficient motors, gears, and position encoders to allow the scanning head six degrees of motion freedom. A computer system continually monitors acoustical velocity, and uses that parameter to process surface profiling and inspection data. The profiling data is used to automatically control scanning head position and alignment and to define a coordinate system used to identify and interpret inspection data. The apparatus is suitable for highly automated, remote application in hostile environments, particularly high temperature and radiation areas.

  1. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  2. Precipitation Process and Apparatus Therefor

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Jr, L C

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns an apparatus for remotely-controlled precipitation and filtration operations. Liquid within a precipitation chamber is maintained above a porous member by introducing air beneath the member; pressure beneath the porous member is reduced to suck the liquid through the member and effect filtration.

  3. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  4. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  5. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  6. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  7. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  8. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  9. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  10. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  11. Apparatus and method for minimizing polarization-induced signal fading in an interferometric fiber-optic sensor using input-polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersey, Alan D.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for minimizing polarization-induced signal fading in an interferometric fiber-optic sensor is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the polarization state of an input light beam is changed by a polarization controller as a function of first and second control signals applied to the controller. The input light beam with the changed polarization state is applied to the input of an interferometric fiber-optic sensor to form an interference pattern at its output. This interference pattern is photodetected to develop an electrical signal that has a peak-to-peak amplitude proportional to the visibility of the interference pattern. A control circuit is responsive to the electrical signal for controllably developing the first and second control signals to change the polarization state of the input light beam to maximize the peak-to-peak amplitude of the electrical signal, thereby minimizing the polarization-induced signal fading in the interferometric fiber-optic sensor. The electrical signal is also demodulated to produce an output signal that is proportional to the field being sensed by the interferometric fiber-optic sensor.

  12. Method and apparatus to control the lateral motion of a long metal bar being formed by a mechanical process such as rolling or drawing

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh [Ann Arbor, MI; Huang, Hsun-Hau [Ann Arbor, MI; Lin, Chang-Hung [Ypsilanti, MI

    2011-01-04

    An apparatus to control lateral motion of a bar moving along a guidance path includes a pair of rotatable hubs each having at least first and second rollers at locations around the perimeter of the hub. The first roller has a first retaining groove of a first radius and the second roller has a second groove of a second radius smaller than the first radius. Each hub further includes at least one guiding element located between the rollers with a guide channel extending in the outer surface. A mounting system allows the hubs to be rotated between first and second positions. In the first position the first rollers oppose each other forming a guideway having a first, enlarged diameter for capturing a free end of an approaching bar. In the second position the second rollers form a second, smaller diameter to match the actual size of the bar.

  13. Pressure-overload-induced heart failure induces a selective reduction in glucose oxidation at physiological afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Gandhi, Manoj; Mori, Jun; Basu, Ratnadeep; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Clanachan, Alexander; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2013-03-15

    Development of heart failure is known to be associated with changes in energy substrate metabolism. Information on the changes in energy substrate metabolism that occur in heart failure is limited and results vary depending on the methods employed. Our aim is to characterize the changes in energy substrate metabolism associated with pressure overload and ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We used transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice to induce pressure overload-induced heart failure. Metabolic rates were measured in isolated working hearts perfused at physiological afterload (80 mmHg) using (3)H- or (14)C-labelled substrates. As a result of pressure-overload injury, murine hearts exhibited: (i) hypertrophy, systolic, and diastolic dysfunctions; (ii) reduction in LV work, (iii) reduced rates of glucose and lactate oxidations, with no change in glycolysis or fatty acid oxidation and a small decrease in triacylglycerol oxidation, and (iv) increased phosphorylation of AMPK and a reduction in malonyl-CoA levels. Sham hearts produced more acetyl CoA from carbohydrates than from fats, whereas TAC hearts showed a reverse trend. I/R in sham group produced a metabolic switch analogous to the TAC-induced shift to fatty acid oxidation, whereas I/R in TAC hearts greatly exacerbated the existing imbalance, and was associated with a poorer recovery during reperfusion. Pressure overload-induced heart failure and I/R shift the preference of substrate oxidation from glucose and lactate to fatty acid due to a selective reduction in carbohydrate oxidation. Normalizing the balance between metabolic substrate utilization may alleviate pressure-overload-induced heart failure and ischaemia.

  14. Wind powered apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, D.L.

    1986-06-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for extracting energy from a moving fluid of the class that includes an elongated member mounted for rocking movement between limiting positions about a pivotal axis and a wing pivotally mounted on the member about a wing axis spaced from and substantially parallel to the pivotal axis for movement between positive and negative angles of attack with respect to ambient fluid flow for respective urging pivotal movement of the member in the first and second direction. The improvement described here consists of the wing being free for oscillatory movement about the wing axis and a control panel pivotally mounted on the wing for movement between first and second positions relative thereto that are respectively operative to subject the wing to oppositely directed moments about its free oscillatory wing axis whereby the wing is urged respectively towards its positive and negative angles of attack in response to the control panel being disposed at its first and second positions, the wing. The control panel and the wing axis are so constructed and arranged to obtain a torsion-free mode of operation, and control means actuated by oscillation of the member for reversing the position of the control panel in response to the member approaching either of its limiting positions while otherwise opposing change of control panel position. The direction of rocking movement of the member is reversed solely when the member approaches its limiting positions.

  15. Human macrophage ATP7A is localized in the trans-Golgi apparatus, controls intracellular copper levels, and mediates macrophage responses to dermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Won; Chan, Qilin; Afton, Scott E; Caruso, Joseph A; Lai, Barry; Weintraub, Neal L; Qin, Zhenyu

    2012-02-01

    The copper transporter ATP7A has attracted significant attention since the discovery of its gene mutation leading to human Menkes disease. We previously reported that ATP7A is highly expressed in the human vasculature and identified a novel vascular function of ATP7A in modulation of the expression and activity of extracellular superoxide dismutase. We recently identified that ATP7A expression in THP-1 cells (a monocyte/macrophage model cell line) plays a role in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins, indicating that it is necessary to further investigate its expression and function in monocytes/macrophages. In the current study, we demonstrated the protein and mRNA expression of ATP7A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. ATP7A was strongly co-localized with the trans-Golgi apparatus in PBMC-derived macrophages. Intracellular copper, detected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, was found to be distributed to the nucleus and cytoplasm in human THP-1 cells. To confirm the role of endogenous ATP7A in macrophage copper homeostasis, we performed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in murine peritoneal macrophages, which showed markedly increased intracellular copper levels in macrophages isolated from ATP7A-deficient mice versus control mice. Moreover, the role of ATP7A in regulating macrophage responses to dermal wounds was studied by introduction of control and ATP7A-downregulated THP-1 cells into dermal wounds of nude mice. Infiltration of THP-1 cells into the wounded area (detected by expression of human macrophage markers MAC2 and CD68) was reduced in response to downregulation of ATP7A, hinting decreased macrophage accumulation subsequent to dermal wounds. In summary, alongside our previous studies, these findings indicate that human macrophage ATP7A is localized in the trans-Golgi apparatus, regulates intracellular copper levels, and mediates macrophage responses to a dermal wound.

  16. Human Macrophage ATP7A is Localized in the trans-Golgi Apparatus, Controls Intracellular Copper Levels, and Mediates Macrophage Responses to Dermal Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Won; Chan, Qilin; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A.; Lai, Barry; Weintraub, Neal L.; Qin, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    The copper transporter ATP7A has attracted significant attention since the discovery of its gene mutation leading to human Menkes disease. We previously reported that ATP7A is highly expressed in the human vasculature and identified a novel vascular function of ATP7A in modulation of the expression and activity of extracellular superoxide dismutase. We recently identified that ATP7A expression in THP-1 cells (a monocyte/macrophage model cell line) plays a role in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins, indicating that it is necessary to further investigate its expression and function in monocytes/macrophages. In the current study, we demonstrated the protein and mRNA expression of ATP7A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. ATP7A was strongly co-localized with the trans-Golgi apparatus in PBMC-derived macrophages. Intracellular copper, detected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, was found to be distributed to the nucleus and cytoplasm in human THP-1 cells. To confirm the role of endogenous ATP7A in macrophage copper homeostasis, we performed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in murine peritoneal macrophages, which showed markedly increased intracellular copper levels in macrophages isolated from ATP7A-deficient mice versus control mice. Moreover, the role of ATP7A in regulating macrophage responses to dermal wounds was studied by introduction of control and ATP7A-downregulated THP-1 cells into dermal wounds of nude mice. Infiltration of THP-1 cells into the wounded area (detected by expression of human macrophage markers MAC2 and CD68) was reduced in response to downregulation of ATP7A, hinting decreased macrophage accumulation subsequent to dermal wounds. In summary, alongside our previous studies, these findings indicate that human macrophage ATP7A is localized in the trans-Golgi apparatus, regulates intracellular copper levels, and mediates macrophage responses to a dermal wound

  17. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  18. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  19. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  20. Profile machining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A. J.

    1985-02-26

    The disclosure relates to a profile forming apparatus and in particular a cam grinding machine in which a cam to be ground is mounted for rotation about the axis of the cam shaft in a work-table and a drive motor rotates the cam about its axis at a speed controlled by a predetermined programme. The work-table is mounted for rocking movement about an axis parallel to the cam shaft axis to move towards and away from the rotating grinding wheel which grinds cam surfaces spaced apart along the camshaft. The work-table is driven positively about its axis by a reversible drive motor in accordance with a further programme to rock the camshaft towards and away from the axis of the grinding wheel as the camshaft rotates and thereby determine the shape and dimensions of the profile to which the cam is ground.

  1. Spine immobilization apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  2. Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    1999-01-01

    An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

  3. Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J..

    1999-09-28

    An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

  4. Local control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling in the Golgi apparatus by Vps74 and Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Christopher S.; Hung, Chia-Sui; Huoh, Yu-San; Mousley, Carl J.; Stefan, Christopher J.; Bankaitis, Vytas; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    In the Golgi apparatus, lipid homeostasis pathways are coordinated with the biogenesis of cargo transport vesicles by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) that produce phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P), a signaling molecule that is recognized by downstream effector proteins. Quantitative analysis of the intra-Golgi distribution of a PtdIns4P reporter protein confirms that PtdIns4P is enriched on the trans-Golgi cisterna, but surprisingly, Vps74 (the orthologue of human GOLPH3), a PI4K effector required to maintain residence of a subset of Golgi proteins, is distributed with the opposite polarity, being most abundant on cis and medial cisternae. Vps74 binds directly to the catalytic domain of Sac1 (KD = 3.8 μM), the major PtdIns4P phosphatase in the cell, and PtdIns4P is elevated on medial Golgi cisternae in cells lacking Vps74 or Sac1, suggesting that Vps74 is a sensor of PtdIns4P level on medial Golgi cisternae that directs Sac1-mediated dephosphosphorylation of this pool of PtdIns4P. Consistent with the established role of Sac1 in the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis, complex sphingolipid homeostasis is perturbed in vps74Δ cells. Mutant cells lacking complex sphingolipid biosynthetic enzymes fail to properly maintain residence of a medial Golgi enzyme, and cells lacking Vps74 depend critically on complex sphingolipid biosynthesis for growth. The results establish additive roles of Vps74-mediated and sphingolipid-dependent sorting of Golgi residents. PMID:22553352

  5. Baffle maintenance apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Genter, J. B.; Quinn, G. J.; Shields, E. P.; Thomas, B. S.; Winkler, C. J.

    1983-12-20

    The baffle maintenance apparatus comprises a peening apparatus mounted on a movable carriage for reducing the width of a gap between two adjacent baffle plates in a nuclear reactor. The peening apparatus comprises an hydraulic hammer mounted on a pivotable plate that is capable of being positioned in proper relationship to the baffle plate for reducing the gap therebetween. The baffle maintenance apparatus may also comprise a gauging mechanism mounted on the carriage for determining the width of the gap between the baffle plates.

  6. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  7. Apparatus for Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on apparatus for generating Lissajous figures, projecting Poisson's spots, photographing diffraction patterns, electric heating, and projecting moving longitudinal waves on an oscilloscope. (SL)

  8. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  9. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  10. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  11. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  12. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.

    1994-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  13. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Duncan, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect).

  14. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  15. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  16. Apparatus for treating garbage

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Chen, K.; Hsien, K.

    1994-01-11

    An apparatus for treating garbage is described. The apparatus has a conveyor, a continuous incinerator receiving garbage from the conveyor, a device for cooling ash carried out of the continuous incinerator, a device for filtering the ash, a pipe for inducing exhaust from the continuous incinerator to a water tank for removing particles and water-soluble components from the exhaust. 1 fig.

  17. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  18. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  19. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  20. Preliminary study of an apparatus to control the temperature of the flow entering the T2 cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobert, J.; Breil, J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cryogenic blast wind tunnels reveals the need to control the flow parameters: temperature, pressure, speed. This report gives the results of a preliminary study conducted on the T'2 wind tunnel of CERT. Its purpose is to show the feasibility of controlling the temperature with a real-time minicomputer.

  1. Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

  2. Tissue culture apparatus for flight experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an apparatus for in-flight treatment of cells, tissues, or small organisms for microscopic and chemical analyses is discussed. The hardware for the apparatus is to have: (1) automated functions, (2) the capability to interface with ground-based facilities, (3) independently controlled chambers, (4) variable chamber configurations and volumes, and (4) the capabilities for processing the materials. The components of the equipment used on Skylab 3 for the study of animal cells are described. The design of an apparatus which incorporates all the required capabilities is proposed.

  3. Tissue culture apparatus for flight experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an apparatus for in-flight treatment of cells, tissues, or small organisms for microscopic and chemical analyses is discussed. The hardware for the apparatus is to have: (1) automated functions, (2) the capability to interface with ground-based facilities, (3) independently controlled chambers, (4) variable chamber configurations and volumes, and (4) the capabilities for processing the materials. The components of the equipment used on Skylab 3 for the study of animal cells are described. The design of an apparatus which incorporates all the required capabilities is proposed.

  4. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses. The apparatus includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The method uses gelling agents such as silicon dioxide, clay, carbon, or organic or inorganic polymers, as well as dopants such as titanium, aluminum, and boron powders. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  5. Effect of the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique on pregnancy rates in single embryo transfer cycles

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Nafiye; Oruç, Ayla Sargın; Zeyrek, Tugba; Görkem, Ümit; İnal, Hasan Ali; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Gülerman, Cavidan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique on pregnancy rates in single embryo transfer intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Material and Methods This retrospective study was performed at the Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Research and Education Hospital. Three hundred and thirteen women who underwent ICSI were included in the study. Subjects were categorized according to the embryo transfer technique; Group 1 (n: 232): easy transfer with a soft catheter, Group 2 (n: 45): after external guidance transfer, and Group 3 (n: 36): difficult transfer with a stylet. Basal parameters, clinical and laboratory IVF outcomes and pregnancy rates were studied. Results Infertility etiology, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, antral follicle count, duration of stimulation, total dose of gonadotropin, peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, oocyte number, 2 PN, and fertilization rate were similar between the three groups (p>0.05). Despite the decreased pregnancy rate in Group 3, there were no differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups (p=0.204). Conclusion Embryo transfer is one of the critical steps in assisted reproduction procedures. Using the afterloaded external guidance embryo transfer technique did not improve pregnancy rates. PMID:24592095

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 40: Automated Quality Assurance for Remote-Afterloading High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Anthony; Ravi, Ananth

    2014-08-15

    High dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading brachytherapy involves sending a small, high-activity radioactive source attached to a cable to different positions within a hollow applicator implanted in the patient. It is critical that the source position within the applicator and the dwell time of the source are accurate. Daily quality assurance (QA) tests of the positional and dwell time accuracy are essential to ensure that the accuracy of the remote afterloader is not compromised prior to patient treatment. Our centre has developed an automated, video-based QA system for HDR brachytherapy that is dramatically superior to existing diode or film QA solutions in terms of cost, objectivity, positional accuracy, with additional functionalities such as being able to determine source dwell time and transit time of the source. In our system, a video is taken of the brachytherapy source as it is sent out through a position check ruler, with the source visible through a clear window. Using a proprietary image analysis algorithm, the source position is determined with respect to time as it moves to different positions along the check ruler. The total material cost of the video-based system was under $20, consisting of a commercial webcam and adjustable stand. The accuracy of the position measurement is ±0.2 mm, and the time resolution is 30 msec. Additionally, our system is capable of robustly verifying the source transit time and velocity (a test required by the AAPM and CPQR recommendations), which is currently difficult to perform accurately.

  7. Apparatus Makes Precisely Saturated Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1989-01-01

    Simple laboratory apparatus establishes equilibrium conditions of temperature and concentration in solutions for use in precise measurements of saturation conditions. With equipment typical measurement of saturation concentration of protein in solution established and measured within about 24 hours. Precisely saturated solution made by passing solvent or solution slowly along column packed with solute at precisely controlled temperature. If necessary, flow stopped for experimentally determined interval to allow equilibrium to be established in column.

  8. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerty, Harold G.

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  9. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  10. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  11. Crystal growth and annealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Sparrow, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a secondary heater incorporated into a conventional crystal growth and annealing apparatus. The secondary heater supplies heat to minimize the temperature gradients in the crystal during the annealing process. The secondary heater can mount near the bottom of the crucible to effectively maintain appropriate temperature gradients.

  12. Apparatus Tests Thermocouples For Seebeck Inhomogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Bauserman, Willard A., Jr.; West, James W.

    1995-01-01

    Automated apparatus reveals sources of error not revealed in calibration. Computer-controlled apparatus detects and measures Seebeck inhomogeneities in sheathed thermocouples. Measures thermocouple output voltage as function of position of probe along sharp gradient of temperature. Abnormal variations in voltage-versus-position data indicative of Seebeck inhomogeneities. Prototype for development of standard method and equipment for routine acceptance/rejection testing of sheathed thermocouples in industrial and research laboratories.

  13. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  14. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  15. Mirror plasma apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

  16. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  17. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L.; Erickson, Scott A.; Blackmon, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  18. Conduit grinding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.; Korytkowski, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  19. Freeze chromatography method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1987-04-16

    A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

  20. Particle analyzing method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Griffin, C. E.; Norris, D. D.; Friedlander, S. K. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The rapid chemical analysis of particles in aerosols can be accomplished using an apparatus which produces a controlled stream of individual particles from an environment, and another apparatus which vaporizes and ionizes the particles moving in free flight, for analysis by a mass spectrometer. The device for producing the stream of particles includes a capillary tube through which the air with suspended particles moves, a skimmer with a small opening spaced from an end of the capillary tube to receive particles passing through the tube, and a vacuum pump which removes air from between the tube and skimmer and creates an inflow of air and particles through the tube. The particles passing through the skimmer opening can be simultaneously vaporized and ionized while in free flight, by a laser beam of sufficient intensity that is directed across the path of the free flying particles.

  1. APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

    1958-10-01

    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  2. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  3. Thermal effects on motor control and in vitro muscle dynamics of the ballistic tongue apparatus in chameleons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher V; Deban, Stephen M

    2012-12-15

    Temperature strongly affects whole-organism performance through its effect on muscle contractile rate properties, but movements powered by elastic recoil are liberated from much of the performance decline experienced by muscle-powered movements at low temperature. We examined the motor control and muscle contractile physiology underlying an elastically powered movement - tongue projection in chameleons - and the associated muscle powered retraction to test the premise that the thermal dependence of muscle contractile dynamics is conserved. We further tested the associated hypothesis that motor control patterns and muscle contractile dynamics must change as body temperature varies, despite the thermal robustness of tongue-projection performance. We found that, over 14-26°C, the latency between the onset of the tongue projector muscle activity and tongue projection was significantly affected by temperature (Q(10) of 2.56), as were dynamic contractile properties of the tongue projector and retractor muscles (Q(10) of 1.48-5.72), supporting our hypothesis that contractile rates slow with decreasing temperature and, as a result, activity durations of the projector muscle increase at low temperatures. Over 24-36°C, thermal effects on motor control and muscle contractile properties declined, indicating that temperature effects are more extreme across lower temperature ranges. Over the entire 14-36°C range, intensity of muscle activity for the tongue muscles was not affected by temperature, indicating that recruitment of motor units in neither muscle increases with decreasing temperature to compensate for declining contractile rates. These results reveal that specializations in morphology and motor control, not muscle contractile physiology, are responsible for the thermal robustness of tongue projection in chameleons.

  4. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  5. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  6. An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, I. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

  7. Sample positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Thomas H.; Johnson, Jr., Charles H.; Lane, Robert L.; Martin, Bradley E.; Tyree, William H.

    1976-01-06

    Apparatus for use in alpha particle counting with such as photomultiplier tubes, comprising a platform and linkage mechanism whereby samples are moved in linear manner toward and away from ends of the photomultiplier tubes.

  8. A new apparatus design for high temperature (up to 950 °C) quasi-elastic neutron scattering in a controlled gaseous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Wahish, Amal; Armitage, D.; Hill, B.; Mills, R.; Santodonato, L.; Herwig, K. W.; Al-Binni, U.; Jalarvo, N.; Mandrus, D.

    2015-09-15

    A design for a sample cell system suitable for high temperature Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments is presented. The apparatus was developed at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab where it is currently in use. The design provides a special sample cell environment under controlled humid or dry gas flow over a wide range of temperature up to 950 °C. Using such a cell, chemical, dynamical, and physical changes can be studied in situ under various operating conditions. While the cell combined with portable automated gas environment system is especially useful for in situ studies of microscopic dynamics under operational conditions that are similar to those of solid oxide fuel cells, it can additionally be used to study a wide variety of materials, such as high temperature proton conductors. The cell can also be used in many different neutron experiments when a suitable sample holder material is selected. The sample cell system has recently been used to reveal fast dynamic processes in quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments, which standard probes (such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) could not detect. In this work, we outline the design of the sample cell system and present results demonstrating its abilities in high temperature QENS experiments.

  9. Spin coating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Torczynski, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  10. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  11. Vacuum pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1985-01-01

    An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

  12. CONTINUOUS TREATMENT APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, E.E.

    1962-05-15

    An apparatus is described for dissolving a nuclear reactor fuel element in strong acid solutlon. The vapors and entrained liquid resulting from the violent reaction of dissolution are led into a reflux condenser which discharges, not directly back into the top of the reaction vessel in the conventional manner, but by a route leading to the bottom of the apparatus, thereby utilizing the energy of the reaction to bring about a circulation of the solution. (AEC)

  13. Apparatus for monitoring engines

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, P.

    1984-10-09

    Oil mist detecting apparatus comprises a measuring chamber which receives air, and oil mist if present, from an engine compartment. The apparatus includes a radiation source which emits light into the measuring chamber, and the radiation sensor which is so disposed as to receive light scattered by oil mist in the chamber. A second radiation source is preferably provided for testing purposes, the second source being arranged to emit radiation directly to the sensor.

  14. Hydrogen gas purification apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagihara, N.; Gamo, T.; Iwaki, T.; Moriwaki, Y.

    1984-04-24

    A hydrogen gas purification apparatus which includes at least one set of two hydrogen purification containers coupled to each other for heat exchanging therebetween, each of the hydrogen purification containers containing a hydrogen absorbing alloy. The hydrogen gas purification apparatus is so arranged as to cause hydrogen gas to be selectively desorbed from and absorbed into the hydrogen absorbing alloy by the amount of heat produced when the hydrogen gas is selectively absorbed into and desorbed from the hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  15. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  16. Fiber pulling apparatus modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Guy A.; Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Four flights have been completed to date during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated zero, high, and lunar gravity environments. In addition simulated lunar soil samples were tested for their fiber producing properties using the FPA.

  17. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  18. Energy conversion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D. A.

    1984-10-09

    Apparatus for converting fluid energy into mechanical energy may include a sail and a mast carried by a pivotally mounted support. The sail is mounted both directly to the mast and indirectly to the mast through a boom, which is pivotally mounted at its center or along its length about the mast, and which is also mounted for tilting movement about a fastening extending perpendicularly to the mast. Positioning means periodically causes the boom to yaw about the mast and to tilt. Opposite edges of the sail thus alternately become taut leading edges with respect to incident wind or water and the sail adopts an oscillating motion which powers mechanical drive means such as pumps. The positioning means may be an over-center spring return or, in an alternative embodiment, be a hydraulic control mechanism. Advantages are that, because the sail remains full, it does not flap during repositioning even when formed of a light flexible material, which reduces inertial problems. Useful mechanical energy can be derived with a low level of technology from a large volume of incident fluid moving at a relatively low speed. The pressure from the pumps can be maintained at a constant value even if the speed of the incident fluid should alter.

  19. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  20. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.