Science.gov

Sample records for controlled spatial separation

  1. 3-D Separation Control using Spatially-Compact, Pulsed Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, George T. K.; Glezer, Ari

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of controlled 3-D transitory attachment of stalled flow over a dynamically pitching 2-D airfoil are investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Pulsed actuation is effected over a spanwise fraction of the separated domain on a time scale that is an order of magnitude shorter than the airfoil's characteristic convective time scale using surface-integrated pulsed, combustion-driven actuator jets. The formation, evolution, and advection of vorticity concentrations over the airfoil and in its near wake are computed from high-resolution, phase-locked PIV measurements of the flow field in multiple cross-stream planes. It is shown that transitory attachment spreads toward the outboard, unactuated flow domains and exceeds the spanwise width of the actuation. The attachment is preceded by the formation of 3-D vortical structures that are advected and shed into the near wake. The effect of the actuation on the variation of the lift and pitching moment during the pitching cycle is altered significantly with its phase delay relative to the airfoil's pitching motion and can significantly mitigate the adverse aerodynamic effects of the dynamic stall. Supported by AFOSR.

  2. Controllably releasing long-lived quantum memory for photonic polarization qubit into multiple spatially-separate photonic channels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lirong; Xu, Zhongxiao; Zeng, Weiqing; Wen, Yafei; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    We report an experiment in which long-lived quantum memories for photonic polarization qubits (PPQs) are controllably released into any one of multiple spatially-separate channels. The PPQs are implemented with an arbitrarily-polarized coherent signal light pulses at the single-photon level and are stored in cold atoms by means of electromagnetic-induced-transparency scheme. Reading laser pulses propagating along the direction at a small angle relative to quantum axis are applied to release the stored PPQs into an output channel. By changing the propagating directions of the read laser beam, we controllably release the retrieved PPQs into 7 different photonic output channels, respectively. At a storage time of δt = 5 μs, the least quantum-process fidelity in 7 different output channels is ~89%. At one of the output channels, the measured maximum quantum-process fidelity for the PPQs is 94.2% at storage time of δt = 0.85 ms. At storage time of 6 ms, the quantum-process fidelity is still beyond the bound of 78% to violate the Bell’s inequality. The demonstrated controllable release of the stored PPQs may extend the capabilities of the quantum information storage technique. PMID:27667262

  3. Controllably releasing long-lived quantum memory for photonic polarization qubit into multiple spatially-separate photonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lirong; Xu, Zhongxiao; Zeng, Weiqing; Wen, Yafei; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai

    2016-09-01

    We report an experiment in which long-lived quantum memories for photonic polarization qubits (PPQs) are controllably released into any one of multiple spatially-separate channels. The PPQs are implemented with an arbitrarily-polarized coherent signal light pulses at the single-photon level and are stored in cold atoms by means of electromagnetic-induced-transparency scheme. Reading laser pulses propagating along the direction at a small angle relative to quantum axis are applied to release the stored PPQs into an output channel. By changing the propagating directions of the read laser beam, we controllably release the retrieved PPQs into 7 different photonic output channels, respectively. At a storage time of δt = 5 μs, the least quantum-process fidelity in 7 different output channels is ~89%. At one of the output channels, the measured maximum quantum-process fidelity for the PPQs is 94.2% at storage time of δt = 0.85 ms. At storage time of 6 ms, the quantum-process fidelity is still beyond the bound of 78% to violate the Bell’s inequality. The demonstrated controllable release of the stored PPQs may extend the capabilities of the quantum information storage technique.

  4. Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Creer, David J.; Romberg, Carola; Saksida, Lisa M.; van Praag, Henriette; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular exercise improves brain health and promotes synaptic plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. Exercise improves learning, but specific mechanisms of information processing influenced by physical activity are unknown. Here, we report that voluntary running enhanced the ability of adult (3 months old) male C57BL/6 mice to discriminate between the locations of two adjacent identical stimuli. Improved spatial pattern separation in adult runners was tightly correlated with increased neurogenesis. In contrast, very aged (22 months old) mice had impaired spatial discrimination and low basal cell genesis that was refractory to running. These findings suggest that the addition of newly born neurons may bolster dentate gyrus-mediated encoding of fine spatial distinctions. PMID:20133882

  5. Spatial Separation of Molecular Conformers and Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Horke, Daniel; Trippel, Sebastian; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Stern, Stephan; Mullins, Terry; Kierspel, Thomas; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Gas-phase molecular physics and physical chemistry experiments commonly use supersonic expansions through pulsed valves for the production of cold molecular beams. However, these beams often contain multiple conformers and clusters, even at low rotational temperatures. We present an experimental methodology that allows the spatial separation of these constituent parts of a molecular beam expansion. Using an electric deflector the beam is separated by its mass-to-dipole moment ratio, analogous to a bender or an electric sector mass spectrometer spatially dispersing charged molecules on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio. This deflector exploits the Stark effect in an inhomogeneous electric field and allows the separation of individual species of polar neutral molecules and clusters. It furthermore allows the selection of the coldest part of a molecular beam, as low-energy rotational quantum states generally experience the largest deflection. Different structural isomers (conformers) of a species can be separated due to the different arrangement of functional groups, which leads to distinct dipole moments. These are exploited by the electrostatic deflector for the production of a conformationally pure sample from a molecular beam. Similarly, specific cluster stoichiometries can be selected, as the mass and dipole moment of a given cluster depends on the degree of solvation around the parent molecule. This allows experiments on specific cluster sizes and structures, enabling the systematic study of solvation of neutral molecules. PMID:24457426

  6. Spatial separation of molecular conformers and clusters.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel; Trippel, Sebastian; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Stern, Stephan; Mullins, Terry; Kierspel, Thomas; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-01-09

    Gas-phase molecular physics and physical chemistry experiments commonly use supersonic expansions through pulsed valves for the production of cold molecular beams. However, these beams often contain multiple conformers and clusters, even at low rotational temperatures. We present an experimental methodology that allows the spatial separation of these constituent parts of a molecular beam expansion. Using an electric deflector the beam is separated by its mass-to-dipole moment ratio, analogous to a bender or an electric sector mass spectrometer spatially dispersing charged molecules on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio. This deflector exploits the Stark effect in an inhomogeneous electric field and allows the separation of individual species of polar neutral molecules and clusters. It furthermore allows the selection of the coldest part of a molecular beam, as low-energy rotational quantum states generally experience the largest deflection. Different structural isomers (conformers) of a species can be separated due to the different arrangement of functional groups, which leads to distinct dipole moments. These are exploited by the electrostatic deflector for the production of a conformationally pure sample from a molecular beam. Similarly, specific cluster stoichiometries can be selected, as the mass and dipole moment of a given cluster depends on the degree of solvation around the parent molecule. This allows experiments on specific cluster sizes and structures, enabling the systematic study of solvation of neutral molecules.

  7. ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1959-08-25

    An improved isotope separating apparatus of the electromagnetic type, commonly referred to as a calutron, is described. Improvements in detecting and maintaining optimum position and focus of the ion beam are given. The calutron collector is provided with an additional electrode insulated from and positioned between the collecting pockets. The ion beams are properly positioned and focused until the deionizing current which flows from ground to this additional electrode ts a minimum.

  8. Spatial perception and control.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J Scott; Knoblich, Günther

    2004-02-01

    We investigated whether the perceived vanishing point of a moving stimulus becomes more accurate as one's degree of control over the stimulus increases. Either alone or as a member of a pair, participants controlled the progression of a dot stimulus back and forth across a computer monitor. They did so via right and left buttonpresses that incremented the dot's velocity rightward and leftward, respectively. The participants in the individual condition had control of both buttons. Those in the group condition had control of only one. As the participants slowed the dot to change its direction of travel, it unexpectedly disappeared. Localizations of the vanishing point became more accurate as the participants' control over the dot increased. The data bridge a gap between accounts of localization error that rely solely on stimulus and cognitive factors, and accounts derived from research on action and spatial perception, which tend to rely on action-planning factors.

  9. Control of Separated Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shao-Ching; Kim, John

    2003-11-01

    The control of separated boundary layers are numerically investigated. Two types of flow geometry are considered. The first case is flow separation on a flat plate caused by an imposed adverse pressure gradient. The second case is flow separation downstream of a curved leading edge. These cases represent laminar separation with turbulent reattachment with and without curvature effects. Open-loop control, with distributed surface blowing and suction as control input, is first applied to establish base-line cases. We then use a system identification approach to construct approximate system models for design of closed-loop control. The models are based on the input-output relationship obtained from numerical simulations. The linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control synthesis is applied to the models to produce feedback control laws. The distributed sensors and actuators are confined to the walls. The efficacy of the controllers are quantified by pressure distribution, separation bubble size and Reynolds stresses. Visualization of the controlled and uncontrolled flow fields will also be presented.

  10. Work control in separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, L.D.

    1990-12-31

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment.

  11. Work control in separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment.

  12. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths.

    PubMed

    Huppert, M; Jordan, I; Wörner, H J

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids.

  13. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, M.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids.

  14. Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths.

    PubMed

    Huppert, M; Jordan, I; Wörner, H J

    2015-12-01

    We describe a versatile and compact beamline for attosecond spectroscopy. The setup consists of a high-order harmonic source followed by a delay line that spatially separates and then recombines the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and residual infrared (IR) pulses. The beamline introduces a controlled and actively stabilized delay between the XUV and IR pulses on the attosecond time scale. A new active-stabilization scheme combining a helium-neon-laser and a white-light interferometer minimizes fluctuations and allows to control delays accurately (26 as rms during 1.5 h) over long time scales. The high-order-harmonic-generation region is imaged via optical systems, independently for XUV and IR, into an interaction volume to perform pump-probe experiments. As a consequence of the spatial separation, the pulses can be independently manipulated in intensity, polarization, and frequency content. The beamline can be combined with a variety of detectors for measuring attosecond dynamics in gases, liquids, and solids. PMID:26724005

  15. Spatial interference from well-separated split condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Zawadzki, M. E.; Griffin, P. F.; Riis, E.; Arnold, A. S.

    2010-04-15

    We use magnetic levitation and a variable-separation dual optical plug to obtain clear spatial interference between two condensates axially separated by up to 0.25 mm - the largest separation observed with this kind of interferometer. Clear planar fringes are observed using standard (i.e., nontomographic) resonant absorption imaging. The effect of a weak inverted parabola potential on fringe separation is observed and agrees well with theory.

  16. Aversive control: A separate domain?

    PubMed Central

    Hineline, Philip N.

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, aversive control has been viewed as a separate domain within behavior theory. Sometimes this separateness has been based upon a distinction between reinforcement and punishment, and sometimes upon a distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. The latter is regarded here as the more compelling basis, due to some inherent procedural asymmetries. An approach to the interpretation of negative reinforcement is presented, with indication of types of experiments that support it and that also point to promising directions for further work. However, most of the interpretive issues that arise here are relevant to positively reinforced behavior as well. These include: possible reformulation of the operant/respondent distinction; the place of emotional concepts in behavior analysis; the need for simultaneous, complementary analysis on differing time scales; the understanding of behavioral situations with rewarding or aversive properties that depend as much upon the contingencies that the situations involve as upon the primary rewarding or aversive stimuli that they include. Thus, an adequate understanding of this domain, which has been traditionally viewed as distinct, has implications for all domains of behavior-analytic theory. PMID:16812404

  17. Aversive control: A separate domain?

    PubMed

    Hineline, P N

    1984-11-01

    Traditionally, aversive control has been viewed as a separate domain within behavior theory. Sometimes this separateness has been based upon a distinction between reinforcement and punishment, and sometimes upon a distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. The latter is regarded here as the more compelling basis, due to some inherent procedural asymmetries. An approach to the interpretation of negative reinforcement is presented, with indication of types of experiments that support it and that also point to promising directions for further work. However, most of the interpretive issues that arise here are relevant to positively reinforced behavior as well. These include: possible reformulation of the operant/respondent distinction; the place of emotional concepts in behavior analysis; the need for simultaneous, complementary analysis on differing time scales; the understanding of behavioral situations with rewarding or aversive properties that depend as much upon the contingencies that the situations involve as upon the primary rewarding or aversive stimuli that they include. Thus, an adequate understanding of this domain, which has been traditionally viewed as distinct, has implications for all domains of behavior-analytic theory.

  18. Aversive control: A separate domain?

    PubMed

    Hineline, P N

    1984-11-01

    Traditionally, aversive control has been viewed as a separate domain within behavior theory. Sometimes this separateness has been based upon a distinction between reinforcement and punishment, and sometimes upon a distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. The latter is regarded here as the more compelling basis, due to some inherent procedural asymmetries. An approach to the interpretation of negative reinforcement is presented, with indication of types of experiments that support it and that also point to promising directions for further work. However, most of the interpretive issues that arise here are relevant to positively reinforced behavior as well. These include: possible reformulation of the operant/respondent distinction; the place of emotional concepts in behavior analysis; the need for simultaneous, complementary analysis on differing time scales; the understanding of behavioral situations with rewarding or aversive properties that depend as much upon the contingencies that the situations involve as upon the primary rewarding or aversive stimuli that they include. Thus, an adequate understanding of this domain, which has been traditionally viewed as distinct, has implications for all domains of behavior-analytic theory. PMID:16812404

  19. Perceiving the coherent movements of spatially-separated features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mowafy, Lyn; Lappin, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    When a partially-occluded object is represented in an image, it is defined by a set of spatially-separated features that may be registered at different spatial scales. To understand the image, human vision must organize these fragmented optical features into common and distinct object surfaces. Although the common fate of moving features often is considered a primary source of reliable information for image segmentation, little is known of the visual system's capacity to discriminate the coherent relative movements of spatially-separated features. In a series of experiments, observers viewed elements whose movements were correlated (direction and magnitude) or were uncorrelated. Our results indicate that observers can discriminate the two types of movement about as well as they can detect any movement at all. Moreover, the ability to perceive coherent movements is maintained under a variety of conditions including differences in the elements' spatial frequency content, spatial position and contrast, and temporal phase shifts between the spatially-correlated displacements. These results suggest that coherent relative motion may be a fundamental source of information exploited by vision, despite considerable variability in the spatial and temporal characteristics of the individual features.

  20. Identification and Control of Separated Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shao-Ching; Kim, John

    2002-11-01

    There has been increased interest in applying modern control theory to flow-control problems. For simple flows, such as turbulent channel and boundary layers, several investigators have constructed controllers based on linear optimal control theory, which requires certain information of the system to be controlled. However, for complex flows, such as separated flow past an airfoil, the required system information is not readily available, thus hindering the construction of controllers following the same procedure used for the simple flows. In this study, we use the system identification theory to construct a model of flow system for controller design. The model, as an approximation to the actual system, is based on the input-output relationship of the actual system. The locations of sensors and actuators are determined based on the spatial and temporal correlations of the flow field and practical measurement considerations. The system identification approach has been applied to both simple and complex flows. Linear and nonlinear disturbances to selected flow systems are considered to evaluate the performance of the constructed model. A series of numerical experiments have been performed to assess the validity of using linear approximations for nonlinear complex flows.

  1. Blind separation of incoherent and spatially disjoint sound sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Antoni, Jérôme; Pereira, Antonio; Kellermann, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Blind separation of sound sources aims at reconstructing the individual sources which contribute to the overall radiation of an acoustical field. The challenge is to reach this goal using distant measurements when all sources are operating concurrently. The working assumption is usually that the sources of interest are incoherent - i.e. statistically orthogonal - so that their separation can be approached by decorrelating a set of simultaneous measurements, which amounts to diagonalizing the cross-spectral matrix. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is traditionally used to this end. This paper reports two new findings in this context. First, a sufficient condition is established under which "virtual" sources returned by PCA coincide with true sources; it stipulates that the sources of interest should be not only incoherent but also spatially orthogonal. A particular case of this instance is met by spatially disjoint sources - i.e. with non-overlapping support sets. Second, based on this finding, a criterion that enforces both statistical and spatial orthogonality is proposed to blindly separate incoherent sound sources which radiate from disjoint domains. This criterion can be easily incorporated into acoustic imaging algorithms such as beamforming or acoustical holography to identify sound sources of different origins. The proposed methodology is validated on laboratory experiments. In particular, the separation of aeroacoustic sources is demonstrated in a wind tunnel.

  2. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  3. Simultaneous Multiple-Location Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of controlling a shear layer for a fluid dynamic body introduces first periodic disturbances into the fluid medium at a first flow separation location. Simultaneously, second periodic disturbances are introduced into the fluid medium at a second flow separation location. A phase difference between the first and second periodic disturbances is adjusted to control flow separation of the shear layer as the fluid medium moves over the fluid dynamic body.

  4. Spatial filters for shape control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Reichard, Karl M.

    1992-01-01

    Recently there has emerged a new class of sensors, called spatial filters, for structures which respond over a significant gauge length. Examples include piezoelectric laminate PVDF film, modal domain optical fiber sensors, and holographic sensors. These sensors have a unique capability in that they can be fabricated to locally alter their sensitivity to the measurand. In this paper we discuss how these sensors can be used for the implementation of control algorithms for the suppression of acoustic radiation from flexible structures. Based on this relationship between the total power radiated to the far field to the modal velocities of the structure, we show how the sensor placement to optimize the control algorithm to suppress the radiated power.

  5. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-07-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  6. Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Aronzon, B. A.; Davydov, A. B.; Kugel, K. I.; Tripathi, V.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-22

    We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.

  7. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons.

  8. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-05-07

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons.

  9. Managing Flap Vortices via Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management by means of boundary layer separation control. Passive control was achieved using a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressures, was used to predict vortex characteristics based on inviscid rollup relations and vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over either outboard or inboard edge vortices while producing small lift and moment excursions. Unsteady surface pressures indicated that dynamic separation and attachment control can be exploited to perturb vortices at wavelengths shorter than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  10. Excitonic condensation in spatially separated one-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, D. S. L.

    2015-05-25

    We show theoretically that excitons can form from spatially separated one-dimensional ground state populations of electrons and holes, and that the resulting excitons can form a quasicondensate. We describe a mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory in the low carrier density regime and then focus on the core-shell nanowire giving estimates of the size of the excitonic gap for InAs/GaSb wires and as a function of all the experimentally relevant parameters. We find that optimal conditions for pairing include small overlap of the electron and hole bands, large effective mass of the carriers, and low dielectric constant of the surrounding media. Therefore, one-dimensional systems provide an attractive platform for the experimental detection of excitonic quasicondensation in zero magnetic field.

  11. Control of vortical separation on conical bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourtos, Nikos J.; Roberts, Leonard

    1987-01-01

    In a variety of aeronautical applications, the flow around conical bodies at incidence is of interest. Such applications include, but are not limited to, highly maneuverable aircraft with delta wings, the aerospace plane and nose portions of spike inlets. The theoretical model used has three parts. First, the single line vortex model is used within the framework of slender body theory, to compute the outer inviscid field for specified separation lines. Next, the three dimensional boundary layer is represented by a momentum equation for the cross flow, analogous to that for a plane boundary layer; a von Karman Pohlhausen approximation is applied to solve this equation. The cross flow separation for both laminar and turbulent layers is determined by matching the pressure at the upper and lower separation points. This iterative procedure yields a unique solution for the separation lines and consequently for the position of the vortices and the vortex lift on the body. Lastly, control of separation is achieved by blowing tangentially from a slot located along a cone generator. It is found that for very small blowing coefficients, the separation can be postponed or suppressedy completely.

  12. Fast CNOT gate between two spatially separated atoms via shortcuts to adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Song, Chong; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2015-09-01

    Quantum logic gate is indispensable to quantum computation. One of the important qubit operations is the quantum controlled-not (CNOT) gate that performs a NOT operation on a target qubit depending on the state of the control qubit. In this paper we present a scheme to realize the quantum CNOT gate between two spatially separated atoms via shortcuts to adiabatic passage. The influence of various decoherence processes on the fidelity is discussed. The strict numerical simulation results show that the fidelity for the CNOT gate is relatively high. PMID:26368473

  13. Spatial separation of parental genomes in hybrids of somatic plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Gleba, Yuri Yu.; Parokonny, A.; Kotov, V.; Negrutiu, I.; Momot, V.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome spatial arrangements on metaphase plates of intergeneric intertribal cell hybrids of Nicotiana chinensis and Atropa belladonna as well as interspecific somatic hybrid plants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana sylvestris were analyzed. In the metaphases of the first divisions of protoplast fusion products, chromosomes of the two parents were spatially separated (segmented metaphase). In long-term cultured somatic hybrids, the topology of genome separation pattern in both callus cells and plants showed changes in form from “segmental” to “radial.” Growing the hybrid cells in the presence of colchicine resulted in random chromosome arrangement both in cells directly exposed to different colchicine concentrations and in colchicine-treated cells grown in colchicine-free media. The degree of genome separation calculated for different cell clones remained constant during in vitro propagation of cells but was significantly lower for subclones derived from colchicine-treated cells. Therefore, it is concluded that spatial chromosome arrangement in metaphase is epigenetically controlled. Images PMID:16593838

  14. Control of Flow Separation Using Adaptive Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Wilder, M. C.; Carr, L. W.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A novel way of controlling flow separation is reported. The approach involves using an adaptive airfoil geometry that changes its leading edge shape to adjust to the instantaneous flow at high angles of attack such that the flow over it remains attached. In particular, a baseline NACA 0012 airfoil, whose leading edge curvature could be changed dynamically by 400% was tested under quasi-steady compressible flow conditions. A mechanical drive system was used to produce a rounded leading edge to reduce the strong local flow acceleration around its nose and thus reduce the strong adverse pressure gradient that follows such a rapid acceleration. Tests in steady flow showed that at M = 0.3, the flow separated at about 14 deg. angle of attack for the NACA 0012 profile but could be kept attached up to an angle of about 18 deg by changing the nose curvature. No significant hysteresis effects were observed; the flow could be made to reattach from its separated state at high angles by changing the leading edge curvature. Interestingly, the flow over a nearly semicircular nosed airfoil was separated even at low angles.

  15. Formation metrology and control for large separated optics space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, E.; Quadrelli, M.; Breckenridge, W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present formation flying performance analysis initial results for a representative large space telescope composed of separated optical elements [Mett 02]. A virtual-structure construct (an equivalent rigid body) is created by unique metrology and control that combines both centralized and decentralized methods. The formation may be in orbit at GEO for super-resolution Earth observation, as in the case of Figure 1, or it may be in an Earth-trailing orbit for astrophysics, Figure 2. Extended applications are envisioned for exo-solar planet interferometric imaging by a formation of very large separated optics telescopes, Figure 3. Space telescopes, with such large apertures and f/10 to f/100 optics, are not feasible if connected by massive metering structures. Instead, the new virtual-structure paradigm of information and control connectivity between the formation elements provides the necessary spatial rigidity and alignment precision for the telescope.

  16. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, S.W.

    1960-01-26

    A method is described for controlling the position of the ion beams in a calutron used for isotope separation. The U/sup 238/ beams is centered over the U/sup 235/ receiving pocket, the operator monitoring the beam until a maximum reading is achieved on the meter connected to that pocket. Then both beams are simultaneously shifted by a preselected amount to move the U/sup 235/ beam over the U/sup 235/ pocket. A slotted door is placed over the entrance to that pocket during the U/sup 238/ beam centering to reduce the contamination to the pocket, while allowing enough beam to pass for monitoring purposes.

  17. Control of Flow Separation Using Adaptive Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Wilder, M. C.; Carr, L. W.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A novel way of controlling flow separation is reported. The approach involves using an adaptive airfoil geometry that changes its leading edge shape to adjust to the instantaneous flow at high angles of attack such that the flow over it remains attached. In particular, a baseline NACA 0012 airfoil, whose leading edge curvature could be changed dynamically by 400% was tested under quasi-steady compressible flow conditions. A mechanical drive system was used to produce a rounded leading edge to reduce the strong local flow acceleration around its nose and thus reduce the strong adverse pressure gradient that follows such a rapid acceleration. Tests in steady flow showed that at M = 0.3, the flow separated at about 14 deg. angle of attack for the NACA 0012 profile but could be kept attached up to an angle of about 18 deg by changing the nose curvature. No significant hysteresis effects were observed; the flow could be made to reattach from its separated state at high angles by changing the leading edge curvature.

  18. Virtual Human Analogs to Rodent Spatial Pattern Separation and Completion Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleja, Meera; Girard, Todd A.; Christensen, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial pattern separation (SPS) and spatial pattern completion (SPC) have played an increasingly important role in computational and rodent literatures as processes underlying associative memory. SPS and SPC are complementary processes, allowing the formation of unique representations and the reconstruction of complete spatial environments based…

  19. Tangential synthetic jets for separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili Monir, H.; Tadjfar, M.; Bakhtian, A.

    2014-02-01

    A numerical study of separation control has been made to investigate aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA23012 airfoil with a tangential synthetic jet. Simulations are carried out at the chord Reynolds number of Re=2.19×106. The present approach relies on solving the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The turbulence model used in the present computation is the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model. All computations are performed with a finite volume based code. Stall characteristics are significantly improved by controlling the formation of separation vortices in the flow. We placed the synthetic jet at the 12% chord, xj=0.12c, where we expected the separation to occur. Two distinct jet oscillating frequencies: Fj+=0.159 and Fj+=1 were considered. We studied the effect of blowing ratio, Vj/U∞, where it was varied from 0 to 5. The inclined angle of the synthetic jet was varied from αj=0° up to αj=83°. For the non-zero inclined angles, the local maximum in the aerodynamic performance, Cl/Cd, of 6.89 was found for the inclined angle of about 43°. In the present method, by means of creating a dent on the airfoil, linear momentum is transferred to the flow system in tangential direction to the airfoil surface. Thus the absolute maximum of 11.19 was found for the tangential synthetic jet at the inclined angle of the jet of 0°. The mechanisms involved for a tangential jet appear to behave linearly, as by multiplying the activation frequency of the jet by a factor produces the same multiplication factor in the resulting frequency in the flow. However, the mechanisms involved in the non-zero inclined angle cases behave nonlinearly when the activation frequency is multiplied.

  20. Simultaneous and spatially separated detection of multiple orbital angular momentum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, R.; Mihailescu, M.; Kusko, C.; Paun, I. A.; Nan, A. E.; Kusko, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present a method for spatially separated detection of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, simultaneous. The starting point is the generation of axially superposed Laguerre-Gauss beams, carrying multiple OAM states using a single computer generated hologram. The information contained in the OAM superposition is transferred to the first diffraction order and is detected at the receiver with a reading mask, which contains two perpendicular superposed fork-like holograms, ensuring the spatial separation of the OAM states. The dynamic of the process is studied in terms of the number of generated OAM states and the constructive parameters values. The experimental investigations use an optical arrangement based on a spatial light modulator in the transmitter unit and an amplitude mask in the receiver unit. This proof of concept experiment demonstrates the possibility of simultaneously detection of multiple OAM states in points located at different coordinates, controlled through the design of the holograms and shows the capability of our proposed method to increase the capacity of free-space optical communication channels.

  1. Disentangling the role of spatial scale, separation and eccentricity in Weber's law for position.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, D; Latham, K

    1997-03-01

    Factors underlying Weber's law for position were investigated by measuring spatial interval discrimination accuracy for spectrally narrow-band stimuli. These stimuli were positioned around an iso-eccentric arc in order to allow separation and eccentricity to be varied independently. We find that Weber's law occurs at individual spatial scales, and holds true not just for stimuli positioned either side of fixation, but for any series of stimuli which possess the same ratio of separation to eccentricity. When the separation/eccentricity ratio is large, thresholds are proportional to eccentricity and demonstrate contrast independence. At smaller separation/ eccentricity ratios, thresholds are determined by a contrast-dependent combination of separation and eccentricity.

  2. Release from masking for small spatial separations: Effects of age and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Nirmal Kumar; Jakien, Kasey M; Gallun, Frederick J

    2016-07-01

    Spatially separating target and masking speech can result in substantial spatial release from masking (SRM) for normal-hearing listeners. In this study, SRM was examined at eight spatial configurations of azimuth angle: maskers co-located with the target (0°) or symmetrically separated by 2°, 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, 15°, or 30°. Results revealed that different listening groups (young normal-hearing, older normal-hearing, and older hearing-impaired) required different minimum amounts of spatial separation between target and maskers to achieve SRM. The results also indicated that aging was the contributing factor predicting SRM at smaller separations, whereas hearing loss was the contributing factor at larger separations.

  3. Impulsive Injection for Compressor Stator Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Bright, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    Flow control using impulsive injection from the suction surface of a stator vane has been applied in a low speed axial compressor. Impulsive injection is shown to significantly reduce separation relative to steady injection for vanes that were induced to separate by an increase in vane stagger angle of 4 degrees. Injected flow was applied to the airfoil suction surface using spanwise slots pitched in the streamwise direction. Injection was limited to the near-hub region, from 10 to 36 percent of span, to affect the dominant loss due to hub leakage flow. Actuation was provided externally using high-speed solenoid valves closely coupled to the vane tip. Variations in injected mass, frequency, and duty cycle are explored. The local corrected total pressure loss across the vane at the lower span region was reduced by over 20 percent. Additionally, low momentum fluid migrating from the hub region toward the tip was effectively suppressed resulting in an overall benefit which reduced corrected area averaged loss through the passage by 4 percent. The injection mass fraction used for impulsive actuation was typically less than 0.1 percent of the compressor through flow.

  4. Spatial constancy mechanisms in motor control.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, W Pieter

    2011-02-27

    The success of the human species in interacting with the environment depends on the ability to maintain spatial stability despite the continuous changes in sensory and motor inputs owing to movements of eyes, head and body. In this paper, I will review recent advances in the understanding of how the brain deals with the dynamic flow of sensory and motor information in order to maintain spatial constancy of movement goals. The first part summarizes studies in the saccadic system, showing that spatial constancy is governed by a dynamic feed-forward process, by gaze-centred remapping of target representations in anticipation of and across eye movements. The subsequent sections relate to other oculomotor behaviour, such as eye-head gaze shifts, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements, and their implications for feed-forward mechanisms for spatial constancy. Work that studied the geometric complexities in spatial constancy and saccadic guidance across head and body movements, distinguishing between self-generated and passively induced motion, indicates that both feed-forward and sensory feedback processing play a role in spatial updating of movement goals. The paper ends with a discussion of the behavioural mechanisms of spatial constancy for arm motor control and their physiological implications for the brain. Taken together, the emerging picture is that the brain computes an evolving representation of three-dimensional action space, whose internal metric is updated in a nonlinear way, by optimally integrating noisy and ambiguous afferent and efferent signals. PMID:21242137

  5. Spatial constancy mechanisms in motor control

    PubMed Central

    Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The success of the human species in interacting with the environment depends on the ability to maintain spatial stability despite the continuous changes in sensory and motor inputs owing to movements of eyes, head and body. In this paper, I will review recent advances in the understanding of how the brain deals with the dynamic flow of sensory and motor information in order to maintain spatial constancy of movement goals. The first part summarizes studies in the saccadic system, showing that spatial constancy is governed by a dynamic feed-forward process, by gaze-centred remapping of target representations in anticipation of and across eye movements. The subsequent sections relate to other oculomotor behaviour, such as eye–head gaze shifts, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements, and their implications for feed-forward mechanisms for spatial constancy. Work that studied the geometric complexities in spatial constancy and saccadic guidance across head and body movements, distinguishing between self-generated and passively induced motion, indicates that both feed-forward and sensory feedback processing play a role in spatial updating of movement goals. The paper ends with a discussion of the behavioural mechanisms of spatial constancy for arm motor control and their physiological implications for the brain. Taken together, the emerging picture is that the brain computes an evolving representation of three-dimensional action space, whose internal metric is updated in a nonlinear way, by optimally integrating noisy and ambiguous afferent and efferent signals. PMID:21242137

  6. Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Three existing and two new excitation magnitude scaling options for active separation control at Reynolds numbers below one Million. The physical background for the scaling options was discussed and their relevance was evaluated using two different sets of experimental data. For F+ approx. 1, 2D excitation: a) The traditional VR and C(mu) - do not scale the data. b) Only the Re*C(mu) is valid. This conclusion is also limited for positive lift increment.. For F+ > 10, 3D excitation, the Re corrected C(mu), the St corrected velocity ratio and the vorticity flux coefficient, all scale the amplitudes equally well. Therefore, the Reynolds weighted C(mu) is the preferred choice, relevant to both excitation modes. Incidence also considered, using Ue from local Cp.

  7. Excitation of two spatially separated Bose-Einstein condensates of magnons

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyapko, O.; Demidov, V. E.; Buchmeier, M.; Demokritov, S. O.; Stockhoff, T.; Schmitz, G.; Melkov, G. A.

    2009-08-01

    We have studied experimentally the spatial properties and the dynamics of magnon Bose-Einstein condensates created in ferromagnetic films by a parametric pumping with different spatial configurations. Using the specific character of dynamic fields produced by pumping resonators of different shapes, we were able to realize the regime, in which two spatially separated condensates of magnons are formed. Our experiments show that while the separation between the condensates is determined by the size of the resonator, their spatial width can be changed by varying the power of the pumping signal.

  8. Metasurface Spatial Processor for Electromagnetic Remote Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achouri, Karim; Lavigne, Guillaume; Salem, Mohamed A.; Caloz, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the concept of metasurface spatial processor, whose transmission is remotely and coherently controlled by the superposition of an incident wave and a control wave through the metasurface. The conceptual operation of this device is analogous to both that of a transistor and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, while offering much more diversity in terms of electromagnetic transformations. We demonstrate two metasurfaces, that perform the operation of electromagnetic switching and amplification.

  9. Spatial evolutionary spectrum for DOA estimation and blind signal separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayhan, A. S.; Amin, Moeness G.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, we use the concept of evolutionary spectrum to solve key problems in array processing. We present Cross-power Evolutionary Periodogram for direction finding and blind separation of nonstationary signals. We model nonstationary signals received by each sensor in the array as a sum of complex sinusoids with time-varying amplitudes. These amplitudes carry information about the direction of arrival which may also be time-varying. We first estimate the time-varying amplitudes, then use the results for the estimation of evolutionary cross-power distributions of the sensor data. Next, using cross-power estimates at time-frequency samples of interest, we estimate the directions of arrival using one of the existing high resolution direction finding methods. If the directions are time-varying, we select time-frequency points around the time of interest. By carrying out the estimation at different times, we obtain the directions as a function of time. If the sources are stationary, then we can use all time-frequency points of interest for the estimation of fixed directions. We also use whitening and subspace methods to find the mixing matrix and separate the signals received by the array. Simulation examples illustrating the performances of the proposed algorithms are presented.

  10. Entanglement generation and quantum information transfer between spatially-separated qubits in different cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Su, Qi-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The generation and control of quantum states of spatially-separated qubits distributed in different cavities constitute fundamental tasks in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). An interesting question in this context is how to prepare entanglement and realize quantum information transfer between qubits located at different cavities, which are important in large-scale quantum information processing. In this paper, we consider a physical system consisting of two cavities and three qubits. Two of the qubits are placed in two different cavities while the remaining one acts as a coupler, which is used to connect the two cavities. We propose an approach for generating quantum entanglement and implementing quantum information transfer between the two spatially-separated inter-cavity qubits. The quantum operations involved in this proposal are performed by a virtual photon process; thus the cavity decay is greatly suppressed during operations. In addition, to complete these tasks, only one coupler qubit and one operation step are needed. Moreover, there is no need to apply classical pulses, so that the engineering complexity is much reduced and the operation procedure is greatly simplified. Finally, our numerical results illustrate that high-fidelity implementation of this proposal using superconducting phase qubits and one-dimensional transmission line resonators is feasible for current circuit QED implementations. This proposal can also be applied to other types of superconducting qubits, including flux and charge qubits.

  11. Coupled Vortex Oscillations in Spatially Separated Permalloy Squares

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Andreas; Kamionka, Thomas; Martens, Michael; Meier, Guido; Drews, Andre; Chou, Kang Wei; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Stoll, Hermann; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2011-04-01

    We experimentally study the magnetization dynamics of pairs of micron-sized permalloy squares coupled via their stray fields. The trajectories of the vortex cores in the Landau-domain patterns of the squares are mapped in real space using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. After excitation of one of the vortex cores with a short magnetic-field pulse, the system behaves like coupled harmonic oscillators. The coupling strength depends on the separation between the squares and the configuration of the vortex-core polarizations. Considering the excitation via a rotating in-plane magnetic field, it can be understood that only a weak response of the second vortex core is observed for equal core polarizations.

  12. Individual Differences in Spatial Pattern Separation Performance Associated with Healthy Aging in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Shauna M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Rodent studies have suggested that "pattern separation," the ability to distinguish among similar experiences, is diminished in a subset of aged rats. We extended these findings to the human using a task designed to assess spatial pattern separation behavior (determining at time of test whether pairs of pictures shown during the study were in the…

  13. Blind separation of sound sources from the principle of least spatial entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Antoni, Jérôme; Zhang, Erliang

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to offer a method for separating incoherent and compact sound sources which may overlap in both the space and frequency domains. This is found of interest in acoustical applications involving the identification and ranking of sound sources stemming from different physical origins. The principle proceeds in two steps, the first one being reminiscent to source reconstruction (e.g. as in near-field acoustical holography) and the second one to blind source separation. Specifically, the source mixture is first expanded into a linear combination of spatial basis functions whose coefficients are set by backpropagating the pressures measured by an array of microphones to the source domain. This leads to a formulation similar, but no identical, to blind source separation. In the second step, these coefficients are blindly separated into uncorrelated latent variables, assigned to incoherent "virtual sources". These are shown to be defined up to an arbitrary rotation. A unique set of sound sources is finally recovered by searching for that rotation (by conjugate gradient descent in the Stiefel manifold of unitary matrices) which maximizes their spatial compactness, as measured either by their spatial variance or their spatial entropy. This results in the proposal of two separation criteria coined "least spatial variance" and "least spatial entropy", respectively. The same concept of spatial entropy, which is central to the paper, is also exploited in defining a new criterion, the entropic L-curve, dedicated to determining the number of active sound sources. The idea consists in considering the number of sources that achieves the best compromise between a low spatial entropy (as expected from compact sources) and a low statistical entropy (as expected from a low residual error). The proposed methodology is validated on both laboratory experiments and numerical data, and illustrated on an industrial example concerned with the ranking of sound sources on

  14. Perceptually controlled doping for audio source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé, Gaël; Nadalin, Everton Z.; Suyama, Ricardo; Romano, João MT

    2014-12-01

    The separation of an underdetermined audio mixture can be performed through sparse component analysis (SCA) that relies however on the strong hypothesis that source signals are sparse in some domain. To overcome this difficulty in the case where the original sources are available before the mixing process, the informed source separation (ISS) embeds in the mixture a watermark, which information can help a further separation. Though powerful, this technique is generally specific to a particular mixing setup and may be compromised by an additional bitrate compression stage. Thus, instead of watermarking, we propose a `doping' method that makes the time-frequency representation of each source more sparse, while preserving its audio quality. This method is based on an iterative decrease of the distance between the distribution of the signal and a target sparse distribution, under a perceptual constraint. We aim to show that the proposed approach is robust to audio coding and that the use of the sparsified signals improves the source separation, in comparison with the original sources. In this work, the analysis is made only in instantaneous mixtures and focused on voice sources.

  15. Separate Mechanisms Recruited by Exogenous and Endogenous Spatial Cues: Evidence from a Spatial Stroop Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Milliken, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present experiments tested whether endogenous and exogenous cues produce separate effects on target processing. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated whether an arrow presented left or right of fixation pointed to the left or right. For 1 group, the arrow was preceded by a peripheral noninformative cue. For the other group, the arrow was…

  16. Spatial separation between targets constrains maintenance of attention on multiple objects.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won Mok; Alvarez, George A; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2008-04-01

    Humans are limited in their ability to maintain multiple attentional foci. In attentive tracking of moving objects, performance declines as the number of tracked targets increases. Previous studies have interpreted such reduction in terms of a limit in the number of attentional foci. However, increasing the number of targets usually reduces spatial separation among different targets. In this study, we examine the role of target spatial separation in maintaining multiple attentional foci. Results from a multiple-object tracking task show that tracking accuracy deteriorates as the spatial separation between targets decreases. We propose that local interaction between nearby attentional foci modulates the resolution of attention, and that capacity limitation from attentive tracking originates in part from limitations in maintaining critical spacing among multiple attentional foci. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tracking performance is limited not primarily by a number of locations, but by factors such as the spacing and speed of the targets and distractors.

  17. Interaction Mechanisms of Cavitation Bubbles Induced by Spatially and Temporally Separated fs-Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Tinne, Nadine; Kaune, Brigitte; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers. PMID:25502697

  18. Interaction mechanisms of cavitation bubbles induced by spatially and temporally separated fs-laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Tinne, Nadine; Kaune, Brigitte; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    The emerging use of femtosecond lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz regime together with limited scan speed implies possible mutual optical and dynamical interaction effects of the individual cutting spots. In order to get more insight into the dynamics a time-resolved photographic analysis of the interaction of cavitation bubbles is presented. Particularly, we investigated the influence of fs-laser pulses and their resulting bubble dynamics with various spatial as well as temporal separations. Different time courses of characteristic interaction effects between the cavitation bubbles were observed depending on pulse energy and spatio-temporal pulse separation. These ranged from merely no interaction to the phenomena of strong water jet formation. Afterwards, the mechanisms are discussed regarding their impact on the medical application of effective tissue cutting lateral to the laser beam direction with best possible axial precision: the mechanical forces of photodisruption as well as the occurring water jet should have low axial extend and a preferably lateral priority. Furthermore, the overall efficiency of energy conversion into controlled mechanical impact should be maximized compared to the transmitted pulse energy and unwanted long range mechanical side effects, e.g. shock waves, axial jet components. In conclusion, these experimental results are of great importance for the prospective optimization of the ophthalmic surgical process with high-repetition rate fs-lasers.

  19. Engineering Systems with Spatially Separated Enzymes via Dual-Stimuli-Sensitive Properties of Microgels.

    PubMed

    Sigolaeva, Larisa V; Mergel, Olga; Evtushenko, Evgeniy G; Gladyr, Snezhana Yu; Gelissen, Arjan P H; Pergushov, Dmitry V; Kurochkin, Ilya N; Plamper, Felix A; Richtering, Walter

    2015-12-01

    This work examines the adsorption regime and the properties of microgel/enzyme thin films deposited onto conductive graphite-based substrates. The films were formed via two-step sequential adsorption. A temperature- and pH-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-(3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propylmethacrylamide) microgel (poly(NIPAM-co-DMAPMA microgel) was adsorbed first, followed by its interaction with the enzymes, choline oxidase (ChO), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), or mixtures thereof. By temperature-induced stimulating both (i) poly(NIPAM-co-DMAPMA) microgel adsorption at T > VPTT followed by short washing and drying and then (ii) enzyme loading at T < VPTT, we can effectively control the amount of the microgel adsorbed on a hydrophobic interface as well as the amount and the spatial localization of the enzyme interacted with the microgel film. Depending on the biomolecule size, enzyme molecules can (in the case for ChO) or cannot (in the case for BChE) penetrate into the microgel interior and be localized inside/outside the microgel particles. Different spatial localization, however, does not affect the specific enzymatic responses of ChO or BChE and does not prevent cascade enzymatic reaction involving both BChE and ChO as well. This was shown by the methods of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and amperometric analysis of enzymatic responses of immobilized enzymes. Thus, a novel simple and fast strategy for physical entrapment of biomolecules by the polymeric matrix was proposed, which can be used for engineering systems with spatially separated enzymes of different types.

  20. OI and fMRI signal separation using both temporal and spatial autocorrelations.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Liu, Yadong; Feng, Guiyu; Zhou, Zongtan; Hu, Dewen

    2010-08-01

    Separating brain imaging signals by maximizing their autocorrelations is an important component of blind source separation (BSS). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), one of leading BSS techniques, has been widely used for analyzing optical imaging (OI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, because of the need to reduce dimensionality and ignore spatial autocorrelation, CCA is problematic for separating temporal signal sources. To solve the problems of CCA, "straightforward image projection" (SIP) has been incorporated into temporal BSS. This novel method, termed low-dimensional canonical correlation analysis (LD-CCA), relies on the spatial and temporal autocorrelations of all genuine signals of interest. Incorporating both spatial and temporal information, here we introduce a "generalized timecourse" technique in which data are artificially reorganized prior to separation. The quantity of spatial plus temporal autocorrelations can then be defined. By maximizing temporal and spatial autocorrelations in combination, LD-CCA is able to obtain expected "real" signal sources. Generalized timecourses are low-dimensional, eliminating the need for dimension reduction. This removes the risk of discarding useful information. The new method is compared with temporal CCA and temporal independent component analysis (tICA). Comparison of simulated data showed that LD-CCA was more effective for recovering signal sources. Comparisons using real intrinsic OI and fMRI data also supported the validity of LD-CCA.

  1. The spatial isomorphism problem for close separable nuclear C*-algebras

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart A.; Winter, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The Kadison–Kastler problem asks whether close C*-algebras on a Hilbert space must be spatially isomorphic. We establish this when one of the algebras is separable and nuclear. We also apply our methods to the study of near inclusions of C*-algebras. PMID:20080723

  2. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  3. Successful retrieval of competing spatial environments in humans involves hippocampal pattern separation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Colin T; Stokes, Jared D; Lieberman, Jennifer S; Hassan, Abdul S; Ekstrom, Arne D

    2015-01-01

    The rodent hippocampus represents different spatial environments distinctly via changes in the pattern of "place cell" firing. It remains unclear, though, how spatial remapping in rodents relates more generally to human memory. Here participants retrieved four virtual reality environments with repeating or novel landmarks and configurations during high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both neural decoding performance and neural pattern similarity measures revealed environment-specific hippocampal neural codes. Conversely, an interfering spatial environment did not elicit neural codes specific to that environment, with neural activity patterns instead resembling those of competing environments, an effect linked to lower retrieval performance. We find that orthogonalized neural patterns accompany successful disambiguation of spatial environments while erroneous reinstatement of competing patterns characterized interference errors. These results provide the first evidence for environment-specific neural codes in the human hippocampus, suggesting that pattern separation/completion mechanisms play an important role in how we successfully retrieve memories. PMID:26613414

  4. Active-Adaptive Control of Inlet Separation Using Supersonic Microjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2007-01-01

    Flow separation in internal and external flows generally results in a significant degradation in aircraft performance. For internal flows, such as inlets and transmission ducts in aircraft propulsion systems, separation is undesirable as it reduces the overall system performance. The aim of this research has been to understand the nature of separation and more importantly, to explore techniques to actively control it. In this research, we extended our investigation of active separation control (under a previous NASA grant) where we explored the use of microjets for the control of boundary layer separation. The geometry used for the initial study was a simple diverging Stratford ramp, equipped with arrays of microjets. These early results clearly show that the activation of microjets eliminated flow separation. Furthermore, the velocity-field measurements, using PIV, also demonstrate that the gain in momentum due to the elimination of separation is at least an order of magnitude larger (two orders of magnitude larger in most cases) than the momentum injected by the microjets and is accomplished with very little mass flow through the microjets. Based on our initial promising results this research was continued under the present grant, using a more flexible model. This model allows for the magnitude and extent of separation as well as the microjet parameters to be independently varied. The results, using this model were even more encouraging and demonstrated that microjet control completely eliminated significant regions of flow separation over a wide range of conditions with almost negligible mass flow. Detailed studies of the flowfield and its response to microjets were further examined using 3-component PIV and unsteady pressure measurements, among others. As the results presented this report will show, microjets were successfully used to control the separation of a much larger extent and magnitude than demonstrated in our earlier experiments. In fact, using the

  5. Simulation of spatial and temporal separation of pedestrian counter flow through a bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ren-Yong

    2014-12-01

    We propose a revised social force model to simulate the pedestrian counter flow through a bottleneck. Spatial and temporal separation rules are involved in this model so as to reproduce these self-organizing movement patterns of pedestrians, including oscillatory flow and three classes of lane formations. Moreover, by scenario simulations, we show that, by reasonably adjusting the parameters in these separation rules, the pedestrian efficiency of passing through the bottleneck can be improved. The study is helpful for designing and planning pedestrian facilities involving pedestrian counter flow through the bottleneck and for evaluating the pedestrian efficiency of passing through a bottleneck.

  6. Control and Identification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, Avi; Pack-Melton, La Tunia

    2004-01-01

    Effective delay of turbulent boundary layer separation could be achieved via closed-loop control. Constructing such a system requires that sensor data be processed, real-time, and fed into the controller to determine the output. Current methods for detection of turbulent boundary layer separation are lacking the capability of localized, fast and reliable identification of the boundary layer state. A method is proposed for short-time FFT processing of time series, measured by hot-film sensors, with the purpose of identifying the alternation of the balance between small and large scales as the boundary layer separates, favoring the large scales. The method has been validated by comparison to other criteria of separation detection and over a range of baseline and controlled flow conditions on a simplified high-lift system, incorporating active flow control.

  7. Control of volume resistivity in inorganic organic separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Control of resistivity in NASA inorganic-organic separators is achieved by incorporating small percentages of high surface area, fine particle silica with other ingredients in the separator coating. The volume resistivity is predictable from the surface area of filler particles in the coating. The approach is applied to two polymer- plasticizer -filler coating systems, where the filler content of each is below the generally acknowledged critical pigment volume concentration of the coating. Application of these coating systems to 0.0254 cm thick (10-mil) fuel cell grade asbestos sheet produces inexpensive, flexible, microporous separators that perform as well as the original inorganic-organic concept, the Astropower separator.

  8. Spatial Heterogeneity in Cancer Control Planning and Cancer Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Lee R.; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Urato, Matthew; Subramanian, Sujha; Watson, Lisa; Anselin, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Each state is autonomous in its comprehensive cancer control (CCC) program, and considerable heterogeneity exists in the program plans. However, researchers often focus on the concept of nationally representative data and pool observations across states using regression analysis to come up with average effects when interpreting results. Due to considerable state autonomy and heterogeneity in various dimensions—including culture, politics, historical precedent, regulatory environment, and CCC efforts—it is important to examine states separately and to use geographic analysis to translate findings in place and time. We used 100 percent population data for Medicare-insured persons aged 65 or older and examined predictors of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening from 2001–2005. Examining BC and CRC screening behavior separately in each state, we performed 100 multilevel regressions. We summarize the state-specific findings of racial disparities in screening for either cancer in a single bivariate map of the 50 states, producing a separate map for African American and for Hispanic disparities in each state relative to whites. The maps serve to spatially translate the voluminous regression findings regarding statistically significant disparities between whites and minorities in cancer screening within states. Qualitative comparisons can be made of the states’ disparity environments or for a state against a national benchmark using the bivariate maps. We find that African Americans in Michigan and Hispanics in New Jersey are significantly more likely than whites to utilize CRC screening and that Hispanics in 6 states are significantly and persistently more likely to utilize mammography than whites. We stress the importance of spatial translation research for informing and evaluating CCC activities within states and over time. PMID:24944346

  9. Spatial Heterogeneity in Cancer Control Planning and Cancer Screening Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Lee R; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Urato, Matthew; Subramanian, Sujha; Watson, Lisa; Anselin, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Each state is autonomous in its comprehensive cancer control (CCC) program, and considerable heterogeneity exists in the program plans. However, researchers often focus on the concept of nationally representative data and pool observations across states using regression analysis to come up with average effects when interpreting results. Due to considerable state autonomy and heterogeneity in various dimensions-including culture, politics, historical precedent, regulatory environment, and CCC efforts-it is important to examine states separately and to use geographic analysis to translate findings in place and time. We used 100 percent population data for Medicare-insured persons aged 65 or older and examined predictors of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening from 2001-2005. Examining BC and CRC screening behavior separately in each state, we performed 100 multilevel regressions. We summarize the state-specific findings of racial disparities in screening for either cancer in a single bivariate map of the 50 states, producing a separate map for African American and for Hispanic disparities in each state relative to whites. The maps serve to spatially translate the voluminous regression findings regarding statistically significant disparities between whites and minorities in cancer screening within states. Qualitative comparisons can be made of the states' disparity environments or for a state against a national benchmark using the bivariate maps. We find that African Americans in Michigan and Hispanics in New Jersey are significantly more likely than whites to utilize CRC screening and that Hispanics in 6 states are significantly and persistently more likely to utilize mammography than whites. We stress the importance of spatial translation research for informing and evaluating CCC activities within states and over time. PMID:24944346

  10. Imaging single photons in non-separable states of polarization and spatial-mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xinru; Galvez, Enrique J.

    2014-10-01

    Non-separable superpositions of polarization and spatial mode of a single photon produce a state that has a polarization that depends on the transverse position, and contains all states of polarization represented on the Poincaré sphere. We have done measurements of the space-dependent state of polarization of single photons prepared in distinct 2×2 (qubit-qubit) and 2×3 (qubit-qutrit) non-separable superpositions of Laguerre-Gauss spatial and polarization states. Detection was done by polarimetry of the light projected at distinct locations in the transverse plane. The polarization patterns had a C-point polarization singularity (lemon, star or monstar) at the center of the transverse wavefunction.

  11. Management of Vortices Trailing Flapped Wings via Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management via separation control. Passive control was achieved by means of a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressure ports, was used to predict vortex characteristics by means of inviscid rollup relations. Furthermore, vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over both outboard and inboard edge vortices while producing negligible lift excursions. Dynamic separation and attachment control was found to be an effective means for dynamically perturbing the vortex from arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  12. Hydrodynamics and spatial separation between two clades of a copepod species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge-Drouin, Simon; Winkler, Gesche; Dumais, Jean-François; Senneville, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of hydrodynamics in the spatial distribution of a dominant calanoid copepod, Eurytemora affinis, in the middle St. Lawrence Estuary. To do this, we used a 3D numerical model of the region. We successfully compared modelled trajectories to real trajectories obtained from surface drifters. Multiple trajectories were then generated to compute finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs). A ridge of high FTLE values, which starts downstream close to the shoal between Île-aux-Coudres and Ste-Anne‘s Bay and reaches its upstream extremity on the south shore near Montmagny, separates two groups of modelled particles. This ridge seems to separate two distinct water masses that will not mix together. It appears 1 h after high tide and is persistent for 3 to 4 h during every ebb tide, suggesting that hydrodynamics is an important factor maintaining the separation between the two genetically different E. affinis clades.

  13. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  14. Liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis through spatial charge separation in distorted regions as a novel mechanism of electrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, Israel; Peng, Chenhui; Xiang, Jie; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2014-09-01

    Electrically controlled dynamics of fluids and particles at microscales is a fascinating area of research with applications ranging from microfluidics and sensing to sorting of biomolecules. The driving mechanisms are electric forces acting on spatially separated charges in an isotropic medium such as water. Here, we demonstrate that anisotropic conductivity of liquid crystals enables new mechanism of highly efficient electro-osmosis rooted in space charging of regions with distorted orientation. The electric field acts on these distortion-separated charges to induce liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis. Their velocities grow with the square of the field, which allows one to use an alternating current field to drive steady flows and to avoid electrode damage. Ionic currents in liquid crystals that have been traditionally considered as an undesirable feature in displays, offer a broad platform for versatile applications such as liquid crystal-enabled electrokinetics, micropumping and mixing.

  15. Liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis through spatial charge separation in distorted regions as a novel mechanism of electrokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, Israel; Peng, Chenhui; Xiang, Jie; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrically controlled dynamics of fluids and particles at microscales is a fascinating area of research with applications ranging from microfluidics and sensing to sorting of biomolecules. The driving mechanisms are electric forces acting on spatially separated charges in an isotropic medium such as water. Here, we demonstrate that anisotropic conductivity of liquid crystals enables new mechanism of highly efficient electro-osmosis rooted in space charging of regions with distorted orientation. The electric field acts on these distortion-separated charges to induce liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis. Their velocities grow with the square of the field, which allows one to use an alternating current field to drive steady flows and to avoid electrode damage. Ionic currents in liquid crystals that have been traditionally considered as an undesirable feature in displays, offer a broad platform for versatile applications such as liquid crystal-enabled electrokinetics, micropumping and mixing. PMID:25255307

  16. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan; Cave, Ben; Ballantyne, Rob

    2013-09-15

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA.

  17. Shark Skin Bristling as a Passive Mechanism for Separation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelus, Jennifer; Lang, Amy; Jones, Emily

    2011-11-01

    The skin of fast-swimming sharks is proposed to have mechanisms to reduce drag and delay flow separation. The skin of fast-swimming and agile sharks is covered with small teeth-like denticles on the order of 0.2 mm. The shortfin mako is one of the fastest and most agile ocean predators creating the need to minimize its pressure drag by controlling flow separation. Biological studies of the shortfin mako skin have shown the passive bristling angle of their denticles to exceed 50 degrees in areas on the flank corresponding to the locations likely to experience separation first. It is proposed that reversing flow, as occurs at the onset of separation in a turbulent boundary layer, would activate denticle bristling and hinder local separation from leading to global separation over the shark. This study focuses on the denticle reaction to various reversed flow conditions using a pulsating jet. Mako shark skin was subjected to numerous reversed flow velocities to determine the bristling onset velocity. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) and digital video were used to determine the flow conditions and denticle behavior. The effect of reversed flow velocity on denticle bristling and its relation to separation control will be discussed. Research funded by NSF (award 0932352).

  18. Taming random lasers through active spatial control of the pump.

    PubMed

    Bachelard, N; Andreasen, J; Gigan, S; Sebbah, P

    2012-07-20

    Active control of the spatial pump profile is proposed to exercise control over random laser emission. We demonstrate numerically the selection of any desired lasing mode from the emission spectrum. An iterative optimization method is employed, first in the regime of strong scattering where modes are spatially localized and can be easily selected using local pumping. Remarkably, this method works efficiently even in the weakly scattering regime, where strong spatial overlap of the modes precludes spatial selectivity. A complex optimized pump profile is found, which selects the desired lasing mode at the expense of others, thus demonstrating the potential of pump shaping for robust and controllable single mode operation of a random laser.

  19. Taming Random Lasers through Active Spatial Control of the Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelard, N.; Andreasen, J.; Gigan, S.; Sebbah, P.

    2012-07-01

    Active control of the spatial pump profile is proposed to exercise control over random laser emission. We demonstrate numerically the selection of any desired lasing mode from the emission spectrum. An iterative optimization method is employed, first in the regime of strong scattering where modes are spatially localized and can be easily selected using local pumping. Remarkably, this method works efficiently even in the weakly scattering regime, where strong spatial overlap of the modes precludes spatial selectivity. A complex optimized pump profile is found, which selects the desired lasing mode at the expense of others, thus demonstrating the potential of pump shaping for robust and controllable single mode operation of a random laser.

  20. Initial Development of a Spatially Separated Speech-in-Noise and Localization Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Richard S.; Witt, Shelley A.; Dunn, Camille C.; Wang, Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    Objective This article describes the initial development of a novel approach for training hearing-impaired listeners to improve their ability to understand speech in the presence of background noise and to also improve their ability to localize sounds. Design Most people with hearing loss, even those well fit with hearing devices, still experience significant problems understanding speech in noise. Prior research suggests that at least some subjects can experience improved speech understanding with training. However, all training systems that we are aware of have one basic, critical limitation. They do not provide spatial separation of the speech and noise, therefore ignoring the potential benefits of training binaural hearing. In this paper we describe our initial experience with a home-based training system that includes spatially separated speech-in-noise and localization training. Results Throughout the development of this system patient input, training and preliminary pilot data from individuals with bilateral cochlear implants were utilized. Positive feedback from subjective reports indicated that some individuals were engaged in the treatment, and formal testing showed benefit. Feedback and practical issues resulted from the reduction of an eight-loudspeaker to a two-loudspeaker system. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest we have successfully developed a viable spatial hearing training system that can improve binaural hearing in noise and localization. Applications include, but are not limited to, hearing with hearing aids and cochlear implants. PMID:20701836

  1. Separation of spatial and temporal structure of auroral particle precipitation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudouridis, A.; Spence, H.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the dominant temporal and spatial scales of auroral features is instrumental in understanding the various mechanisms responsible for auroral particle precipitation. Single spacecraft data suffer from temporal/spatial ambiguity. In an effort to separate the temporal and spatial variations of the aurora, we use electron and ion precipitation data from two co-orbiting satellites, F6 and F8 of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The two spacecraft have almost identical polar orbits with a small difference in period. As a result the time difference between the two measurements varies with time. We use two statistical tools in order to determine the most probable lifetimes and spatial dimensions of the prevalent auroral features, Cross Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Cross Spectral Analysis (CSA). The CCA is applied to the magnetic latitude series of electron and ion, integral number and energy fluxes measured by the two DMSP spacecraft. As one spacecraft overtakes the other, the variable time lag between the two measurements results in different cross correlation of the two series. We explore the dependence of this variation on the time lag between the satellites. We find that the electron precipitation exhibits a decreasing correlation between the two spacecraft with increasing time lag, whereas there is only a small similar effect for the ion precipitation data. For the CSA we compute the so-called coherence function as a function of frequency (or inverse wavelength), and hence size of the auroral features. The coherence function is a measure of the stability of auroral features of different sizes. We investigate its variation as a function of the time separation between the two DMSP spacecraft measurements. We show that the coherence function of both electrons and ions remains high for up to 1.5 min spacecraft separations for all features larger than about 100 km in width. For smaller features the coherence is lower even for time lags of

  2. Phase separation explains a new class of self-organized spatial patterns in ecological systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Doelman, Arjen; Rottschäfer, Vivi; de Jager, Monique; Herman, Peter M. J.; Rietkerk, Max; van de Koppel, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The origin of regular spatial patterns in ecological systems has long fascinated researchers. Turing’s activator–inhibitor principle is considered the central paradigm to explain such patterns. According to this principle, local activation combined with long-range inhibition of growth and survival is an essential prerequisite for pattern formation. Here, we show that the physical principle of phase separation, solely based on density-dependent movement by organisms, represents an alternative class of self-organized pattern formation in ecology. Using experiments with self-organizing mussel beds, we derive an empirical relation between the speed of animal movement and local animal density. By incorporating this relation in a partial differential equation, we demonstrate that this model corresponds mathematically to the well-known Cahn–Hilliard equation for phase separation in physics. Finally, we show that the predicted patterns match those found both in field observations and in our experiments. Our results reveal a principle for ecological self-organization, where phase separation rather than activation and inhibition processes drives spatial pattern formation. PMID:23818579

  3. Phase separation explains a new class of self-organized spatial patterns in ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Doelman, Arjen; Rottschäfer, Vivi; de Jager, Monique; Herman, Peter M J; Rietkerk, Max; van de Koppel, Johan

    2013-07-16

    The origin of regular spatial patterns in ecological systems has long fascinated researchers. Turing's activator-inhibitor principle is considered the central paradigm to explain such patterns. According to this principle, local activation combined with long-range inhibition of growth and survival is an essential prerequisite for pattern formation. Here, we show that the physical principle of phase separation, solely based on density-dependent movement by organisms, represents an alternative class of self-organized pattern formation in ecology. Using experiments with self-organizing mussel beds, we derive an empirical relation between the speed of animal movement and local animal density. By incorporating this relation in a partial differential equation, we demonstrate that this model corresponds mathematically to the well-known Cahn-Hilliard equation for phase separation in physics. Finally, we show that the predicted patterns match those found both in field observations and in our experiments. Our results reveal a principle for ecological self-organization, where phase separation rather than activation and inhibition processes drives spatial pattern formation. PMID:23818579

  4. Analysis of stratocumulus cloud fields using LANDSAT imagery: Size distributions and spatial separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R. M.; Sengupta, S. K.; Chen, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Stratocumulus cloud fields in the FIRE IFO region are analyzed using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery. Structural properties such as cloud cell size distribution, cell horizontal aspect ratio, fractional coverage and fractal dimension are determined. It is found that stratocumulus cloud number densities are represented by a power law. Cell horizontal aspect ratio has a tendency to increase at large cell sizes, and cells are bi-fractal in nature. Using LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery for twelve selected stratocumulus scenes acquired during previous years, similar structural characteristics are obtained. Cloud field spatial organization also is analyzed. Nearest-neighbor spacings are fit with a number of functions, with Weibull and Gamma distributions providing the best fits. Poisson tests show that the spatial separations are not random. Second order statistics are used to examine clustering.

  5. Application of THz probe radiation in low-coherent tomographs based on spatially separated counterpropagating beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritsyn, I I; Shkurinov, A P; Nazarov, M M; Mandrosov, V I; Cherkasova, O P

    2013-10-31

    A principle of designing a high-resolution low-coherent THz tomograph, which makes it possible to investigate media with a high spatial resolution (in the range λ{sub 0} – 2λ{sub 0}, where λ{sub 0} is the average probe wavelength) is considered. The operation principle of this tomograph implies probing a medium by radiation with a coherence length of 8λ{sub 0} and recording a hologram of a focused image of a fixed layer of this medium using spatially separated counterpropagating object and reference beams. Tomograms of the medium studied are calculated using a temporal approach based on application of the time correlation function of probe radiation. (terahertz radiation)

  6. Spatial location priors for Gaussian model based reverberant audio source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Ngoc QK; Vincent, Emmanuel; Gribonval, Rémi

    2013-12-01

    We consider the Gaussian framework for reverberant audio source separation, where the sources are modeled in the time-frequency domain by their short-term power spectra and their spatial covariance matrices. We propose two alternative probabilistic priors over the spatial covariance matrices which are consistent with the theory of statistical room acoustics and we derive expectation-maximization algorithms for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. We argue that these algorithms provide a statistically principled solution to the permutation problem and to the risk of overfitting resulting from conventional maximum likelihood (ML) estimation. We show experimentally that in a semi-informed scenario where the source positions and certain room characteristics are known, the MAP algorithms outperform their ML counterparts. This opens the way to rigorous statistical treatment of this family of models in other scenarios in the future.

  7. Optimal control of an asymptotic model of flow separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, Ubaid; Schmid, Peter; LFC-UK Team

    2015-11-01

    In the presence of surface imperfections, the boundary layer developing over an aircraft wing can separate and reattach, leading to a small separation bubble. We are interested in developing a low-order model that can be used to control the onset of separation at high Reynolds numbers typical of aircraft flight. In contrast to previous studies, we use a high Reynolds number asymptotic description of the Navier-Stokes equations to describe the motion of motion of the fluid. We obtain a steady solution to the nonlinear triple-deck equations for the separated flow over a small bump at high Reynolds numbers. We derive for the first time the adjoint of the nonlinear triple-deck equations and use it to study optimal control of the separated flow. We calculate the sensitivity of the properties of the separation bubble to local base flow modifications and steady forcing. We assess the validity of using this simplified asymptotic model by comparing our results with those obtained using the full Navier-Stokes equations.

  8. Biexcitons formed from spatially separated electrons and holes in quasi-zero-dimensional semiconductor nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Pokutnyi, S. I.

    2013-12-15

    A theory of biexcitons (formed from spatially separated electron and holes) in nanosystems that consist of zinc-selenide quantum dots synthesized in borosilicate glassy matrices is developed. The dependences of the total energy and the binding energy of the singlet ground biexciton state in such a system on the spacing between the quantum-dot surfaces and the quantum-dot radius are derived by the variational method. It is shown that biexciton formation is of the threshold character and possible in nanosystems, in which the spacing between the quantum-dot surfaces is larger than a certain critical spacing.

  9. Spatial pattern separation of chemicals and frequency-independent components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Kawase, Kodo; Ikari, Tomofumi; Ito, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Youichi; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2003-10-01

    We separated the component spatial patterns of frequency-dependent absorption in chemicals and frequency-independent components such as plastic, paper, and measurement noise in terahertz (THz) spectroscopic images, using known spectral curves. Our measurement system, which uses a widely tunable coherent THz-wave parametric oscillator source, can image at a specific frequency in the range 1-2 THz. The component patterns of chemicals can easily be extracted by use of the frequency-independent components. This method could be successfully used for nondestructive inspection for the detection of illegal drugs and devices of bioterrorism concealed, e.g., inside mail and packages.

  10. Spatial Electron-hole Separation in a One Dimensional Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Iodide

    PubMed Central

    Savory, Christopher N.; Palgrave, Robert G.; Bronstein, Hugo; Scanlon, David O.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing efficiency of the inorganic-organic hybrid halides has revolutionised photovoltaic research. Despite this rapid progress, the significant issues of poor stability and toxicity have yet to be suitably overcome. In this article, we use Density Functional Theory to examine (Pb2I6) · (H2DPNDI) · (H2O) · (NMP), an alternative lead-based hybrid inorganic-organic solar absorber based on a photoactive organic cation. Our results demonstrate that optical properties suitable for photovoltaic applications, in addition to spatial electron-hole separation, are possible but efficient charge transport may be a limiting factor. PMID:26858147

  11. Closed-loop Separation Control Using Oscillatory Flow Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Raney, David L.; Seifert, Avi; Pack, latunia G.; Brown, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    Design and implementation of a digital feedback controller for a flow control experiment was performed. The experiment was conducted in a cryogenic pressurized wind tunnel on a generic separated configuration at a chord Reynolds number of 16 million and a Mach number of 0.25. The model simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick airfoil at zero angle-of-attack. A moderate favorable pressure gradient, up to 55% of the chord, is followed by a severe adverse pressure gradient which is relaxed towards the trailing edge. The turbulent separation bubble, behind the adverse pressure gradient, is then reduced by introducing oscillatory flow excitation just upstream of the point of flow separation. The degree of reduction in the separation region can be controlled by the amplitude of the oscillatory excitation. A feedback controller was designed to track a given trajectory for the desired degree of flow reattachment and to improve the transient behavior of the flow system. Closed-loop experiments demonstrated that the feedback controller was able to track step input commands and improve the transient behavior of the open-loop response.

  12. Reticulated Nanoporous Polymers by Controlled Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Myungeun; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2013-04-08

    Materials with percolating mesopores are attractive for applications such as catalysis, nanotemplating, and separations. Polymeric frameworks are particularly appealing because the chemical composition and the surface chemistry are readily tunable. We report on the preparation of robust nanoporous polymers with percolating pores in the 4- to 8-nanometer range from a microphase-separated bicontinuous precursor. We combined polymerization-induced phase separation with in situ block polymer formation from a mixture of multifunctional monomers and a chemically etchable polymer containing a terminal chain transfer agent. This marriage results in microphase separation of the mixture into continuous domains of the etchable polymer and the emergent cross-linked polymer. Precise control over pore size distribution and mechanical integrity renders these materials particularly suited for various advanced applications.

  13. Low-Pressure Turbine Separation Control: Comparison With Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2002-01-01

    The present work details a computational study, using the Glenn HT code, that analyzes the use of vortex generator jets (VGJs) to control separation on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade at low Reynolds numbers. The computational results are also compared with the experimental data for steady VGJs. It is found that the code determines the proper location of the separation point on the suction surface of the baseline blade (without any VGJ) for Reynolds numbers of 50,000 or less. Also, the code finds that the separated region on the suction surface of the blade vanishes with the use of VGJs. However, the separated region and the wake characteristics are not well predicted. The wake width is generally over-predicted while the wake depth is under-predicted.

  14. Chemistry with spatial control using particles and streams†

    PubMed Central

    Kalinin, Yevgeniy V.; Murali, Adithya

    2012-01-01

    Spatial control of chemical reactions, with micro- and nanometer scale resolution, has important consequences for one pot synthesis, engineering complex reactions, developmental biology, cellular biochemistry and emergent behavior. We review synthetic methods to engineer this spatial control using chemical diffusion from spherical particles, shells and polyhedra. We discuss systems that enable both isotropic and anisotropic chemical release from isolated and arrayed particles to create inhomogeneous and spatially patterned chemical fields. In addition to such finite chemical sources, we also discuss spatial control enabled with laminar flow in 2D and 3D microfluidic networks. Throughout the paper, we highlight applications of spatially controlled chemistry in chemical kinetics, reaction-diffusion systems, chemotaxis and morphogenesis. PMID:23145348

  15. Spatial separation of individual substances in effloresced crystals of ternary ammonium sulphate/dicarboxylic acid/water aerosols.

    PubMed

    Treuel, Lennart; Sandmann, Alice; Zellner, Reinhard

    2011-04-18

    This work examines the crystals resulting from the efflorescence of internally mixed aqueous aerosols comprising ammonium sulphate and different dicarboxylic acids. Most studies on the deliquescence of aerosols use previously effloresced aerosols in their experiments. However, during efflorescence a highly supersaturated solution crystallises in a kinetically controlled way unlike the case of thermodynamically controlled crystallisation. Herein the distribution of individual substances within the effloresced crystals is investigated using Raman scanning experiments. The data presented show an intriguingly complex behaviour of these ternary and quarternary aerosols. A spatial separation of substances in the crystals resulting from the efflorescence of previously internally mixed ternary salt/dicarboxylic acid/water aerosol droplets is demonstrated and mechanistic aspects are discussed. PMID:21472958

  16. Active Control of Flow Separation Over an Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindran, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    Designing an aircraft without conventional control surfaces is of interest to aerospace community. In this direction, smart actuator devices such as synthetic jets have been proposed to provide aircraft maneuverability instead of control surfaces. In this article, a numerical study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady suction and blowing on airfoils. The unsteady suction and blowing is introduced at the leading edge of the airfoil in the form of tangential jet. Numerical solutions are obtained using Reynolds-Averaged viscous compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Unsteady suction and blowing is investigated as a means of separation control to obtain lift on airfoils. The effect of blowing coefficients on lift and drag is investigated. The numerical simulations are compared with experiments from the Tel-Aviv University (TAU). These results indicate that unsteady suction and blowing can be used as a means of separation control to generate lift on airfoils.

  17. Fluid Mechanics of Wing Adaptation for Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Wilder, M. C.; Carr, L. W.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The unsteady fluid mechanics associated with use of a dynamically deforming leading edge airfoil for achieving compressible flow separation control has been experimentally studied. Changing the leading edge curvature at rapid rates dramatically alters the flow vorticity dynamics which is responsible for the many effects observed in the flow.

  18. Separation Control in a Multistage Compressor Using Impulsive Surface Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wundrow, David W.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Control of flow separation using impulsive surface injection is investigated within the multistage environment of a low speed axial-flow compressor. Measured wake profiles behind a set of embedded stator vanes treated with suction-surface injection indicate significant reduction in flow separation at a variety of injection-pulse repetition rates and durations. The corresponding total pressure losses across the vanes reveal a bank of repetition rates at each pulse duration where the separation control remains nearly complete. This persistence allows for demands on the injected-mass delivery system to be economized while still achieving effective flow control. The response of the stator-vane boundary layers to infrequently applied short injection pulses is described in terms of the periodic excitation of turbulent strips whose growth and propagation characteristics dictate the lower bound on the band of optimal pulse repetition rates. The eventual falloff in separation control at higher repetition rates is linked to a competition between the benefits of pulse-induced mixing and the aggravation caused by the periodic introduction of low-momentum fluid. Use of these observations for impulsive actuator design is discussed and their impact on modeling the time-average effect of impulsive surface injection for multistage steady-flow simulation is considered.

  19. Part Ia: Spatial separation on McGurk effect applying three-dimensional sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    The dependence of sound direction on the McGurk effect [McGurk and McDonald, Nature (London) 264, 746-748 (1976)] is less known. Jones and Munhall [Canadian Acoust. 25, 13-19 (1997)] concluded with no spatial separation dependence, applying 30° horizontally spaced loudspeakers. Current dual study investigated the full 360° horizontal space applying head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) from a Cortex dummy head [Riederer, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (Abstracts) 46, 1036 (1998), preprint 4846]. Dry acoustic /ipi/ and /iti/ recorded from a professional speaker were convolved with HRTFs, measured at azimuths 0°, +/-40°, +/-90°, +/-130°, and 180°, headphones (Sennheiser HD580) equalized. DVcam-recorded visual /ipi/, /iti/ (and black screen) were randomly presented synchronously with the 3-D sounds using Presentation 0.20 [http://nbs.neuro-bs.com]. Totally 1024 incongruent audiovisual stimuli were perceived by eight 20-30-year-old normal hearing (<=20 dBHL) native subjects (2 female) as follows. Visual /ipi/ + auditory /iti/: /ipi/ 59.96%, /iti/ 15.63%, and /ipti/ 24.02% visual /iti/ + auditory /ipi/: 66.02%, 22.07%, and 11.52%, respectfully. No significant dependence of spatial separation was found for the McGurk effect, except for reaction times. The obtained fusions were atypically weak, probably because visual /iti/ was less pronounced than visual /ipi/. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation.

  20. Binding energy of excitons formed from spatially separated electrons and holes in insulating quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Pokutnyi, S. I.; Kulchin, Yu. N.; Dzyuba, V. P.

    2015-10-15

    It is found that the binding energy of the ground state of an exciton formed from an electron and a hole spatially separated from each other (the hole is moving within a quantum dot, and the electron is localized above the spherical (quantum dot)–(insulating matrix) interface) in a nanosystem containing insulating Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} quantum dots is substantially increased (by nearly two orders of magnitude) compared to the exciton binding energy in an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal. It is established that, in the band gap of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle, a band of exciton states (formed from spatially separated electrons and holes) appears. It is shown that there exists the possibility of experimentally detecting the ground and excited exciton states in the band gap of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles at room temperature from the absorption spectrum of the nanosystem.

  1. Robot Control Based On Spatial-Operator Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Jain, Abhinandan

    1992-01-01

    Method for mathematical modeling and control of robotic manipulators based on spatial-operator algebra providing concise representation and simple, high-level theoretical frame-work for solution of kinematical and dynamical problems involving complicated temporal and spatial relationships. Recursive algorithms derived immediately from abstract spatial-operator expressions by inspection. Transition from abstract formulation through abstract solution to detailed implementation of specific algorithms to compute solution greatly simplified. Complicated dynamical problems like two cooperating robot arms solved more easily.

  2. Flow Separation Control Over a Ramp Using Sweeping Jet Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti; Owens, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Flow separation control on an adverse-pressure-gradient ramp model was investigated using various flow-control methods in the NASA Langley 15-Inch Wind Tunnel. The primary flow-control method studied used a sweeping jet actuator system to compare with more classic flow-control techniques such as micro-vortex generators, steady blowing, and steady- and unsteady-vortex generating jets. Surface pressure measurements and a new oilflow visualization technique were used to characterize the effects of these flow-control actuators. The sweeping jet actuators were run in three different modes to produce steady-straight, steady-angled, and unsteady-oscillating jets. It was observed that all of these flow-control methods are effective in controlling the separated flows on the ramp model. The steady-straight jet energizes the boundary layer by momentum addition and was found to be the least effective method for a fixed momentum coefficient. The steady-angled jets achieved better performance than the steady-straight jets because they generate streamwise vortices that energize the boundary layer by mixing high-momentum fluid with near wall low-momentum fluid. The unsteady-oscillating jets achieved the best performance by increasing the pressure recovery and reducing the downstream flow separation. Surface flow visualizations indicated that two out-of-phase counter-rotating vortices are generated per sweeping jet actuator, while one vortex is generated per vortex-generating jets. The extra vortex resulted in increased coverage, more pressure recovery, and reduced flow separation.

  3. Controller Design Based on Nonlinear Separation Control Method for OTEC Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sugi, Takenao; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Uehara, Haruo

    An OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) pilot plant consists of two parts; an OTEC system of main part and a heat reservoir system of sub part. The nonlinear separation control method was applied to the controller design for the OTEC pilot plant. The nonlinear separation models were constructed for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system. The controller for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system was designed by using the both nonlinear separation models. A detail simulation study showed that the multi-layer controller for the OTEC pilot plant brought a satisfactory control performance by comparing a conventional PI control.

  4. Demonstration of Separation Control Using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Active flow control of boundary-layer separation using glow-discharge plasma actuators is studied experimentally. Separation is induced on a flat plate installed in a closed-circuit wind tunnel by a shaped insert on the opposite wall. The flow conditions represent flow over the suction surface of a modem low-pressure-turbine airfoil. The Reynolds number, based on wetted plate length and nominal exit velocity, is varied from 50,000 to 300,000, covering cruise to takeoff conditions. Low (0.2%) and high (2.5%) free-stream turbulence intensities are set using passive grids. A spanwise-oriented phased-plasma-array actuator, fabricated on a printed circuit board, is surface-flush-mounted upstream of the separation point and can provide forcing in a wide frequency range. Static surface pressure measurements and hot-wire anemometry of the base and controlled flows are performed and indicate that the glow-discharge plasma actuator is an effective device for separation control.

  5. Computation of a controlled store separation from a cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    Coupling of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, rigid-body dynamics, and a pitch attitude control law is demonstrated in two- and three-dimensions. The application problem was the separation of a canard-controlled store from an open-flow rectangular cavity bay at a freestream Mach number of 1.2. The transient flowfield was computed using a diagonal scheme in an overset mesh framework, with the resultant aerodynamic loads used as the forcing functions in the nonlinear dynamics equations. The proportional and rate gyro sensitivities were computed a priori using pole placement techniques for the linearized dynamical equations. These fixed gain values were used in the controller for the nonlinear simulation. Reasonable comparison between the full and linearized equations for a perturbed two-dimensional missile was found. Also in two-dimensions, a controlled store was found to possess improved separation characteristics over a canard-fixed store. In three-dimensions, trajectory comparisons with wind-tunnel data for the canard-fixed case will be made. In addition, it will be determined if a canard-controlled store is an effective means of improving cavity store separation characteristics.

  6. Spatially controlled, in situ synthesis of polymers

    DOEpatents

    Caneba, Gerard T.; Tirumala, Vijaya Raghavan; Mancini, Derrick C.; Wang, Hsien-Hau

    2005-03-22

    An in situ polymer microstructure formation method. The monomer mixture is polymerized in a solvent/precipitant through exposure to ionizing radiation in the absence any chemical mediators. If an exposure mask is employed to block out certain regions of the radiation cross section, then a patterned microstructure is formed. The polymerization mechanism is based on the so-called free-radical retrograde-precipitation polymerization process, in which polymerization occurs while the system is phase separating above the lower critical solution temperature. This method was extended to produce a crosslinked line grid-pattern of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), which has been known to have thermoreversible properties.

  7. SNARC Struggles: Instant Control over Spatial-Numerical Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Roland; Schroeder, Philipp A.; Kunde, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Numbers and space are tightly linked--a phenomenon that is referred to as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect (Dehaene, Bossini, & Giraux, 1993). The present study investigates how quickly and flexibly the behavioral impact of such spatial-numerical associations can be controlled. Participants performed a parity…

  8. Dynamics of Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, LaTunia G.; Seifert, Avi

    2000-01-01

    A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted at high Reynolds numbers on a generic separated configuration. The model simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick Glauert-Goldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. The main motivation for the experiments is to generate a comprehensive data base for validation of unsteady numerical simulation as a first step in the development of a CFD design tool, without which it would not be possible to effectively utilize the great potential of unsteady flow control. This paper focuses on the dynamics of several key features of the baseline as well as the controlled flow. It was found that the thickness of the upstream boundary layer has a negligible effect on the flow dynamics. It is speculated that separation is caused mainly by the highly convex surface while viscous effects are less important. The two-dimensional separated flow contains unsteady waves centered on a reduced frequency of 0.8, while in the three dimensional separated flow, frequencies around a reduced frequency of 0.3 and 1 are active. Several scenarios of resonant wave interaction take place at the separated shear-layer and in the pressure recovery region. The unstable reduced frequency bands for periodic excitation are centered on 1.5 and 5, but these reduced frequencies are based on the length of the baseline bubble that shortens due to the excitation. The conventional swept wing-scaling works well for the coherent wave features. Reproduction of these dynamic effects by a numerical simulation would provide benchmark validation.

  9. Active Flow Effectors for Noise and Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    New flow effector technology for separation control and enhanced mixing is based upon shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) technology. The technology allows for variable shape control of aircraft structures through actively deformable surfaces. The flow effectors are made by embedding shape memory alloy actuator material in a composite structure. When thermally actuated, the flow effector def1ects into or out of the flow in a prescribed manner to enhance mixing or induce separation for a variety of applications, including aeroacoustic noise reduction, drag reduction, and f1ight control. The active flow effectors were developed for noise reduction as an alternative to fixed-configuration effectors, such as static chevrons, that cannot be optimized for airframe installation effects or variable operating conditions and cannot be retracted for off-design or fail-safe conditions. Benefits include: Increased vehicle control, overall efficiency, and reduced noise throughout all f1ight regimes, Reduced flow noise, Reduced drag, Simplicity of design and fabrication, Simplicity of control through direct current stimulation, autonomous re sponse to environmental heating, fast re sponse, and a high degree of geometric stability. The concept involves embedding prestrained SMA actuators on one side of the chevron neutral axis in order to generate a thermal moment and def1ect the structure out of plane when heated. The force developed in the host structure during def1ection and the aerodynamic load is used for returning the structure to the retracted position. The chevron design is highly scalable and versatile, and easily affords active and/or autonomous (environmental) control. The technology offers wide-ranging market applications, including aerospace, automotive, and any application that requires flow separation or noise control.

  10. Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  11. Mechanisms of spatial attention control in frontal and parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Szczepanski, Sara M; Konen, Christina S; Kastner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Theories of spatial attentional control have been largely based upon studies of patients suffering from visuospatial neglect, resulting from circumscribed lesions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex. In the intact brain, the control of spatial attention has been related to a distributed frontoparietal attention network. Little is known about the nature of the control mechanisms exerted by this network. Here, we used a novel region-of-interest approach to relate activations of the attention network to recently described topographic areas in frontal cortex [frontal eye field (FEF), PreCC/IFS (precentral cortex/inferior frontal sulcus)] and parietal cortex [intraparietal sulcus areas (IPS1-IPS5) and an area in the superior parietal lobule (SPL1)] to examine their spatial attention signals. We found that attention signals in most topographic areas were spatially specific, with stronger responses when attention was directed to the contralateral than to the ipsilateral visual field. Importantly, two hemispheric asymmetries were found. First, a region in only right, but not left SPL1 carried spatial attention signals. Second, left FEF and left posterior parietal cortex (IPS1/2) generated stronger contralateral biasing signals than their counterparts in the right hemisphere. These findings are the first to characterize spatial attention signals in topographic frontal and parietal cortex and provide a neural basis in support of an interhemispheric competition account of spatial attentional control. PMID:20053897

  12. Boiling on spatially controlled heterogeneous surfaces: Wettability patterns on microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, HangJin; Yu, Dong In; Noh, Hyunwoo; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2015-05-01

    We investigated nucleate boiling heat transfer with precisely controlled wetting patterns and micro-posts, to gain insights into the impact of surface heterogeneity. To create heterogeneous wetting patterns, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were spatially patterned. Even at a contact angle <90°, bubble nucleation and bubble frequency were accelerated on SAM patterns, since this contact angle is larger than that found on plain surfaces. Micro-posts were also fabricated on the surface, which interrupted the expansion of generated bubbles. This surface structuring induced smaller bubbles and higher bubble frequency than the plain surface. The resistance provided by surface structures to bubble expansion broke the interface between the vapor mushroom and the heating surface, and water could therefore be continuously supplied through these spaces at high heat flux. To induce synergistic effects with wetting patterns and surface structures on boiling, we fabricated SAM patterns onto the heads of micro-posts. On this combined surface, bubble nucleation was induced from the head of the micro-posts, and bubble growth was influenced by both the SAM pattern and the micro-post structures. In particular, separation of the vapor path on the SAM patterns and the liquid path between micro-post structures resulted in high heat transfer performance without critical heat flux deterioration.

  13. Preparation and transmission of diversified multi-particle entanglements with spatially separate cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu; Yu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    We explore a feasible scheme for generating entangled states for three-level multi-atom trapped within spatially separated cavities. The scheme involves interaction-detection cycle and utilizes resonant atoms with an extra ground state not coupled to the cavity field. Additionally, the scheme can also be generalized to transmit an unknown two-atom entangled state assisted with two auxiliary atoms. Very different from the previous standard schemes, the teleportation of an unknown two atomic entangled state in our scheme is independent of the Bell-state measurement. The current scheme makes use of resonant atom-field interaction instead of Raman coupling, and thus the interaction time is greatly shortened. Furthermore, since the cavities are left in the vacuum state and the atoms are in the ground state, the prepared entanglement states are insensitive to the cavity decay and the atomic spontaneous emission.

  14. Experimental models of small closed systems with spatially separated unicellular organism-based components.

    PubMed

    Pis'man, T I; Pechurkin, N S; Sarangova, A B; Somova, L A

    1999-01-01

    Experimental models of small biotic cycles of different degree of closure and complexity with spatially separated components based on unicellular organisms have been studied. Gas closure of components looped into "autotroph-heterotroph" (chlorella-yeast) system doubled the lifetime of the system (as opposed to individually cultivated components). Higher complexity of the heterotroph component consisting of two yeast species also increased the lifetime of the system through more complete utilization of the substrate by competing yeast species. The lifetime of gas and substrate closed "producer-consumer" trophic chain (chlorella-paramecia) increased to 7 months. In 60 days the components' numbers reached their steady state followed by more than 40 cycles of the medium. The role of a predator organism (protozoan) in nitrogen cycling was demonstrated; reproduction of protozoa correlated directly with their emission of nitrogen in the ammonia form that is most optimum for growth of chlorella. PMID:11542240

  15. The use of gas separation membranes for pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, B.W.; Stull, D.; Pellegrino, J.

    1993-04-01

    Rocky Flats is considering the use of a fluidized bed oxidation unit (FBU) for the destruction of mixed waste. Public concerns about the health effects of such destruction have been intense. In order to allay such concerns and minimize the possible health impacts of the proposed mixed waste destruction, RFP has been investigating novel methods of air pollution control. Among the most promising of these techniques is the use of gas separation membranes, which is described in this report.

  16. Dissecting galaxies: spatial and spectral separation of emission excited by star formation and AGN activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Hampton, Elise J.; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-10-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion on to an AGN. We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (>85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated spectrum. We separate the Hα, Hβ, [N II]λ6583, [S II]λλ6716, 6731, [O III]λ5007 and [O II]λλ3726, 3729 luminosities of every spaxel into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. The decomposed emission line images are used to derive the star formation rates and AGN bolometric luminosities for NGC 5728 and NGC 7679. Our calculated values are mostly consistent with independent estimates from data at other wavelengths. The recovered star-forming and AGN components also have distinct spatial distributions which trace structures seen in high-resolution imaging of the galaxies, providing independent confirmation that our decomposition has been successful.

  17. Extended high-frequency bandwidth improves reception of speech in spatially separated masking speech

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Suzanne Carr; Freed, Daniel J.; Nilsson, Michael; Moore, Brian C.J.; Puria, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The hypothesis that extending the audible frequency bandwidth beyond the range currently implemented in most hearing aids can improve speech understanding was tested for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants using target sentences and spatially separated masking speech. Design The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) speech corpus was re-recorded and four masking talkers were recorded at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz. All talkers were male native speakers of American English. Reception threshold for Sentences (RTS) were measured in two spatial configurations. In the asymmetric configuration, the target was presented from −45° azimuth and two colocated masking talkers were presented from +45° azimuth. In the diffuse configuration, the target was presented from 0° azimuth and four masking talkers were each presented from a different azimuth: +45°, +135°, −135°, and −45°. The new speech sentences, masking materials and configurations, collectively termed the ‘Hearing in Speech Test (HIST)’, were presented using lowpass filter cutoff frequencies of 4, 6, 8, and 10 kHz. For the normal-hearing participants, stimuli were presented in the sound field using loudspeakers. For the hearing-impaired participants, the spatial configurations were simulated using earphones, and a multi-band wide dynamic range compressor with a modified CAM2 fitting algorithm was used to compensate for each participant’s hearing loss. Results For the normal-hearing participants (N=24, mean age 40 years), the RTS improved significantly by 3.0 dB when the bandwidth was increased from 4 to 10 kHz, and a significant improvement of 1.3 dB was obtained from extending the bandwidth from 6 to 10 kHz, in both spatial configurations. Hearing-impaired participants (N=25, mean age 71 years) also showed a significant improvement in RTS with extended bandwidth, but the effect was smaller than for the normal-hearing participants. The mean decrease in RTS when the bandwidth was

  18. Blow-up and control of marginally separated boundary layers.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stefan; Kluwick, Alfred

    2005-05-15

    Interactive solutions for steady two-dimensional laminar marginally separated boundary layers are known to exist up to a critical value Gamma(c) of the controlling parameter (e.g. the angle of attack of a slender airfoil) Gamma only. Here, we investigate three-dimensional unsteady perturbations of such boundary layers, assuming that the basic flow is almost critical, i.e. in the limit Gamma(c)-Gamma-->0. It is then shown that the interactive equations governing such perturbations simplify significantly, allowing, among others, a systematic study of the blow-up phenomenon observed in earlier investigations and the optimization of devices used in boundary-layer control.

  19. Distinct, but not completely separate spatial transport routes in the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC), which provides the permeable and selective transport path between the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, allows both the passive diffusion of small molecules in a signal-independent manner and the transport receptor-facilitated translocation of cargo molecules in a signal-dependent manner. However, the spatial and functional relationships between these two transport pathways, which represent critical information for unraveling the fundamental nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism, remain in dispute. The direct experimental examination of passive and facilitated transport with a high spatiotemporal resolution under real-time trafficking conditions in native NPCs is still difficult. To address this issue and further define these transport mechanisms, we recently developed single-point edge-excitation sub-diffraction (SPEED) microscopy and a deconvolution algorithm to directly map both passive and facilitated transport routes in three dimensions (3D) in native NPCs. Our findings revealed that passive and facilitated transport occur through spatially distinct transport routes. Signal-independent small molecules exhibit a high probability of passively diffusing through an axial central viscous channel, while transport receptors and their cargo complexes preferentially travel through the periphery, around this central channel, after interacting with phenylalanine-glycine (FG) filaments. Strikingly, these two distinct transport zones are not completely separate either spatially or functionally. Instead, their conformations are closely correlated and simultaneously regulated. In this review, we will specifically highlight a detailed procedure for 3D mapping of passive and facilitated transport routes, demonstrate the correlation between these two distinct pathways, and finally, speculate regarding the regulation of the transport pathways driven by the conformational changes of FG filaments in NPCs. PMID:23669120

  20. Fluorescent labelling reveals spatial separation of potyvirus populations in mixed infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christof; Maiss, Edgar

    2003-10-01

    The distribution of potyviruses in mixed infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants was investigated by using green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP, DsRed). Full-length cDNA clones of Plum pox virus (PPV-NAT-AgfpS; PPV-NAT-red), Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV-gfp; TVMV-red) and Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV-GFP) expressing fluorescent proteins, referred to here as labelled viruses, were used to characterize the distribution of different potyviral populations (e.g. TVMV-gfp/PPV-NAT-red), as well as populations of identical, but differently labelled potyviruses (e.g. PPV-NAT-AgfpS/PPV-NAT-red) or in mixed infections of potyviruses with labelled Potato virus X (PVX). Plants infected by any of the PVX/potyvirus combinations exhibited synergistic symptoms and large numbers of cells were doubly infected. In contrast, co-infections of differently labelled potyvirus populations appeared non-synergistic and remained predominantly separate in the infected plants, independent of whether different viruses or identical but differently labelled viruses were co-infecting. Contact of differently labelled virus populations that exhibited spatial separation was restricted to a small number of cells at the border of different fluorescent cell clusters.

  1. Improving the performance of the signal space separation method by comprehensive spatial sampling.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, J; Taulu, S; Okada, Y

    2010-03-01

    Biomagnetic instruments usually employ sensors with approximately radial normal vectors arranged on a near-spherical surface. The multipole expansion employed in the recently introduced signal space separation method (SSS) reveals limitations in this traditional sensor array design. Specifically, we show that the excessive symmetry of the sensor array impedes separation of multipole components arising from inside and outside of the array. This motivates consideration of novel instrument designs that would sample the field in a more comprehensive way. We evaluated several simulated sensor arrays that employ vector sensors in one or two layers, giving information on multiple field components and the radial dependence of the field. Our results indicate that this kind of sensor array design could significantly improve SSS performance, leading to enhanced shielding against external interference and reduced noise after signal reconstruction. The best two-layer array evaluated here attains a shielding factor of nearly 1000 or 60 dB with about 400 sensors. Due to limited spatial coverage, a traditional reference array geometry does not give the same level of improvement. In addition to improved software shielding, enhanced detection of different multipole components increases the information obtained about the magnetic field, which has fundamental importance. PMID:20157231

  2. Optimal Control of Airfoil Flow Separation using Fluidic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrabi, Arireza F.

    This thesis deals with the control of flow separation around a symmetric airfoils with the aid of multiple synthetic jet actuators (SJAs). CFD simulation methods have been implemented to uncover the flow separation regimes and associated properties such as frequencies and momentum ratio. In the first part of the study, the SJA was studied thoroughly. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) were performed for one individual cavity; the time history of SJA of the outlet velocity profile and the net momentum imparted to the flow were analyzed. The studied SJA is asymmetrical and operates with the aid of a piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic circular plate actuator. A three-dimensional mesh for the computational domain of the SJA and the surrounding volume was developed and was used to evaluate the details of the airflow conditions inside the SJA as well as at the outlet. The vibration of the PZT ceramic actuator was used as a boundary condition in the computational model to drive the SJA. Particular attention was given to developing a predictive model of the SJA outlet velocity. Results showed that the SJA velocity output is correlated to the PZT ceramic plate vibration, especially for the first frequency mode. SJAs are a particular class of zero net mass flux (ZNMF) fluidic devices with net imparted momentum to the flow. The net momentum imparted to the flow in the separated region is such that positive enhancement during AFC operations is achieved. Flows around the NACA 0015 airfoil were simulated for a range of operating conditions. Attention was given to the active open and closed loop control solutions for an airfoil with SJA at different angles of attack and flap angles. A large number of simulations using RANS & LES models were performed to study the effects of the momentum ratio (Cμ) in the range of 0 to 11% and of the non-dimensional frequency, F+, in the range of 0 to 2 for the control of flow separation at a practical angle of attack and flap angle. The optimum value of C

  3. Linguistic and conceptual control of visual spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Logan, G D

    1995-04-01

    A theory of voluntary, top-down control of visual spatial attention is presented that explains how linguistic cues like "above," "below," "left," and "right" are used to direct attention from one object to another. The theory distinguishes between perceptual and conceptual representations of space and views attention as a set of mechanisms that establish correspondences between the representations. Spatial reference frames play an important part in this analysis. The theory interprets reference frames as mechanisms of attention, similar to spatial indices but with more computational power. The theory was tested in 11 experiments that assessed the importance of linguistic distinctions between classes of spatial relations (basic, deictic, and intrinsic) and examined the flexibility with which subjects manipulated spatial reference frames. PMID:7736720

  4. Control of flow separation and mixing by aerodynamic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Edward J.; Abbott, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The recent research in the control of shear flows using unsteady aerodynamic excitation conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is reviewed. The program is of a fundamental nature, concentrating on the physics of the unsteady aerodynamic processes. This field of research is a fairly new development with great promise in the areas of enhanced mixing and flow separation control. Enhanced mixing research includes influence of core turbulence, forced pairing of coherent structures, and saturation of mixing enhancement. Separation flow control studies included are for a two-dimensional diffuser, conical diffusers, and single airfoils. Ultimate applications include aircraft engine inlet flow control at high angle of attack, wide angle diffusers, highly loaded airfoils as in turbomachinery, and ejector/suppressor nozzles for the supersonic transport. An argument involving the Coanda Effect is made that all of the above mentioned application areas really only involve forms of shear layer mixing enhancement. The program also includes the development of practical excitation devices which might be used in aircraft applications.

  5. Control of flow separation and mixing by aerodynamic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Edward J.; Abbott, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The recent research progress in the control of shear flows using unsteady aerodynamic excitation conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is reviewed. The program is of fundamental nature concentrating on the physics of the unsteady aerodynamic processes. This field of research is a fairly new development with great promise in the areas of enhanced mixing and flow separation control. Enhanced mixing research reported in this paper include influence of core turbulence, forced pairing of coherent structures, and saturation of mixing enhancement. Separation flow control studies included are for a two-dimensional diffuser, conical diffusers, and single airfoils. Ultimate applications of this research include aircraft engine inlet flow control at high angle of attack, wide angle diffusers, highly loaded airfoils as in turbomachinery, and ejector/suppressor nozzles for the supersonic transport. An argument involving the Coanda Effect is made here that all of the above mentioned application areas really only involve forms of shear layer mixing enhancement. The program also includes the development of practical excitation devices which might be used in aircraft applications.

  6. Separation Control Over A Wall-Mounted Hump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, D.; Paschal, K. B.; Schaeffler, N. W.; Washburn, A. E.; Harris, J.; Yao, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Separation control by means of steady suction or zero efflux oscillatory jets is known to be effective in a wide variety of flows under different flow conditions. Control is effective when applied in a nominally two-dimensional manner, for example, at the leading-edge of a wing or at the shoulder of a deflected flap. Despite intuitive understanding of the flow, at present there is no accepted theoretical model that can adequately explain or describe the observed effects of the leading parameters such as reduced suction-rate, or frequency and momentum input. This difficulty stems partly from the turbulent nature of the flows combined with superimposed coherent structures, which are usually driven by at least one instability mechanism. The ever increasing technological importance of these flows has spurned an urgent need to develop turbulence models with a predictive capability. Present attempts to develop such models are hampered in one way or another by incomplete data sets, uncertain or undocumented inflow and boundary conditions, or inadequate flow-field measurements. This paper attempts to address these issues by conducting an experimental investigation of a lowspeed separated flow over a wall-mounted hump model. The model geometry was designed by Seifert & Pack, who measured static and dynamic pressures on the model for a wide range of Reynolds and Mach numbers and control conditions. This paper describes the present experimental setup, as well as the types and range of data acquired. Sample data is presented and future work is discussed.

  7. Control of separation and quantitative analysis by GC-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmoud, A.; Huvenne, Jean P.; Legrand, P.

    1992-03-01

    Software for 3-D representations of the 'Absorbance-Wavenumber-Retention time' is used to control the quality of the GC separation. Spectral information given by the FTIR detection allows the user to be sure that a chromatographic peak is 'pure.' The analysis of peppermint essential oil is presented as an example. This assurance is absolutely required for quantitative applications. In these conditions, we have worked out a quantitative analysis of caffeine. Correlation coefficients between integrated absorbance measurements and concentration of caffeine are discussed at two steps of the data treatment.

  8. Separate geometric and non-geometric modules for spatial reorientation: evidence from a lopsided animal brain.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, Giorgio; Pagni, Piero; Sovrano, Valeria Anna

    2004-04-01

    Research has proved that disoriented children and nonhuman animals can reorient themselves using geometric and nongeometric features of the environment, showing conjoined use of both types of information to different degree depending on species and developmental level. Little is known of the neurobiological bases of these spatial reorientation processes. Here we take advantage of the neuroanatomical peculiarities of the visual system of birds (showing segregation of information between the two sides of the brain to a considerable degree) to investigate the way in which geometric and nongeometric information is encoded and used by the left and right hemispheres. Domestic chicks were trained binocularly in an environment with a distinctive geometry (a rectangular cage) with panels at the corners providing nongeometric cues. Between trials, chicks were passively disoriented to disable dead reckoning. When tested after removal of the panels, left-eyed chicks, but not right-eyed chicks, reoriented using the residual information provided by the geometry of the cage. When tested after removal of geometric information (i.e., in a square-shaped cage), both right- and left-eyed chicks reoriented using the residual nongeometric information provided by the panels. When trained binocularly with only geometric information, at test, left-eyed chicks reoriented better than right-eyed chicks. Finally, when geometric and nongeometric cues provided contradictory information, left-eyed chicks showed more reliance on geometric cues, whereas right-eyed chicks showed more reliance on nongeometric cues. The results suggest separate mechanisms for dealing with spatial reorientation problems, with the right hemisphere taking charge of large-scale geometry of the environment and with both hemispheres taking charge of local, nongeometric cues when available in isolation, but with a predominance of the left hemisphere when competition between geometric and non-geometric information occurs

  9. Dissipative production of controllable steady-state entanglement of two superconducting qubits in separated resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Sheng-Li; Liao, Zeyang; Li, Fu-Li; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2015-05-01

    We propose an efficient method for dissipative preparation of controllable steady-state entanglement of two superconducting qubits coupled to spatially separated transmission line resonators, which are linked by an additional superconducting qubit acting as a tunable coupler. The quantum-state production process is based on a form of reservoir engineering, i.e., the dissipation of the coupler is utilized to steer the system into the desired state at stationary state. The distinct feature of our scheme is that neither initial state preparation nor unitary dynamics are required. These make the present protocol more feasible in the experimental implementation.

  10. Nanocrystallization in Oxyfluoride Glasses Controlled by Amorphous Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changgui; Bocker, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2015-10-14

    Transparent bulk glass-ceramics containing ZnF2, K2SiF6, and KZnF3 nanocrystals are successfully obtained from xKF-xZnF2-(100 - 2x)SiO2 oxyfluoride glasses for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The glass transition temperatures of heat-treated samples increase with time and approach values that resemble the temperatures chosen for thermal treatment. During nucleation and crystal growth, the residual glass around the crystals is depleted in fluoride which as glass component usually leads to a decrease in viscosity. The crystallization behavior notably depends on the glass composition and changes within a small range from x = 20 to 22.5 mol %. The occurrence of liquid/liquid phase separation in dependence of the composition is responsible for the physicochemical changes. Two different microstructures of droplet and interpenetrating phase separation and their compositional evolution are observed by replica transmission electron microscopy technique in the multicomponent glassy system. This study suggests that the size and crystal phase of precipitated crystallites can be controlled by the initial phase separation.

  11. Passive Flow Separation Control Mechanism Inspired by Shark Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, India; Lang, Amy

    2015-11-01

    The following experimental work seeks to examine shark scales as passive flow-actuated separation control mechanisms. It is hypothesized that the actuation of these scales can in fact reduce pressure drag by inhibiting flow reversal and thereby prevent flow separation. In order to examine this mechanism at a fundamental level, three-dimensional sharkskin scales were simplified and modeled as two-dimensional flaps. To further simplify the experiment, the flaps were observed within a laminar boundary layer. The laminar boundary layer was grown over a long flat plate that was placed inside a water tunnel. A rotating cylinder was also used to induce an unsteady, increasing adverse pressure gradient, which generated a reversing flow. In order to visualize the potential actuation of the two-dimensional flaps DPIV (digital particle image velocimetry) was utilized. Three main objectives for this work included, the actuation of the two-dimensional flaps, the resistance to a reversed flow as a result of flap actuation and the prevention of flow separation. However once the experiment was conducted the flaps did not perform as previously hypothesized. The adverse pressure gradient induced by the rotating cylinder did not produce a reversing flow powerful enough to actuate the flaps. NSF REU Site Award 1358991.

  12. Neural encoding of sound source location in the presence of a concurrent, spatially separated source

    PubMed Central

    Koka, Kanthaiah; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    In the presence of multiple, spatially separated sound sources, the binaural cues used for sound localization in the horizontal plane become distorted from the cues from each sound in isolation, yet localization in everyday multisource acoustic environments remains robust. We examined changes in the azimuth tuning functions of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons in unanesthetized rabbits to a target broadband noise when a concurrent broadband noise interferer was presented at different locations in virtual acoustic space. The presence of an interferer generally degraded sensitivity to target azimuth and distorted the shape of the tuning function, yet most neurons remained significantly sensitive to target azimuth and maintained tuning function shapes somewhat similar to those for the target alone. Using binaural cue manipulations in virtual acoustic space, we found that single-source tuning functions of neurons with high best frequencies (BFs) were primarily determined by interaural level differences (ILDs) or monaural level, with a small influence of interaural time differences (ITDs) in some neurons. However, with a centrally located interferer, the tuning functions of most high-BF neurons were strongly influenced by ITDs as well as ILDs. Model-based analysis showed that the shapes of these tuning functions were in part produced by decorrelation of the left and right cochlea-induced envelopes that occurs with source separation. The strong influence of ITD on the tuning functions of high-BF neurons poses a challenge to the “duplex theory” of sound localization and suggests that ITD may be important for localizing high-frequency sounds in multisource environments. PMID:22914651

  13. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Jain, A.; Kreutz-Delgado, K.

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling, control, and trajectory design is discussed. The elements of this algebra are linear operators whose domain and range spaces consist of forces, moments, velocities, and accelerations. The effect of these operators is equivalent to a spatial recursion along the span of a manipulator. Inversion of operators can be efficiently obtained via techniques of recursive filtering and smoothing. The operator algebra provides a high-level framework for describing the dynamic and kinematic behavior of a manipulator and for control and trajectory design algorithms. The interpretation of expressions within the algebraic framework leads to enhanced conceptual and physical understanding of manipulator dynamics and kinematics.

  14. Laminar separation control effects of shortfin mako shark skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Michael Thomas

    Shark skin is investigated as a means of laminar flow separation control due to its preferential flow direction as well as the potential for scales to erect and obstruct low-momentum backflow resulting from an adverse pressure gradient acting on the boundary layer. In this study, the effect of the scales on flow reversal is observed in laminar flow conditions. This is achieved by comparing the flow over a pectoral fin from a shortfin mako shark to that over the same fin that is painted to neutralize the effect of the scales on the flow. The effect of the scales on flow reversal is also observed by comparing the flow over a smooth PVC cylinder to that over the same cylinder with samples of mako shark skin affixed to the entire circumference of the cylinder. These samples were taken from the flank region of the shark because the scales at this location have been shown to have the greatest angle of erection compared to the scales on the rest of the shark's body. Scales at this location have an average crown length of 220 microm with a maximum bristling angle of proximately 50 degrees. Because these scales have the highest bristling angle, they have the best potential for separation control. All data was taken using time-resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The flow over the pectoral fin was analyzed at multiple angles of attack. It was found that the shark skin had the effect of decreasing the size of the separated region over both the pectoral fin and the cylinder as well as decreasing the magnitudes of the reversing flow found in these regions. For all Reynolds numbers tested, drag reduction over 28% was found when applying the sharkskin to the cylinder.

  15. Radio-frequency-driven dipole-dipole interactions in spatially separated volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauschinsky, Atreju; van Ditzhuijzen, C. S. E.; Noordam, L. D.; van den Heuvell, H. B. Van Linden

    2008-12-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) fields in the MHz range are used to induce resonant energy transfer between cold Rydberg atoms in spatially separated volumes. After laser preparation of the Rydberg atoms, dipole-dipole coupling excites the 49s atoms in one cylinder to the 49p state while the 41d atoms in the second cylinder are transferred down to the 42p state. The energy exchanged between the atoms in this process is 33GHz . An external rf field brings this energy transfer into resonance. The strength of the interaction has been investigated as a function of amplitude (0-1V/cm) and frequency (1-30MHz) of the rf field and as a function of a static-field offset. Multiphoton transitions up to fifth order as well as selection rules prohibiting the process at certain fields have been observed. The width of the resonances has been reduced compared to earlier results by switching off external magnetic fields of the magneto-optical trap, making sub-MHz spectroscopy possible. All features are well reproduced by theoretical calculations taking the strong ac Stark shift due to the rf field into account.

  16. Spatially separated charge densities of electrons and holes in organic-inorganic halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dan; Liang, Chunjun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Huimin; You, Fangtian; He, Zhiqun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Chunxiu

    2015-02-21

    Solution-processable methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites exhibit remarkable high-absorption and low-loss properties for solar energy conversion. Calculation from density functional theory indicates the presence of non-equivalent halogen atoms in the unit cell because of the specific orientation of the organic cation. Considering the 〈100〉 orientation as an example, I{sub 1}, one of the halogen atoms, differs from the other iodine atoms (I{sub 2} and I{sub 3}) in terms of its interaction with the organic cation. The valance-band-maximum (VBM) and conduction-band-minimum (CBM) states are derived mainly from 5p orbital of I{sub 1} atom and 6p orbital of Pb atom, respectively. The spatially separated charge densities of the electrons and holes justify the low recombination rate of the pure iodide perovskite. Chlorine substitution further strengthens the unique position of the I{sub 1} atom, leading to more localized charge density around the I{sub 1} atom and less charge density around the other atoms at the VBM state. The less overlap of charge densities between the VBM and CBM states explains the relatively lower carrier recombination rate of the iodine-chlorine mixed perovskite. Chlorine substitution significantly reduces the effective mass at a direction perpendicular to the Pb-Cl bond and organic axis, enhancing the carrier transport property of the mixed perovskite in this direction.

  17. Shifting Attentional Priorities: Control of Spatial Attention through Hemispheric Competition

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Sara M.; Kastner, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Regions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex are known to control the allocation of spatial attention across the visual field. However, the neural mechanisms underlying attentional control in the intact human brain remain unclear, with some studies supporting a hemispatial theory emphasizing a dominant function of the right hemisphere and others supporting an interhemispheric competition theory. We previously found neural evidence to support the latter account, in which topographically organized frontoparietal areas each generate a spatial bias, or “attentional weight,” toward the contralateral hemifield, with the sum of the weights constituting the overall bias that can be exerted across visual space. Here, we used a multimodal approach consisting of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of spatial attention signals, behavioral measures of spatial bias, and fMRI-guided single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally test this interhemispheric competition account. Across the group of fMRI subjects, we found substantial individual differences in the strengths of the frontoparietal attentional weights in each hemisphere, which predicted subjects’ respective behavioral preferences when allocating spatial attention, as measured by a landmark task. Using TMS to interfere with attentional processing within specific topographic frontoparietal areas, we then demonstrated that the attentional weights of individual subjects, and thus their spatial attention behavior, could be predictably shifted toward one visual field or the other, depending on the site of interference. The results of our multimodal approach, combined with an emphasis on neural and behavioral individual differences, provide compelling evidence that spatial attention is controlled through competitive interactions between hemispheres rather than a dominant right hemisphere in the intact human brain. PMID:23516306

  18. Daily Access to Sucrose Impairs Aspects of Spatial Memory Tasks Reliant on Pattern Separation and Neural Proliferation in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, Reginald Frederick

    2016-01-01

    High sugar diets reduce hippocampal neurogenesis, which is required for minimizing interference between memories, a process that involves "pattern separation." We provided rats with 2 h daily access to a sucrose solution for 28 d and assessed their performance on a spatial memory task. Sucrose consuming rats discriminated between objects…

  19. Separation of spatial-temporal patterns ('climatic modes') by combined analysis of really measured and generated numerically vector time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, A. M.; Mukhin, D.; Volodin, E. M.; Gavrilov, A.; Loskutov, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    The new method of decomposition of the Earth's climate system into well separated spatial-temporal patterns ('climatic modes') is discussed. The method is based on: (i) generalization of the MSSA (Multichannel Singular Spectral Analysis) [1] for expanding vector (space-distributed) time series in basis of spatial-temporal empirical orthogonal functions (STEOF), which makes allowance delayed correlations of the processes recorded in spatially separated points; (ii) expanding both real SST data, and longer by several times SST data generated numerically, in STEOF basis; (iii) use of the numerically produced STEOF basis for exclusion of 'too slow' (and thus not represented correctly) processes from real data. The application of the method allows by means of vector time series generated numerically by the INM RAS Coupled Climate Model [2] to separate from real SST anomalies data [3] two climatic modes possessing by noticeably different time scales: 3-5 and 9-11 years. Relations of separated modes to ENSO and PDO are investigated. Possible applications of spatial-temporal climatic patterns concept to prognosis of climate system evolution is discussed. 1. Ghil, M., R. M. Allen, M. D. Dettinger, K. Ide, D. Kondrashov, et al. (2002) "Advanced spectral methods for climatic time series", Rev. Geophys. 40(1), 3.1-3.41. 2. http://83.149.207.89/GCM_DATA_PLOTTING/GCM_INM_DATA_XY_en.htm 3. http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.KAPLAN/.EXTENDED/.v2/.ssta/

  20. Experimental study of airfoil separation control using synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xi; Mohseni, Kamran

    2010-11-01

    The flow control over an airfoil is studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Synthetic jets are placed on the top surface of the airfoil as flow actuators. The position and the angle of the jet orifice, together with the frequency and jet strength could be varied in order to adjust the separation or reattachment points on the surface. An Array of hot-film sensors are located on the surface in order to detect the location of the reattachment point. The airfoil is mounted on a 6 d.o.f force balance system to dynamically measure the drag and lift forces on the airfoil. Results from the hot-film sensor array measurement are correlated to the measured drag and lift forces.

  1. Cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels for a spatially separated co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyun; Bencherif, Sidi A; Li, Weiwei Aileen; Mooney, David J

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional macroporous scaffolds have extensively been studied for cell-based tissue engineering but their use is mostly limited to mechanical support for cell adhesion and growth on the surface of macropores. Here, a templated fabrication method is described to prepare cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels (IOHs) allowing both cell encapsulation within the hydrogel matrix and cell seeding on the surface of macropores. Ionically crosslinked alginate microbeads and photocrosslinkable biocompatible polymers are used as a sacrificial template and as a matrix, respectively. The alginate microbeads are easily removed by a chelating agent, with minimal toxicity for the encapsulated cells during template removal. The outer surface of macropores in IOHs can also provide a space for cell adherence. The cells encapsulated or attached in IOHs are able to remain viable and to proliferate over time. The elastic modulus and cell-adhesion properties of IOHs can be easily controlled and tuned. Finally, it is demonstrated that IOH can be used to co-culture two distinct cell populations in different spatial positions. This cell-friendly IOH system provides a 3D scaffold for organizing different cell types in a controllable microenvironment to investigate biological processes such as stem cell niches or tumor microenvironments. PMID:25113941

  2. Cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels for a spatially separated co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyun; Bencherif, Sidi A; Li, Weiwei Aileen; Mooney, David J

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional macroporous scaffolds have extensively been studied for cell-based tissue engineering but their use is mostly limited to mechanical support for cell adhesion and growth on the surface of macropores. Here, a templated fabrication method is described to prepare cell-friendly inverse opal-like hydrogels (IOHs) allowing both cell encapsulation within the hydrogel matrix and cell seeding on the surface of macropores. Ionically crosslinked alginate microbeads and photocrosslinkable biocompatible polymers are used as a sacrificial template and as a matrix, respectively. The alginate microbeads are easily removed by a chelating agent, with minimal toxicity for the encapsulated cells during template removal. The outer surface of macropores in IOHs can also provide a space for cell adherence. The cells encapsulated or attached in IOHs are able to remain viable and to proliferate over time. The elastic modulus and cell-adhesion properties of IOHs can be easily controlled and tuned. Finally, it is demonstrated that IOH can be used to co-culture two distinct cell populations in different spatial positions. This cell-friendly IOH system provides a 3D scaffold for organizing different cell types in a controllable microenvironment to investigate biological processes such as stem cell niches or tumor microenvironments.

  3. Spatial operator approach to flexible multibody system dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse and forward dynamics problems for flexible multibody systems were solved using the techniques of spatially recursive Kalman filtering and smoothing. These algorithms are easily developed using a set of identities associated with mass matrix factorization and inversion. These identities are easily derived using the spatial operator algebra developed by the author. Current work is aimed at computational experiments with the described algorithms and at modelling for control design of limber manipulator systems. It is also aimed at handling and manipulation of flexible objects.

  4. Graphene-enabled electrically controlled terahertz spatial light modulators.

    PubMed

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Takan, Taylan; Ozkan, Vedat Ali; Balcı, Osman; Polat, Emre O; Altan, Hakan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-05-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate a broadband terahertz (THz) spatial light modulator using 5×5 arrays of large area graphene supercapacitors. Our approach relies on controlling spatial charge distribution on a passive matrix array of patterned graphene electrodes. By changing the voltage bias applied to the rows and columns, we were able to pattern the THz transmittance through the device with high modulation depth and low operation voltage. We anticipate that the simplicity of the device architecture with high contrast THz modulation over a broad spectral range could provide new tools for THz imaging and communication systems. PMID:25927764

  5. Spatial Control of Biochemical Modification Cascades and Pathways.

    PubMed

    Alam-Nazki, Aiman; Krishnan, J

    2015-06-16

    Information transmission in cells occurs through complex networks of proteins and genes and is relayed through cascades of biochemical modifications, which are typically studied through ordinary differential equations. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that spatial factors can strongly influence chemical information transmission in cells. In this article, we systematically disentangle the effects of space in signaling cascades. This is done by examining the effects of localization/compartmentalization and diffusion of enzymes and substrates in multiple variants of chemical modification cascades. This includes situations where the modified form of species at one stage 1) acts as an enzyme for the next stage; 2) acts as a substrate for the next stage; and 3) is involved in phosphotransfer. Our analysis reveals the multiple effects of space in signal transduction cascades. Although in some cases space plays a modulatory effect (itself of interest), in other cases, spatial regulation and control can profoundly affect the nature of information processing as a result of the subtle interplay between the patterns of localization of species, diffusion, and the nature of the modification cascades. Our results provide a platform for disentangling the role of space and spatial control in multiple cellular contexts and a basis for engineering spatial control in signaling cascades through localization/compartmentalization.

  6. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, K.; Milman, M.

    1988-01-01

    A powerful new spatial operator algebra for modeling, control, and trajectory design of manipulators is discussed along with its implementation in the Ada programming language. Applications of this algebra to robotics include an operator representation of the manipulator Jacobian matrix; the robot dynamical equations formulated in terms of the spatial algebra, showing the complete equivalence between the recursive Newton-Euler formulations to robot dynamics; the operator factorization and inversion of the manipulator mass matrix which immediately results in O(N) recursive forward dynamics algorithms; the joint accelerations of a manipulator due to a tip contact force; the recursive computation of the equivalent mass matrix as seen at the tip of a manipulator; and recursive forward dynamics of a closed chain system. Finally, additional applications and current research involving the use of the spatial operator algebra are discussed in general terms.

  7. Nanometer thickness laser ablation for spatial control of cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, H.; Hayes, J. P.; Kingshott, P.; Johnson, G.; Harvey, E. C.; Griesser, H. J.

    2002-10-01

    We demonstrate here a new method to control the location of cells on surfaces in two dimensions, which can be applied to a number of biomedical applications including diagnostic tests and tissue engineered medical devices. Two-dimensional control over cell attachment is achieved by generation of a spatially controlled surface chemistry that allows control over protein adsorption, a process which mediates cell attachment. Here, we describe the deposition of thin allylamine plasma polymer coatings on silicon wafer and perfluorinated poly(ethylene-co-propylene) substrates, followed by grafting of a protein resistant layer of poly(ethylene oxide). Spatially controlled patterning of the surface chemistry was achieved in a fast, one-step procedure by nanometer thickness controlled laser ablation using a 248 nm excimer laser. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to confirm the production of surface chemistry patterns with a resolution of approximately 1 µm, which is significantly below the dimensions of a single mammalian cell. Subsequent adsorption of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen I and fibronectin followed by cell culture experiments using bovine corneal epithelial cells confirmed that cell attachment is controlled by the surface chemistry pattern. The method is an effective tool for use in a number of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  8. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, K.; Jain, A.

    1989-01-01

    A spatial operator algebra for modeling the control and trajectory design of manipulation is discussed, with emphasis on its analytical formulation and implementation in the Ada programming language. The elements of this algebra are linear operators whose domain and range spaces consist of forces, moments, velocities, and accelerations. The effect of these operators is equivalent to a spatial recursion along the span of the manipulator. Inversion is obtained using techniques of recursive filtering and smoothing. The operator alegbra provides a high-level framework for describing the dynamic and kinematic behavior of a manipulator and control and trajectory design algorithms. Implementable recursive algorithms can be immediately derived from the abstract operator expressions by inspection, thus greatly simplifying the transition from an abstract problem formulation and solution to the detailed mechanization of a specific algorithm.

  9. Semiconductor diode laser having an intracavity spatial phase controller for beam control and switching

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    A high-power broad-area semiconductor laser having a intracavity spatial phase controller is disclosed. The integrated intracavity spatial phase controller is easily formed by patterning an electrical contact metallization layer when fabricating the semiconductor laser. This spatial phase controller changes the normally broad far-field emission beam of such a laser into a single-lobed near-diffraction-limited beam at pulsed output powers of over 400 mW. Two operating modes, a thermal and a gain operating mode, exist for the phase controller, allowing for steering and switching the beam as the modes of operation are switched, and the emission beam may be scanned, for example, over a range of 1.4 degrees or switched by 8 degrees. More than one spatial phase controller may be integrated into the laser structure.

  10. Spatial Separation of Dust Particles by their Sizes at the Diffuse Edge of RF Inductive Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobnin, A. V.; Usachev, A. D.; Fortov, V. E.

    2002-12-01

    The technique for measuring in situ 2D-spatial distribution of the polymeric (melamine formaldehyde) spherical particles by the size in complex plasma is developed. The experimental research of the phenomenon of spatial separation of powder particles by their sizes (0.4+2 μm) at the diffuse edge of RF inductive low-pressure discharge plasma is conducted. It is revealed, that during experiment the size of particles decreases, and the speed of decreasing Ŕ divided by the plasma electron density ne is a constant value for different ne, Ŕ/ne = 3ṡ10-9 Åṡs-1ṡcm-3.

  11. Using evolution to generate sustainable malaria control with spatial repellents

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Penelope Anne; Boots, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Evolution persistently undermines vector control programs through insecticide resistance. Here we propose a novel strategy which instead exploits evolution to generate and sustain new control tools. Effective spatial repellents are needed to keep vectors out of houses. Our approach generates such new repellents by combining a high-toxicity insecticide with a candidate repellent initially effective against only part of the vector population. By killing mosquitoes that enter treated properties the insecticide selects for vector phenotypes deflected by the repellent, increasing efficacy of the repellent against the target vector population and in turn protecting the insecticide against the spread of insecticide resistance. Using such evolved spatial repellents offers an evolutionarily sustainable, ‘double-dip’ system of disease control combining mortality and repellence. We formalize this idea using models which explore vector population genetics and disease transmission probabilities and show that using evolved spatial repellents is theoretically achievable, effective and sustainable. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15416.001 PMID:27776220

  12. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  13. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M.; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems.

  14. High resolution Hall measurements across the VO2 metal-insulator transition reveal impact of spatial phase separation.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Tony; Strelniker, Yakov M; Sharoni, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Many strongly correlated transition metal oxides exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), the manipulation of which is essential for their application as active device elements. However, such manipulation is hindered by lack of microscopic understanding of mechanisms involved in these transitions. A prototypical example is VO2, where previous studies indicated that the MIT resistance change correlate with changes in carrier density and mobility. We studied the MIT using Hall measurements with unprecedented resolution and accuracy, simultaneously with resistance measurements. Contrast to prior reports, we find that the MIT is not correlated with a change in mobility, but rather, is a macroscopic manifestation of the spatial phase separation which accompanies the MIT. Our results demonstrate that, surprisingly, properties of the nano-scale spatially-separated metallic and semiconducting domains actually retain their bulk properties. This study highlights the importance of taking into account local fluctuations and correlations when interpreting transport measurements in highly correlated systems. PMID:26783076

  15. Amoeba-based computing for traveling salesman problem: long-term correlations between spatially separated individual cells of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liping; Aono, Masashi; Kim, Song-Ju; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-04-01

    A single-celled, multi-nucleated amoeboid organism, a plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, can perform sophisticated computing by exhibiting complex spatiotemporal oscillatory dynamics while deforming its amorphous body. We previously devised an "amoeba-based computer (ABC)" to quantitatively evaluate the optimization capability of the amoeboid organism in searching for a solution to the traveling salesman problem (TSP) under optical feedback control. In ABC, the organism changes its shape to find a high quality solution (a relatively shorter TSP route) by alternately expanding and contracting its pseudopod-like branches that exhibit local photoavoidance behavior. The quality of the solution serves as a measure of the optimality of which the organism maximizes its global body area (nutrient absorption) while minimizing the risk of being illuminated (exposure to aversive stimuli). ABC found a high quality solution for the 8-city TSP with a high probability. However, it remains unclear whether intracellular communication among the branches of the organism is essential for computing. In this study, we conducted a series of control experiments using two individual cells (two single-celled organisms) to perform parallel searches in the absence of intercellular communication. We found that ABC drastically lost its ability to find a solution when it used two independent individuals. However, interestingly, when two individuals were prepared by dividing one individual, they found a solution for a few tens of minutes. That is, the two divided individuals remained correlated even though they were spatially separated. These results suggest the presence of a long-term memory in the intrinsic dynamics of this organism and its significance in performing sophisticated computing. PMID:23438635

  16. Amoeba-based computing for traveling salesman problem: long-term correlations between spatially separated individual cells of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liping; Aono, Masashi; Kim, Song-Ju; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-04-01

    A single-celled, multi-nucleated amoeboid organism, a plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, can perform sophisticated computing by exhibiting complex spatiotemporal oscillatory dynamics while deforming its amorphous body. We previously devised an "amoeba-based computer (ABC)" to quantitatively evaluate the optimization capability of the amoeboid organism in searching for a solution to the traveling salesman problem (TSP) under optical feedback control. In ABC, the organism changes its shape to find a high quality solution (a relatively shorter TSP route) by alternately expanding and contracting its pseudopod-like branches that exhibit local photoavoidance behavior. The quality of the solution serves as a measure of the optimality of which the organism maximizes its global body area (nutrient absorption) while minimizing the risk of being illuminated (exposure to aversive stimuli). ABC found a high quality solution for the 8-city TSP with a high probability. However, it remains unclear whether intracellular communication among the branches of the organism is essential for computing. In this study, we conducted a series of control experiments using two individual cells (two single-celled organisms) to perform parallel searches in the absence of intercellular communication. We found that ABC drastically lost its ability to find a solution when it used two independent individuals. However, interestingly, when two individuals were prepared by dividing one individual, they found a solution for a few tens of minutes. That is, the two divided individuals remained correlated even though they were spatially separated. These results suggest the presence of a long-term memory in the intrinsic dynamics of this organism and its significance in performing sophisticated computing.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Control of Fungal Natural Product Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Yun; Keller, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their oftentimes-elusive ecological role, fungal natural products have, for better or worse, impacted our daily lives tremendously owing to their diverse and potent bioactive properties. This Janus-faced nature of fungal natural products inevitably ushered in a field of research dedicated towards understanding the ecology, organisms, genes, enzymes, and biosynthetic pathways that give rise to this arsenal of diverse and complex chemistry. Ongoing research in fungal secondary metabolism has not only increased our appreciation for fungal natural products as an asset but also sheds light on the pivotal role that these once-regarded “metabolic wastes” play in fungal biology, defense, and stress response in addition to their potential contributions towards human mycoses. Full orchestration of secondary metabolism requires not only the seamless coordination between temporal and spatial control of SM-associated machineries (e.g. enzymes, cofactors, intermediates, and end-products) but also integration of these machineries into primary metabolic processes and established cellular mechanisms. An intriguing, but little known aspect of microbial natural product synthesis lies in the spatial organization of both pathway intermediates and enzymes responsible for the production of these compounds. In this highlight, we summarize some major breakthroughs in understanding the genes and regulation of fungal natural product synthesis and introduce the current state of knowledge on the spatial and temporal control of fungal natural product synthesis. PMID:25142354

  18. Bioinspired Composites with Spatial and Orientational Control of Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiroers, Ahmet; Studart, Andre; Complex Materials Team

    Living organisms combine soft and hard components to fabricate composite materials with out-standing mechanical properties. The optimum design and assembly of the anisotropic components reinforce the material in specific directions against multidirectional external loads. Although nature does it quite readily, it is still a challenge for material scientists to control the orientation and position of the colloidal components in a matrix. Here, we use external electric and magnetic fields to achieve positional and orientational control over colloid-polymer composites to fabricate mechanically robust materials to capture some of the essential features of natural systems. We first investigated the assembly of spherical micron-sized colloids using dielectrophoresis, as these particles provided an easily accessible and instructive length scale for performing initial experiments. We used dielectrophoresis for spatial control of reinforcing anisotropic components and magnetic fields to provide control over the orientation of these reinforcing constituents. The obtained composites with different orientational and spatial reinforcement showed enhanced mechanical properties, such as wear resistance, which exhibits similarities to tooth enamel. SNSF Ambizione Grant PZ00P2_148040.

  19. Dielectric barrier plasma dynamics for active control of separated flows

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Subrata; Singh, K.P.; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2006-03-20

    The dynamics of separation mitigation with asymmetric dielectric barrier discharges is explored by considering the gas flow past a flat plate at an angle of attack. A self-consistent model utilizing motion of electrons, ions, and neutrals is employed to couple the electric force field to the momentum of the fluid. The charge separation and concomitant electric field yield a time-averaged body force which is oriented predominantly downstream, with a smaller transverse component towards the wall. This induces a wall-jet-like feature that effectively eliminates the separation bubble. The impact of several geometric and electrical operating parameters is elucidated.

  20. Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Kohei; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

  1. Separating spatial search and efficiency rates as components of predation risk.

    PubMed

    DeCesare, Nicholas J

    2012-11-22

    Predation risk is an important driver of ecosystems, and local spatial variation in risk can have population-level consequences by affecting multiple components of the predation process. I use resource selection and proportional hazard time-to-event modelling to assess the spatial drivers of two key components of risk--the search rate (i.e. aggregative response) and predation efficiency rate (i.e. functional response)--imposed by wolves (Canis lupus) in a multi-prey system. In my study area, both components of risk increased according to topographic variation, but anthropogenic features affected only the search rate. Predicted models of the cumulative hazard, or risk of a kill, underlying wolf search paths validated well with broad-scale variation in kill rates, suggesting that spatial hazard models provide a means of scaling up from local heterogeneity in predation risk to population-level dynamics in predator-prey systems. Additionally, I estimated an integrated model of relative spatial predation risk as the product of the search and efficiency rates, combining the distinct contributions of spatial heterogeneity to each component of risk. PMID:22977145

  2. Separating spatial search and efficiency rates as components of predation risk.

    PubMed

    DeCesare, Nicholas J

    2012-11-22

    Predation risk is an important driver of ecosystems, and local spatial variation in risk can have population-level consequences by affecting multiple components of the predation process. I use resource selection and proportional hazard time-to-event modelling to assess the spatial drivers of two key components of risk--the search rate (i.e. aggregative response) and predation efficiency rate (i.e. functional response)--imposed by wolves (Canis lupus) in a multi-prey system. In my study area, both components of risk increased according to topographic variation, but anthropogenic features affected only the search rate. Predicted models of the cumulative hazard, or risk of a kill, underlying wolf search paths validated well with broad-scale variation in kill rates, suggesting that spatial hazard models provide a means of scaling up from local heterogeneity in predation risk to population-level dynamics in predator-prey systems. Additionally, I estimated an integrated model of relative spatial predation risk as the product of the search and efficiency rates, combining the distinct contributions of spatial heterogeneity to each component of risk.

  3. Separating spatial search and efficiency rates as components of predation risk

    PubMed Central

    DeCesare, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Predation risk is an important driver of ecosystems, and local spatial variation in risk can have population-level consequences by affecting multiple components of the predation process. I use resource selection and proportional hazard time-to-event modelling to assess the spatial drivers of two key components of risk—the search rate (i.e. aggregative response) and predation efficiency rate (i.e. functional response)—imposed by wolves (Canis lupus) in a multi-prey system. In my study area, both components of risk increased according to topographic variation, but anthropogenic features affected only the search rate. Predicted models of the cumulative hazard, or risk of a kill, underlying wolf search paths validated well with broad-scale variation in kill rates, suggesting that spatial hazard models provide a means of scaling up from local heterogeneity in predation risk to population-level dynamics in predator–prey systems. Additionally, I estimated an integrated model of relative spatial predation risk as the product of the search and efficiency rates, combining the distinct contributions of spatial heterogeneity to each component of risk. PMID:22977145

  4. PMSM sensorless control with separate control strategies and smooth switch from low speed to high speed.

    PubMed

    Chen, SiYi; Luo, Ying; Pi, YouGuo

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a smooth switching scheme with separate control strategies on low speed mode and high speed mode for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) sensorless control to improve the overall performance in full speed range. Constant voltage/frequency tuning method is used on low speed mode because the rotor position can hardly be estimated precisely at low speed. Along with the increasing speed, the control strategy can be switched to high speed mode smoothly when current and speed meet the given requirements. In this high speed mode, the current tracking with a sliding mode observer (SMO) and speed tracking with a sliding mode controller (SMC) are handled, respectively. Experimental demonstration is presented to show the desired performance in full speed range of the PMSM sensorless control using the proposed control scheme in this paper.

  5. Photonic lantern adaptive spatial mode control in LMA fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Juan; Aleshire, Chris; Hwang, Christopher; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Velázquez-Benítez, Amado; Martz, Dale H; Fan, T Y; Ripin, Dan

    2016-02-22

    We demonstrate adaptive-spatial mode control (ASMC) in few-moded double-clad large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifiers by using an all-fiber-based photonic lantern. Three single-mode fiber inputs are used to adaptively inject the appropriate superposition of input modes in a multimode gain fiber to achieve the desired mode at the output. By actively adjusting the relative phase of the single-mode inputs, near-unity coherent combination resulting in a single fundamental mode at the output is achieved.

  6. Spatial and temporal control of signaling through lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Golub, Tamara; Wacha, Stefan; Caroni, Pico

    2004-10-01

    Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-dependent microdomains (rafts) order proteins at biological membranes and have been implicated in most signaling processes at the cell surface, but the principles and mechanisms through which lipid rafts influence signaling are not well understood. Recent studies have revealed how lipid rafts are rapidly redistributed and assembled locally in response to extracellular signals, and how components of raft-based signaling domains undergo rapid and regulated rearrangements influencing signal quality, duration, and strength. These findings highlight the exquisitely dynamic properties of signaling domains based on lipid rafts, and suggest that processes of raft trafficking and assembly take central roles in mediating spatial and temporal control of signaling.

  7. Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadchy, V. S.; Albooyeh, M.; Tcvetkova, S. N.; Díaz-Rubio, A.; Ra'di, Y.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Nonuniform metasurfaces (electrically thin composite layers) can be used for shaping refracted and reflected electromagnetic waves. However, known design approaches based on the generalized refraction and reflection laws do not allow realization of perfectly performing devices: there are always some parasitic reflections into undesired directions. In this paper we introduce and discuss a general approach to the synthesis of metasurfaces for full control of transmitted and reflected plane waves and show that perfect performance can be realized. The method is based on the use of an equivalent impedance matrix model which connects the tangential field components at the two sides on the metasurface. With this approach we are able to understand what physical properties of the metasurface are needed in order to perfectly realize the desired response. Furthermore, we determine the required polarizabilities of the metasurface unit cells and discuss suitable cell structures. It appears that only spatially dispersive metasurfaces allow realization of perfect refraction and reflection of incident plane waves into arbitrary directions. In particular, ideal refraction is possible only if the metasurface is bianisotropic (weak spatial dispersion), and ideal reflection without polarization transformation requires spatial dispersion with a specific, strongly nonlocal response to the fields.

  8. Distinct G protein-coupled receptor recycling pathways allow spatial control of downstream G protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Shanna Lynn; Shiwarski, Daniel John; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2016-09-26

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are recycled via a sequence-dependent pathway that is spatially and biochemically distinct from bulk recycling. Why there are two distinct recycling pathways from the endosome is a fundamental question in cell biology. In this study, we show that the separation of these two pathways is essential for normal spatial encoding of GPCR signaling. The prototypical β-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR) activates Gα stimulatory protein (Gαs) on the endosome exclusively in sequence-dependent recycling tubules marked by actin/sorting nexin/retromer tubular (ASRT) microdomains. B2AR was detected in an active conformation in bulk recycling tubules, but was unable to activate Gαs. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of B2AR increases the fraction of receptors localized to ASRT domains and biases the downstream transcriptional effects of B2AR to genes controlled by endosomal signals. Our results identify the physiological relevance of separating GPCR recycling from bulk recycling and suggest a mechanism to tune downstream responses of GPCR signaling by manipulating the spatial origin of G protein signaling. PMID:27646272

  9. Distinct G protein-coupled receptor recycling pathways allow spatial control of downstream G protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Shanna Lynn; Shiwarski, Daniel John; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2016-09-26

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are recycled via a sequence-dependent pathway that is spatially and biochemically distinct from bulk recycling. Why there are two distinct recycling pathways from the endosome is a fundamental question in cell biology. In this study, we show that the separation of these two pathways is essential for normal spatial encoding of GPCR signaling. The prototypical β-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR) activates Gα stimulatory protein (Gαs) on the endosome exclusively in sequence-dependent recycling tubules marked by actin/sorting nexin/retromer tubular (ASRT) microdomains. B2AR was detected in an active conformation in bulk recycling tubules, but was unable to activate Gαs. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of B2AR increases the fraction of receptors localized to ASRT domains and biases the downstream transcriptional effects of B2AR to genes controlled by endosomal signals. Our results identify the physiological relevance of separating GPCR recycling from bulk recycling and suggest a mechanism to tune downstream responses of GPCR signaling by manipulating the spatial origin of G protein signaling.

  10. Multicollinearity in spatial genetics: separating the wheat from the chaff using commonality analyses.

    PubMed

    Prunier, J G; Colyn, M; Legendre, X; Nimon, K F; Flamand, M C

    2015-01-01

    Direct gradient analyses in spatial genetics provide unique opportunities to describe the inherent complexity of genetic variation in wildlife species and are the object of many methodological developments. However, multicollinearity among explanatory variables is a systemic issue in multivariate regression analyses and is likely to cause serious difficulties in properly interpreting results of direct gradient analyses, with the risk of erroneous conclusions, misdirected research and inefficient or counterproductive conservation measures. Using simulated data sets along with linear and logistic regressions on distance matrices, we illustrate how commonality analysis (CA), a detailed variance-partitioning procedure that was recently introduced in the field of ecology, can be used to deal with nonindependence among spatial predictors. By decomposing model fit indices into unique and common (or shared) variance components, CA allows identifying the location and magnitude of multicollinearity, revealing spurious correlations and thus thoroughly improving the interpretation of multivariate regressions. Despite a few inherent limitations, especially in the case of resistance model optimization, this review highlights the great potential of CA to account for complex multicollinearity patterns in spatial genetics and identifies future applications and lines of research. We strongly urge spatial geneticists to systematically investigate commonalities when performing direct gradient analyses.

  11. Live imaging reveals spatial separation of parental chromatin until the four-cell stage in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Bolková, Jitka; Lanctôt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The parental genomes are initially spatially separated in each pronucleus after fertilization. Here we have used green-to-red photoconversion of Dendra2-H2B-labeled pronuclei to distinguish maternal and paternal chromatin domains and to track their spatial distribution in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos starting shortly after fertilization. Intermingling of the parental chromatin did not occur until after the division of the AB and P1 blastomeres, at the 4-cell stage. Unexpectedly, we observed that the intermingling of chromatin did not take place during mitosis or during chromatin decondensation, but rather ∼ 3-5 minutes into the cell cycle. Furthermore, unlike what has been observed in mammalian cells, the relative spatial positioning of chromatin domains remained largely unchanged during prometaphase in the early C. elegans embryo. Live imaging of photoconverted chromatin also allowed us to detect a reproducible 180° rotation of the nuclei during cytokinesis of the one-cell embryo. Imaging of fluorescently-labeled P granules and polar bodies showed that the entire embryo rotates during the first cell division. To our knowledge, we report here the first live observation of the initial separation and subsequent mixing of parental chromatin domains during embryogenesis. PMID:26934289

  12. Structure having spatially separated photo-excitable electron-hole pairs and method of manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Yong; Daschbach, John L.; Su, Yali; Chambers, Scott A.

    2006-08-22

    A method for producing quantum dots. The method includes cleaning an oxide substrate and separately cleaning a metal source. The substrate is then heated and exposed to the source in an oxygen environment. This causes metal oxide quantum dots to form on the surface of the substrate.

  13. Structure having spatially separated photo-excitable electron-hole pairs and method of manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Yong [Richland, WA; Daschbach, John L [Richland, WA; Su, Yali [Richland, WA; Chambers, Scott A [Kennewick, WA

    2003-03-18

    A method for producing quantum dots. The method includes cleaning an oxide substrate and separately cleaning a metal source. The substrate is then heated and exposed to the source in an oxygen environment. This causes metal oxide quantum dots to form on the surface of the substrate.

  14. Controls of Soil Spatial Variability in a Dry Tropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, H S; Dattaraja, H S; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We examined the roles of lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in generating local-scale (<1 km2) soil spatial variability in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in southern India. For this, we mapped soil (available nutrients, Al, total C, pH, moisture and texture in the top 10 cm), rock outcrops, topography, all native woody plants ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial variation in fire frequency (times burnt during the 17 years preceding soil sampling) in a permanent 50-ha plot. Unlike classic catenas, lower elevation soils had lesser moisture, plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, B, clay and total C. The distribution of plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn and Mg appeared to largely be determined by the whole-rock chemical composition differences between amphibolites and hornblende-biotite gneisses. Amphibolites were associated with summit positions, while gneisses dominated lower elevations, an observation that concurs with other studies in the region which suggest that hillslope-scale topography has been shaped by differential weathering of lithologies. Neither NO3(-)-N nor NH4(+)-N was explained by the basal area of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species, and no long-term effects of fire on soil parameters were detected. Local-scale lithological variation is an important first-order control over soil variability at the hillslope scale in this SDTF, by both direct influence on nutrient stocks and indirect influence via control of local relief. PMID:27100088

  15. Spatial control of flowering by DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Vinicius C; Horrer, Daniel; Küttner, Frank; Schmid, Markus

    2012-11-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive development is a central event in the plant life cycle. To time the induction of flowering correctly, plants integrate environmental and endogenous signals such as photoperiod, temperature and hormonal status. The hormone gibberellic acid (GA) has long been known to regulate flowering. However, the spatial contribution of GA signaling in flowering time control is poorly understood. Here we have analyzed the effect of tissue-specific misexpression of wild-type and GA-insensitive (dellaΔ17) DELLA proteins on the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that under long days, GA affects the floral transition by promoting the expression of flowering time integrator genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in leaves independently of CONSTANS (CO) and GIGANTEA (GI). In addition, GA signaling promotes flowering independently of photoperiod through the regulation of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes in both the leaves and at the shoot meristem. Our data suggest that GA regulates flowering by controlling the spatial expression of floral regulatory genes throughout the plant in a day-length-specific manner. PMID:22992955

  16. Spatial and temporal controls on Southern California's large fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Hall, A. D.; Randerson, J. T.; Goulden, M.

    2010-12-01

    The largest and most destructive fires in Southern California occur during intense Santa Ana wind events. Predicting how these fires and subsequent impacts on ecosystem recovery, air quality, and human health are likely to change in the future requires an understanding of how fire weather, vegetation, and land use control contemporary fires and how they interact. We combined a multi-decade reconstruction of climate at 6 km resolution simulated with MM5 and a long term record of vegetation conditions at 1 km resolution derived from AVHRR and MODIS satellites to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of large fires from 1990 to 2008 as reported in California’s Fire and Resource Assessment Program (FRAP) historical fire perimeter data. Various statistical tests were performed to examine the controls for fire frequency and fire size, from both spatial and interannual perspectives. We constructed empirical models of fire occurrence and burned area for each ecological unit as a function of vegetation composition, fire weather, antecedent climate, and human activities. This study has policy implications for large fire management and mitigation strategies.

  17. A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Kreutz, Kenneth; Jain, Abhinandan

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed spatial operator algebra, useful for modeling, control, and trajectory design of manipulators is discussed. The elements of this algebra are linear operators whose domain and range spaces consist of forces, moments, velocities, and accelerations. The effect of these operators is equivalent to a spatial recursion along the span of a manipulator. Inversion of operators can be efficiently obtained via techniques of recursive filtering and smoothing. The operator algebra provides a high level framework for describing the dynamic and kinematic behavior of a manipulator and control and trajectory design algorithms. The interpretation of expressions within the algebraic framework leads to enhanced conceptual and physical understanding of manipulator dynamics and kinematics. Furthermore, implementable recursive algorithms can be immediately derived from the abstract operator expressions by inspection. Thus, the transition from an abstract problem formulation and solution to the detailed mechanizaton of specific algorithms is greatly simplified. The analytical formulation of the operator algebra, as well as its implementation in the Ada programming language are discussed.

  18. Controls of Soil Spatial Variability in a Dry Tropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, H S; Dattaraja, H S; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We examined the roles of lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in generating local-scale (<1 km2) soil spatial variability in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in southern India. For this, we mapped soil (available nutrients, Al, total C, pH, moisture and texture in the top 10 cm), rock outcrops, topography, all native woody plants ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial variation in fire frequency (times burnt during the 17 years preceding soil sampling) in a permanent 50-ha plot. Unlike classic catenas, lower elevation soils had lesser moisture, plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, B, clay and total C. The distribution of plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn and Mg appeared to largely be determined by the whole-rock chemical composition differences between amphibolites and hornblende-biotite gneisses. Amphibolites were associated with summit positions, while gneisses dominated lower elevations, an observation that concurs with other studies in the region which suggest that hillslope-scale topography has been shaped by differential weathering of lithologies. Neither NO3(-)-N nor NH4(+)-N was explained by the basal area of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species, and no long-term effects of fire on soil parameters were detected. Local-scale lithological variation is an important first-order control over soil variability at the hillslope scale in this SDTF, by both direct influence on nutrient stocks and indirect influence via control of local relief.

  19. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba

    2014-06-01

    A study on the geochemistry of groundwater was carried out in a river basin of Andhra Pradesh to probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA transforms the chemical variables, pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO, Cl-, SO, NO and F-, into two orthogonal principal components (PC1 and PC2), accounting for 75% of the total variance of the data matrix. PC1 has high positive loadings of EC, Na+, Cl-, SO, Mg2+ and Ca2+, representing a salinity controlled process of geogenic (mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation), anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine (marine clay) origin. The PC2 loadings are highly positive for HCO , F-, pH and NO, attributing to the alkalinity and pollution controlled processes of geogenic and anthropogenic origins. The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin from upstream to downstream area with an increase in concentration of chemical variables, which is due to anthropogenic and marine origins with varying topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the groundwater quality shows a variation of chemical facies from Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+: HCO > Cl- > SO NO > F-at high topography to Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+: Cl- > HCO > SO NO > F- at low topography. With PCA, an effective tool for the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, a subset of explored wells is indexed for continuous monitoring to optimize the expensive effort.

  20. Continuous flow system for controlling phases separation near λ transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chorowski, M.; Poliński, J.; Kempiński, W.; Trybuła, Z.; Łoś, Sz.; Chołast, K.; Kociemba, A.

    2014-01-29

    As demands on 3He are increasing and conventional 3He production through tritium decay is decreasing, alternative 3He production methods are becoming economically viable. One such possibility is to use entropy filters for extraction of the 3He isotope from natural gas. According to the phase diagram of the 3He, its solidification is impossible by only lowering of the temperature. Hence during the cooling process at stable pressure we can reach λ-point and pass to the special phase - He II. The total density of HeII is a sum of the two phases: normal the superfluid ones. It is possible to separate these two phases with an entropy filter - the barrier for the classically-behaving normal phase. This barrier can also be used to separate the two main isotopes of He: 4He and 3He, because at temperatures close to the 4He-λ-point the 3He isotope is part of the normal phase. The paper presents continuous flow schemes of different separation methods of 3He from helium commodity coming from natural gas cryogenic processing. An overall thermodynamic efficiency of the 3He/4He separation process is presented. A simplified model of continuous flow HeI -HeII recuperative heat exchanger is given. Ceramic and carbon porous plugs have been tested in entropy filter applications.

  1. Bioacoustic spatial perception by humans: a controlled laboratory measurement of spatial resolution without distal cues.

    PubMed

    Kay, L

    2001-02-01

    The angular spatial resolution of a wide-angle air sonar using a continuous transmission frequency-modulated radiation, with the output coupled binaurally to the auditory system of a user, was measured under restrained controlled conditions. This was done to determine the effect of adding a narrow central field of view of 9 deg to a wide-angle sonar. The target objects were three equidistant vertical rods initially spaced apart by 10 deg. This was varied down to a spacing of 4 deg. Ten nonvisual subjects achieved an angular resolution of 6 deg. Four of these ten subjects continued learning to achieve an unexpected spatial resolution of 4 deg within the 9 deg central field. A mean error of approximately 1 deg in direction accuracy was achieved. It is inferred that the unique variations in the octave band ultrasonic echoes within the narrow field, and the invariance of the on-axis echo as one's head is turned, enables this angular resolution and accuracy to be achieved within the wide binaural field of view of 50 deg. This ability to resolve specula objects within a narrow angular resolution element of 9 deg is linked to the bat's ability to seemingly resolve object glints within a distal resolution element of less than 2 wavelengths.

  2. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  3. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  4. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  5. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  6. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  7. Daughter cell separation is controlled by cytokinetic ring-activated cell wall hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Parzych, Katherine R; Dinh, Thuy; Bernhardt, Thomas G

    2010-04-21

    During bacterial cytokinesis, hydrolytic enzymes are used to split wall material shared by adjacent daughter cells to promote their separation. Precise control over these enzymes is critical to prevent breaches in wall integrity that can cause cell lysis. How these potentially lethal hydrolases are regulated has remained unknown. Here, we investigate the regulation of cell wall turnover at the Escherichia coli division site. We show that two components of the division machinery with LytM domains (EnvC and NlpD) are direct regulators of the cell wall hydrolases (amidases) responsible for cell separation (AmiA, AmiB and AmiC). Using in vitro cell wall cleavage assays, we show that EnvC activates AmiA and AmiB, whereas NlpD activates AmiC. Consistent with these findings, we show that an unregulated EnvC mutant requires functional AmiA or AmiB but not AmiC to induce cell lysis, and that the loss of NlpD phenocopies an AmiC(-) defect. Overall, our results suggest that cellular amidase activity is regulated spatially and temporally by coupling their activation to the assembly of the cytokinetic ring.

  8. Demonstration of the spatial separation of the entangled quantum sidebands of an optical field

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, E.H.; Milford, G.N.; Robilliard, C.; Ralph, T.C.; Gloeckl, O.; Andersen, U.L.; Lorenz, S.; Leuchs, G.

    2005-04-01

    Quantum optics experiments on 'bright' beams are based on the spectral analysis of field fluctuations and typically probe correlations between radio-frequency sideband modes. However, the extra degree of freedom represented by this dual-mode picture is generally ignored. We demonstrate the experimental operation of a device which can be used to separate the quantum sidebands of an optical field. We use this device to explicitly demonstrate the quantum entanglement between the sidebands of a squeezed beam.

  9. Spatially Separated Photosystem II and a Silicon Photoelectrochemical Cell for Overall Water Splitting: A Natural-Artificial Photosynthetic Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wangyin; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Qingjun; Qin, Wei; Han, Guangye; Shen, Jian-Ren; Zong, Xu; Li, Can

    2016-08-01

    Integrating natural and artificial photosynthetic platforms is an important approach to developing solar-driven hybrid systems with exceptional function over the individual components. A natural-artificial photosynthetic hybrid platform is formed by wiring photosystem II (PSII) and a platinum-decorated silicon photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell in a tandem manner based on a photocatalytic-PEC Z-scheme design. Although the individual components cannot achieve overall water splitting, the hybrid platform demonstrated the capability of unassisted solar-driven overall water splitting. Moreover, H2 and O2 evolution can be separated in this system, which is ascribed to the functionality afforded by the unconventional Z-scheme design. Furthermore, the tandem configuration and the spatial separation between PSII and artificial components provide more opportunities to develop efficient natural-artificial hybrid photosynthesis systems. PMID:27345863

  10. Spatially Separated Photosystem II and a Silicon Photoelectrochemical Cell for Overall Water Splitting: A Natural-Artificial Photosynthetic Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wangyin; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Qingjun; Qin, Wei; Han, Guangye; Shen, Jian-Ren; Zong, Xu; Li, Can

    2016-08-01

    Integrating natural and artificial photosynthetic platforms is an important approach to developing solar-driven hybrid systems with exceptional function over the individual components. A natural-artificial photosynthetic hybrid platform is formed by wiring photosystem II (PSII) and a platinum-decorated silicon photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell in a tandem manner based on a photocatalytic-PEC Z-scheme design. Although the individual components cannot achieve overall water splitting, the hybrid platform demonstrated the capability of unassisted solar-driven overall water splitting. Moreover, H2 and O2 evolution can be separated in this system, which is ascribed to the functionality afforded by the unconventional Z-scheme design. Furthermore, the tandem configuration and the spatial separation between PSII and artificial components provide more opportunities to develop efficient natural-artificial hybrid photosynthesis systems.

  11. Excimer laser ablation for spatially controlled protein patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Helmut; Hayes, Jason P.; Kingshott, Peter; Johnson, Graham; Harvey, Erol C.; Griesser, Hans J.

    2001-11-01

    Two-dimensional control over the location of proteins on surfaces is desired for a number of applications including diagnostic tests and tissue engineered medical devices. Many of these applications require patterns of specific proteins that allow subsequent two-dimensionally controlled cell attachment. The ideal technique would allow the deposition of specific protein patterns in areas where cell attachment is required, with complete prevention of unspecific protein adsorption in areas where cells are not supposed to attach. In our study, collagen I was used as an example for an extracellular matrix protein known to support the attachment of bovine corneal epithelial cells. An allylamine plasma polymer was deposited on a silicon wafer substrate, followed by grafting of poly(ethylene oxide). Two-dimensional control over the surface chemistry was achieved using a 248 nm excimer laser. Results obtained by XPS and AFM show that the combination of extremely low-fouling surfaces with excimer laser ablation can be used effectively for the production of spatially controlled protein patterns with a resolution of less than 1 micrometers . Furthermore, it was shown that bovine corneal epithelial cell attachment followed exactly the created protein patterns. The presented method is an effective tool for a number of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  12. Tsetse Fly Control in Kenya's Spatially and Temporally Dynamic Control Reservoirs: A Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Paul F.; Messina, Joseph P.; Campbell, David J.; Grady, Sue C.

    2011-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) are significant health concerns throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Funding for tsetse fly control operations has decreased since the 1970s, which has in turn limited the success of campaigns to control the disease vector. To maximize the effectiveness of the limited financial resources available for tsetse control, this study develops and analyzes spatially and temporally dynamic tsetse distribution maps of Glossina subgenus Morsitans populations in Kenya from January 2002 to December 2010, produced using the Tsetse Ecological Distribution Model. These species distribution maps reveal seasonal variations in fly distributions. Such variations allow for the identification of “control reservoirs” where fly distributions are spatially constrained by fluctuations in suitable habitat and tsetse population characteristics. Following identification of the control reservoirs, a tsetse management operation is simulated in the control reservoirs using capital and labor control inputs from previous studies. Finally, a cost analysis, following specific economic guidelines from existing tsetse control analyses, is conducted to calculate the total cost of a nationwide control campaign of the reservoirs compared to the cost of a nationwide campaign conducted at the maximum spatial extent of the fly distributions from January 2002 to December 2010. The total cost of tsetse management within the reservoirs sums to $14,212,647, while the nationwide campaign at the maximum spatial extent amounts to $33,721,516. This savings of $19,508,869 represents the importance of identifying seasonally dynamic control reservoirs when conducting a tsetse management campaign, and, in the process, offers an economical means of fly control and disease management for future program planning. PMID:22581989

  13. Spatial Reorientation of Sensorimotor Balance Control in Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Black, F. L.; Kaufman, G. D.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Sensorimotor coordination of body segments following space flight are more pronounced after landing when the head is actively tilted with respect to the trunk. This suggests that central vestibular processing shifts from a gravitational frame of reference to a head frame of reference in microgravity. A major effect of such changes is a significant postural instability documented by standard head-erect Sensory Organization Tests. Decrements in functional performance may still be underestimated when head and gravity reference frames remained aligned. The purpose of this study was to examine adaptive changes in spatial processing for balance control following space flight by incorporating static and dynamic tilts that dissociate head and gravity reference frames. A second aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of altering the re-adaptation process following space flight by providing discordant visual-vestibular-somatosensory stimuli using short-radius pitch centrifugation.

  14. Controls of Soil Spatial Variability in a Dry Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Pulla, Sandeep; Riotte, Jean; Suresh, H. S.; Dattaraja, H. S.; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    We examined the roles of lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in generating local-scale (<1 km2) soil spatial variability in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in southern India. For this, we mapped soil (available nutrients, Al, total C, pH, moisture and texture in the top 10cm), rock outcrops, topography, all native woody plants ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial variation in fire frequency (times burnt during the 17 years preceding soil sampling) in a permanent 50-ha plot. Unlike classic catenas, lower elevation soils had lesser moisture, plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, B, clay and total C. The distribution of plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn and Mg appeared to largely be determined by the whole-rock chemical composition differences between amphibolites and hornblende-biotite gneisses. Amphibolites were associated with summit positions, while gneisses dominated lower elevations, an observation that concurs with other studies in the region which suggest that hillslope-scale topography has been shaped by differential weathering of lithologies. Neither NO3−-N nor NH4+-N was explained by the basal area of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species, and no long-term effects of fire on soil parameters were detected. Local-scale lithological variation is an important first-order control over soil variability at the hillslope scale in this SDTF, by both direct influence on nutrient stocks and indirect influence via control of local relief. PMID:27100088

  15. Spatial Integration under Contextual Control in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molet, Mikael; Gambet, Boris; Bugallo, Mehdi; Miller, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    The role of context was examined in the selection and integration of independently learned spatial relationships. Using a dynamic 3D virtual environment, participants learned one spatial relationship between landmarks A and B which was established in one virtual context (e.g., A is left of B) and a different spatial relationship which was…

  16. Evidence of short spatial variability of the equatorial electrojet at close longitudinal separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar, N. Phani; Arora, Kusumita; Nagarajan, Nandini

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of longitudinal variability of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and counter electrojet (CEJ), presented in this study, are based on concurrent observations from a hitherto unsampled region of the world to examine the (1) degree of correlation between hourly means and monthly averaged hourly means of ground observations with equatorial electrojet climatological model (EEJM-2.0), (2) day-to-day longitudinal variability of EEJ strength between the pairs of sites, and (3) longitudinal variability in occurrences of counter electrojet. The analyses are based on the data obtained from an observatory and three new remote sites in the northern Indian Ocean at a longitudinal separation of approximately 15°: Hyderabad (HYB) and Vencode (VEN) at 77° E and Port Blair (PBR) and Campbell Bay (CBY) at 93° E, for a period of 4 months during Lloyd's D-season (November 2011 to February 2012) and comparison with the EEJM-2.0 based on CHAMP satellite data. At both longitudes, the overall correlation of monthly mean hourly values (i.e., from 05:00 to 19:00 LT) between the observed EEJ strength and modeled current density from EEJM-2.0 is good ( r > 0.8). However, a significant lack of correlation is witnessed on day-to-day peak values (i.e., 12:00 LT) between the observed variations and the model at both sites. Further, a comparison of noontime peaks between the two sites shows a considerable day-to-day variability. A large number of CEJs (43 events) are recorded during the study: at CBY (15 events) and VEN (28 events). Analyses of the CEJ events highlight the variability of CEJ phenomena in terms of amplitude, dates, and time of occurrence over 15° longitude separation. The local nature of perturbations causing CEJ is evident; the possible factors are being non-migrating eastward and westward propagating diurnal tides and local meteorological phenomena associated with upper mesospheric temperature, wind, and density variations.

  17. Temporal Evolution of Spatial Computations for Visuomotor Control

    PubMed Central

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Franklin, Sae; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed reaching movements are guided by visual feedback from both target and hand. The classical view is that the brain extracts information about target and hand positions from a visual scene, calculates a difference vector between them, and uses this estimate to control the movement. Here we show that during fast feedback control, this computation is not immediate, but evolves dynamically over time. Immediately after a change in the visual scene, the motor system generates independent responses to the errors in hand and target location. Only about 200 ms later, the changes in target and hand positions are combined appropriately in the response, slowly converging to the true difference vector. Therefore, our results provide evidence for the temporal evolution of spatial computations in the human visuomotor system, in which the accurate difference vector computation is first estimated by a fast approximation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dominant view regarding the neural control of reaching is that the visuomotor system controls movement based on the difference vector—the difference between the positions of the hand and target. We directly test this theory by measuring the responses to visual perturbations over a large range of possible variations in both target and hand displacements. By modeling the nonlinearity of the feedback response, we were able to reveal the temporal evolution of the underlying computations. The visuomotor system first uses an approximation to the difference vector computation, simply combining the nonlinear responses to cursor and target displacements, only arriving at the correct difference vector calculation 200 ms later. PMID:26911681

  18. Spatial analysis of sedimentary controls on submarine groundwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapaglia, J.; Vafeidis, A.; Ferrarin, C.; Sarretta, A.; Molinari, M.; Zaggia, L.

    2009-04-01

    , as well as occasional problems with edge effects. Meanwhile, a concurrent study of sediment distribution was performed on more than 100 cores throughout the Venice Lagoon, and sediment was separated into grain size by percentage. This data was further amalgamated into 11 classes based on the USDA grain size diagram and plotted in the Venice Lagoon using ArcGIS. Grain size in-between known points were interpolated using, again, different techniques. Ra activity distribution was then compared with sediment size distribution. Each Ra point sample was compared with sediment samples within a given radius of the sample point. High resolution bathymetry was also utilized to determine grain size and known channels were considered natural borders. Sediment samples within the determined radius, yet in or on the other side of a channel were discounted due to the hydrodynamic barrier created by the channel properties. The relationship between Ra activity and sediment size distribution was analyzed. In general we expected that sandy and sandy-silt size classes would correspond to high Ra activity however, in some cases the correlation was not perfect, specifically near the inlets, where large grain size sediment was found coincident with low Ra concentrations. Still, this is expected as water near the inlet is dominated by re-circulation with low activity Adriatic Sea water. With this new information and taken into account expected patterns near the inlets, we will most likely be able to recalculate the mass balance of Ra with more confidence in our final analysis. With current technology and methods, SGD estimates are often given with 100% error bars and at worst within an order of magnitude. One of the problems is that the spatial analysis of SGD is limited. We suggest combining Ra analysis and sediment distribution in coastal lagoons to increase the confidence with which the scientific community can report SGD measurements.

  19. Controlling the Spatial Organization of Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles by Composition of the Organic Grafting Layer.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Michał M; Olesińska, Magdalena; Sawczyk, Michał; Mieczkowski, Józef; Górecka, Ewa

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how the spatial ordering of liquid crystalline nanoparticles can be controlled by different factors is of great importance in the further development of their photonic applications. In this paper, we report a new key parameter to control the mesogenic behavior of gold nanoparticles modified by rodlike thiols. An efficient method to control the spatial arrangement of hybrid nanoparticles in a condensed state is developed by changing the composition of the mesogenic grafting layer on the surface of the nanoparticles. The composition can be tuned by different conditions of the ligand exchange reaction. The thermal and optical behavior of the mesogenic and promesogenic ligands were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot-stage polarized optical microscopy. The chemical structure of the synthesized hybrid nanoparticles was characterized by (1) H NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XPS, and elemental analysis, whereas the superstructures were examined by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXSRD) analysis. Structural studies showed that the organic sublayer made of mesogenic ligands is denser with an increasing the average ligand number, thereby separating the nanoparticles in the liquid crystalline phases, which changes the parameters of these phases.

  20. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Mercer, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  1. Chemical Shift Separation with Controlled Aliasing for Hyperpolarized 13C Metabolic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Peter J.; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Uecker, Martin; Reed, Galen D.; Kerr, Adam B.; Tropp, James; Ohliger, Michael A.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pauly, John M.; Lustig, Michael; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A chemical shift separation technique for hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution was developed. Specifically, a fast 3D pulse sequence and a reconstruction method were implemented to acquire signals from multiple 13C species simultaneously with subsequent separation into individual images. Methods A stack of flyback-EPI readouts and a set of multiband excitation RF pulses were designed to spatially modulate aliasing patterns of the acquired metabolite images, which translated the chemical shift separation problem into parallel imaging reconstruction problem. An eight-channel coil array was used for data acquisition and a parallel imaging method based on nonlinear inversion was developed to separate the aliased images. Results Simultaneous acquisitions of pyruvate and lactate in a phantom study and in vivo rat experiments were performed. The results demonstrated successful separation of the metabolite distributions into individual images having high spatial resolution. Conclusion This method demonstrated the ability to provide accelerated metabolite imaging in hyperpolarized 13C MR utilizing multi-channel coils, tailored readout, and specialized RF pulses. PMID:25298086

  2. Spatially controlled cell adhesion on three-dimensional substrates.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christine; Reinhardt, Martina; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Leisen, Daniel; Trouillet, Vanessa; Truckenmüller, Roman; Blau, Axel; Ziegler, Christiane; Welle, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    The microenvironment of cells in vivo is defined by spatiotemporal patterns of chemical and biophysical cues. Therefore, one important goal of tissue engineering is the generation of scaffolds with defined biofunctionalization in order to control processes like cell adhesion and differentiation. Mimicking extrinsic factors like integrin ligands presented by the extracellular matrix is one of the key elements to study cellular adhesion on biocompatible scaffolds. By using special thermoformable polymer films with anchored biomolecules micro structured scaffolds, e.g. curved and micro-patterned substrates, can be fabricated. Here, we present a novel strategy for the fabrication of micro-patterned scaffolds based on the "Substrate Modification and Replication by Thermoforming" (SMART) technology: The surface of a poly lactic acid membrane, having a low forming temperature of 60 degrees C and being initially very cell attractive, was coated with a photopatterned layer of poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and hyaluronic acid (VAHyal) to gain spatial control over cell adhesion. Subsequently, this modified polymer membrane was thermoformed to create an array of spherical microcavities with diameters of 300 microm for 3D cell culture. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and mouse fibroblasts (L929) were used to demonstrate guided cell adhesion. HepG2 cells adhered and aggregated exclusively within these cavities without attaching to the passivated surfaces between the cavities. Also L929 cells adhering very strongly on the pristine substrate polymer were effectively patterned by the cell repellent properties of the hyaluronic acid based hydrogel. This is the first time cell adhesion was controlled by patterned functionalization of a polymeric substrate with UV curable PLL-VAHyal in thermoformed 3D microstructures.

  3. Spatially controlled cell adhesion on three-dimensional substrates

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Christine; Reinhardt, Martina; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Leisen, Daniel; Trouillet, Vanessa; Truckenmüller, Roman; Blau, Axel; Ziegler, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The microenvironment of cells in vivo is defined by spatiotemporal patterns of chemical and biophysical cues. Therefore, one important goal of tissue engineering is the generation of scaffolds with defined biofunctionalization in order to control processes like cell adhesion and differentiation. Mimicking extrinsic factors like integrin ligands presented by the extracellular matrix is one of the key elements to study cellular adhesion on biocompatible scaffolds. By using special thermoformable polymer films with anchored biomolecules micro structured scaffolds, e.g. curved and µ-patterned substrates, can be fabricated. Here, we present a novel strategy for the fabrication of µ-patterned scaffolds based on the “Substrate Modification and Replication by Thermoforming” (SMART) technology: The surface of a poly lactic acid membrane, having a low forming temperature of 60°C and being initially very cell attractive, was coated with a photopatterned layer of poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and hyaluronic acid (VAHyal) to gain spatial control over cell adhesion. Subsequently, this modified polymer membrane was thermoformed to create an array of spherical microcavities with diameters of 300 µm for 3D cell culture. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and mouse fibroblasts (L929) were used to demonstrate guided cell adhesion. HepG2 cells adhered and aggregated exclusively within these cavities without attaching to the passivated surfaces between the cavities. Also L929 cells adhering very strongly on the pristine substrate polymer were effectively patterned by the cell repellent properties of the hyaluronic acid based hydrogel. This is the first time cell adhesion was controlled by patterned functionalization of a polymeric substrate with UV curable PLL-VAHyal in thermoformed 3D microstructures. PMID:20480241

  4. Perceptual and Cognitive Load Interact to Control the Spatial Focus of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Karina J.; Caparos, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Caparos and Linnell (2009, 2010) used a variable-separation flanker paradigm to show that (a) when cognitive load is low, increasing perceptual load causes spatial attention to focus and (b) when perceptual load is high, decreasing cognitive load causes spatial attention to focus. Here, we tested whether the effects of perceptual and cognitive…

  5. Separating active and passive influences on stomatal control of transpiration.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by studies suggesting that the stomata of ferns and lycophytes do not conform to the standard active abscisic acid (ABA) -mediated stomatal control model, we examined stomatal behavior in a conifer species (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) that is phylogenetically midway between the fern and angiosperm clades. Similar to ferns, daytime stomatal closure in response to moderate water stress seemed to be a passive hydraulic process in M. glyptostroboides immediately alleviated by rehydrating excised shoots. Only after prolonged exposure to more extreme water stress did active ABA-mediated stomatal closure become important, because foliar ABA production was triggered after leaf turgor loss. The influence of foliar ABA on stomatal conductance and stomatal aperture was highly predictable and additive with the passive hydraulic influence. M. glyptostroboides thus occupies a stomatal behavior type intermediate between the passively controlled ferns and the characteristic ABA-dependent stomatal closure described in angiosperm herbs. These results highlight the importance of considering phylogeny as a major determinant of stomatal behavior.

  6. A fuzzy controlled three-phase centrifuge for waste separation

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Smith, R.E.; Miller, N.

    1998-02-01

    The three-phase centrifuge technology discussed in this paper was developed by Neal Miller, president of Centech, Inc. The three-phase centrifuge is an excellent device for cleaning up oil field and refinery wastes which are typically composed of hydrocarbons, water, and solids. The technology is unique. It turns the waste into salable oil, reusable water, and landfill-able solids. No secondary waste is produced. The problem is that only the inventor can set up and run the equipment well enough to provide an optimal cleanup. Demand for this device has far exceeded a one man operation. There is now a need for several centrifuges to be operated at different locations at the same time. This has produced a demand for an intelligent control system, one that could replace a highly skilled operator, or at least supplement the skills of a less experienced operator. The control problem is ideally suited to fuzzy logic, since the centrifuge is a highly complicated machine operated entirely by the skill and experience of the operator. A fuzzy control system was designed for and used with the centrifuge.

  7. Evidence for two spatially separated UV continuum emitting regions in the Cloverleaf broad absorption line quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluse, D.; Hutsemékers, D.; Anguita, T.; Braibant, L.; Riaud, P.

    2015-10-01

    Testing the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model of accretion is a challenging task because the central region of quasars where accretion takes place is unresolved with telescopes. The analysis of microlensing in gravitationally lensed quasars is one of the few techniques that can test this model, yielding to the measurement of the size and of temperature profile of the accretion disc. We present spectroscopic observations of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, which reveal partial microlensing of the continuum emission that appears to originate from two separated regions: a microlensed region, corresponding the compact accretion disc; and a non-microlensed region, more extended and contributing to at least 30% of the total UV-continuum flux. Because this extended continuum is occulted by the broad absorption line clouds, it is not associated with the host galaxy, but rather with light scattered in the neighbourhood of the central engine. We measure the amplitude of microlensing of the compact continuum over the rest-frame wavelength range 1000-7000 Å. Following a Bayesian scheme, we confront our measurements to microlensing simulations of an accretion disc with a temperature varying as T ∝ R-1/ν. We find a most likely source half-light radius of R1/2 = 0.61 × 1016cm (i.e., 0.002 pc) at 0.18 μm, and a most-likely index of ν = 0.4. The standard disc (ν = 4/3) model is not ruled out by our data, and is found within the 95% confidence interval associated with our measurements. We demonstrate that, for H1413+117, the existence of an extended continuum in addition to the disc emission only has a small impact on the inferred disc parameters, and is unlikely to solve the tension between the microlensing source size and standard disc sizes, as previously reported in the literature. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). ESO program ID: 386.B-0337.Appendices A and B are available in electronic form

  8. Competition between links in "producer-consumer" trophic chains in an aquatic closed system with spatially separated components.

    PubMed

    Pisman, T I; Pechurkin, N S; Somova, L A

    2001-01-01

    The work analyzes functioning of a "producer-consumer" closed aquatic system with spatially separated links, where each component consisted of two species. Producers in the system were the microalgae of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp., consumers--Paramecium caudatum infusoria and Brachionus sp. rotifers. In the experiment the competing predators were consuming on a mixed culture of algae, and the competition of algae was studied under nitrogen limitation. Under these conditions competitiveness of Scenedesmus was higher than that of Chlorella vulgaris. Metabolism products of Scenedesmus algae have been found to have negative effect on reproduction of Paramecium caudatum protozoa. Predator population dynamics in the "consumer" link demonstrated that the rotifers that consume two algal species are more competitive compared to protozoa feeding on chlorella only. Grant numbers: N99-04-96017, N25.

  9. Competition between links in "producer-consumer" trophic chains in an aquatic closed system with spatially separated components.

    PubMed

    Pisman, T I; Pechurkin, N S; Somova, L A

    2001-01-01

    The work analyzes functioning of a "producer-consumer" closed aquatic system with spatially separated links, where each component consisted of two species. Producers in the system were the microalgae of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp., consumers--Paramecium caudatum infusoria and Brachionus sp. rotifers. In the experiment the competing predators were consuming on a mixed culture of algae, and the competition of algae was studied under nitrogen limitation. Under these conditions competitiveness of Scenedesmus was higher than that of Chlorella vulgaris. Metabolism products of Scenedesmus algae have been found to have negative effect on reproduction of Paramecium caudatum protozoa. Predator population dynamics in the "consumer" link demonstrated that the rotifers that consume two algal species are more competitive compared to protozoa feeding on chlorella only. Grant numbers: N99-04-96017, N25. PMID:11695442

  10. Competition between links in ``producer-consumer'' trophic chains in an aquatic closed system with spatially separated components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T. I.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Somova, L. A.

    The work analyzes functioning of a "producer-consumer" closed aquatic system with spatially separated links, where each component consisted of two species. Producers in the system were the microalgae of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus sp., consumers - Paramecium caudatum infusoria and Brachionus sp. rotifers. In the experiment the competing predators were consuming on a mixed culture of algae, and the competition of algae was studied under nitrogen limitation. Under these conditions competitiveness of Scenedesmus was higher than that of Chlorella vulgaris. Metabolism products of Scenedesmus algae have been found to have negative effect on reproduction of Paramecium caudatum protozoa. Predator population dynamics in the "consumer" link demonstrated that the rotifers that consume two algal species are more competitive compared to protozoa feeding on chlorella only.

  11. Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Proteins with Spatial and Temporal Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    While a host of methods exist to deliver genetic materials or small molecules to cells, very few are available for protein delivery to the cytosol. We describe a modular, light-activated nanocarrier that transports proteins into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivers the cargo to the cytosol by light triggered endosomal escape. The platform is based on hollow gold nanoshells (HGN) with polyhistidine tagged proteins attached through an avidity-enhanced, nickel chelation linking layer; here, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model deliverable cargo. Endosomal uptake of the GFP loaded nanocarrier was mediated by a C-end Rule (CendR) internalizing peptide fused to the GFP. Focused femtosecond pulsed-laser excitation triggered protein release from the nanocarrier and endosome disruption, and the released protein was capable of targeting the nucleoli, a model intracellular organelle. We further demonstrate the generality of the approach by loading and releasing Sox2 and p53. This method for targeting of individual cells, with resolution similar to microinjection, provides spatial and temporal control over protein delivery. PMID:25490248

  12. Temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Manjul; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Soriano, Leonardo; Kandel, Raju; Grosser, Jude W

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology provides plant breeders an additional tool to improve various traits desired by growers and consumers of horticultural crops. It also provides genetic solutions to major problems affecting horticultural crops and can be a means for rapid improvement of a cultivar. With the availability of a number of horticultural genome sequences, it has become relatively easier to utilize these resources to identify DNA sequences for both basic and applied research. Promoters play a key role in plant gene expression and the regulation of gene expression. In recent years, rapid progress has been made on the isolation and evaluation of plant-derived promoters and their use in horticultural crops, as more and more species become amenable to genetic transformation. Our understanding of the tools and techniques of horticultural plant biotechnology has now evolved from a discovery phase to an implementation phase. The availability of a large number of promoters derived from horticultural plants opens up the field for utilization of native sequences and improving crops using precision breeding. In this review, we look at the temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops and the usage of a variety of promoters either isolated from horticultural crops or used in horticultural crop improvement. PMID:26504550

  13. Unexpected observation of spatially separated Kondo scattering and ferromagnetism in Ta alloyed anatase TiO2 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, T. P.; Gopinadhan, K.; Motapothula, M.; Saha, S.; Huang, Z.; Dhar, S.; Patra, A.; Lu, W. M.; Telesio, F.; Pallecchi, I.; Ariando; Marré, D.; Venkatesan, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of spatially separated Kondo scattering and ferromagnetism in anatase Ta0.06Ti0.94O2 thin films as a function of thickness (10–200 nm). The Kondo behavior observed in thicker films is suppressed on decreasing thickness and vanishes below ~25 nm. In 200 nm film, transport data could be fitted to a renormalization group theory for Kondo scattering though the carrier density in this system is lower by two orders of magnitude, the magnetic entity concentration is larger by a similar magnitude and there is strong electronic correlation compared to a conventional system such as Cu with magnetic impurities. However, ferromagnetism is observed at all thicknesses with magnetic moment per unit thickness decreasing beyond 10 nm film thickness. The simultaneous presence of Kondo and ferromagnetism is explained by the spatial variation of defects from the interface to surface which results in a dominantly ferromagnetic region closer to substrate-film interface while the Kondo scattering is dominant near the surface and decreasing towards the interface. This material system enables us to study the effect of neighboring presence of two competing magnetic phenomena and the possibility for tuning them. PMID:26265554

  14. Joint source separation of simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording in two experimental conditions using common spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ao; Fu, Zening; Tu, Yiheng; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous collection of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has become increasingly popular in neuroscientific studies, because it can provide neural information with both high spatial and temporal resolution. In order to maximally utilize the information contained in simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording, many sophisticated multimodal data-mining methods, such as joint ICA, have been developed. However, these methods normally deal with data recorded in one experimental condition, and they cannot effectively extract information on activities that are distinct in two conditions. In this paper, a new data decomposition method called joint common spatial pattern (jCSP) is proposed. Compared with previous methods, the jCSP method exploits inter-conditional difference in the strength of brain source activities to achieve source separation, and is able to uncover the source activities with the strongest discriminative power. A group analysis based on clustering is further proposed to reveal distinctive jCSP patterns at group level. We applied joint CSP to a simultaneous EEG-fMRI dataset collected from 21 subjects under two different resting-state conditions (eyes-closed and eyes-open). Results show a distinct dynamic pattern shared by EEG alpha power and fMRI signal during eyes-open resting-state. PMID:26736832

  15. Optimizing and controlling earthmoving operations using spatial technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshibani, Adel

    This thesis presents a model designed for optimizing, tracking, and controlling earthmoving operations. The proposed model utilizes, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Linear Programming (LP), and spatial technologies including Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to support the management functions of the developed model. The model assists engineers and contractors in selecting near optimum crew formations in planning phase and during construction, using GA and LP supported by the Pathfinder Algorithm developed in a GIS environment. GA is used in conjunction with a set of rules developed to accelerate the optimization process and to avoid generating and evaluating hypothetical and unrealistic crew formations. LP is used to determine quantities of earth to be moved from different borrow pits and to be placed at different landfill sites to meet project constraints and to minimize the cost of these earthmoving operations. On the one hand, GPS is used for onsite data collection and for tracking construction equipment in near real-time. On the other hand, GIS is employed to automate data acquisition and to analyze the collected spatial data. The model is also capable of reconfiguring crew formations dynamically during the construction phase while site operations are in progress. The optimization of the crew formation considers: (1) construction time, (2) construction direct cost, or (3) construction total cost. The model is also capable of generating crew formations to meet, as close as possible, specified time and/or cost constraints. In addition, the model supports tracking and reporting of project progress utilizing the earned-value concept and the project ratio method with modifications that allow for more accurate forecasting of project time and cost at set future dates and at completion. The model is capable of generating graphical and tabular reports. The developed model has been implemented in prototype software, using Object

  16. Prokaryotes in Subsoil—Evidence for a Strong Spatial Separation of Different Phyla by Analysing Co-occurrence Networks

    PubMed Central

    Uksa, Marie; Schloter, Michael; Endesfelder, David; Kublik, Susanne; Engel, Marion; Kautz, Timo; Köpke, Ulrich; Fischer, Doreen

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil provide a wide range of ecosystem services. On the small scale, nutrient rich hotspots in soil developed from the activities of animals or plants are important drivers for the composition of microbial communities and their functional patterns. However, in subsoil, the spatial heterogeneity of microbes with differing lifestyles has been rarely considered so far. In this study, the phylogenetic composition of the bacterial and archaeal microbiome based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was investigated in the soil compartments bulk soil, drilosphere, and rhizosphere in top- and in the subsoil of an agricultural field. With co-occurrence network analysis, the spatial separation of typically oligotrophic and copiotrophic microbes was assessed. Four bacterial clusters were identified and attributed to bulk topsoil, bulk subsoil, drilosphere, and rhizosphere. The bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, representing mostly copiotrophic bacteria, were affiliated mainly to the rhizosphere and drilosphere—both in topsoil and subsoil. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, bacterial phyla which harbor many oligotrophic bacteria, were the most abundant groups in bulk subsoil. The bacterial core microbiome in this soil was estimated to cover 7.6% of the bacterial sequencing reads including both oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria. In contrast the archaeal core microbiome includes 56% of the overall archaeal diversity. Thus, the spatial variability of nutrient quality and quantity strongly shapes the bacterial community composition and their interaction in subsoil, whereas archaea build a stable backbone of the soil prokaryotes due to their low variability in the different soil compartments. PMID:26635741

  17. Control and reduction of unsteady pressure loads in separated shock wave turbulent boundary layer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolling, David S.; Barter, John W.

    1995-01-01

    The focus was on developing means of controlling and reducing unsteady pressure loads in separated shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions. Section 1 describes how vortex generators can be used to effectively reduce loads in compression ramp interaction, while Section 2 focuses on the effects of 'boundary-layer separators' on the same interaction.

  18. [Spatial heterogeneity and classified control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Huaihe River Basin].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.

  19. Mineral separation and recycle in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    The background of the mineral nutrition needs of plants are examined along with the applicability of mineral control and separation to a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Steps that may be taken in a program to analytically define and experimentally test key mineral control concepts in the nutritional and waste processing loops of a CELSS are delineated.

  20. On the benefits of hysteresis effects for closed-loop separation control using plasma actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, N.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Moreau, E.; Griffin, J.; Bonnet, J. P.

    2011-08-01

    Flow separation control by a non-thermal plasma actuator is considered for a NACA 0015 airfoil at a chord Reynolds number of 1.9 × 105. Static hysteresis in the lift coefficient is demonstrated for increasing and then decreasing sinusoidal voltage amplitude supplying a typical single dielectric barrier discharge actuator at the leading edge of the model. In addition to these open-loop experiments, unsteady surface pressure signals are examined for transient processes involving forced reattachment and natural separation. The results show that strong pressure oscillations in the relatively slow separation process, compared to reattachment, precede the ultimate massive flow separation. To enhance the contrast between the parts of the signal related to the attached flow and those related to the incipient separation, RMS estimate of filtered values of Cp is used to define a flow separation predictor that is implemented in feedback control. Two simple controllers are proposed, one based on a predefined threshold of the unsteady Cp and another that utilizes the flow separation predictor to identify incipient separation. The latter effectively leverages the hysteresis in the post-stall regime to reduce the electrical power consumed by the actuator while maintaining continuously attached flow.

  1. Closed Loop Active Flow Separation Detection and Control in a Multistage Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2005-01-01

    Active closed loop flow control was successfully demonstrated on a full annulus of stator vanes in a low speed axial compressor. Two independent methods of detecting separated flow conditions on the vane suction surface were developed. The first technique detects changes in static pressure along the vane suction surface, while the second method monitors variation in the potential field of the downstream rotor. Both methods may feasibly be used in future engines employing embedded flow control technology. In response to the detection of separated conditions, injection along the suction surface of each vane was used. Injected mass flow on the suction surface of stator vanes is known to reduce separation and the resulting limitation on static pressure rise due to lowered diffusion in the vane passage. A control algorithm was developed which provided a proportional response of the injected mass flow to the degree of separation, thereby minimizing the performance penalty on the compressor system.

  2. Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation Control on a Convex Ramp using Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatzman, David M.

    2005-11-01

    This work is focused toward the development of active feedback control of turbulent boundary layer separation from a convex ramp surface. The work reported here is performed in a subsonic wind tunnel facility and utilizes single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for separation control. Smoke and oil surface flow visualization are used to characterize the separation in the absence of actuation. The surface mounted plasma actuators are positioned upstream of the flow separation locations. Plasma-induced blowing transfers additional momentum to the boundary layer along the ramp surface and has a beneficial effect on flow reattachment. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effects of both steady and unsteady actuation. The effectiveness of the active flow control is documented through surface pressure measurements, LDV measurements, and downstream wake surveys.

  3. Toward spatial control of gold nanorod surface functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Jonathan R.

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) show much promise for applications in biological, optoelectronic and energy applications. The resonant generation of a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at the GNR surface results in interesting optical properties and unique interactions with molecules. Combined with their biocompatibility, ease of synthesis and facile surface functionalization, these anisotropic metal particles are excellent scaffolds for the study of the interactions between nanoscale surfaces and their chemical/biological environments. Regardless of the application, however, GNR utility will not be fully realized until the chemical nature of the surface is understood and controlled. GNRs can enhance various photophysical properties of molecules. In the case of two-photon absorption (TPA), cross-section enhancements have been shown to increase with strong distance-dependence. Here, a dual approach for the conjugation of a TPA chromophore to GNRs is presented, relying on layer-by- layer (LbL) polymer wrapping and direct thiol coating of the same parent chromophore structure. Together, these approaches allow for estimated chromophore-particle distances from <1nm to more than 15 nm. Composites were confirmed using conventional nanoparticle characterization methods. Imaging of GNR polymer shells indicated anisotropic composite structures, as confirmed by both conventional and cryo-TEM. Optical characterizations were performed using two-photon excited fluorescence and Z-scan techniques, to probe the TPA enhancement. The intrinsic nonlinear optical properties of GNRs is shown to contribute strongly to these measurements, suggesting the utility of these materials for bi-modal imaging platforms. GNR properties, like their shape, are anisotropic. The LSPR-induced near- fields are heterogeneously distributed on the nanorod surface, with the tips being much "hotter" than the sides. To understand and utilize fully the spatially- dependent interactions of GNRs with their

  4. Different timing and spatial separation of parental chromosomes in intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus.

    PubMed

    Ding, L; Zhao, Z G; Ge, X H; Li, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and newly formed hybrids and polyploids generated by wide crosses usually show varying degrees of cytological instability. The spatial separation of parental genomes and uniparental chromosome elimination in hybrid cells has been reported in many hybrids from plants and animals. Herein, the behavior of parental genomes in intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus was analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). In mitotic and meiotic cells, the chromosomes from O. violaceus were distinguished from B. napus by their larger size and staining patterns. In interphase nuclei of the hybrid, O. violaceus-labeled chromatin appeared as large heterochromatic blocks that were nonrandomly distributed at prophase, typically distributed toward one side of the nucleus. In pollen mother cells at prophase I of meiosis, O. violaceus chromosomes appeared as one or two deeply stained chromatin blocks that resolved into bivalents at a late stage, after bivalents from B. napus were visible. Thereafter, bivalents of O. violaceus congressed to the equatorial plate and segregated at anaphase I after those from B. napus. The different behavior of O. violaceus chromosomes in the hybrids indicates that they have differential condensation states at interphase and progress later through the cell cycle and meiosis than B. napus chromosomes. This difference in behavior may restrict or prevent the formation of bivalents of mixed genome origin. Differential gene expression of parental alleles including rDNA loci may contribute to their distinct cytological behavior and to the phenotype of hybrids. PMID:24782049

  5. Long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated organic donor-acceptor layers.

    PubMed

    Nakanotani, Hajime; Furukawa, Taro; Morimoto, Kei; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-02-01

    Understanding exciton behavior in organic semiconductor molecules is crucial for the development of organic semiconductor-based excitonic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, and the tightly bound electron-hole pair forming an exciton is normally assumed to be localized on an organic semiconducting molecule. We report the observation of long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules across a 10-nanometers-thick spacer layer. We found that the exciton energy can be tuned over 100 megaelectron volts and the fraction of delayed fluorescence can be increased by adjusting the spacer-layer thickness. Furthermore, increasing the spacer-layer thickness produced an organic light-emitting diode with an electroluminescence efficiency nearly eight times higher than that of a device without a spacer layer. Our results demonstrate the first example of a long-range coupled charge-transfer state between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules in a working device.

  6. Coulomb screening effects on the optoelectronic far-infrared properties of spatially separated few-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Wan, P.; Li, Q. F.; Ao, Z. M.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the longitudinal optical conductivity of spatially separated few-layer graphene analytically and numerically. Each layer could be monolayer or bilayer graphene. The density-density correlation function has been screened by the dielectric function using the random phase approximation, which includes the inter-layer Coulomb coupling. In the presence of the potential function between the layers, the carrier densities in each layer can be tuned respectively. In these two-dimensional layered structures, the main contributions to the optical conductivity are from the intra- and inter-band transition channels in a same layer. In the infrared region, the Drude optical conductivity was observed by the unscreened intra-band transition process. But in the presence of the inter-layer Coulomb interaction, one peak structure of the optical conductivity is observed which can be modified by the dielectric environment. From the number of turning points and the turning positions, the carrier density, the Fermi wavevector, and the layered structure can be determined.

  7. Long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated organic donor-acceptor layers

    PubMed Central

    Nakanotani, Hajime; Furukawa, Taro; Morimoto, Kei; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    Understanding exciton behavior in organic semiconductor molecules is crucial for the development of organic semiconductor-based excitonic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, and the tightly bound electron-hole pair forming an exciton is normally assumed to be localized on an organic semiconducting molecule. We report the observation of long-range coupling of electron-hole pairs in spatially separated electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules across a 10-nanometers-thick spacer layer. We found that the exciton energy can be tuned over 100 megaelectron volts and the fraction of delayed fluorescence can be increased by adjusting the spacer-layer thickness. Furthermore, increasing the spacer-layer thickness produced an organic light-emitting diode with an electroluminescence efficiency nearly eight times higher than that of a device without a spacer layer. Our results demonstrate the first example of a long-range coupled charge-transfer state between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules in a working device. PMID:26933691

  8. A Separation Control CFD Validation Test Case. Part 1; Baseline and Steady Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David; Paschal, Keith B.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Harris, jerome; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    Low speed flow separation over a wall-mounted hump, and its control using steady suction, were studied experimentally in order to generate a data set for a workshop aimed at validating CFD turbulence models. The baseline and controlled data sets comprised static and dynamic surface pressure measurements, flow field measurements using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and wall shear stress obtained via oil-film interferometry. In addition to the specific test cases studied, surface pressures for a wide variety of conditions were reported for different Reynolds numbers and suction rates. Stereoscopic PIV and oil-film flow visualization indicated that the baseline separated flow field was mainly two-dimensional. With the application of control, some three-dimensionality was evident in the spanwise variation of pressure recovery, reattachment location and spanwise pressure fluctuations. Part 2 of this paper, under preparation for the AIAA Meeting in Reno 2005, considers separation control by means of zero-efflux oscillatory blowing.

  9. Injection slot location for boundary-layer control in shock-induced separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanath, P. R.; Sankaran, L.; Sagdeo, P. M.; Narasimha, R.; Prabhu, A.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effect of tangential air injection, when the injection slot is located inside of what would otherwise have been the dead air zone in a separated flow, in controlling shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation is presented. The experiments were carried out at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 in the separated flow induced by a compression corner with a 20 deg angle. The observations made were wall static pressures, pitot profiles, and schlieren visualizations of the flow. The results show that the present location for injection is more effective in suppressing boundary-layer separation than the more conventional one, where the slot is located upstream of where separation would occur in the absence of injection.

  10. Glow Discharge Plasma Demonstrated for Separation Control in the Low-Pressure Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David e.; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2004-01-01

    Flow separation in the low-pressure turbine (LPT) is a major barrier that limits further improvements of aerodynamic designs of turbine airfoils. The separation is responsible for performance degradation, and it prevents the design of highly loaded airfoils. The separation can be delayed, reduced, or eliminated completely if flow control techniques are used. Successful flow control technology will enable breakthrough improvements in gas turbine performance and design. The focus of this research project was the development and experimental demonstration of active separation control using glow discharge plasma (GDP) actuators in flow conditions simulating the LPT. The separation delay was shown to be successful, laying the foundation for further development of the technologies to practical application in the LPT. In a fluid mechanics context, the term "flow control" means a technology by which a very small input results in a very large effect on the flow. In this project, the interest is to eliminate or delay flow separation on LPT airfoils by using an active flow control approach, in which disturbances are dynamically inserted into the flow, they interact with the flow, and they delay separation. The disturbances can be inserted using a localized, externally powered, actuating device, examples are acoustic, pneumatic, or mechanical devices that generate vibrations, flow oscillations, or pulses. A variety of flow control devices have been demonstrated in recent years in the context of the external aerodynamics of aircraft wings and airframes, where the incoming flow is quiescent or of a very low turbulence level. However, the flow conditions in the LPT are significantly different because there are high levels of disturbances in the incoming flow that are characterized by high free-stream turbulence intensity. In addition, the Reynolds number, which characterizes the viscous forces in the flow and is related to the flow speed, is very low in the LPT passages.

  11. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-12-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant.

  12. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kai; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the multi-phase transitions of Boc-modified supramolecular polymeric systems. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of Boc-7-aminoheptanoic acid (Boc-7), phase separation occurs in mixtures of miscible organic solvent and water. The separation behavior was confirmed by differential colorimetric development in aqueous and organic phases using methyl orange staining assays. Component substitution experiments verified that the phase separation results from the subtle balance between the aggregation and the solvation forces of Boc-7, and is reversible by adjusting the solution pH. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the organic phase and the hydrogen bonding-forming ability of the carboxyl group of Boc-7, the phase separation system captures and releases Sudan Red, fluorescein, and streptavidin in a controllable manner. Consequently, a reversible and simple phase separation system can be designed as a multifunctional extractant. PMID:26627307

  13. Generation of a multi-qubit W entangled state through spatially separated semiconductor quantum-dot-molecules in cavity-quantum electrodynamics arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Siping; Yu, Rong; Li, Jiahua; Wu, Ying

    2014-04-07

    Generating entangled states attract tremendous interest as the most vivid manifestation of nonlocality of quantum mechanics and also for emerging applications in quantum information processing (QIP). Here, we propose theoretically a scheme for the deterministic generation of a three-qubit W sate with three semiconductor quantum-dot-molecules (QDMs) trapped in spatially separated cavities connected by optical fibers. The proposed scheme takes full advantage of the voltage-controlled tunnelling effects in QDMs, which induces the quantum coherence and further controls the generation of the W entangled state. The influences of the system parameters and various decoherence processes including spontaneous decay and photon leakage on the fidelity of the W state are discussed in details. Numerical results indicate that our scheme is not only robust against these decoherence factors but also insensitive to the deviation of the system parameters from the ideal conditions. Furthermore, the present scheme can be directly extended to realize an N-qubit W state. Also, this scheme can be generically transferred to other physical systems, including circuit quantum electrodynamics and photonic crystal cavities. The results obtained here may be useful in real experiments for realizing QIP in a solid-state platform.

  14. Abiotic and biotic controls of spatial pattern at alpine treeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Xiao, Ningchuan; Alftine, K.J.; Bekker, Mathew; Butler, David R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Cairns, David M.; Fagre, Daniel; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    At alpine treeline, trees and krummholz forms affect the environment in ways that increase their growth and reproduction. We assess the way in which these positive feedbacks combine in spatial patterns to alter the environment in the neighborhood of existing plants. The research is significant because areas of alpine tundra are susceptible to encroachment by woody species as climate changes. Moreover, understanding the general processes of plant invasion is important. The importance of spatial pattern has been recognized, but the spatial pattern of positive feedbacks per se has not been explored in depth. We present a linked set of models of vegetation change at an alpine forest-tundra ecotone. Our aim is to create models that are as simple as possible in order to test specific hypotheses. We present results from a model of the resource averaging hypothesis and the positive feedback switch hypothesis of treelines. We compare the patterns generated by the models to patterns observed in fine scale remotely sensed data.

  15. Active control of Boundary Layer Separation & Flow Distortion in Adverse Pressure Gradient Flows via Supersonic Microjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvi, Farrukh S.; Gorton, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Inlets to aircraft propulsion systems must supply flow to the compressor with minimal pressure loss, flow distortion or unsteadiness. Flow separation in internal flows such as inlets and ducts in aircraft propulsion systems and external flows such as over aircraft wings, is undesirable as it reduces the overall system performance. The aim of this research has been to understand the nature of separation and more importantly, to explore techniques to actively control this flow separation. In particular, the use of supersonic microjets as a means of controlling boundary layer separation was explored. The geometry used for the early part of this study was a simple diverging Stratford ramp, equipped with arrays of supersonic microjets. Initial results, based on the mean surface pressure distribution, surface flow visualization and Planar Laser Scattering (PLS) indicated a reverse flow region. We implemented supersonic microjets to control this separation and flow visualization results appeared to suggest that microjets have a favorable effect, at least to a certain extent. However, the details of the separated flow field were difficult to determine based on surface pressure distribution, surface flow patterns and PLS alone. It was also difficult to clearly determine the exact influence of the supersonic microjets on this flow. In the latter part of this study, the properties of this flow-field and the effect of supersonic microjets on its behavior were investigated in further detail using 2-component (planar) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results clearly show that the activation of microjets eliminated flow separation and resulted in a significant increase in the momentum of the fluid near the ramp surface. Also notable is the fact that the gain in momentum due to the elimination of flow separation is at least an order of magnitude larger (two orders of magnitude larger in most cases) than the momentum injected by the microjets and is accomplished with very

  16. Entangled microwaves as a resource for entangling spatially separate solid-state qubits: Superconducting qubits, nitrogen-vacancy centers, and magnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Angela Viviana; Rodríguez, Ferney Javier; Quiroga, Luis; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2016-06-01

    Quantum correlations present in a broadband two-line squeezed microwave state can induce entanglement in a spatially separated bipartite system consisting of either two single qubits or two-qubit ensembles. By using an appropriate master equation for a bipartite quantum system in contact with two separate but entangled baths, the generating entanglement process in spatially separated quantum systems is thoroughly characterized. Decoherence thermal effects on the entanglement transfer are also discussed. Our results provide evidence that this entanglement transfer by dissipation is feasible, yielding to a steady-state amount of entanglement in the bipartite quantum system which can be optimized for a wide range of realistic physical systems that include state-of-the-art experiments with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, superconducting qubits, or even magnetic molecules embedded in a crystalline matrix.

  17. Sweep and Compressibility Effects on Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, Avi; Pack, LaTunia G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of compressibility, sweep and excitation location on active separation control at high Reynolds numbers. The model, which was tested in a cryogenic pressurized wind tunnel, simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick GlauertGoldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. Without control, the flow separates at the highly convex area and a large turbulent separation bubble is formed. Periodic excitation is applied to gradually eliminate the separation bubble. Two alternative blowing slot locations as well as the effect of compressibility, sweep and steady suction or blowing were studied. During the test the Reynolds numbers ranged from 2 to 40 million and Mach numbers ranged from 0.2 to 0.7. Sweep angles were 0 and 30 deg. It was found that excitation must be introduced slightly upstream of the separation region regardless of the sweep angle at low Mach number. Introduction of excitation upstream of the shock wave is more effective than at its foot. Compressibility reduces the ability of steady mass transfer and periodic excitation to control the separation bubble but excitation has an effect on the integral parameters, which is similar to that observed in low Mach numbers. The conventional swept flow scaling is valid for fully and even partially attached flow, but different scaling is required for the separated 3D flow. The effectiveness of the active control is not reduced by sweep. Detailed flow field dynamics are described in the accompanying paper.

  18. Sweep and Compressibility Effects on Active Separation Control at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, Avi; Pack, LaTunia G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of compressibility, sweep and excitation location on active separation control at high Reynolds numbers. The model, which was tested in a cryogenic pressurized wind tunnel, simulates the upper surface of a 20% thick Glauert Goldschmied type airfoil at zero angle of attack. The flow is fully turbulent since the tunnel sidewall boundary layer flows over the model. Without control, the flow separates at the highly convex area and a large turbulent separation bubble is formed. Periodic excitation is applied to gradually eliminate the separation bubble. Two alternative blowing slot locations as well as the effect of compressibility, sweep and steady suction or blowing were studied. During the test the Reynolds numbers ranged from 2 to 40 million and Mach numbers ranged from 0.2 to 0.7. Sweep angles were 0 and 30 deg. It was found that excitation must be introduced slightly upstream of the separation region regardless of the sweep angle at low Mach number. Introduction of excitation upstream of the shock wave is more effective than at its foot. Compressibility reduces the ability of steady mass transfer and periodic excitation to control the separation bubble but excitation has an effect on the integral parameters, which is similar to that observed in low Mach numbers. The conventional swept flow scaling is valid for fully and even partially attached flow, but different scaling is required for the separated 3D flow. The effectiveness of the active control is not reduced by sweep. Detailed flow field dynamics are described in the accompanying paper.

  19. Cobalt Ferrite Bearing Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Layers Spatially Separated with Microporous Carbon as Efficient Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Varchaswal; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2016-08-17

    The present work discloses how high-quality dispersion of fine particles of cobalt ferrite (CF) could be attained on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CF/N-rGO) and how this material in association with a microporous carbon phase could deliver significantly enhanced activity toward electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our study indicates that the microporous carbon phase plays a critical role in spatially separating the layers of CF/N-rGO and in creating a favorable atmosphere to ensure the seamless distribution of the reactants to the active sites located on CF/N-rGO. In terms of the ORR current density, the heat-treated hybrid catalyst at 150 °C (CF/N-rGO-150) is found to be clearly outperforming (7.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)) the state-of-the-art 20 wt % Pt-supported carbon catalyst (PtC) (5.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)). The mass activity and stability of CF-N-rGO-150 are distinctly superior to PtC even after 5000 electrochemical cycles. As a realistic system level exploration of the catalyst, testing of a primary zinc-air battery could be demonstrated using CF/N-rGO-150 as the cathode catalyst. The battery is giving a galvanostatic discharge time of 15 h at a discharge current density of 20 mA/cm(2) and a specific capacity of ∼630 mAh g(-1) in 6 M KOH by using a Zn foil as the anode. Distinctly, the battery performance of this system is found to be superior to that of PtC in less concentrated KOH solution as the electrolyte. PMID:27464229

  20. Cobalt Ferrite Bearing Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Layers Spatially Separated with Microporous Carbon as Efficient Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Varchaswal; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2016-08-17

    The present work discloses how high-quality dispersion of fine particles of cobalt ferrite (CF) could be attained on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CF/N-rGO) and how this material in association with a microporous carbon phase could deliver significantly enhanced activity toward electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our study indicates that the microporous carbon phase plays a critical role in spatially separating the layers of CF/N-rGO and in creating a favorable atmosphere to ensure the seamless distribution of the reactants to the active sites located on CF/N-rGO. In terms of the ORR current density, the heat-treated hybrid catalyst at 150 °C (CF/N-rGO-150) is found to be clearly outperforming (7.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)) the state-of-the-art 20 wt % Pt-supported carbon catalyst (PtC) (5.4 ± 0.5 mA/cm(2)). The mass activity and stability of CF-N-rGO-150 are distinctly superior to PtC even after 5000 electrochemical cycles. As a realistic system level exploration of the catalyst, testing of a primary zinc-air battery could be demonstrated using CF/N-rGO-150 as the cathode catalyst. The battery is giving a galvanostatic discharge time of 15 h at a discharge current density of 20 mA/cm(2) and a specific capacity of ∼630 mAh g(-1) in 6 M KOH by using a Zn foil as the anode. Distinctly, the battery performance of this system is found to be superior to that of PtC in less concentrated KOH solution as the electrolyte.

  1. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots made simulated instrument flight evaluations in light-to-moderate turbulence. They were favorably impressed with the system, particularly with the elimination of control force transients that accompanied configuration changes. For ride quality, quantitative data showed that the attitude command control system resulted in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  2. Influence of fat-water separation and spatial resolution on automated volumetric MRI measurements of fibroglandular breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Georg J; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Clauser, Paola; Bickel, Hubert; Marino, Maria-Adele; Magometschnigg, Heinrich F; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fat-water separation and spatial resolution in MRI on the results of automated quantitative measurements of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT). Ten healthy volunteers (age range, 28-71 years; mean, 39.9 years) were included in this Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study. All measurements were performed on a 1.5-T scanner (Siemens, AvantoFit) using an 18-channel breast coil. The protocols included isotropic (Di) [TR/TE1 /TE2  = 6.00 ms/2.45 ms/2.67 ms; flip angle, 6.0°; 256 slices; matrix, 360 × 360; 1 mm isotropic; field of view, 360°; acquisition time (TA) = 3 min 38 s] and anisotropic (Da) (TR/TE1 /TE2  = 10.00 ms/2.39 ms/4.77 ms; flip angle, 24.9°; 80 slices; matrix 360 × 360; voxel size, 0.7 × 0.7 × 2.0 mm(3) ; field of view, 360°; TA = 1 min 25 s) T1 three-dimensional (3D) fast low-angle shot (FLASH) Dixon sequences, and a T1 3D FLASH sequence with the same resolution (T1 ) without (TR/TE = 11.00 ms/4.76 ms; flip angle, 25.0°; 80 slices; matrix, 360 × 360; voxel size, 0.7 × 0.7 × 2.0 mm(3) ; field of view, 360°; TA = 50 s) and with (TR/TE = 29.00 ms/4.76 ms; flip angle, 25.0°; 80 slices; matrix, 360 × 360; voxel size, 0.7 × 0.7 × 2.0 mm(3) ; field of view, 360°; TA = 2 min 35 s) fat saturation. Repeating volunteer measurements after 20 min and repositioning were used to assess reproducibility. An automated and quantitative volumetric breast density measurement system was used for FGT calculation. FGT with Di, Da and T1 measured 4.6-63.0% (mean, 30.6%), 3.2-65.3% (mean, 32.5%) and 1.7-66.5% (mean, 33.7%), respectively. The highest correlation between different MRI sequences was found with the Di and Da sequences (R(2)  = 0.976). Coefficients of variation (CVs) for FGT calculation were higher in T1 (CV = 21.5%) compared with Dixon (Di, CV = 5

  3. Closed-loop separation control over a sharp edge ramp using genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debien, Antoine; von Krbek, Kai A. F. F.; Mazellier, Nicolas; Duriez, Thomas; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd R.; Abel, Markus W.; Kourta, Azeddine

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally perform open and closed-loop control of a separating turbulent boundary layer downstream from a sharp edge ramp. The turbulent boundary layer just above the separation point has a Reynolds number Re_{θ }≈ 3500 based on momentum thickness. The goal of the control is to mitigate separation and early re-attachment. The forcing employs a spanwise array of active vortex generators. The flow state is monitored with skin-friction sensors downstream of the actuators. The feedback control law is obtained using model-free genetic programming control (GPC) (Gautier et al. in J Fluid Mech 770:442-457, 2015). The resulting flow is assessed using the momentum coefficient, pressure distribution and skin friction over the ramp and stereo PIV. The PIV yields vector field statistics, e.g. shear layer growth, the back-flow area and vortex region. GPC is benchmarked against the best periodic forcing. While open-loop control achieves separation reduction by locking-on the shedding mode, GPC gives rise to similar benefits by accelerating the shear layer growth. Moreover, GPC uses less actuation energy.

  4. Control of volume resistivity in inorganic-organic separators. [for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Control of resistivity in NASA inorganic-organic separators is achieved by incorporating small percentages of high surface area, fine-particle silica with other ingredients in the separator coating. The volume resistivity appears to be predictable from coating composition, that is, from the surface area of filler particles in the coating. The approach has been applied to two polymer-'plasticizer'-filler coating systems, where the filler content of each is below the generally acknowledged critical pigment volume concentration of the coating. Application of these coating systems to 0.0254 cm thick (10 mil) fuel-cell grade asbestos sheet produces inexpensive, flexible, microporous separators that perform at least as well as the original inorganic-organic concept, the Astropower separator.

  5. ABOVE- AND BELOWGROUND CONTROLS ON FOREST TREE GROWTH, MORTALITY AND SPATIAL PATTERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the relative importance of above- and belowground competition in controlling growth, mortality and spatial patterns of trees in a nitrogen-limited, old-growth forest in western Oregon. To assess the effects of competition for light, we applied a spatially-explici...

  6. Hydrogels with Spatially and Temporally Controlled Properties to Control Cellular Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Jason

    2011-03-01

    Stem cells (e.g., mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs) respond to many cues from their microenvironment, which may include chemical signals, mechanics, and topography. Importantly, these cues may be incorporated into scaffolding to control stem cell differentiation and optimize their ability to produce tissues in regenerative medicine. Despite the significant amount of work in this area, the materials have been primarily static and uniform. To this end, we have developed a sequential crosslinking process that relies on our ability to crosslinked functional biopolymers (e.g., methacrylated hyaluronic acid, HA) in two steps, namely a Michael-type addition reaction to partially consume reactive groups and then a light-initiated free-radical polymerization to further crosslink the material. With light exposure during the second step comes control over the material in space (via masks and lasers) and time (via intermittent light exposure). We are applying this technique for numerous applications. For example, when the HA hydrogels are crosslinked with MMP degradable peptides with thiol termini during the first step, a material that can be degraded by cells is obtained. However, cell-mediated degradation is obstructed with the introduction of kinetic chains during the second step, leading to spatially controlled cell degradability. Due to the influence of cellular spreading on MSC differentiation, we have controlled cell fates by controlling their spread ability, for instance towards osteoblasts in spread areas and adipocytes when cell remained rounded. We are also using the process of stiffening with time to investigate mechanically induced differentiation, particularly in materials with evolving mechanics. Overall, these advanced HA hydrogels provide us the opportunity to investigate diverse and controlled material properties on MSC interactions.

  7. Preprophase bands, phragmoplasts, and spatial control of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Gunning, B E; Wick, S M

    1985-01-01

    Features of preprophase bands (PPBs) of microtubules (MTs), and the spatial relationship between phragmosomes, PPB sites, and developing phragmoplasts during cytokinesis, are reviewed, setting new observations in the context of current knowledge. PPBs in onion root tip cells are present by the beginning of the G2 period of the cell cycle. They are at first wide, but later become more compact, narrower bands. MTs traverse the cytoplasm between the band at the cell cortex and the nuclear envelope. This whole assemblage of nucleus, PPB and intervening MTs remains together when the cell is ruptured during preparation for examination by immunofluorescence microscopy. Double bands are occasionally seen in early stages of PPB development, perhaps as a consequence of double induction from neighbouring cells. Calmodulin is not present in PPBs at a higher concentration than in the general cytoplasm, but it is more abundant in parts of the spindle and in the phragmoplast. The PPB MTs disappear at prophase, but nevertheless the new cell plate fuses with the parental cell walls at the PPB site. This spatial relationship can be disrupted by treatment with CIPC. Another experimental disruption of the relationship, accomplished by making minute wounds in the PPB site of mitotic cells in Tradescantia stamen hairs, is described. In other experiments on these cells the phragmoplast is shown to become tethered to the PPB site when the cell plate is half to three-quarters developed, although the telophase nuclei are free to move. Rhodamine-labelled phalloidin reveals putative F-actin in the phragmoplast of Tradescantia, but not in the gap between the extending phragmoplast and the PPB site. Rhodamine-labelled phalloidin also stains cytoplasmic strands that exist when cytoplasmic streaming occurs before and after (but not during) mitosis. Cytochalasin B treatment blocks incorporation of actin into the phragmoplast, which, however, can still develop, though usually abnormally. The F

  8. Spatial steadiness of individual disorder modes upon controlled spectral tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselli, Niccolò; Riboli, Francesco; Intonti, Francesca; La China, Federico; Biccari, Francesco; Gerardino, Annamaria; Gurioli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Recent innovative applications in disordered photonics would strongly benefit from the possibility to achieve spectral tuning of the individual disorder localized photonic modes without affecting their spatial distributions. Here, we design and fabricate a two-dimensional disordered photonic system, made of a GaAs slab patterned with randomly distributed circular air scattering centers, supporting localized light modes with very small modal volume. The photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots embedded in the slab is used as a probe for near field experiments and gives direct access to the electric field intensity distribution of the localized random modes. We demonstrate that laser assisted oxidation of the GaAs slab performed by near field illumination can be used for a gentle tuning of the individual random modes without modifying the subtle balance leading to light localization given by multiple scattering.

  9. On TADs and LADs: Spatial Control Over Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sandoval, Adriana; Gasser, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    The combinatorial action of transcription factors drives cell-type-specific gene expression patterns. However, transcription factor binding and gene regulation occur in the context of chromatin, which modulates DNA accessibility. High-resolution chromatin interaction maps have defined units of chromatin that are in spatial proximity, called topologically associated domains (TADs). TADs can be further classified based on expression activity, replication timing, or the histone marks or non-histone proteins associated with them. Independently, other chromatin domains have been defined by their likelihood to interact with non-DNA structures, such as the nuclear lamina. Lamina-associated domains (LADs) correlate with low gene expression and late replication timing. TADs and LADs have recently been evaluated with respect to cell-type-specific gene expression. The results shed light on the relevance of these forms of chromatin organization for transcriptional regulation, and address specifically how chromatin sequestration influences cell fate decisions during organismal development. PMID:27312344

  10. Experimental parametric study of jet vortex generators for flow separation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    A parametric wind-tunnel study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low-speed turbulence flow over a two-dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow-separation control can be accomplished, with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free-stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed). Dye flow visualization tests in a water tunnel indicated that the most effective jet vortex generator configurations produced streamwise co-rotating vortices.

  11. Movement Precision and Amplitude as Separate Factors in the Control of Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Robert

    The purpose of this study was to assess Welford's dual controlling factor interpretation of Fitts' Law--describing movement time as being a linear function of movement distance (or amplitude) and the required precision of the movement (or target width). Welford's amplification of the theory postulates that two separate processes ought to be…

  12. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation control of Mako shark skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afroz, Farhana

    The Shortfin Mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is one of the fastest swimmers in nature. They have an incredible turning agility and are estimated to achieve speeds as high as ten body lengths per second. Shark skin is known to contain flexible denticles or scales, capable of being actuated by the flow whereby a unique boundary layer control (BLC) method could reduce drag. It is hypothesized that shark scales bristle when the flow is reversed, and this bristling may serve to control flow separation by (1) inhibiting the localized flow reversal near the wall and (2) inducing mixing within the boundary layer by cavities formed between the scales that increases the momentum of the flow near the wall. To test this hypothesis, samples of Mako shark skin have been studied under various amounts of adverse pressure gradient (APG). These samples were collected from the flank region of a Shortfin Mako shark where the scales have the greatest potential for separation control due to the highest bristling angles. An easy technique for inducing boundary layer separation has been developed where an APG can be generated and varied using a rotating cylinder. Both the experimental and numerical studies showed that the amount of APG can be varied as a function of cylinder rotation speed or cylinder gap height for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. This method of generating an APG is used effectively for inducing both laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation over a flat plate. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation studies conducted over a smooth plate have been compared with the same setup repeated over shark skin. The time-averaged DPIV results showed that shark scale bristling controlled both laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation to a measurable extent. It shows that the shark scales cause an early transition to turbulence and reduce the degree of laminar separation. For turbulent separation, reverse flow near the wall and inside the boundary layer is

  13. Nonlinear Spectral-Spatial Control and Localization of Supercontinuum Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshev, Dragomir N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Dreischuh, Alexander; Fischer, Robert; Ha, Sangwoo; Bolger, Jeremy; Bui, Lam; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Mitchell, Arnan; Austin, Michael W.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2007-09-01

    We present the first observation of spatiospectral control and localization of supercontinuum light through the nonlinear interaction of spectral components in extended periodic structures. We use an array of optical waveguides in a LiNbO3 crystal and employ the interplay between diffraction and nonlinearity to dynamically control the output spectrum of the supercontinuum radiation. This effect presents an efficient scheme for optically tunable spectral filtering of supercontinua.

  14. Cognitive processing load during listening is reduced more by decreasing voice similarity than by increasing spatial separation between target and masker speech.

    PubMed

    Zekveld, Adriana A; Rudner, Mary; Kramer, Sophia E; Lyzenga, Johannes; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    We investigated changes in speech recognition and cognitive processing load due to the masking release attributable to decreasing similarity between target and masker speech. This was achieved by using masker voices with either the same (female) gender as the target speech or different gender (male) and/or by spatially separating the target and masker speech using HRTFs. We assessed the relation between the signal-to-noise ratio required for 50% sentence intelligibility, the pupil response and cognitive abilities. We hypothesized that the pupil response, a measure of cognitive processing load, would be larger for co-located maskers and for same-gender compared to different-gender maskers. We further expected that better cognitive abilities would be associated with better speech perception and larger pupil responses as the allocation of larger capacity may result in more intense mental processing. In line with previous studies, the performance benefit from different-gender compared to same-gender maskers was larger for co-located masker signals. The performance benefit of spatially-separated maskers was larger for same-gender maskers. The pupil response was larger for same-gender than for different-gender maskers, but was not reduced by spatial separation. We observed associations between better perception performance and better working memory, better information updating, and better executive abilities when applying no corrections for multiple comparisons. The pupil response was not associated with cognitive abilities. Thus, although both gender and location differences between target and masker facilitate speech perception, only gender differences lower cognitive processing load. Presenting a more dissimilar masker may facilitate target-masker separation at a later (cognitive) processing stage than increasing the spatial separation between the target and masker. The pupil response provides information about speech perception that complements intelligibility data

  15. Professional mathematicians differ from controls in their spatial-numerical associations.

    PubMed

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Hohol, Mateusz; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Willmes, Klaus; Brożek, Bartosz; Kucharzyk, Bartłomiej; Nęcka, Edward

    2016-07-01

    While mathematically impaired individuals have been shown to have deficits in all kinds of basic numerical representations, among them spatial-numerical associations, little is known about individuals with exceptionally high math expertise. They might have a more abstract magnitude representation or more flexible spatial associations, so that no automatic left/small and right/large spatial-numerical association is elicited. To pursue this question, we examined the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect in professional mathematicians which was compared to two control groups: Professionals who use advanced math in their work but are not mathematicians (mostly engineers), and matched controls. Contrarily to both control groups, Mathematicians did not reveal a SNARC effect. The group differences could not be accounted for by differences in mean response speed, response variance or intelligence or a general tendency not to show spatial-numerical associations. We propose that professional mathematicians possess more abstract and/or spatially very flexible numerical representations and therefore do not exhibit or do have a largely reduced default left-to-right spatial-numerical orientation as indexed by the SNARC effect, but we also discuss other possible accounts. We argue that this comparison with professional mathematicians also tells us about the nature of spatial-numerical associations in persons with much less mathematical expertise or knowledge. PMID:26063316

  16. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  17. Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

  18. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-02

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data setmore » with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m

  19. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-01-27

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a dataset with reasonablemore » fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, 500 m, 1, 2, 5, 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 to ~ 500 m, and remained

  20. Separation Control at Flight Reynolds Numbers: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, Avi; Pack, LaTunia G.

    2000-01-01

    Active separation control, using periodic excitation, was studied experimentally at high Reynolds numbers. The effects of compressibility, mild sweep, location o excitation slot and steady momentum transfer on the efficacy of the method were identified. Tests conducted at chord Reynolds numbers as high as 40 x 10(exp 6) demonstrated that active control using oscillatory flow excitation can effectively delay flow separation from and reattach separated flow to aerodynamic surfaces at flight conditions. The effective frequencies generate one to four vortices over the controlled region at all times, regardless of the Reynolds number. The vortices are initially amplified by the separated shear-layer, and after initiating reattachment, the strength of the vortices decay as they are convected downstream. Large amplitude, low frequency vortices break down to smaller ones upon introduction at the excitation slot. The effects of steady mass transfer were compared to those of periodic excitation. It was found that steady blowing is significantly inferior to periodic excitation in terms o performance benefits and that the response to steady blowing is abrupt, and therefore undesirable from a control point of view. Steady suction and periodic excitation are comparable in effectiveness and both exhibit a gradual response to changes in the magnitude of the control input. The combination of weak steady suction and periodic excitation is extremely effective while the addition of steady blowing could be detrimental. Compressibility effects are weak as long as separation is not caused by a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction The undesirable effects of the shock-induced separation could be alleviated by the introduction of periodic excitation upstream of the shock wave, inside the region of supersonic flow. The effects of mild sweep were also studied and periodic excitation was found to be very effective in reattaching three-dimensional separated flow. Scaling laws that correlate 2D

  1. Controls on spatial and temporal distribution of Precambrian eolianites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Kenneth A.; Simpson, Edward L.

    1998-09-01

    Inversely graded stratification, generated by the migration of wind ripples, and adhesion structures permit unequivocal identification of Precambrian eolianites. These criteria, in combination with scale of cross-beds, angle of inclination of foresets, geometry of depositional units, and associated non-eolian facies, are used to discriminate between Precambrian dune/draa, dune-plinth, sand-sheet, and interdune deposits that formed in inland and coastal settings. Based on an analysis of published literature, fundamental conclusions can be drawn on the spatial and temporal distribution of Precambrian eolianites. The oldest reported eolianites are from the ca. 2.1 Ga Deweras Group in Zimbabwe and Hurwitz Group in Canada and numerous examples of eolianites are reported from the 1.8 Ga and younger rock record. Lack of Archean and early Paleoproterozoic eolianites and their widespread development after 1.8 Ga are examined with respect to: absence of vegetation, crustal growth and tectonic setting, relative sea-level fluctuations, unfavorable atmospheric and/or climatic change, and non-recognition. The lack of pre-2.2 Ga eolianites may be related to reworking by braided rivers combing across non-vegetated floodplains, reworking of coastal eolianites during transgression or their non-recognition in the Early Precambrian record. The temporal concentration of eolianites at 1.8 Ga may best be related to the early stages of breakup and the assembly phases of supercontinents.

  2. Spatially controlled carbon sponge for targeting internalized radioactive materials in human body.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Oh, Wan-Kyu; Shin, Keun-Young; Kwon, Oh Seok; Son, Suim; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-07-01

    Carbon sponge, an adsorbent with spatially controlled structure is demonstrated for targeting internalized radiocesium and other radionuclides in human body. Three dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons derived from inverse opal replicas of colloidal-crystal template exhibit large surface area and high porosity, resulting in highly efficient adsorbents for radionuclides. It is also possible to enhance binding affinity and selectivity to radionuclide targets by decoration of 3DOM carbon surfaces with Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles, and synthesized PB nanoparticles reveal low toxicity toward macrophage cells with potential advantages over oral administration. It is noteworthy that the maximum (133)Cs adsorption capacity of PB-decorated 3DOM carbons is 40.07 mmol g(-1) which is ca. 30 and 200 times higher than that of commercialized medicine Radiogardase(®) and bulk PB, respectively. Further, adsorption kinetics study indicates that the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons have the homogenous surface for (133)Cs ion adsorption and all sites have equal adsorption energies in terms of ion exchange between the cyano groups of the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons and radionuclides. As a concept of the oral-administrable "carbon sponge", the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons offer useful implications in the separation science of radioactive materials and important insight for designing novel materials for treatment of patients or suspected internal contamination with radioactive materials.

  3. Flight test evaluation of a separate surface attitude command control system on a Beech 99 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, S. W.; Jenks, G. E.; Roskam, J.; Stone, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/university/industry program was conducted to flight evaluate a potentially low cost separate surface implementation of attitude command in a Beech 99 airplane. Saturation of the separate surfaces was the primary cause of many problems during development. Six experienced professional pilots who made simulated instrument flight evaluations experienced improvements in airplane handling qualities in the presence of turbulence and a reduction in pilot workload. For ride quality, quantitative data show that the attitude command control system results in all cases of airplane motion being removed from the uncomfortable ride region.

  4. Controlling phase separation of binary Bose-Einstein condensates via mixed-spin-channel Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Tojo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Yoshihisa; Masuyama, Yuta; Hayashi, Taro; Hirano, Takuya; Saito, Hiroki

    2010-09-15

    We investigate controlled phase separation of a binary Bose-Einstein condensate in the proximity of a mixed-spin-channel Feshbach resonance in the |F=1,m{sub F}=+1> and |F=2,m{sub F}=-1> states of {sup 87}Rb at a magnetic field of 9.10 G. Phase separation occurs on the lower-magnetic-field side of the Feshbach resonance while the two components overlap on the higher-magnetic-field side. The Feshbach resonance curve of the scattering length is obtained from the shape of the atomic cloud by comparison with the numerical analysis of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations.

  5. Enhanced water vapor separation by temperature-controlled aligned-multiwalled carbon nanotube membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Wonjae; Yun, Jongju; Khan, Fakhre Alam; Baik, Seunghyun

    2015-08-01

    Here we present a new strategy of selectively rejecting water vapor while allowing fast transport of dry gases using temperature-controlled aligned-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (aligned-MWNTs). The mechanism is based on the water vapor condensation at the entry region of nanotubes followed by removing aggregated water droplets at the tip of the superhydrophobic aligned-MWNTs. The first condensation step could be dramatically enhanced by decreasing the nanotube temperature. The permeate-side relative humidity was as low as ~17% and the helium-water vapor separation factor was as high as 4.62 when a helium-water vapor mixture with a relative humidity of 100% was supplied to the aligned-MWNTs. The flow through the interstitial space of the aligned-MWNTs allowed the permeability of single dry gases an order of magnitude higher than the Knudsen prediction regardless of membrane temperature. The water vapor separation performance of hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene membranes could also be significantly enhanced at low temperatures. This work combines the membrane-based separation technology with temperature control to enhance water vapor separation performance.Here we present a new strategy of selectively rejecting water vapor while allowing fast transport of dry gases using temperature-controlled aligned-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (aligned-MWNTs). The mechanism is based on the water vapor condensation at the entry region of nanotubes followed by removing aggregated water droplets at the tip of the superhydrophobic aligned-MWNTs. The first condensation step could be dramatically enhanced by decreasing the nanotube temperature. The permeate-side relative humidity was as low as ~17% and the helium-water vapor separation factor was as high as 4.62 when a helium-water vapor mixture with a relative humidity of 100% was supplied to the aligned-MWNTs. The flow through the interstitial space of the aligned-MWNTs allowed the permeability of single dry gases an order of

  6. Depressive-like behavior in adolescents after maternal separation: sex differences, controllability, and GABA.

    PubMed

    Leussis, Melanie P; Freund, Nadja; Brenhouse, Heather C; Thompson, Britta S; Andersen, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during development is an identified risk factor for depression later in life. In humans, early adversity accelerates the onset of depressive symptoms, which manifest during adolescence. Animal studies have used maternal separation as a model of early adversity to produce adult depressive-like behaviors, but have yet to examine these behaviors during adolescence. Moreover, the nature of depressive-like behaviors has not been well characterized in this model. Here, we used the triadic model of learned helplessness to understand controllability, helplessness, and motivational factors following maternal separation in male and female adolescent rats. We found sex-dependent changes in the effects of separation, with males demonstrating loss of controllability in an escapable shock condition, whereas females demonstrated motivational impairment in a no-shock condition. The effect, however, did not endure as adult females were no longer helpless. Reductions in parvalbumin, a GABAergic marker, in the prefrontal cortex of separated subjects relative to age-matched controls were evident and paralleled depressive-like behavior. Understanding the risk factors for depression, the nature of depressive-like behaviors, and their unique sex dependency may ultimately provide insight into improved treatments. PMID:22776911

  7. Shark Skin Bristling: A Passive Flow-Actuated Separation Control Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Smith, Jonathon; Bradshaw, Michael; Wheelus, Jennifer; Motta, Philip; Habegger, Maria; Davis, Jessica; Hueter, Robert

    2012-11-01

    A collaborative experimental effort between biologists and engineers has proven the separation control capability of shark skin, with a specific focus on the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) known for its high speed and agility. Biological measurements of the denticles, or scales, as a function of body location (DOI:10.1002/jmor.20047) will be presented together with data on bristling angle of scales and the morphological implications. Results show key regions of high bristling capability to correspond with those most prone to flow separation; these include the tail, flank regions aft of the gills, and on pectoral fins with scale flexibility increasing towards the trailing edge. Fresh shark skin samples were also tested in a water tunnel facility using DPIV and evidence of flow separation control was observed under laminar and tripped boundary layer conditions. It was concluded that the experiments conducted in the Re ~ 105 range resulted in sufficiently strong backflow induced close to the surface such that the shear threshold to induce bristling on the real skin sample was achieved since flow control at lower Re was not as evident. It is hypothesized that backflow initiated close to the wall in a region of adverse pressure gradient induces localized scale bristling thereby interrupting the subsequent flow development that leads to global flow separation from the surface and increased drag. Funding from NSF CBET grant 0932352 and US DOD AMRDEC.

  8. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-01

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s). PMID:27104797

  9. Active Control of Separation From the Flap of a Supercritical Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, La Tunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2003-01-01

    Active flow control in the form of periodic zero-mass-flux excitation was applied at several regions on the leading edge and trailing edge flaps of a simplified high-lift system t o delay flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge flap and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. Detailed flow features were measured in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The current paper describes the application of active separation control at several locations on the deflected trailing edge flap. High frequency (F(+) approx.= 10) and low frequency amplitude modulation (F(+)AM approx.= 1) of the high frequency excitation were used for control. Preliminary efforts to combine leading and trailing edge flap excitations are also reported.

  10. Proceedings of the 2004 Workshop on CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L. (Compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The papers presented here are from the Langley Research Center Workshop on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control (nicknamed "CFDVAL2004"), held March 2004 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The goal of the workshop was to bring together an international group of CFD practitioners to assess the current capabilities of different classes of turbulent flow solution methodologies to predict flow fields induced by synthetic jets and separation control geometries. The workshop consisted of three flow-control test cases of varying complexity, and participants could contribute to any number of the cases. Along with their workshop submissions, each participant included a short write-up describing their method for computing the particular case(s). These write-ups are presented as received from the authors with no editing. Descriptions of each of the test cases and experiments are also included.

  11. Nanoscale tissue engineering: spatial control over cell-materials interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wheeldon, Ian; Farhadi, Arash; Bick, Alexander G.; Jabbari, Esmaiel; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Cells interact with the surrounding environment by making tens to hundreds of thousands of nanoscale interactions with extracellular signals and features. The goal of nanoscale tissue engineering is to harness the interactions through nanoscale biomaterials engineering in order to study and direct cellular behaviors. Here, we review the nanoscale tissue engineering technologies for both two- and three-dimensional studies (2- and 3D), and provide a holistic overview of the field. Techniques that can control the average spacing and clustering of cell adhesion ligands are well established and have been highly successful in describing cell adhesion and migration in 2D. Extension of these engineering tools to 3D biomaterials has created many new hydrogel and nanofiber scaffolds technologies that are being used to design in vitro experiments with more physiologically relevant conditions. Researchers are beginning to study complex cell functions in 3D, however, there is a need for biomaterials systems that provide fine control over the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands in 3D. Additionally, there is a need for 2- and 3D techniques that can control the nanoscale presentation of multiple bioactive ligands and the temporal changes in cellular microenvironment. PMID:21451238

  12. Phase separation as a strategy toward controlling dilution effects in macrocyclic Glaser-Hay couplings.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Anne-Catherine; Collins, Shawn K

    2011-12-14

    Macrocycles are abundant in numerous chemical applications, however the traditional strategy for the preparation of these compounds remains cumbersome and environmentally damaging; involving tedious reaction set-ups and extremely dilute reaction media. The development of a macrocyclization strategy conducted at high concentrations is described which exploits phase separation of the catalyst and substrate, as a strategy to control dilution effects. Sequestering a copper catalyst in a highly polar and/or hydrophilic phase can be achieved using a hydrophilic ligand, T-PEG(1900), a PEGylated TMEDA derivative. Similarly, phase separation is possible when suitable copper complexes are soluble in PEG(400), a green and efficient solvent which can be utilized in biphasic mixtures for promoting macrocyclization at high concentrations. The latter phase separation technique can be exploited for the synthesis of a wide range of industrially relevant macrocycles with varying ring sizes and functional groups. PMID:22029394

  13. A nanoscale demonstration of hydrogen atom spillover and surface diffusion across silica using the kinetics of CO2 methanation catalyzed on spatially separate Pt and Co nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Simon K; Alayoglu, Selim; Specht, Colin; Kruse, Norbert; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-08-13

    Hydrogen spillover is of great importance to understanding many phenomena in heterogeneous catalysis and has long been controversial. Here we exploit well-defined nanoparticles to demonstrate its occurrence through evaluation of CO2 methanation kinetics. Combining platinum and cobalt nanoparticles causes a substantial increase in reaction rate, but increasing the spatial separation between discrete cobalt and platinum entities results in a dramatic ∼ 50% drop in apparent activation energy, symptomatic of H atom surface diffusion limiting the reaction rate. PMID:25026434

  14. Modelling aspects regarding the control in 13C isotope separation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Carbon represents the fourth most abundant chemical element in the world, having two stable and one radioactive isotope. The 13Carbon isotopes, with a natural abundance of 1.1%, plays an important role in numerous applications, such as the study of human metabolism changes, molecular structure studies, non-invasive respiratory tests, Alzheimer tests, air pollution and global warming effects on plants [9] A manufacturing control system manages the internal logistics in a production system and determines the routings of product instances, the assignment of workers and components, the starting of the processes on not-yet-finished product instances. Manufacturing control does not control the manufacturing processes themselves, but has to cope with the consequences of the processing results (e.g. the routing of products to a repair station). In this research it was fulfilled some UML (Unified Modelling Language) diagrams for modelling the C13 Isotope Separation column, implement in STARUML program. Being a critical process and needing a good control and supervising, the critical parameters in the column, temperature and pressure was control using some PLC (Programmable logic controller) and it was made some graphic analyze for this to observe some critical situation than can affect the separation process. The main parameters that need to be control are: -The liquid nitrogen (N2) level in the condenser. -The electrical power supplied to the boiler. -The vacuum pressure.

  15. Active Flow Separation Control on a NACA 0015 Wing Using Fluidic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Latunia P.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented from a recent set of wind tunnel experiments using sweeping jet actuators to control ow separation on the 30% chord trailing edge ap of a 30 deg. swept wing model with an aspect ratio (AR) of 4.35. Two sweeping jet actuator locations were examined, one on the flap shoulder and one on the trailing edge flap. The parameters that were varied included actuator momentum, freestream velocity, and trailing edge flap deflection (Delta f ) angle. The primary focus of this set of experiments was to determine the mass flow and momentum requirements for controlling separation on the flap, especially at large flap deflection angles which would be characteristic of a high lift system. Surface pressure data, force and moment data, and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) data were acquired to evaluate the performance benefits due to applying active flow control. Improvements in lift over the majority of the wing span were obtained using sweeping jet actuator control. High momentum coefficient, Cu, levels were needed when using the actuators on the ap because they were located downstream of separation. Actuators on the flap shoulder performed slightly better but actuator size, orientation, and spacing still need to be optimized.

  16. Flow Separation Control on A Full-Scale Vertical Tail Model Using Sweeping Jet Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andino, Marlyn Y.; Lin, John C.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Whalen, Edward A.; Graff, Emilio C.; Wygnanski, Israel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes test results of a joint NASA/Boeing research effort to advance Active Flow Control (AFC) technology to enhance aerodynamic efficiency. A full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail model equipped with sweeping jets AFC was tested at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The flow separation control optimization was performed at 100 knots, a maximum rudder deflection of 30deg, and sideslip angles of 0deg and -7.5deg. Greater than 20% increments in side force were achieved at the two sideslip angles with a 31-actuator AFC configuration. Flow physics and flow separation control associated with the AFC are presented in detail. AFC caused significant increases in suction pressure on the actuator side and associated side force enhancement. The momentum coefficient (C sub mu) is shown to be a useful parameter to use for scaling-up sweeping jet AFC from sub-scale tests to full-scale applications. Reducing the number of actuators at a constant total C(sub mu) of approximately 0.5% and tripling the actuator spacing did not significantly affect the flow separation control effectiveness.

  17. Characterization and Control of Separated Entrance Flow in a Branched Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. J.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the flow downstream of the inlet of a rectangular channel that is branched along the entire span of the side wall of a primary channel of the same height is investigated experimentally in an air facility. Of particular interest is the formation and scaling of a separated flow domain downstream of the entrance plane into the secondary channel and its interaction with the flow surfaces at speeds up to M = 0 . 4 . The separation is actively controlled using a spanwise array of fluidic actuators on the primary channel's surface upstream of the inlet plane of the secondary duct. The effects of the actuation on the evolution of the separation and attachment of the vorticity layer between upstream surface of the primary duct and the surface of the secondary duct downstream of the branched inlet in the presence of a strong confined adverse pressure gradient are investigated using particle image velocimetry coupled with detailed static surface pressure distributions. The effects of the controlled separation within the secondary channel on the global flow within the primary duct and on flow split between primary and secondary channels are assessed, and it is demonstrated that actuation can effect significant changes in the flow fractions between the channels. Copyright 2015 Boeing. All rights reserved.

  18. Separation-Compliant, Optimal Routing and Control of Scheduled Arrivals in a Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Davis, Damek; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of navigating a set (fleet) of aircraft in an aerial route network so as to bring each aircraft to its destination at a specified time and with minimal distance separation assured between all aircraft at all times. The speed range, initial position, required destination, and required time of arrival at destination for each aircraft are assumed provided. Each aircraft's movement is governed by a controlled differential equation (state equation). The problem consists in choosing for each aircraft a path in the route network and a control strategy so as to meet the constraints and reach the destination at the required time. The main contribution of the paper is a model that allows to recast this problem as a decoupled collection of problems in classical optimal control and is easily generalized to the case when inertia cannot be neglected. Some qualitative insight into solution behavior is obtained using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Sample numerical solutions are computed using a numerical optimal control solver. The proposed model is first step toward increasing the fidelity of continuous time control models of air traffic in a terminal airspace. The Pontryagin Maximum Principle implies the polygonal shape of those portions of the state trajectories away from those states in which one or more aircraft pair are at minimal separation. The model also confirms the intuition that, the narrower the allowed speed ranges of the aircraft, the smaller the space of optimal solutions, and that an instance of the optimal control problem may not have a solution at all (i.e., no control strategy that meets the separation requirement and other constraints).

  19. Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Law for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  20. Actuator fault tolerant multi-controller scheme using set separation based diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seron, María M.; De Doná, José A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a fault tolerant control strategy based on a new principle for actuator fault diagnosis. The scheme employs a standard bank of observers which match the different fault situations that can occur in the plant. Each of these observers has an associated estimation error with distinctive dynamics when an estimator matches the current fault situation of the plant. Based on the information from each observer, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) module is able to reconfigure the control loop by selecting the appropriate control law from a bank of controllers, each of them designed to stabilise and achieve reference tracking for one of the given fault models. The main contribution of this article is to propose a new FDI principle which exploits the separation of sets that characterise healthy system operation from sets that characterise transitions from healthy to faulty behaviour. The new principle allows to provide pre-checkable conditions for guaranteed fault tolerance of the overall multi-controller scheme.

  1. Insertion of interlayers in efficient polymer-based organic solar cells for control of phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taima, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Jun; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2016-02-01

    To improve the solar cell performance of polymer-based organic solar cells, the control of phase separation in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer is important. In the case of a thienothiophene-benzodithiophene-based polymer (PTB7)-based solar cell, 1,8-diiodoctane (DIO) is added into the chlorobenzene solvent. However, it is well known that DIO addition causes degradation in long-term operation. Here, we try to improve the performance of the PTB7-based BHJ solar cell by controlling the phase separation in the BHJ layer through the insertion of an inorganic semiconducting copper iodide (CuI) interlayer between the BHJ layer and indium tin oxide. The power conversion efficiency of the PTB7-based solar cell is improved from 3.5 to 3.9% upon inserting the CuI interlayer without DIO addition.

  2. Spatial and geometrical control of silicification using a patterned poly- L-lysine template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Randall T.; Ferrell, Nicholas J.; Hansford, Derek J.

    2006-08-01

    A simple process to achieve patterned silica films is described. The patterning of the catalyst poly- L-lysine via photolithography and liftoff enables the spatial and geometrical control of silicification. Microscopy and chemical characterization demonstrate that this process enables consistent patterning of silica with 10 μm resolution in a variety of geometries. In addition, the spatial and geometrical control of the silica is demonstrated under different reaction conditions and yields various silica morphologies. The ability to simultaneously pattern bio-inspired silica and control its morphology may allow the tailoring of silica and other silicon-based materials for future applications.

  3. Simulation and simulator development of a separate surface attitude command control system for light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the simulation philosophy and process used in the development of a Separate Surface Attitude Command control system (SSAC) for a Beech Model 99 Airliner. The intent of this system is to provide complete three axes stability augmentation at low cost and without the need for system redundancy. The system, although aimed at the general aviation market, also has applications to certain military airplanes as well as to miniature submarines.

  4. Propulsion-free separation and rendezvous of small shuttle free-flyers using controlled differential drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A natural successor in the Shuttle era to many sounding rocket flights is the free-flyer mode of operation, in which the Shuttle Orbiter releases a subsatellite (with payloads), effects a desired separation, and approaches and retrieves the free-layer. The propulsive maneuvers required of the Orbiter by equivalent relative motions obtained through controlled differential drag (via changes in free-layer effective area and/or Orbiter attitude changes) are replaced. Simplified analytical techniques are developed and feasibility is verified.

  5. Aspects regarding at 13C isotope separation column control using Petri nets system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.; Ciortea, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is intended to show that Petri nets can be also applicable in the chemical industry. It used linear programming, modeling underlying Petri nets, especially discrete event systems for isotopic separation, the purpose of considering and control events in real-time through graphical representations. In this paper it is simulate the control of 13C Isotope Separation column using Petri nets. The major problem with 13C comes from the difficulty of obtaining it and raising its natural fraction. Carbon isotopes can be obtained using many methods, one of them being the cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide. Some few aspects regarding operating conditions and the construction of such cryogenic plants are known today, and even less information are available as far as the separation process modeling and control are concerned. In fact, the efficient control of the carbon monoxide distillation process represents a necessity for large-scale 13C production. Referring to a classic distillation process, some models for carbon isotope separation have been proposed, some based on mass, component and energy balance equations, some on the nonlinear wave theory or the Cohen equations. For modeling the system it was used Petri nets because in this case it is deal with discrete event systems. In use of the non-timed and with auxiliary times Petri model, the transport stream was divided into sections and these sections will be analyzed successively. Because of the complexity of the system and the large amount of calculations required it was not possible to analyze the system as a unitary whole. A first attempt to model the system as a unitary whole led to the blocking of the model during simulation, because of the large processing times.

  6. The importance of appropriate temporal and spatial scales for dengue fever control and management.

    PubMed

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-07-15

    It is important to have appropriate models for the surveillance and control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever (DF). These models need to be based on appropriate temporal and spatial scales. The aim of this study was to illustrate the impact of different temporal and spatial scales on DF control decisions. We applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic at different temporal and spatial scales to examine the local level of spatial clusters at these scales in order to identify and visualize areas where numbers of adult female Aedes mosquitoes were extreme and geographically homogenous. The modeled hotspot areas were different, depending on whether they were modeled on weekly, monthly or yearly aggregated data. A similar result was found when using different spatial scales for modeling, with different scales giving different hotspot regions. For 2006, the highest risk areas (18 districts) were mostly identified in the central districts with a high rate of similarity (95%) compared to the highest risk areas (19) identified in the averaged five-year period model. Knowledge of appropriate temporal and spatial scales can provide an opportunity to specify the health burden of DF and its vector within the hotspots, as well as set a platform that can help to pursue further investigations into associated factors responsible for increased disease risk based on different temporal and spatial scales.

  7. Recent Observations on Shortfin Mako Scale Flexibility as a Mechanism for Separation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Motta, Philip; Habegger, Maria; Jones, Emily; Hueter, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Recent results obtained from examining the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) suggest that scale flexibility may provide a passive, flow actuated mechanism for controlling flow separation. The shortfin mako is considered to be one of the fastest and most agile marine predators. High contragility, or the ability to change direction while already in a turn, requires minimal form drag and thus control of flow separation on body regions aft of the point of maximum girth. Recent biological observations have found that the shortfin mako has highly flexible scales, or denticles, particularly on the sides of the body downstream of the gills; in these regions scale crowns can be easily manipulated to angles in excess of 60 degrees. Histological data of the skin provides preliminary evidence that this flexibility is achieved due, in part, to a reduction in the size of the base of the scale where it is anchored into the skin. Experimental measurements of maximum angle of denticle bristling observed as a function of body location will be presented and a probable mechanism leading to separation control will be discussed.

  8. Analysis of an atom laser based on the spatial control of the scattering length

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, Alicia V.; Michinel, Humberto; Rodas-Verde, Maria I.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-07-15

    In this paper we analyze atom lasers based on the spatial modulation of the scattering length of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We demonstrate, through numerical simulations and approximate analytical methods, the controllable emission of matter-wave bursts and study the dependence of the process on the spatial shape of the scattering length along the axis of emission. We also study the role of an additional modulation of the scattering length in time.

  9. Spatially-based quality control for daily precipitation datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; de Luis, Martín; Beguería, Santiago; Ángel Saz, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    There are many reasons why wrong data can appear in original precipitation datasets but their common characteristic is that all of them do not correspond to the natural variability of the climate variable. For this reason, is necessary a comprehensive analysis of the data of each station in each day, to be certain that the final dataset will be consistent and reliable. Most of quality control techniques applied over daily precipitation are based on the comparison of each observed value with the rest of values in same series or in reference series built from its nearest stations. These methods are inherited from monthly precipitation studies, but in daily scale the variability is bigger and the methods have to be different. A common character shared by all of these approaches is that they made reconstructions based on the best-correlated reference series, which could be a biased decision because, for example, a extreme precipitation occurred in one day in more than one station could be flagged as erroneous. We propose a method based on the specific conditions of the day and location to determine the reliability of each observation. This method keeps the local variance of the variable and the time-structure independence. To do that, individually for each daily value, we first compute the probability of precipitation occurrence through a multivariate logistic regression using the 10 nearest observations in a binomial mode (0=dry; 1=wet), this produces a binomial prediction (PB) between 0 and 1. Then, we compute a prediction of precipitation magnitude (PM) with the raw data of the same 10 nearest observations. Through these predictions we explore the original data in each day and location by five criteria: 1) Suspect data; 2) Suspect zero; 3) Suspect outlier; 4) Suspect wet and 5) Suspect dry. Tests over different datasets addressed that flagged data depend mainly on the number of available data and the homogeneous distribution of them.

  10. Transitioning Resolution Responsibility between the Controller and Automation Team in Simulated NextGen Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrall, C.; Gomez, A.; Homola, J.; Hunt, S..; Martin, L.; Merccer, J.; Prevott, T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research effort on separation assurance and functional allocation in NextGen, a controller- in-the-loop study with ground-based automation was conducted at NASA Ames' Airspace Operations Laboratory in August 2012 to investigate the potential impact of introducing self-separating aircraft in progressively advanced NextGen timeframes. From this larger study, the current exploratory analysis of controller-automation interaction styles focuses on the last and most far-term time frame. Measurements were recorded that firstly verified the continued operational validity of this iteration of the ground-based functional allocation automation concept in forecast traffic densities up to 2x that of current day high altitude en-route sectors. Additionally, with greater levels of fully automated conflict detection and resolution as well as the introduction of intervention functionality, objective and subjective analyses showed a range of passive to active controller- automation interaction styles between the participants. Not only did the controllers work with the automation to meet their safety and capacity goals in the simulated future NextGen timeframe, they did so in different ways and with different attitudes of trust/use of the automation. Taken as a whole, the results showed that the prototyped controller-automation functional allocation framework was very flexible and successful overall.

  11. An instrument to control parallel plate separation for nanoscale flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J.; Ma, H.; Lang, J.; Slocum, A.

    2003-11-01

    The handling of extremely small samples of gases and liquids has long been a subject of research among biologists, chemists, and engineers. A few scientific instruments, notably the surface force apparatus, have been used extensively to investigate very short-range molecular phenomena. This article describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of an easily manufactured, gas and liquid flow control device called the Nanogate. The Nanogate controls liquid flows under very high planar confinement, wherein the liquid film is, in one dimension, on the scale of nanometers, but is on the scale of hundreds of microns in its other dimensions. The liquid film is confined between a silica (Pyrex) surface with a typical roughness of Ra≈6 nm and a gold-covered silicon surface with a typical roughness of Ra≈2 nm. During the manufacturing process, the Pyrex flows and conforms to the gold-covered silicon surface, improving the mating properties of the two surfaces. The fluid film thickness can be controlled within 2 Å, from sub-10 nm up to 1 μm. Control of helium gas flow rates in the 10-9 atm cm3/s range, and sub-nl/s flow rates of water and methanol have been predicted and experimentally verified.

  12. Boundary layer and separation control on wings at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanling

    Results on boundary layer and separation control through acoustic excitation at low Re numbers are reported. The Eppler 387 profile is specifically chosen because of its pre-stall hysteresis and bi-stable state behavior in the transitional Re regime, which is a result of flow separation and reattachment. External acoustic forcing on the wing yields large improvements (more than 70%) in lift-to-drag ratio and flow reattachment at forcing frequencies that correlate with the measured anti-resonances in the wind tunnel. The optimum St/Re1/2 range for Re = 60,000 matches the proposed optimum range in the literature, but there is less agreement for Re = 40,000, which suggests that correct St scaling has not been determined. The correlation of aerodynamic improvements to wind tunnel resonances implies that external acoustic forcing is facility-dependent, which inhibits practical application. Therefore, internal acoustic excitation for the same wing profile is also pursued. Internal acoustic forcing is designed to be accomplished by embedding small speakers inside a custom-designed wing that contains many internal cavities and small holes in the suction surface. However, initial testing of this semi-porous wing model shows that the presence of the small holes in the suction surface completely transforms the aerodynamic performance by changing the mean chordwise separation location and causing an originally separated, low-lift state flow to reattach into a high-lift state. The aerodynamic improvements are not caused by the geometry of the small holes themselves, but rather by Helmholtz resonance that occurs in the cavities, which generate tones that closely match the intrinsic flow instabilities. Essentially, opening and closing holes in the suction surface of a wing, perhaps by digital control, can be used as a means of passive separation control. Given the similarity of wing-embedded pressure tap systems to Helmholtz resonators, particular attention must be given to the

  13. Controlling quantum dynamics regardless of laser beam spatial profile and molecular orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabitz, Herschel; Turinici, Gabriel

    2007-04-01

    In a typical experiment aiming to control quantum dynamics phenomena, each molecule experiences the same temporal laser field, but with an amplitude that depends on the spatial location and orientation of the molecule in the laser beam. It is proved under commonly arising conditions that at least one optimal laser field exists which will control all molecules in the sample, regardless of their orientation or spatial location. The optimal laser field may consist of a multipolarization control containing up to three orthogonal, independently shaped components. The analysis also includes the prospect of multipartite control where the field couples distinct groupings of states (e.g., multiple vibronic states), but without direct coupling within a group of states. This conclusion shows that achieving quantum control is not a matter of striking a compromise over the sample diversity, but rather a task subject to optimization to reach the highest possible level of control for all molecules in the sample.

  14. Spatial separation from family in the mobile young of a biparental fish: risks and dynamics of returning home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Jenkins, Stacey S. Y.; Jeswiet, Sarah B.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.

    2014-01-01

    In species with extended parental care, mobile dependent young are potentially more vulnerable to predators when they stray and become separated from their parents. We would expect that the likelihood of, and latency time for, a separated young to safely return to its `family unit' (i.e. parents and brood mates) to be, respectively, inversely and positively related to the initial distance of separation and potentially mediated by its age or body size. Using the biparental convict cichlid fish ( Amatitlania siquia), we tested these predictions by capturing individual young and displacing them at varying distances from their family unit in both the field and laboratory. As expected, displaced fish were less likely, and took longer, to return to their family with increasing separation distance from the family unit. The body length of displaced young mediated these relationships and their antipredator behaviour; larger young refuged more than smaller ones and were also less likely to be eaten by predators. These results suggest that selection should favour strong affiliative behaviour in mobile young animals towards their brood mates and protective parents because straying from the family unit leads to increased exposure to predation and a reduced likelihood of returning home with increasing separation distance.

  15. Spatial variation of the colonic microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis and control volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, A; Lennon, G; O'Sullivan, O; Docherty, N; Balfe, A; Maguire, A; Mulcahy, H E; Doherty, G; O'Donoghue, D; Hyland, J; Ross, R P; Coffey, J C; Sheahan, K; Cotter, P D; Shanahan, F; Winter, D C; O'Connell, P R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The relevance of spatial composition in the microbial changes associated with UC is unclear. We coupled luminal brush samples, mucosal biopsies and laser capture microdissection with deep sequencing of the gut microbiota to develop an integrated spatial assessment of the microbial community in controls and UC. Design A total of 98 samples were sequenced to a mean depth of 31 642 reads from nine individuals, four control volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy and five patients undergoing surgical colectomy for medically-refractory UC. Samples were retrieved at four colorectal locations, incorporating the luminal microbiota, mucus gel layer and whole mucosal biopsies. Results Interpersonal variability accounted for approximately half of the total variance. Surprisingly, within individuals, asymmetric Eigenvector map analysis demonstrated differentiation between the luminal and mucus gel microbiota, in both controls and UC, with no differentiation between colorectal regions. At a taxonomic level, differentiation was evident between both cohorts, as well as between the luminal and mucosal compartments, with a small group of taxa uniquely discriminating the luminal and mucosal microbiota in colitis. There was no correlation between regional inflammation and a breakdown in this spatial differentiation or bacterial diversity. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a conserved spatial structure to the colonic microbiota, differentiating the luminal and mucosal communities, within the context of marked interpersonal variability. While elements of this structure overlap between UC and control volunteers, there are differences between the two groups, both in terms of the overall taxonomic composition and how spatial structure is ascribable to distinct taxa. PMID:25596182

  16. An Experimental Study of Flow Separation Control by Shortfin Mako Shark Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afroz, Farhana; Lang, Amy; Motta, Philip; Habegger, Maria

    2013-11-01

    The shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a fast swimmer and has incredible turning agility. Shark skin is covered with flexible scales and this bristling capability may result in a unique Boundary Layer Control (BLC) method to reduce drag. It is hypothesized that scales bristle when the flow above it is reversed, and between the bristled scales embedded micro-vortices form in the cavities which induce boundary layer mixing and aid in delaying flow separation. To testify this hypothesis, samples of mako shark skin have been tested in a water tunnel under various strengths of adverse pressure gradient (APG). Laminar and turbulent separation over shark skin was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-DPIV) system, where the APG was generated and varied using a rotating cylinder. Then shark skin results were compared with that of a flat plate data for a given amount of APG. The study reveals that shark skin is capable of controlling both laminar and turbulent flow separation. Support under NSF grant 0932352 is gratefully acknowledged. First author Farhana Afroz was also supported by a scholarship through the Alabama EPSCoR Graduate Research Scholars Program.

  17. A frequency-control particle separation device based on resultant effects of electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiang-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2016-08-01

    Particle separation plays an important role in microfluidic sample preparation for various biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a particle manipulation and separation scheme using a microfluidic device based on low-volume/low-voltage electrokinetic frequency modulation. Utilizing a circular micro-electrode array, both electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis can be contributed to manipulate particles in the device by controlling the frequency of applied sinusoidal travelling wave signals. Theoretical simulations based on finite-element methods are employed to establish fundamental understanding of the developed scheme. For experimental demonstration, polystyrene beads (6 μm in diameter) and human promyelocytic leukaemia cells (HL-60) are used to validate the frequency-modulation effect. Furthermore, different diameter polystyrene beads (6 μm and 10 μm in diameter) are mixed to show potentials of precise particle separations (˜90% efficiency) by the reported frequency-controlled electrokinetic device. The developed technique can be exploited as an actuation scheme and particle manipulation method for microfluidic sample preparations of low ionic concentration samples.

  18. Simulation of body force field effects on airfoil separation control and optimization of plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoli, A.; Mirzaee, I.; Anvari, A.; Purmahmod, N.

    2008-09-01

    Among all active flow control methods, EHD, MHD and EMHD are the only methods which operate on the basis of body force induction on flow field. The EHD plasma actuator is the proper method which has been used in various flow control applications recently. In this paper, the effects of different body force fields on different domains have been studied for separation control on NACA 0021 and the results have been discussed. The airflow velocity has been assumed to be 35 m s-1 at a post-stall angle of attack of 23°. Three different domains have been used around the airfoil to investigate body forces with different strengths and directions and those which give the best result in separation control have been obtained for each domain. It has been shown that the results could be used for optimizing the plasma actuator by manipulating its electrode configuration. Two non-dimensional numbers, Ab and Dc, have been obtained and validated by different applied body forces. These numbers have been defined for plasma actuators to show their efficiency in different applications.

  19. Control and optimization of apheresis procedures in a COBE 2997 cell separator.

    PubMed

    Wooten, S L; Petersen, J N; Van Wie, B J

    1991-02-01

    To obtain more efficient operation of a COBE Model 2997 clinical cell separator using either a Single Stage II (SS II) or a Dual Stage separation chamber, modifications were made to allow complete computer control. Product cell density was detected using an optical sensor and controlled by automatic feedback through a microcomputer interface. Control was accomplished by automatically adjusting the red blood cell (RBC) and plasma product flow rates using a proportional-integral (PI) algorithm. Results show that, using either chamber, the product cell density can be maintained at a preselected value for extended periods of time without operator intervention. This system allowed investigation of optimal operating regions for plateletpheresis and leukapheresis procedures. The effects of centrifuge rpm and controller set point on centrifuge operation were investigated using a second order factorial experimental design. Theoretical significance of model parameters was assessed with the aid of a hindered settling model and simple reasoning about the interface position relative to the collection port. The results suggest that, in either chamber, the optimum operating region for plateletpheresis procedures occurs at moderate controller set points and high centrifuge rpm. The resultant operating efficiency and product purity values are approximately 63 percent and 0.65 respectively in the SS II chamber and approximately 70 percent and 0.70 respectively in the Dual Chamber. In the SS II, the optimum operating region for leukapheresis procedures occurred at high controller set point values for any centrifuge rpm above 1200 with an operating efficiency near 100 percent. However, in the Dual Chamber, the optimum operating region for leukapheresis procedures occurred at high controller set points and high centrifuge rpm's, again providing an operating efficiency near 100 percent.

  20. Beam control and diagnostic functions in the NIF transport spatial filter

    SciTech Connect

    Holdener, F.R.; Ables, E.; Bliss, E.S.

    1996-10-01

    Beam control and diagnostic systems are required to align the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser prior to a shot as well as to provide diagnostics on 192 beam lines at shot time. A design that allows each beam`s large spatial filter lenses to also serve as objective lenses for beam control and diagnostic sensor packages helps to accomplish the task at a reasonable cost. However, this approach also causes a high concentration of small optics near the pinhole plane of the transport spatial filter (TSF) at the output of each beam. This paper describes the optomechanical design in and near the central vacuum vessel of the TSF.

  1. Generation of optical vortices with the same topological charges and controllable separation distances using diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasempour Ardakani, Abbas; Safarzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we first generate optical vortices with different topological charges, using the method of computer-generated holograms. Then, we separate one of the optical vortices from others with a special topological charge and pass it through a diffraction grating with a specified line spacing. It is observed that the vortex beam, after passing through the grating, converts to several separated vortices with the same topological charge whose value is similar to the topological charge of the input vortex. Finally, we show that the distance between generated vortices can be controlled with the variation of spacing between grating lines. So, the proposed setup in this paper can be exploited as an optical vortex divider which is useful in communication and trapping systems.

  2. Controlling Directionality and Dimensionality of Radiation by Perturbing Separable Bound States in the Continuum.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement. PMID:27641540

  3. Separation Control for Wing Surface Flow using Dielectric-barrier Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motofumi; Hayashi, Kazuo; Otomo, Fumio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Noda, Etsuo; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Shimura, Naohiko; Niizeki, Yoshiki; Noda, Shinichi

    The effect of momentum addition by a dielectric-barrier discharge was experimentally investigated. At first, flow induced by the discharge on a flat plate was investigated. Velocity profile was visualized by the smoke-wire technique and measured by a hot-wire anemometer. Maximum velocity was several meters per second at 1mm above the plate. Induced flow affect the velocity profile of boundary layer on the plate. Secondary, separation control for wing surface flow was investigated using a 9cm chord NACA0015 in a wind tunnel at 20m/s of air stream velocity (Re˜105). Barrier discharge electrode was set on the leading edge of the wing. Separation angle was increased by 4 degrees and the maximum of the lift coefficient was improved by 17% with discharge power of 0.4W.

  4. Controlling Directionality and Dimensionality of Radiation by Perturbing Separable Bound States in the Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement.

  5. Controlling Directionality and Dimensionality of Radiation by Perturbing Separable Bound States in the Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Nicholas; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    A bound state in the continuum (BIC) is an unusual localized state that is embedded in a continuum of extended states. Here, we present the general condition for BICs to arise from wave equation separability. Then we show that by exploiting perturbations of certain symmetry such BICs can be turned into resonances that radiate with a tailorable directionality and dimensionality. Using this general framework, we construct new examples of separable BICs and resonances that can exist in optical potentials for ultracold atoms, photonic systems, and systems described by tight binding. Such resonances with easily reconfigurable radiation allow for applications such as the storage and release of waves at a controllable rate and direction, as well systems that switch between different dimensions of confinement. PMID:27641540

  6. Formation of asymmetrical structured silica controlled by a phase separation process and implication for biosilicification.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia-Yuan; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Li, Xi-Ming; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH3)4) as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL) and dodecylamine (DA) were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), infrared spectra (IR), and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines), phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma) and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification.

  7. Formation of Asymmetrical Structured Silica Controlled by a Phase Separation Process and Implication for Biosilicification

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jia-Yuan; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Li, Xi-Ming; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH3)4) as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL) and dodecylamine (DA) were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), infrared spectra (IR), and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines), phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma) and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification. PMID:23585878

  8. Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    A unique active flow-control device is proposed for the control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils. The device is an adaptive-geometry leading-edge which will allow controlled, dynamic modification of the leading-edge profile of an airfoil while the airfoil is executing an angle-of-attack pitch-up maneuver. A carbon-fiber composite skin has been bench tested, and a wind tunnel model is under construction. A baseline parameter study of compressible dynamic stall was performed for flow over an NACA 0012 airfoil. Parameters included Mach number, pitch rate, pitch history, and boundary layer tripping. Dynamic stall data were recorded via point-diffraction interferometry and the interferograms were analyzed with in-house developed image processing software. A new high-speed phase-locked photographic image recording system was developed for real-time documentation of dynamic stall.

  9. Building spatially-structured biofilms with single-cell control using laser trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodesney, Christopher; Hutchison, Jaime; Kaushik, Karishma; Le, Henry; Hurwitz, Daniel; Irie, Yasuhiko; Gordon, Vernita

    2015-03-01

    Biofilms are sessile communities of microbes adhered to each other and to an interface. Biofilm infections are notoriously difficult to eradicate, and this arises in part from phenotypic changes due to the spatial structure of the biofilm. Spatial structure controls the microenvironment and intercellular associations, which in turn controls gene expression, virulence, and antibiotic resistance. There are few tools available for elucidating the role of spatial structure in biofilms. We present a method for controlling the positions of bacteria on a surface using optical trapping without impinging cell viability. Initial positions propagate into the developing biofilm, creating spatial structure. The native growth, motility, and surface adhesion of positioned cells are preserved, as shown for model organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate statistically-significant effects of spatial structure on the growth of monoculture P. aeruginosa biofilms and for co-culture biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Because the laser trap we use is very basic and the other equipment required is inexpensive and standard, we believe that our technique will be a widely-usable tool for biological and physical collaborators at many types of institutions.

  10. Investigation of coherent structures generated by acoustic tube in turbulent flow separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xingyu; Geisler, Reinhard; Agocs, Janos; Schröder, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    An acoustic tube was designed in order to control the turbulent flow separation downstream of a backward-facing step. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the step height was Re h = 2.0 × 104. As an active flow control device, the acoustic tube generated periodic pressure perturbations at a frequency of f a = 100 Hz, which was close to the most amplified frequency of the shedding instability of the turbulent shear layer. Spanwise vortices rolled up due to the perturbations. 2D-2C particle image velocimetry was used to measure separated shear layer and the reattachment area downstream of the BFS. The flow control results show that the acoustic tube can suppress recirculation regions behind the step and reduce the reattachment length by 43.7 %. The roll-up and pairing processes of the vortices lead to an increase in the total Reynolds shear stress. The coherent structures are extracted by proper orthogonal decomposition and represented by two pairs of modes, of which the coherence is analyzed by the corresponding coefficients. Both the primary and secondary series of vortices are reconstructed as traveling waves with the fundamental frequency f a and the overtone frequency 2 f a, respectively.

  11. The effect of large aspect ratio wing yaw on active separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewes, Philipp; Taubert, Lutz; Wygnanski, Israel

    2014-11-01

    The applicability of the boundary layer independence principle to turbulent boundary layers developing on infinitely yawed wings, suggested that active separation control might be carried out differently to the two presumably independent developing boundary layers. At low incidence or flap deflection the control of the spanwise component of the flow is effective provided the aggregate number of actuators is small. In this case the actuator jets provide jet-curtains that virtually eliminate the spanwise flow component of the flow in their vicinity. At higher incidence or flap deflection, the focus of the active separation control has to shift to the chordwise component that has to overcome a high adverse pressure gradient. The idea was proven experimentally on a flapped wing based on a NACA 0012 airfoil that could be swept back and forward while being suspended from a ceiling of a wind tunnel connected to a six-component balance. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers varying between 300,000 and 500,000. The project was supported in part by a grant from AFOSR.

  12. Summary of the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Gatski, T. B.; Sellers, W. L., III; Vatsa, V. N.; Viken, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    A CFD validation workshop for synthetic jets and turbulent separation control (CFDVAL2004) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia in March 2004. Three cases were investigated: synthetic jet into quiescent air, synthetic jet into a turbulent boundary layer crossflow, and flow over a hump model with no-flow-control, steady suction, and oscillatory control. This paper is a summary of the CFD results from the workshop. Although some detailed results are shown, mostly a broad viewpoint is taken, and the CFD state-of-the-art for predicting these types of flows is evaluated from a general point of view. Overall, for synthetic jets, CFD can only qualitatively predict the flow physics, but there is some uncertainty regarding how to best model the unsteady boundary conditions from the experiment consistently. As a result. there is wide variation among CFD results. For the hump flow, CFD as a whole is capable of predicting many of the particulars of this flow provided that tunnel blockage is accounted for, but the length of the separated region compared to experimental results is consistently overpredicted.

  13. Control of Chemical Effects in the Separation Process of a Differential Mobility / Mass Spectrometer System

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Bradley B.; Coy, Stephen L.; Krylov, Evgeny V.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.

    2013-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) separates ions on the basis of the difference in their migration rates under high versus low electric fields. Several models describing the physical nature of this field mobility dependence have been proposed but emerging as a dominant effect is the clusterization model sometimes referred to as the dynamic cluster-decluster model. DMS resolution and peak capacity is strongly influenced by the addition of modifiers which results in the formation and dissociation of clusters. This process increases selectivity due to the unique chemical interactions that occur between an ion and neutral gas phase molecules. It is thus imperative to bring the parameters influencing the chemical interactions under control and find ways to exploit them in order to improve the analytical utility of the device. In this paper we describe three important areas that need consideration in order to stabilize and capitalize on the chemical processes that dominate a DMS separation. The first involves means of controlling the dynamic equilibrium of the clustering reactions with high concentrations of specific reagents. The second area involves a means to deal with the unwanted heterogeneous cluster ion populations emitted from the electrospray ionization process that degrade resolution and sensitivity. The third involves fine control of parameters that affect the fundamental collision processes, temperature and pressure. PMID:20065515

  14. Investigating the Complexity of Transitioning Separation Assurance Tools into NextGen Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Ashley Nicole; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey; Morey, Susan; Cabrall, Christopher; Mercer, Joey; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a study, that introduced ground-based separation assurance automation through a series of envisioned transitional phases of concept maturity, it was found that subjective responses to scales of workload, situation awareness, and acceptability in a post run questionnaire revealed as-predicted results for three of the four study conditions but not for the third, Moderate condition. The trend continued for losses of separation (LOS) where the number of LOS events were far greater than expected in the Moderate condition. To offer an account of why the Moderate condition was perceived to be more difficult to manage than predicted, researchers examined the increase in amount and complexity of traffic, increase in communication load, and increased complexities as a result of the simulation's mix of aircraft equipage. Further analysis compared the tools presented through the phases, finding that controllers took advantage of the informational properties of the tools presented but shied away from using their decision support capabilities. Taking into account similar findings from other studies, it is suggested that the Moderate condition represented the first step into a "shared control" environment, which requires the controller to use the automation as a decision making partner rather than just a provider of information. Viewed in this light, the combination of tools offered in the Moderate condition was reviewed and some tradeoffs that may offset the identified complexities were suggested.

  15. Summary of the 2004 CFD Validation Workshop on Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Gatski, T. B.; Sellers, W. L., III; Vatsa, V. N.; Viken, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation workshop for synthetic jets and turbulent separation control (CFDVAL2004) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia in March 2004. Three cases were investigated: synthetic jet into quiescent air, synthetic jet into a turbulent boundary layer crossflow, and flow over a hump model with no-flow-control, steady suction, and oscillatory control. This paper is a summary of the CFD results from the workshop. Although some detailed results are shown, mostly a broad viewpoint is taken, and the CFD state-of-the-art for predicting these types of flows is evaluated from a general point of view. Overall, for synthetic jets, CFD can only qualitatively predict the flow physics, but there is some uncertainty regarding how to best model the unsteady boundary conditions from the experiment consistently. As a result, there is wide variation among CFD results. For the hump flow, CFD as a whole is capable of predicting many of the particulars of this flow provided that tunnel blockage is accounted for, but the length of the separated region compared to experimental results is consistently overpredicted.

  16. Control of chemical effects in the separation process of a differential mobility mass spectrometer system.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R; Coy, Stephen L; Krylov, Evgeny V; Nazarov, Erkinjon G

    2010-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) separates ions on the basis of the difference in their migration rates under high versus low electric fields. Several models describing the physical nature of this field mobility dependence have been proposed but emerging as a dominant effect is the clusterization model sometimes referred to as the dynamic cluster-decluster model. DMS resolution and peak capacity is strongly influenced by the addition of modifiers which results in the formation and dissociation of clusters. This process increases selectivity due to the unique chemical interactions that occur between an ion and neutral gas-phase molecules. It is thus imperative to bring the parameters influencing the chemical interactions under control and find ways to exploit them in order to improve the analytical utility of the device. In this paper, we describe three important areas that need consideration in order to stabilize and capitalize on the chemical processes that dominate a DMS separation. The first involves means of controlling the dynamic equilibrium of the clustering reactions with high concentrations of specific reagents. The second area involves a means to deal with the unwanted heterogeneous cluster ion populations emitted from the electrospray ionization process that degrade resolution and sensitivity. The third involves fine control of parameters that affect the fundamental collision processes, temperature and pressure.

  17. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  18. Randomized control trial of computer-based rehabilitation of spatial neglect syndrome: the RESPONSE trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spatial neglect is a frequent and debilitating consequence of acquired brain injury and currently has no widely accepted standard of care. While previous interventions for spatial neglect have targeted patients’ overt spatial deficits (e.g., reduced contralesional visual scanning), far fewer have directly targeted patients’ non-spatial deficits (e.g., sustained attention deficits). Considering that non-spatial deficits have shown to be highly predictive of long-term disability, we developed a novel computer based training program that targets both sustained (tonic) and moment-to-moment (phasic) aspects of non-spatial attention (Tonic and Phasic Alertness Training, TAPAT). Preliminary studies demonstrate that TAPAT is safe and effective in improving both spatial and non-spatial attention deficits in the post-acute recovery phase in neglect patients. The purpose of the current trial (referred to as the REmediation of SPatial Neglect or RESPONSE trial) is to compare TAPAT to an active control training condition, include a larger sample of patients, and assess both cognitive and functional outcomes. Methods/Design We will employ a multi-site, longitudinal, blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with a target sample of 114 patients with spatial neglect. Patients will either perform, at their home, the experimental TAPAT training program or an active control computer games condition for thirty minutes/day, five days a week, over three months. Patients will be assessed on a battery of cognitive and functional outcomes on three occasions: a) immediately before training, b) within forty-eight hours post completion of total training, and c) after a three-month no-contact period post completion of total training, to assess the longevity of potential training effects. Discussion The strengths of this protocol are that it tests an innovative, in-home administered treatment that targets a fundamental deficit in neglect, employs highly sensitive computer

  19. Application of suppression of the borrmann effect in vibrating crystals for spatial separation of pulsed X-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosik, V. L.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of suppression of the anomalous transmission of X rays due to the destruction of the system of weakly and strongly absorbing Bloch waves under ultrasound has been proposed to separate the radiation of high-intensity pulsed X-ray sources. The switching speed from the anomalous transmission mode to the zero transmission state is actually determined by only the X-ray frequency, which suggests that the switching time is several tens of nanoseconds.

  20. Upgrading of PVC rich wastes by magnetic density separation and hyperspectral imaging quality control.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Valentina; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Rem, Peter; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is one of the most produced polymers in Europe, with a share of 11% in terms of mass (8 milliontons) of total polymer consumption, but in 2010 only 5% of the total PVC production came from recycled materials, where other polymer recycling achieves a level of 15% on average. In order to find an innovative process to extract PVC from window frames waste, a combination of two innovative technologies was tested: magnetic density separation (MDS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI). By its nature, MDS is a flexible high precision density separation technology that is applicable to any mixture of polymers and contaminants with non-overlapping densities. As PVC has a very distinctive high density, this technology was tested to obtain high-grade PVC pre-concentrates from window frame waste. HSI was used to perform a quality control of the products obtained by MDS showing that PVC was clearly discriminated from unwanted rubber particles of different colors. The results showed that the combined application of MDS and HSI techniques allowed to separate and to check the purity of PVC from window frame waste.

  1. Controlling turbulent boundary layer separation using biologically inspired 2D transverse grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Amy; Jones, Emily; Afroz, Farhana

    2013-11-01

    It is theorized that the presence of grooves, such as the sinusoidal ones found on dolphin skin or the cavities that form between bristled shark skin scales, can lead to induced boundary layer mixing and result in the control of turbulent boundary layer separation. To test this hypothesis, a series of water tunnel experiments using DPIV studied the characteristics of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer whereby a rotating cylinder was used to induce an adverse pressure gradient and resulting flow separation. The experiments were repeated with the use of a plate covered with two types of grooves, rectangular and sinusoidal, with a spacing of 2 mm in size. Flow similarity of the cavity flow was preserved between the experiments and flow over bristled shark skin scales. Both geometries resulted in a reduction of flow separation as measured by backflow coefficient. In addition, Reynolds stress profiles showed that as the pressure gradient was increased, the sinusoidal geometry outperformed the rectangular grooves in terms of increased mixing close to the wall. The sinusoidal plate also generated a lower momentum deficit within the boundary layer which would indicate a smaller drag penalty. Support from NSF grant CBET 0932352 and a UA Graduate Council Fellowship is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation of glycol ethers for forward osmotic control.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Daichi; Mok, Yeongbong; Noh, Minwoo; Park, Jeongseon; Kang, Sunyoung; Lee, Yan

    2014-03-21

    Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition of glycol ether (GE)-water mixtures induces an abrupt change in osmotic pressure driven by a mild temperature change. The temperature-controlled osmotic change was applied for the forward osmosis (FO) desalination. Among three GEs evaluated, di(ethylene glycol) n-hexyl ether (DEH) was selected as a potential FO draw solute. A DEH-water mixture with a high osmotic pressure could draw fresh water from a high-salt feed solution such as seawater through a semipermeable membrane at around 10 °C. The water-drawn DEH-water mixture was phase-separated into a water-rich phase and a DEH-rich phase at around 30 °C. The water-rich phase with a much reduced osmotic pressure released water into a low-salt solution, and the DEH-rich phase was recovered into the initial DEH-water mixture. The phase separation behaviour, the residual GE concentration in the water-rich phase, the osmotic pressure of the DEH-water mixture, and the osmotic flux between the DEH-water mixture and salt solutions were carefully analysed for FO desalination. The liquid-liquid phase separation of the GE-water mixture driven by the mild temperature change between 10 °C and 30 °C is very attractive for the development of an ideal draw solute for future practical FO desalination.

  3. Controlling Phase Separation of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Addition of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to produce mechanically superior thermoset blends relative to the neat components. In this study, IPNs were prepared consisting of polydicyclopentadiene (polyDCPD), contributing high fracture toughness, and an epoxy resin (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured with nadic methyl anhydride), contributing high tensile strength and modulus. In the absence of compatibilization, the simultaneous curing of the networks leads to a macroscopically phase separated blend that exhibits poor mechanical behavior. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructured IPNs, block copolymers were designed to compatibilize this system, where one block possesses affinity to polyDCPD (polynorbornene in this study) and the other block possesses affinity to DGEBA (poly(ɛ-caprolactone) in this study). The influence of the block copolymer composition on the degree of phase separation and interfacial adhesion in the IPN was studied using a combination of small-angle scattering and imaging techniques. The resultant mechanical properties were explored and structure-property relationships were developed in this blend system.

  4. Controlling Phase Separation of Tough Interpenetrating Polymer Networks via Addition of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to combine the mechanical properties of two thermoset systems. Often used to create a material that possesses both high toughness and tensile properties, here we use polydicyclopentadiene, cured via ring opening metathesis polymerization, to contribute high toughness and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured via anhydride chemistry to contribute high tensile strength and modulus. As the uncompatibilized system reacts in the presence of one another, mesoscopic phase separation occurs and dictates the overall efficacy of combining mechanical properties. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructed IPNs, amphiphilic block copolymers of polybutadiene- b-polyethylene oxide, where one block possesses strong affinity to polyDCPD and the other the DGEBA, were added to the system. Here we present a systematic study of the influence of block copolymer composition in the overall blend on degree of phase separation and morphology using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The resultant mechanical properties are then explored in an effort to link mechanical properties to blend morphology.

  5. Vibrations and spatial patterns in biomimetic surfaces: using the shark-skin effect to control blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy L; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We study the effect of small-amplitude fast vibrations and small-amplitude spatial patterns on various systems involving wetting and liquid flow, such as superhydrophobic surfaces, membranes and flow pipes. First, we introduce a mathematical method of averaging the effect of small spatial and temporal patterns and substituting them with an effective force. Such an effective force can change the equilibrium state of a system as well as a phase state, leading to surface texture-induced and vibration-induced phase control. Vibration and patterns can effectively jam holes in vessels with liquid, separate multi-phase flow, change membrane properties, result in propulsion and locomotion and lead to many other multi-scale, nonlinear effects including the shark-skin effect. We discuss the application of such effects to blood flow for novel biomedical 'haemophobic' applications which can prevent blood clotting and thrombosis by controlling the surface pattern at a wall of a vessel (e.g. a catheter or stent).This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  6. Vibrations and spatial patterns in biomimetic surfaces: using the shark-skin effect to control blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy L; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We study the effect of small-amplitude fast vibrations and small-amplitude spatial patterns on various systems involving wetting and liquid flow, such as superhydrophobic surfaces, membranes and flow pipes. First, we introduce a mathematical method of averaging the effect of small spatial and temporal patterns and substituting them with an effective force. Such an effective force can change the equilibrium state of a system as well as a phase state, leading to surface texture-induced and vibration-induced phase control. Vibration and patterns can effectively jam holes in vessels with liquid, separate multi-phase flow, change membrane properties, result in propulsion and locomotion and lead to many other multi-scale, nonlinear effects including the shark-skin effect. We discuss the application of such effects to blood flow for novel biomedical 'haemophobic' applications which can prevent blood clotting and thrombosis by controlling the surface pattern at a wall of a vessel (e.g. a catheter or stent).This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354733

  7. User Control and Task Authenticity for Spatial Learning in 3D Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgarno, Barney; Harper, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes two empirical studies which investigated the importance for spatial learning of view control and object manipulation within 3D environments. A 3D virtual chemistry laboratory was used as the research instrument. Subjects, who were university undergraduate students (34 in the first study and 80 in the second study), undertook…

  8. Effects of Elevated Free-Stream Turbulence on Active Control of a Separation Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, D. (Technical Monitor); Halfon, E.; Nishri, B.; Seifert, A.; Wygnanski, I.

    2004-01-01

    The Effects of elevated free-stream turbulence (FST) on the natural and periodically excited separation bubbles were studied experimentally, due to the relevance of this flow to low-pressure turbine blades at low Reynolds numbers. A bubble was formed at the leading edge of a flat plate and the FST level was altered by placing a grid across the flow at different locations upstream of the plate. The mixing across the separated shear-layer, forming the free boundary of the bubble, increased due to the elevated FST and due to nominally two-dimensional periodic excitation, both flattening and shortening the bubble. Periodic excitation at frequencies that were at least an order of magnitude lower than those associated with the initial shear-layer instability, were very effective at low FST, because the amplitudes of the excitation frequency and its harmonic were amplified over the bubble. High frequency excitation (F+ 3, based on the length of the baseline low FST bubble) had a major effect close to the separation location, while farther downstream the excited fluctuations rapidly decayed in the reattachment region. Low frequency excitation, that generated waves comparable to the length of the unperturbed bubble (F+ 1) were less effective and their magnitude decayed at a slower rate downstream of reattachment. An increase in the level of the FST reduced the net effect of the periodic excitation on the mixing enhancement and subsequent reattachment process, probably due to a destructive interference between the nominally 2D excitation and the random (in space and time) FST, reducing the spanwise coherence and therefore the effectiveness of the current control strategy. However, even at the reduced effectiveness of 2D periodic excitation at elevated FST, it accelerated the reattachment process and the recovery rate of the reattached boundary layer, enhancing the boundary layer resistance to repeat separation and reducing its momentum loss further downstream.

  9. Qos Management in Real-Time Spatial Big Data Using Feedback Control Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, S.; Bouazizi, E.; Faiz, S.

    2015-08-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial data. Spatial data, whether captured through remote sensors or large scale simulations has always been big and heterogenous. The issue of real-time and heterogeneity have been extremely important for taking effective decision. Thus, heterogeneous real-time spatial data management has become a very active research domain. Existing research has principally focused on querying of real-time spatial data and their updates. But the unpredictability of access to data maintain the behavior of the real-time GIS unstable. In this paper, we propose the use of the real-time Spatial Big Data and we define a new architecture called FCSA-RTSBD (Feedback Control Scheduling Architecture for Real-Time Spatial Big Data). The main objectives of this architecture are the following: take in account the heterogeneity of data, guarantee the data freshness, enhance the deadline miss ratio even in the presence of conflicts and unpredictable workloads and finally satisfy the requirements of users by the improving of the quality of service (QoS).

  10. Some contributions of touch, pressure and kinesthesis to human spatial orientation and oculomotor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, James R.

    Human spatial orientation and oculomotor control are under multimodal influence. It is not possible in the normal animal to stimulate differentially the vestibular receptors without activating other receptor systems whose activity may have a profound influence on postural control and experienced orientation. Many patterns of behavior and response that have been attributed solely to vestibular function are actually dependent wholly or in part on touch, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive stimulation.

  11. High-resolution wavefront control using liquid crystal spatial light modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B J; Brase, J M; Brown, C G; Cooke, J B; Kartz, M W; Olivier, S S; Pennington, D M; Silva, D A

    1999-07-20

    Liquid crystal spatial light modulator technology appropriate for high-resolution wavefront control has recently become commercially available. Some of these devices have several hundred thousand controllable degrees of freedom, more than two orders of magnitude greater than the largest conventional deformable mirror. We will present results of experiments to characterize the optical properties of these devices and to utilize them to correct aberrations in an optical system. We will also present application scenarios for these devices in high-power laser systems.

  12. Optimization of spatial light distribution through genetic algorithms for vision systems applied to quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellini, P.; Cecchini, S.; Stroppa, L.; Paone, N.

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents an adaptive illumination system for image quality enhancement in vision-based quality control systems. In particular, a spatial modulation of illumination intensity is proposed in order to improve image quality, thus compensating for different target scattering properties, local reflections and fluctuations of ambient light. The desired spatial modulation of illumination is obtained by a digital light projector, used to illuminate the scene with an arbitrary spatial distribution of light intensity, designed to improve feature extraction in the region of interest. The spatial distribution of illumination is optimized by running a genetic algorithm. An image quality estimator is used to close the feedback loop and to stop iterations once the desired image quality is reached. The technique proves particularly valuable for optimizing the spatial illumination distribution in the region of interest, with the remarkable capability of the genetic algorithm to adapt the light distribution to very different target reflectivity and ambient conditions. The final objective of the proposed technique is the improvement of the matching score in the recognition of parts through matching algorithms, hence of the diagnosis of machine vision-based quality inspections. The procedure has been validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental test, referring to a significant problem of quality control for the washing machine manufacturing industry: the recognition of a metallic clamp. Its applicability to other domains is also presented, specifically for the visual inspection of shoes with retro-reflective tape and T-shirts with paillettes.

  13. Evaluation of Spatially Targeted Strategies to Control Non-Domiciliated Triatoma dimidiata Vector of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Corentin; Dumonteil, Eric; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a major neglected tropical disease with deep socio-economical effects throughout Central and South America. Vector control programs have consistently reduced domestic populations of triatomine vectors, but non-domiciliated vectors still have to be controlled efficiently. Designing control strategies targeting these vectors is challenging, as it requires a quantitative description of the spatio-temporal dynamics of village infestation, which can only be gained from combinations of extensive field studies and spatial population dynamic modelling. Methodology/Principal Findings A spatially explicit population dynamic model was combined with a two-year field study of T. dimidiata infestation dynamics in the village of Teya, Mexico. The parameterized model fitted and predicted accurately both intra-annual variation and the spatial gradient in vector abundance. Five different control strategies were then applied in concentric rings to mimic spatial design targeting the periphery of the village, where vectors were most abundant. Indoor insecticide spraying and insect screens reduced vector abundance by up to 80% (when applied to the whole village), and half of this effect was obtained when control was applied only to the 33% of households closest to the village periphery. Peri-domicile cleaning was able to eliminate up to 60% of the vectors, but at the periphery of the village it has a low effect, as it is ineffective against sylvatic insects. The use of lethal traps and the management of house attractiveness provided similar levels of control. However this required either house attractiveness to be null, or ≥5 lethal traps, at least as attractive as houses, to be installed in each household. Conclusion/Significance Insecticide and insect screens used in houses at the periphery of the village can contribute to reduce house infestation in more central untreated zones. However, this beneficial effect remains insufficient to allow for a unique

  14. Spatially explicit control of invasive species using a reaction-diffusion model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonneau, Mathieu; Johnson, Fred A.; Romagosa, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species, which can be responsible for severe economic and environmental damages, must often be managed over a wide area with limited resources, and the optimal allocation of effort in space and time can be challenging. If the spatial range of the invasive species is large, control actions might be applied only on some parcels of land, for example because of property type, accessibility, or limited human resources. Selecting the locations for control is critical and can significantly impact management efficiency. To help make decisions concerning the spatial allocation of control actions, we propose a simulation based approach, where the spatial distribution of the invader is approximated by a reaction–diffusion model. We extend the classic Fisher equation to incorporate the effect of control both in the diffusion and local growth of the invader. The modified reaction–diffusion model that we propose accounts for the effect of control, not only on the controlled locations, but on neighboring locations, which are based on the theoretical speed of the invasion front. Based on simulated examples, we show the superiority of our model compared to the state-of-the-art approach. We illustrate the use of this model for the management of Burmese pythons in the Everglades (Florida, USA). Thanks to the generality of the modified reaction–diffusion model, this framework is potentially suitable for a wide class of management problems and provides a tool for managers to predict the effects of different management strategies.

  15. Super-smooth optical fabrication controlling high-spatial frequency surface irregularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Hoyo, Javier; Kim, Dae Wook; Burge, James H.

    2013-09-01

    Modern advanced optical systems often require challenging high spatial frequency surface error control during their optical fabrication processes. While the large scale surface figure error can be controlled by directed material removal processes such as small tool figuring, surface finish (<<1mm scales) is controlled with the polishing process. For large aspheric optical systems, surface shape irregularities of a few millimeters in scale may cause serious performance degradation in terms of scattered light background noise and high contrast imaging capability. The conventional surface micro roughness concept in Root Mean Square (RMS) over a very high spatial frequency range (e.g. RMS of 0.5 by 0.5 mm local surface map with 500 by 500 pixels) is not sufficient to describe or specify these surface characteristics. For various experimental polishing conditions, we investigate the process control for high frequency surface errors with periods up to ~2-3mm. The Power Spectral Density of the finished optical surfaces has been measured and analyzed to relate various computer controlled optical surfacing parameters (e.g. polishing interface materials) with the high spatial frequency errors on the surface. The experiment-based optimal polishing conditions and processes producing a super smooth optical surface while controlling surface irregularity at the millimeter range are presented.

  16. Electrically controlled spatial-polarization switch based on patterned photoalignment of nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Elena A; Tolstik, Alexei L; Rushnova, Irina I; Kabanova, Olga S; Muravsky, Alexander A

    2016-08-10

    A switching scheme for two orthogonal modes of laser radiation that is based on the total internal reflection effect realized at the interface of two liquid crystal regions with orthogonal director orientations is proposed. To create the photorefractive interface within the bulk of a liquid crystal, an original technique based on self-alignment of azo dye photoalignment and absorbing electrode patterns has been developed. Spatial separation of the orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching (when the positions of reflected and transmitted light beams are switched) due to the voltage applied has been experimentally realized. PMID:27534500

  17. Active Control of Separation From the Flap of a Supercritical Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2006-01-01

    Zero-mass-flux periodic excitation was applied at several regions on a simplified high-lift system to delay the occurrence of flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge flap and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. Detailed flow features were measured in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The current paper describes the application of active separation control at several locations on the deflected trailing edge flap. High frequency (F(+) approximately equal to 10) and low frequency amplitude modulation (F(+) sub AM approximately equal to 1) of the high frequency excitation were used for control. It was noted that the same performance gains were obtained with amplitude modulation and required only 30% of the momentum input required by pure sine excitation.

  18. Unmanned air vehicle flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge plasma at high wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Wang, WanBo; Wang, XunNian; Li, HuaXing

    2014-06-01

    The present paper described an experimental investigation of separation control of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) at high wind speeds. The plasma actuator was based on Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) and operated in a steady manner. The flow over a wing of UAV was performed with smoke flow visualization in the ϕ0.75 m low speed wind tunnel to reveal the flow structure over the wing so that the locations of plasma actuators could be optimized. A full model of the UAV was experimentally investigated in the ϕ3.2 m low speed wind tunnel using a six-component internal strain gauge balance. The effects of the key parameters, including the locations of the plasma actuators, the applied voltage amplitude and the operating frequency, were obtained. The whole test model was made of aluminium and acted as a cathode of the actuator. The results showed that the plasma acting on the surface of UAV could obviously suppress the boundary layer separation and reduce the model vibration at the high wind speeds. It was found that the maximum lift coefficient of the UAV was increased by 2.5% and the lift/drag ratio was increased by about 80% at the wind speed of 100 m/s. The control mechanism of the plasma actuator at the test configuration was also analyzed.

  19. Construction of macroscopic cytomimetic vesicle aggregates based on click chemistry: controllable vesicle fusion and phase separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haibao; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Yongli; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2012-07-01

    Vesicle-vesicle aggregation to mimic cell-cell aggregation has attracted much attention. Here, hyperbranched polymer vesicles (branched-polymersomes, BPs) with a cell-like size were selected as model membranes, and the vesicle aggregation process, triggered by click chemistry of the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction, was systematically studied. For this purpose, azide and alkynyl groups were loaded on the membranes of BPs through the co-assembly method to obtain N(3)-BPs and Alk-BPs, respectively. Subsequently, macroscopic vesicle aggregates were obtained when these two kinds of functional BPs were mixed together with the ratio of azide to alkynyl groups of about 1:1. Both the vesicle fusion events and lateral phase separation on the vesicle membrane occurred during such a vesicle aggregation process, and the fusion rate and phase-separation degree could be controlled by adjusting the clickable group content. The vesicle aggregation process with N(3) -micelles as desmosome mimics to connect with Alk-BPs through click-chemistry reaction was also studied, and large-scale vesicle aggregates without vesicle fusion were obtained in this process. The present work has extended the controllable cytomimetic vesicle aggregation process with the use of covalent bonds, instead of noncovalent bonds, as the driving force.

  20. The Effects of Sweeping Jet Actuator Parameters on Flow Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti

    2015-01-01

    A parametric experimental study was performed with sweeping jet actuators (fluidic oscillators) to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation on an adverse pressure gradient ramp. Actuator parameters that were investigated include blowing coefficients, operation mode, pitch and spreading angles, streamwise location, aspect ratio, and scale. Surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization were used to characterize the effects of these parameters on the actuator performance. 2D Particle Image Velocimetry measurements of the flow field over the ramp and hot-wire measurements of the actuator's jet flow were also obtained for selective cases. In addition, the sweeping jet actuators were compared to other well-known flow control techniques such as micro-vortex generators, steady blowing, and steady vortex-generating jets. The results confirm that the sweeping jet actuators are more effective than steady blowing and steady vortex-generating jets. The results also suggest that an actuator with a larger spreading angle placed closer to the location where the flow separates provides better performance. For the cases tested, an actuator with an aspect ratio, which is the width/depth of the actuator throat, of 2 was found to be optimal. For a fixed momentum coefficient, decreasing the aspect ratio to 1 produced weaker vortices while increasing the aspect ratio to 4 reduced coverage area. Although scaling down the actuator (based on the throat dimensions) from 0.25 inch x 0.125 inch to 0.15 inch x 0.075 inch resulted in similar flow control performance, scaling down the actuator further to 0.075 inch x 0.0375 inch reduced the actuator efficiency by reducing the coverage area and the amount of mixing in the near-wall region. The results of this study provide insight that can be used to design and select the optimal sweeping jet actuator configuration for flow control applications.

  1. Electrically-Controllable Spin Spatial Splitter in a Novel Magnetic Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li-Hua; Ma, Wen-Yue; Liu, Gui-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Based on a novel magnetic nanostructure with zero average magnetic field, a spin spatial splitter was recently proposed. This paper reports on how to effectively manipulate this device using a transverse electrical field with an applied bias. With the help of the stationary phase method, the lateral displacement and its spin polarization are calculated for the electron across this device. Both magnitude and sign of spin polarization are found to vary sensitively with this applied electric field. Thus, this device can be controlled conveniently by electric means, and can consequently serve as an electrically-tunable spin spatial splitter for spintronics applications.

  2. Colloidal silica nanoparticle-assisted structural control of cellulose nanofiber paper separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Sun; Yu, Hyung Kyun; Kim, Jong Hun; Wu, Qinglin; Chun, Sang-Jin; Lee, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang-Young

    2013-11-01

    Porous structure-tuned cellulose nanofiber paper separators (designated as S-CNP separators) are demonstrated as a promising alternative to commercial polyolefin separators for use in lithium-ion batteries. A new architectural strategy based on colloidal silica (SiO2) nanoparticle-assisted structural control is presented to overcome the difficulty in forming controllable porous structure of pure cellulose nanofiber paper separators (designated as CNP separators) from densely-packed cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). The new S-CNP separators proposed herein incorporate SiO2 nanoparticles as a CNF-disassembling agent (i.e., as non-conductive spacer particles). This structural uniqueness allows loose packing of CNFs, thereby facilitating the evolution of more porous structure. The unusual porous structure of S-CNP separators can be fine-tuned by varying SiO2 contents in the CNF suspension. Notably, the S-CNP separator (fabricated with 5 wt.% SiO2 content) exhibits the highest ionic conduction due to the well-balanced combination of nanoporous structure and separator thickness, thus contributing to excellent cell performance. This study underlines that the colloidal SiO2 nanoparticle-directed structural tuning of CNPs offers a promising route for the fabrication of advanced paper separators with optimized attributes and functionality.

  3. Spatial Separation of Charge Carriers in In2O3-x(OH)y Nanocrystal Superstructures for Enhanced Gas-Phase Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    He, Le; Wood, Thomas E; Wu, Bo; Dong, Yuchan; Hoch, Laura B; Reyes, Laura M; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Qian, Chenxi; Jia, Jia; Liao, Kristine; O'Brien, Paul G; Sandhel, Amit; Loh, Joel Y Y; Szymanski, Paul; Kherani, Nazir P; Sum, Tze Chien; Mims, Charles A; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2016-05-24

    The development of strategies for increasing the lifetime of photoexcited charge carriers in nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors is important for enhancing their photocatalytic activity. Intensive efforts have been made in tailoring the properties of the nanostructured photocatalysts through different ways, mainly including band-structure engineering, doping, catalyst-support interaction, and loading cocatalysts. In liquid-phase photocatalytic dye degradation and water splitting, it was recently found that nanocrystal superstructure based semiconductors exhibited improved spatial separation of photoexcited charge carriers and enhanced photocatalytic performance. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether this strategy is applicable in gas-phase photocatalysis. Using porous indium oxide nanorods in catalyzing the reverse water-gas shift reaction as a model system, we demonstrate here that assembling semiconductor nanocrystals into superstructures can also promote gas-phase photocatalytic processes. Transient absorption studies prove that the improved activity is a result of prolonged photoexcited charge carrier lifetimes due to the charge transfer within the nanocrystal network comprising the nanorods. Our study reveals that the spatial charge separation within the nanocrystal networks could also benefit gas-phase photocatalysis and sheds light on the design principles of efficient nanocrystal superstructure based photocatalysts. PMID:27159793

  4. Applications of Spatial Technology in Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-Y; He, J; Yang, K; Liang, S

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, as the important parasitic disease, has caused serious threats to human health globally. The People's Republic of China has acquired significant achievements based on large-scale interventions and innovational technology. The spatial technology was introduced in 1980s and widely used in the study and control of schistosomiasis in The People's Republic of China. This chapter reviews the progress and application of spatial technology in schistosomiasis control by analysing the spatiotemporal pattern of and the impact of ecological changes on schistosomiasis transmission, which have provided the information to design and select the control strategy, and assisted the establishment of the monitoring and early warning system in The People's Republic of China, especially in the marshland and mountainous regions. PMID:27137446

  5. Applications of Spatial Technology in Schistosomiasis Control Programme in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-Y; He, J; Yang, K; Liang, S

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, as the important parasitic disease, has caused serious threats to human health globally. The People's Republic of China has acquired significant achievements based on large-scale interventions and innovational technology. The spatial technology was introduced in 1980s and widely used in the study and control of schistosomiasis in The People's Republic of China. This chapter reviews the progress and application of spatial technology in schistosomiasis control by analysing the spatiotemporal pattern of and the impact of ecological changes on schistosomiasis transmission, which have provided the information to design and select the control strategy, and assisted the establishment of the monitoring and early warning system in The People's Republic of China, especially in the marshland and mountainous regions.

  6. A Resonant Pulse Detonation Actuator for High-Speed Boundary Layer Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B. T.; Cutler, A. D.; Drummond, J. P.; Jones, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of different types of actuators have been previously investigated as flow control devices. Potential applications include the control of boundary layer separation in external flows, as well as jet engine inlet and diffuser flow control. The operating principles for such devices are typically based on either mechanical deflection of control surfaces (which include MEMS flap devices), mass injection (which includes combustion driven jet actuators), or through the use of synthetic jets (diaphragm devices which produce a pulsating jet with no net mass flow). This paper introduces some of the initial flow visualization work related to the development of a relatively new type of combustion-driven jet actuator that has been proposed based on a pulse detonation principle. The device is designed to utilize localized detonation of a premixed fuel (Hydrogen)-air mixture to periodically inject a jet of gas transversely into the primary flow. Initial testing with airflow successfully demonstrated resonant conditions within the range of acoustic frequencies expected for the design. Schlieren visualization of the pulsating air jet structure revealed axially symmetric vortex flow, along with the formation of shocks. Flow visualization of the first successful sustained oscillation condition is also demonstrated for one configuration of the current test section. Future testing will explore in more detail the onset of resonant combustion and the approach to conditions of sustained resonant detonation.

  7. Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    An effort to understand and control the unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils was funded for three years through the NASA cooperative agreement program. As part of this effort a substantial data base was compiled detailing the effects various parameters have on the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Parameters studied include Mach number, pitch rate, and pitch history, as well as Reynolds number (through two different model chord lengths) and the condition of the boundary layer at the leading edge of the airfoil (through application of surface roughness). It was found for free stream Mach numbers as low as 0.4 that a region of supersonic flow forms on the leading edge of the suction surface of the airfoil at moderate angles of attack. The shocks which form in this supersonic region induce boundary-layer separation and advance the dynamic stall process. Under such conditions a supercritical airfoil profile is called for to produce a flow field having a weaker leading-edge pressure gradient and no leading-edge shocks. An airfoil having an adaptive-geometry, or dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE), is under development as a unique active flow-control device. The DDLE, formed of carbon-fiber composite and fiberglass, can be flexed between a NACA 0012 profile and a supercritical profile in a controllable fashion while the airfoil is executing an angle-of-attack pitch-up maneuver. The dynamic stall data were recorded using point diffraction interferometry (PDI), a noninvasive measurement technique. A new high-speed cinematography system was developed for recording interferometric images. The system is capable of phase-locking with the pitching airfoil motion for real-time documentation of the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Computer-aided image analysis algorithms were developed for fast and accurate reduction of the images, improving interpretation of the results.

  8. Interference between postural control and spatial vs. non-spatial auditory reaction time tasks in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Redfern, Mark S; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether spatial aspects of an information processing task influence dual-task interference. Two groups (Older/Young) of healthy adults participated in dual-task experiments. Two auditory information processing tasks included a frequency discrimination choice reaction time task (non-spatial task) and a lateralization choice reaction time task (spatial task). Postural tasks included combinations of standing with eyes open or eyes closed on either a fixed floor or a sway-referenced floor. Reaction times and postural sway via center of pressure were recorded. Baseline measures of reaction time and sway were subtracted from the corresponding dual-task results to calculate reaction time task costs and postural task costs. Reaction time task cost increased with eye closure (p = 0.01), sway-referenced flooring (p < 0.0001), and the spatial task (p = 0.04). Additionally, a significant (p = 0.05) task x vision x age interaction indicated that older subjects had a significant vision X task interaction whereas young subjects did not. However, when analyzed by age group, the young group showed minimal differences in interference for the spatial and non-spatial tasks with eyes open, but showed increased interference on the spatial relative to non-spatial task with eyes closed. On the contrary, older subjects demonstrated increased interference on the spatial relative to the non-spatial task with eyes open, but not with eyes closed. These findings suggest that visual-spatial interference may occur in older subjects when vision is used to maintain posture.

  9. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    PubMed Central

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, Nora; Aamand, Jens; Smets, Barth F.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays non-random spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modeling and experimental systems that do not include soil's full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil. PMID:25538691

  10. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, Nora; Aamand, Jens; Smets, Barth F

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays non-random spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modeling and experimental systems that do not include soil's full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil.

  11. Open-loop control of noise amplification in a separated boundary layer flow

    SciTech Connect

    Boujo, E. Gallaire, F.; Ehrenstein, U.

    2013-12-15

    Linear optimal gains are computed for the subcritical two-dimensional separated boundary-layer flow past a bump. Very large optimal gain values are found, making it possible for small-amplitude noise to be strongly amplified and to destabilize the flow. The optimal forcing is located close to the summit of the bump, while the optimal response is the largest in the shear layer. The largest amplification occurs at frequencies corresponding to eigenvalues which first become unstable at higher Reynolds number. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations show that a low level of noise is indeed sufficient to trigger random flow unsteadiness, characterized here by large-scale vortex shedding. Next, a variational technique is used to compute efficiently the sensitivity of optimal gains to steady control (through source of momentum in the flow, or blowing/suction at the wall). A systematic analysis at several frequencies identifies the bump summit as the most sensitive region for control with wall actuation. Based on these results, a simple open-loop control strategy is designed, with steady wall suction at the bump summit. Linear calculations on controlled base flows confirm that optimal gains can be drastically reduced at all frequencies. Nonlinear direct numerical simulations also show that this control allows the flow to withstand a higher level of stochastic noise without becoming nonlinearly unstable, thereby postponing bypass transition. In the supercritical regime, sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues supports the choice of this control design. Full restabilization of the flow is obtained, as evidenced by direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis.

  12. Development of high-power, compact synthetic jet actuators for flow separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilarranz Runge, Jose Luis

    This work presents the development of high-power, compact synthetic jet actuators (SJA) for flow separation control. The developed actuator is compact enough to fit in the interior of a NACA0015 profiled wing with a chord of 0.375 in. Test bench experiments showed that the multi-piston actuator array was capable of producing exit velocities of up to 90 m/s for an actuator frequency of 130 Hz. The actuator was placed in a NACA 0015 wing and tested in a wind tunnel. An experimental investigation into the effects of a synthetic jet actuator on the performance of the wing is described. Emphasis is placed on the capabilities of the actuator to control the separation of the flow over the wing at high angles of attack. The investigation included the use of force balance measurements, on-surface flow visualization with oil and tufts, off-surface flow visualizations with smoke, surface pressure distribution measurements and wake surveys. In addition to flow separation control data, results corresponding to hot wire measurements at the exit of the slot, are also presented and are used for the characterization of the flowfield generated by the synthetic jet actuators. Most of the tests were performed at a freestream velocity of 35 m/s, corresponding to a Reynolds number of 8.96 x 105. The angle of attack was varied from -2.0 to 29 degrees. For the tests presented here, at angles of attack lower than 10 degrees the actuator tends to increase the lift curve slope as the actuation frequency is increased. At higher angles of attack, the SJA extends the range of angle of attack for which the wing may be operated without stalling. The use of the actuator causes an 80% increase in the value of maximum lift coefficient, and the angle at which stall occurs is increased from 12 to 18 degrees (for the Reynolds number range of the test). The drag on the wing is decreased as a consequence of SJA actuation. This was verified with the force balance measurements and by analysis of the wake

  13. Ecological Complexity in a Coffee Agroecosystem: Spatial Heterogeneity, Population Persistence and Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Liere, Heidi; Jackson, Doug; Vandermeer, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Spatial heterogeneity is essential for the persistence of many inherently unstable systems such as predator-prey and parasitoid-host interactions. Since biological interactions themselves can create heterogeneity in space, the heterogeneity necessary for the persistence of an unstable system could be the result of local interactions involving elements of the unstable system itself. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report on a predatory ladybird beetle whose natural history suggests that the beetle requires the patchy distribution of the mutualism between its prey, the green coffee scale, and the arboreal ant, Azteca instabilis. Based on known ecological interactions and the natural history of the system, we constructed a spatially-explicit model and showed that the clustered spatial pattern of ant nests facilitates the persistence of the beetle populations. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the beetle consuming the scale insects can cause the clustered distribution of the mutualistic ants in the first place. Conclusions/Significance From a theoretical point of view, our model represents a novel situation in which a predator indirectly causes a spatial pattern of an organism other than its prey, and in doing so facilitates its own persistence. From a practical point of view, it is noteworthy that one of the elements in the system is a persistent pest of coffee, an important world commodity. This pest, we argue, is kept within limits of control through a complex web of ecological interactions that involves the emergent spatial pattern. PMID:23029061

  14. Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2006-02-01

    Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12° angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.

  15. Force interaction of high pressure glow discharge with fluid flow for active separation control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Subrata; Gaitonde, Datta V.

    2006-02-15

    Radio frequency based discharges at atmospheric pressures are the focus of increased interest in aerodynamics because of the wide range of potential applications including, specifically, actuation in flows at moderate speeds. Recent literature describing promising experimental observations, especially on separation control, has spurred efforts in the development of parallel theoretical modeling to lift limitations in the current understanding of the actuation mechanism. The present effort demonstrates higher fidelity first-principle models in a multidimensional finite-element framework to predict surface discharge-induced momentum exchange. The complete problem of a dielectric barrier discharge at high pressure with axially displaced electrodes is simulated in a self-consistent manner. Model predictions for charge densities, the electric field, and gas velocity distributions are shown to mimic trends reported in the experimental literature. Results show that a residual of electrons remains deposited on the dielectric surface downstream of the exposed powered electrode for the entire duration of the cycle and causes a net electric force in the direction from the electrode to the downstream surface. For the first time, results document the mitigation process of a separation bubble formed due to flow past a flat plate inclined at 12 degree sign angle of attack. This effort sets the basis for extending the formulation further to include polyphase power input in multidimensional settings, and to apply the simulation method to flows past common aerodynamic configurations.

  16. Optimum Duty Cycle of Unsteady Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation for NACA0015 Airfoil Stall Separation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Min; Yang, Bo; Peng, Tianxiang; Lei, Mingkai

    2016-06-01

    Unsteady dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma aerodynamic actuation technology is employed to suppress airfoil stall separation and the technical parameters are explored with wind tunnel experiments on an NACA0015 airfoil by measuring the surface pressure distribution of the airfoil. The performance of the DBD aerodynamic actuation for airfoil stall separation suppression is evaluated under DBD voltages from 2000 V to 4000 V and the duty cycles varied in the range of 0.1 to 1.0. It is found that higher lift coefficients and lower threshold voltages are achieved under the unsteady DBD aerodynamic actuation with the duty cycles less than 0.5 as compared to that of the steady plasma actuation at the same free-stream speeds and attack angles, indicating a better flow control performance. By comparing the lift coefficients and the threshold voltages, an optimum duty cycle is determined as 0.25 by which the maximum lift coefficient and the minimum threshold voltage are obtained at the same free-stream speed and attack angle. The non-uniform DBD discharge with stronger discharge in the positive half cycle due to electrons deposition on the dielectric slabs and the suppression of opposite momentum transfer due to the intermittent discharge with cutoff of the negative half cycle are responsible for the observed optimum duty cycle. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21276036), Liaoning Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015020123) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 3132015154)

  17. Morphology control of phase separated ferroelectric-semiconductor polymer blends for organic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Gregory; Jacobs, Andrew; Kramer, Edward; Chabinyc, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The ability to store memory is essential for many electronic applications. All-organic memory devices based on a blend of a ferroelectric polymer and a semiconducting polymer have recently shown great promise for low-cost memory technology based on ferroelectricity. The thin film morphology of the phase separated ferroelectric-semiconductor polymer blend is critically important for working devices and improved operation. However, precise morphology control has so far been relatively unattainable. Here, we report on a new semiconducting polythiophene with a modified side chain structure (PEPT) that demonstrates a greatly improved phase separated morphology with the well-studied ferroelectric polymer poly[(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene] (PVDF-TrFE). Thin film surface and bulk characterization via microscopy, soft X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray scattering experiments reveal that PEPT:PVDF-TrFE blends exhibit domain sizes that are easily tunable through simple parameters such as blend ratio. These results demonstrate progress toward achieving organic ferroelectric-semiconductor memory with optimized morphology and the techniques required for thorough thin film surface and bulk characterization.

  18. Interface control in organic heterojunction photovoltaic cells by phase separation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heier, Jakob; Castro, Fernando A.; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2007-09-01

    Significant progress is being made in the photovoltaic energy conversion using organic semiconducting materials. One of the focuses of attention is the nanoscale morphology of the donor-acceptor mixture, to ensure efficient charge generation and loss-free charge transport at the same time. Using small molecule and polymer blend systems, recent efforts highlight the problems to ensure an optimized relationship between molecular structure, morphology and device properties. Here, we present two examples using a host/guest mixture approach for the controlled, sequential design of bilayer organic solar cell architectures that consist of a large interface area with connecting paths to the respective electrodes at the same time. In the first example, we employed polymer demixing during spin coating to produce a rough interface: surface directed spinodal decomposition leads to a 2-dimensional spinodal pattern with submicrometer features at the polymer-polymer interface. The second system consists of a solution of a blend of small molecules, where phase separation into a bilayer during spin coating is followed by dewetting. For both cases, the guest can be removed using a selective solvent after the phase separation process, and the rough host surface can be covered with a second active, semiconducting component. We explain the potential merits of the resulting interdigitated bilayer films, and explore to which extent polymer-polymer and surface interactions can be employed to create surface features in the nanometer range.

  19. Numerical study of three-dimensional separation and flow control at a wing/body junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Lakshmanan, Balakrishnan

    1989-01-01

    The problem of three-dimensional separation and flow control at a wing/body junction has been investigated numerically using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The numerical code employs an algebraic grid generation technique for generating the grid for unmodified junction and an elliptic grid generation technique for filleted fin junction. The results for laminar flow past a blunt fin/flat plate junction demonstrate that after grid refinement, the computations agree with experiment and reveal a strong dependency of the number of vortices at the junction on Mach number and Reynolds number. The numerical results for pressure distribution, particle paths and limiting streamlines for turbulent flow past a swept fin show a decrease in the peak pressure and in the extent of the separated flow region compared to the laminar case. The results for a filleted juncture indicate that the streamline patterns lose much of their vortical character with proper filleting. Fillets with a radius of three and one-half times the fin leading edge diameter or two times the incoming boundary layer thickness, significantly weaken the usual necklace interaction vortex for the Mach number and Reynolds number considered in the present study.

  20. Distributed Proportional-spatial Derivative control of nonlinear parabolic systems via fuzzy PDE modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Wei; Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a distributed fuzzy control design based on Proportional-spatial Derivative (P-sD) is proposed for the exponential stabilization of a class of nonlinear spatially distributed systems described by parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs). Initially, a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy parabolic PDE model is proposed to accurately represent the nonlinear parabolic PDE system. Then, based on the T-S fuzzy PDE model, a novel distributed fuzzy P-sD state feedback controller is developed by combining the PDE theory and the Lyapunov technique, such that the closed-loop PDE system is exponentially stable with a given decay rate. The sufficient condition on the existence of an exponentially stabilizing fuzzy controller is given in terms of a set of spatial differential linear matrix inequalities (SDLMIs). A recursive algorithm based on the finite-difference approximation and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques is also provided to solve these SDLMIs. Finally, the developed design methodology is successfully applied to the feedback control of the Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo equation.

  1. Stereolithography of spatially controlled multi-material bioactive poly(ethylene glycol) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Arcaute, Karina; Mann, Brenda; Wicker, Ryan

    2010-03-01

    Challenges remain in tissue engineering to control the spatial, mechanical, temporal and biochemical architectures of scaffolds. Unique capabilities of stereolithography (SL) for fabricating multi-material spatially controlled bioactive scaffolds were explored in this work. To accomplish multi-material builds, a mini-vat setup was designed allowing for self-aligning X-Y registration during fabrication. The mini-vat setup allowed the part to be easily removed and rinsed, and different photocrosslinkable solutions to be easily removed and added to the vat. Two photocrosslinkable hydrogel biopolymers, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-dma, MW 1000) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-da, MW 3400), were used as the primary scaffold materials. Multi-material scaffolds were fabricated by including controlled concentrations of fluorescently labeled dextran, fluorescently labeled bioactive PEG or bioactive PEG in different regions of the scaffold. The presence of the fluorescent component in specific regions of the scaffold was analyzed with fluorescent microscopy, while human dermal fibroblast cells were seeded on top of the fabricated scaffolds with selective bioactivity and phase contrast microscopy images were used to show specific localization of cells in the regions patterned with bioactive PEG. Multi-material spatial control was successfully demonstrated in features down to 500 microm. In addition, the equilibrium swelling behavior of the two biopolymers after SL fabrication was determined and used to design constructs with the specified dimensions at the swollen state. The use of multi-material SL and the relative ease of conjugating different bioactive ligands or growth factors to PEG allows for the fabrication of tailored three-dimensional constructs with specified spatially controlled bioactivity.

  2. A review of spatial technologies with applications for malaria transmission modelling and control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Spatial technologies, i.e. geographic information systems, remote sensing, and global positioning systems, offer an opportunity for rapid assessment of malaria endemic areas. These technologies coupled with prevalence/incidence data can provide reliable estimates of population at risk, predict disease distributions in areas that lack baseline data and provide guidance for intervention strategies, so that scarce resources can be allocated in a cost-effective manner. This review focuses on the spatial technology applications that have been used in epidemiology and control of malaria in Africa. Peer-reviewed papers identified through a PubMed search using the following keywords: geospatial technology OR Geographic Information Systems OR Remote Sensing OR Earth Observation OR Global Positioning Systems OR geospatial modelling OR malaria incidence OR malaria prevalence OR malaria risk prediction OR malaria mapping AND malaria AND Africa were used. These included mapping malaria incidence and prevalence, assessing the relationship between malaria and environmental variables as well as applications for malaria early warning systems. The potential of new spatial technology applications utilising emerging satellite information, as they hold promise to further enhance infectious risk mapping and disease prediction, are outlined. We stress current research needs to overcome some of the remaining challenges of spatial technology applications for malaria so that further and sustainable progress can be made to control and eliminate this disease.

  3. Spatial regulation of controlled bioactive factor delivery for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Samorezov, Julia E.; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Limitations of current treatment options for critical size bone defects create a significant clinical need for tissue engineered bone strategies. This review describes how control over the spatiotemporal delivery of growth factors, nucleic acids, and drugs and small molecules may aid in recapitulating signals present in bone development and healing, regenerating interfaces of bone with other connective tissues, and enhancing vascularization of tissue engineered bone. State-of-the-art technologies used to create spatially controlled patterns of bioactive factors on the surfaces of materials, to build up 3D materials with patterns of signal presentation within their bulk, and to pattern bioactive factor delivery after scaffold fabrication are presented, highlighting their applications in bone tissue engineering. As these techniques improve in areas such as spatial resolution and speed of patterning, they will continue to grow in value as model systems for understanding cell responses to spatially regulated bioactive factor signal presentation in vitro, and as strategies to investigate the capacity of the defined spatial arrangement of these signals to drive bone regeneration in vivo. PMID:25445719

  4. Numerical study of boundary layer separation control using magnetogasdynamic plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Chiranjeev S.; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B.

    2009-10-15

    In this study, an efficient, time dependent, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical code for shockwave boundary layer interaction in air is developed. Nonthermal surface plasma actuation is evaluated for effective shockwave induced boundary layer separation control within supersonic inlets. Specifically, high speed magnetogasdynamic plasma actuators are of interest. In these, localized ionization is produced close to the wall surface and then the flow is accelerated using strong magnetic fields. To replicate the experiments done at large boundary layer thickness, the code is divided into time independent and time dependent regimes to significantly reduce computation time. Computational results are in good agreement with experiments in terms of the flow structure as shown by Schlieren imaging, acetone planar laser scattering, and the static pressure profile on the test section wall.

  5. The effects of actuation frequency on the separation control over an airfoil using a synthetic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Okada, K.; Nonomura, T.; Fujii, K.

    2015-06-01

    The simulation of separation control using a synthetic jet (SJ) is conducted around an NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) 0015 airfoil by large-eddy simulation (LES) with a compact difference scheme. The synthetic jet is installed at the leading edge of the airfoil and the effects of an actuation frequency F+ (normalized by chord length and velocity of freestream) are observed. The lift-drag coefficient is recovered the most for F+ = 6. The relationship between momentum addition by turbulent mixing and large vortex structures is investigated using a phase-averaging procedure based on F+. The Reynolds shear stress is decomposed into periodic and turbulent components where the turbulent components are found to be dominant on the airfoil. The strong turbulent components appear near the large vortex structures that are observed in phase- and span-averaged flow fields.

  6. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3).

  7. [Experimental research of oil vapor pollution control for gas station with membrane separation technology].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of membranes modules, vapor retained glassy membrane based on PEEK hollow fiber membrane modules and vapor permeated rubbery membrane system based on GMT plate-and-frame membrane modules, were used to control the oil vapor pollution during the course of receiving and transferring gasoline in oil station. The efficiencies of the membrane module and the membrane system of them were evaluated and compared respectively in the facilities which were developed by ourselves. It was found that both the two kinds of membranes modules had high efficiency for the separation of VOCs-air mixed gases, and the outlet vapor after treatment all can meet the national standard. When the vapor-enriched gas was returned to the oil tank to simulate the continuously cycle test, the concentration of VOCs in the outlet was also below 25 g x m(-3). PMID:22468544

  8. CFD Simulation of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle with Booster Separation Motor and Reaction Control Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gea, L. M.; Vicker, D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate a very complicated flow field encountered during the space shuttle ascent. The flow field features nozzle plumes from booster separation motor (BSM) and reaction control system (RCS) jets with a supersonic incoming cross flow at speed of Mach 4. The overset Navier-Stokes code OVERFLOW, was used to simulate the flow field surrounding the entire space shuttle launch vehicle (SSLV) with high geometric fidelity. The variable gamma option was chosen due to the high temperature nature of nozzle flows and different plume species. CFD predicted Mach contours are in good agreement with the schlieren photos from wind tunnel test. Flow fields are discussed in detail and the results are used to support the debris analysis for the space shuttle Return To Flight (RTF) task.

  9. Enhanced Design of Turbo-jet LPT by Separation Control Using Phased Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David (Technical Monitor); Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.

    2003-01-01

    This work deals with the documentation and control of flow separation that occurs over turbine blades in the low-pressure turbine stage at low Reynolds numbers that exist at high altitude cruise. We utilize a specially constructed linear cascade that is designed to study the flow field over a generic LPT cascade consisting of Pratt & Whitney 'Pak B' shaped blades. This facility was constructed under a previous one-year NASA Glenn RC initiative. The center blade in the cascade is instrumented to measure the surface pressure coefficient distribution. Optical access allows two-component LDV measurement for boundary layer profiles. Experimental conditions have been chosen to give a range of chord Reynolds numbers from 10 to 100K, and a range of free-stream turbulence levels from u'/U(sub infinity)= 0.08 to 3 percent. The surface pressure measurements were used to define a region of separation and reattachment that depend on the free-stream conditions. The location of separation was found to be relatively insensitive to the experimental conditions. However, reattachment location was very sensitive to the turbulence level and Reynolds number. Excellent agreement was found between the measured pressure distributions and predictions from Euler and RANS simulations. Two-component LDV measurements are presently underway to document the mean and fluctuating velocity components in the boundary layer over the center blade for the range of experimental conditions. The fabrication of the plasma actuator is underway. These are designed to produce either streamwise vortices, or a downstream-directed wall jet. A precursor experiment for the former approach was performed with an array of vortex generators placed just upstream of the separation line. These led to reattachment except for the lowest Reynolds number. Progress has also been made on the proposed concept for a laterally moving wake. This involved constructing a smaller wind tunnel and molding an array of symmetric airfoils

  10. The role of rewarding and novel events in facilitating memory persistence in a separate spatial memory task.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Beatrice; Morris, Richard G M; Wang, Szu-Han

    2014-02-01

    Many insignificant events in our daily life are forgotten quickly but can be remembered for longer when other memory-modulating events occur before or after them. This phenomenon has been investigated in animal models in a protocol in which weak memories persist longer if exploration in a novel context is introduced around the time of memory encoding. This study aims to understand whether other types of rewarding or novel tasks, such as rewarded learning in a T-maze and novel object recognition, can also be effective memory-modulating events. Rats were trained in a delayed matching-to-place task to encode and retrieve food locations in an event arena. Weak encoding with only one food pellet at the sample location induced memory encoding but forgetting over 24 h. When this same weak encoding was followed by a rewarded task in a T-maze, the memory persisted for 24 h. Moreover, the same persistence of memory over 24 h could be achieved by exploration in a novel box or by a rewarded T-maze task after a "non-rewarded" weak encoding. When the one-pellet weak encoding was followed by novel object exploration, the memory did not persist at 24 h. Together, the results confirm that place encoding is possible without explicit reward, and that rewarded learning in a separate task lacking novelty can be an effective memory-modulating event. The behavioral and neurobiological implications are discussed. PMID:24429424

  11. High-Q polymer resonators with spatially controlled photo-functionalization for biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Torsten; Mai, Martin; Grossmann, Tobias; Wienhold, Tobias; Hauser, Mario; Mappes, Timo; Kalt, Heinz

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate the applicability of polymeric whispering gallery mode resonators fabricated on silicon as biosensors. Optical measurements on the passive resonators in the visible spectral range yield Q-factors as high as 1.3×107. Local, covalent surface functionalization, is achieved by spatially controlled UV-exposure of a derivative of the photoreactive crosslinker benzophenone. Protein detection is shown using the specific binding of the biotin-streptavidin system.

  12. Anticipatory control and spatial cognition in locomotion and navigation through typical development and in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural evidence, summarized in this narrative review, supports a developmental model of locomotor control based on increasing neural integration of spatial reference frames. Two consistent adult locomotor behaviours are head stabilization and head anticipation: the head is stabilized to gravity and leads walking direction. This cephalocaudal orienting organization aligns gaze and vestibula with a reference frame centred on the upcoming walking direction, allowing anticipatory control on body kinematics, but is not fully developed until adolescence. Walking trajectories and those of hand movements share many aspects, including power laws coupling velocity to curvature, and minimized spatial variability. In fact, the adult brain can code trajectory geometry in an allocentric reference frame, irrespective of the end effector, regulating body kinematics thereafter. Locomotor trajectory formation, like head anticipation, matures in early adolescence, indicating common neurocomputational substrates. These late-developing control mechanisms can be distinguished from biomechanical problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Children's performance on a novel navigation test, the Magic Carpet, indicates that typical navigation development consists of the increasing integration of egocentric and allocentric reference frames. In CP, right-brain impairment seems to reduce navigation performance due to a maladaptive left-brain sequential egocentric strategy. Spatial integration should be considered more in rehabilitation. PMID:27027604

  13. Spatial and temporal control of thermal waves by using DMDs for interference based crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Erik; Kreutzbruck, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Active Thermography is a well-established non-destructive testing method and used to detect cracks, voids or material inhomogeneities. It is based on applying thermal energy to a samples' surface whereas inner defects alter the nonstationary heat flow. Conventional excitation of a sample is hereby done spatially, either planar (e.g. using a lamp) or local (e.g. using a focused laser) and temporally, either pulsed or periodical. In this work we combine a high power laser with a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) allowing us to merge all degrees of freedom to a spatially and temporally controlled heat source. This enables us to exploit the possibilities of coherent thermal wave shaping. Exciting periodically while controlling at the same time phase and amplitude of the illumination source induces - via absorption at the sample's surface - a defined thermal wave propagation through a sample. That means thermal waves can be controlled almost like acoustical or optical waves. However, in contrast to optical or acoustical waves, thermal waves are highly damped due to the diffusive character of the thermal heat flow and therefore limited in penetration depth in relation to the achievable resolution. Nevertheless, the coherence length of thermal waves can be chosen in the mmrange for modulation frequencies below 10 Hz which is perfectly met by DMD technology. This approach gives us the opportunity to transfer known technologies from wave shaping techniques to thermography methods. We will present experiments on spatial and temporal wave shaping, demonstrating interference based crack detection.

  14. Temporal changes of spatial soil moisture patterns: controlling factors explained with a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Edoardo; Wollschläger, Ute; Kögler, Simon; Behrens, Thorsten; Dietrich, Peter; Reinstorf, Frido; Schmidt, Karsten; Weiler, Markus; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing the spatial patterns of soil moisture is critical for hydrological and meteorological models, as soil moisture is a key variable that controls matter and energy fluxes and soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes. Deriving detailed process understanding at the hillslope scale is not trivial, because of the temporal variability of local soil moisture dynamics. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to provide adequate information on the temporal variability of soil moisture and its controlling factors. Recent advances in wireless sensor technology allow monitoring of soil moisture dynamics with high temporal resolution at varying scales. In addition, mobile geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) have been widely used for mapping soil water content at the field scale with high spatial resolution, as being related to soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa). The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal pattern of soil moisture at the hillslope scale and to infer the controlling hydrological processes, integrating well established and innovative sensing techniques, as well as new statistical methods. We combined soil hydrological and pedological expertise with geophysical measurements and methods from digital soil mapping for designing a wireless soil moisture monitoring network. For a hillslope site within the Schäfertal catchment (Central Germany), soil water dynamics were observed during 14 months, and soil ECa was mapped on seven occasions whithin this period of time using an EM38-DD device. Using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, we described the temporal persistence of a dry and a wet characteristic state of soil moisture as well as the switching mechanisms, inferring the local properties that control the observed spatial patterns and the hydrological processes driving the transitions. Based on this, we evaluated the use of EMI for mapping the spatial pattern of soil moisture under

  15. Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction.

    PubMed

    Jradi, S; Balan, L; Zeng, X H; Plain, J; Lougnot, D J; Royer, P; Bachelot, R; Akil, S; Soppera, O; Vidal, L

    2010-03-01

    The present paper reports on the spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and silver nanowires by photosensitized reduction. In a first approach, direct photogeneration of silver NPs at the end of an optical fiber was carried out. Control of both size and density of silver NPs was possible by changing the photonic conditions. In a further development, a photochemically assisted procedure allowing silver to be deposited at the surface of a polymer microtip was implemented. Finally, polymer tips terminated by silver nanowires were fabricated by simultaneous photopolymerization and silver photoreduction. The silver NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Study of the Application of Separation Control by Unsteady Excitation to Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, J. D.; Crouch, J. D.; Stoner, R. C.; Sakurai, S.; Seidel, G. E.; Feifel, W. M.; Rush, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary assessment of the potential benefits of applying unsteady separation control to transport aircraft. Estimates are given for some of the costs associated with a specific application to high-lift systems. High-leverage areas for future research were identified during the course of the study. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a coarse screening of potential applications within the aerodynamics discipline. Potential benefits were identified and in some cases quantified in a preliminary way. Phase 2 concentrated on the application to the wing high-lift system, deemed to have the greatest potential benefit for commercial transports. A team of experts, including other disciplines (i.e. hydraulic, mechanical, and electrical systems, structures, configurations, manufacturing, and finance), assessed the feasibility, benefits, and costs to arrive at estimates of net benefits. In both phases of the study, areas of concern and areas for future research were identified. In phase 3 of this study, the high-leverage areas for future research were prioritized as a guide for future efforts aimed at the application of active flow control to commercial transport aircraft.

  17. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  18. Experimental closed-loop control of separated-flow over a plain flap using extremum seeking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabert, Timothée; Dandois, Julien; Garnier, Éric

    2016-03-01

    The lift coefficient of a configuration made of a flat plate with a trailing-edge plain flap is maximized at post-stall conditions by driving automatically the forcing frequency of a fluidic control system to an optimal value. The flap is equipped with pulsed blowing slots whose actuation frequency can be varied at constant actuation amplitude. The post-stall flow over the deflected flap is fully separated and organized around the natural vortex shedding at St=0.2. It appears to be sensitive to the forcing frequency so that the lift coefficient is maximized if actuation is precisely the Strouhal number. Since this frequency depends on the flap deflection angle and the upstream velocity, an extremum seeking algorithm is implemented in order to drive the forcing frequency and thus guarantees that lift remains maximum whatever the geometric configuration is. Finally, a fuzzy-logic regulator is synthesized and integrated into the extremum seeking control scheme in order to speed up the convergence while maintaining stability and accuracy.

  19. A system for optically controlling neural circuits with very high spatial and temporal resolution

    PubMed Central

    Pandarinath, Chethan; Carlson, Eric T.; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics offers a powerful new approach for controlling neural circuits. It has a vast array of applications in both basic and clinical science. For basic science, it opens the door to unraveling circuit operations, since one can perturb specific circuit components with high spatial (single cell) and high temporal (millisecond) resolution. For clinical applications, it allows new kinds of selective treatments, because it provides a method to inactivate or activate specific components in a malfunctioning circuit and bring it back into a normal operating range [1–3]. To harness the power of optogenetics, though, one needs stimulating tools that work with the same high spatial and temporal resolution as the molecules themselves, the channelrhodopsins. To date, most stimulating tools require a tradeoff between spatial and temporal precision and are prohibitively expensive to integrate into a stimulating/recording setup in a laboratory or a device in a clinical setting [4, 5]. Here we describe a Digital Light Processing (DLP)-based system capable of extremely high temporal resolution (sub-millisecond), without sacrificing spatial resolution. Furthermore, it is constructed using off-the-shelf components, making it feasible for a broad range of biology and bioengineering labs. Using transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), we demonstrate the system’s capability for stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons in tissue with single cell and sub-millisecond precision. PMID:25699292

  20. Effects of Artificial Gravity and Bed Rest on Spatial Orientation and Balance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Moore, S. T.; Feiveson, A. H.; Taylor, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    While the vestibular system should be well-adapted to bed rest (a condition it experiences approximately 8/24 hrs each day), questions remain regarding the degree to which repeated exposures to the unusual gravito-inertial force environment of a short-radius centrifuge might affect central processing of vestibular information used in spatial orientation and balance control. Should these functions be impaired by intermittent AG, its feasibility as a counter-measure would be diminished. We, therefore, examined the effects of AG on spatial orientation and balance control in 15 male volunteers before and after 21 days of 6 HDT bed rest (BR). Eight of the subjects were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet; 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls (C). Spatial orientation was assessed by measures of ocular counter-rolling (OCR; rotation of the eye about the line of sight, an otolith-mediated reflex) and subjective visual vertical (SVV; perception of the spatial upright). Both OCR and SVV measurements were made with the subject upright, lying on their left sides, and lying on their right sides. OCR was measured from binocular eye orientation recordings made while the subjects fixated for 10s on a point target directly in front of the face at a distance of 1 m. SVV was assessed by asking subjects (in the dark) to adjust to upright (using a handheld controller) the orientation of a luminous bar randomly perturbed (15) to either side of the vertical meridian. Balance control performance was assessed using a computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) protocol similar to that currently required for all returning crew members. During each session, the subjects completed a combination of trials of sensory organization test (SOT) 2 (eyes closed, fixed platform) and SOT 5 (eyes closed, sway-referenced platform) with and without static and dynamic pitch plane head movements (plus or minus 20 deg., dynamic

  1. Spatial Control of Condensation and Freezing on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Hydrophilic Patches

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Lidiya; Khan, M.; Aizenberg, Joanna; Hatton, Benjamin

    2013-09-25

    Certain natural organisms use micro-patterned surface chemistry, or ice-nucleating species, to control water condensation and ice nucleation for survival under extreme conditions. As an analogy to these biological approaches, it is shown that functionalized, hydrophilic polymers and particles deposited on the tips of superhydrophobic posts induce precise topographical control over water condensation and freezing at the micrometer scale. A bottom-up deposition process is used to take advantage of the limited contact area of a non-wetting aqueous solution on a superhydrophobic surface. Hydrophilic polymer deposition on the tips of these geometrical structures allows spatial control over the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of micrometer-scale water droplets. The hydrophilic tips nucleate water droplets with extremely uniform nucleation and growth rates, uniform sizes, an increased stability against coalescence, and asymmetric droplet morphologies. Furthermore, control of freezing behavior is also demonstrated via deposition of ice-nucleating AgI nanoparticles on the tips of these structures. The combination of the hydrophilic polymer and AgI particles on the tips was used to achieve templating of ice nucleation at the micrometer scale. Preliminary results indicate that control over ice crystal size, spatial symmetry, and position might be possible with this method. This type of approach can serve as a platform for systematically analyzing micrometer-scale condensation and freezing phenomena, and as a model for natural systems.

  2. Spatial Control of Condensation and Freezing on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Hydrophilic Patches

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, L; Khan, M; Aizenberg, J; Hatton, BD

    2013-07-03

    Certain natural organisms use micro-patterned surface chemistry, or ice-nucleating species, to control water condensation and ice nucleation for survival under extreme conditions. As an analogy to these biological approaches, it is shown that functionalized, hydrophilic polymers and particles deposited on the tips of superhydrophobic posts induce precise topographical control over water condensation and freezing at the micrometer scale. A bottom-up deposition process is used to take advantage of the limited contact area of a non-wetting aqueous solution on a superhydrophobic surface. Hydrophilic polymer deposition on the tips of these geometrical structures allows spatial control over the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of micrometer-scale water droplets. The hydrophilic tips nucleate water droplets with extremely uniform nucleation and growth rates, uniform sizes, an increased stability against coalescence, and asymmetric droplet morphologies. Control of freezing behavior is also demonstrated via deposition of ice-nucleating AgI nanoparticles on the tips of these structures. This combination of the hydrophilic polymer and AgI particles on the tips was used to achieve templating of ice nucleation at the micrometer scale. Preliminary results indicate that control over ice crystal size, spatial symmetry, and position might be possible with this method. This type of approach can serve as a platform for systematically analyzing micrometer-scale condensation and freezing phenomena, and as a model for natural systems.

  3. Modelling of electrokinetic phenomena involving confined polymers: Applications to DNA separation and electroosmotic flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Frederic

    Microfluidic and nanofluidic technology is revolutionizing experimental practices in analytical chemistry, molecular biology and medicine. Indeed, the development of systems of small dimensions for the processing of fluids heralds the miniaturization of traditional, cumbersome laboratory equipment onto robust, portable and efficient microchip devices (similar to the electronic microchips found in computers). Moreover, the conjunction of scale between the smallest man-made device and the largest macromolecules evolved by Nature is fertile ground for the blooming of our knowledge about the key processes of life. In fact, the conjunction is threefold, because modern computational resources also allow us to contemplate a rather explicit modelling of physical systems between the nanoscale and the microscale. In the five articles comprising this thesis, we present the results of computer simulations that address specific questions concerning the operation of two different model systems relevant to the development of small-scale fluidic devices for the manipulation and analysis of biomolecules. First, we use a Bond-Fluctuation Monte Carlo approach to study the electrophoretic drift of macromolecules across an entropic trap array built for the length separation of long, double-stranded DNA molecules. We show that the motion of the molecules is consistent with a simple balance between electric and entropic forces, in terms of a single characteristic parameter. We also extract detailed information on polymer deformation during migration, predict the separation of topoisomers, and investigate innovative ratchet driving regimes. Secondly, we present theoretical derivations, numerical calculations and Molecular Dynamics simulation results for an electrolyte confined in a capillary of nanoscopic dimensions. In particular, we study the effectiveness of neutral grafted polymer chains in reducing the magnitude of electroosmotic flow (fluid flow induced by an external electric field

  4. Micro vortex generator control of axisymmetric high-speed laminar boundary layer separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estruch-Samper, D.; Vanstone, L.; Hillier, R.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2015-09-01

    Interest in the development of micro vortex generators (MVGs) to control high-speed flow separation has grown in the last decade. In contrast to conventional vortex generators, MVGs are fully submerged in the boundary layer and have the potential of inducing surface flow mixing with marginal drag penalty when suitably designed. Also, they do not result in undesired reduced mass flow such as with suction methods. The flow mechanisms at the location of MVGs are not yet fully understood, and optimal designs are difficult to establish given that both numerical predictions and experiments are particularly challenged for short element heights, yet optimal MVGs are generally expected to be at least shorter than half the local boundary layer thickness. The present work aims at investigating experimentally the fundamental flow physics concerning an individual MVG element (of `canonical' or simplified geometry) at a range of near-wall heights. A fully laminar base flow is considered so as to isolate the effect of incoming turbulence as well as the more complex physics that may occur when specific and/or multiple elements are used. Tests were performed in a gun tunnel at a freestream Mach number of 8.9 and Reynolds number of /m, and the basic test model consisted of a blunt-nosed cylinder which produced an axisymmetric laminar boundary layer with an edge Mach number of 3.4 and Reynolds number of /m at the MVG location. A laminar shock-wave/boundary layer interaction with separation was induced by a flare located further downstream on the model. Measurements consisted of time-resolved surface heat transfer obtained in the axial direction immediately downstream of the MVG and along the interaction, together with simultaneous high-speed schlieren imaging. The height () of the MVG element used in a `diamond' configuration (square planform with one vertex facing the flow) was adjusted between tests ranging from = 0.03 to 0.58, where the local undisturbed boundary layer thickness

  5. Experimental active structural acoustic control of simply supported plates using a weighted sum of spatial gradients.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Daniel R; Johnson, William R; Sommerfeldt, Scott D; Blotter, Jonathan D

    2014-11-01

    A limitation currently facing active structural acoustic control (ASAC) researchers is that an ideal minimization quantity for use in the control algorithms has not been developed. A novel parameter termed the "weighted sum of spatial gradients" (WSSG) was recently developed for use in ASAC and shown to effectively attenuate acoustic radiation from a vibrating flat simply supported plate in computer simulations. This paper extends this research from computer simulations and provides experimental test results. The results presented show that WSSG is a viable control quantity and provides better results than the volume velocity approach. The paper also investigates several of the challenges presented by the use of WSSG. These include determining a method to measure WSSG experimentally, an analysis of the influence of noise on WSSG control results and complications presented when degenerate modes exist. Results are shown and discussed for several experimental configurations. PMID:25373961

  6. Separate and Combined Effects of Cue-Controlled Relaxation and Cognitive Restructuring in the Treatment of Musical Performance Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Gladys Acevedo; Horan, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Music students with reactive and adaptive anxieties participated in a musical performance anxiety reduction program. Cue-controlled relaxation (CCR) and cognitive restructuring (CR) were examined separately and in combination in comparison with a standard treatment control condition. The CCR and CR treatments were each effective in reducing state…

  7. Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Gan, Xuetao; Wang, Meirong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Spin Hall effect of light, which is normally explored as a transverse spin-dependent separation of a light beam, has attracted enormous research interests. However, it seems there is no indication for the existence of the longitudinal spin separation of light. In this paper, we propose and experimentally realize the spin separation along the propagation direction by modulating the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase. Due to the spin-dependent divergence and convergence determined by the PB phase, a focused Gaussian beam could split into two opposite spin states, and focuses at different distances, representing the longitudinal spin separation. By combining this longitudinal spin separation with the transverse one, we experimentally achieve the controllable spin-dependent focal shift in three dimensional space. This work provides new insight on steering the spin photons, and is expected to explore novel applications of optical trapping, manipulating, and micromachining with higher degree of freedom. PMID:26882995

  8. Longitudinal spin separation of light and its performance in three-dimensionally controllable spin-dependent focal shift

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Gan, Xuetao; Wang, Meirong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Spin Hall effect of light, which is normally explored as a transverse spin-dependent separation of a light beam, has attracted enormous research interests. However, it seems there is no indication for the existence of the longitudinal spin separation of light. In this paper, we propose and experimentally realize the spin separation along the propagation direction by modulating the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase. Due to the spin-dependent divergence and convergence determined by the PB phase, a focused Gaussian beam could split into two opposite spin states, and focuses at different distances, representing the longitudinal spin separation. By combining this longitudinal spin separation with the transverse one, we experimentally achieve the controllable spin-dependent focal shift in three dimensional space. This work provides new insight on steering the spin photons, and is expected to explore novel applications of optical trapping, manipulating, and micromachining with higher degree of freedom. PMID:26882995

  9. A dual-plate ITO-ITO generator-collector microtrench sensor: surface activation, spatial separation and suppression of irreversible oxygen and ascorbate interference.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Mohammad A; Gross, Andrew J; Dale, Sara E C; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Marken, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Generator-collector electrode systems are based on two independent working electrodes with overlapping diffusion fields where chemically reversible redox processes (oxidation and reduction) are coupled to give amplified current signals. A generator-collector trench electrode system prepared from two tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes placed vis-à-vis with a 22 μm inter-electrode gap is employed here as a sensor in aqueous media. The reversible 2-electron anthraquinone-2-sulfonate redox system is demonstrated to give well-defined collector responses even in the presence of oxygen due to the irreversible nature of the oxygen reduction. For the oxidation of dopamine on ITO, novel "Piranha-activation" effects are observed and chemically reversible generator-collector feedback conditions are achieved at pH 7, by selecting a more negative collector potential, again eliminating possible oxygen interference. Finally, dopamine oxidation in the presence of ascorbate is demonstrated with the irreversible oxidation of ascorbate at the "mouth" of the trench electrode and chemically reversible oxidation of dopamine in the trench "interior". This spatial separation of chemically reversible and irreversible processes within and outside the trench is discussed as a potential in situ microscale sensing and separation tool.

  10. Real-time 2D spatially selective MRI experiments: Comparative analysis of optimal control design methods.

    PubMed

    Maximov, Ivan I; Vinding, Mads S; Tse, Desmond H Y; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Shah, N Jon

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for development of advanced radio-frequency (RF) pulse techniques in modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems driven by recent advancements in ultra-high magnetic field systems, new parallel transmit/receive coil designs, and accessible powerful computational facilities. 2D spatially selective RF pulses are an example of advanced pulses that have many applications of clinical relevance, e.g., reduced field of view imaging, and MR spectroscopy. The 2D spatially selective RF pulses are mostly generated and optimised with numerical methods that can handle vast controls and multiple constraints. With this study we aim at demonstrating that numerical, optimal control (OC) algorithms are efficient for the design of 2D spatially selective MRI experiments, when robustness towards e.g. field inhomogeneity is in focus. We have chosen three popular OC algorithms; two which are gradient-based, concurrent methods using first- and second-order derivatives, respectively; and a third that belongs to the sequential, monotonically convergent family. We used two experimental models: a water phantom, and an in vivo human head. Taking into consideration the challenging experimental setup, our analysis suggests the use of the sequential, monotonic approach and the second-order gradient-based approach as computational speed, experimental robustness, and image quality is key. All algorithms used in this work were implemented in the MATLAB environment and are freely available to the MRI community.

  11. Real-time 2D spatially selective MRI experiments: Comparative analysis of optimal control design methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, Ivan I.; Vinding, Mads S.; Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Shah, N. Jon

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for development of advanced radio-frequency (RF) pulse techniques in modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems driven by recent advancements in ultra-high magnetic field systems, new parallel transmit/receive coil designs, and accessible powerful computational facilities. 2D spatially selective RF pulses are an example of advanced pulses that have many applications of clinical relevance, e.g., reduced field of view imaging, and MR spectroscopy. The 2D spatially selective RF pulses are mostly generated and optimised with numerical methods that can handle vast controls and multiple constraints. With this study we aim at demonstrating that numerical, optimal control (OC) algorithms are efficient for the design of 2D spatially selective MRI experiments, when robustness towards e.g. field inhomogeneity is in focus. We have chosen three popular OC algorithms; two which are gradient-based, concurrent methods using first- and second-order derivatives, respectively; and a third that belongs to the sequential, monotonically convergent family. We used two experimental models: a water phantom, and an in vivo human head. Taking into consideration the challenging experimental setup, our analysis suggests the use of the sequential, monotonic approach and the second-order gradient-based approach as computational speed, experimental robustness, and image quality is key. All algorithms used in this work were implemented in the MATLAB environment and are freely available to the MRI community.

  12. Stencil Micropatterning for Spatial Control of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Fate Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Sahni, Geetika; Toh, Yi-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the intrinsic ability to differentiate and self-organize into distinct tissue patterns, although this requires the presentation of spatial environmental cues, i.e., biochemical and mechanical gradients. Cell micropatterning technologies potentially offer the means to spatially control stem cell microenvironments and organize the resultant differentiation fates. Here, we describe stencil micropatterning as a simple and robust method to generate hPSC micropatterns for controlling hPSC differentiation patterns. hPSC micropatterns are specified by the geometries of the cell stencil through-holes, which physically confine the locations where the underlying extracellular matrix and hPSCs can access and attach to the substrate. This confers the unique capability of stencil micropatterning to work with a variety of culture substrates and extracellular matrices for optimal hPSC culture. We present the detailed steps of stencil micropatterning to successfully generate hPSC micropatterns, which can be used to investigate how spatial polarization of cell adhesion results in cell fate heterogeneity. PMID:27032943

  13. Real-time 2D spatially selective MRI experiments: Comparative analysis of optimal control design methods.

    PubMed

    Maximov, Ivan I; Vinding, Mads S; Tse, Desmond H Y; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Shah, N Jon

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for development of advanced radio-frequency (RF) pulse techniques in modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems driven by recent advancements in ultra-high magnetic field systems, new parallel transmit/receive coil designs, and accessible powerful computational facilities. 2D spatially selective RF pulses are an example of advanced pulses that have many applications of clinical relevance, e.g., reduced field of view imaging, and MR spectroscopy. The 2D spatially selective RF pulses are mostly generated and optimised with numerical methods that can handle vast controls and multiple constraints. With this study we aim at demonstrating that numerical, optimal control (OC) algorithms are efficient for the design of 2D spatially selective MRI experiments, when robustness towards e.g. field inhomogeneity is in focus. We have chosen three popular OC algorithms; two which are gradient-based, concurrent methods using first- and second-order derivatives, respectively; and a third that belongs to the sequential, monotonically convergent family. We used two experimental models: a water phantom, and an in vivo human head. Taking into consideration the challenging experimental setup, our analysis suggests the use of the sequential, monotonic approach and the second-order gradient-based approach as computational speed, experimental robustness, and image quality is key. All algorithms used in this work were implemented in the MATLAB environment and are freely available to the MRI community. PMID:25863895

  14. A Matter of Balance: Motor Control is Related to Children’s Spatial and Proportional Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown close links between spatial and mathematical thinking and between spatial abilities and motor skills. However, longitudinal research examining the relations between motor, spatial, and mathematical skills is rare, and the nature of these relations remains unclear. The present study thus investigated the relation between children’s motor control and their spatial and proportional reasoning. We measured 6-year-olds’ spatial scaling (i.e., the ability to reason about different-sized spaces), their mental transformation skills, and their ability to balance on one leg as an index for motor control. One year later (N = 126), we tested the same children’s understanding of proportions. We also assessed several control variables (verbal IQ and socio-economic status) as well as inhibitory control, visuo-spatial and verbal working memory. Stepwise hierarchical regressions showed that, after accounting for effects of control variables, children’s balance skills significantly increased the explained variance in their spatial performance and proportional reasoning. Our results suggest specific relations between balance skills and spatial as well as proportional reasoning skills that cannot be explained by general differences in executive functioning or intelligence. PMID:26793157

  15. Magnetophoretic Assembly of Anisotropic Colloids for Spatial Control of Reinforcement in Composites.

    PubMed

    Demirörs, Ahmet Faik

    2016-09-15

    Anisotropic particles have attracted interest for decades and have been studied for many aspects, ranging from fundamental phase behavior to photonic properties. In addition, magnetic fields have been heavily used for external manipulation of colloidal particles for separation, for assembly, and even for photonic applications. Here we use magnetic field microgradients established in a paramagnetic fluid to act as templates for the assembly of both nonmagnetic and magnetic anisotropic colloidal particles. We embed the assembled structure in a polymer matrix in order to obtain a composite where the spatial distribution of the reinforcing particles are preprogrammed. By using a mixture of paramagnetic and diamagnetic particles with different mechanical strengths, a periodical modulation of reinforcement by the variation of the particle type at different locations is achieved. Furthermore, we introduce a similar method for assembly of paramagnetic particles, where we use magnetic gradients of permanent magnet arrays to obtain field gradients and modulate spatially the particle concentration, and thus reinforcement, through the macroscopic samples in three dimensions. PMID:27545970

  16. High-fidelity spatial addressing of 43Ca+ qubits using near-field microwave control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Lopes Aude Craik, Diana; Linke, Norbert; Allcock, David; Sepiol, Martin; Harty, Thomas; Ballance, Christopher; Stacey, Derek; Steane, Andrew; Lucas, David

    2016-05-01

    Individual addressing of qubits is essential for scalable quantum computation. Spatial addressing allows unlimited numbers of qubits to share the same frequency, whilst enabling arbitrary parallel operations. We present the latest experimental results obtained using a two-zone microfabricated surface trap designed to perform spatial, near-field microwave addressing of long-lived 43Ca+ ``atomic clock'' qubits held in separate trap zones (each of which feature four integrated microwave electrodes). Microwave near fields generated by multi-electrode chip ion traps are often difficult to faithfully simulate and a simple method of characterizing and testing trap chips before placement under ultra-high vacuum would significantly speed up trap design optimization. We describe a printed circuit board antenna for use in mapping microwave near-fields generated by ion-trap electrodes. The antenna is designed to measure fields down to 100 μ m away from trap electrodes and to be impedance matched at a desired spot frequency for an improved signal to noise ratio in field measurements. This work is supported by the US Army Research Office, EPSRC (UK) and the UK National Quantum Technologies Programme.

  17. Evapotranspiration Controls Imposed by Soil Moisture: A Spatial Analysis across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigden, A. J.; Tuttle, S. E.; Salvucci, G.

    2014-12-01

    We spatially analyze the control over evapotranspiration (ET) imposed by soil moisture across the United States using daily estimates of satellite-derived soil moisture and data-driven ET over a nine-year period (June 2002-June 2011) at 305 locations. The soil moisture data are developed using 0.25-degree resolution satellite observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), where the 9-year time series for each 0.25-degree pixel was selected from three potential algorithms (VUA-NASA, U. Montana, & NASA) based on the maximum mutual information between soil moisture and precipitation (Tuttle & Salvucci (2014), Remote Sens Environ, 114: 207-222). The ET data are developed independent of soil moisture using an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and ET. The emergent relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than what would occur for increased or decreased ET rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance (Salvucci and Gentine (2013), PNAS, 110(16): 6287-6291). The key advantage of using this approach to estimate ET is that no measurements of surface limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, canopy conductance) are required; instead, ET is estimated from meteorological data measured at 305 common weather stations that are approximately uniformly distributed across the United States. The combination of these two independent datasets allows for a unique spatial analysis of the control on ET imposed by the availability of soil moisture. We fit evaporation efficiency curves across the United States at each of the 305 sites during the summertime (May-June-July-August-September). Spatial patterns are visualized by mapping optimal curve fitting coefficients across the Unites States. An analysis of efficiency curves and their spatial patterns will be presented.

  18. Controls on Nitrate Spatial Variability in Paine Run Catchment of Shenandoah National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, S. M.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    This research examines the catchment-scale controls on in-stream nitrate concentrations by (1) quantifying nitrate spatial variability in a headwater catchment and (2) determining the biophysical processes underlying this variability. The Shenandoah Watershed Study (SWAS) established thirty-eight stream sampling sites in the Paine Run catchment to collect field data on stream chemistry, discharge and transient storage. An evaluation of SWAS data at these sites from the early 1990s to 2007 reveals spatial and temporal variability in nitrate concentrations following the gypsy moth defoliation. We observed high in-stream nitrate concentrations with elevation and an apparent dilution at lower elevations. Main topographic descriptors related to the spatial distribution of nitrate, elevation and contributing area, are associated with differing biophysical factors such as soil residence time, bacterial denitrification, vegetation and mineralization. Previous studies have demonstrated that the physical properties of hyporheic zones can strongly influence denitrification rates. We examined this in the Paine Run catchment with tracer tests to evaluate dilution effects and predict stream outflow and inflow from hyporheic zones responsible for denitrification. We then looked for biophysical processes responsible for higher nitrate levels at higher elevation by using the OTIS model for transient storage to evaluate hyporhiec zones in Paine Run. We also established a method to evaluate soil parameters for depth and permeability. By identifying the controls on nitrate inputs, transport and denitrification, we isolated a set of criteria applied to a quantitative model for nitrate spatial variability. This research has important implications for defining nutrient availability both within the stream network and at the outlet of forested headwater catchments.

  19. Active control of massively separated high-speed/base flows with electric arc plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlauw, Bradley G.

    The current project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of electric arc plasma actuators on high-speed separated flows. Two underlying goals motivated these experiments. The first goal was to provide a flow control technique that will result in enhanced flight performance for supersonic vehicles by altering the near-wake characteristics. The second goal was to gain a broader and more sophisticated understanding of these complex, supersonic, massively-separated, compressible, and turbulent flow fields. The attainment of the proposed objectives was facilitated through energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges near the base corner separation point. The control authority of electric arc plasma actuators on a supersonic axisymmetric base flow was evaluated for several actuator geometries, frequencies, forcing modes, duty cycles/on-times, and currents. Initially, an electric arc plasma actuator power supply and control system were constructed to generate the arcs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the operational characteristics, electromagnetic emission, and fluidic effect of the actuators in quiescent ambient air. The maximum velocity induced by the arc when formed in a 5 mm x 1.6 mm x 2 mm deep cavity was about 40 m/s. During breakdown, the electromagnetic emission exhibited a rise and fall in intensity over a period of about 340 ns. After breakdown, the emission stabilized to a near-constant distribution. It was also observed that the plasma formed into two different modes: "high-voltage" and "low-voltage". It is believed that the plasma may be switching between an arc discharge and a glow discharge for these different modes. The two types of plasma do not appear to cause substantial differences on the induced fluidic effects of the actuator. In general, the characterization study provided a greater fundamental understanding of the operation of the actuators, as well as data for computational model comparison. Preliminary investigations

  20. Controlled evaporation of superfluid helium in a porous plug phase separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, Christopher R.

    1998-12-01

    regime beyond the critical mass flow rate separating this regime from the unpredictable and hysteretic 'choked' flow regime of the plug. The mass flow increase is stable, and all heat utilized in heating the downstream surface goes into evaporation of liquid helium. Data show the mass flow increase can be obtained while the thermodynamic conditions on either side of the plug are measurably unchanged. This indicates the mechanism providing the additional mass flow of liquid helium is decoupled from counterflow of its normal and superfluid components. This is consistent with the effects of parasitic heat leaking into the downstream side of a porous plug. Further results presented in this thesis include thermodynamic-based computations of liquid helium phase separation in capillaries and discussion of how computational models can be used to bind the flow regimes of porous plugs. These computational models coupled with the controlled evaporation technique simplify the flight porous plug selection process for a mission. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Superhydrophobic film fabricated by controlled microphase separation of PEO-PLA mixture and its transparence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Pihui; Mu, Wei; Fei, George; Deng, Yulin

    2013-05-01

    Instead of block copolymers that have been widely used in controlling thin film morphology, a mixture of two homopolymers has been used in this study to create desired nano- to microporous structure. By further modifying the nano-sized porous structured surface, a superhydrophobic surface was obtained. Experimentally, a chloroform solution containing a mixture of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) was first coated on glass slides. Because of the dissimilarity of PLA and PEO, a microphase separation happened and the PEO formed microdomains in the coating layer during the film drying. Because PEO is water soluble but PLA is water-insoluble, the PEO microdomains could be washed out with water but PLA remained, resulted in a porous and rough PLA film. By two or three layer coating and washing, nano-sized roughness was obtained. A thin layer of fluorinated acrylic resin was further deposited on the rough surface. Because of the synergistic effect of surface roughness and hydrophobic, a superhydrophobicicity layer was obtained.

  2. Sensor-based control in eddy current separation of incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Abdur; Bakker, M C M

    2013-06-01

    A sensor unit was placed online in the particle stream produced by an eddy current separator (ECS) to investigate its functionality in non-ferrous metals recovery. The targeted feed was the 1-6mm size fraction bottom ash from a municipal waste incinerator. The sensor unit was attached to the ECS splitter, where it counted in real-time metal and mineral particles and accurately measured the grade of the stream in the metals product. Influence of segregation (e.g. due to particle size or density) on the metals concentrate were detected and studied using the sensor data collected at different splitter distances. Tests were performed in the laboratory and in a bottom ash processing plant with two different types of ECS and two sources of bottom ash with different moisture content. The measured metal grades matched the manual analyses with errors 0%, 1.5% and 3.1% for moist, dry and very wet feed, respectively. For very wet feed the ECS metals recovery dropped, which was observed from the strongly reduced particle counts and the large changes in cumulative particle properties. The measured sample proved representative for the whole metals concentrate if it is collected at a representative position within the metals particle trajectory fan produced by the ECS. ECS-performance proved sensitively dependent on splitter distance, since a 10mm shift may result in 10% change in metal recovery and 18% change in grade. The main functionalities of the sensor unit are determined as online quality control and facilitation of automatic control over the ECS splitter distance. These functionalities translate in significant improvements in ECS metals recovery which in turn is linked to economic benefits, increased recycling rate of scrap metals and a further reduction of the ecological drawbacks of incinerator bottom ash. PMID:23490354

  3. What Controls the Rate of Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Charge Separation Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaic Blends.

    PubMed

    Jakowetz, Andreas C; Böhm, Marcus L; Zhang, Jiangbin; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Bakulin, Artem A; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2016-09-14

    In solar energy harvesting devices based on molecular semiconductors, such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and artificial photosynthetic systems, Frenkel excitons must be dissociated via charge transfer at heterojunctions to yield free charges. What controls the rate and efficiency of charge transfer and charge separation is an important question, as it determines the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these systems. In bulk heterojunctions between polymer donor and fullerene acceptors, which provide a model system to understand the fundamental dynamics of electron transfer in molecular systems, it has been established that the first step of photoinduced electron transfer can be fast, of order 100 fs. But here we report the first study which correlates differences in the electron transfer rate with electronic structure and morphology, achieved with sub-20 fs time resolution pump-probe spectroscopy. We vary both the fullerene substitution and donor/fullerene ratio which allow us to control both aggregate size and the energetic driving force for charge transfer. We observe a range of electron transfer times from polymer to fullerene, from 240 fs to as short as 37 fs. Using ultrafast electro-optical pump-push-photocurrent spectroscopy, we find the yield of free versus bound charges to be weakly dependent on the energetic driving force, but to be very strongly dependent on fullerene aggregate size and packing. Our results point toward the importance of state accessibility and charge delocalization and suggest that energetic offsets between donor and acceptor levels are not an important criterion for efficient charge generation. This provides design rules for next-generation materials to minimize losses related to driving energy and boost PCE. PMID:27538341

  4. What Controls the Rate of Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Charge Separation Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaic Blends.

    PubMed

    Jakowetz, Andreas C; Böhm, Marcus L; Zhang, Jiangbin; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Bakulin, Artem A; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2016-09-14

    In solar energy harvesting devices based on molecular semiconductors, such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and artificial photosynthetic systems, Frenkel excitons must be dissociated via charge transfer at heterojunctions to yield free charges. What controls the rate and efficiency of charge transfer and charge separation is an important question, as it determines the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these systems. In bulk heterojunctions between polymer donor and fullerene acceptors, which provide a model system to understand the fundamental dynamics of electron transfer in molecular systems, it has been established that the first step of photoinduced electron transfer can be fast, of order 100 fs. But here we report the first study which correlates differences in the electron transfer rate with electronic structure and morphology, achieved with sub-20 fs time resolution pump-probe spectroscopy. We vary both the fullerene substitution and donor/fullerene ratio which allow us to control both aggregate size and the energetic driving force for charge transfer. We observe a range of electron transfer times from polymer to fullerene, from 240 fs to as short as 37 fs. Using ultrafast electro-optical pump-push-photocurrent spectroscopy, we find the yield of free versus bound charges to be weakly dependent on the energetic driving force, but to be very strongly dependent on fullerene aggregate size and packing. Our results point toward the importance of state accessibility and charge delocalization and suggest that energetic offsets between donor and acceptor levels are not an important criterion for efficient charge generation. This provides design rules for next-generation materials to minimize losses related to driving energy and boost PCE.

  5. Separate elements control DJ and VDJ rearrangement in a transgenic recombination substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, P; Krippl, B; Blackwell, T K; Furley, A J; Suh, H; Winoto, A; Cook, W D; Hood, L; Costantini, F; Alt, F W

    1990-01-01

    We describe transgenic mice that carry an antigen receptor gene minilocus comprised of germline T cell receptor (TCR) beta variable gene elements (V, D and J) linked to an immunoglobulin (Ig) C mu constant region gene with or without a DNA segment containing the Ig heavy chain transcriptional enhancer (E mu). Transgenic constructs lacking the E mu-containing segment did not undergo detectable rearrangement in any tissue of six independent transgenic lines. In contrast, transgenic constructs containing this DNA segment underwent rearrangement at high frequency in lymphoid tissues, but not other tissues, of four independent lines. Analyses of purified B and T cells, as well as B and T cell lines, from transgenic animals demonstrated that the E mu-containing segment within the construct allowed partial TCR gene assembly (D to J) in both B and T cells. However, complete TCR gene rearrangement within the construct (V to DJ) occurred only in T cells. Therefore, we have demonstrated elements that can control two separate aspects of TCR beta VDJ rearrangement within this construct. One lies within the E mu-containing DNA segment and represents a dominant, cis-acting element that initiates lymphoid cell-specific D beta to J beta rearrangement; various considerations suggest this activity may be related to that of the E mu element. The second element provides T cell-specific control of complete (V beta to DJ beta) variable region gene assembly; it correlates in activity with expression of the unrearranged V beta segment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2153073

  6. Wavefront control with a spatial light modulator containing dual-frequency liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dong-Feng; Winker, Bruce; Wen, Bing; Taber, Don; Brackley, Andrew; Wirth, Allan; Albanese, Marc; Landers, Frank

    2004-10-01

    A versatile, scalable wavefront control approach based upon proven liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology was extended for potential use in high-energy near-infrared laser applications. The reflective LC SLM module demonstrated has a two-inch diameter active aperture with 812 pixels. Using an ultra-low absorption transparent conductor in the LC SLM, a high laser damage threshold was demonstrated. Novel dual frequency liquid crystal materials and addressing schemes were implemented to achieve fast switching speed (<1ms at 1.31 microns). Combining this LCSLM with a novel wavefront sensing method, a closed loop wavefront controller is being demonstrated. Compared to conventional deformable mirrors, this non-mechanical wavefront control approach offers substantial improvements in speed (bandwidth), resolution, power consumption and system weight/volume.

  7. Centrifugal Separation of Antiprotons and Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Wrubel, J.; Kalra, R.; Novitski, E.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Zielinski, M.; Sefzick, T.; Borbely, J. S.; Fitzakerley, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Muellers, A.; Walz, J.; Speck, A.

    2010-11-19

    Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons is observed, the first such demonstration with particles that cannot be laser cooled or optically imaged. The spatial separation takes place during the electron cooling of trapped antiprotons, the only method available to produce cryogenic antiprotons for precision tests of fundamental symmetries and for cold antihydrogen studies. The centrifugal separation suggests a new approach for isolating low energy antiprotons and for producing a controlled mixture of antiprotons and electrons.

  8. Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons.

    PubMed

    Gabrielse, G; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Wrubel, J; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Borbely, J S; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Speck, A

    2010-11-19

    Centrifugal separation of antiprotons and electrons is observed, the first such demonstration with particles that cannot be laser cooled or optically imaged. The spatial separation takes place during the electron cooling of trapped antiprotons, the only method available to produce cryogenic antiprotons for precision tests of fundamental symmetries and for cold antihydrogen studies. The centrifugal separation suggests a new approach for isolating low energy antiprotons and for producing a controlled mixture of antiprotons and electrons.

  9. Neuromodelling based on evolutionary robotics: on the importance of motor control for spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-09-01

    Mainstream approaches to modelling cognitive processes have typically focused on (1) reproducing their neural underpinning, without regard to sensory-motor systems and (2) producing a single, ideal computational model. Evolutionary robotics is an alternative possibility to bridge the gap between neural substrate and behavior by means of a sensory-motor apparatus, and a powerful tool to build a population of individuals rather than a single model. We trained 4 populations of neurorobots, equipped with a pan/tilt/zoom camera, and provided with different types of motor control in order to perform a cancellation task, often used to tap spatial cognition. Neurorobots' eye movements were controlled by (a) position, (b) velocity, (c) simulated muscles and (d) simulated muscles with fixed level of zoom. Neurorobots provided with muscle and velocity control showed better performances than those controlled in position. This is an interesting result since muscle control can be considered a particular type of position control. Finally, neurorobots provided with muscle control and zoom outperformed those without zooming ability.

  10. Spatial control of active CDC-42 during collective migration of hypodermal cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Marie-Hélène; Martin, Emmanuel; Lacoste-Caron, Germain; Hamiche, Karim; Jenna, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Collective epithelial cell migration requires the maintenance of cell-cell junctions while enabling the generation of actin-rich protrusions at the leading edge of migrating cells. Ventral enclosure of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos depends on the collective migration of anterior-positioned leading hypodermal cells towards the ventral midline where they form new junctions with their contralateral neighbours. In this study, we characterized the zygotic function of RGA-7/SPV-1, a CDC-42/Cdc42 and RHO-1/RhoA-specific Rho GTPase-activating protein, which controls the formation of actin-rich protrusions at the leading edge of leading hypodermal cells and the formation of new junctions between contralateral cells. We show that RGA-7 controls these processes in an antagonistic manner with the CDC-42's effector WSP-1/N-WASP and the CDC-42-binding proteins TOCA-1/2/TOCA1. RGA-7 is recruited to spatially distinct locations at junctions between adjacent leading cells, where it promotes the accumulation of clusters of activated CDC-42. It also inhibits the spreading of these clusters towards the leading edge of the junctions and regulates their accumulation and distribution at new junctions formed between contralateral leading cells. Our study suggests that RGA-7 controls collective migration and junction formation between epithelial cells by spatially restricting active CDC-42 within cell-cell junctions.

  11. Controls on the spatial variability of supraglacial channel morphology and network characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, L.

    2015-12-01

    Supraglacial streams are widespread and ubiquitous features of glacial ice surfaces around the world. They play an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of meltwater on a glacier, moderating the flux of meltwater to the bed. They are themselves unique fluvial features in which erosion and deposition is achieved through thermal erosion of ice rather than alluvial substrate. As such, they are of both glaciological and fluvial geomorphological interest for both practical and theoretical reasons. However, little is known about their characteristics through space and time, or how these characteristics reflect external driving forces. This research aims to address these gaps by characterizing the spatial variability of supraglacial stream morphology across a range of glacier types and environmental conditions and identifying forcings that control channel form. Topographic data was analyzed from a range of glacier surface types including icesheets, pocket alpine glaciers, and outlet valley glaciers spanning a range of latitudes and elevations, comprising glaciers from Greenland, British Columbia, Alaska, Iceland and Sweden. Channels were extracted from the topographic data using an automated approach based on identifying topographic depressions at different size scales, in which the method was tested relative to manually digitized stream networks. Channel geomorphology was subsequently characterized according to planimetric and drainage network geometries. Resulting morphometric characteristics were analyzed with regards to endo and exogenic environmental forcings such as ice topography and characteristics and climatic forcings to identify the primary controls on supraglacial channel morphology and the response of these channels with respect to these controls.

  12. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J.; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A.; Carroll, Sue L.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Phil M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2009-05-22

    Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction, and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5 y period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate, and ethanol strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared to the population variation via canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bio-reduction; however, the two bio-stimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

  13. Bacterial community succession during in situ uranium bioremediation: spatial similarities along controlled flow paths.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A; Carroll, Sue L; Watson, David B; Jardine, Phil M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Fields, Matthew W

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5-year period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate and ethanol were strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate reducers and metal reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared with the population variation through canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bioreduction; however, the two biostimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

  14. Spatially controlled optogenetic light stimulation and recording platform via imaging fiber bundles (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Javier I.; Sengupta, Parijat; Mun, Jonathan; Iyer, Rajashekar; Rhodes, Justin; Gillette, Martha U.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    Current methods for light delivery in in vivo optogenetic applications are typically accomplished via a single multimode fiber that diffuses light over a large area of the brain, and relies on the spatial distribution of transfected light-sensitive neurons for targeted control. In our investigations, an imaging fiber bundle (Schott) containing 4,500 individual fibers, each with a diameter of 7.5 µm, and an overall outer bundle diameter of 530 µm, served as a conduit for light delivery and optical recording/imaging. The use of this fiber bundle, in contrast to a single multimode fiber, allows for individually-addressable fibers, spatial selectivity at the stimulus site, more precise control of light delivery, and full field-of-view imaging and/or optical recordings of individual neurons in local neural circuits. An objective coupled the two continuous wave diode laser sources (561nm/488nm) (Coherent) for stimulation and imaging into the fiber bundle while a set of galvanometer-scanning mirrors was used to couple the light stimulus to distinct fibers within the proximal end of the imaging fiber bundle. In our study, C1V1(E122T/E162T)-TS-p2A-mCherry (Karl Deisseroth, Stanford) and GCaMP6s transgenic mice (Jackson Labs) were utilized for this all-optical approach. The results of our investigation demonstrate that imaging fiber bundles provide a new level of spatial selectivity and control of light delivery to specific neurons, as well as function as a conduit for optical imaging and recording at the in vivo site of stimulation, in contrast to the use of single multimode fibers that diffusely illuminate neural tissue and lack in vivo imaging capabilities.

  15. 9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., may be derived by mechanically separating skeletal muscle tissue from the bones of livestock, other... mechanical separation of skeletal muscle tissue from livestock bones, the operator of an establishment must... establishment has verified and documented the ratio of iron content to protein content in the skeletal...

  16. 2D spatially controlled polymer micro patterning for cellular behavior studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, V.; Palla-Papavlu, A.; Paraico, I.; Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A.; Dinescu, M.

    2011-04-01

    A simple and effective method to functionalize glass surfaces that enable polymer micropatterning and subsequent spatially controlled adhesion of cells is reported in this paper. The method involves the application of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) to achieve polymer patterning in a single step onto cell repellent substrates (i.e. polyethyleneglycol (PEG)). This approach was used to produce micron-size polyethyleneimine (PEI)-patterns alternating with cell-repellent areas. The focus of this work is the ability of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to orient, migrate, and produce organized cellular arrangements on laser generated PEI patterns.

  17. Image Processing and control of a programmable spatial light modulator for optic damage protection

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Leach, R; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Matone, J; Heebner, J

    2010-12-06

    The heart of the National Ignition Facility is a megajoule-class laser system consisting of 192 beams used to drive inertial confinement fusion reactions. A recently installed system of programmable, liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators adds the capability of arbitrarily shaping the spatial beam profiles in order to enhance operational flexibility. Its primary intended use is for introducing 'blocker' obscurations shadowing isolated flaws on downstream optical elements that would otherwise be damaged by high fluence laser illumination. Because an improperly shaped blocker pattern can lead to equipment damage, both the position and shape of the obscurations must be carefully verified prior to high-fluence operations. An automatic alignment algorithm is used to perform detection and estimation of the imposed blocker centroid positions compared to their intended locations. Furthermore, in order to minimize the spatially-varying nonlinear response of the device, a calibration of the local magnification is performed at multiple sub-image locations. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing of this device that helps to enhance the safety and longevity of the overall system.

  18. Formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal composites by a surface-controlled anisotropic phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hong; Khoo, Iam Choon; Yu, Chang-Jae; Jung, Min-Sik; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2005-01-10

    We report on formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal (PLC) composites using a surface-controlled phase separation method. The binary nature of the PLC phase gratings is produced by employing a single step photo-ablation through an amplitude photomask which precisely controls the interfacial interactions between the LC and the photopolymer on the alignment layer. A subsequent illumination of the ultraviolet light onto the whole PLC promotes an anisotropic phase separation resulting in the formation of distinct binary patterns for the PLC structure. The electrically tunable diffraction properties of the binary phase gratings are presented.

  19. Learning of Temporal and Spatial Movement Aspects: A Comparison of Four Types of Haptic Control and Concurrent Visual Feedback.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In literature, the effectiveness of haptics for motor learning is controversially discussed. Haptics is believed to be effective for motor learning in general; however, different types of haptic control enhance different movement aspects. Thus, in dependence on the movement aspects of interest, one type of haptic control may be effective whereas another one is not. Therefore, in the current work, it was investigated if and how different types of haptic controllers affect learning of spatial and temporal movement aspects. In particular, haptic controllers that enforce active participation of the participants were expected to improve spatial aspects. Only haptic controllers that provide feedback about the task's velocity profile were expected to improve temporal aspects. In a study on learning a complex trunk-arm rowing task, the effect of training with four different types of haptic control was investigated: position control, path control, adaptive path control, and reactive path control. A fifth group (control) trained with visual concurrent augmented feedback. As hypothesized, the position controller was most effective for learning of temporal movement aspects, while the path controller was most effective in teaching spatial movement aspects of the rowing task. Visual feedback was also effective for learning temporal and spatial movement aspects. PMID:25974949

  20. Adaptive optimal control of highly dissipative nonlinear spatially distributed processes with neuro-dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong

    2015-04-01

    Highly dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely employed to describe the system dynamics of industrial spatially distributed processes (SDPs). In this paper, we consider the optimal control problem of the general highly dissipative SDPs, and propose an adaptive optimal control approach based on neuro-dynamic programming (NDP). Initially, Karhunen-Loève decomposition is employed to compute empirical eigenfunctions (EEFs) of the SDP based on the method of snapshots. These EEFs together with singular perturbation technique are then used to obtain a finite-dimensional slow subsystem of ordinary differential equations that accurately describes the dominant dynamics of the PDE system. Subsequently, the optimal control problem is reformulated on the basis of the slow subsystem, which is further converted to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. HJB equation is a nonlinear PDE that has proven to be impossible to solve analytically. Thus, an adaptive optimal control method is developed via NDP that solves the HJB equation online using neural network (NN) for approximating the value function; and an online NN weight tuning law is proposed without requiring an initial stabilizing control policy. Moreover, by involving the NN estimation error, we prove that the original closed-loop PDE system with the adaptive optimal control policy is semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the developed method is tested on a nonlinear diffusion-convection-reaction process and applied to a temperature cooling fin of high-speed aerospace vehicle, and the achieved results show its effectiveness.

  1. Adaptive optimal control of highly dissipative nonlinear spatially distributed processes with neuro-dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong

    2015-04-01

    Highly dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely employed to describe the system dynamics of industrial spatially distributed processes (SDPs). In this paper, we consider the optimal control problem of the general highly dissipative SDPs, and propose an adaptive optimal control approach based on neuro-dynamic programming (NDP). Initially, Karhunen-Loève decomposition is employed to compute empirical eigenfunctions (EEFs) of the SDP based on the method of snapshots. These EEFs together with singular perturbation technique are then used to obtain a finite-dimensional slow subsystem of ordinary differential equations that accurately describes the dominant dynamics of the PDE system. Subsequently, the optimal control problem is reformulated on the basis of the slow subsystem, which is further converted to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. HJB equation is a nonlinear PDE that has proven to be impossible to solve analytically. Thus, an adaptive optimal control method is developed via NDP that solves the HJB equation online using neural network (NN) for approximating the value function; and an online NN weight tuning law is proposed without requiring an initial stabilizing control policy. Moreover, by involving the NN estimation error, we prove that the original closed-loop PDE system with the adaptive optimal control policy is semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the developed method is tested on a nonlinear diffusion-convection-reaction process and applied to a temperature cooling fin of high-speed aerospace vehicle, and the achieved results show its effectiveness. PMID:25794375

  2. Sorting out the trash: the spatial nature of eukaryotic protein quality control.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Emily M; Vonk, Willianne I M; Frydman, Judith

    2014-02-01

    Failure to maintain protein homeostasis is associated with aggregation and cell death, and underies a growing list of pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases, aging, and cancer. Misfolded proteins can be toxic and interfere with normal cellular functions, particularly during proteotoxic stress. Accordingly, molecular chaperones, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy together promote refolding or clearance of misfolded proteins. Here we discuss emerging evidence that the pathways of protein quality control (PQC) are intimately linked to cell architecture, and sequester proteins into spatially and functionally distinct PQC compartments. This sequestration serves a number of functions, including enhancing the efficiency of quality control; clearing the cellular milieu of potentially toxic species and facilitating asymmetric inheritance of damaged proteins to promote rejuvenation of daughter cells.

  3. Detecting defective electrical components in heterogeneous infra-red images by spatial control charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidieini, Bahman; Fazaee, Reza

    2016-05-01

    Distribution network components connect machines and other loads to electrical sources. If resistance or current of any component is more than specified range, its temperature may exceed the operational limit which can cause major problems. Therefore, these defects should be found and eliminated according to their severity. Although infra-red cameras have been used for inspection of electrical components, maintenance prioritization of distribution cubicles is mostly based on personal perception and lack of training data prevents engineers from developing image processing methods. New research on the spatial control chart encouraged us to use statistical approaches instead of the pattern recognition for the image processing. In the present study, a new scanning pattern which can tolerate heavy autocorrelation among adjacent pixels within infra-red image was developed and for the first time combination of kernel smoothing, spatial control charts and local robust regression were used for finding defects within heterogeneous infra-red images of old distribution cubicles. This method does not need training data and this advantage is crucially important when the training data is not available.

  4. Spatial control of calcineurin in response to heat shock in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Higa, Mari; Kita, Ayako; Hagihara, Kanako; Kitai, Yuki; Doi, Akira; Nagasoko, Rie; Satoh, Ryosuke; Sugiura, Reiko

    2015-02-01

    In fission yeast, Ppb1, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin regulates multiple biological processes, such as cytokinesis, Ca2+-homeostasis, membrane trafficking and cell wall integrity. Calcineurin dephosphorylates the Prz1 transcription factor, leading to its nuclear translocation and gene expression under the control of CDRE (calcineurin-dependent response element). Although the calcineurin-mediated spatial control of downstream transcription factors has been intensively studied in many organisms, less is known about the spatial regulation of calcineurin on stresses. Here, we show that heat shock stimulates calcineurin-dependent nuclear translocation of Prz1 and CDRE-dependent gene expression. Notably, calcineurin exhibited a dramatic change in subcellular localization, translocating from diffuse cytoplasmic to dot-like structures on heat shock. The calcineurin dots colocalized with Dcp2 or Pabp, the constituent of P-bodies or stress granules, respectively, thus suggesting that calcineurin is a component of RNA granules under heat shock. Importantly, the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 markedly inhibited the accumulation of calcineurin granules, whereas the constitutively active calcineurin strongly accumulated in the granules on heat shock, suggesting that phosphatase activity is important for calcineurin localization. Notably, the depletion of calcineurin induced a rapid appearance of Nrd1- and Pabp-positive RNA granules. The possible roles of calcineurin in response to heat shock will be discussed.

  5. Utilizing clathrin triskelions as carriers for spatially controlled multi-protein display.

    PubMed

    Deci, Michael B; Ferguson, Scott W; Liu, Maixian; Peterson, Damian C; Koduvayur, Sujatha P; Nguyen, Juliane

    2016-11-01

    The simultaneous and spatially controlled display of different proteins on nanocarriers is a desirable property not often achieved in practice. Here, we report the use of clathrin triskelions as a versatile platform for functional protein display. We hypothesized that site-specific molecular epitope recognition would allow for effective and ordered protein attachment to clathrin triskelions. Clathrin binding peptides (CBPs) were genetically fused to mCherry and green fluorescent protein (GFP), expressed, and loaded onto clathrin triskelions by site-specific binding. Attachment was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. mCherry fusion proteins modified with various CBPs displayed binding affinities between 470 nM and 287 μM for the clathrin triskelions. Simultaneous attachment of GFP-Wbox and mCherry-Cbox fusion constructs to the clathrin terminal domain was verified by Förster resonance energy transfer. The circulating half-lives, area under the curve, and the terminal half-lives of GFP and mCherry were significantly increased when attached to clathrin triskelions. Clathrin triskelion technology is useful for the development of versatile and multifunctional carriers for spatially controlled protein or peptide display with tremendous potential in nanotechnology, drug delivery, vaccine development, and targeted therapeutic applications. PMID:27627809

  6. Graft linker immobilization for spatial control of protein immobilization inside fused microchips.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kentaro; Renberg, Björn; Sato, Kae; Mawatari, Kazuma; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2009-12-01

    Fused silica glass microchips have several attractive features for lab-on-a-chip applications; they can be machined with excellent precision down to nanospace; are stable; transparent and can be modified with a range of silanization agents to change channel surface properties. For immobilization, however, ligands must be added after bonding, since the harsh bonding conditions using heat or hydrofluoric acid would remove all prior immobilized ligands. For spatial control over immobilization, UV-mediated immobilization offers several advantages; spots can be created in parallel, the feature size can be made small, and spatial control over patterns and positions is excellent. However, UV sensitive groups are often based on hydrophobic chemical moieties, which unfortunately result in greater non-specific binding of biomolecules, especially proteins. Here, we present techniques in which any -CH(x) (x=1,2,3) containing surface coating can be used as foundation for grafting a hydrophilic linker with a chemical anchor, a carboxyl group, to which proteins and amine containing molecules can be covalently coupled. Hence, the attractive features of many well-known protein and biomolecule repelling polymer coatings can be utilized while achieving site-specific immobilization only to pre-determined areas within the bonded microchips.

  7. Differential control of temporal and spatial aspects of cockroach leg coordination.

    PubMed

    Couzin-Fuchs, E; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Ayali, A

    2015-08-01

    Ensembles of neuronal networks and sensory pathways participate in controlling the kinematic and dynamic parameters of animal movement necessary to achieve motor coordination. Determining the relative contribution of proprioceptive feedback is essential for understanding how animals sustain stable, coordinated locomotion in complex natural environments. Here, we focus on the role of chordotonal organs (COs), proprioceptors found in insect legs, in the spatial and temporal regulation of walking. We compare gait parameters of intact cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and sensory-impaired ones, injected with pymetrozine, a chemical previously shown to abolish CO function in locusts. We verify that afferent CO activity in pymetrozine-treated cockroaches is inhibited, and analyze the effect of this sensory deprivation on inter-leg coordination. We find significant changes in tarsi placement and leg path trajectories after pymetrozine treatment. Leg touchdown accuracy, measured from relative tarsi positions of adjacent legs, is reduced in treated animals. Interestingly, despite poorer spatial coordination in both stance and swing, temporal properties of the gait remain largely the same as in the intact preparations, apart from changes in ipsilateral phase differences between front and middle legs. These findings provide insights into the role of COs in insect gait control and establish pymetrozine as a useful tool for further studies of insect locomotion. PMID:26086675

  8. Mechanisms for laminar separated-flow control using dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuator at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Makoto; Nonomura, Taku; Okada, Koichi; Asada, Kengo; Aono, Hikaru; Yakeno, Aiko; Abe, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Kozo

    2015-11-01

    Large-eddy simulations have been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of separated-flow control using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator at a low Reynolds number. In the present study, the mechanisms are classified according to the means of momentum injection to the boundary layer. The separated flow around the NACA 0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 63 000 is used as the base flow for separation control. Both normal and burst mode actuations are adopted in separation control. The burst frequency non-dimensionalized by the freestream velocity and the chord length (F+) is varied from 0.25 to 25, and we discuss the control mechanism through the comparison of the aerodynamic performance and controlled flow-fields in each normal and burst case. Lift and drag coefficients are significantly improved for the cases of F+ = 1, 5, and 15 due to flow reattachment associated with a laminar-separation bubble. Frequency and linear stability analyses indicate that the F+ = 5 and 15 cases effectively excite the natural unstable frequency at the separated shear layer, which is caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This excitation results in earlier flow reattachment due to earlier turbulent transition. Furthermore, the Reynolds stress decomposition is conducted in order to identify the means of momentum entrainment resulted from large-scale spanwise vortical structure or small-scale turbulent vortices. For the cases with flow reattachment, the large-scale spanwise vortices, which shed from the separated shear layer through plasma actuation, significantly increase the periodic component of the Reynolds stress near the leading edge. These large-scale vortices collapse to small-scale turbulent vortices, and the turbulent component of the Reynolds stress increases around the large-scale vortices. In these cases, although the combination of momentum entrainment by both Reynolds stress components results in flow reattachment, the dominant component is identified as

  9. Control of a Separation bubble at Low Reynolds Numbers Using Electro-Active Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Orso, Haley; Chang, Lucia; Zaremski, Sarah; Demauro, Edward; Leong, Chia; Amitay, Michael

    2013-11-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the effects of electro-active polymers (EAPs) on a 3-dimensional separation bubble on a two-dimensional NACA0009 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 20,000 and an angle of attack 5 deg. A single row of EAPs was placed at 20% chord and activated at 1500V and 50Hz, corresponding to the Kelvin-Helmholtz frequency of the separated mixing layer. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry data were collected in the vicinity of the EAPs for three cases: baseline (no EAP present), EAP present but not actuated, and EAP present and actuated. Data demonstrated that the presence of the EAP slightly reduced the magnitude of the separation bubble. When the EAPs were actuated at the chosen frequency and voltage, the separation bubble was almost completely mitigated.

  10. Time-resolved and spatially-resolved infrared spectroscopic observation of seeded nucleation controlling geopolymer gel formation.

    PubMed

    Hajimohammadi, Ailar; Provis, John L; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2011-05-15

    The effect of seeded nucleation on the formation and structural evolution of one-part ("just add water") geopolymer gels is investigated. Gel-forming systems are seeded with each of three different oxide nanoparticles, and seeding is shown to have an important role in controlling the silica release rate from the solid geothermal silica precursor, and in the development of physical properties of the gels. Nucleation accelerates the chemical changes taking place during geopolymer formation. The nature of the seeds affects the structure of the growing gel by affecting the extent of phase separation, identified by the presence of a distinct silica-rich gel in addition to the main, more alumina-rich gel phase. Synchrotron radiation-based infrared microscopy (SR-FTIR) shows the effect of nucleation on the heterogeneous nanostructure and microstructure of geopolymer gels, and is combined with data obtained by time-resolved FTIR analysis to provide a more holistic view of the reaction processes at a level of detail that has not previously been available. While spatially averaged (ATR-FTIR) infrared results show similar spectra for seeded and unseeded samples which have been cured for more than 3 weeks, SR-FTIR results show marked differences in gel structure as a result of seeding.

  11. Control of Shock-Induced Boundary Layer Separation by using Pulsed Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Benton R.; Clemens, Noel T.; Micka, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic flow including flow instability, fatigue of structural panels, and unstart in supersonic inlets. Pulsed plasma jets (or ``spark jets''), which are characterized by high bandwidth and the ability to direct momentum into the flow, are one promising method of reducing shock-induced separation. The current study is focused on investigating the efficacy of plasma jets to reduce the separated flow induced by a compression ramp in a Mach 3 flow. Three different 3-jet actuator configurations are tested: 20° pitched, 45° pitched, and 22° pitched and 45° skewed. The jets are pulsed at frequencies between 2 kHz and 4 kHz with duty cycles between 5 and 15%. The shock wave is generated using a 20° compression ramp, and the location of the shock-induced separation is visualized using surface oil streak visualization as well as particle image velocimetry. The results of the study show that of the three configurations, the plasma jets pitched at 20° from the streamwise direction cause the greatest reduction in separation, and when pulsed at a frequency of 3.2 kHz and 12% duty cycle can reduce the size of the separation region by up to 40%. This work is supported by AFRL under SBIR contract.

  12. Spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs in BiOBr/BiOI bilayer to facilitate water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen-Kun; Yin, Wen-Jin; Le Zhang; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and photocatalytic properties of bismuth oxyhalide bilayers (BiOX1/BiOX2, X1 and X2 are Cl, Br, I) are studied by density functional theory. Briefly, their compositionally tunable bandgaps range from 1.85 to 3.41 eV, suitable for sun-light absorption, and all bilayers have band-alignments good for photocatalytic water-splitting. Among them, heterogeneous BiOBr/BiOI bilayer is the best as it has the smallest bandgap. More importantly, photo-excitation of BiOBr/BiOI leads to electron supply to the conduction band minimum with localized states belonging mainly to bismuth of BiOBr where the H+/H2 half-reaction of water-splitting can be sustained. Meanwhile, holes generated by such photo-excitation are mainly derived from the iodine states of BiOI in the valence band maximum; thus, the O2/H2O half-reaction of water splitting is facilitated on BiOI. Detailed band-structure analysis also indicates that this intriguing spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and the two half-reactions of water splitting are good for a wide photo-excitation spectrum from 2–5 eV as such, BiOBr/BiOI bilayer can be an efficient photocatalyst for water-splitting, particularly with further optimization of its optical absorptivity.

  13. Spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs in BiOBr/BiOI bilayer to facilitate water splitting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen-Kun; Yin, Wen-Jin; Le Zhang; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structures and photocatalytic properties of bismuth oxyhalide bilayers (BiOX1/BiOX2, X1 and X2 are Cl, Br, I) are studied by density functional theory. Briefly, their compositionally tunable bandgaps range from 1.85 to 3.41 eV, suitable for sun-light absorption, and all bilayers have band-alignments good for photocatalytic water-splitting. Among them, heterogeneous BiOBr/BiOI bilayer is the best as it has the smallest bandgap. More importantly, photo-excitation of BiOBr/BiOI leads to electron supply to the conduction band minimum with localized states belonging mainly to bismuth of BiOBr where the H(+)/H2 half-reaction of water-splitting can be sustained. Meanwhile, holes generated by such photo-excitation are mainly derived from the iodine states of BiOI in the valence band maximum; thus, the O2/H2O half-reaction of water splitting is facilitated on BiOI. Detailed band-structure analysis also indicates that this intriguing spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and the two half-reactions of water splitting are good for a wide photo-excitation spectrum from 2-5 eV; as such, BiOBr/BiOI bilayer can be an efficient photocatalyst for water-splitting, particularly with further optimization of its optical absorptivity.

  14. Spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs in BiOBr/BiOI bilayer to facilitate water splitting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen-Kun; Yin, Wen-Jin; Le Zhang; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structures and photocatalytic properties of bismuth oxyhalide bilayers (BiOX1/BiOX2, X1 and X2 are Cl, Br, I) are studied by density functional theory. Briefly, their compositionally tunable bandgaps range from 1.85 to 3.41 eV, suitable for sun-light absorption, and all bilayers have band-alignments good for photocatalytic water-splitting. Among them, heterogeneous BiOBr/BiOI bilayer is the best as it has the smallest bandgap. More importantly, photo-excitation of BiOBr/BiOI leads to electron supply to the conduction band minimum with localized states belonging mainly to bismuth of BiOBr where the H(+)/H2 half-reaction of water-splitting can be sustained. Meanwhile, holes generated by such photo-excitation are mainly derived from the iodine states of BiOI in the valence band maximum; thus, the O2/H2O half-reaction of water splitting is facilitated on BiOI. Detailed band-structure analysis also indicates that this intriguing spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and the two half-reactions of water splitting are good for a wide photo-excitation spectrum from 2-5 eV; as such, BiOBr/BiOI bilayer can be an efficient photocatalyst for water-splitting, particularly with further optimization of its optical absorptivity. PMID:27585548

  15. Spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs in BiOBr/BiOI bilayer to facilitate water splitting

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhen-Kun; Yin, Wen-Jin; Le Zhang; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structures and photocatalytic properties of bismuth oxyhalide bilayers (BiOX1/BiOX2, X1 and X2 are Cl, Br, I) are studied by density functional theory. Briefly, their compositionally tunable bandgaps range from 1.85 to 3.41 eV, suitable for sun-light absorption, and all bilayers have band-alignments good for photocatalytic water-splitting. Among them, heterogeneous BiOBr/BiOI bilayer is the best as it has the smallest bandgap. More importantly, photo-excitation of BiOBr/BiOI leads to electron supply to the conduction band minimum with localized states belonging mainly to bismuth of BiOBr where the H+/H2 half-reaction of water-splitting can be sustained. Meanwhile, holes generated by such photo-excitation are mainly derived from the iodine states of BiOI in the valence band maximum; thus, the O2/H2O half-reaction of water splitting is facilitated on BiOI. Detailed band-structure analysis also indicates that this intriguing spatial separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and the two half-reactions of water splitting are good for a wide photo-excitation spectrum from 2–5 eV; as such, BiOBr/BiOI bilayer can be an efficient photocatalyst for water-splitting, particularly with further optimization of its optical absorptivity. PMID:27585548

  16. Geomorphic controls of soil spatial complexity in a primeval mountain forest in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daněk, Pavel; Šamonil, Pavel; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2016-11-01

    Soil diversity and complexity is influenced by a variety of factors, and much recent research has been focused on interpreting or modeling complexity based on soil-topography relationships, and effects of biogeomorphic processes. We aimed to (i) describe local soil diversity in one of the oldest forest reserves in Europe, (ii) employ existing graph theory concepts in pedocomplexity calculation and extend them by a novel approach based on hypothesis testing and an index measuring graph sequentiality (the extent to which soils have gradual vs. abrupt variations in underlying soil factors), and (iii) reveal the main sources of pedocomplexity, with a particular focus on geomorphic controls. A total of 954 soil profiles were described and classified to soil taxonomic units (STU) within a 46 ha area. We analyzed soil diversity using the Shannon index, and soil complexity using a novel graph theory approach. Pairwise tests of observed adjacencies, spectral radius and a newly proposed sequentiality index were used to describe and quantify the complexity of the spatial pattern of STUs. This was then decomposed into the contributions of three soil factor sequences (SFS), (i) degree of weathering and leaching processes, (ii) hydromorphology, and (iii) proportion of rock fragments. Six Reference Soil Groups and 37 second-level soil units were found. A significant portion of pedocomplexity occurred at distances shorter than the 22 m spacing of neighbouring soil profiles. The spectral radius (an index of complexity) of the pattern of soil spatial adjacency was 14.73, to which the individual SFS accounted for values of 2.0, 8.0 and 3.5, respectively. Significant sequentiality was found for degree of weathering and hydromorphology. Exceptional overall pedocomplexity was particularly caused by enormous spatial variability of soil wetness, representing a crucial soil factor sequence in the primeval forest. Moreover, the soil wetness gradient was partly spatially correlated with the

  17. Factors controlling spatial distribution patterns of biocrusts in a heterogeneous and topographically complex semiarid area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Roncero, Beatriz; Raúl Román, José; Cantón, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Biocrusts are widespread soil components in drylands all over the world. They are known to play key roles in the functioning of these regions by fixing carbon and nitrogen, regulating hydrological processes, and preventing from water and wind erosion, thus reducing the loss of soil resources and increasing soil fertility. The rate and magnitude of services provided by biocrusts greatly depend on their composition and developmental stage. Late-successional biocrusts such as lichens and mosses have higher carbon and nitrogen fixation rates, and confer greater protection against erosion and the loss of sediments and nutrients than early-successional algae and cyanobacteria biocrusts. Knowledge of spatial distribution patterns of different biocrust types and the factors that control their distribution is important to assess ecosystem services provided by biocrusts at large spatial scales and to improve modelling of biogeochemical processes and water and carbon balance in drylands. Some of the factors that condition biocrust cover and composition are incoming solar radiation, terrain attributes, vegetation distribution patterns, microclimatic variables and soil properties such as soil pH, texture, soil organic matter, soil nutrients and gypsum and CaCO3 content. However, the factors that govern biocrust distribution may vary from one site to another depending on site characteristics. In this study, we examined the influence of abiotic attributes on the spatial distribution of biocrust types in a complex heterogeneous badland system (Tabernas, SE Spain) where biocrust cover up to 50% of the soil surface. From the analysis of relationships between terrain attributes and proportional abundance of biocrust types, it was found that topography exerted a main control on the spatial distribution of biocrust types in this area. SW-facing slopes were dominated by physical soil crusts and were practically devoid of vegetation and biocrusts. Biocrusts mainly occupied the pediments

  18. Acetaminophen Versus Liquefied Ibuprofen for Control of Pain During Separation in Orthodontic Patients: A Randomized Triple Blinded Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Shahsavari, Negin; Ghadirian, Hannaneh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of acetaminophen 650 mg or liquefied ibuprofen 400 mg in pain control of orthodontic patients during separation with an elastic separator. A total of 101 patients with specific inclusion criteria were divided randomly into three groups (acetaminophen, liquefied ibuprofen, and placebo). They were instructed to take their drugs one hour before separator placement and every six hours afterward (five doses in total). They recorded their discomfort on visual analog scales immediately after separator placement, 2 hours later, 6 hours later, at bedtime, and 24 hours after separator placement. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean pain scores between the three groups. Data were collected from 89 patients. The pain increased with time in all groups. Pain scores were statistically lower in the analgesic groups compared with the placebo group (P.value<0.001), but no statistically significant difference was found in mean pain scores between the two drug groups (acetaminophen and liquefied ibuprofen) (P.value=1). Acetaminophen and liquefied ibuprofen have similar potential in pain reduction during separation. PMID:27424011

  19. Retinoic acid signaling spatially restricts osteoblasts and controls ray-interray organization during zebrafish fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Blum, Nicola; Begemann, Gerrit

    2015-09-01

    The zebrafish caudal fin consists of repeated units of bony rays separated by soft interray tissue, an organization that must be faithfully re-established during fin regeneration. How and why regenerating rays respect ray-interray boundaries, thus extending only the existing bone, has remained unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that a retinoic acid (RA)-degrading niche is established by Cyp26a1 in the proximal basal epidermal layer that orchestrates ray-interray organization by spatially restricting osteoblasts. Disruption of this niche causes preosteoblasts to ignore ray-interray boundaries and to invade neighboring interrays where they form ectopic bone. Concomitantly, non-osteoblastic blastema cells and regenerating blood vessels spread into the interrays, resulting in overall disruption of ray-interray organization and irreversible inhibition of fin regeneration. The cyp26a1-expressing niche plays another important role during subsequent regenerative outgrowth, where it facilitates the Shha-promoted proliferation of osteoblasts. Finally, we show that the previously observed distal shift of ray bifurcations in regenerating fins upon RA treatment or amputation close to the bifurcation can be explained by inappropriate preosteoblast alignment and does not necessarily require putative changes in proximodistal information. Our findings uncover a mechanism regulating preosteoblast alignment and maintenance of ray-interray boundaries during fin regeneration. PMID:26253402

  20. Spatial co-adaptation of cortical control columns in a micro-ECoG brain–computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, A. G.; Williams, J. J.; Wheeler, J. J.; Moran, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been used for a range of applications including electrophysiological mapping, epilepsy monitoring, and more recently as a recording modality for brain–computer interfaces (BCIs). Studies that examine ECoG electrodes designed and implanted chronically solely for BCI applications remain limited. The present study explored how two key factors influence chronic, closed-loop ECoG BCI: (i) the effect of inter-electrode distance on BCI performance and (ii) the differences in neural adaptation and performance when fixed versus adaptive BCI decoding weights are used. Approach. The amplitudes of epidural micro-ECoG signals between 75 and 105 Hz with 300 μm diameter electrodes were used for one-dimensional and two-dimensional BCI tasks. The effect of inter-electrode distance on BCI control was tested between 3 and 15 mm. Additionally, the performance and cortical modulation differences between constant, fixed decoding using a small subset of channels versus adaptive decoding weights using the entire array were explored. Main results. Successful BCI control was possible with two electrodes separated by 9 and 15 mm. Performance decreased and the signals became more correlated when the electrodes were only 3 mm apart. BCI performance in a 2D BCI task improved significantly when using adaptive decoding weights (80%–90%) compared to using constant, fixed weights (50%–60%). Additionally, modulation increased for channels previously unavailable for BCI control under the fixed decoding scheme upon switching to the adaptive, all-channel scheme. Significance. Our results clearly show that neural activity under a BCI recording electrode (which we define as a ‘cortical control column’) readily adapts to generate an appropriate control signal. These results show that the practical minimal spatial resolution of these control columns with micro-ECoG BCI is likely on the order of 3 mm. Additionally, they show that the combination and

  1. Modeling, fabrication and plasma actuator coupling of flexible pressure sensors for flow separation detection and control in aeronautical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioso, L.; De Pascali, C.; Pescini, E.; De Giorgi, M. G.; Siciliano, P.

    2016-06-01

    Preventing the flow separation could enhance the performance of propulsion systems and future civil aircraft. To this end, a fast detection of boundary layer separation is mandatory for a sustainable and successful application of active flow control devices, such as plasma actuators. The present work reports on the design, fabrication and functional tests of low-cost capacitive pressure sensors coupled with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to detect and then control flow separation. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were used to obtain information on the deflection and the stress distribution in different-shaped floating membranes. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pressure load was also calculated by experimental tests. The results of the calibration of different capacitive pressure sensors are reported in this work, together with functional tests in a wind tunnel equipped with a curved wall plate on which a DBD plasma actuator was mounted to control the flow separation. The flow behavior was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Statistical and spectral analysis, applied to the output signals of the pressure sensor placed downstream of the profile leading edge, demonstrated that the sensor is able to discriminate different ionic wind velocity and turbulence conditions. The sensor sensitivity in the 0-100 Pa range was experimentally measured and it ranged between 0.0030 and 0.0046 pF Pa-1 for the best devices.

  2. Modeling, fabrication and plasma actuator coupling of flexible pressure sensors for flow separation detection and control in aeronautical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioso, L.; De Pascali, C.; Pescini, E.; De Giorgi, M. G.; Siciliano, P.

    2016-06-01

    Preventing the flow separation could enhance the performance of propulsion systems and future civil aircraft. To this end, a fast detection of boundary layer separation is mandatory for a sustainable and successful application of active flow control devices, such as plasma actuators. The present work reports on the design, fabrication and functional tests of low-cost capacitive pressure sensors coupled with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to detect and then control flow separation. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were used to obtain information on the deflection and the stress distribution in different-shaped floating membranes. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pressure load was also calculated by experimental tests. The results of the calibration of different capacitive pressure sensors are reported in this work, together with functional tests in a wind tunnel equipped with a curved wall plate on which a DBD plasma actuator was mounted to control the flow separation. The flow behavior was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Statistical and spectral analysis, applied to the output signals of the pressure sensor placed downstream of the profile leading edge, demonstrated that the sensor is able to discriminate different ionic wind velocity and turbulence conditions. The sensor sensitivity in the 0–100 Pa range was experimentally measured and it ranged between 0.0030 and 0.0046 pF Pa‑1 for the best devices.

  3. Control of boundary layer separation and the wake of an airfoil using ns-DBD plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Timothy

    The efficacy of nanosecond pulse driven dielectric barrier discharge (ns-DBD) plasma actuators for boundary layer separation and wake control is investigated experimentally. A single ns-DBD plasma actuator is placed at the leading edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil model. Both baseline and controlled flow fields are studied using static pressure measurements, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA). Experiments are primarily performed at Re = 0.74 x 106 and alpha = 18°. CP, PIV and CTA data show that a forcing frequency of F+ = 1.14 is optimal for separation control. CTA surveys of the wake at x/c = 7 indicate three approximate regimes of behavior. Forcing in the range 0.92< F+ < 1.52 results in the best conditions for separation control over the airfoil, but has no dominant signature in the wake at x/c = 7. Excitation in the range of 0.23 < F+ < 0.92 produces a single dominant frequency in the wake while F+ < 0.23 shows behavior representing a possible impulse response or nonlinear effects. PIV data confirm these observations in all three regimes. Cross-correlations of CTA data are also employed to evaluate the two-dimensionality of the excited wake. The initial results presented here are part of an ongoing effort to use active flow control (AFC), in the form of ns-DBDs, as an enabling technology for the study of unsteady aerodynamics and vortex-body interactions.

  4. Vortex generators for control of shock-induced separation. Part 3: Examples of applications of vortex generators to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    ESDU 93026 illustrates by case studies the use of the information in Parts 1 and 2 on the use of vortex generators to control shock-induced separation. The examples are the control of internal noise by the application of vortex generators on the forward cabin roof of a business aircraft (Gulfstream III), the control of separation associated with a three-shock pattern near the tip of a highly swept and tapered model wing in a wind-tunnel, and the improvement of the buffet maneuver boundary on a straight wing interceptor aircraft of the fifties. In each case the geometric details of the arrays of vortex generators tested are provided, the results obtained are described, and the aerodynamic principles involved that influence those results are assessed.

  5. Metamaterials for Remote Generation of Spatially Controllable Two Dimensional Array of Microplasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramod K.; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials. PMID:25098976

  6. Metamaterials for remote generation of spatially controllable two dimensional array of microplasma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod K; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-08-07

    Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials.

  7. Spatially controlled bacterial adhesion using surface-patterned poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Krsko, Peter; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Libera, Matthew

    2009-02-01

    We constructed surface-patterned hydrogels using low-energy focused electron beams to locally crosslink poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) thin films on silanized glass substrates. Derived from electron-beam lithography, this technique was used to create patterned hydrogels with well-defined spatial positions and degrees of swelling. We found that cells of the bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis adhered to and grew on the silanized glass substrates. These cells did not, however, adhere to surfaces covered by high-swelling lightly crosslinked PEG hydrogels. This finding is consistent with the cell-repulsiveness generally attributed to PEGylated surfaces. In contrast, S. epidermidis cells did adhere to surfaces covered by low-swelling highly crosslinked hydrogels. By creating precise patterns of repulsive hydrogels combined with adhesive hydrogels or with exposed glass substrate, we were able to spatially control the adhesion of S. epidermidis. Significantly, adhesive areas small enough to trap single bacterial cells could be fabricated. The results suggest that the lateral confinement imposed by cell-repulsive hydrogels hindered the cell proliferation and development into larger bacterial colonies.

  8. Inkjet-Based Biopatterning of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 to Spatially Control Calvarial Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric D.; DeCesare, Gary E.; Usas, Arvydas; Lensie, Emily L.; Bykowski, Michael R.; Huard, Johnny; Weiss, Lee E.; Losee, Joseph E.; Campbell, Phil G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate spatial control of osteoblast differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo using inkjet bioprinting technology and to create three-dimensional persistent bio-ink patterns of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and its modifiers immobilized within microporous scaffolds. Semicircular patterns of BMP-2 were printed within circular DermaMatrix™ human allograft scaffold constructs. The contralateral halves of the constructs were unprinted or printed with BMP-2 modifiers, including the BMP-2 inhibitor, noggin. Printed bio-ink pattern retention was validated using fluorescent or 125I-labeled bio-inks. Mouse C2C12 progenitor cells cultured on patterned constructs differentiated in a dose-dependent fashion toward an osteoblastic fate in register to BMP-2 patterns. The fidelity of spatial restriction of osteoblastic differentiation at the boundary between neighboring BMP-2 and noggin patterns improved in comparison with patterns without noggin. Acellular DermaMatrix constructs similarly patterned with BMP-2 and noggin were then implanted into a mouse calvarial defect model. Patterns of bone formation in vivo were comparable with patterned responses of osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. These results demonstrate that three-dimensional biopatterning of a growth factor and growth factor modifier within a construct can direct cell differentiation in vitro and tissue formation in vivo in register to printed patterns. PMID:20028232

  9. Metamaterials for remote generation of spatially controllable two dimensional array of microplasma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod K; Hopwood, Jeffrey; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Since the initial demonstration of negative refraction and cloaking using metamaterials, there has been enormous interest and progress in making practical devices based on metamaterials such as electrically small antennas, absorbers, modulators, detectors etc that span over a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum covering microwave, terahertz, infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. We present metamaterial as an active substrate where each unit cell serves as an element for generation of plasma, the fourth state of matter. Sub-wavelength localization of incident electromagnetic wave energy, one of the most interesting properties of metamaterials is employed here for generating high electric field to ignite and sustain microscale plasmas. Frequency selective nature of the metamaterial unit cells make it possible to generate spatially localized microplasma in a large array using multiple resonators. A dual resonator topology is shown for the demonstration. Since microwave energy couples to the metamaterial through free space, the proposed approach is naturally wireless. Such spatially controllable microplasma arrays provide a fundamentally new material system for future investigations in novel applications, e.g. nonlinear metamaterials. PMID:25098976

  10. Interaction of the mixed yeast culture in the autotroph-heterotroph system with a closed gas cycle and spatially separated components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T.; Somova, L.

    The study considers the experimental model of the "autotroph-heterotroph" system with a closed gas cycle, in which the heterotrophic link is a mixed yeast population. The autotrophic link is represented by the algae Chlorella vulgaris and the heterotrophic link by the yeasts Candida utilis and Candida guilliermondii. The controls are separate links of Chlorella and yeasts isolated from the atmosphere. It has been shown that the outcome of the competition in the heterotrophic link depends on the strategy of the yeast population towards the substrate and oxygen. The C. utilis population quickly utilizes the substrate as it is an R-strategist and is less sensitive to oxygen deficiency. The C. guilliermondii population consumes low concentrations of the substrate because it is a K-strategist, but it is more sensitive to oxygen deficiency. That is why, in the "autotroph-heterotroph" system with a closed gas cycle, after a considerable amount of the substrate has been consumed, the C. guilliermondii population becomes more competitive that the C. utilis population. In the culture of a separate yeast link, isolated from the atmosphere, the C. utilis population finds itself in more favorable conditions due to oxygen deficiency. The system with a complex heterotrophic component exists longer than the system whose heterotrophic component is represented by one yeast species. This is accounted for by the positive metabolite interaction of yeasts and a more complete utilization of the substrate by a mixed culture of yeasts featuring different strategies towards the substrate.

  11. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating.

    PubMed

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these 'hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient 'top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid 'bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication. PMID:26961708

  12. Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Galmiche, G; Sanjabi Eznaveh, Z; Antonio-Lopez, J E; Velazquez Benitez, A M; Rodriguez Asomoza, J; Sanchez Mondragon, J J; Gonnet, C; Sillard, P; Li, G; Schülzgen, A; Okonkwo, C M; Amezcua Correa, R

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier employing a mode-selective photonic lantern for controlling the modal content of the pump light. Amplification of six spatial modes in a 5 m long erbium-doped fiber to ∼6.2  dBm average power is obtained while maintaining high modal fidelity. Through mode-selective forward pumping of the two degenerate LP21 modes operating at 976 nm, differential modal gains of <1  dB between all modes and signal gains of ∼16  dB at 1550 nm are achieved. In addition, low differential modal gain for near-full C-band operation is demonstrated. PMID:27244421

  13. Cholinergic Control of Gamma Power in the Midbrain Spatial Attention Network

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, C. Alex; Huguenard, John R.; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2015-01-01

    The modulation of gamma power (25–90 Hz) is associated with attention and has been observed across species and brain areas. However, mechanisms that control these modulations are poorly understood. The midbrain spatial attention network in birds generates high-amplitude gamma oscillations in the local field potential that are thought to represent the highest priority location for attention. Here we explore, in midbrain slices from chickens, mechanisms that regulate the power of these oscillations, using high-resolution techniques including intracellular recordings from neurons targeted by calcium imaging. The results identify a specific subtype of neuron, expressing non-α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, that directly drives inhibition in the gamma-generating circuit and switches the network into a primed state capable of producing high-amplitude oscillations. The special properties of this mechanism enable rapid, persistent changes in gamma power. The brain may employ this mechanism wherever rapid modulations of gamma power are critical to information processing. PMID:25589769

  14. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S.; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O.; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these ‘hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient ‘top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid ‘bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication. PMID:26961708

  15. Spatial variation of luminescence from AlGaN grown by facet controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A.; Liu, R.; Parasuraman, U. K.; Ponce, F. A.; Kamiyama, S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.

    2004-10-01

    Interesting phenomena have been observed in the epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlxGa1-xN alloys using facet control on serrated GaN templates. A complex microstructure is observed that involves misfit dislocation arrays that are closely related to regions with significantly large variations in composition. The dislocations are on inclined planar boundaries and result from basal-plane slip, which is allowed in this inclined facet geometry. The spatial variation of the aluminum composition in the overgrowth region is determined by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and ranges from x =0.06to0.27, for constant growth conditions that after planarization result in a uniform composition at x =0.16. These results indicate that aluminum incorporation depends significantly on the growth direction with marked preference for facets parallel to the basal plane.

  16. Control of the spatial distribution of sodium channels in giant fiber lobe neurons of the squid.

    PubMed

    Gilly, W F; Lucero, M T; Horrigan, F T

    1990-11-01

    Na+ channels are present at high density in squid giant axon but are absent from its somata in the giant fiber lobe (GFL) of the stellate ganglion. GFL cells dispersed in vitro maintain growing axons and develop a Na+ channel distribution similar to that in vivo. Tunicamycin, a glycosylation inhibitor, selectively disrupts the spatially appropriate, high level expression of Na+ channels in axonal membrane but has no effect on expression in cell bodies, which show low level, inappropriate expression in vitro. This effect does not appear to involve alteration in Na+ channel turnover or axon viability. K+ channel distribution is unaffected. Thus, glycosylation appears to be involved in controlling Na+ channel localization in squid neurons.

  17. Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Ryan G.; Ahsan, Shoeb; Aizawa, Yukie; Maxwell, Karen L.; Morshead, Cindi M.; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) protein-patterned scaffolds provide a more biomimetic environment for cell culture than traditional two-dimensional surfaces, but simultaneous 3D protein patterning has proved difficult. We developed a method to spatially control the immobilization of different growth factors in distinct volumes in 3D hydrogels, and to specifically guide differentiation of stem/progenitor cells therein. Stem-cell differentiation factors sonic hedgehog (SHH) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were simultaneously immobilized using orthogonal physical binding pairs, barnase-barstar and streptavidin-biotin, respectively. Barnase and streptavidin were sequentially immobilized using two-photon chemistry for subsequent concurrent complexation with fusion proteins barstar-SHH and biotin-CNTF, resulting in bioactive 3D patterned hydrogels. The technique should be broadly applicable to the patterning of a wide range of proteins.

  18. Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Galmiche, G; Sanjabi Eznaveh, Z; Antonio-Lopez, J E; Velazquez Benitez, A M; Rodriguez Asomoza, J; Sanchez Mondragon, J J; Gonnet, C; Sillard, P; Li, G; Schülzgen, A; Okonkwo, C M; Amezcua Correa, R

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier employing a mode-selective photonic lantern for controlling the modal content of the pump light. Amplification of six spatial modes in a 5 m long erbium-doped fiber to ∼6.2  dBm average power is obtained while maintaining high modal fidelity. Through mode-selective forward pumping of the two degenerate LP21 modes operating at 976 nm, differential modal gains of <1  dB between all modes and signal gains of ∼16  dB at 1550 nm are achieved. In addition, low differential modal gain for near-full C-band operation is demonstrated.

  19. Cholinergic control of gamma power in the midbrain spatial attention network.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Astra S; Goddard, C Alex; Huguenard, John R; Knudsen, Eric I

    2015-01-14

    The modulation of gamma power (25-90 Hz) is associated with attention and has been observed across species and brain areas. However, mechanisms that control these modulations are poorly understood. The midbrain spatial attention network in birds generates high-amplitude gamma oscillations in the local field potential that are thought to represent the highest priority location for attention. Here we explore, in midbrain slices from chickens, mechanisms that regulate the power of these oscillations, using high-resolution techniques including intracellular recordings from neurons targeted by calcium imaging. The results identify a specific subtype of neuron, expressing non-α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, that directly drives inhibition in the gamma-generating circuit and switches the network into a primed state capable of producing high-amplitude oscillations. The special properties of this mechanism enable rapid, persistent changes in gamma power. The brain may employ this mechanism wherever rapid modulations of gamma power are critical to information processing.

  20. Synthetic Vortex Generator Jets Used to Control Separation on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Volino, Ralph J.

    2005-01-01

    Low-pressure turbine (LPT) airfoils are subject to increasingly stronger pressure gradients as designers impose higher loading in an effort to improve efficiency and lower cost by reducing the number of airfoils in an engine. When the adverse pressure gradient on the suction side of these airfoils becomes strong enough, the boundary layer will separate. Separation bubbles, particularly those that fail to reattach, can result in a significant loss of lift and a subsequent degradation of engine efficiency. The problem is particularly relevant in aircraft engines. Airfoils optimized to produce maximum power under takeoff conditions may still experience boundary layer separation at cruise conditions because of the thinner air and lower Reynolds numbers at altitude. Component efficiency can drop significantly between takeoff and cruise conditions. The decrease is about 2 percent in large commercial transport engines, and it could be as large as 7 percent in smaller engines operating at higher altitudes. Therefore, it is very beneficial to eliminate, or at least reduce, the separation bubble.

  1. Spatially-Distributed Cost–Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program–FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ‘‘best approach” depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program

  2. Spatially-Distributed Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution.

    PubMed

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ''best approach" depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program efficiency

  3. Spatially-Distributed Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution.

    PubMed

    Geng, Runzhe; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sharpley, Andrew N; Meng, Fande

    2015-01-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P) index), model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN), and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved) for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ''best approach" depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001) decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program efficiency

  4. Preferred states in spatial soil moisture patterns: Local and nonlocal controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Rodger B.; Western, Andrew W.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; BlöSchl, Günter

    1997-12-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual and observational case in which soil water patterns in temperate regions of Australia switch between two preferred states. The wet state is dominated by lateral water movement through both surface and subsurface paths, with catchment terrain leading to organization of wet areas along drainage lines. We denote this as nonlocal control. The dry state is dominated by vertical fluxes, with soil properties and only local terrain (areas of high convergence) influencing spatial patterns. We denote this as local control. The switch is described in terms of the dominance of lateral over vertical water fluxes and vice versa. When evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, the soil dries to the point where hydraulic conductivity is low and any rainfall that occurs essentially wets up the soil uniformly and is evapotranspired before any significant lateral redistribution takes place. As evapotranspiration decreases and/or rainfall increases, areas of high local convergence become wet, and runoff that is generated moves downslope, rapidly wetting up the drainage lines. In the wet to dry transitional period a rapid increase in potential evapotranspiration (and possibly a decrease in rainfall) causes drying of the soil and "shutting down" of lateral flow. Vertical fluxes dominate and the "dry" pattern is established. Three data sets from two catchments are presented to support the notion of preferred states in soil moisture, and the results of a modeling exercise on catchments from a range of climatic conditions illustrate that the conclusions from the field studies may apply to other areas. The implications for hydrological modeling are discussed in relation to methods for establishing antecedent moisture conditions for event models, for distribution models, and for spatially distributing bulk estimates of catchment soil moisture using indices.

  5. Evolutionary Computation with Spatial Receding Horizon Control to Minimize Network Coding Resources

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The minimization of network coding resources, such as coding nodes and links, is a challenging task, not only because it is a NP-hard problem, but also because the problem scale is huge; for example, networks in real world may have thousands or even millions of nodes and links. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have a good potential of resolving NP-hard problems like the network coding problem (NCP), but as a population-based algorithm, serious scalability and applicability problems are often confronted when GAs are applied to large- or huge-scale systems. Inspired by the temporal receding horizon control in control engineering, this paper proposes a novel spatial receding horizon control (SRHC) strategy as a network partitioning technology, and then designs an efficient GA to tackle the NCP. Traditional network partitioning methods can be viewed as a special case of the proposed SRHC, that is, one-step-wide SRHC, whilst the method in this paper is a generalized N-step-wide SRHC, which can make a better use of global information of network topologies. Besides the SRHC strategy, some useful designs are also reported in this paper. The advantages of the proposed SRHC and GA for the NCP are illustrated by extensive experiments, and they have a good potential of being extended to other large-scale complex problems. PMID:24883371

  6. Spatial control of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation using ion-beam induced thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    2014-08-01

    In this study, cellular films were fabricated by ion-beam irradiation into poly-L-lactic acid sheets and cell culture. The cellular film shapes can be controlled by pattern masks. We performed spatial cell patterning using three types of cells: fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and nerve-like cells. First, multi-layered cellular construct was fabricated by stacking fibroblast cellular films. When three cellular films were stacked and incubated, these films firmly attached to each other. Second, tubular constructs were fabricated by endothelial cell culture on linearly patterned surfaces with wide widths of 80, 120, 160, and 200 μm. The patterned cellular films were rounded into vessel-like structure. The diameters of the constructs depend upon the pattern widths. Finally, we controlled cell attachment and nerve growth of nerve-like cells by using linearly patterned surfaces with narrow widths of 10, 30, and 50 μm. Nerve growth direction was controlled by varying the pattern widths. In the case of 10 μm, the attached cells and nerve growth were straight on the patterned thin films. These cell patterning techniques are expected to have applications in tissue engineering, cell transplantation, and in vitro tissue modeling.

  7. Improving understanding of controls on spatial variability in methane fluxes in Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Scott J.; Sloan, Victoria; Phoenix, Gareth; Wagner, Robert; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change relative to the rest of the globe, and this increase in temperature has feedback effects across hydrological and thermal regimes, plant community distribution and carbon stocks within tundra soils. Arctic wetlands account for a significant amount of methane emissions from natural ecosystems to the atmosphere and with further permafrost degradation under a warming climate, these emissions are expected to increase. Methane (CH4) is an extremely important component of the global carbon cycle with a global warming potential 28.5 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100 year time scale (IPCC, 2013). In order to validate carbon cycle models, modelling methane at broader landscape scales is needed. To date direct measurements of methane have been sporadic in time and space which, while capturing some key controls on the spatial heterogeneity, make it difficult to accurately upscale methane emissions to the landscape and regional scales. This study investigates what is controlling the spatial heterogeneity of methane fluxes across Arctic tundra. We combined over 300 portable chamber observations from 13 micro-topographic positions (with multiple vegetation types) across three locations spanning a 300km latitudinal gradient in Northern Alaska from Barrow to Ivotuk with synchronous measurements of environmental (soil temperature, soil moisture, water table, active layer thaw depth, pH) and vegetation (plant community composition, height, sedge tiller counts) variables to evaluate key controls on methane fluxes. To assess the diurnal variation in CH4 fluxes, we also performed automated chamber measurements in one study site (Barrow) location. Multiple statistical approaches (regression tree and multiple linear regression) were used to identify key controlling variables and their interactions. Methane emissions across all sites ranged from -0.08 to 15.3 mg C-CH4 m-2 hr-1. As expected, soil moisture was the main control

  8. Transcription factors dynamically control the spatial organization of the yeast genome

    PubMed Central

    Randise-Hinchliff, Carlo; Brickner, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In yeast, inducible genes such as INO1, PRM1 and HIS4 reposition from the nucleoplasm to nuclear periphery upon activation. This leads to a physical interaction with nuclear pore complex (NPC), interchromosomal clustering, and stronger transcription. Repositioning to the nuclear periphery is controlled by cis-acting transcription factor (TF) binding sites located within the promoters of these genes and the TFs that bind to them. Such elements are both necessary and sufficient to control positioning of genes to the nuclear periphery. We have identified 4 TFs capable of controlling the regulated positioning of genes to the nuclear periphery in budding yeast under different conditions: Put3, Cbf1, Gcn4 and Ste12. In each case, we have defined the molecular basis of regulated relocalization to the nuclear periphery. Put3- and Cbf1-mediated targeting to nuclear periphery is regulated through local recruitment of Rpd3(L) histone deacetylase complex by transcriptional repressors. Rpd3(L), through its histone deacetylase activity, prevents TF-mediated gene positioning by blocking TF binding. Many yeast transcriptional repressors were capable of blocking Put3-mediated recruitment; 11 of these required Rpd3. Thus, it is a general function of transcription repressors to regulate TF-mediated recruitment. However, Ste12 and Gcn4-mediated recruitment is regulated independently of Rpd3(L) and transcriptional repressors. Ste12-mediated recruitment is regulated by phosphorylation of an inhibitor called Dig2, and Gcn4-mediated gene targeting is up-regulated by increasing Gcn4 protein levels. The ability to control spatial position of genes in yeast represents a novel function for TFs and different regulatory strategies provide dynamic control of the yeast genome through different time scales. PMID:27442220

  9. Experiment based Reduced-Order Modeling for Feedback Flow Control: Application to Flow Separation and Jet Aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glauser, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Under AFOSR support we have been developing closed loop flow control methods for flow separation control over a NACA 4412 airfoil and for jet noise reduction. The methods employ the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition along with Stochastic Measurement to extract the low-dimensional flow characteristics. We have made substantial progress on the NACA 4412 problem wherein we have closed the loop using estimates (obtained form wall pressure via the Stochastic Measurement) of the first time dependent POD coefficient as our feedback signal in a simple proportional controller. Our results to date show that with the feedback we can delay separation from 15 degrees AoA (without any control) to greater than 18 degrees AoA with the feedback control. These initial exciting results will be presented along with our experimental based dynamical models that are being developed so we can incorporate some flow dynamics into the feedback as well as design controllers offline. For the jet aeroacoustics problem we are not yet at the stage were we are closing the loop. However, we will present results that show that substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the relationship between the low-dimensional velocity fields and the far field noise. This is providing us a starting point for eventual implementation of feedback flow control (of the near field jet plume) for far field noise reduction.

  10. A Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for the Automated Alignment of a Laser-beam-smoothing Spatial Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, M. J.; Dickens, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy logic based controller for a laser-beam-smoothing spatial filter is described. It is demonstrated that a human operator's alignment actions can easily be described by a system of fuzzy rules of inference. The final configuration uses inexpensive, off-the-shelf hardware and allows for a compact, readily implemented embedded control system.

  11. LES of turbulent separated flow over NACA0015 at Reynolds number 1,600,000-toward the separation control by a DBD plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Makoto; Asada, Kengo; Nonomura, Taku; Kawai, Soshi; Aono, Hikaru; Yakeno, Aiko; Fujii, Kozo

    2013-11-01

    Large eddy simulation of a separated flow over NACA0015 at Reynolds number 1,600,000 with angle of attack 20.1 deg. is conducted to clarify the feature of turbulent separation at high Reynolds number. The grid point is approximately 1 billion, and a high order scheme is used in this simulation. The LES result agrees with experiment data in terms of the laminar-separation bubble region, the locations of reattachment point and second separation point and Cp distribution. In the turbulent separated flow of this simulation, the laminar-separation bubble is formed near the leading edge with turbulent transition, then turbulent boundary layer develops over the airfoil surface and the flow is separated as turbulent separation. Here, streamwise velocities in the attached region correspond to the profile of turbulent boundary layer. In addition, flow structures at Re = 1,600,000 are compared to those at Re = 63,000 about the turbulent transition, separation behavior, the space scale, time scale and so on. The most unstable frequency of the laminar separation flow at Re = 1,600,000 is 10-20 times of that of Re = 63,000 The flow scale at transition point of Re = 1,600,000 is about 1/15 times of that of Re = 63,000.

  12. Entrainment and Control of Bacterial Populations: An in Silico Study over a Spatially Extended Agent Based Model.

    PubMed

    Mina, Petros; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Bernardo, Mario di

    2016-07-15

    We extend a spatially explicit agent based model (ABM) developed previously to investigate entrainment and control of the emergent behavior of a population of synchronized oscillating cells in a microfluidic chamber. Unlike most of the work in models of control of cellular systems which focus on temporal changes, we model individual cells with spatial dependencies which may contribute to certain behavioral responses. We use the model to investigate the response of both open loop and closed loop strategies, such as proportional control (P-control), proportional-integral control (PI-control) and proportional-integral-derivative control (PID-control), to heterogeinities and growth in the cell population, variations of the control parameters and spatial effects such as diffusion in the spatially explicit setting of a microfluidic chamber setup. We show that, as expected from the theory of phase locking in dynamical systems, open loop control can only entrain the cell population in a subset of forcing periods, with a wide variety of dynamical behaviors obtained outside these regions of entrainment. Closed-loop control is shown instead to guarantee entrainment in a much wider region of control parameter space although presenting limitations when the population size increases over a certain threshold. In silico tracking experiments are also performed to validate the ability of classical control approaches to achieve other reference behaviors such as a desired constant output or a linearly varying one. All simulations are carried out in BSim, an advanced agent-based simulator of microbial population which is here extended ad hoc to include the effects of control strategies acting onto the population. PMID:27110835

  13. Active Control of Separation on a Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Using Synthetic Jet Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feero, Mark

    Wind tunnel experiments were used to study the effect of excitation amplitude and frequency on flow separation using synthetic jet actuation. A synthetic jet actuator was located near the leading edge of a NACA0025 airfoil at a chord-based Reynolds number of 100,000 and angle-of-attack of 10°. Under these flow conditions, the boundary layer separated from the suction surface and failed to reattach. Low-frequency excitation was used to target flow instabilities, while high-frequency excitation was performed at time scales an order of magnitude smaller. Low-frequency excitation at the separated shear layer frequency was found to be the most effective technique for flow reattachment and drag reduction. The results suggested that flow reattachment depended on exceeding a threshold momentum coefficient that varied with excitation frequency. Furthermore, a local minimum in drag independent of excitation frequency was achieved when the momentum coefficient corresponded to an average jet velocity that matched the freestream velocity.

  14. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G.; Herget, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.

  15. Childhood autism in India: A case-control study using tract-based spatial statistics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Zarina Abdul; Bagepally, Bhavani Shankara; Saini, Jitender; Srinath, Shoba; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Naidu, Purushotham R.; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Autism is a serious behavioral disorder among young children that now occurs at epidemic rates in developing countries like India. We have used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures to investigate the microstructure of primary neurocircuitry involved in autistic spectral disorders as compared to the typically developed children. Objective: To evaluate the various white matter tracts in Indian autistic children as compared to the controls using TBSS. Materials and Methods: Prospective, case-control, voxel-based, whole-brain DTI analysis using TBSS was performed. The study included 19 autistic children (mean age 8.7 years ± 3.84, 16 males and 3 females) and 34 controls (mean age 12.38 ± 3.76, all males). Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were used as outcome variables. Results: Compared to the control group, TBSS demonstrated multiple areas of markedly reduced FA involving multiple long white matter tracts, entire corpus callosum, bilateral posterior thalami, and bilateral optic tracts (OTs). Notably, there were no voxels where FA was significantly increased in the autism group. Increased RD was also noted in these regions, suggesting underlying myelination defect. The MD was elevated in many of the projections and association fibers and notably in the OTs. There were no significant changes in the AD in these regions, indicating no significant axonal injury. There was no significant correlation between the FA values and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Conclusion: This is a first of a kind study evaluating DTI findings in autistic children in India. In our study, DTI has shown a significant fault with the underlying intricate brain wiring system in autism. OT abnormality is a novel finding and needs further research. PMID:26600581

  16. Factors controlling gully erosion at different spatial and temporal scales in rangelands of SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.; Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Pulido Fernández, M.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean climate with Atlantic influences. Results showed that at the catchment scale, and for a short period (1-10 years), rainfall and soil moisture were the most important factors controlling gully erosion rates. In fact, gully erosion was highly related with the rainfall amount (r=0,90), with the number of times event discharge exceeded 1000 cubic meters (r=0,76) and with the number of times peak discharge exceeded 100 l/s (r=0,72). However, when the temporal scale was extended to several decades (from 1945 to 2006), land use and vegetation cover (specially the extension of cultivated area and livestock density) proved to be the most important factors determining the area affected by gullying. With respect to the spatial variation of gullying at the regional scale, the model results indicate lithology as being the most important variable, followed by vegetation structure and summer rainfall. This model was able to explain a large portion of the spatial distribution of gullies at the regional scale. Concluding, at different spatial and temporal scales the importance of factors which determine gully erosion intensity, extension and rates varies notably. At the short-term rainfall and runoff dynamics and the moisture content of the sediments are the dominant factors, whereas at the medium-term land use and vegetation cover become more important. At the regional scale lithology and vegetation turned out to be the dominant factors in determining the location of areas susceptible to gully erosion in rangelands of Extremadura.

  17. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  18. DNA as a powerful tool for morphology control, spatial positioning, and dynamic assembly of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Huey; Xing, Hang; Lu, Yi

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Several properties of nanomaterials, such as morphologies (e.g., shapes and surface structures) and distance dependent properties (e.g., plasmonic and quantum confinement effects), make nanomaterials uniquely qualified as potential choices for future applications from catalysis to biomedicine. To realize the full potential of these nanomaterials, it is important to demonstrate fine control of the morphology of individual nanoparticles, as well as precise spatial control of the position, orientation, and distances between multiple nanoparticles. In addition, dynamic control of nanomaterial assembly in response to multiple stimuli, with minimal or no error, and the reversibility of the assemblies are also required. In this Account, we summarize recent progress of using DNA as a powerful programmable tool to realize the above goals. First, inspired by the discovery of genetic codes in biology, we have discovered DNA sequence combinations to control different morphologies of nanoparticles during their growth process and have shown that these effects are synergistic or competitive, depending on the sequence combination. The DNA, which guides the growth of the nanomaterial, is stable and retains its biorecognition ability. Second, by taking advantage of different reactivities of phosphorothioate and phosphodiester backbone, we have placed phosphorothioate at selective positions on different DNA nanostructures including DNA tetrahedrons. Bifunctional linkers have been used to conjugate phosphorothioate on one end and bind nanoparticles or proteins on the other end. In doing so, precise control of distances between two or more nanoparticles or proteins with nanometer resolution can be achieved. Furthermore, by developing facile methods to functionalize two hemispheres of Janus nanoparticles with two different DNA sequences regioselectively, we have demonstrated directional control of nanomaterial assembly, where DNA strands with specific hybridization serve as

  19. DNA as a Powerful Tool for Morphology Control, Spatial Positioning, and Dynamic Assembly of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Several properties of nanomaterials, such as morphologies (e.g., shapes and surface structures) and distance dependent properties (e.g., plasmonic and quantum confinement effects), make nanomaterials uniquely qualified as potential choices for future applications from catalysis to biomedicine. To realize the full potential of these nanomaterials, it is important to demonstrate fine control of the morphology of individual nanoparticles, as well as precise spatial control of the position, orientation, and distances between multiple nanoparticles. In addition, dynamic control of nanomaterial assembly in response to multiple stimuli, with minimal or no error, and the reversibility of the assemblies are also required. In this Account, we summarize recent progress of using DNA as a powerful programmable tool to realize the above goals. First, inspired by the discovery of genetic codes in biology, we have discovered DNA sequence combinations to control different morphologies of nanoparticles during their growth process and have shown that these effects are synergistic or competitive, depending on the sequence combination. The DNA, which guides the growth of the nanomaterial, is stable and retains its biorecognition ability. Second, by taking advantage of different reactivities of phosphorothioate and phosphodiester backbone, we have placed phosphorothioate at selective positions on different DNA nanostructures including DNA tetrahedrons. Bifunctional linkers have been used to conjugate phosphorothioate on one end and bind nanoparticles or proteins on the other end. In doing so, precise control of distances between two or more nanoparticles or proteins with nanometer resolution can be achieved. Furthermore, by developing facile methods to functionalize two hemispheres of Janus nanoparticles with two different DNA sequences regioselectively, we have demonstrated directional control of nanomaterial assembly, where DNA strands with specific hybridization serve as

  20. LES of High-Reynolds-Number Coanda Flow Separating from a Rounded Trailing Edge of a Circulation Control Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Large Eddy Simulation of a high reynolds number Coanda flow that is separated from a round trailing edge of a ciruclation control airfoil. The objectives of the study are: (1) To investigate detailed physics (flow structures and statistics) of the fully turbulent Coanda jet applied to a CC airfoil, by using LES (2) To compare LES and RANS results to figure out how to improve the performance of existing RANS models for this type of flow.

  1. Presentation of flight control design and handling quality commonality by separate surface stability augmentation for the family of commuter airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Douglas; Creighton, Thomas; Haddad, Raphael; Hendrich, Louis; Morgan, Louise; Russell, Mark; Swift, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The methodology and results for a flight control design and implementation for common handling qualities by Separate Surface Stability Augmentation (SSSA) for the family of commuter airplanes are contained. The open and closed loop dynamics and the design results of augmenting for common handling qualities are presented. The physical and technology requirements are presented for implementing the SSSA system. The conclusion of this report and recommendations for changes or improvement are discussed.

  2. Spatial Control Of Functional Properties Via Octahedral Modulations In Complex Oxide Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, E. J.; Colby, Robert J.; Wang, Q.; Karapetrova, E.; Schleputz, C. M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; May, Steven J.

    2014-12-15

    The design of distortions and rotations of the corner-connected BO6 octahedra across interfaces has emerged as an exciting platform to control electronic or ferroic behavior in ABO3 perovskite heterostructures. Here, we investigate isovalent manganite superlattices, [(La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)n/(Eu0.7Sr0.3MnO3)n]×m, as a route to spatial control over electronic bandwidth and ferromagnetism through the creation of octahedral superstructures. Electron energy loss spectroscopy confirms a uniform Mn valence state throughout the superlattices. In contrast, the presence of modulations of the MnO6 octahedral rotations along the growth direction commensurate with the superlattice period is revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. We show that the Curie temperatures of the constituent materials can be systematically engineered via the octahedral superstructures leading to a modulated magnetization in samples where the superlattice period is larger than the interfacial octahedral coupling length scale, while a single magnetic transition is observed in the short period superlattices.

  3. Control of the spatial distribution and crystal orientation of self-organized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Yukiko; Liu, Xiaoxi; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Kotaki, Yukio; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Takeguchi, Masaki; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2016-09-01

    Ordered, two-dimensional, self-organized Au nanoparticles were fabricated using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The particles were uniformly spherical in shape and ultrafine in size (3-7 nm) and showed an ultrahigh density in the order of ˜1012 inch-2. A custom-developed sputtering apparatus that employs low sputtering power density and a minimized sputtering time (1 min) was used to markedly simplify the preparation conditions for Au nanoparticle fabrication. The spatial distribution of Au nanoparticles was rigorously controlled by placing a Ta interfacial layer between the Au nanoparticles and substrate as well as by post-annealing samples in an Ar atmosphere after the formation of Au nanoparticles. The interfacial layer and the post-annealing step caused approximately 40% of the Au nanoparticles on the substrate surface to orient in the (111) direction. This method was shown to produce ultrafine Au nanoparticles showing an ultrahigh surface density. The crystal orientation of the nanoparticles can be precisely controlled with respect to the substrate surface. Therefore, this technique promises to deliver tunable nanostructures for applications in the field of high-performance electronic devices.

  4. Precise spatial control of cavitation erosion in a vessel phantom by using an ultrasonic standing wave.

    PubMed

    Shi, Aiwei; Huang, Peixuan; Guo, Shifang; Zhao, Lu; Jia, Yingjie; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    In atherosclerotic inducement in animal models, the conventionally used balloon injury is invasive, produces excessive vessel injuries at unpredictable locations and is inconvenient in arterioles. Fortunately, cavitation erosion, which plays an important role in therapeutic ultrasound in blood vessels, has the potential to induce atherosclerosis noninvasively at predictable sites. In this study, precise spatial control of cavitation erosion for superficial lesions in a vessel phantom was realised by using an ultrasonic standing wave (USW) with the participation of cavitation nuclei and medium-intensity ultrasound pulses. The superficial vessel erosions were restricted between adjacent pressure nodes, which were 0.87 mm apart in the USW field of 1 MHz. The erosion positions could be shifted along the vessel by nodal modulation under a submillimetre-scale accuracy without moving the ultrasound transducers. Moreover, the cavitation erosion of the proximal or distal wall could be determined by the types of cavitation nuclei and their corresponding cavitation pulses, i.e., phase-change microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 5 MHz and SonoVue microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 1 MHz. Effects of acoustic parameters of the cavitation pulses on the cavitation erosions were investigated. The flow conditions in the experiments were considered and discussed. Compared to only using travelling waves, the proposed method in this paper improves the controllability of the cavitation erosion and reduces the erosion depth, providing a more suitable approach for vessel endothelial injury while avoiding haemorrhage. PMID:26964937

  5. Precise spatial control of cavitation erosion in a vessel phantom by using an ultrasonic standing wave.

    PubMed

    Shi, Aiwei; Huang, Peixuan; Guo, Shifang; Zhao, Lu; Jia, Yingjie; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    In atherosclerotic inducement in animal models, the conventionally used balloon injury is invasive, produces excessive vessel injuries at unpredictable locations and is inconvenient in arterioles. Fortunately, cavitation erosion, which plays an important role in therapeutic ultrasound in blood vessels, has the potential to induce atherosclerosis noninvasively at predictable sites. In this study, precise spatial control of cavitation erosion for superficial lesions in a vessel phantom was realised by using an ultrasonic standing wave (USW) with the participation of cavitation nuclei and medium-intensity ultrasound pulses. The superficial vessel erosions were restricted between adjacent pressure nodes, which were 0.87 mm apart in the USW field of 1 MHz. The erosion positions could be shifted along the vessel by nodal modulation under a submillimetre-scale accuracy without moving the ultrasound transducers. Moreover, the cavitation erosion of the proximal or distal wall could be determined by the types of cavitation nuclei and their corresponding cavitation pulses, i.e., phase-change microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 5 MHz and SonoVue microbubbles with cavitation pulses of 1 MHz. Effects of acoustic parameters of the cavitation pulses on the cavitation erosions were investigated. The flow conditions in the experiments were considered and discussed. Compared to only using travelling waves, the proposed method in this paper improves the controllability of the cavitation erosion and reduces the erosion depth, providing a more suitable approach for vessel endothelial injury while avoiding haemorrhage.

  6. Control of the spatial distribution and crystal orientation of self-organized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Yukiko; Liu, Xiaoxi; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Kotaki, Yukio; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Takeguchi, Masaki; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2016-09-01

    Ordered, two-dimensional, self-organized Au nanoparticles were fabricated using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The particles were uniformly spherical in shape and ultrafine in size (3–7 nm) and showed an ultrahigh density in the order of ∼1012 inch–2. A custom-developed sputtering apparatus that employs low sputtering power density and a minimized sputtering time (1 min) was used to markedly simplify the preparation conditions for Au nanoparticle fabrication. The spatial distribution of Au nanoparticles was rigorously controlled by placing a Ta interfacial layer between the Au nanoparticles and substrate as well as by post-annealing samples in an Ar atmosphere after the formation of Au nanoparticles. The interfacial layer and the post-annealing step caused approximately 40% of the Au nanoparticles on the substrate surface to orient in the (111) direction. This method was shown to produce ultrafine Au nanoparticles showing an ultrahigh surface density. The crystal orientation of the nanoparticles can be precisely controlled with respect to the substrate surface. Therefore, this technique promises to deliver tunable nanostructures for applications in the field of high-performance electronic devices.

  7. Spatial quality control bypasses cell-based limitations on proteostasis to promote prion curing

    PubMed Central

    Klaips, Courtney L; Hochstrasser, Megan L; Langlois, Christine R; Serio, Tricia R

    2014-01-01

    The proteostasis network has evolved to support protein folding under normal conditions and to expand this capacity in response to proteotoxic stresses. Nevertheless, many pathogenic states are associated with protein misfolding, revealing in vivo limitations on quality control mechanisms. One contributor to these limitations is the physical characteristics of misfolded proteins, as exemplified by amyloids, which are largely resistant to clearance. However, other limitations imposed by the cellular environment are poorly understood. To identify cell-based restrictions on proteostasis capacity, we determined the mechanism by which thermal stress cures the [PSI+]/Sup35 prion. Remarkably, Sup35 amyloid is disassembled at elevated temperatures by the molecular chaperone Hsp104. This process requires Hsp104 engagement with heat-induced non-prion aggregates in late cell-cycle stage cells, which promotes its asymmetric retention and thereby effective activity. Thus, cell division imposes a potent limitation on proteostasis capacity that can be bypassed by the spatial engagement of a quality control factor. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04288.001 PMID:25490068

  8. Use of detrended correspondence analysis to evaluate factors controlling spatial distribution of benthic insects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, H.V.; Carter, J.L.; Fend, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was evaluated for its effectiveness in displaying factors controlling the spatial distribution of benthic insects in an oligotrophic stream where an experimental gradient (copper) that selectively affects population abundances was imposed. DCA proved to be highly sensitive to differences among samples and consistently provided ecologically meaningful species ordinations. Seasonality of taxa was the major gradient displayed by DCA prior to copper exposure when data for all sampling dates were included. Sensitivity of taxa to copper was a more important factor affecting community structure than was seasonality during periods of continuous exposure to copper (2.5 to 15 ??g l-1 CuT; approximately 12 to 75 ng l-1 Cu2+. When pre-dose data for each sampling date were ordinated independently, substratum composition and biological interactions were the major gradients displayed in species ordinations. During periods of exposure, sensitivity of taxa to copper was the primary gradient. This gradient also reflected a generally greater sensitivity to copper of herbivorous than of detritivorous or predatory benthic insects. DCA revealed the persistence, eleven months after dosing ceased, of differences in community structure between the control and high treatment (5 and 10 ??g l-1 CuT) sections. Differences between sections were not evident on this sampling date from total biomass or total density (numerical) estimates. ?? 1986 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  9. Functional oligomers for the control and fixation of spatial organization in nanoparticle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Kwei; Hultman, Kristi L; O'Brien, Stephen; Koberstein, Jeffrey T

    2008-03-19

    Interactions in nanoparticle assemblies play an important role in modulating their interesting magnetic and optical properties. Controlling and fixing the distance between nanoparticles is therefore crucial to the development of next-generation nanodevices. Here, we show that the interparticle distance in two-dimensional assemblies can be quantitatively controlled by functionalizing the nanoparticles with short polymers containing one functional end group that binds to the nanoparticle. Carboxy-functional poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) ligands are attached to the nanoparticle surface by a simple ligand exchange process with the oleic acid synthesis ligands. The distance between nanoparticles is manipulated by adjusting either the number of PDMS ligands per molecule or their molecular weight. The use of PDMS ligands is unique in that they provide a means to permanently and robustly fix the spatial distribution of nanoparticles because PDMS is readily converted to silicon oxide by a simple UV/ozone treatment. The distance between nanoparticles can be designed a priori, as it is found to scale well with theoretical predictions for the thickness of the surface-bound polymer brush layer.

  10. Experimental study of flow separation control on a low- Re airfoil using leading-edge protuberance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. M.; Wang, G. F.; Xu, J. Z.

    2014-04-01

    An experimental study of flow separation control on a low- Re c airfoil was presently investigated using a newly developed leading-edge protuberance method, motivated by the improvement in the hydrodynamics of the giant humpback whale through its pectoral flippers. Deploying this method, the control effectiveness of the airfoil aerodynamics was fully evaluated using a three-component force balance, leading to an effectively impaired stall phenomenon and great improvement in the performances within the wide post-stall angle range (22°-80°). To understand the flow physics behind, the vorticity field, velocity field and boundary layer flow field over the airfoil suction side were examined using a particle image velocimetry and an oil-flow surface visualization system. It was found that the leading-edge protuberance method, more like low-profile vortex generator, effectively modified the flow pattern of the airfoil boundary layer through the chordwise and spanwise evolutions of the interacting streamwise vortices generated by protuberances, where the separation of the turbulent boundary layer dominated within the stall region and the rather strong attachment of the laminar boundary layer still existed within the post-stall region. The characteristics to manipulate the flow separation mode of the original airfoil indicated the possibility to further optimize the control performance by reasonably designing the layout of the protuberances.

  11. Spatial patterns and controls of soil chemical weathering rates along a transient hillslope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoo, K.; Mudd, S.M.; Sanderman, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Blum, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hillslopes have been intensively studied by both geomorphologists and soil scientists. Whereas geomorphologists have focused on the physical soil production and transport on hillslopes, soil scientists have been concerned with the topographic variation of soil geochemical properties. We combined these differing approaches and quantified soil chemical weathering rates along a grass covered hillslope in Coastal California. The hillslope is comprised of both erosional and depositional sections. In the upper eroding section, soil production is balanced by physical erosion and chemical weathering. The hillslope then transitions to a depositional slope where soil accumulates due to a historical reduction of channel incision at the hillslope's base. Measurements of hillslope morphology and soil thickness were combined with the elemental composition of the soil and saprolite, and interpreted through a process-based model that accounts for both chemical weathering and sediment transport. Chemical weathering of the minerals as they moved downslope via sediment transport imparted spatial variation in the geochemical properties of the soil. Inverse modeling of the field and laboratory data revealed that the long-term soil chemical weathering rates peak at 5 g m- 2 yr- 1 at the downslope end of the eroding section and decrease to 1.5 g m- 2 yr- 1 within the depositional section. In the eroding section, soil chemical weathering rates appear to be primarily controlled by the rate of mineral supply via colluvial input from upslope. In the depositional slope, geochemical equilibrium between soil water and minerals appeared to limit the chemical weathering rate. Soil chemical weathering was responsible for removing 6% of the soil production in the eroding section and 5% of colluvial influx in the depositional slope. These were among the lowest weathering rates reported for actively eroding watersheds, which was attributed to the parent material with low amount of weatherable

  12. Wind tunnel experiments on flow separation control of an Unmanned Air Vehicle by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chen; Hua, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 μs and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20° to 27° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503302, 51207169, and 51276197), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M562446), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JM1001).

  13. Positive and negative regulatory regions control the spatial distribution of polygalacturonase transcription in tomato fruit pericarp.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, J; Pollard, V; Deikman, J; Fischer, R L

    1993-01-01

    The tomato fruit consists of a thick, fleshy pericarp composed predominantly of highly vacuolated parenchymatous cells, which surrounds the seeds. During ripening, the activation of gene expression results in dramatic biochemical and physiological changes in the pericarp. The polygalacturonase (PG) gene, unlike many fruit ripening-induced genes, is not activated by the increase in ethylene hormone concentration associated with the onset of ripening. To investigate ethylene concentration-independent gene transcription in ripe tomato fruit, we analyzed the expression of chimeric PG promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fusions in transgenic tomato plants. We determined that a 1.4-kb PG promoter directs ripening-regulated transcription in outer pericarp but not in inner pericarp cells, with a sharp boundary of PG promoter activity located midway through the pericarp. Promoter deletion analysis indicated that a minimum of three promoter regions influence the spatial regulation of PG transcription. A positive regulatory region from -231 to -134 promotes gene transcription in the outer pericarp of ripe fruit. A second positive regulatory region from -806 to -443 extends gene activity to the inner pericarp. However, a negative regulatory region from -1411 to -1150 inhibits gene transcription in the inner pericarp. DNase I footprint analysis showed that nuclear proteins in unripe and ripe fruit interact with DNA sequences within each of these three regulatory regions. Thus, temporal and spatial control of PG transcription is mediated by the interaction of negative and positive regulatory promoter elements, resulting in gene activity in the outer pericarp but not the inner pericarp of ripe tomato fruit. The expression pattern of PG suggests that, although they are morphologically similar, there is a fundamental difference between the parenchymatous cells within the inner and outer pericarp. PMID:8400876

  14. Thermal Characterization of Defects in Aircraft Structures Via Spatially Controlled Heat Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in thermal imaging technology have spawned a number of new thermal NDE techniques that provide quantitative information about flaws in aircraft structures. Thermography has a number of advantages as an inspection technique. It is a totally noncontacting, nondestructive, imaging technology capable of inspecting a large area in a matter of a few seconds. The development of fast, inexpensive image processors have aided in the attractiveness of thermography as an NDE technique. These image processors have increased the signal to noise ratio of thermography and facilitated significant advances in post-processing. The resulting digital images enable archival records for comparison with later inspections thus providing a means of monitoring the evolution of damage in a particular structure. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image a number of potential flaws in aircraft structures. The technique involves injecting a small, spatially controlled heat flux into the outer surface of an aircraft. Images of fatigue cracking, bond integrity and material loss due to corrosion are generated from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to analyze the resulting thermal images. Spatial tailoring of the heat coupled with the analysis techniques represent a significant improvement in the delectability of flaws over conventional thermal imaging. Results of laboratory experiments on fabricated crack, disbond and material loss samples will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. An integral part of the development of this technology is the use of analytic and computational modeling. The experimental results will be compared with these models to demonstrate the utility of such an approach.

  15. Spatial and temporal structure within moisture measurements of a stormwater control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertesz, Ruben; Rhea, Lee; Murray, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    This study develops novel geostatistical methods to investigate the spatial relationship between individual soil moisture sensors placed within native soil and #57 crushed stone aggregate subbase. The subbase sensors are beneath a 0.06 ha (0.15 acre) pervious concrete parking lot in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The parking lot treats runon from a 0.198 ha (0.49 acre) asphalt area. A geostatistical characterization of moisture (measured as permittivity) in the subbase beneath pervious concrete indicates that significant spatial correlation is either not present or only present at very short distances (<2.5 m). A two-stage para-statistical model relating antecedent storm moisture to apparent pervious concrete infiltration was developed to identify temporal trends in the data and to detect the clogging processes with relatively simple parameterization. The results suggest that either the placement of the sensors is not sufficient to detect clogging or that clogging is not problematic for the study period. Suggestions are provided to improve future research installations, based upon the findings here. Subbase moisture analysis results are compared with native soil moisture results. Seasonal trends are more pronounced in the native soil than in the subbase. The statistical analyses are applicable to multiple Storm Control Measures (SCM), Best Management Practices (BMP), agriculture, and soil environments. Other studies can determine the statistical power of their sensor installation using the methods applied here, which are flexible enough for multiple applications. Furthermore, data reduction methods presented serve to easily elucidate short-term moisture responses due to rainfall. A quantile response pattern is provided for sensors installed in both subbase and soil.

  16. Spatial distribution of arsenic in the Texas Gulf Coastal Aquifer System and inferences regarding hydrogeochemical controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, J. B.; Nicot, J.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic is a prominent trace element in the Gulf Coastal Aquifer System (GCAS) in Texas, particularly in the southwestern portion where 29% of wells exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 10 μg/L for drinking water. While the dominant source is generally thought to be geogenic rather than anthropogenic, little is known about the hydrologic/geochemical mechanisms affecting occurrence in groundwater. The aim of this study was to assess spatial trends in hydrochemistry on a regional scale to help infer relevant processes. The investigation included geostatistical analysis of water quality results from the Texas Water Development Board groundwater database (n>1000) and chemical/isotopic analysis of a transect (17 wells) in the unconfined portion of the Jasper Aquifer, where some of the highest arsenic concentrations in the GCAS are found. Across the GCAS, arsenic and other oxyanion-forming elements (vanadium, molybdenum etc) are most common in the Miocene-age Jasper Aquifer, and tend to decrease with decreasing aquifer age. Principal Component Analysis suggests that spatial variations in arsenic in the GCAS as a whole are related to both total mineralization (TDS), and a second orthogonal component comprised of several trace elements (most prominently vanadium and silicon). A similar relationship is apparent for the Jasper Aquifer, but without a strong correspondence to TDS. The Jasper Aquifer transect also reflects these patterns. Near-neutral pH and slightly-oxidizing conditions observed in the transect are not likely to promote reductive dissolution or desorption from mineral oxides, and no relationship with pH or Eh is present. Rather, maximum arsenic values in the transect (120 μg/L) coincide with the boundary of the underlying Catahoula Formation which is a known source of saline fluids. Mixing of upward leakage with meteoric recharge is therefore considered to be a likely mechanism controlling arsenic concentrations. This inference is consistent with

  17. Benthic sulfate reduction along the Chesapeake Bay central channel. I. Spatial trends and controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Capone, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Factors controlling the spatial distribution of benthic sulfate reduction (SR) were investigated at 3 stations [upper (UB), mid (MB) and lower bay (LB)] along the Chesapeake Bay (eastern USA) central channel from early spring through late fall, 1989 to 1994. Annual rates of 0 to 12 cm depth-integrated SR were 0.96, 9.62 and 6.33 mol S m-2 yr-1 for UB, MB and LB, respectively, as calculated from 35SO42- incubations. SR was carbon limited at UB, LB, and at the sediment surface at MB, and SO42- limited at depth at MB. Temperature explained 33 to 68% of the variability in annual rates, with an apparent influence on SR which increased in the seaward direction in surface sediments. We speculate that the enhanced response of SR to temperature in LB surface sediments was linked to seasonal variations in macrofaunal activity associated with temperature. Estimates of reduced-S burial indicated that only 4 to 8% of sulfur reduced annually was buried as Fe-S minerals at MB and LB, with the remainder presumably being reoxidized. In contrast, >50% of the sulfur reduced annually was buried at UB, due to comparatively low SR rates and the high concentration of reactive iron in the oligohaline region. SR mineralized 18 to 32% of the annual primary production. Our results indicate that organic quality may be more important than the absolute quantity of organic loading in dictating the magnitude of benthic SR rates along an estuarine gradient. Spatial trends in SR reflected the combined influence of deposited organic matter quality and quantity, SO42- availability, the presence or absence of benthic macrofauna, overlying water dissolved O2 conditions, reduced-S reoxidation dynamics, and iron-sulfide mineral formation.

  18. Restricted random labeling: testing for between-group interaction after controlling for joint population and within-group spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenfeld, Barry J.; Leslie, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical measures of spatial interaction between multiple types of entities are commonly assessed against a null model of either toroidal shift (TS), which controls for spatial structure of individual subpopulations, or random labeling (RL), which controls for spatial structure of the joint population. Neither null model controls for both types of spatial structure simultaneously, although this may sometimes be desirable when more than two subpopulations are present. To address this, we propose a flexible framework for specifying null models that we refer to as restricted random labeling (rRL). Under rRL, a specified subset of individuals is restricted and other individuals are randomly relabeled. Within this framework, two specific null models are proposed for pairwise analysis within populations consisting of three or more subpopulations, to simultaneously control for spatial structure in the joint population and one or the other of the two subpopulations being analyzed. Formulas are presented for calculating expected nearest neighbor counts and co-location quotients within the proposed framework. Differences between TS, RL and rRL are illustrated by application to six types of generating processes in a simulation study, and to empirical datasets of tree species in a forest and crime locations in an urban setting. These examples show that rRL null models are typically stricter than either TS or RL, which often detect "interactions" that are an expected consequence either of the joint population pattern or of individual subpopulation patterns.

  19. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  20. Temporally and spatially controlled expression of transgenes in embryonic and adult tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Triplett, Aleata A.; Harms, Don W.; Lin, Wan-chi; Creamer, Bradley A.; Rizzino, Angie; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Using ES cell-mediated transgenesis, we generated a novel mouse strain that permits a temporally and spatially controlled expression of responder genes in embryonic and multiple adult tissues. The transgene was constructed in a way that a CMV enhancer linked to the chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) drives the expression of the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) in particular tissues upon Cre-mediated excision of a floxed βgeo marker located between the promoter and the tTA. Based on the enzymatic activity of lacZ, the CAG-βgeo-tTA construct exhibits a widespread expression and appears to be very strong in the brain, heart, muscle, pancreas, and skin. Like the embryonic stem cell line that was used to generate this strain, the CAG-βgeo-tTA transgene is already highly active in preimplantation embryos. Using in vivo bioluminescence imaging on MMTV-Cre, CAG-βgeo-tTA, TetO-Luciferase triple transgenic mice and their controls, we demonstrated that the expression of the tTA, which is strictly dependent on the presence of Cre recombinase, induces the activation of the reporter transgene in the absence of any ligands. The tTA-mediated transactivation can be completely ablated through administration of doxycycline, and its subsequent withdrawal lifts the transcriptional block. Based on these characteristics, this novel strain may be useful in experiments that require a sustained expression of transgenes in particular cell types over a prolonged period followed by a rapid downregulation, for example in studies that examine the therapeutic value of cancer-initiating oncogenes during disease progression. PMID:19821046