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Sample records for controversial sensitizer european

  1. [Are therapeutic LDL goals justified? Controversies between the European and American guidelines].

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente

    2016-12-30

    Dyslipidemia is one of the most important risk factors of the cardiovascular disease, so its treatment is one of the key strategies of cardiovascular prevention. Statins have been consolidated as the reference treatment for the reduction of serum cholesterol levels. There are some divergences in the treatment of dyslipidemia between American and European guidelines. This narrative review discusses the key points of this controversy.

  2. [New Aspects and Controversies in the Current European and American Hypertension Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nägele, Matthias; Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas; Ruschitzka, Frank

    2015-05-20

    At the end of 2013, the long-awaited guidelines of the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC8) were published. These guidelines developed nine specific recommendations for the management of arterial hypertension. The harmonization of blood pressure treatment thresholds and goals represents a convenient simplification for the practicing physician. However, the recommendations did not come without controversy. Especially the raise of the treatment goal in patients aged 60 years or older was criticized. In this and other aspects, the 2013 guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH 2013) share a different point of view. The article tries to summarize the different viewpoints and to provide an overview over the increasing number of hypertension guidelines.

  3. Sensitive and Controversial Issues in the Classroom: Teaching History in a Divided Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kello, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Teaching sensitive and controversial issues (SCIs) is of growing interest in contemporary, increasingly heterogeneous societies. In democracies, different groups and institutions expect their values and worldviews to be conveyed at school. On one hand, there is the expectation that SCIs should be treated neutrally. On the other hand, there are…

  4. Research involving prisoners: consensus and controversies in international and European regulations.

    PubMed

    Elger, Bernice S

    2008-05-01

    This article examines international and European regulations on research involving prisoners for consensus, differences, and their consequences, and offers a critical evaluation of the various approaches. Agreement exists that prisoners are at risk of coercion, which might interfere with their ability to provide voluntary informed consent to research. Controversy exists about the magnitude of this risk and the consequences that should follow from this risk. Two strategies are proposed for a method of protecting prisoners that does not lead to discrimination: first, more caution to assure non-coerced consent and second, restrictions on the type of research. Most regulations stress the importance of the principle of equivalence of healthcare in places of detention as part of an efficient protection against research risks and discrimination. All the presented approaches have shortcomings. While 'over-use' of prisoners for research as compared to the general population is ethically unjustified, not granting prisoners access to studies beneficial to their own health because of over-strict regulations is equally unjustified. A middle solution should be preferred, one that grants a minimum of protection together with the lowest possible barriers. Research that does not entail a direct benefit for the individual detainee should be restricted to types of research that have a benefit for detainees as a group and that are of low risk. What will ultimately protect prisoners best, while producing the greatest benefit for them, is access to the same healthcare available to members of the community including research as a true option.

  5. Unveiling a Role for the EU? The "Headscarf Controversy" in European Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rhona K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Many European countries have introduced laws and policies which proscribe religious clothing in public educational institutions. The European Convention on Human Rights has been deployed to uphold such actions, the European Court of Human Rights recognising that States should be able to limit the manifestation of religious beliefs. National courts…

  6. [Cloning - controversies].

    PubMed

    Twardowski, T; Michalska, A

    2001-01-01

    Cloning of the human being is not only highly controversial; in the opinion of the authors it is impossible - we are not able to reproduce human behaviour and character traits. Reproduction through cloning is limited to personal genome resources. The more important is protection of genomic characteristics as private property and taking advantage of cloning for production of the human organs directly or through xenotransplants. In this paper we present the legislation related to cloning in Poland, in the European Union and other countries. We also indicate who and why is interested in cloning.

  7. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  8. [Conditions, controversies and contradictions between Central Sensitivity Syndrome and Depressive Disorders].

    PubMed

    Maresca, Tomás; Covini, Elvira; Mato, Andrea Márquez López

    2013-01-01

    We present a description of the Central Sensitivity Syndrome (CSS) and some of its main components such as Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia. We review the changes in pain perception, describing the physiology and pathophysiology of the painful experience from the medulla horn to the CNS. We explain the theory of central sensitization as the basis to the syndrome. We refer to the differences between fibromyalgia and depressive disorders, is spite of their frequent presentation in comorbidity. We state the main clinical and neurobiological differences. We point out the main psychoneuroimmunoendocrinologic differences such as adrenal activity (hypoactivity vs. hyperactivity, DST hypersuppressive response vs. DST non suppression, hypersensitivity of central glucocorticoid receptors vs. desensitization of these, among others), thyroid (probable reverse T3 vs. flat stimuli TSH response curve) and growth hormone secretion (probable increase vs. disruption of normal circadian rhythm) that makes CSS resemble PTSD. We describe differential changes in sleep patterns (alpha-delta intrusion vs. altered sleep time, REM latency, and stage 3/4) and immunological disturbances almost opposite in each pathological entity. We finally argue which medical specialty should treat these complex syndromes.

  9. Interfacing of Science, Medicine and Law: The Stem Cell Patent Controversy in the United States and the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Sonya; Davey, Neil; Gu, Qian; Xu, Na; Vatsa, Rajet; Devalaraja, Samir; Harris, Paul; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dave, Raj; Chakrabarty, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells–particularly those derived from human embryos–has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US. PMID:26618158

  10. Interfacing of Science, Medicine and Law: The Stem Cell Patent Controversy in the United States and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Davey, Sonya; Davey, Neil; Gu, Qian; Xu, Na; Vatsa, Rajet; Devalaraja, Samir; Harris, Paul; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dave, Raj; Chakrabarty, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells-particularly those derived from human embryos-has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  11. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  12. "Mysticism" in Quantum Mechanics: The Forgotten Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a "mystical" hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s--birth of quantum theory--and concluding…

  13. Zero tolerances in food and animal feed -- are there any scientific alternatives? A European point of view on an international controversy.

    PubMed

    Heberer, Thomas; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Abraham, Klaus; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Henning, Klaus Juergen; Schauzu, Marianna; Braeunig, Juliane; Goetz, Mario; Niemann, Lars; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Luch, Andreas; Appel, Bernd; Banasiak, Ursula; Böl, Gaby Fleur; Lampen, Alfonso; Wittkowski, Reiner; Hensel, Andreas

    2007-12-10

    A number of zero tolerance provisions are contained in both food and animal feed law, e.g. for chemical substances whose occurrence is not permitted or is directly prohibited in food or animal feed. In the European Union, bans of this kind were introduced to give consumers and animals the greatest possible protection from substances with a possible hazard potential within the intendment of the hazard prevention principles and current precautionary measures. This also applies to substances for which an acceptable daily intake cannot be derived and a maximum residue limit cannot, therefore, be established, e.g. due to missing or inadequate toxicological data. Zero tolerances are also under discussion as trade barriers because their use has triggered numerous legal disputes. This paper draws together the results of an evaluation of alternative risk assessment methods to be used for the risk assessment of substances to which currently only zero tolerances apply. It will demonstrate that, depending on the available toxicological data, a scientifically sound risk assessment may still be possible. In this context, the two concepts - margin of exposure and threshold of toxicological concern - are very promising approaches. Until the scientific and sociopolitical discussions have been completed, it is essential that the principle of zero tolerances be upheld, especially for those substances which may be genotoxic carcinogens. In microbiology, there is no legal room for manoeuvre with regard to food safety criteria established for reasons of consumer health protection on the basis of scientific assessments.

  14. The sensitivity of the northwest European continental shelf ecosystem to anthropogenic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakelin, Sarah; Artioli, Yuri; Holt, Jason; Butenschön, Momme

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic pressure is exerted on ecosystems in several ways, through direct drivers such as eutrophication and levels of fishing effort and by changes in the physical environment brought about by climate change. Changes in water temperature, the timing and duration of seasonal stratification, circulation patterns and ocean-shelf exchange all impact on shelf-sea primary production. We use a coupled hydrodynamics-ecosystem model (POLCOMS-ERSEM) to study ecosystem sensitivity to climate change and the anthropogenic drivers of river nutrient loads, impacting on eutrophication, and trawling effort on the northwest European continental shelf, with an emphasis on changes in the North Sea. To force the model we use data from a coupled ocean-atmosphere global model (IPSL-CM4) representative of conditions in the recent past (1983-2000) and possible conditions in the near future (2030-2040) under a business as usual emissions scenario SRES A1B. To study ecosystem sensitivity to direct anthropogenic forcing, we adopt two scenarios impacting on river nutrient loads and trawling effort - one where there is rapid economic growth and limited environmental policies and a second where economic growth is constrained by environmental objectives. The sensitivity of the system to each single driver: climate change, increase in river nutrient loads, decrease in river nutrient loads and reduction in trawling effort is explored. The response of the ecosystem to the combined effects of changes in multiple drivers under the two scenarios of economic growth is also studied. The results are relevant to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptors on marine food webs, eutrophication and biodiversity.

  15. African descents are more sensitive than European descents to the antitumor compounds α-hederin and kalopanaxsaponin I.

    PubMed

    Feller, Geva; Kugel, Aleksandra; Moonshine, Dana; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Scholz, Martin; Prüfer, Dirk; Rabinski, Tatiana; Müller, Kai J; Ofir, Rivka

    2010-11-01

    α-Hederin, a natural triterpene saponin and its derivative kalopanaxsaponin I (ksI) exhibit cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines and IN VIVO tumors. We studied the genetic variants contributing to the activity of these two anticancer compounds. Cell lines derived from 30 trios of European descent (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Human, CEPH; CEU) and 30 trios of African descent (Yoruban, YRI) were used. Cytotoxicity was determined as inhibition of cell growth at increasing concentrations of α-hederin or ksI for 24 h. In comparison to the European, the Yoruban populations revealed a higher sensitivity to α-hederin and to ksI that can be attributed to several unique SNPs. These SNPs are located near 111 and 130 genes in the European and the Yoruban populations, respectively, raising the possibility that some of these genes contribute to the differential sensitivity to these compounds.

  16. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  17. Comparative sensitivity of European native (Anodonta anatina) and exotic (Corbicula fluminea) bivalves to mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Patrícia; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Machado, Jorge; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-12-01

    Pollution is believed to be an important factor modulating the competition between exotic invasive bivalves and their native competitors. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare the sensitivity of the European native Anodonta anatina and the exotic invasive species Corbicula fluminea to mercury, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant of high concern. In laboratory acute bioassays, adult organisms of both species were exposed independently to mercury for 96 h (31-500 μg/L). The criteria indicative of toxicity were mortality and biomarkers of oxidative stress and damage, neurotoxicity, and energy production changes. Mercury induced mortality in A. anatina (72 h-LC10 and 72 h-LC50 of 14.0 μg/L and 49.6 μg/L, respectively) but not in C. fluminea. The ability of C. fluminea to maintaining the shell closed for considerable periods of time when exposed to high concentrations of mercury and the effective activation (up to 63 μg/L) of mechanisms against the oxidative stress caused by mercury may have contributed to its relatively low sensitivity. In the range of concentrations tested, mercury had no significant effects on the other parameters analysed in C. fluminea. Overall, the findings of the present study, suggest that in real scenarios of competition between C. fluminea and A. anatina populations, the presence of mercury may modulate the process, acting in favour of the exotic species because it is less sensitive to this environmental contaminant than the native bivalve. The results of the present study highlight the need of further investigation on the effects of mercury on the competition between exotic invasive species and their native competitors, especially the effects potentially induced by long-term exposure to low concentrations of this metal, the mechanisms involved in the tolerance to mercury-induced stress, and the potential post-exposure recovery of both exotic invasive and native bivalves. This knowledge is most important for

  18. Ecological traits affect the sensitivity of bees to land-use pressures in European agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Adriana; Kuhlmann, Michael; Roberts, Stuart P M; Potts, Simon G; Börger, Luca; Hudson, Lawrence N; Lysenko, Igor; Newbold, Tim; Purvis, Andy

    2015-12-01

    Bees are a functionally important and economically valuable group, but are threatened by land-use conversion and intensification. Such pressures are not expected to affect all species identically; rather, they are likely to be mediated by the species' ecological traits.Understanding which types of species are most vulnerable under which land uses is an important step towards effective conservation planning.We collated occurrence and abundance data for 257 bee species at 1584 European sites from surveys reported in 30 published papers (70 056 records) and combined them with species-level ecological trait data. We used mixed-effects models to assess the importance of land use (land-use class, agricultural use-intensity and a remotely-sensed measure of vegetation), traits and trait × land-use interactions, in explaining species occurrence and abundance.Species' sensitivity to land use was most strongly influenced by flight season duration and foraging range, but also by niche breadth, reproductive strategy and phenology, with effects that differed among cropland, pastoral and urban habitats. Synthesis and applications. Rather than targeting particular species or settings, conservation actions may be more effective if focused on mitigating situations where species' traits strongly and negatively interact with land-use pressures. We find evidence that low-intensity agriculture can maintain relatively diverse bee communities; in more intensive settings, added floral resources may be beneficial, but will require careful placement with respect to foraging ranges of smaller bee species. Protection of semi-natural habitats is essential, however; in particular, conversion to urban environments could have severe effects on bee diversity and pollination services. Our results highlight the importance of exploring how ecological traits mediate species responses to human impacts, but further research is needed to enhance the predictive ability of such analyses.

  19. Critical Rhetorics of Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Kent A.; Sloop, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Responds to two articles in the same issue of this journal regarding a controversy over the African Burial Ground in New York City. Raises a third set of questions, arguing that investigations of rhetorics of controversy can also include investigations of the rhetorics of incommensurability, investigating the development of logics and…

  20. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-07-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s—birth of quantum theory—and concluding with Erwin Schrödinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged.

  1. Sensitivity of palaeotidal models of the northwest European shelf seas to glacial isostatic adjustment since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Sophie L.; Neill, Simon P.; Scourse, James D.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Uehara, Katsuto

    2016-11-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of relative sea-level change over the northwest European shelf seas has varied considerably since the Last Glacial Maximum, due to eustatic sea-level rise and a complex isostatic response to deglaciation of both near- and far-field ice sheets. Because of the complex pattern of relative sea level changes, the region is an ideal focus for modelling the impact of significant sea-level change on shelf sea tidal dynamics. Changes in tidal dynamics influence tidal range, the location of tidal mixing fronts, dissipation of tidal energy, shelf sea biogeochemistry and sediment transport pathways. Significant advancements in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling of the region have been made in recent years, and earlier palaeotidal models of the northwest European shelf seas were developed using output from less well-constrained GIA models as input to generate palaeobathymetric grids. We use the most up-to-date and well-constrained GIA model for the region as palaeotopographic input for a new high resolution, three-dimensional tidal model (ROMS) of the northwest European shelf seas. With focus on model output for 1 ka time slices from the Last Glacial Maximum (taken as being 21 ka BP) to present day, we demonstrate that spatial and temporal changes in simulated tidal dynamics are very sensitive to relative sea-level distribution. The new high resolution palaeotidal model is considered a significant improvement on previous depth-averaged palaeotidal models, in particular where the outputs are to be used in sediment transport studies, where consideration of the near-bed stress is critical, and for constraining sea level index points.

  2. The vibrating string controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Gerald F.; Crummett, William P.

    1987-01-01

    In the mid-1700s a debate raged between Jean d'Alembert, Leonhard Euler, and Daniel Bernoulli concerning the proper solution to the classical wave equation. This controversy was partially solved by Lagrange and, more conclusively, by Fourier (50 years later) and it provides an interesting case study for the role of mathematics in the modeling of physical phenomena. Of particular note in this debate, was the meaning of boundary conditions. The controversy is summarized from the point of view of this mathematical physics perspective.

  3. The controversial sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    1993-01-01

    The sun serves as an important test case for a variety of problems related to stellar structure and evolution as well as fundamental physics. The sun also influences the terrestrial environment through its varied outputs. These two aspects of the solar interior combine to generate a surprising level of controversy for such an inherently simple star. I review three topics each of which is the subject of some degree of controversy: 1) the solar neutrino problem, 2) the status of modeling and observational efforts to understand the solar cycle of activity, and 3) observational efforts to detect and identify solar g-modes.

  4. Proteomic responses of European flounder to temperature and hypoxia as interacting stressors: Differential sensitivities of populations.

    PubMed

    Pédron, Nicolas; Artigaud, Sébastien; Infante, José-Luis Zambonino; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Charrier, Grégory; Pichereau, Vianney; Laroche, Jean

    2017-02-16

    In the context of global change, ectotherms are increasingly impacted by abiotic perturbations. Along the distribution area of a species, the populations at low latitudes are particularly exposed to temperature increase and hypoxic events. In this study, we have compared the proteomic responses in the liver of European flounder populations, by using 2-D electrophoresis. One southern peripheral population from Portugal vs two northern core populations from France, were reared in a common garden experiment. Most of the proteomic differences were observed between the two experimental conditions, a cold vs a warm and hypoxic conditions. Consistent differentiations between populations were observed in accumulation of proteins involved in the bioenergetics- and methionine-metabolisms, fatty acids transport, and amino-acid catabolism. The specific regulation of crucial enzymes like ATP-synthase and G6PDH, in the liver of the southern population, could be related to a possible local adaptation. This southern peripheral population is spatially distant from northern core populations and has experienced dissimilar ecological conditions; thus it may contain genotypes that confer resilience to climate changes.

  5. Students' Conceptions of Controversial Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Nelson, J. Ron

    1992-01-01

    Five boys and five girls each in grades one through six (n=60 students) asked controversial questions in interviews, recognized the lack of social consensus on the controversial topics and made subtle distinctions between controversial and noncontroversial topics. Implications for discussion of controversial issues in the classroom are discussed.…

  6. A Rhetoric of Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kendall R.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by exploring the concept of controversy within a theoretical framework which does not presume the existence of a public sphere. Suggests an alternative perspective based on the intersection of moments of opportunity and specific sites of discourse. Applies this…

  7. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  8. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.

  9. Controversies in Gender Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the author's thoughts on gender diagnosis controversies during his tenure at the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and the ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. The work summarizes some of the published conclusions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 revision processes regarding three particular controversies: (1) stigma versus access to care; (2) the retention of a child gender diagnosis; and (3) the treatment of prepubescent transgender children. Both the DSM and ICD work groups decided that despite the stigma associated with a diagnosis, retaining an adolescent and adult gender diagnosis is necessary to maintain access to care. As for the child gender diagnosis, given the heterogeneity of this clinical population and that gender dysphoria does not persist in most children, a child diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (DSM) and Gender Incongruence (ICD) should be retained to facilitate ongoing evaluation and management in childhood while acknowledging the uncertainty of the outcome. The treatment of extremely gender variant prepubescent children remains a controversial subject since some underlying assumptions of the treating clinicians are a matter of opinion rather than of empirical data.

  10. European risk assessment of LAS in agricultural soil revisited: species sensitivity distribution and risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Smith, Stephen R; Krogh, Paul Henning; Versteeg, Donald J; Temara, Ali

    2007-10-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) is used at a rate of approximately 430,000 tons/y in Western Europe, mainly in laundry detergents. It is present in sewage sludge (70-5,600 mg/kg; 5-95th percentile) because of its high usage per capita, its sorption and precipitation in primary settlers, and its lack of degradation in anaerobic digesters. Immediately after amendment, calculated and measured concentrations are <1 to 60 mg LAS/kg soil. LAS biodegrades rapidly in soil with primary and ultimate half-lives of up to 7 and 30 days, respectively. Calculated residual concentrations after the averaging time (30 days) are 0.24-18 mg LAS/kg soil. The long-term ecotoxicity to soil microbiota is relatively low (EC10 >or=26 mg sludge-associated LAS/kg soil). An extensive review of the invertebrate and plant ecotoxicological data, combined with a probabilistic assessment approach, led to a PNEC value of 35 mg LAS/kg soil, i.e. the 5th percentile (HC5) of the species sensitivity distribution (lognormal distribution of the EC10 and NOEC values). Risk ratios were identified to fall within a range of 0.01 (median LAS concentration in sludge) to 0.1 (95th percentile) and always below 0.5 (maximum LAS concentration measured in sludge) according to various scenarios covering different factors such as local sewage influent concentration, water hardness, and sewage sludge stabilisation process. Based on the present information, it can be concluded that LAS does not represent an ecological risk in Western Europe when applied via normal sludge amendment to agricultural soil.

  11. Ethnic differences in glucose disposal, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and endogenous glucose production among African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Granger, Wesley M; Ovalle, Fernando; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-05-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests have demonstrated lower whole-body insulin sensitivity (S(I)) among African Americans (AA) compared with European Americans (EA). Whole-body S(I) represents both insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, primarily by skeletal muscle, and insulin's suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) by liver. A mathematical model was recently introduced that allows for distinction between disposal and hepatic S(I). The purpose of this study was to examine specific indexes of S(I) among AA and EA women to determine whether lower whole-body S(I) in AA may be attributed to insulin action at muscle, liver, or both. Participants were 53 nondiabetic, premenopausal AA and EA women. Profiles of EGP and indexes of Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were calculated by mathematical modeling and incorporation of a stable isotope tracer ([6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose) into the intravenous glucose tolerance test. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After adjustment for percentage fat, both Disposal S(I) and Hepatic S(I) were lower among AA (P = .009 for both). Time profiles for serum insulin and EGP revealed higher peak insulin response and corresponding lower EGP among AA women compared with EA. Indexes from a recently introduced mathematical model suggest that lower whole-body S(I) among nondiabetic AA women is due to both hepatic and peripheral components. Despite lower Hepatic S(I), AA displayed lower EGP, resulting from higher postchallenge insulin levels. Future research is needed to determine the physiological basis of lower insulin sensitivity among AA and its implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

  12. Controversy at Love Canal.

    PubMed

    Paigen, B

    1982-06-01

    A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured.

  13. The breast implant controversy.

    PubMed

    Cook, R R; Harrison, M C; LeVier, R R

    1994-02-01

    The breast implant issue is a "bad news/good news" story. For many women with implants, the controversy has caused a fair degree of anxiety which may or may not be resolved as further information becomes available. It has also taken its toll on Dow Corning. Whole lines of medical products have been eliminated or are being phase out. The development of new medical applications has been terminated. As a consequence, employees have lost their jobs. What the effect will be on the biomedical industry as a whole remains to be seen (11). While silicones have been an important component in various medical devices, it is likely that other materials can be used as replacements. However, suppliers of non-silicone materials are also reevaluating their role in this market. For example, Du Pont, the nation's largest chemical company, has determined that the unpredictable and excessive costs of doing business with manufacturers of implantable medical devices no longer justifies the unrestricted sale of standard raw materials into this industry. Other companies are quietly following suit. On the up side, it is possible that the research being driven by this controversy will result in a greater understanding of the immunologic implications of xenobiotics, of the importance of nonbiased observations, of the need for ready access to valid data sets, and of the opportunity for valid scientific information to guide legal decisions. Only time will tell.

  14. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety.

  15. Controversies in Cardioembolic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Kent, David M

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Cardioembolic (CE) stroke mechanisms account for a significant number of ischemic strokes however the true burden is likely underestimated. It is critically important to identify patients with CE strokes since these individuals have high recurrence rates and represent a subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy in the form of anticoagulation or device based treatments. Current guidelines offer recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of these patients however important questions remain. Appropriate cardiac testing in the setting of CE must be individualized and the optimal duration of electrocardiographic monitoring to rule out atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear. So too, risk stratification tools for AF remain understudied and there is controversy about which anticoagulant agents are most appropriate. Lastly, important potential CE sources of stroke such as PFO have garnered significant attention recently and debate regarding how to treat these patients remains. In this review we discuss some of the important controversies in diagnosing and treating patients with possible CE stroke, pointing to areas where future research might be particularly valuable. PMID:25398426

  16. The bellerophont controversy revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, J.A.; Rollins, H.B.

    2000-01-01

    An old controversy reestablished itself in the late 1970s and early 1980s that focused on the systematic placement of the enigmatic Bellerophontoidea (informally, "bellerophonts"), a group of planispirally coiled, wholly fossil molluscs. The controversy embraced three fundamental concepts that are based on different philosophical interpretations of shell form, muscle scar patterns, and other preserved shell features: 1) all bellerophonts were monoplacophorans; 2) all bellerophonts were gastropods; and 3) some bellerophonts were monoplacophorans and some were gastropods. A review of the main issues appearing in the literature since the early 1980s indicates that these three philosophical divisions still exist and, indeed, have become entrenched. An examination of the relevant anatomical and shell features of recent gastropods and monoplacophorans, and comparison with preserved features in enigmatic fossil forms, convinces us that the bellerophontoideans and the coiled and high-domed "monoplacophorans" (Cyclomya) were gastropods. Only the flattened, spoon-and cap-shaped monoplacophorans (Tergomya) were true monoplacophorans. We present a hypothetical scheme for the morphological diversification of gastropods from early monoplacophorans that could account for Cyclomya, Bellerophontoidea, Patellogastropoda, and Prosobranchia.

  17. Fat Distribution, Aerobic Fitness, Blood Lipids, and Insulin Sensitivity in African-American and European-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Brock, David W.; Lara-Castro, Cristina; Fernandez, Jose R.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine independent relationships of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), leg fat, and aerobic fitness with blood lipids and insulin sensitivity (Si) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) premenopausal women. Ninety-three EA and ninety-four AA with BMI between 27 and 30 kg/m2 had IAAT by computed tomography, total fat and leg fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, aerobic fitness by a graded exercise test, African admixture (AFADM) by ancestry informative markers, blood lipids by the Ektachem DT system, and Si by glucose tolerance test. Independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and leg fat, IAAT was positively related to low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C), cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglycerides (TGs), and fasting insulin (standardized β varying 0.16–0.34) and negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and Si (standardized β −0.15 and −0.25, respectively). In contrast, independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and IAAT, leg fat was negatively related to total cholesterol, LDL-C, cholesterol-HDL ratio, TGs, and fasting insulin (standardized β varying −0.15 to −0.21) and positively related to HDL-C and Si (standardized β 0.16 and 0.23). Age was not independently related to worsening of any blood lipid but was related to increased Si (standardized β for Si 0.25, insulin −0.31). With the exception of total cholesterol and LDL-C, aerobic fitness was independently related to worsened blood lipid profile and increased Si (standardized β varying 0.17 to −0.21). Maintenance of favorable fat distribution and aerobic fitness may be important strategies for healthy aging, at least in premenopausal EA and AA women. PMID:19661963

  18. Fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood lipids, and insulin sensitivity in African-American and European-American women.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Brock, David W; Lara-Castro, Cristina; Fernandez, Jose R; Gower, Barbara A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine independent relationships of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), leg fat, and aerobic fitness with blood lipids and insulin sensitivity (S(i)) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) premenopausal women. Ninety-three EA and ninety-four AA with BMI between 27 and 30 kg/m(2) had IAAT by computed tomography, total fat and leg fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, aerobic fitness by a graded exercise test, African admixture (AFADM) by ancestry informative markers, blood lipids by the Ektachem DT system, and S(i) by glucose tolerance test. Independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and leg fat, IAAT was positively related to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglycerides (TGs), and fasting insulin (standardized beta varying 0.16-0.34) and negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and S(i) (standardized beta -0.15 and -0.25, respectively). In contrast, independent of age, aerobic fitness, AFADM, and IAAT, leg fat was negatively related to total cholesterol, LDL-C, cholesterol-HDL ratio, TGs, and fasting insulin (standardized beta varying -0.15 to -0.21) and positively related to HDL-C and S(i) (standardized beta 0.16 and 0.23). Age was not independently related to worsening of any blood lipid but was related to increased S(i) (standardized beta for S(i) 0.25, insulin -0.31). With the exception of total cholesterol and LDL-C, aerobic fitness was independently related to worsened blood lipid profile and increased S(i) (standardized beta varying 0.17 to -0.21). Maintenance of favorable fat distribution and aerobic fitness may be important strategies for healthy aging, at least in premenopausal EA and AA women.

  19. Radon Treatment Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga (Jodi)

    2006-01-01

    In spite of long traditions, treatments utilizing radon-rich air or water have not been unequivocally embraced by modern medicine. The objective of this work is to examine factors that contribute to this continuing controversy. While the exact mechanism of radon's effect on human body is not completely understood, recent advances in radiobiology offer new insights into biochemical processes occurring at low-level exposures to ionizing radiation. Medical evidence and patients' testimonials regarding effectiveness of radon spa treatments of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis are accumulating worldwide. They challenge the premise of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) theory that the dose-effect response is the same per unit dose regardless of the total dose. Historically, such inference overshadowed scientific inquiries into the low-dose region and lead to a popular belief that no amount of radiation can be good. Fortunately, the LNT theory, which lacks any scientific basis, did not remain unchallenged. As the reviewed literature suggests, a paradigm shift, reflected in the consideration of hormetic effects at low-doses, is gaining momentum in the scientific community worldwide. The impetus comes from significant evidence of adaptive and stimulatory effects of low-levels of radiation on human immune system. PMID:18648641

  20. Photoprotection: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Skotarczak, K; Osmola-Mańkowska, A; Lodyga, M; Polańska, A; Mazur, M; Adamski, Z

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure of the skin to sunlight can lead to many negative effects, such as sunburn, photoaging and skin cancer development. Pollution and stratospheric ozone layer depletion are factors that increase exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This work is an accurate summary of the current state of knowledge on broad-spectrum photoprotection. Avoiding the sun, skin protection through the use of protective clothing and protective filters are currently the most effective methods of sunscreen provided that they are suitably used. In addition, discussed are controversial issues such as the toxicity of zinc used in sunscreen preparations and the potential for deficiency of vitamin D3 in relation with the application of strict photoprotection. The study has also addressed issues concerning the most recent lines of research in the exploration of modern methods of photoprotection both local and systemic, such as with the use of photolyase or examination of various enzymes repairing damage after sun exposure, as well as the promising future in photoprotection technology.

  1. Brief communication: two-rooted lower canines--a European trait and sensitive indicator of admixture across Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine; Scott, G Richard

    2011-11-01

    With the exception of Carabelli's trait, the European dentition is better known for the morphological traits that it does not exhibit rather than the ones that it does. One root trait, however, runs counter to the characterization of reduced and simplified European crowns and roots. Although a rare trait in general, two-rooted lower canines are much more common in Europeans than in any other regional grouping and, given adequate sample sizes, can be useful in evaluating gene flow between Europeans and neighboring groups. In European samples, two-rooted lower canines consistently exhibit frequencies of 5-8%. In our sample from northern Spain, the trait attains a frequency of almost 10%. In contrast, in Sub-Saharan Africans the trait is virtually unknown while in Asian and Asian-derived populations, it varies between 0.0 and 1.0%. Here we show that two-rooted canine frequencies for new migrants along the western frontiers of China and Mongolia ranged from 0-4%. These data suggest European-derived populations migrated into western China (Xinjiang Province) and Mongolia (Bayan Olgii Aimag) sometime during the late Bronze age (1000-400 BCE).

  2. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  3. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  4. Youth Violence. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Michael D., Ed.; Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores many social, political, and economic controversies, presenting the discussions in debate format. This volume focuses on youth violence. As youth violence escalates, concern grows over the safety of the neighborhoods, the victims of violence, and the future of violent youths themselves. The 35 selections in…

  5. Controversies in Parotid Defect Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew; Knott, P Daniel; Fritz, Michael A; Seth, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the parotid defect is a complex topic that encompasses restoration of both facial form and function. The reconstructive surgeon must consider facial contour, avoidance of Frey syndrome, skin coverage, tumor surveillance, potential adjuvant therapy, and facial reanimation when addressing parotid defects. With each defect there are several options within the reconstructive ladder, creating controversies regarding optimal management. This article describes surgical approaches to reconstruction of parotid defects, highlighting areas of controversy.

  6. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however.

  7. The Academic Controversy Technique: Towards Cooperative Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and explain a cooperative learning technique, Academic Controversy (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1996), also known as Cooperative Controversy, Structured Controversy and Structured Academic Controversy, that has potential for use in education and other areas, and has support in both research and theory.…

  8. Surveying Students about Controversial Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Because of school districts' interest in best serving the health needs of students, many choose to administer surveys addressing controversial topics. Administering such surveys in a voluntary and anonymous manner may help reduce conflict. Methods: This is a review of 2 recent federal court of appeals decisions regarding surveying…

  9. Controversial Curriculum? Ask the Community!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Involving communities in the process of curriculum development may not be novel, but it seems lacking with regard to controversial issues such as lessons on diverse family structures, homosexuality, and other special situations. Disparity in values and convictions can lead one person to support a decision, while another person might hold an…

  10. INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES ON CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTON, THOMAS B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES WITH REGARD TO SELECTED CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS WHICH ARE FREQUENTLY THE FOCUS OF ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERN AND ACTION. THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATURE AND PURPOSES OF THE POLICIES, THE FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ISSUES ON…

  11. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  12. Teacher Quality, Controversy, and NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Magee, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB)--the sweeping federal law that requires all schools that receive federal Title I dollars to be held strictly accountable for student outcomes--is the most discussed education reform effort in the past half century. One of the many controversial and vexing elements of the law, especially among teachers, teacher unions,…

  13. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depew, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race,…

  14. Teaching Controversial Issues of Bioethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    Many teachers avoid controversial topics because they do not want to upset students or parents, do not know appropriate instructional strategies, and fail to recognize the importance of motivating students through placing science in its relevant context. An example is provided for use in a methods course for helping future high school teachers to…

  15. Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A., Ed.; Taylor, Dalmas A., Ed.

    Dialogue and research on racism since the mid-1970s have yielded increased controversy over the theories, foundation, and continued existence of racism. The chapters presented in this book provide various divergent views of what constitutes racism and frameworks for reducing it. The following chapters (and their authors) are included: (1)…

  16. Embracing Controversy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannard, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Discussing controversial topics such as stem cell research is a great way for students to build scientific understanding, enhance communication skills, and develop an appreciation for civic decision making. Tackling a topic such as stem cells at the middle level, however, can be a challenge because most young adolescents see the world in black and…

  17. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  18. Impacts of pesticide mixtures in European rivers as predicted by the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) models and SPEAR bioindication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesenska, Sona; Liess, Mathias; Schäfer, Ralf; Beketov, Mikhail; Blaha, Ludek

    2013-04-01

    Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) is statistical method broadly used in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of chemicals. Originally it has been used for prospective risk assessment of single substances but nowadays it is becoming more important also in the retrospective risk assessment of mixtures, including the catchment scale. In the present work, SSD predictions (impacts of mixtures consisting of 25 pesticides; data from several catchments in Germany, France and Finland) were compared with SPEAR-pesticides, which a bioindicator index based on biological traits responsive to the effects of pesticides and post-contamination recovery. The results showed statistically significant correlations (Pearson's R, p<0.01) between SSD (predicted msPAF values) and values of SPEAR-pesticides (based on field biomonitoring observations). Comparisons of the thresholds established for the SSD and SPEAR approaches (SPEAR-pesticides=45%, i.e. LOEC level, and msPAF = 0.05 for SSD, i.e. HC5) showed that use of chronic toxicity data significantly improved the agreement between the two methods but the SPEAR-pesticides index was still more sensitive. Taken together, the validation study shows good potential of SSD models in predicting the real impacts of micropollutant mixtures on natural communities of aquatic biota.

  19. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  20. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  1. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-02-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  2. The controversial world of sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Dang, Weiwei

    2014-06-01

    The controversy around sirtuins and their functions in aging has drawn in the past few years as much attention, if not more, from the scientific community and the public as they did when first proposed as the key conserved aging regulators in eukaryotes. With some of the basic observations on sirtuin longevity promoting functions being questioned in popular model systems, researchers are wondering if this family of conserved enzymes still holds strong potential as therapeutic targets. This review examines the several controversial issues around sirtuins and their functions in aging, calorie restriction, as well as age-related diseases in light of recent studies in mammalian systems and discusses whether modulators of sirtuins still hold the secret of life.:

  3. Controversies in neurosciences critical care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tiffany R; Naval, Neeraj S; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Neurocritical care is an evolving subspecialty with many controversial topics. The focus of this review is (1) transfusion thresholds in patients with acute intracranial bleeding, including packed red blood cell transfusion, platelet transfusion, and reversal of coagulopathy; (2) indications for seizure prophylaxis and choice of antiepileptic agent; and (3) the role of specialized neurocritical care units and specialists in the care of critically ill neurology and neurosurgery patients.

  4. Is Race Really Controversial in the University Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philion, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Today, even though "social justice" programs exist as a virtual growth industry on US campuses and many universities have incorporated classes on race and racism into their curricula, everyone continues to be faced with the perception that race is a "controversial" topic that has to be broached with care due to its "sensitive nature". This is even…

  5. Thermoluminescence survey of 12 meteorites collected by the European 1988 Antarctic meteorite expedition to Allan Hills and the importance of acid washing for thermoluminescence sensitivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) data are reported for 12 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica by the European field party during the 1988/1989 field season. The samples include one with extremely high natural TL, ALH88035, suggestive of exposure to unusually high radiation doses (i.e., low degrees of shielding), and one, ALH88034, whose low natural TL suggests reheating within the last 100,000 years. The remainder have natural TL values suggestive of terrestrial ages similar to those of other meteorites from Allan Hills. ALH88015 (L6) has induced TL data suggestive of intense shock. TL sensitivities of these meteorites are generally lower than observed falls of their petrologic types, as is also observed for Antarctic meteorites in general. Acid-washing experiments indicate that this is solely the result of terrestrial weathering rather than a nonterrestrial Antarctic-non-Antarctic difference. However, other TL parameters, such as natural TL and induced peak temperature-width, are unchanged by acid washing and are sensitive indicators of a meteorite's metamorphic and recent radiation history.

  6. Structured Controversy: A Case Study Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1996-01-01

    Introduces a dynamic form of the case instruction method that involves debate and compromise. Discusses two versions of structured controversy and presents an example of structured controversy that involves the use of DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. (JRH)

  7. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed.

  8. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  9. The evolution of controversial issues.

    PubMed

    King, P

    1994-04-01

    The controversial issues concerning the differences of opinion about the validity of Melanie Klein's theory and technique did not arise suddenly when members of the Viennese Society joined the British Psycho-Analytical Society, before the outbreak of the Second World War. In this paper, I describe briefly the socio-historical, administrative and institutional background out of which these scientific divergences evolved alongside other issues concerned with how long members should hold office in the British Psycho-Analytical Society and therefore be in a position to influence the scientific disagreements and training policy in the Society. These causes for concern among members, which were discussed at five business meetings, are then summarised: they relate to differences of opinion with regard to Melanie Klein's contributions to psychoanalysis, the need for revision of the rules of the Society and the type of training in psychoanalysis that should be offered to candidates. Finally, proposals for different ways of exploring and perhaps dealing with these issues are discussed, including the decision to hold formal scientific discussions of Klein's point of view, once a month. These meetings are now referred to as the 'Controversial Discussions'.

  10. Predicting skin sensitization potential and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) in the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) ring trials.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ryan, Cindy; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Klaus R; Ashikaga, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory policies in Europe prohibited the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for a number of toxicological endpoints. Currently no validated non-animal test methods exist for skin sensitization. Evaluation of changes in cell surface marker expression in dendritic cell (DC)-surrogate cell lines represents one non-animal approach. The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) examines the level of CD86 and CD54 expression on the surface of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, following 24h of chemical exposure. To examine protocol transferability, between-lab reproducibility, and predictive capacity, the h-CLAT has been evaluated by five independent laboratories in several ring trials (RTs) coordinated by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA). The results of the first and second RTs demonstrated that the protocol was transferable and basically had good between-lab reproducibility and predictivity, but there were some false negative data. To improve performance, protocol and prediction model were modified. Using the modified prediction model in the first and second RT, accuracy was improved. However, about 15% of the outcomes were not correctly identified, which exposes some of the limitations of the assay. For the chemicals evaluated, the limitation may due to chemical being a weak allergen or having low solubility (ex. alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde). The third RT evaluated the modified prediction model and satisfactory results were obtained. From the RT data, the feasibility of utilizing cell lines as surrogate DC in development of in vitro skin sensitization methods shows promise. The data also support initiating formal pre-validation of the h-CLAT in order to fully understand the capabilities and limitations of the assay.

  11. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  12. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  13. The Parkfield Stress Drop Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, R. E.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nadeau et al. (1995) found that the seismicity on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield is highly clustered. Individual clusters consist of a sequence of near periodically repeating small earthquakes of similar seismic moment. Nadeau and Johnston (1998) compared the moments and timing of these repeating earthquakes (Mw < 2), and some larger events, with the surface creep rate on the fault to estimate the slip and stress drop (Δ σ ). They obtained conventional values (0.1 to 10 MPa) for the larger earthquakes, but Δ σ increased with decreasing Mw to extremely high values (> 1000 MPa) for the small earthquakes (Mw < 2). Such values are just about physically possible, but they are much higher than those estimated by seismic methods for small earthquakes elsewhere (e. g. Abercrombie 1995). These controversial high Δ σ estimates have sparked a number of theoretical and laboratory studies (e. g. Sammis & Rice 2000, Anooshepoor & Brune 2001, Beeler 2001) aimed at investigating whether the observations could result from earthquakes with more normal Δ σ occurring within the unusual tectonic setting at Parkfield. Lane & Nadeau (2000, 2002) considered whether localized patches of high Δ σ would be resolvable by standard seismic methods. However, to date nobody has used seismic methods to determine source parameters for these controversial small earthquakes at Parkfield. We use closely located earthquakes of different sizes (for example, the sub-clusters of cluster CL14, Nadeau et al., 1995, Mw-0.2 to 1), recorded on the HRSN borehole network to analyse the source parameters. The smaller earthquakes are used as empirical Green's functions to resolve source processes of the larger events. Preliminary results from the earthquakes in cluster CL14 result in a source dimension of about 25 m and Δ σ of about 1 MPa for the Mw1 earthquakes, assuming that rupture velocity is the same as that for large earthquakes. We also resolve source-time functions for these earthquakes at

  14. Age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function among European-American and African-American women.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Phadke, Radhika P; Granger, Wesley M; Fernández, José R; Muñoz, Julian A; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Ovalle, Fernando; Gower, Barbara A

    2011-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women for reasons that are unknown. Ethnic differences in physiological processes related to insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and secretion, and age-related changes in these processes, may play a role. The purpose of this study was to identify ethnicity- and age-related differences in S(I) and β-cell responsivity among AA and EA females, and to determine whether these differences are independent of body composition and fat distribution. Healthy, normoglycemic females aged 7-12 years (n = 62), 18-32 years (n = 57), and 40-70 years (n = 49) were recruited for entry into this study. Following an overnight fast, S(I), intravenous glucose tolerance (Kg), acute C-peptide secretion (X0), and basal, first-phase, second-phase, and total β-cell responsivity to glucose (PhiB, Phi1, Phi2, and Phi(TOT), respectively) were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Total % body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intra-abdominal adiposity (IAAT) by computed tomography. Main effects of age group and ethnicity were measured with analysis of covariance, adjusting for % fat, IAAT, and S(I) as indicated. AA had lower S(I), and higher Kg, X0, Phi1, and Phi(TOT) (P < 0.05), which remained after adjustment for % fat and IAAT. Greater X0, Phi1, and Phi(TOT) among AA were independent of S(I). Advancing age was associated with greater Phi2 among both EA and AA. To conclude, inherent ethnic differences in β-cell function exist independently of adiposity and S(I). Future research should examine whether ethnic differences in β-cell physiology contribute to disparities in T2D risk.

  15. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2007-12-01

    In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

  16. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  17. Controversies in kidney paired donation.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Montgomery, Robert A; Segev, Dorry L

    2012-07-01

    Kidney paired donation represented 10% of living kidney donation in the United States in 2011. National registries around the world and several separate registries in the United States arrange paired donations, although with significant variations in their practices. Concerns about ethical considerations, clinical advisability, and the quantitative effectiveness of these approaches in paired donation result in these variations. For instance, although donor travel can be burdensome and might discourage paired donation, it was nearly universal until convincing analysis showed that living donor kidneys can sustain many hours of cold ischemia time without adverse consequences. Opinions also differ about whether the last donor in a chain of paired donation transplants initiated by a nondirected donor should donate immediately to someone on the deceased donor wait-list (a domino or closed chain) or should be asked to wait some length of time and donate to start another sequence of paired donations later (an open chain); some argue that asking the donor to donate later may be coercive, and others focus on balancing the probability that the waiting donor withdraws versus the number of additional transplants if the chain can be continued. Other controversies in paired donation include simultaneous versus nonsimultaneous donor operations, whether to enroll compatible pairs, and interactions with desensitization protocols. Efforts to expand public awareness of and participation in paired donation are needed to generate more transplant opportunities.

  18. [Controversy on treatments for gliomas].

    PubMed

    Nomura, K

    1998-09-01

    Gliomas are representative primary malignant brain tumors, and with such tumors it is difficult to define the advanced stage. If the advanced stage indicates no curability by surgery alone, most gliomas would belong to this criterion because of their poor prognosis without any completely effective treatment. In this sense, no one could show a standard therapy to treat these unfortunate patients, for example, patients with glioblastoma, they could permit only 1 year survived even they had any applicable treatments to the lesions, these days. Treatment for low-grade gliomas has been most controversial for a long time, and no standard treatments have been determined so far. In this paper, as the treatment of low-grade gliomas it was intended to report what must be done for this patient and the present results of opinion survey for the treatment of gliomas which was done to professors of 80 institutes, from schools of medicine at all universities and medical colleges in Japan. For high-grade gliomas, some effectiveness of radiation therapy was disclosed as well as chemotherapy from recent papers. Gene therapy was also discussed briefly, its present status and future.

  19. Lyme disease: why the controversy?

    PubMed

    Beaman, M H

    2016-12-01

    Some Australians have become convinced of the existence of locally acquired Lyme disease (LD). The history of LD, since its recognition in the early 1970s, is reviewed as a model for investigative approaches to unknown syndromes. Australian Management Guidelines for LD include the requirement for diagnostic testing by National Association of Testing Authorities-accredited laboratories using Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed tests, which result in the efficient diagnosis of LD in overseas travellers. Despite this, patients who have not left Australia pay many thousands of dollars for non-specialist consultations and testing at overseas laboratories. Unproven long-term therapy with multiple antibiotics has resulted in serious complications, including allergies, line sepsis, pancreatitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Studies have shown that LD vectors are not found in Australia, and Lyme Borrelia has not been found in Australian vectors, animals or patients with autochthonous illnesses. I propose that (i) A non-controversial name for the chronic syndrome should be adopted, 'Australian Multisystem Disorder'. (ii) Research funding should enable the development of a consensus case definition and studies of the epidemiology of this syndrome with laboratory investigations to identify an aetiology and surrogate markers of disease. Prospective, randomised treatment studies could then be undertaken using ethical protocols.

  20. [Controversies over heel pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, J

    2013-02-01

    Article whose content was exposed in the workshops of the GNEAUPP Congress, held in Seville in November2012, and which refers to ulcers by pressure on the heels as a location exposed to the analysis. A pressure ulcer is a lesion located in skin I underlying tissue usually over a bone prominence, as a result of the pressure, or pressure in combination with the shears. A number of contributing factors or confounding factors are also associated with ulcers by pressure; the importance of these factors still not been elucidated. The heels are next to the sacred area, parts of the body that most frequently presents ulcers by pressure, The importance of the predisposing factors for ulcers in the sacral area as humidity has been studied in recent years, but in heels, remains one of the most important locations in the extremities, which entails adverse outcomes such as amputation in persons with comorbid diseases like Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The incidence of ulcers on heels in patients with DM and without it, is approximately 19-32%. Everything and be a problem associated with elderly people and chronic pathologies, in acute patients are a problem that this underrated, but not devoid of controversy. In hospitals of treble in 2006, the NPUAP encrypted the incidence of UPPin heels in a 43%; in one systematic review conducted by Reddy et al. (2006) puts revealed that 60% of pressure ulcers is produced. The problem of the UPP in heels is present in all the areas of intervention and particularly in paediatric units intensive care, where the first localization it is the occipital area followed by the heels.

  1. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population.

  2. If It's Controversial, Why Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Reveals that teaching about controversial issues increases students' self-confidence and interest in civic participation. Asserts that the current proliferation of social problems combined with exploitative media coverage necessitates civil and objective study of controversial issues. Includes several examples of, and approaches to, teaching about…

  3. Teaching about NAFTA Using Academic Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Eileen M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines a teaching strategy called "constructive controversy" where students are required to argue both the pro and con positions concerning a controversial current topic. Describes students' response to a class using this method to examine the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Student response was generally favorable. (MJP)

  4. Get Controversial! Edgy Novels for Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox Clark, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This article is a discussion of authors and controversial novels that should be on the top of library media specialists' reading list if they work with high-school-age teens. "Controversial" is not a dirty word, it is an enticement! The goal of library media specialists is to get teens who may be burned out with reading due to incentive programs…

  5. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  6. Teachers, Classroom Controversy, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulconer, Tracy; Freeman, Ayesha Coning

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between teachers, classroom controversy and the media. It also features the story of Ayesha, who coincidentally is one of the authors of this article. Ayesha's story is a social studies teacher's bad dream featuring one of her worst fears: (1) public criticism; and (2) controversy over something that has…

  7. History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweinsberg, John

    1997-01-01

    A series of programs entitled Creationism and Evolution: The History of a Controversy was presented at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The controversy was addressed from an historical and sociological, rather than a scientific perspective. Speakers addressed the evolution of scientific creationism, ancient texts versus sedimentary rocks…

  8. Salivary Gland Tumors: Current Concepts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2017-03-01

    This current review focuses on current concepts and controversies for select key salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. Rather than the traditional organization of benign and malignant tumors, this review is structured around select key topics: biphasic tumors, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and the controversy surrounding polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin.

  9. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  10. Bureaucratic Constructions of Sexual Diversity: "Sensitive", "Controversial" and Silencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Jacqueline; Ferfolja, Tania

    2015-01-01

    National research illustrates the high degree of discrimination that prevails against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) students resulting in diminished educational outcomes, both academic and social. This phenomenon is influenced by the prevalence of whole-school silences around LGBTQ topics in many Australian schools. This…

  11. Sensitive Security Information (SSI) and Transportation Security: Background and Controversies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-05

    with airport security procedures, employee accountability, passenger screening, and airport secrecy agreements. In January 2003, the Dallas/Fort... Airport Security Flaws Bring Criticism,” Los Angeles Times, July 2, 2002, p. A8. 16 Charles Piller and Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar, “A Suspect Computer...Secrecy in Airport Security Contract Criticized,” Des Moines Register, Sept. 27, 2003, p. 1A; James Andrews, “Here in Tristate, Security’s Tighter

  12. Deciding What Is a Controversial Issue: A Case Study of Social Studies Curriculum Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camicia, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    Frame analysis was used to examine how competing stakeholders framed a sixth grade curriculum controversy over whether the WWII internment of Japanese Americans should be categorized as a controversial issue. Teachers and administrators in a northwestern U.S. school claimed that the internment was clearly wrong and not controversial, but these…

  13. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome Traits with Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity by Oral Minimal Model Assessment in South Asian and European Families Residing in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Jainandunsing, Sjaam; de Rooij, Felix W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are different metabolic syndrome traits among patients with different ethnicities. Methods. We investigated this by studying 44 South Asians and 54 Europeans and classified them in three groups according to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), static, dynamic, and total beta-cell responsivity indices (Φ), and disposition indices (DIs) were calculated with the use of oral minimal model (OMM). Results. In both ethnicities, ISI was lower in the subgroup with MetS and T2D as compared to the subgroup without MetS nor T2D (P < 0.004). South Asians without MetS were more insulin resistant than Europeans without MetS (P = 0.033). In the South Asians, ISI, dynamic DI, and static DI were associated significantly (P < 0.006) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. In the Europeans, ISI was associated with waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.005) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), while static DI was related to the systolic blood pressure (P = 0.005). Conclusions. MetS was linked with insulin resistance and reduced capacity to handle glucose regardless of ethnicity. ISI and DIs were associated with lipid traits in South Asians and with blood pressure in Europeans suggesting that insulin resistance enhances different metabolic syndrome traits among different ethnicities. PMID:27597980

  14. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  15. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  16. Anti-aging cosmetics: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Celem, Livia Ribeiro; Ramos-e-Silva, Stella; Fucci-da-Costa, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    The authors review ageing in its extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, as well as the therapies available for improving its effects, and present some of the facts and controversies related to anti-aging cosmetics.

  17. Antidote to Controversy? Responses to Carolyn Henly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Mary Ella; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides four practicing teachers' written responses to Carolyn Henly's article entitled "Reader Response Theory as Antidote to Controversy: Teaching "The Bluest Eye," which appears in the same issue. (HB)

  18. Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 300 000 new cases of Lyme disease occur each year in the United States and that 10% to 20% of these patients will remain symptomatic despite receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. Many elements of the disease are poorly understood and have generated considerable controversy. This paper discusses the medical controversies related to posttreatment manifestations and their potential impact on infusion nurses. PMID:27755213

  19. Early Controversies over Athetosis: I. Clinical Features, Differentiation from other Movement Disorders, Associated Conditions, and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lanska, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the description of athetosis in 1871 by American neurologist William Alexander Hammond (1828–1900) the disorder has been a source of controversy, as were many aspects of Hammond’s career. Methods Primary sources have been used to review controversies in the 50-year period since the initial description of athetosis, in particular those concerning clinical features, differentiation from other movement disorders, associated conditions, and pathology. Controversies concerning treatment will be addressed in a subsequent article. Results Hammond struggled to establish athetosis as a distinct clinical–pathological entity, and had successfully predicted the striatal pathology in his initial case (albeit somewhat serendipitously). Athetosis was, nevertheless, considered by many neurologists to be a form of post-hemiplegic chorea or part of a continuum between chorea and dystonia. European neurologists, and particularly the French, initially ignored or discounted the concept. Additional controversies arose over whether the movements persisted during sleep, whether athetosis was, or could be, associated with imbecility or insanity, and how it should be treated. Discussion Some controversies concerning athetosis served to identify areas where knowledge was insufficient to make accurate statements, despite prior self-assured or even dogmatic statements to the contrary. Other controversies illustrated established prejudices, even if these biases were often only apparent with the greater detachment of hindsight. PMID:23450262

  20. Another Look at Controversial Issues and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Controversial issues should be taught in school. Charles Bailey's and R.F. Dearden's opinions of what makes an issue controversial are critiqued. Bailey accounts for controversial issues in behavioral terms; Dearden advances an epistemic account. (RM)

  1. Contrasting Controversies: Fracking and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Zabel, I. H. H.; Ross, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (commonly known as "fracking") is highly controversial. So is global warming, and the two issues are closely related, but the natures of these two controversies have substantial and important differences. Building upon years of experience in teaching and developing resources and strategies for teaching about evolution and climate change, staff at the Paleontological Research Institution have engaged in public outreach and educator professional development to help nurture understanding of fracking and the broader energy system. How are these controversies similar to and different from one another, and how should understanding these similarities and differences inform educational programming (and about how you talk about these issues with your Uncle Fred at the family holiday dinner?). It is nearly universally agreed amongst scientists who study climate that changes now underway are real and human caused, and are posing or likely to pose very serious problems for humanity. Scientists who study slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing agree that it causes environmental damage, but there is no consensus as to whether fracking causes more or less harm (e.g., among different kinds of environment harm, across different temporal and spatial scales, and among different social contexts) than other ways of producing energy on a large scale. In other words, the basic tenets of climate change are not a matter of scientific controversy, though the implications for policy making obviously remain politically controversial, while fracking is an issue of both scientific and political controversy. Without advocating for or against fracking, we help audiences disentangle scientific and political issues, better understand the energy resources used in their own communities, and consider issues of scale, systems, and complexity. We will compare and contrast the overlapping controversies surrounding climate change and fracking and highlight

  2. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  3. The controversy of cranial bone motion.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L

    1997-08-01

    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment.

  4. Calling controversy: assessing synthetic biology's conflict potential.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Helge; Hampel, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Will synthetic biology elicit controversies similar to those of genetically modified crops before? Maybe, but where exactly are the analogies, and how can we gain substantial insights rather than mere guesses? We argue that as well as the intrinsic properties of the technologies at stake, the context of their implementation is decisive. To assess mechanisms of past and potential controversies, an investigative tool is presented. The Gate Resonance model, derived from older models of societal conflict, allows the identification of key elements of conflict generating processes. In monitoring the developing debate on synthetic biology using this model, analogies to the case of genetically modified crops appear less convincing. So far, there are only few indications that a controversy is imminent.

  5. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  6. Endoscope Reprocessing: Update on Controversial Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing. PMID:26473115

  7. Sensitivity of advective transfer times across the North Atlantic Ocean to the temporal and spatial resolution of model velocity data: Implication for European eel larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Bruno; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Grima, Nicolas; Drillet, Yann

    2012-05-01

    European eel (Anguilla anguilla) larvae achieve one of the longest larval migrations of the marine realm, i.e., more than 6000 km from their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea to European continental shelves. The duration of this migration remains debated, between 7 months and 3 years. This information is, however, crucial since it determines the period over which larvae are affected by environmental conditions and hence the subsequent recruitment success. We investigate the pathways and duration of trans-Atlantic connections using 3 years of high-resolution (daily, 1/12°) velocity fields available from a Mercator-Océan model configuration without data assimilation. We study specifically the effect of spatial and temporal resolutions on our estimates by applying various filters in time (from daily to 12-day averages) and space (from 1/12° to 1° gridcell aggregation) to the nominal model outputs. Numerical particles are released in the presumed European eel spawning area and considered as passive tracers at three specific depths (around 0, 50, and 200 m). We diagnose particularly the intensity of the water transfer between suitable control sections that encompass the eel larva distribution. Transit ages are also investigated, with a particular focus on the pathways that minimize the connection times between the western and eastern North Atlantic. We show that small-scale structures (eddies and filaments) contribute to faster connections though they also correspond to additional complexity in trajectories. The shortest pathways mostly follow the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift, whereas interior connections require longer transfers that prove less compatible with biological observations.

  8. Evolution as a Controversial Issue: A Review of Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    Although evolution has long been considered a controversial issue, little effort has been made to ensure that instructional approaches address the controversial nature of the issue. A framework for understanding the nature of controversy and some defining characteristics of controversial issues are provided. In light of this framework evolution is…

  9. Controversial Novels and Censorship in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, John Stuart

    The legal history of censorship in general in the United States as well as the legal context in particular of the censorship of novels from schools is discussed. This thesis deals with four novels which have aroused substantial controversy when taught in the schools. The novels are: "The Catcher in the Rye," by J. D. Salinger, "The Adventures of…

  10. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  11. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  12. Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-04-15

    This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

  13. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  14. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  15. Controversies in Pediatric Sports Medicine (Commentary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Paul G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses controversial issues that have arisen in children's sports, including infant exercise programs, trampolines, amenorrhea in the adolescent athlete, coed contact sports, and sport participation by children with Down Syndrome. Policy statements are included from the American Academy of Pediatrics. (JD)

  16. Controversial Art in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Bobby

    This document examines the events surrounding a controversial art exhibit that was held at Santa Fe Community College (SFCC), Gainesville, Florida, in 2002. The author asks the following questions: (1) What is the role of the arts on a community college campus? (2) What are a community college arts program's responsibilities to the Fine Arts and…

  17. Bones of Contention: Teaching Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Dealing with contentious issues is a part of living in a democracy. Controversies in the classroom range from discussions of fairness regarding playground rules to the rules of "just war." Understanding that there are multiple and often competing viewpoints is a prerequisite to being an informed and effective citizen. Teaching students to define…

  18. Parental Voices and Controversies in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism have played a prominent role in controversies surrounding this condition. Parental voices were critical in challenging the "refrigerator mother" theory and more recently have attracted public attention for claims that autism may be caused by childhood vaccinations and that "unorthodox biomedical" treatments may…

  19. Teaching Controversial Issues in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith M.; Hoffman, Alan J.

    The design of a methods course offered at Georgia State University to prepare social studies teachers for dealing with controversial issues in the middle school or secondary social studies classroom is presented. The course focuses on identification, selection, an analysis of an issue as well as the requirement that the student develop some method…

  20. A Constructive Controversy Approach to "Case Studies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Sharon R.; Erickson, Karla A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of student responses to a case study titled "Drinks and Dinner," the authors evaluate the pedagogical potential of using constructive controversy case studies to teach about inequality. "Drinks and Dinner" is designed to capture the complexity of social interactions that defy simple solutions to engage students in…

  1. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  2. Controversial Therapies: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    The article offers guidelines to educators evaluating controversial therapies and applies them to four such therapies: tinted lenses as a cure for dyslexia; orthomolecular treatments for learning disabilities; pharmaceutical intervention for dyslexia; and visual training for children with learning disabilities. (DB)

  3. 30 CFR 282.7 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 282.7 Section 282.7 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR General §...

  4. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER...

  5. 30 CFR 281.9 - Jurisdictional controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdictional controversies. 281.9 Section 281.9 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.9...

  6. Science, Politics, and the IQ Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyderman, Mark; Rothman, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The controversy over intelligence testing is more often influenced by political considerations than empirical research. A survey of 1,020 experts found that a majority agree that (1) intelligence can be defined; (2) heredity plays a role in individual and group IQ differences; and (3) intelligence testing in schools should continue at its present…

  7. Lower bone turnover and relative bone deficits in men with metabolic syndrome: a matter of insulin sensitivity? The European Male Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Laurent, M R; Cook, M J; Gielen, E; Ward, K A; Antonio, L; Adams, J E; Decallonne, B; Bartfai, G; Casanueva, F F; Forti, G; Giwercman, A; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Lee, D M; Pendleton, N; Punab, M; Claessens, F; Wu, F C W; Vanderschueren, D; Pye, S R; O'Neill, T W

    2016-11-01

    We examined cross-sectional associations of metabolic syndrome and its components with male bone turnover, density and structure. Greater bone mass in men with metabolic syndrome was related to their greater body mass, whereas hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia or impaired insulin sensitivity were associated with lower bone turnover and relative bone mass deficits.

  8. Erythropoietin in bone - Controversies and consensus.

    PubMed

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Neumann, Drorit; Gabet, Yankel

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the main hormone that regulates the production of red blood cells (hematopoiesis), by stimulating their progenitors. Beyond this vital function, several emerging roles have been noted for Epo in other tissues, including neurons, heart and retina. The skeletal system is also affected by Epo, however, its actions on bone are, as yet, controversial. Here, we review the seemingly contradicting evidence regarding Epo effects on bone remodeling. We also discuss the evidence pointing to a direct versus indirect effect of Epo on the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages. The current controversy may derive from a context-dependent mode of action of Epo, namely opposite skeletal actions during bone regeneration and steady-state bone remodeling. Differences in conclusions from the published in-vitro studies may thus relate to the different experimental conditions. Taken together, these studies indicate a complexity of Epo functions in bone cells.

  9. Vitamin a: history, current uses, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M Shane

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin A is required for the proper functioning of many important metabolic and physiologic activities, including vision, gene transcription, the immune system and skin cell differentiation. Both excessive and deficient levels of vitamin A lead to poor functioning of many human systems. The biologically active form, retinoic acid, binds to nuclear receptors that facilitate transcription that ultimately leads to it's physiological effects. Retinoids are derivatives of vitamin A that are medications used to treat acne vulgaris, psoriasis, ichthyosis (and other disorders of keratinization), skin cancer prevention as well as several bone marrow derived neoplasias. Systemic retinoids are teratogenic and have to be prescribed with caution and close oversight. Other potential adverse events are controversial. These include the relationship of retinoid derivatives in sunscreens, their effects on bone mineral density, depression and suicidal ideation and inflammatory bowel disease. These controversies will be discussed in detail.

  10. Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam James

    2017-02-03

    In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked. He or others must instead look to establish that the reasons against stance-taking on genuine ethical controversies are more compelling than those for it: plausibly a more challenging task.

  11. All-inside ACL: retroconstruction controversies.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2010-03-01

    All-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is controversial because the technique is new; as a result, evidence-based clinical outcome studies have yet to be published. The purpose of this article is to consider the following controversies (considered alphabetically): anatomy, biomechanics, biology, bioabsorbables, divergence of the femoral interference screw, expansion or widening of tunnels, fixation, future considerations, graft choice, the learning curve, technique, tensioning, and tibia blow-out fracture. The technique should be learned in stages. In the opinion of the author, the history of sports medicine and arthroscopy has been a progression toward less invasive techniques. In the future, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques should become more simple and reproducible, and clinical outcomes must be analyzed with long-term follow-up.

  12. Cancer stem cells: controversies in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Sarah K; Matsui, William

    2009-11-01

    Increasing data suggest that the initiation, relapse, and progression of human cancers are driven by specific cell populations within an individual tumor. However, inconsistencies have emerged in precisely defining phenotypic markers that can reliably identify these "cancer stem cells" in nearly every human malignancy studied to date. Multiple myeloma, one of the first tumors postulated to be driven by a rare population of cancer stem cells, is no exception. Similar to other diseases, controversy surrounds the exact phenotype and biology of multiple myeloma cells with the capacity for clonogenic growth. Here, we review the studies that have led to these controversies and discuss potential reasons for these disparate findings. Moreover, we speculate how these inconsistencies may be resolved through studies by integrating advancements in both myeloma and stem cell biology.

  13. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  14. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  15. Controversies in faith and health care.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care.

  16. PrEP: controversy, agency and ownership

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Gus P; Race, Kane; Goicochea, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been and continues to be an intervention that causes controversy and debate between stakeholders involved in providing or advocating for it, and within communities in need of it. These controversies extend beyond the intrinsically complex issues of making it available. In this commentary, some of the possible roots of the air of dissent and drama that accompanies PrEP are explored. The similarities between the controversies that dogged the earliest human trials of PrEP and the ones we see today in the era of licensing and implementation are explored. We outline five mediating principles or cultural norms that may influence arguments about PrEP differently. Three areas of specific concern are identified: medical risk versus benefit, distrust and fear of healthcare interventions, and fears for individual responsibility and community cohesion. The fear that PrEP may somehow represent a loss of control over one or more of these domains is suggested as an underlying factor. The development of countervailing measures, to institute greater community “ownership” of PrEP, and concomitant improvements in the sense of individual agency over sexual risk are outlined and recommended. PMID:27760689

  17. Common controversies in management of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2017-01-01

    Biliary strictures are caused by a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant conditions, each requiring a specific treatment approach. Management of biliary strictures often involves endoscopy either for definite treatment, as a bridge to surgery or for palliative purposes. Endoscopic treatment of various types of biliary strictures is not standardized and there are multiple areas of controversy regarding the best treatment options. These controversies are mainly due to lack of well-designed comparative studies to support a specific therapy. This paper reviews three common areas of controversy in the endoscopic management of biliary strictures. The areas discussed in this editorial include the role of biliary drainage in resectable malignant strictures and whether such drainage should be performed routinely prior to surgery, the best endoscopic palliation for unresectable hilar strictures and whether unilateral or bilateral stenting should be attempted, and the optimal endoscopic management for dominant strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The goal of this editorial is twofold. The first is to review the current literature on management of the aforementioned strictures and offer recommendations based on available evidence. The second goal is to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which in turn can encourage future research on these topics. PMID:28275292

  18. Classification of skin sensitizing substances: a comparison between approaches used by the DFG-MAK Commission and the European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, H; Uter, W; Diepgen, T L; Drexler, H; Fartasch, M; Greim, H; Hartwig, A; Kreis, P; Löser, E; Merget, R; Merk, H; Nowak, D; Rothe, A; Stropp, G; Schnuch, A

    2011-10-01

    A systematic classification of substances (or mixtures of substances) with regard to various toxicological endpoints is a prerequisite for the implementation of occupational safety strategies. As its principal task the "Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area" of the "Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" (DFG-MAK Commission) derives and recommends maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values (MAK and BAT values) based exclusively on scientific arguments. Several endpoints are evaluated separately in detail, e.g. carcinogenicity, risks during pregnancy, germ cell mutagenicity or contribution to systemic toxicity after cutaneous absorption. Skin- and airway sensitization is also considered; the present paper focuses on these two endpoints.

  19. Cross-platform evaluation of commercial real-time SYBR green RT-PCR kits for sensitive and rapid detection of European bat Lyssavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Schereffer, Jean Luc; Marchal, Clotilde; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of five two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR kits and five one-step SYBR Green qRT-PCR kits using real-time PCR assays. Two real-time thermocyclers showing different throughput capacities were used. The analysed performance evaluation criteria included the generation of standard curve, reaction efficiency, analytical sensitivity, intra- and interassay repeatability as well as the costs and the practicability of kits, and thermocycling times. We found that the optimised one-step PCR assays had a higher detection sensitivity than the optimised two-step assays regardless of the machine used, while no difference was detected in reaction efficiency, R (2) values, and intra- and interreproducibility between the two methods. The limit of detection at the 95% confidence level varied between 15 to 981 copies/µL and 41 to 171 for one-step kits and two-step kits, respectively. Of the ten kits tested, the most efficient kit was the Quantitect SYBR Green qRT-PCR with a limit of detection at 95% of confidence of 20 and 22 copies/µL on the thermocyclers Rotor gene Q MDx and MX3005P, respectively. The study demonstrated the pivotal influence of the thermocycler on PCR performance for the detection of rabies RNA, as well as that of the master mixes.

  20. Early Controversies Over Athetosis: II. Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lanska, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Athetosis has been controversial since it was first described by William Hammond in 1871; many aspects of Hammond’s career were equally controversial. Methods Primary sources have been used to review treatment controversies in the 50-year period following the initial description of athetosis. Results The treatments used most commonly employed available pharmaceutical agents and modalities (e.g., galvanism). Initial anecdotal reports of success were seldom confirmed with subsequent experience. Several novel invasive therapies were also developed and promoted, all of which damaged or destroyed either upper or lower motor neuron pathways, and were also often associated with high mortality rates. In general, these therapies substituted paresis for abnormal spontaneous movements. These included peripheral nerve stretching, excision of a portion of the precentral gyrus, rhizotomy, nerve “transplantation” (i.e., neurotomy and nerve-to-nerve anastomoses), and “muscle group isolation” (i.e., alcohol neurolysis). There was no agreement on the appropriateness of such high-risk procedures, particularly given the intentional generation of further neurological morbidity. Discussion Pharmaceutical agents and modalities initially employed for athetosis had little a priori evidence-based justification and no biologically plausible theoretical framework to guide empiric treatment selection. Subsequently, all the invasive procedures employed were directed at lessening or removing the manifestations, rather than the underlying cause, of the abnormal central nervous system “irritation,” usually by imposing paresis or paralysis. Factors contributing to the disparity in outcomes between favorable initial reports and the often-disappointing results of later studies included reliance on anecdotal reports or small uncontrolled case series, placebo effects, biased observation, misdiagnosis, and biased reporting. PMID:23450199

  1. Controversies in ureteroscopy: Wire, basket, and sheath

    PubMed Central

    Rizkala, Emad R; Monga, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    In the last one to two decades, flexible ureteroscopy has rapidly expanded its role in the treatment of urologic stone disease. With the frequent and expanded use of flexible ureteroscopy, other ancillary instruments were developed in order to ease and facilitate this technique, such as ureteral access sheaths (UAS) and a variety of wires and baskets. These developments, along with improved surgeon ureteroscopic competence, have often brought into question the need to implement the “traditional technique” of flexible ureteroscopy. In this review, we discuss a brief history of flexible ureteroscopy, its expanded indications, and the controversy surrounding the use of UAS, wires, and baskets. PMID:24082447

  2. Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    D’Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  3. Intellectual property and information controversy (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    As advanced information has been proceeded rapidly, intellectual property has become more important than ever as business resources of enterprises. Based on the former report by the author "present status of and trend in intellectual property" this paper describes "information" related intellectual property controversy which have been occurred, that is, 1) affairs related to computer hardwares and softwares (the case of compatible machines and OS, the case of application softwares, computer crimes) and 2) affairs on trade secret (the case of revealing enterprises'secret, the case of industrial espionage). It also discusses how intellectual property should be protected and utilized from now on.

  4. J Wave Syndromes: History and Current Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zheng, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    The concept of J wave syndromes was first proposed in 2004 by Yan et al for a spectrum of electrocardiographic (ECG) manifestations of prominent J waves that are associated with a potential to predispose affected individuals to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Although the concept of J wave syndromes is widely used and accepted, there has been tremendous debate over the definition of J wave, its ionic and cellular basis and arrhythmogenic mechanism. In this review article, we attempted to discuss the history from which the concept of J wave syndromes (JWS) is evolved and current controversies in JWS. PMID:27721848

  5. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  6. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  7. Sensitivity of June Near-Surface Temperatures and Precipitation in the Eastern United States to Historical Land Cover Changes Since European Settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, John E.; Pielke, Roger A.; Steyaert, Louis T.; Knox, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes alter the near surface weather and climate. Changes in land surface properties such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and leaf area index alter the surface energy balance, leading to differences in near surface temperatures. This study utilized a newly developed land cover data set for the eastern United States to examine the influence of historical land cover change on June temperatures and precipitation. The new data set contains representations of the land cover and associated biophysical parameters for 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992, capturing the clearing of the forest and the expansion of agriculture over the eastern United States from 1650 to the early twentieth century and the subsequent forest regrowth. The data set also includes the inferred distribution of potentially water-saturated soils at each time slice for use in the sensitivity tests. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, equipped with the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback (LEAF-2) land surface parameterization, was used to simulate the weather of June 1996 using the 1992, 1920, 1850, and 1650 land cover representations. The results suggest that changes in surface roughness and stomatal resistance have caused present-day maximum and minimum temperatures in the eastern United States to warm by about 0.3 C and 0.4 C, respectively, when compared to values in 1650. In contrast, the maximum temperatures have remained about the same, while the minimums have cooled by about 0.1 C when compared to 1920. Little change in precipitation was found.

  8. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies: Consensus and Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Dauerman, Harold L.; Rao, Sunil V.; Resnic, Frederic S.; Applegate, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity and one year mortality. Bleeding Avoidance Strategies represent a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggests that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacologic (multiple agents) and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this article, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area. PMID:21700085

  9. Bleeding avoidance strategies. Consensus and controversy.

    PubMed

    Dauerman, Harold L; Rao, Sunil V; Resnic, Frederic S; Applegate, Robert J

    2011-06-28

    Bleeding complications after coronary intervention are associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased hospital costs, patient dissatisfaction, morbidity, and 1-year mortality. Bleeding avoidance strategies is a term incorporating multiple modalities that aim to reduce bleeding and vascular complications after cardiovascular catheterization. Recent improvements in the rates of bleeding complications after invasive cardiovascular procedures suggest that the clinical community has successfully embraced specific strategies and improved patient care in this area. There remains controversy regarding the efficacy, safety, and/or practicality of 3 key bleeding avoidance strategies for cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention: procedural (radial artery approach, safezone arteriotomy), pharmacological (multiple agents), and technological (vascular closure devices) approaches to improved access. In this paper, we address areas of consensus with respect to selected modalities in order to define the role of each strategy in current practice. Furthermore, we focus on areas of controversy for selected modalities in order to define key areas warranting cautious clinical approaches and the need for future randomized clinical trials in this area.

  10. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  11. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  12. Breast cancer screening: controversy of impact.

    PubMed

    Berry, Donald A

    2013-08-01

    Few medical issues have been as controversial--or as political, at least in the United States-as the role of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The advantages of finding a cancer early seem obvious. Indeed, randomized trials evaluating screening mammography demonstrate a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but the benefits are less than one would hope. Moreover, the randomized trials are themselves subject to criticism, including that they are irrelevant in the modern era because most were conducted before chemotherapy and hormonal therapy became widely used. In this article I chronicle the evidence and controversies regarding mammographic screening, including attempts to assess the relative contributions of screening and therapy in the substantial decreases in breast cancer mortality that have been observed in many countries over the last 20-25 years. I emphasize the trade-off between harms and benefits depending on the woman's age and other risk factors. I also discuss ways for communicating the associated risks to women who have to decide whether screening (and what screening strategy) is right for them.

  13. Gardnerella vaginalis: characteristics, clinical considerations, and controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance, Gram stain reaction, and genus affiliation of Gardnerella vaginalis have been controversial since Gardner and Dukes described the organism as the cause of "nonspecific vaginitis," a common disease of women which is now called bacterial vaginosis. The organism was named G. vaginalis when taxonomic studies showed that it was unrelated to bacteria in various genera including Haemophilus and Corynebacterium. Electron microscopy and chemical analyses have elucidated the organism's gram-variable reaction. Controversy over the etiology of bacterial vaginosis was largely resolved by (i) studies using improved media and methods for the isolation and identification of bacteria in vaginal fluids and (ii) standardization of criteria for clinical and laboratory diagnosis. Besides G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., Mycoplasma hominis, and certain obligate anaerobes are now acknowledged as participants in bacterial vaginosis. The finding that G. vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., and M. hominis inhabit the rectum indicates a potential source of autoinfection in addition to sexual transmission. Extravaginal infections with G. vaginalis are increasingly recognized, especially when the toxic anticoagulant polyanetholesulfonate is omitted from blood cultures and when urine cultures are incubated anaerobically for 48 h. The finding that mares harbor G. vaginalis suggests that an equine model can be developed for studies of Gardnerella pathogenesis. Images PMID:1498765

  14. Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology.

  15. Sensitivity of June near-surface temperatures and precipitation in the eastern United States to historical land cover changes since European settlement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strack, J.E.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes alter the near surface weather and climate. Changes in land surface properties such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and leaf area index alter the surface energy balance, leading to differences in near surface temperatures. This study utilized a newly developed land cover data set for the eastern United States to examine the influence of historical land cover change on June temperatures and precipitation. The new data set contains representations of the land cover and associated biophysical parameters for 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992, capturing the clearing of the forest and the expansion of agriculture over the eastern United States from 1650 to the early twentieth century and the subsequent forest regrowth. The data set also includes the inferred distribution of potentially water-saturated soils at each time slice for use in the sensitivity tests. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, equipped with the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback (LEAF-2) land surface parameterization, was used to simulate the weather of June 1996 using the 1992, 1920, 1850, and 1650 land cover representations. The results suggest that changes in surface roughness and stomatal resistance have caused present-day maximum and minimum temperatures in the eastern United States to warm by about 0.3??C and 0.4??C, respectively, when compared to values in 1650. In contrast, the maximum temperatures have remained about the same, while the minimums have cooled by about 0.1??C when compared to 1920. Little change in precipitation was found. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. [On controversies around the Oedipus Complex].

    PubMed

    Drwiega, Marek

    2002-01-01

    In the article the author would like to draw the readers' attention to one of the central issues of psychoanalysis, i.e. Oedipus complex. In the development of the psychoanalysis the classical conception of Oedipus complex presented by Freud gave rise to a severe criticism both on the part of some psychoanalysts, especially women such as e.g. Melanie Klein, and on the part of ethnographers such as B. Malinowski. In the paper the author presents the main controversies concerning this interesting discussion. The fact of the matter is that the Oedipus complex is a hotly debated subject, not only from the cultural point of view but also within the psychoanalytical movement.

  17. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  18. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application."

  19. Evolution of the Two Cultures controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniek, Ronald J.

    1981-05-01

    The Two Cultures schism is a persistent problem in our society. For over a century, scientific spokesmen and literary critics, from T. H. Huxley and M. Arnold to C. P. Snow and F. R. Leavis, have been involved in the Two Cultures issue. This article examines the evolution of the controversy between the ''scientific'' and ''humanistic'' elements of Western culture and its relation to educational policies. The division and antagonism between these two cultures appears to have arisen from differences in the human attitudes that they are preceived to engender. ''Scientific'' professionalism has been associated with a progressive optimism and self-assurance that nurture a broad humanitarianism, while the ''literary'' tradition is characterized by restraint, acceptance, and a more selective humanism.

  20. News and controversies regarding essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Boutin, E; Vaugoyeau, M; Eusebio, A; Azulay, J-P; Witjas, T

    2015-05-01

    Essential tremor is the most common movement disorder in adults. It is characterized by a postural and kinetic tremor affecting the arms, but it can also affect other body parts. It evolves gradually and can be responsible for a functional impairment in activities of daily living. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood and effective therapeutic options are limited. There are significant semiological variations between patients, and the term "essential tremor" seems to encompass a wide range of heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. The diagnostic criteria presented in 1998 are now challenged. Furthermore, there is a current debate concerning the etiology of this affection, as to whether essential tremor is a complex degenerative disorder or a functional reversible disorder of neuronal oscillation. In this review, we summarize some aspects of clinical, etiologic and therapeutic news, to better address the questioning on unravelling the clinical presentation and examine the current pathophysiological controversy in this disorder.

  1. [Cancer initiating cell theory: popularity and controversies].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Huang, Qiang; Dong, Jun; Lan, Qing

    2006-06-01

    The cancer stem cell model proposes that most tumors are derived from a single cell that is transformed into a cancer-initiating cell (cancer stem cell). Cancer stem cells have the capacity to proliferate, differentiate, and form tumors in vivo. However, the origin of cancer stem cells remains controversial. Normal stem cells are regarded as an ideal candidate for the origin of cancer stem cells when take similar characters and signaling pathways between them into consideration. In addition,cell fusion is an important physiologic process during development and tissue repair,and is closely related to several fundamental features of tumors,and thus could be involved in the development of cancer stem cells.

  2. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  3. Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnostic Approaches and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Konstantinos; Spanou, Loukia

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. In the last ten years a large number of publications have highlighted the limitations of traditional approaches and the inadequacies of conventional biomarkers to diagnose and monitor renal insufficiency in the acute setting. A great effort was directed not only to the discovery and validation of new biomarkers aimed to detect AKI more accurately but also to standardise the definition of AKI. Despite the advances in both areas, biomarkers have not yet entered into routine clinical practice and the definition of this syndrome has many areas of uncertainty. This review will discuss the controversies in diagnosis and the potential of novel biomarkers to improve the definition of the syndrome. PMID:28167845

  4. Current questions and possible controversies in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, L M; Simon, A K; Baehrecke, E H

    2015-01-01

    Interest in autophagy has exploded over the last decade, with publications highlighting crosstalk with several other cellular processes including secretion, endocytosis, and cell suicide pathways including apoptosis. Autophagy proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes independently of their roles in autophagy, creating complexities in the interpretation of autophagy (Atg) mutant gene data. Interestingly, this self-eating process is a survival mechanism that can also promote cell death, but when and how autophagy may ‘switch’ its function is still under debate. Indeed, there are currently many models of how autophagy actually influences cell death. In this review, we highlight some outstanding questions and possible controversies in the autophagy field. PMID:26682061

  5. Controversies in pharmacotherapy of pain management.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; Walsh, Declan; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan B

    2005-09-01

    Since the establishment of the WHO three-step ladder for management of cancer pain, several controversies have arisen, which are partly due to new drug development, reformulations of older analgesics, and technological advancements. As a result, clinicians need clarification of several questions. Is morphine the opioid of choice for moderate to severe pain in cancer? Should combinations of opioids be used? When should spinal opioids be used to treat pain in cancer? What are the appropriate opioid doses for breakthrough pain? Should selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitors be used? What is the best tactic to treat neuropathic pain, and what first-line adjuvant analgesic should be used? And do bisphosphonates relieve bone pain in cancers other than breast cancer and myeloma? This review addresses these questions.

  6. The Brugada syndrome: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Boussy, Tim; Sarkozy, Andrea; Chierchia, Gian-Battista; Richter, Sergio; Brugada, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    The diagnosis of Brugada syndrome (BS) is based on a combination of clinical (malignant arrhythmias presenting as syncopal or sudden death episodes) and electrocardiographic (pathognomonic ST segment elevation morphology) features. Over the last 15 years, since its introduction as a distinct clinical entity, the BS has been extensively investigated worldwide. In this article an overview of recent developments concerning the genetic background, the diagnostic tools and the therapeutic alternatives will be presented. In the last years, the results of the first medium-term follow-up studies have also been published. Some of these studies present contradictory results, especially concerning the identification of useful sudden death predictors in asymptomatic patients. The review presented here will discuss this prognostic controversy and will offer possible explanations for the different results.

  7. Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept.

  8. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2016-07-12

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  9. Streamlining antibiotic therapy with procalcitonin protocols: consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence supports procalcitonin (PCT) as an accurate surrogate biomarker for likelihood and severity of bacterial infections. In community-acquired pneumonia and other respiratory infections, PCT-guided antibiotic therapy algorithms resulted in reduced antibiotic exposure while maintaining a similar or even better level of safety compared with standard care. Reductions in antibiotic use translate into lower treatment costs, decreased risk of side effects and decreased bacterial multiresistance. This is especially important, as acute respiratory infections represent the most frequent reason for antibiotic prescriptions worldwide. Still, there is some controversy about the benefits of PCT measurement in sepsis patients in the intensive care unit and for nonrespiratory infections. Highly sensitive PCT assays are readily available in many hospitals today, and point-of-care assays with high enough sensitivity for antibiotic guidance are expected to be available soon. Herein, the authors provide an overview of recent studies evaluating PCT in different clinical situations and an outlook of currently enrolling or upcoming interventional trials.

  10. The Spokane flood controversy and the Martian outflow channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    The controversy over Bretz's hypothesis concerning the cataclysmic Spokane flood is discussed. Attention is directed to similarities between the Channeled Scabland of Washington and some Martian land features considered to be catastrophic flood channels. Characteristics of the enormous plexus of proglacial stream channels eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington are described. The controversiality of the suggestion that a catastrophic flood is responsible for the Martian features is considered with respect to the Spokane flood controversy.

  11. Child injury control: trends, themes, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among US children, and an important driver of health status globally. Despite its enormous burden, injury is preventable. Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in the reduction of unintentional injury among US children. However, aggregate trends mask important disparities by age group, region, and injury mechanism. Basic and translation research is needed to develop and test prevention strategies to address these new or recalcitrant problems. Motor vehicle occupant injury has fallen to historic lows, but challenges remain in protecting novice drivers and managing the distraction of new technologies. Injury to pedestrians has also declined, but likely as a result of decreased exposure as fewer children walk. This calls for a broader public health perspective to promote activity while enhancing safety. Deaths due to drowning are common and illustrate the difficulty in measuring and promoting appropriate supervision. Environmental modification and use of protective products may be a more appropriate response. Concussion in sport is another challenging issue: public health laws promote identification and appropriate management of concussed athletes, but less progress has been made on primary prevention of these injuries. Unintentional poisoning is on the rise, attributable to misuse of, and overdose with, prescription opioids. Injury deaths to infants are also increasing. This trend is driven in part by better death investigation that classifies more sleep-related deaths as suffocation events. Finally, we examine a sample of cross-cutting themes and controversies in injury control that might be amenable to empiric evaluation.

  12. IL-1: discoveries, controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dinarello, Charles A

    2010-03-01

    Although there has been a great amount of progress in the 25 years since the first reporting of the cDNA for IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, the history of IL-1 goes back to the early 1940s. In fact, the entire field of inflammatory cytokines, TLR and the innate immune response can be found in the story of IL-1. This Viewpoint follows the steps from the identification of the fever-inducing activities of "soluble factors" produced by endotoxin-stimulated leukocytes through to the discovery of cryopyrin and the caspase-1 inflammasome and on to the clinical benefits of anti-IL-1beta-based therapeutics. It also discusses some of the current controversies regarding the activation of the inflammasome. The future of novel anti-inflammatory agents to combat chronic inflammation is based, in part, on the diseases that are uniquely responsive to anti-IL-1beta, which is surely a reason to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the cloning of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta.

  13. Discoveries and controversies in cutaneous mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Tadini, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    Genetic mosaicism is thought to be a common phenomenon in inherited skin disorders. It is the leading molecular mechanism explaining cutaneous hamartomas and nevoid disorders, skin manifestations of most X-linked genodermatoses and specific forms of clinical variability and topographic distribution in autosomal skin disorders. The developmental (in utero) origin and timing dependence are two major attributes for the current definition of cutaneous mosaicism. Chromosomal mosaicism, lyonization in X-linked genodermatoses, and various types of mosaicism (i.e. type 1, type 2 and revertant mosaicism) in autosomal skin disorders are mechanisms well defined at the molecular level. All these concepts have been fully included in the current medical terminology in dermatology and genetics. Mitotic crossing-over, paradominant inheritance, monoallelic expression of autosomal traits and mosaicism in acquired skin disorders remain without a formal molecular proof and still represent sources of debate in the scientific community. This review summarizes current concepts, discoveries and controversies in the field of cutaneous mosaicism for practitioners and clinical researchers to enhance their understanding of such a underestimated clinical phenomenon and its biological basis.

  14. [Giant viruses: update, enigmas, controversies and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2016-12-01

    Unlike microbes known in his time, the first virus (that of tobacco mosaic disease) was discovered by Ivanoski in 1892 because it was not retained by Chamberland's porcelain candles. For more than a century afterward, viruses were equated with this simple property that is still extensively used today (using modern 0,2 µm pore filters) as a practical criterion to delineate the "viral fraction" from other microbes in medical or environmental samples. The first documented exception to the simplistic criterion of particle size came with the discovery of Mimivirus, the viral nature of which was eventually recognized in 2003, following ten years during which it was mistaken for an obligate intracellular bacterium. Thirteen more years later, we now realize that non-filtering "giant viruses" are not rare, probably ubiquitous, and come in a large variety of virion shapes, genome sizes, gene contents, and replication strategies. Following a quick description of the 4 giant virus families known today, we discuss the enigmas, controversies and perspectives of conceptual revolutions that are brought about by this new and booming area of virology.

  15. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  16. The catatonia conundrum: controversies and contradictions.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Parakh, Preeti; Sridhar, M

    2014-02-01

    Although catatonia is known to psychiatrists for more than a century, it is still poorly understood, often under recognized, have inspired debate and criticism about nosological status of the catatonic syndrome in recent times without reaching its conclusion. It can present with a number of psychiatric and medical illnesses and is easily treatable, though treatment response varies depending upon the underlying condition and can lead on to a multitude of complications, if not treated. Some issues are more than forty catatonic signs are available to scientific audience for diagnosis; threshold number for labelling varies according to the nosological system followed and the underlying condition; and mood stabilizers like carbamazepine and lithium are helpful in some cases of idiopathic periodic catatonia. Researchers have been asking for a separate diagnostic category for catatonia since long and the debate has gained pace over the last few years, with new editions of both DSM and ICD coming up. Therefore, this paper looks at the controversies associated with the diagnosis and classification of catatonia, the arguments and counter-arguments and future directions, in crisp.

  17. Controversies in proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Curtis; Henderson, Randal H; Hoppe, Bradford S; Mendenhall, William M; Nichols, R Charles; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2016-08-01

    Proton therapy (PT) for prostate cancer has been a subject of controversy over the past two decades. Because of its dosimetric advantages when compared to conventional radiation, PT has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of prostate cancer by decreasing toxicity and improving disease control. Nevertheless, its higher costs and the current lack of level I evidence documenting improved clinical outcomes have led some to question its cost-effectiveness. A number of new PT centers have been built over the past decade, leading many stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and insurers, to demand comparative effectiveness data to support its current use. In this review, we summarize the results of recently published studies that support the safety and efficacy of PT in the treatment of prostate cancer. We also review the available cost-effectiveness data for PT and discuss the future of PT, including the current randomized trial comparing PT to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and the need for additional research that may help to establish the relative benefit of PT when compared to photon-based radiation therapy.

  18. Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.

    PubMed

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

    2014-01-01

    Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage.

  19. Aortic arch dissection: a controversy of classification.

    PubMed

    Lempel, Jason K; Frazier, Aletta Ann; Jeudy, Jean; Kligerman, Seth J; Schultz, Randall; Ninalowo, Hammed A; Gozansky, Elliott K; Griffith, Bartley; White, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Aortic dissections originating in the ascending aorta and descending aorta have been classified as type A and type B dissections, respectively. However, dissections with intimal flap extension into the aortic arch between the innominate and left subclavian arteries are not accounted for adequately in the widely used Stanford classification. This gap has been the subject of controversy in the medical and surgical literature, and there is a tendency among many radiologists to categorize such arch dissections as type A lesions, thus making them an indication for surgery. However, the radiologic perspective is not supported by either standard dissection classification or current clinical management. In this special report, the origin of dissection classification and its evolution into current radiologic interpretation and surgical practice are reviewed. The cause for the widespread misconception about classification and treatment algorithms is identified. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained as part of this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study to assess all aortic dissection studies performed at the University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore between 2010 and 2012 to determine the prevalence of arch dissections. Finally, a unified classification system that reconciles imaging interpretation and management implementation is proposed.

  20. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  1. Lyme disease: diagnostic issues and controversies.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme disease is a controversial topic. Most practitioners and scientists recognize that Lyme disease is associated with certain objective clinical manifestations supported by laboratory evidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the etiologic agent). There are others, however, who believe that patients with Lyme disease may have a wide variety of entirely nonspecific symptoms without any objective clinical manifestation and that laboratory evidence of infection by B. burgdorferi is not required to support the diagnosis. In reality, this perspective is not evidence based and would inevitably lead to innumerable misdiagnoses, given the high frequency of medically unexplained symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pains, in the general population. Although those espousing this viewpoint do not believe that a positive laboratory test is required, nevertheless, they often seek out and promote alternative, unapproved testing methods that frequently provide false-positive results to justify their diagnosis. Herein, we provide a brief overview of Lyme disease testing, emphasizing current usage and limitations. We also discuss the use of nonvalidated procedures and the prospects for a reduction in such testing practices in the future.

  2. Controversies in the management of pancreatic IPMN.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas, some issues still remain to be resolved. Uncertainty exists regarding the classification of IPMNs. The necessity of the mixed-type category of IPMN and whether such lesions should be defined radiographically or histologically needs to be determined. The preoperative distinction of branch duct IPMNs from nonmucinous cysts should be further investigated so that potentially malignant lesions can be identified and management strategies guided effectively. The role and safety of cystic fluid analysis remains to be clarified in this context. With regard to the diagnosis of malignancy in branch duct IPMNs, criteria for identifying malignancy need to be re-evaluated. The presence of mural nodules is a very reliable predictor; however, controversy exists over the value of size as a reliable indicator. Criteria with increased specificity are needed, perhaps including histological subtype of lesion, to reduce the false-positive rate of the present criteria. Finally, the best modality and interval for surveillance of branch duct IPMNs requires determination because of its significance in terms of malignant transformation, development of distinct ductal adenocarcinoma and disease recurrence after resection.

  3. Polyp Resection - Controversial Practices and Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    von Renteln, Daniel; Pohl, Heiko

    2017-03-09

    Detection and complete removal of precancerous neoplastic polyps are central to effective colorectal cancer screening. The prevalence of neoplastic polyps in the screening population in the United States is likely >50%. However, most persons with neoplastic polyps are never destined to develop cancer, and do not benefit for finding and removing polyps, and may only be harmed by the procedure. Further 70-80% of polyps are diminutive (≤5 mm) and such polyps almost never contain cancer. Given the questionable benefit, the high-cost and the potential risk changing our approach to the management of diminutive polyps is currently debated. Deemphasizing diminutive polyps and shifting our efforts to detection and complete removal of larger and higher-risk polyps deserves discussion and study. This article explores three controversies, and emerging concepts related to endoscopic polyp resection. First, we discuss challenges of optical resect-and-discard strategy and possible alternatives. Second, we review recent studies that support the use of cold snare resection for ≥5 mm polyps. Thirdly, we examine current evidence for prophylactic clipping after resection of large polyps.

  4. Microsurgical free flaps: Controversies in maxillofacial reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264

  5. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:24910577

  6. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  7. Codeine in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    PubMed

    Andrzejowski, Paul; Carroll, Will

    2016-06-01

    Codeine is a drug that until recently was widely used in children. It was endorsed by the WHO as the second step on the analgesic ladder for cancer pain and has been used routinely for postoperative and breakthrough pain. Recently, its safety and efficacy have been called into question, following deaths after adenotonsillectomy was associated with its use. This has led to regulation by the US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency to place significant restrictions on its use, and some centres have stopped using it altogether.In this article, we discuss the developmental pharmacology underpinning its action, reviewing what is known about the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenetics in children, how this relates to prescribing, as well as the practical issues and the recent regulatory framework surrounding its use.

  8. Controversies in Treatment of Acetabular Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Krupic, Ferid; Biscevic, Mirza; Grubor, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acetabular fractures treatment represents a great controversy, challenge and dilemma for an orthopedic surgeon. Aim: The aim of the paper was to present the results of treatment of 96 acetabular fractures in the Clinic of Traumatology Banja Luka, in the period from 2003 to 2013, as well as to raise awareness regarding the controversy in the methods of choice in treating acetabulum fractures. Material and methods: The series consists of 96 patients, 82 males and 14 females, average age 40.5 years. Traffic trauma was the cause of fractures in 79 patients (85%), and in 17 patients (15%) fractures occurred due to falls from height. Polytrauma was present in 31 patients (32%). According to the classification of Judet and Letournel, representation of acetabular fractures was as follows: posterior wall in 32 patients, posterior column in 28, anterior wall in 4, anterior column in 2, transverse fractures in 8, posterior wall and posterior column in 10, anterior and posterior wall in 6, both- column in 4 and transversal fracture and posterior wall in 2 patients. 14 patients were treated with traction, that is, 6 patients with femoral traction and 8 patients with both lateral and femoral traction. 82 patients (86.4%) were surgically treated. Kocher-Langenbeck approach was applied in the treatment of 78 patients. In two patients from the Kocher-Langenbeck’s approach, the Ollier’s approach had to be applied as well. Two acetabular were primarily treated with Ollier’s approach. Extended Smith- Peterson’s approach was applied 4 times, and Emile Letournel’s (ilioinguinal) approach 14 times. Results: Functional outcome (after follow-up of 18 months), according to the Harris hip score of surgical treatment in 82 patients, was as follows: good 46 (56%), satisfactory 32 (39%) and poor 4 (5%). Results of acetabulum fractures treated with traction were: good 8 (57%), satisfactory 4 (28%) and poor 2 (15%). According to the Brook’s classification of heterotopic

  9. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  10. Psychological controversies in gastroparesis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Sally; Hebbard, Geoff; Knowles, Simon R

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systematically review literature addressing three key psychologically-oriented controversies associated with gastroparesis. METHODS A comprehensive search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases was performed to identify literature addressing the relationship between gastroparesis and psychological factors. Two researchers independently screened all references. Inclusion criteria were: an adult sample of gastroparesis patients, a quantitative methodology, and at least one of the following: (1) evaluation of the prevalence of psychopathology; (2) an outcome measure of anxiety, depression, or quality of life; and (3) evidence of a psychological intervention. Case studies, review articles, and publications in languages other than English were excluded from the current review. RESULTS Prevalence of psychopathology was evaluated by three studies (n = 378), which found that combined anxiety/depression was present in 24% of the gastroparesis cohort, severe anxiety in 12.4%, depression in 21.8%-23%, and somatization in 50%. Level of anxiety and depression was included as an outcome measure in six studies (n = 1408), and while limited research made it difficult to determine the level of anxiety and depression in the cohort, a clear positive relationship with gastroparesis symptom severity was evident. Quality of life was included as an outcome measure in 11 studies (n = 2076), with gastroparesis patients reporting lower quality of life than population norms, and a negative relationship between quality of life and symptom severity. One study assessed the use of a psychological intervention for gastroparesis patients (n = 120) and found that depression and gastric function were improved in patients who received psychological intervention, however the study had considerable methodological limitations. CONCLUSION Gastroparesis is associated with significant psychological distress and poor quality of life. Recommendations for future studies and the development of

  11. Carotid endarterectomy: current consensus and controversies.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hermus, Linda; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-10-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality, and carotid artery stenosis causes 8% to 29% of all ischemic strokes. Best medical treatment forms the basis of carotid stenosis treatment, and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has an additional beneficial effect in high-grade stenosis. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has challenged CEA as a primary carotid intervention. At present, CEA remains the gold standard, but in the future, CAS techniques will evolve and might become beneficial for subgroups of patients with carotid stenosis. This chapter briefly describes the history of carotid interventions and current consensus and controversies in CEA. In the last two years, several meta-analyses were published on a variety of aspects of best medical treatment, CEA, and CAS. It is still a matter of debate as to whether asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis should undergo a carotid intervention. Especially because medical treatment has dramatically evolved since the early carotid trials. On the other hand, it is clear that carotid interventions in symptomatic patients with a high-grade stenosis should be performed as early as possible after the initial neurological event in order to achieve optimal stroke risk reduction. In CEA, the use of patching is advocated above primary closure, while the role of selective patching is still unclear. No differences in stroke and mortality rates are observed for routine versus selective shunting, for conventional versus eversion CEA, or for local versus general anesthesia. It is anticipated that in the future, there will be several interesting developments in carotid interventions such as plaque morphology analysis, acute interventions during stroke in progress, and further evolvement of CAS techniques.

  12. Controversy erupts in Brazil over penis nicknames.

    PubMed

    1995-10-09

    Commissioned by the Brazilian health ministry to conduct a publicity campaign designed to encourage the use of condoms, the Master Communication and Marketing company conducted a survey in which it collected dozens of nicknames for the penis. The television component of the campaign involves an actor who holds a heart-to-heart conversation with his penis, recommending that it use condoms and showing it, with a candle, how to do so. "Braulio" was chosen as the name for the penis. Braulio, however, is a common men's name in Brazil. Shortly after the launch of the campaign, men named Braulio staged numerous protests against the use of their name. The Health Minister subsequently suspended the campaign on September 23, 1995, to allow selection of an alternate name for the penis. The campaign has resumed, this time using eight impersonal expressions such as "partner" and "him" to identify the penis, and is planned to run for three months despite the controversy. A journalist formerly named Braulio has officially changed his name to avoid being mocked, a lawyer in Sao Paulo named Braulio will continue to head a suit against the government filed by a group of Braulios alleging moral damage, and the Catholic Church criticizes the bluntness of the campaign, which mentions oral and anal sex on the radio. Nonetheless, a health ministry poll of almost 1000 people found that 80% supported the campaign. The coordinator of the Program of Sexually Transmitted Diseases insists that the blunt language is necessary to reach the lower-income, less-educated masculine population. Official figures indicate that 80% of the slightly more than 71,000 registered AIDS cases in Brazil are among men aged 19-35 years, and it is among men aged 20-40 years that HIV is spreading most rapidly. The health ministry has been bombarded with alternate nicknames for the penis since the initial uproar, enough to fill a book. The article points out that the nicknames vary according to region.

  13. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  14. The Gaia Controversy: AGU'S Chapman Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Eric G.

    The controversial Gaia Hypothesis of James Lovelock of Coombe Mill, Launceston, Cornwall, U.K., and his colleagues variously contends that throughout Earth history the global biosphere has influenced, even controlled, the physicochemical evolution of Earth's environments (especially oceans and climate) for its own benefit. Since the origin of life, the biosphere has influenced selective pressures on evolution, maintained the Earth in a kind of homeostasis, and thus created an environmental optimum through time, regulated by and for the biosphere. Rarely has a hypothesis immediately sparked such passionate response. There is something in it for everybody, from hard core scientists to philosophers, ultraconservationists, students of world religions, mystics, politicians, and space enthusiasts; they were all there in San Diego, March 7-11, 1988, for the AGU Chapman Conference on Gaia Hypotheses. For 4 days an impressive list of specialists presented and debated the pros and cons of Gaia Hypotheses from diverse perspectives: modern and ancient biology, ecology, biochemistry, the physicochemical systems of the Earth, oceans, and atmosphere, and the evolution of the solar system. Focus was on modern to Pleistocene atmosphere-ocean-Earth systems, case histories of their interaction with the biosphere, and relatively simple models drawn from these observations and projected back through time. Equivalent studies on the geological and paleobiological history of the Earth-life system over the past 3.5 b.y. were underrepresented. Extended debates that followed generally strong presentations were lively, argumentative, and remarkably civil despite widely held views. The grace with which Jim Lovelock moved between his strongest critics and supporters set high standards for the debates. Everybody acknowledged a high learning curve.

  15. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons.

  16. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  17. The Procedurally Directive Approach to Teaching Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Maughn Rollins

    2014-01-01

    Recent articles on teaching controversial topics in schools have employed Michael Hand's distinction between "directive teaching," in which teachers attempt to persuade students of correct positions on topics that are not rationally controversial, and "nondirective teaching," in which teachers avoid persuading students on…

  18. The Rasch Rating Model and the Disordered Threshold Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond J.; Wu, Margaret L.; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Rasch rating (or partial credit) model is a widely applied item response model that is used to model ordinal observed variables that are assumed to collectively reflect a common latent variable. In the application of the model there is considerable controversy surrounding the assessment of fit. This controversy is most notable when the set of…

  19. Main Field Test Report. Discussing Controversial Issues. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.; And Others

    Discussing Controversial Issues (DCI) is a skill training program designed for high school students and teachers with an overall objective of developing student and teacher skill in discussing controversial issues effectively. The course materials identify 13 moderator techniques which teachers practice, and 13 participant techniques which…

  20. Improving Learning by Discussing Controversies in 20th Century Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Rodriguez, Maria A.

    2002-01-01

    Textbooks rarely emphasize how controversial some physics theories were at the time of their proposal. Makes the case that useful classroom debate can be generated by considering the controversy that arose over models of the atom such as Rutherford's and Bohr's, and ideas about fractional charges put forward by Millikan and arising from quark…

  1. Structured Academic Controversies in the Professional Physical Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Lynnette Young; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured academic controversy is a cooperative learning strategy that can promote learning in theoretical physical education classes at the college level. This article explains how to conduct structured academic controversy, providing examples of topics (e.g., adapted physical education, biomechanics, motor development, and sport psychology).…

  2. Culture Shock: Using Art and Art Controversy To Teach History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Endorses the television series entitled "Culture Shock" that views controversial art as an artifact suggesting that the arts, and controversies surrounding them, can help viewers think critically about the issues of past and present societies. Focuses on "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," the painting "Olympia,"…

  3. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  4. Implants and Ethnocide: Learning from the Cochlear Implant Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the fictional case of the "Babel fish" to explore and illustrate the issues involved in the controversy about the use of cochlear implants in prelinguistically deaf children. Analysis of this controversy suggests that the development of genetic tests for deafness poses a serious threat to the continued flourishing of Deaf…

  5. Preparing Students for Science in the Face of Social Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramschreiber, Terry; Westmoreland, David

    2015-01-01

    Science educators often teach topics that are largely resolved in the scientific community yet remain controversial in broader society. In such cases, students may perceive the teacher as biased. We present two exercises that foster more objective learning about the scientific underpinnings of socially controversial topics. The first exercise…

  6. What's Wrong with the "Teach the Controversy" Slogan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are often exhorted by creationists to "teach the controversy." Although such encouragement sounds on the surface like a proposal for critical thinking instruction, the history of the creationist movement in North America belies this claim. Rather than teach students to analyze and evaluate actual scientific controversies, the intent of…

  7. Teachers' Perspectives on Incorporating Current Controversial Issues into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth; Sunal, Cynthia; Haas, Mary; Laughlin, Margaret

    Does a current controversial issue become part of the social studies curriculum in a context where the media focus largely on the issue? A study explored this question through surveys and in-depth interviews that investigated K-12 social studies teachers' perspectives on the incorporation of current controversial issues into the curriculum. A…

  8. Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution Controversy in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenta, Tony; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's Theory of Evolution has stirred controversy since its inception. Public schools in the United States, pressed by special interest groups on both sides of the controversy, have struggled with how best to teach the theory, if at all. Court cases have dealt with whether states can ban the teaching of evolutionary theory, whether Creationism…

  9. Visualizing Social Justice: Using Controversial Images in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Todd S.; Crowe, Alicia R.; Mooney, Evan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we promote the use of controversial images to enhance the discussion of social justice issues in schools. Controversial images provide rich opportunities for students to question what is occurring currently in society as well as what has occurred in the past. We provide an example set of activities to be used in teacher education…

  10. Controversial Higher-Education Reforms Spark Riots in Athens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the Greek Parliament's controversial education bill passed recently that sparked riots and unrest in Athens. The government's controversial education package includes measures that would limit the number of years students can take to complete a university degree and would curtail university asylum laws. A separate proposal…

  11. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    PubMed

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  12. KNOW NUKES: a model for teaching controversial issues

    SciTech Connect

    Thomashow, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation articulates elements of an educational strategy derived from the experience of the KNOW NUKES program, a teacher training project designed to introduce the nuclear power controversy in the high school classroom. This strategy can be used as means of furthering the effectiveness of controversial issues education, not only in the area of nuclear power, but in teaching about any environmental issue. This is specifically achieved by (2) placing the KNOW NUKES institute in the broader context of controversial issues education; (2) describing in detail KNOW NUKES project planning; (3) reviewing the structure and content of the various teaching techniques and materials that have been developed for the KNOW NUKES institute; (4) utilizing a particular technique developed by the institute that reveals varying perspectives on controversial issues, in this case, an instrumental for decoding the controversial issues that are explicit and implicit in corporate image advertisements; and (5) qualitatively evaluating the practical implementation of the KNOW NUKES model.

  13. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital “move beyond impartiality.” I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter. PMID:26336325

  14. DNA from herbarium specimens settle a long-held controversy about origins of the European potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) are native to two areas in South America: the high Andes from Venezuela to Argentina, and the lowlands of south-Central Chile. Potato first appeared in Europe in 1567, and rapidly diffused worldwide. Two competing hypotheses have suggested the origin ...

  15. DNA from herbarium specimens settles a controversy about origins of the European potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace cultivars of potato, Solanum tuberosum, are widely distributed in the mid to high elevations of the Andes from Venezuela south to northern Argentina, and then with a break in distribution in the lowlands of central Chile in Chiloé Island and the Chonos Archipelago immediately to the south. ...

  16. Epstein–Barr virus in the multiple sclerosis brain: a controversial issue—report on a focused workshop held in the Centre for Brain Research of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Niedobitek, Gerald; Aloisi, Francesca; Middeldorp, Jaap M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiological and immunological studies provide evidence for an association between Epstein–Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis, suggesting a role of Epstein–Barr virus infection in disease induction and pathogenesis. A key question in this context is whether Epstein–Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes are present within the central nervous system and the lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies on this topic provided highly controversial results, showing Epstein–Barr virus reactivity in B cells in the vast majority of multiple sclerosis cases and lesions, or only exceptional Epstein–Barr virus-positive B cells in rare cases. In an attempt to explain the reasons for these divergent results, a workshop was organized under the umbrella of the European Union FP6 NeuroproMiSe project, the outcome of which is presented here. This report summarizes the current knowledge of Epstein–Barr virus biology and shows that Epstein–Barr virus infection is highly complex. There are still major controversies, how to unequivocally identify Epstein–Barr virus infection in pathological tissues, particularly in situations other than Epstein–Barr virus-driven lymphomas or acute Epstein–Barr virus infections. It further highlights that unequivocal proof of Epstein–Barr virus infection in multiple sclerosis lesions is still lacking, due to issues related to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection methods. PMID:21846731

  17. Epstein-Barr virus in the multiple sclerosis brain: a controversial issue--report on a focused workshop held in the Centre for Brain Research of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Lassmann, Hans; Niedobitek, Gerald; Aloisi, Francesca; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2011-09-01

    Recent epidemiological and immunological studies provide evidence for an association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis, suggesting a role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in disease induction and pathogenesis. A key question in this context is whether Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes are present within the central nervous system and the lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies on this topic provided highly controversial results, showing Epstein-Barr virus reactivity in B cells in the vast majority of multiple sclerosis cases and lesions, or only exceptional Epstein-Barr virus-positive B cells in rare cases. In an attempt to explain the reasons for these divergent results, a workshop was organized under the umbrella of the European Union FP6 NeuroproMiSe project, the outcome of which is presented here. This report summarizes the current knowledge of Epstein-Barr virus biology and shows that Epstein-Barr virus infection is highly complex. There are still major controversies, how to unequivocally identify Epstein-Barr virus infection in pathological tissues, particularly in situations other than Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomas or acute Epstein-Barr virus infections. It further highlights that unequivocal proof of Epstein-Barr virus infection in multiple sclerosis lesions is still lacking, due to issues related to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection methods.

  18. Telehomecare technology across sectors: claims of jurisdiction and emerging controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dinesen, Birthe; Gustafsson, Jeppe; Nøhr, Christian; KjærAndersen, Stig; Sejersen, Holger; Toft, Egon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore and identify inter-organisational and inter-professional controversies that emerge when telehomecare technology is implemented across healthcare sectors. Theory A combined inter-organisational and inter-professional perspective constitutes the conceptual framework for this study. Methods The case study approach was applied as the overall methodology of the study. A triangulation of data collection techniques was used in order to provide multiple sources of evidence for exploring and identifying controversies (documents, participant observation, qualitative interviews, focus group interviews). Findings During the design and implementation phases of a telehomecare system, several types of controversies emerged as part of the inter-organisational and inter-professional agenda. These controversies involved competing claims of jurisdiction, controversies over knowledge technologies, or differences in network visions and network architecture. Discussion and conclusions The identification of such controversies and differences in the design and implementation process of the concept of home hospitalisation for heart patients by means of telehomecare technology can contribute to the uncovering of new knowledge. These issues should be taken into account when initiating a telehomecare project and implementing telehomecare technology. Technology in a network and across inter-professional relations poses a challenge to this new field. There is a particular need to precisely define the claims of jurisdiction, and the accompanying controversies that can arise related to knowledge technologies, network visions and network architecture. PMID:18043726

  19. The controversial age of Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Hardy, Doug; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Interpreting climate signals contained in natural archives requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon analysis can be a powerful tool for dating high-altitude ice cores, especially for the lowermost segments for which ice flow-induced thinning limits the counting of annual layers. Radiocarbon dating has been applied to ice cores containing sufficient organic material, which is a limiting factor to the wider application of this technique. We present a novel radiocarbon dating approach using carbonaceous aerosols enclosed in the ice to help resolve the debate about the age of the Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers. Paleoclimate reconstructions based on six ice cores drilled in 2000 assigned a basal age of 11'700 years. A recent study claims recurring cycles of waxing and waning controlled primarily by atmospheric moisture and an absence of the ice bodies was suggested for 1200 AD. The Kilimanjaro ice fields are subject to rapid areal shrinkage and thinning and are expected to disappear within several decades. Resolving the controversy of the time frame for the extinction of the Kilimanjaro ice might have wide implications for the understanding of the natural climate variability in the tropics. A stratigraphic sequence of samples from the exposed vertical ice cliffs at the margins of the Northern Ice Field (NIF) was collected in 2011. A total of 45 horizontal short cores (50 cm length) were extracted from 22 horizons characterized by varying micro-particle concentrations. Additionally, 3 samples were taken from the glacier surface to investigate a potential age offset. All samples were shipped frozen to Paul Scherrer Institute, decontaminated in a cold room by removing the outer layer (0.3 mm) and by rinsing the samples with ultra-pure water. The insoluble carbonaceous particles were filtrated by using freshly preheated quartz fibre filters. Procedural blanks were estimated using artificial ice blocks of frozen ultra-pure water treated as real ice samples and were

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Hyperfibrinolysis in Trauma (A European Perspective).

    PubMed

    Gall, Lewis S; Brohi, Karim; Davenport, Ross A

    2017-03-01

    Fibrinolysis activation occurs almost universally after severe trauma. Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is a key component of acute traumatic coagulopathy and associated with poor clinical outcomes, although controversy exists over optimal treatment strategies. The mechanistic drivers and dynamics of fibrinolytic activation in response to injury and trauma resuscitation are currently unclear. Furthermore, therapeutic triggers are compounded by the lack of a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool, with discrepancy between hyperfibrinolysis diagnosed by viscoelastic hemostatic assays versus biomarkers for fibrinolysis. Rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography appear capable of detecting the severest forms of hyperfibrinolysis but are relatively insensitive to moderate, yet clinically significant fibrinolytic activation. Rapid evaluation of the current status of the fibrinolytic system remains a challenge and therefore the decision whether to administer an antifibrinolytic agent should be based on available evidence from clinical trials. In line with current European guidelines, we recommend that all bleeding trauma patients, and in particular, severely injured patients with evidence of hemorrhagic shock, should receive early empiric tranexamic acid. This review explains our current knowledge of the pathophysiological pathways which induce hyperfibrinolysis in trauma hemorrhage, evaluates the available diagnostic modalities, and describes current treatment strategies.

  1. The European Community Study Group on diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome. Sensitivity and specificity of tests for ocular and oral involvement in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, C; Moutsopoulos, H M; Bombardieri, S

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To establish a definitive set of diagnostic criteria in a multicentre European study a selected number of oral and ocular tests were performed on a large number of patients with Sjögrens Syndrome (SS) and controls. The diagnostic accuracy of each test for patients with primary and secondary SS and for controls at different ages, was studied. METHODS--Each centre received a clinical chart describing the series of tests to be conducted. The tests included: questionnaires for dry eye and dry mouth symptoms, Schirmer's-I-test (ScT), tear fluid lactoferrin level (TFLL), break-up time (BUT) and rose Bengal score (RBS) for the eye evaluation; unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva collection (UWSC and SWSC), salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS), parotid sialography (PS) and minor salivary gland biopsy (MSGB) for oral involvement. RESULTS--Data from 22 centres and 11 countries was collected on a total of 447 patients with SS (246 with primary SS and 201 with secondary SS) and 246 controls (of whom 113 had a connective tissue disease without SS). Among the ocular symptoms, the feeling of dry eye and 'sand in the eye' were the ones most commonly recorded in patients with SS. Similarly, the feeling of dry mouth, appearing either spontaneously or when the patient was eating or breathing, was the most frequent subjective oral symptom. Among the ocular tests, ScT showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (76.9% and 72.4% respectively), while RBS was the most specific test (81.7%). ScT and RBS gave also sufficiently concordant results. TFLL and BUT gave considerably less reliable results, which were not concordant with each other or with the other ocular tests. The quantitative lacrimal tests ScT and TFLL produced significantly different results in elderly controls, while RBS did not. Abnormal results for all of the ocular tests were less marked and less frequent in patients with secondary SS than in those with primary SS. The oral tests (except SWSC) were

  2. State of the art: therapeutic controversies in severe acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, M A; Camargo, C A; Rowe, B H; Silverman, R A

    2000-07-01

    This is a transcript of the 1999 SAEM State-of-the-Art session on "Therapeutic Controversies in Severe Acute Asthma," presented at the 1999 SAEM annual meeting in Boston. The aim of this session was to address some of the current controversies in the management of acute asthma exacerbations, a major issue in emergency medicine. Despite many recent advances in asthma management, morbidity and mortality remain high. While many of us have strong feelings on how asthma patients should be treated, many of our assertions are not based on good science, and there are numerous areas of controversy. This discussion focuses on the controversy over beta agonist treatment for acute asthma, the physiology of corticosteroids in asthma, and the emergency use of leukotriene-modifying agents.

  3. Superluminal Neutrinos: The Good Kind of Science Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibella, Michael

    2012-03-01

    After OPERA released results indicating neutrinos were traveling faster than the speed of light, a number of vocal of scientists said that they shouldn't have prematurely engaged in ``science by press release.'' However, controversial claims like this, if handled right, can actually be a boon to science. Getting the public interested in cutting edge physics is notoriously difficult, but the public is always interested in hearing about a controversy. The press conference and following debate becomes a great teaching moment that offers the public a unique opportunity to get an inside and have an in-depth look at how science works. Scientists willing to publicly engage in this kind of civil controversy are important because when other scientific controversies arise, ones with major public policy implications, the public starts out with a better understanding of how science works, and scientists have better practice managing questions from the public.

  4. A Critique of "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and discusses research on the relationship between food additives and hyperactivity, and dietary treatments for learning disabled children. (IM)

  5. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participant who has filed a written direct statement. (2) Bad faith inflation of claim. If the Copyright Royalty Judges determine that a participant asserts in bad faith an amount in controversy in excess of...

  6. Commentary: The Anatomy of Controversy: Freedom and Responsibility for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jack L.

    1979-01-01

    The role of the biology teacher in American schools and colleges is discussed with regard to the social, political, and economic implications of new discoveries in science. Controversial ethical issues related to teaching human genetics are presented. (SA)

  7. Controversy of the year. Biomedical ethics on the front burner.

    PubMed

    2000-12-22

    CONTROVERSY OF THE YEAR: Biomedical Ethics on the Front Burner It was a hot year for debates over research ethics. Controversy erupted in late 1999 after the death of 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger in a gene-therapy clinical trial at the University of Pennsylvania. Because Penn and one of its clinicians had a financial stake in a gene-therapy company, questions about potential conflicts of interest arose at once.

  8. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    PubMed Central

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  9. Science, salmon, and sea lice: constructing practice and place in an environmental controversy.

    PubMed

    Bocking, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades salmon aquaculture has become both a significant coastal industry and a focus of controversy regarding its environmental impacts. Both circumstances have also provoked a great deal of environmental research. This article examines one episode in the history of this research. The Broughton Archipelago is a region of islands and channels on the Pacific coast of Canada, densely populated with salmon farms. Beginning in 2001 this region attracted researchers from several institutions, who examined the ecology of the farms, and particularly the possibility that they release large numbers of parasites (known as sea lice), which then infect wild salmon. This local research community drew on aspects of the regional environment, including its ecological conditions, and opportunities for surveys, field experiments, and ecological modeling, to construct methods that were both situated in this place, yet intended to be persuasive to audiences outside the region. Knowledge of this environment was also influenced by knowledge from elsewhere, including the results of European research on sea lice, and various disciplinary perspectives. Research results were invoked to support opposing views of the impacts of salmon farms, as well as contrasting perspectives on the region's identity. Sea lice themselves, within the context of the ecosystem that gave them meaning, were objectified as the ecological link between salmon farms and the environment, and the basis for research and debate over these farms. This historical episode therefore demonstrates the inseparability of scientific practice, knowledge and place, particularly in the context of controversy.

  10. The emerging European immigration regime: some reflections on implications for southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Baldwin-edwards, M

    1997-12-01

    "Immigration is one of the more controversial areas in the history of European integration. Whilst northern European countries have been constructing elaborate compromises in the European Union (EU) Treaties and in the Schengen group, southern European countries have been trying to construct their own immigration policies. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the relationship between these two phenomena: it is suggested here that southern countries have found it expedient to fit in with EU and Schengen arrangements, even though these appear impossible to implement. This contradiction is seen as intrinsic to the overall relations of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece to the EU."

  11. Science and politics: free speech controversy at lawrence laboratory.

    PubMed

    Boffey, P M

    1970-08-21

    The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, one of the nation's most distinguished scientific institutions, has been struck by a series of "free speech" controversies in recent months. The laboratory, which is operated by the University of California and is almost entirely funded by the Atomic Energy Commission, has facilities in two California locations, Berkeley and Livermore. Each has been under fire for allegedly stifling open discussion of controversial issues. The Berkeley facility, a leading center for the study of high-energy physics and fundamental nuclear science, has been split by an internal debate over the right of scientists to hold formal political discussions at the laboratory during their lunch hours. The controversy has led to the banning of meetings, the circulating of petitions and counterpetitions bearing hundreds of names, the publishing of an underground newspaper, and the suspension of a controversial physicist. The Livermore facility, a major center for developing nuclear weapons, has been accused of trying to muzzle two staff scientists who contend that existing radiation standards are too lax to protect the public from nuclear radiation hazards. Livermore has also been the target of demonstrations and of a lawsuit seeking to open the weapons laboratory to allow discussions between outsiders and staff scientists concerning the implications of weapons research. The article below discusses the controversy at the Berkeley laboratory, where only unclassified research is performed. A subsequent article will discuss the conflict at security-conscious Livermore.

  12. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    PubMed

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  13. Current controversies in the management of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tusquets, I; García-Estévez, L; Adrover, E; Calvo, L; Alvarez, I; García Mata, J; Fernández, Y; Margueli, M; Seguí, M A; Muñoz, M; Rodríguez, C; Rodríguez Lescure, A; Colomer, R; Gascón, P; Martín, M; Alba, E; Barnadas, A; Llombart, A; Albanell, J; Lluch, A

    2010-04-01

    The following manuscript summarises the content of the Breast Symposium that was held in May 2008 in Barcelona in which four controversies regarding the management of breast cancer were discussed. The design of the symposium included two speakers per controversy, one in favour and one diverging, and the audience had to vote before and after the presentations to assess changes in the participants' views. The four controversies included: (1) the role of non-conventional predictive factors in selecting treatment for breast cancer; (2) the role of surgery in disseminated disease; (3) are taxanes indicated in the adjuvant treatment of patients with lymph-node-negative disease?; (4) is treatment with tamoxifen (TAM) always required after surgery in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? The symposium concluded with the presentation titled: 'Features of a well designed clinical trial in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer'.

  14. Why Is Studying the Genetics of Intelligence So Controversial?

    PubMed

    Tabery, James

    2015-01-01

    From the very beginning, studies of the nature and nurture of intelligence have been closely associated with an interest in intervening, and those interventions have been surrounded by controversy. The nature of those controversies has not always been the same, however. Since the mid-nineteenth century, when Francis Galton imagined a science that would assess the extent to which a trait like "genius" was due to nature or due to nurture, science and technology have changed dramatically, and so have the interventions that have been envisioned in light of those developments. A scientist today can search for particular stretches of DNA and assess whether differences in those stretches are associated with differences in a human trait of interest; a genetic counselor today can genetically test an individual (be it an embryo, fetus, newborn, child, or adult) and provide information about what that genetic result means, allowing for interventions that can range from terminating a pregnancy to prescribing chemotherapy. So when one asks a question like, "Why is studying the genetics of intelligence controversial?," it is important to realize up front that the answer will be, "It can be controversial for a variety of different reasons, and those reasons have evolved over time." The purpose of this essay is to provide a survey of the controversies that surround genetic studies of intelligence. With the survey in place, I will then draw out several lessons both for scientists who study the genetics of intelligence as well as for science studies scholars (bioethicists, philosophers, historians, sociologists) who reflect and comment on the controversies surrounding that research.

  15. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease: controversy laid to rest?

    PubMed

    Davis, R L; Bohlke, K

    2001-01-01

    infection and IBD have been contentious. While some investigators have claimed to find persistent measles infection among patients with IBD, others, using highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction techniques, have not been able to replicate the findings. Recent controversy has centred on whether there is any evidence for molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of IBD. In summary, available evidence does not support an association between measles-containing vaccines and risk of IBD, nor between measles infection and IBD. While further research is necessary into the causal factors underlying Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, continued public education efforts are needed to reassure the public about vaccine safety and to prevent declines in vaccine coverage.

  16. Relational Frame Theory: An Overview of the Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Amy C; Fox, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Although Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957) was published over 50 years ago, behavior-analytic research on human language and cognition has been slow to develop. In recent years, a new behavioral approach to language known as relational frame theory (RFT) has generated considerable attention, research, and debate. The controversy surrounding RFT can be difficult to fully appreciate, partly because of the complexity of the theory itself and partly because the debate has spanned several years and several journals. The current paper aims to provide a concise overview of RFT and a summary of key points of debate and controversy. PMID:22477432

  17. The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffer, Victor B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)

  18. Social Reconstruction: The Controversy over the Textbooks of Harold Rugg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet

    The paper examines the controversy over the use of Harold Rugg's textbooks in the social studies curriculum during the 1930s and 40s. The first section discusses the philosophy of social reconstruction maintaining that teachers and students should be in the forefront of social change. Rugg's major contribution to social reconstruction was a…

  19. Teaching Controversy by Seminar: An Example in Quaternary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Describes how seminar work can be structured to help students develop skills of critical thinking and expression when discussing controversial issues in their chosen subject. Particular emphasis is given to methods of organizing instructional materials and appropriate roles for seminar leaders. The debate surrounding the existence of a prehistoric…

  20. Improving the Quality of Science Classroom Discourse on Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddis, Arthur N.

    1991-01-01

    Illustrates how the sophistication of students' discussion on controversial issues can be increased by explicit attention to (1) the defensibility of more than one position, and (2) the relationship between protagonist's interests and the positions adopted. Presents a case study of a teacher using this scheme as he reflects on and modifies his…

  1. Controversial Therapies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines reasons parents may choose a controversial alternative treatment for a child with developmental disabilities and reviews a few specific treatments--vitamin B-6 and magnesium, auditory integration training, megavitamins and minerals, Piracetam, intravenous immunoglobulin, and melatonin. Recommendations on talking with families…

  2. Financing the UNCED Agenda: The Controversy over Additionality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Additionality is the concept that developed countries should finance the costs of developing countries to address global environmental problems and make the transition to sustainable development on top of all other financial aid. Discusses the controversy regarding this concept as discussed at the June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment…

  3. Reading "Daddy's Roommate": Preservice Teachers Respond to a Controversial Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shawyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the responses of the author's 31 pre-service teachers to a controversial picture book. Begins by searching for a short text geared to elementary age children and suited for read-alouds. Notes that she believes that the majority of pre-service teachers at this stage in the program are still very impressionable and must be given multiple…

  4. Cagney and Lacey: Negotiating the Controversial in Popular Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Jim

    This paper discusses some of the ways in which the commitment of the television series Cagney and Lacey to the examination of often controversial social issues from liberal or progressive standpoints--especially issues associated with the women's movement--is worked through in narrative practice. The origins and development of the series are…

  5. Supreme Court Actions Push a Wrenching Controversy Straight at You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1989-01-01

    The Supreme Court's past and expected future rulings on abortion cases will add controversy and costs to schools. Estimates the costs of teenage pregnancy; reviews the legal history of abortion; and offers guidelines on how schools can help reduce teenage pregnancy. (MLF)

  6. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  7. The Elitist-Populist Controversy: A Response to Ralph Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geahigan, George

    1985-01-01

    The central policy issue in the elitist-populist controversy is what works of art are to be included in curricula. Elitists defend the choice of exemplary pieces of art as instructional materials; populists find this advocacy of exemplars restrictive. How the choice of aesthetic exemplars constitutes a curriculum issue is discussed. (RM)

  8. The Vocational-Liberal Arts Controversy: Looking Backwards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sue L.

    The liberal arts-vocational education controversy is examined in this article through a series of fictitious letters based on historical facts that present the thoughts of key educational personalities regarding the community college's role in providing vocational education and liberal arts education. Part I, which takes the form of a letter and…

  9. Before We Were Us, We Were Them: Curating Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keri

    2014-01-01

    Prompted by the passage of Alabama House Bill 56, I organized the museum studies course I taught for Auburn University at Montgomery in the 2013 spring semester around an exhibition on immigration. The course offered the opportunity to engage students, faculty, and the community in discussion of an important, timely, and controversial topic.…

  10. Use of Dramatic Enquiry to Explore Controversies in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Neil; Poad, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing prominence of "How science works" in science courses in England and the imperative of equipping students to engage with the controversies thrown up by the advance of science, science departments need new teaching strategies. Here we describe the application of "Dramatic Enquiry" to GCSE science. The project,…

  11. Taking One's Principles Seriously: A Teacher Confronts Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, William

    2010-01-01

    A teacher faces hostility from certain colleagues who view his decision to attend a controversial lecture as tantamount to the repudiation of the principle of inclusive education and the rights of students with disabilities. The teacher sees the proposed boycott of the lecture as a form of censorship threatening freedom of inquiry and critical…

  12. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  13. Disaster, Controversy--Are You Prepared for the Worst?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Robert W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides demographic profiles from "Executive Educator's" fourth annual survey of U.S. school executives. Regarding disaster preparedness, only a small percentage of all districts in earthquake-prone areas have earthquake and fire action plans. Concerning controversial issues, teaching about substance abuse, child abuse, and teen suicide meets…

  14. Relational Frame Theory: An Overview of the Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fox, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Although Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) was published over 50 years ago, behavior-analytic research on human language and cognition has been slow to develop. In recent years, a new behavioral approach to language known as relational frame theory (RFT) has generated considerable attention, research, and debate. The controversy surrounding RFT…

  15. Media Coverage in a Community Controversy: Initial and Subsequent Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; van den Berg, Sjef

    The choice of time lag between variables can affect surveys of public opinion and audience behavior, according to this report on the effects of media coverage of the controversy surrounding the operation of the supersonic transport Concorde out of Dulles Airport, near Washington, D.C. Five theories of media effects are outlined, including direct…

  16. D. W. Griffith's Controversial Film, "The Birth of a Nation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that enables students to investigate race relations during the Progressive Era by analyzing D. W. Griffith's "The Birth of a Nation" and the controversy surrounding the release of the film. Explores the pros and cons of using motion pictures as teaching tool. Includes two student handouts. (CMK)

  17. Alice Moore and the Kanawha County Textbook Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe

    1980-01-01

    The author considers the 1974 Kanawha County textbook censorship controversy as an attempt by fundamentalist parents to banish "alien" moral influences from the schools and to strengthen community control over learning. He focuses on the role and views of school board member Alice Moore, a leading spokesperson of the fundamentalists.…

  18. Know Nukes: A Model for Teaching Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes a nuclear power workshop that presented techniques useful in controversial issues education. An introductory exercise and an overview of propagandistic techniques (listed in "The Propaganda Game") related to self-deception, language, irrelevance, exploitation, form, and maneuver are included. Outline of workshop presentation…

  19. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  20. Teaching About the Creation/Evolution Controversy. Fastback 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry

    The booklet discusses questions related to teaching engendered by the creation/evolution controversy, presents current positions of educators and textbooks, and recommends a two-model teaching approach. It is divided into six chapters. Chapter I defines and summarizes evolution and creationism as different belief structures, and outlines various…

  1. The Evolution/Creation Science Controversy: Educate Rather Than Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Beverley

    This paper is linked to the theme History and Philosophy of Science. The Evolution and creation science controversy is now in the general public's arena and poses a challenge for school science. The paper begins by briefly describing the current situation concerning this issue in Australia and the United States of America. In the subject Biology,…

  2. Creationism in the Classroom: A Controversy with Serious Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    The resignation of the Revd Professor Michael Reiss from his position as Director of Education at the Royal Society over the issue of the teaching of creationism in school science classes provides the background to this article. The immediate controversy is described and considered in relation to its wider context and to the serious questions that…

  3. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  4. Methods for Addressing Creation/Evolution Controversies in Iowa Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlovich, Jack

    Three papers are provided to assist local school districts and legislators in developing their positions when addressing creation/evolution controversies in Iowa schools. "Creation, Evolution and Public Education: The Position of the Iowa Department of Public Instruction (DPI)" presents the consensus of opinions of national and Iowa…

  5. Liebig-Wohler Controversy and the Concept of Isomerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteban, Soledad

    2008-01-01

    Very often controversies contribute to the development of science. An example is the conflict between Liebig and Wohler on the occasion of their analyses of fulminates and cyanates, which showed that compounds with different properties could have the same composition. Their results, together with other similar evidences, led Berzelius to recognize…

  6. Controversy Continues over the Pledge of Allegiance. Legal Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2005-01-01

    Saying the Pledge of Allegiance in public schools has generated controversy for more than sixty years. On Flag Day, June 14, 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court sidestepped an opportunity to clarify the constitutionality of public school students reciting "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance. But this issue is not going away. Following the Supreme…

  7. Controversies in Spinal Trauma and Evolution of Care.

    PubMed

    Harrop, James S; Rymarczuk, George N; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Steinmetz, Michael P; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    Management of spinal trauma is a complex and rapidly evolving field. To optimize patient treatment algorithms, an understanding of and appreciation for current controversies and advancing technologies in the field of spinal trauma is necessary. Therefore, members of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Trauma initiative used a modified Delphi method to compile a list of controversial issues and emerging technologies in the field of spinal trauma, and a list of the 14 most relevant topics was generated. A total of 45 440 manuscripts covering the breadth of spine and spinal trauma were initially identified. This broad search was then refined using the 14 categories felt to be most relevant to the current field of spinal trauma. The results were further pared down using inclusion criteria to select for the most relevant topics. The 8 remaining topics were classification schemes, treatment of vertebral compression fractures, treatment of burst fractures, timing of surgery in spinal trauma, hypothermia, the importance of global sagittal balance, lumbar subarachnoid drainage, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. These 8 topics were felt to be the most relevant, controversial, rapidly evolving, and most deserving of inclusion in this summary. In summary, despite recent advances, the field of spinal trauma has many ongoing points of controversy. We must continue to refine our ability to care for this patient population through education, research, and development. It is anticipated that the new AOSpine fracture classification system will assist with prospective research efforts.

  8. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article.

  9. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  10. Teaching Controversial Materials: Teaching about the Nuclear Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Describes difficulties encountered in presenting a college course on nuclear weapons and disarmament. Maintains that such courses must strive for a fuller historical account of the arms race, in addition to stressing the humanistic and ethical questions involved. Warns that controversy will arise and concludes that even blind anger is preferable…

  11. Controversial Issues in Orientation and Mobility: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Jacobson, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of issues in orientation and mobility (0M) considers controversies in: (1) OM systems (use of short cane vs. long cane, dog guide vs. cane, electronic travel aids); (2) OM personnel preparation (such as bachelor's vs. master's level training); and (3) direct services (such as one-to-one vs. group OM lessons). (CL)

  12. Equal Rights Amendment Controversy: Two Worlds in Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Sonja K.

    1979-01-01

    The Equal Rights Amendment controversy is studied as a conflict between two world views that are created by the rhetoric generated by proponents and opponents. Descriptions of the settings, actions, characters, and motivations of the opposing worlds reveal little common ground on which traditional argumentation can occur. (JMF)

  13. Childhood Psychological Disorders: Current Controversies. Making Sense of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursztyn, Alberto M., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This accessible, informative book will help teachers, parents, and practitioners make sense of current issues and controversies surrounding childhood disabilities. Almost 12 percent of children in American schools have been identified as disabled in ways that interfere with their capacity to learn. Yet parents of children with disabilities often…

  14. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  15. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  16. [Organic foods and human health: a study of controversies].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Anete Araújo de; Azevedo, Elaine de; Lima, Elinete Eliete de; Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira da

    2012-06-01

    The study of controversies is a methodological tool that generates knowledge about the social and political dimensions of science. This approach can be used to understand and explore the topic of organic foods. The present study aimed to analyze the controversies regarding the status of organic foods. We carried out a review of studies published since 1990 in three websites: International Foundation for Organic Agriculture, Soil Association, and Food and Agriculture Organization. The following controversies were identified: 1) effects on human health of the presence of chemical contaminants in organic foods; 2) the quality of organic foods as compared to conventionally grown foods; and 3) price of organic foods. Based on this review, it is possible to conclude that, even though organic foods stand out for their low toxicity, higher durability, and nutritional content of some items, more comparative studies are required to confirm the nutritional superiority of organic foods and to solve the controversies. The discussion must be contextualized within a broad spectrum of health promotion, in which organic farming appears associated with the support for small farming, biodiversity, and local sustainable development, so as to increase offer and demand for organic products at fair prices for individual and institutional consumers.

  17. MACOS Controversy: Responses to Charges by John Conlan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Peter B.

    The utility of the controversial elementary social studies program, "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS), is argued in this paper. A list of 12 charges made by Congressman John Conlan against MACOS, with responses to the charges, is presented. Specific passages in the student materials, films, and teacher materials are examined in context…

  18. Hot Buttons. Unraveling 10 Controversial Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays that deal with 10 current controversial issues. The issues are also the topics of 10 recent fastbacks from the Phi Delta Kappa fastback series published between 1993 and 1996. Following the introduction, the articles include the following: (1) "Accountability" (Jack Frymier); (2) "Assessment…

  19. Women, Webquests, and Controversial Issues in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret Smith; Cramer, Judith

    2005-01-01

    America has been called "the argument culture," but you would not know it from many social studies classrooms. Despite a longstanding tradition in social studies of teaching controversial issues, all too few of today's classrooms accommodate this kind of intellectual activity. Perhaps it is the pressure of high stakes testing, or the emphasis on…

  20. Teaching and Prompting Critical Thinking on Public Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.; And Others

    A study was conducted: (1) to determine the proportion of average 6th-grade students who, when given prompts, could produce an incipient form of dialectical reasoning; and (2) to test a unit of instruction developed to teach dialectical reasoning as an appropriate learning strategy for exploring public controversies. It was hypothesized that if…

  1. Design Piracy: Student Perceptions of a Constructive Controversy Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.

    2007-01-01

    Optimal learning occurs when students are interested in the subject matter, are motivated with challenging and quality learning opportunities, and when immersed in atmospheres that make learning enjoyable. One technique to promote optimal learning is through the use of constructive controversies. The purpose of this study was to provide an example…

  2. The Ecology Controversy: Opposing Viewpoints. Critical Issues Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuen, Gary E., Ed.; Bender, David L., Ed.

    Ecological problems are explored in this book of sixteen student readings and exercises aimed at developing and applying critical thinking skills. The readings, mostly extracts from books and periodicals, are introduced by the editor and accompanied by questions. Chapter I, The Population Controversy, includes selections from Paul Ehrlich's The…

  3. Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajkovski, Goran, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies" sheds light on the status of diversity in the field of IT education. It identifies a wide range of problems that educators face on a daily basis, and gives practical, applicable solutions, mainly by showcasing successful and replicable examples. The chapters in "Diversity in…

  4. Millennia of Discord: The Controversial Educational Program of Isocrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Five years ago in "Theory and Research in Education", James R. Muir fired a new salvo in the debate regarding the merits of Isocrates' educational program, a controversy that has endured for more than two millennia. Was the Isocratean program misguided and lowbrow, as in the estimations of Plato and Aristotle--or was it the most successful program…

  5. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  6. Nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit: controversies and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ravindra M; Niederman, Michael S

    2003-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia (NP), and its most serious form, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the ICU. Numerous controversies exist, from diagnostic criteria to prevention and treatment, including the issues of attributable mortality of VAP, differences in the approach to early and late VAP, and the best diagnostic methods. Initial, accurate therapy is one of the most important factors determining outcome in VAP. Antibiotic monotherapy versus combination therapy is not clearly defined, as clinicians struggle with the dual risk of inadequate therapy negatively affecting outcome and overtreatment promoting antibiotic resistance. The role of airway and gastrointestinal colonization and innovative preventive strategies such as noninvasive ventilation, antibiotic rotation, and aerosolized antibiotics are discussed. No uniform standards exist for the approach to VAP. The authors highlight the major controversies and dilemmas in the clinical approach to VAP, with recommendations for the bedside management of these patients.

  7. Distinguishing heat from light in debate over controversial fossils.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Philip C J; Purnell, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    Fossil organisms offer our only direct insight into how the distinctive body plans of extant organisms were assembled. However, realizing the potential evolutionary significance of fossils can be hampered by controversy over their interpretation. Here, as a guide to evaluating palaeontological debates, we outline the process and pitfalls of fossil interpretation. The physical remains of controversial fossils should be reconstructed before interpreting homologies, and choice of interpretative model should be explicit and justified. Extinct taxa lack characters diagnostic of extant clades because the characters had not yet evolved, because of secondary loss, or because they have rotted away. The latter, if not taken into account, will lead to the spurious assignment of fossils to basally branching clades. Conflicting interpretations of fossils can often be resolved by considering all the steps in the process of anatomical analysis and phylogenetic placement, although we must accept that some fossil organisms are simply too incompletely preserved for their evolutionary significance to be realized.

  8. Chemoradiation for rectal cancer: rationale, approaches, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2010-10-01

    The standard adjuvant treatment of cT3 and/or N+ rectal cancer is preoperative chemoradiation. However, there are many controversies regarding this approach. These controversies include the role of short course radiation, whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for all patients, and if the type of surgery following chemoradiation should be based on the response rate. More accurate imaging techniques and/or molecular markers may help identify patients with positive pelvic nodes to reduce the chance of overtreatment with preoperative therapy. Will more effective systemic agents both improve the results of radiation, as well as modify the need for pelvic radiation? These questions and others remain active areas of clinical investigation.

  9. Social controversy belongs in the climate science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Elizabeth M.; Tsurusaki, Blakely K.

    2014-04-01

    Scientists, educators and stakeholders are grappling with how to best approach climate change education for diverse audiences, a task made difficult due to persistent social controversy. This Perspective examines how sociocultural learning theories can inform the design and implementation of climate change education experiences for learners with varied understandings of and attitudes towards climate change. The literature demonstrates that explicitly addressing learners' social and community experiences, values and knowledge supports understandings of and increased concern about climate change. Science learning environments that situate climate change in its social context can support conceptual understandings, shift attitudes and increase the participation of diverse communities in responding to climate change. Examples are provided of successful programmes that attend to social dimensions and learners' previous experiences, including experiences of social controversy.

  10. Understanding the agreements and controversies surrounding childhood psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The number of children in the US taking prescription drugs for emotional and behavioral disturbances is growing dramatically. This growth in the use of psychotropic drugs in pediatric populations has given rise to multiple controversies, ranging from concerns over off-label use and long-term safety to debates about the societal value and cultural meaning of pharmacological treatment of childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. This commentary summarizes the authors' eight main findings from the first of five workshops that seek to understand and produce descriptions of these controversies. The workshop series is convened by The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute located in Garrison, New York, U.S.A. PMID:18261228

  11. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe.

  12. Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the "autism epidemic"? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public's trust in the nation's vaccine system.

  13. Alveolar Osteitis: A Comprehensive Review of Concepts and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Olech, Eliza; Miloro, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar osteitis, “dry socket”, remains amongst the most commonly encountered complications following extraction of teeth by general dentists and specialists. A great body of literature is devoted to alveolar osteitis addressing the etiology and pathophysiology of this condition. In addition numerous studies are available discussing methods and techniques to prevent this condition. To this date though great controversy still exists regarding the appropriate terminology used for this condition as well as the actual etiology, pathophysiology, and best methods of prevention and treatment. This article is a comprehensive critical review of the available literature addressing the concepts and controversies surrounding alveolar osteitis. We aim to assist the dental health care professional with patient preparation and management of this commonly encountered postoperative condition should be encountered. PMID:20652078

  14. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: current controversies in diagnosis and outcome.

    PubMed

    Koelman, Diederik L H; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-09-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Only in the past 15 years have larger groups of patients from several geographical areas been reported for comparisons across studies. In spite of the increased recognition of ADEM, the diagnosis of ADEM remains clinical, aided by neuroimaging confirmation, because of the lack of a biological marker. The diagnosis may be difficult, given that several diseases may present similar to ADEM. The controversial existence of multiphasic forms necessitates a continuous evaluation of the diagnosis by tracking subsequent events. Despite proposed consensus criteria, the diagnostic criteria employed to characterize ADEM range widely among the largest reported cohorts to date. This review comprehensively evaluates the current knowledge and controversies that surround ADEM, with special consideration of the distinction between ADEM and other demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, we present implications of the current knowledge of ADEM for both research and clinical practice.

  15. Socio-scientific controversies and students' conceptions about scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro; Galvão, Cecília

    This article discusses the results of a mainly qualitative study into possible impacts of recent controversial socio-scientific issues on a group of Portuguese secondary school students regarding their conceptions about scientists. The 86 participants: (1) answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions; and (2) wrote a science fiction story involving a group of scientists working on a particular situation of her/his choice. Next, semi-structured interviews were carried out to clarify and discuss the ideas embodied in the stories and mentioned in the questionnaire. All data underwent a process of content analysis. The socio-scientific controversies recently discussed, and the way science and scientists are depicted in the media, seem to have produced some impact on students' conceptions about scientists. Based on the results obtained, some remarks and educational implications are discussed.

  16. Controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, Jeremy S; Pereira, Stephen P; Devlin, John; Harrison, Phillip M; Joshi, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains a rare but significant disease, which affects mainly young males in association with inflammatory bowel disease. There have been few advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the condition and no therapeutics with proven mortality benefit aside from liver transplantation. There remain areas of controversy in the management of PSC which include the differentiation from other cholangiopathies, in particular immunoglobulin G4 related sclerosing cholangitis, the management of dominant biliary strictures, and the role of ursodeoxycholic acid. In addition, the timing of liver transplantation in PSC remains difficult to predict with standard liver severity scores. In this review, we address these controversies and highlight the latest evidence base in the management of PSC. PMID:26925200

  17. Current controversies in clinical management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kerschan-Schindl, K; Mikosch, P; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Gasser, R W; Dimai, H-P; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Dobnig, H; Roschger, P; Preisinger, E; Klaushofer, K; Resch, H; Pietschmann, P

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in postmenopausal women. Despite the fact that fragility fractures cause many problems - a bio-psycho-social burden for the individual and an economic burden for the society - osteoporosis is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Controversies exist concerning assessment with different tools for initiating a disease-specific treatment, patient monitoring with bone turnover markers, and treatment duration due to potential side effects in long-term treatment. This manuscript outlines and discusses these controversies and the presented cases, representatives for frequent clinical problems, may give guidance for the clinician in deciding how and how long to treat his/her patient. Re-evaluations of the patients on a regular basis are essential to warrant the necessity of treatment continuation and may improve patients' compliance.

  18. Controversies and challenges of vaccination: an interview with Elizabeth Miller.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-10-16

    Although strong evidence exists that the benefits of vaccination by far outweigh potential adverse events, controversy still exists. This has led opponents of vaccination to question its safety, efficacy and necessity. In an interview with Professor Elizabeth Miller, we discuss the continuum of beliefs held by vaccine refusers and hesitators, the resulting health consequences, and ways in which health professionals and industry regulators can help promote transparency to better convey the substantial health benefits of vaccination.

  19. Chlorine: Undergraduate Research on an Element of Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hasok

    2009-04-01

    If chemical elements were people, chlorine would be a celebrity. Although intrinsically no more or less important than any other element, chlorine has had a knack of making headlines. The genre of "object biography" has been quite successful in popular science recently. We took this opportunity to write a "biographical" study of chlorine. Chlorine's wide range of interesting controversies is well suited for attracting and maintaining the enthusiasm of the diverse range of students we teach in our department.

  20. Surgical Treatment of Epiphrenic Diverticulum: Technique and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Ciro; Wiesel, Ory; Fisichella, P Marco

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this article is to illustrate the current minimal invasive approaches to patients with epiphrenic diverticulum in terms of preoperative evaluation, surgical technique, and outcomes. Two techniques will be presented: a laparoscopic and a video-assisted thoracic repair. Indications for each technique will be discussed as well as proper patient selection and management. Current controversies in the treatment of patients with this rare disease will be addressed.

  1. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: past, present and future controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    It is fitting that the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) be included in the Lester Dragstedt Symposium because Dr. Dragstedt had a long-time interest in this disease, having been one of the five discussants of the original article and subsequently reporting with Dr. Oberhelman on nine cases. The approach to therapy of ZES has been controversial from the beginning, and a number of controversies remain. In this article, four different controversies are analyzed from the prospective of the past (Zollinger-Dragstedt era, 1955-1980), present and what may happen in the future in light of recent results. Specifically analyzed are: 1) the role of gastric surgery in the management; 2) whether gastrinoma removal without aggressive resection in patients with ZES without MEN-I is the preferred surgical therapy; 3) whether patients with MEN-I should undergo routine surgical exploration; and 4) whether most gastrinomas will be localized preoperatively. An analysis of recent advances suggests there may be marked changes in the future from our current and our past approaches. Images Figure 2 PMID:7502529

  2. The controversy over the minimum quantum requirement for oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jane F; Govindjee

    2014-10-01

    During the early- to mid-twentieth century, a bitter controversy raged among researchers on photosynthesis regarding the minimum number of light quanta required for the evolution of one molecule of oxygen. From 1923 until his death in 1970, Otto Warburg insisted that this value was about three or four quanta. Beginning in the late 1930s, Robert Emerson and others on the opposing side consistently obtained a value of 8-12 quanta. Warburg changed the protocols of his experiments, sometimes in unexplained ways, yet he almost always arrived at a value of four or less, except eight in carbonate/bicarbonate buffer, which he dismissed as "unphysiological". This paper is largely an abbreviated form of the detailed story on the minimum quantum requirement of photosynthesis, as told by Nickelsen and Govindjee (The maximum quantum yield controversy: Otto Warburg and the "Midwest-Gang", 2011); we provide here a scientific thread, leaving out the voluminous private correspondence among the principal players that Nickelsen and Govindjee (2011) examined in conjunction with their analysis of the principals' published papers. We explore the development and course of the controversy and the ultimate resolution in favor of Emerson's result as the phenomenon of the two-light-reaction, two-pigment-system scheme of photosynthesis came to be understood. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the discovery by Otto Warburg of the requirement for bicarbonate in the Hill reaction.

  3. Embryo stem cell research: ten years of controversy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2010-01-01

    This overview of 10 years of stem cell controversy reviews the moral conflict that has made ESCs so controversial and how this conflict plays itself out in the legal realm, focusing on the constitutional status of efforts to ban ESC research or ESC-derived therapies. It provides a history of the federal funding debate from the Carter to the Obama administrations, and the importance of the Raab memo in authorizing federal funding for research with privately derived ESCs despite the Dickey-Wicker ban on federal funding of embryo research. It also reviews the role that scientists themselves have played in developing regulations for ESC research, the emergence of ESCROs as special review bodies for ESC research, and the thorough consent requirements for donation of IVF embryos to ESC research. With research now transitioning from the lab to the clinic, the article reviews the challenges of ensuring safety and consent in translational research. It concludes with a call for respecting those persons who have to using or working with ESC products and an account of how obtaining stem cells from a person's own cells will alleviate some but not all of the controversy surrounding ESC research.

  4. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  5. The European experience.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Rahmel, Axel

    2011-04-01

    This mini-review on European experiences with tackling the problem of organ shortage for transplantation was based on a literature review of predominantly European publications dealing with the issue of organ donation from deceased donors. The authors tried to identify the most significant factors that have demonstrated to impact on donation rates from deceased donors and subsequent transplant successes. These factors include legislative measures (national laws and European Directives), optimization of the donation process, use of expanded criteria donors, innovative preservation and surgical techniques, organizational efforts, and improved allocation algorithms.

  6. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos M.; Calaga R.; Bousson S.; Danared H.; Devanz G. et al

    2011-04-20

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  7. European journals on microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ronda, C; Vázquez, M

    1997-12-01

    A survey on the scientific journals dealing with microbiology published in Europe has been carried out. Eighteen European countries publish microbiological journals with the United Kingdom. Netherlands and Germany leading in number of journals on this specialty. Most of the European journals on microbiology are published bimonthly (27%), and English is the most common language used (54%). Most of these journals (86%) are included in some database, but only 36 (25%) are indexed in the six databases studied. Out of the 146 journals registered, 71 (49%), published in 11 European countries, are included in the 1995 Journal Citation Reports (ISI, Philadelphia).

  8. Teaching Controversial Topics to Skeptical High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tennessee passes the "Monkey Bill" (HB 0368, SB 0893), North Carolina's state government passes a law to criminalize reference in state documents to scientific models that predict sea level rise to reach at least one meter by the next century, and public concern still lags far behind the scientific community's concern on climate change. The American public and even science teachers across the country seem to have lost faith in the ability of the scientific community to unify a strong message about several important scientific lessons, including global warming in particular. This lack of a unified message has weakened the ability of science teachers to effectively teach the lesson of global warming. For science teachers in strongly conservative areas of the country, it is much easier to omit difficult topics and avoid angering parents and school board members. Teachers who do feel strongly about scientifically proven, yet publically controversial topics CAN teach these topics in conservative areas by confirming students' belief systems by being honest and open about motivations surrounding both sides of controversial topics, and by using vocabulary that avoids triggering negative perceptions about these controversial topics. For true learning and change of preconceived opinion to take place, it is important for students to come to the understanding in their own minds in an open and safe learning environment instead of having the message "preached" to them, which only serves to make them feel unintelligent and defensive if they disagree. This presentation will include lessons learned from a practicing science teacher who works in a community that overwhelmingly disputes the validity of human impacts on climate change.

  9. Expanding the microalgal industry--continuing controversy or compelling case?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Evan; Ross, Ian L; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Herein we examine the potential role that microalgae might play in the approaching challenges of energy and fuel security, and food and water supply. Microalgal production systems remain the subject of controversy however, generally consisting of arguments about the economic and environment sustainability of these systems. We discuss these aspects and draw some parallels with other systems to highlight real advantages and obstacles to expanding the modern microalgal industry. Emerging alternative production models and the relatively early developmental state of the microalgal biofuels industry provide room for extensive innovation that has the potential to bring the technology to a highly productive maturity.

  10. RU 486, mifepristone: a review of a controversial drug.

    PubMed

    DiPierri, D

    1994-06-01

    RU 486 (mifepristone), commonly referred to as the French abortion pill, has received much attention in the popular media. Much of this information has clouded the facts, and has been shrouded by controversy. Political, religious, and personal bias have slanted the presentation of the potential uses of this drug. Health care practitioners must be able to provide clients with the most accurate and factual information available. This article details the physiological effects of RU 486, as well as research data regarding uses and side effects. RU 486's most well publicized use, and efficacy, as an abortifacient are discussed in detail.

  11. Controversies in the Management of the Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rodman, Regina E; Kellman, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma is a significant cause of morbidity in the United States. Despite the large volume of trauma surgeries at most academic institutions, there is still controversy regarding management of many traumatic injuries. The literature lacks clear-cut best practices for most fractures. In orbital trauma, there is debate about the optimal timing of repair, preferred biomaterial to be used, and the utility of evaluation afterward with intraoperative computed tomographic scan. In repair of mandible fractures, there is debate regarding open versus closed reduction of subcondylar fractures, or alternatively, endoscopic repair.

  12. Controversies and Trends in United Kingdom Bunion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William D; Walker, Christopher R

    2016-06-01

    Current practice and controversies in UK bunion surgery are discussed. Patients tend to be offered a distally based metatarsal osteotomy, such as a chevron or scarf osteotomy, for mild to moderate symptomatic bunions. Greater deformities are managed with a more extreme scarf, supplemented with a proximal phalangeal osteotomy. A proximal fusion in the form of the Lapidus-type procedure is still reserved for the most severe, hypermobile, or arthritic cases. Minimally invasive techniques for bunions have failed to disseminate into common UK practice. The trends in the United Kingdom regarding litigation, venous thromboembolism, and osteodesis for bunion surgery are also discussed.

  13. The monarch butterfly controversy: scientific interpretations of a phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shelton, A M; Sears, M K

    2001-09-01

    The future development and use of agricultural biotechnology has been challenged by two preliminary studies indicating potential risk to monarch butterfly populations by pollen from corn engineered to express proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. Likewise, these studies have also challenged the way in which science should be performed, published in scientific journals and communicated to the public at large. Herein, we provide a history of the monarch controversy to date. We believe a retrospective view may be useful for providing insights into the proper roles and responsibilities of scientists, the media and public agencies and the consequences when they go awry.

  14. Concise review: limbal epithelial stem cell therapy: controversies and challenges.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Anna R; Daniels, Julie T

    2011-12-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are a population of stem cells responsible for maintenance and repair of the corneal surface. Injury and disease can result in a deficiency of these stem cells, the vision affecting condition called limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) in which the cornea becomes opaque, vascularized, and inflamed. Cultured LESC therapy was first described in 1997;29:19231932-19231932.and LESCs cultured from either patients or donors have been used to successfully treat LSCD. In this review, some of the challenges and controversies associated with cultured LESC therapy will be discussed including alternative stem cell sources.

  15. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-12-29

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy.

  16. Prion protein in Alzheimer's pathogenesis: a hot and controversial issue.

    PubMed

    Benilova, Iryna; De Strooper, Bart

    2010-08-01

    The role for cellular prion protein PrP(c) in beta-amyloid (Abeta) oligomer-induced synaptic impairment is a topic of great interest and some controversy. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine Aguzzi and co-workers explore the contribution of PrP(c) to deficient long term potentiation (LTP) and soluble Abeta levels in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model and show that the role of prions in Abeta related toxicity is far from 'black and white' suggesting complex interpretations of the data available thus far.

  17. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops?

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Y

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Medical therapy is the first-line option in glaucoma management, with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) being the most frequently used preservative in antiglaucoma medications. Its use is however, known to be associated with deleterious effects on the ocular surface. This review is an attempt to critically evaluate whether BAC really is indispensable for better bioavailability of antiglaucoma drugs and consequently, better IOP control. How to cite this article: Louati Y, Shaarawy T. Controversy: Is Benzalkonium Chloride Necessary in Antiglaucoma Drops? J Current Glau Prac 2012;6(3):104-107. PMID:26997764

  18. On the programmed/non-programmed aging controversy.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, T C

    2012-07-01

    The programmed vs. non-programmed aging controversy has now existed in some form for at least 150 years. For much of the XX century, it was almost universally believed that evolution theory prohibited programmed (adaptive) aging in mammals and there was little direct experimental or observational evidence favoring it. More recently, multiple new evolutionary mechanics concepts that support programmed aging and steadily increasing direct evidence favoring it overwhelmingly support the existence of programmed aging in humans and other organisms. This issue is important because the different theories suggest very different mechanisms for the aging process that in turn suggest very different paths toward treating and preventing age-related diseases.

  19. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  20. Global challenges, efforts, and controversies in neonatal care.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Nicole E; Batra, Maneesh; Kuzminski, Jacquelyn; Lee, Anne C C; O'Callahan, Cliff

    2014-12-01

    Simple low-cost, evidence-based interventions such as clean delivery practices, immediate warming, umbilical cord care, and neonatal resuscitation could prevent 40% to 70% of newborn deaths globally, but many obstacles preclude the provision of those basic interventions for all newborns, particularly in low-resource regions. Global efforts have led to widespread development of neonatal clinical practice guidelines, training programs, and policies. Because of a shortage of health care resources, standards of care have been redefined to meet the needs of underserved populations. This article provides an overview of the challenges, efforts, and controversies surrounding neonatal health in low-resource settings.

  1. Left ventricular assist devices: current controversies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Erin M; Black, Matthew C; Monreal, Gretel; Slaughter, Mark S

    2016-12-07

    Advanced heart failure is a growing epidemic that leads to significant suffering and economic losses. The development of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to improved quality of life and long-term survival for patients diagnosed with this devastating condition. This review briefly summarizes the short history and clinical outcomes of LVADs and focuses on the current controversies and issues facing LVAD therapy. Finally, the future directions for the role of LVADs in the treatment of end-stage heart failure are discussed.

  2. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  3. Seminars: controversies in the management of pediatric thyroid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gingalewski, Cynthia A; Newman, Kurt D

    2006-12-15

    Thyroid cancer in children is a rare malignancy with unusual biological behavior. It often presents at advanced stages, yet behaves in a benign manner, when compared to its adult counterpart. Surgeons have debated the risks and benefits of aggressive surgical procedures for over a decade. A consensus treatment plan for childhood thyroid cancer has not been achieved, however radical surgical procedures have, in general, fallen out of favor. The best operative and adjuvant strategy for these children can only be determined when a better understanding of the tumor cell biology and genetics of this cancer is known. This review discusses the current controversies in the management of differentiated childhood thyroid malignancy.

  4. Controversies in the Management of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, Sayuri; Boone, M Dustin

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a physical insult (a bump, jolt, or blow) to the brain that results in temporary or permanent impairment of normal brain function. TBI describes a heterogeneous group of disorders. The resulting secondary injury, namely brain swelling and its sequelae, is the reason why patients with these vastly different initial insults are homogenously treated. Much of the evidence for the management of TBI is poor or conflicting, and thus definitive guidelines are largely unavailable for clinicians at this time. A substantial portion of this article focuses on discussing the controversies in the management of TBI.

  5. Beyond Controversies: Sexuality Education for Adolescents in India

    PubMed Central

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847

  6. The enigma of facial beauty: esthetics, proportions, deformity, and controversy.

    PubMed

    Naini, Farhad B; Moss, James P; Gill, Daljit S

    2006-09-01

    The study of the face and the ability to alter its form have fascinated mankind for thousands of years. The clinical ability to alter dentofacial form, whether through orthodontics, facial growth modification, or surgery, requires an understanding of facial beauty, including the evaluation of facial esthetics, proportions, and symmetry. The purposes of this article were to give a brief contemporary overview of our concepts of facial beauty and esthetics and to consider a long-standing and controversial debate on the treatment of patients with dentofacial deformities.

  7. Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), a controversial 21st century honey bee pathogen.

    PubMed

    Higes, Mariano; Meana, Aránzazu; Bartolomé, Carolina; Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel

    2013-02-01

    The worldwide beekeeping sector has been facing a grave threat, with losses up to 100-1000 times greater than those previously reported. Despite the scale of this honey bee mortality, the causes underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, yet they are thought to be multifactorial processes. Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium recently detected in the European bee all over the world, has been implicated in the global phenomenon of colony loss, although its role remains controversial. A review of the current knowledge about this pathogen is presented focussing on discussion related with divergent results, trying to analyse the differences specially based on different methodologies applied and divisive aspects on pathology while considering a biological or veterinarian point of view. For authors, the disease produced by N. ceranae infection cannot be considered a regional problem but rather a global one, as indicated by the wide prevalence of this parasite in multiple hosts. Not only does this type of nosemosis causes a clear pathology on honeybees at both the individual and colony levels, but it also has significant effects on the production of honeybee products.

  8. Controversies and unresolved issues in tuberculosis prevention and control: a low-burden-country perspective.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Ibrahim; Stagg, Helen R; Cohen, Ted; Mangtani, Punam; Rodrigues, Laura C; Pimpin, Laura; Watson, John M; Squire, S Bertel; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2012-05-15

    Despite declining incidence in most high-income countries, tuberculosis shows no signs of disappearing in the near future. Although surveillance data from most Western European countries show relatively stable declines in the rate of tuberculosis over the past several decades, some have reported either an increasing rate or a decelerating pace of reduction in recent years. The burden of disease now disproportionately affects high-risk groups such as migrants, homeless persons, and prisoners. In view of the concentration of cases in urban areas and high-risk deprived groups, interventions that may not be efficient when applied to the general population may be highly cost effective when targeted at high-risk groups. In this article, we examine some controversial elements of tuberculosis prevention and control in low-burden countries and recommend issues for further research. In particular, we assess current evidence on the duration of protection by BCG vaccine, the screening of migrants and hard-to-reach groups, and the use of preventive therapy for contacts of cases of infectious multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. This analysis is presented from the perspective of low-tuberculosis-burden, high-income countries attempting to eliminate tuberculosis.

  9. 42 CFR 405.747 - Dismissal of request for hearing; amount in controversy less than $100.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... controversy less than $100. 405.747 Section 405.747 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... controversy less than $100. The ALJ shall, without holding a hearing, dismiss the request for hearing if the request for hearing plainly shows that less than $100 is in controversy. If a hearing is held and the...

  10. Several Controversial Issues on Early Childhood Education and Care in Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Michio

    This paper provides an overview of current controversial issues in early childhood education in Japan. One controversy discussed is the increasing emphasis on cognitive development in early childhood programs since World War II, especially the focus on reading and writing; and presents the controversy surrounding the task of learning Japanese and…

  11. After the Fairness Doctrine: Controversial Broadcast Programming and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aufderheide, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    Asserts that suspension by the Federal Communications Commission of the Fairness Doctrine (which required broadcasters to air controversy and air it fairly) has not led to greater amounts of controversial programing. Argues that cancellation of the rule may in fact have limited the airing of controversy. (SG)

  12. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  13. Human safety controversies surrounding nitrate and nitrite in the diet.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L

    2012-05-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are part of the human diet as nutrients in many vegetables and part of food preservation systems. In the 1950s and 1960s the potential for formation of nitrosamines in food was discovered and it ignited a debate about the safety of ingested nitrite which ultimately focused on cured meats. Nitrate impurities in salt used in the drying of meat in ancient times resulted in improved protection from spoilage during storage. This evolved into their deliberate modern use as curing ingredient responsible for 'fixing' the characteristic color associated with cured meats, creating a unique flavor profile, controlling the oxidation of lipids, and serving as an effective antimicrobial. Several critical reports and comprehensive reviews reporting weak associations and equivocal evidence of nitrite human health safety have fostered concerns and debate among scientists, regulators, press, consumer groups, and consumers. Despite periodic controversy regarding human health concerns from nitrite consumption, a building base of scientific evidence about nitrate, nitrite, heme chemistry, and the overall metabolism of nitrogen oxides in humans has and continues to affirm the general safety of nitrate/nitrite in human health. As nitrite based therapeutics emerge, it is important to consider the past controversies and also understand the beneficial role in the human diet.

  14. Oral Cavity Carcinoma: Current Management, Controversies, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Steven B.; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity carcinoma (OCC) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancer. Although the incidence has decreased over the last decade, outcomes remain stagnant with only a 5% improvement in overall survival in the last 20 years. Although surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality, several areas of controversy exist with regard to work-up, management of the primary and neck tumors, and adjuvant therapy. As surgical techniques evolve, so has the delivery of radiotherapy and systemic treatment, which have helped to improve the outcomes for patients with advanced disease. Recently, the addition of cetuximab has shown promise as a way to improve outcomes while minimizing toxicity, and this remains an active area of study in the adjuvant setting. Advances in microvascular free-flap reconstruction have extended the limits of resection and enabled enhanced restoration of function and cosmesis. While these advances have led to limited survival benefit, evaluation of alternative modalities has gained interest on the basis of success in other head and neck subsites. Organ preservation with definitive chemoradiotherapy, though proven in the larynx and pharynx, remains controversial in OCC. Likewise, although the association of human papillomavirus is well established in oropharyngeal carcinoma, it has not been proven in the pathogenesis or survival of OCC. Future study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of OCC should offer additional insight into screening, treatment selection, and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26351335

  15. The 2013 cholesterol guideline controversy: Would better evidence prevent pharmaceuticalization?

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt; Barnes, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. A class of medications, known as statins, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which are associated with CVD. The newest 2013 U.S. cholesterol guideline contains an assessment of risk that greatly expands the number of individuals without CVD for whom statins are recommended. Other countries are also moving in this direction. This article examines the controversy surrounding these guidelines using the 2013 cholesterol guidelines as a case study of broader trends in clinical guidelines to use a narrow evidence base, expand the boundaries of disease and overemphasize pharmaceutical treatment. We find that the recommendation in the 2013 cholesterol guidelines to initiate statins in individuals with a lower risk of CVD is controversial and there is much disagreement on whether there is evidence for the guideline change. We note that, in general, clinical guidelines may use evidence that has a number of biases, are subject to conflicts of interest at multiple levels, and often do not include unpublished research. Further, guidelines may contribute to the "medicalization" or "pharmaceuticalization" of healthcare. Specific policy recommendations to improve clinical guidelines are indicated: these include improving the evidence base, establishing a public registry of all results, including unpublished ones, and freeing the research process from pharmaceutical sector control.

  16. A web of controversies: complexity in the burgess shale debate.

    PubMed

    Baron, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Using the Burgess Shale controversies as a case-study, this paper argues that controversies within different domains may interact as to create a situation of "com- plicated intricacies," where the practicing scientist has to navigate through a context of multiple thought collectives. To some extent each of these collectives has its own dynamic complete with fairly negotiated standards for investigation and explanation, theoretical background assumptions and certain peculiarities of practice. But the intellectual development in one of these collectives may "spill over" having far reaching consequences for the treatment of apparently independent epistemic problems that are subject of investigation in other thought collectives. For the practicing scientist it is necessary to take this complex web of interactions into account in order to be able to navigate in such a situation. So far most studies of academic science have had a tendency to treat the practicing scientist as members of a single (enclosed) thought collective that stands intellectually isolated from other similar entities unless the discipline was in a state of crisis of paradigmatic proportions. The richness and complexity of Burgess Shale debate shows that this encapsulated kind of analysis is not enough.

  17. Phylogeny and life histories of the 'Insectivora': controversies and consequences.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Matthew R E

    2005-02-01

    The evolutionary relationships of the eutherian order Insectivora (Lipotyphla sensu stricto) are the subject of considerable debate. The difficulties in establishing insectivore phylogeny stem from their lack of many shared derived characteristics. The grouping is therefore something of a 'wastebasket' taxon. Most of the older estimates of phylogeny, based on morphological evidence, assumed insectivore monophyly. More recently, molecular phylogenies argue strongly against monophyly, although they differ in the extent of polyphyly inferred for the order. I review the history of insectivore phylogenetics and systematics, focussing on the relationships between the six extant families (Erinaceidae--hedgehogs and moonrats, Talpidae - moles and desmans, Soricidae - shrews, Solenodontidae--solenodons, Tenrecidae--tenrecs and otter-shrews and Chrysochloridae--golden moles). I then examine how these various phylogenetic hypotheses influence the results of comparative analyses and our interpretation of insectivore life-history evolution. I assess which particular controversies have the greatest effect on results, and discuss the implications for comparative analyses where the phylogeny is controversial. I also explore and suggest explanations for certain insectivore life-history trends: increased gestation length and litter size in tenrecs, increased encephalization in moles, and the mixed fast and slow life-history strategies in solenodons. Finally, I consider the implications for comparative analyses of the recent strongly supported phylogenetic hypothesis of an endemic African clade of mammals that includes the insectivore families of tenrecs and golden moles.

  18. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: recent advances and controversies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jong Jin

    2015-09-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory clinical syndrome of uncontrolled immune response which results in hypercytokinemia due to underlying primary or secondary immune defect. A number of genetic defects in transport, processing and function of cytotoxic granules which result in defective granule exocytosis and cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells have been well identified at the cellular and molecular level. Important advances have been made during the last 20 years in the diagnosis and treatment of HLH. The Histiocyte Society has proposed diagnostic guideline using both clinical and laboratory findings in HLH-2004 protocol, and this has been modified partly in 2009. HLH used to be a fatal disease, but the survival of HLH patients has improved to more than 60% with the use of chemoimmunotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) over the past 2 decades. However, HCT is still the only curative option of treatment for primary HLH and refractory/relapsed HLH after proper chemoimmunotherapy. The outcome of HCT for HLH patients was also improved steadily during last decades, but HCT for HLH still carries significant mortality and morbidity. Moreover, there remain ongoing controversies in various aspects of HCT including indication of HCT, donor selection, timing of HCT, conditioning regimen, and mixed chimerism after HCT. This review summarized the important practical issues which were proven by previous studies on HCT for HLH, and tried to delineate the controversies among them.

  19. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  20. Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kia, Leila; Hirano, Ikuo

    2015-07-01

    Over the past three decades, the detection of oesophageal mucosal eosinophils has transitioned from a biomarker of GERD to a diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). In GERD, oesophageal eosinophils are considered part of the chronic inflammatory response to acid reflux, whereas the marked eosinophilia in EoE is viewed as a central feature of the immune response to ingested food and/or environmental antigen stimulation. Descriptions of a considerable subset of patients with symptomatic, endoscopic and histological findings of EoE that resolve with PPI therapy has led to confusion and controversy regarding the distinction of EoE from GERD. Study findings indicate that PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) more closely resembles EoE than GERD, both from a clinical and immunological aspect. Although responsiveness to PPI therapy should not be utilized to exclude EoE, PPI therapy is effective at reducing oesophageal eosinophilia in ∼40% of patients, and PPI therapy is both a safe and practical initial step in the management of patients with oesophageal eosinophilia. Ongoing studies elucidating the mechanism behind PPI-REE will improve our understanding and management of EoE. In this Review, the mechanisms and evidence that underlie the controversy in the distinction between GERD and EoE are evaluated.

  1. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century-old controversy.

    PubMed

    Nougué, O; Rode, N O; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Ségard, A; Chevin, L-M; Haag, C R; Lenormand, T

    2015-12-01

    Parthenogenesis (reproduction through unfertilized eggs) encompasses a variety of reproduction modes with (automixis) or without (apomixis) meiosis. Different modes of automixis have very different genetic and evolutionary consequences but can be particularly difficult to tease apart. In this study, we propose a new method to discriminate different types of automixis from population-level genetic data. We apply this method to diploid Artemia parthenogenetica, a crustacean whose reproductive mode remains controversial despite a century of intensive cytogenetic observations. We focus on A. parthenogenetica from two western Mediterranean populations. We show that they are diploid and that markers remain heterozygous in cultures maintained up to ~36 generations in the laboratory. Moreover, parallel patterns of population-wide heterozygosity levels between the two natural populations strongly support the conclusion that diploid A. parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low, but nonzero recombination. This settles a century-old controversy on Artemia, and, more generally, suggests that many automictic organisms harbour steep within-chromosome gradients of heterozygosity due to a transition from clonal transmission in centromere-proximal regions to a form of inbreeding similar to self-fertilization in centromere-distal regions. Such systems therefore offer a new avenue for contrasting the genomic consequences of asexuality and inbreeding.

  2. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  3. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  4. Seborrheic dermatitis: etiology, risk factors, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, based on the observation of their presence in affected skin and the therapeutic response to antifungal agents. Others have proposed that Malassezia is incidental to a primary inflammatory dermatosis that resulted in increased cell turnover, scaling, and inflammation in the epidermis, similar to psoriasis. The presence of host susceptibility factors, permitting the transition of M furfur to its pathogenic form, may be associated with immune response and inflammation. Metabolites produced by Malassezia species, including oleic acid, malssezin, and indole-3-carbaldehyde, have been implicated. SD also has been traditionally considered to be a form of dermatitis based on the presence of Malassezia in healthy skin, the absence the pathogenic mycelial form of Malassezia yeasts in SD, and its chronic course. As a result, proposed treatments vary, ranging from topical corticosteroids to topical antifungals and antimicrobial peptides.

  5. Questions and controversies: the role of necroptosis in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Liu, Zhang-Xu; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic liver injury results in hepatocyte death and turnover. If injury becomes chronic, the continuous cell death and turnover leads to chronic inflammation, fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Controlling liver cell death both in acute injury, to rescue the liver from acute liver failure, and in chronic injury, to curb secondary inflammation and fibrosis, is of paramount importance as a therapeutic strategy. Both apoptosis and necrosis occur in the liver, but the occurrence of necroptosis in the liver and its contribution to liver disease is controversial. Necroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis which occurs in certain cell types when caspases (+/−cIAPs) are inhibited through the RIPK1-RIPK3 activation of MLKL. The occurrence of necroptosis in the liver has recently been examined in multiple liver injury models with conflicting results. The aim of this review is to summarize the published data with an emphasis on the controversies and remaining questions in the field. PMID:27924226

  6. ["I do not wish to be controversial": the arrival of the plague in Brazil; analysis of a controversy, 1899].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo do; Silva, Matheus Alves Duarte da

    2013-11-30

    This article analyzes a debate brought to the public arena by Jornal do Commercio newspaper in August and September 1899 involving two sanitation officials: Nuno de Andrade, Director-General of Public Health, and Jorge Pinto, Director of Hygiene and Public Welfare of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The issue in question was the measures taken by the federal government to prevent bubonic plague reaching Brazil from Porto, Portugal, where there was an epidemic. The theoretical framework for the analysis is Pierre Bourdieu's notion of field, and Bruno Latour's studies into scientific controversy.

  7. Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

    PubMed

    Langman, Craig B; Barshop, Bruce A; Deschênes, Georges; Emma, Francesco; Goodyer, Paul; Lipkin, Graham; Midgley, Julian P; Ottolenghi, Chris; Servais, Aude; Soliman, Neveen A; Thoene, Jess G; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2016-06-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years. The molecular basis is due to mutations in CTNS, the gene encoding for the lysosomal cystine-proton cotransporter, cystinosin. During adolescence and adulthood, extrarenal manifestations of cystinosis develop and require multidisciplinary care. Despite substantial improvement in prognosis due to cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine, no cure of the disease is currently available. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Controversies Conference on cystinosis to review the state-of-the-art knowledge and to address areas of controversies in pathophysiology, diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment in different age groups. More importantly, promising areas of investigation that may lead to optimal outcomes for patients afflicted with this lifelong, systemic disease were discussed with a research agenda proposed for the future.

  8. Controversies in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux and achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kurt E; Duffy, Andrew J; Bell, Robert L

    2006-01-01

    The immense success of laparoscopic surgery as an effective treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and achalasia has established minimal invasive surgery as the gold standard for these two conditions with lower morbidity and mortality, shorter hospital stay, faster convalescence, and less postoperative pain. One controversy in the treatment of GERD evolves around laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) as the preferred treatment for Barrett’s esophagus and the procedure’s potential to reduce the risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. GERD has also been associated with respiratory symptoms, asthma and laryngeal injury, and a second controversy prompts discussions about whether total or partial fundoplication is the more appropriate treatment for GERD. A new and promising alternative in the treatment of GERD is endoluminal therapy. Three types of this new treatment option will be discussed: radiofrequency energy delivered to the lower esophageal sphincter, the creation of a mechanical barrier at the gastroesophageal junction, and the direct endoscopic tightening of the lower esophageal sphincter. Laparoscopic surgery is discussed not only as a very effective treatment for GERD but also as permanent cure for achalasia. This review analyzes the three most important treatment options for achalasia: medications, pneumatic dilatation, and surgical therapy. Medications as the only true non-invasive option in the treatment of achalasia are not as effective as LARS because of their short half-life and variable absorption due to the poor esophageal emptying. The second treatment option, pneumatic dilatation, involves the stretching of the lower esophagus and is still considered the most effective non-surgical treatment for achalasia. Finally, surgical therapy for achalasia and the two major controversies concerning this laparoscopic treatment are discussed. The first involves the extent to which the myotomy is extended onto the stomach, and the second

  9. Comparison with European observations of meteor impact

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    A model for the inference of object size and speed from observations is used to discuss European observations of impact. It compares the observed and predicted breakup altitudes for the objects larger than one meter and observes useful correlations. Trends in magnitude correlate well with measured velocities, altitudes, and trajectories and inferred size and strength parameters, but each parameter is subject to dispute, which can only be addressed when the sensitivity of predictions to uncertainties in these parameters is assessed.

  10. Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy

    PubMed Central

    Stanhope, Kimber L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sugar consumption on health continues to be a controversial topic. The objective of this review is to discuss the evidence and lack of evidence that allows the controversy to continue, and why resolution of the controversy is important. There are plausible mechanisms and research evidence that support the suggestion that consumption of excess sugar promotes the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) both directly and indirectly. The direct pathway involves the unregulated hepatic uptake and metabolism of fructose, which leads to liver lipid accumulation, dyslipidemia, decreased insulin sensitivity and increased uric acid levels. The epidemiological data suggest that these direct effects of fructose are pertinent to the consumption of the fructose-containing sugars, sucrose and HFCS, which are the predominant added sugars. Consumption of added sugar is associated with development and/or prevalence of fatty liver, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and many of these associations are independent of body weight gain or total energy intake. There are diet intervention studies in which human subjects exhibited increased circulating lipids and decreased insulin sensitivity when consuming high sugar compared with control diets. Most recently, our group has reported that supplementing the ad libitum diets of young adults with beverages containing 0, 10, 17.5 or 25% of daily energy requirement (Ereq) as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and uric acid in a dose response manner. However, un-confounded studies conducted in healthy humans under a controlled, energy-balanced diet protocol that allow determination of the effects of sugar with diets that do not allow for body weight gain are lacking. Furthermore, there are recent reports that conclude that there are no adverse effects of consuming beverages

  11. Locally advanced prostate cancer: current controversies and optimisation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, S; Dal Pra, A; Catton, C; Bristow, R G; Warde, P

    2013-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men worldwide. The rate of patients presenting with locally advanced prostate cancer has declined in recent decades, mainly due to prostate-specific antigen screening, but the management of these patients still remains controversial. Current literature suggests that the standard of care for these patients is a combination approach with radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy. However, there remain many unresolved issues, including the role of dose-escalated radiation therapy, the additional benefit of surgery and the role of systemic therapy, both standard chemotherapeutic agents and novel agents. Furthermore, in the era of personalised medicine, additional research is needed to evaluate the role of biomarkers to better predict the risk of local and systemic relapse in this population.

  12. Complications And Controversies Of Regional Anaesthesia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Kishore, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Summary Complications of regional anaesthesia has been recognised from very long time. Fortunately serious complication are rare. Safe, effective practice of neuraxial anaesthesia requires a detailed knowledge of potential complications, their incidence and risk factors associated with their occurrence. The incidence of complication were higher for spinal than for epidural anaesthesia. These complications being rare, so existing studies are mainly retrospective, providing information about incidence and their associations but not necessarily demonstrate causality. There are many areas of controversies regarding the usage of regional anaesthesia i.e. in outpatient surgical procedures, epidural test dose, its safety in infected / febrile / immuno compromised patients, / in patients with neurological disorder and in patients receiving anti-coagulants. Recommendations proposed may be acceptable based on the judgment of the responsible anaesthesiologist. The consensus statements are designed to encourage safe and quality patient care but cannot guarantee a specific outcome. PMID:20640104

  13. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  14. Evolving role of adiponectin in cancer-controversies and update

    PubMed Central

    Katira, Arnav; Tan, Peng H.

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN), an adipokine produced by adipocytes, has been shown to have a critical role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated malignancies. Through its receptor interactions, APN may exert its anti-carcinogenic effects including regulating cell survival, apoptosis and metastasis via a plethora of signalling pathways. Despite the strong evidence supporting this notion, some work may indicate otherwise. Our review addresses all controversies critically. On the whole, hypoadiponectinaemia is associated with increased risk of several malignancies and poor prognosis. In addition, various genetic polymorphisms may predispose individuals to increased risk of obesity-associated malignancies. We also provide an updated summary on therapeutic interventions to increase APN levels that are of key interest in this field. To date efforts to manipulate APN levels have been promising, but much work remains to be done. PMID:27144066

  15. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  16. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved.

  17. Controversies in testosterone replacement therapy: testosterone and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kathleen; Miner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The role of testosterone in the cardiovascular (CV) health of men is controversial. Data suggest that both the condition and treatment of clinical hypogonadism is associated with decreased CV mortality; however, two recent studies suggest that hypogonadal subjects treated with testosterone replacement therapy have a higher incidence of new CV events. There has been increased media attention concerning the risk of CV disease in men treated with testosterone. Until date, there are no long-term prospective studies to determine safety. Literature spanning over the past 30 years has suggested that not only is there a possible increased CV risk in men with low levels of testosterone, but the benefits from testosterone therapy may even lower this risk. We review here the recent studies that have garnered such intense scrutiny. This article is intended as a thorough review of testosterone levels and CV risk, providing the clinician with the facts needed to make informed clinical decisions in managing patients with clinical hypogonadism.

  18. Race and genetics: controversies in biomedical, behavioral, and forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never. Researchers should instead focus on developing standards for when and how to use racial variables. The article then discusses 1 context, criminology, in which the use of racial variables in behavioral genetics research could be particularly problematic. If genetic studies of criminalized behavior use forensic DNA databanks or forensic genetic profiles, they will be confounded by the many racial biases of the law enforcement and penal system.

  19. Sources of Controversy Surrounding Latitudinal Patterns in Herbivory and Defense.

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Nunes, Krystal A; Baskett, Carina; Kotanen, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Both herbivory and plant defenses against herbivores have been predicted to increase toward tropical regions. Early tests of this latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) were supportive, but accumulating evidence has been mixed. We argue that the lack of clarity might be due to heterogeneity in methodology and problems with study design and interpretation. We suggest possible solutions. Latitudinal studies need to carefully consider spatial and phylogenetic scale, to link plant defense measurements to herbivore performance, and to incorporate additional concepts from plant defense theory such as tolerance and induced defense. In addition, we call for consistent measures of herbivory to standardize comparisons across biomes. Improving methodology in future studies of LHDH should resolve much of the current controversy.

  20. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies.

    PubMed

    VanEpps, Eric M; Roberto, Christina A; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-03-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet.

  1. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.S. )

    1989-08-04

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended tolerance doses in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them. 35 references.

  2. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview.

    PubMed

    Walker, J S

    1989-08-04

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended "tolerance doses" in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them.

  3. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves.

  4. [Treatment based on patient's consent: controversies, doubts, ambiguities].

    PubMed

    Zaba, Czesław; Swiderski, Paweł; Zaba, Zbigniew; Klimberg, Aneta; Przybylski, Zygmunt

    2007-01-01

    The authors aimed at directing the reader's attention to regulations by law related to the consent to treatment, the form and interpretation of which may induce controversies among clinicians. Among various problems associated with such a vast topic, the authors focused on the issue of the so called "printed form consent", commonly practiced, but legally groundless in view of the legal regulations in force. The report also presented selected aspects of obtaining consent to treatment of a juvenile patient, specifying and discussing unclear and doubtful situations. Another topic stressed in the paper involved treatment executed in the absence of consent or when preferences of the patient are unknown, particularly in emergencies. Finally, selected aspects of compulsory procedures were presented, in particular the principles of compulsory examination of a patient in penal proceedings and the use of constraint in the emergency detoxification centers.

  5. Controversy and consensus in disaster mental health research.

    PubMed

    Tierney, K J

    2000-01-01

    Controversies regarding the mental health consequences of disasters are rooted both in disciplinary orientations and in the widely varied research strategies that have been employed in disaster mental health studies. However, despite a history of dissensus, there are also key issues on which researchers agree. Disasters constitute stressful and traumatic experiences. However, vulnerability to such experiences, as well as to more chronic stressors, is socially structured, reflecting the influence of socio-economic status and other axes of stratification, including gender, race, and ethnicity. Disaster events differ in the extent to which they generate stress for victims. A holistic perspective on disaster mental health would take into account not only disaster event characteristics, but also social-systemic sources of both acute and chronic stress, secondary and cumulative stressors, and victims internal and external coping capacities.

  6. Leukemic blast cells and controversies in models of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, D F; Sklyarenko, L M; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Ivanovskaya, T S

    2015-03-01

    Classical and up-to-date models of hematopoietic lineage determination are briefly reviewed with the focus on myeloid-based models challenging the existence of the common progenitor for T cells, B cells and NK cells. The analysis of immunophenotype of leukemic blast cells seems to be a promising approach for interpreting some controversies in the schemes of normal hematopoiesis. The literature data as well as our own findings in the patients with various types of acute leukemias are in favor of the concept postulating that common myeloid-lymphoid progenitors giving rise to T and B cell branches retain the myeloid potential. The similarity of some immunophenotypic features of blast cells in pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute monoblastic leukemia is consistent with monocyte origin postulated in the studies of normal hematopoiesis. Study of acute leukemias may be the challenging area of research allowing for new insight into the origin of hematopoietic cell lineages.

  7. Resolving controversy of unusually high refractive index of a tubulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosudský, O.; Dráber, P.; Cifra, M.

    2017-02-01

    The refractive index of a tubulin is an important parameter underlying fundamental electromagnetic and biophysical properties of microtubules – protein fibers essential for several cell functions including cell division. Yet, the only experimental data available in the current literature show values of the tubulin refractive index (n=2.36\\text{--}2.90) which are much higher than what the established theories predict based on the weighted contribution of the polarizability of individual amino acids constituting the protein. To resolve this controversy, we report here modeling and rigorous experimental analysis of the refractive index of a purified tubulin dimer. Our experimental data revealed that the refractive index of the tubulin is n=1.64 at wavelength 589 nm and 25 °C, that is much closer to the values predicted by the established theories than what the earlier experimental data provide.

  8. Controversies Related to Diabetes and Risk of Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spradling, Kyle; Youssef, Ramy F

    2016-03-15

    In recent years, a growing number of case-control and cohort studies have suggested that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) may have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer (BC). However, the body of evidence linking DM and BC is controversial and largely composed of observational studies with significant heterogeneity in study design. In this review, we outline the current body of evidence associating DM with BC. We also highlight the evidence surrounding the relationship between BC and two antidiabetic medications, metformin and pioglitazone. Currently, not enough evidence is available to decisively conclude that DM is associated with an increased risk for development of BC. Similarly, the current body of evidence is inadequate to establish a causal relationship between pioglitazone and BC nor a protective relationship between metformin and BC.

  9. Atopic dermatitis and vitamin D: facts and controversies*

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Kleyton de Carvalho; Igreja, Ana Carolina de Souza Machado; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have genetically determined risk factors that affect the barrier function of the skin and immune responses that interact with environmental factors. Clinically, this results in an intensely pruriginous and inflamed skin that allows the penetration of irritants and allergens and predisposes patients to colonization and infection by microorganisms. Among the various etiological factors responsible for the increased prevalence of atopic diseases over the past few decades, the role of vitamin D has been emphasized. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interplay of epidermal barrier dysfunction and dysregulated immune response, and vitamin D is involved in both processes, it is reasonable to expect that vitamin D's status could be associated with atopic dermatitis' risk or severity. Such association is suggested by epidemiological and experimental data. In this review, we will discuss the evidence for and against this controversial relationship, emphasizing the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms involved. PMID:24474104

  10. Clinical diagnostic criteria and classification controversies in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    RASCOVSKY, KATYA; GROSSMAN, MURRAY

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) can manifest as a spectrum of clinical syndromes, ranging from behavioural impairment to language or motor dysfunction. Recently, revised diagnostic criteria have been proposed for the behavioural and progressive aphasia syndromes associated with frontotemporal degeneration. The present review will summarize these diagnostic guidelines and highlight some lingering controversies in the classification of FTLD clinical syndromes. We will discuss common tools and methods used to identify the insidious changes of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), the value of new, patient-based tasks of orbitofrontal function, and the issue of a benign or ‘phenocopy’ variant of bvFTD. With regard to primary progressive aphasia (PPA), we will discuss the scope of the semantic disorder in semantic-variant PPA, the nature of the speech disorder in non-fluent, agrammatic PPA, and the preliminary utility of a logopenic PPA classification. PMID:23611345

  11. Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Copp, Andrew J; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-08-01

    Neural tube defects are severe congenital malformations affecting around one in every 1000 pregnancies. An innovation in clinical management has come from the finding that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention with folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in the UK. Genetic predisposition accounts for most of the risk of neural tube defects, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but studies of mouse models of neural tube defects show that anencephaly, open spina bifida, and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, whereas skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be postneurulation disorders.

  12. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  13. Herpes Zoster Vaccination: Controversies and Common Clinical Questions.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, Puja; Schmader, Kenneth E; Canaday, David H

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster, clinically referred to as shingles, is an acute, cutaneous viral infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The incidence of herpes zoster and its complications increase with decline in cell-mediated immunity, including age-associated decline. The most effective management strategy for herpes zoster is prevention of the disease through vaccination in those who are most vulnerable. Despite the demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of herpes zoster, the uptake of vaccine remains low. Here, we will discuss the controversies that surround the live herpes zoster vaccine and address the common clinical questions that arise. We will also discuss the new adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine currently under investigation.

  14. The Relative Value Unit: History, Current Use, and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Baadh, Amanjit; Peterkin, Yuri; Wegener, Melanie; Flug, Jonathan; Katz, Douglas; Hoffmann, Jason C

    2016-01-01

    The relative value unit (RVU) is an important measuring tool for the work performed by physicians, and is currently used in the United States to calculate physician reimbursement. An understanding of radiology RVUs and current procedural terminology codes is important for radiologists, trainees, radiology managers, and administrators, as this knowledge would help them to understand better their current productivity and reimbursement, as well as controversies regarding reimbursement, and permit them to adapt to reimbursement changes that may occur in the future. This article reviews the components of the RVU and how radiology payment is calculated, highlights trends in RVUs and resultant payment for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging and examinations, and discusses current issues involving RVU and current procedural terminology codes.

  15. No man's land revisited: the primary flexor tendon repair controversy.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, William L; Manske, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    New surgical procedures, novel concepts, and/or the presentation of very good results with an apparently discredited technique meet varying degrees of resistance among the establishment of any profession. In hand surgery this phenomenon was exemplified in a striking fashion with the presentation of a controversial report entitled, "Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man's land" by Kleinert, Kutz, Ashbell, and Martinez of Louisville, KY, at the 1967 American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) annual meeting. The discussant, Joseph Boyes, expressed such skepticism that a special ASSH committee was appointed to go to Louisville and review the results to determine if they were as good as claimed. They were, and today primary flexor tendon repair is the procedure of choice for most flexor tendon lacerations.

  16. Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?123

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of sugar and its relation to various potential adverse health consequences are the subjects of considerable debate and controversy. This supplement to Advances in Nutrition provides an expanded summary of a symposium held on 26 April 2014 entitled “Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?” as part of the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014. The articles in the supplement discuss results of current systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as randomized controlled trials and draw implications for public policy considerations. In addition, future research gaps are identified. Current research trials conducted with commonly consumed sugars [e.g., sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)] do not support a unique relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, risk factors for heart disease, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Neurologic differences in response to studies that used pure fructose compared with pure glucose have not been confirmed using typical sugars that are consumed (i.e., sucrose and HFCS), which contain ∼50% glucose and fructose. We conclude that added sugars consumed in the normal forms in which humans consume them, at amounts typical of the human diet and for the time period studied in randomized controlled trials, do not result in adverse health consequences. Although more research trials are needed in many areas of sugar consumption and health, there is little scientific justification for recommending restricting sugar consumption below the reasonable upper limit recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 of no more than 25% of calories.

  17. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it`s findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, {open_quotes}Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.{close_quotes} The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau`s response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government`s program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists.

  18. Controversies in diabetes in 2013 - a brief update.

    PubMed

    Gajos, Grzegorz; Piłaciński, Stanisław; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Therefore, a proper understanding of the mechanisms and efficient treatment of the disease is becoming increasingly important. The article briefly describes controversies in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) pathogenesis and diagnosis (genetic background, accelerator hypothesis, new autoantibodies, new information on LADA - latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, and the role of TRAIL - tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and treatment (how to deal with fluctuations of blood glucose concentrations and the occurrence of hypoglycemia, the role of healthy lifestyle, especially physical exercise, and a proper diet, treatment of insulin resistance and the challenges in detecting diabetic neuropathy). Moreover, issues in the pathogenesis of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are considered (novel risk factors - vascular hyperglycemic memory, hypoglycemia, altered profile of microRNAs expression, impaired function of vascular progenitor cells, altered fibrin clot properties and iron-induced blood coagulation). Modern treatment of T2DM, based on lifestyle intervention and antidiabetic drugs, is full of controversies and it seems that over time the number of uncertainties is constantly increasing. Recent trials have reported disappointing results in lifestyle intervention (LOOK-AHEAD) and antihyperglycemic treatment (ACCORD, SAVOR-TIMI 53, EXAMINE, concerns about sulfonylureas safety). Moreover, there are considerable deviations from treatment targets that are recommended by the guidelines (blood glucose, hypertension, blood lipids) in real-life clinical practice in patients at different stages of the disease development. It seems that beneficial modification of the natural history of diabetes is unlikely in the foreseeable future unless we are able to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the pathomechanisms of the disease.

  19. Mapping Intravascular Ultrasound Controversies in Interventional Cardiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, David; Adams, Samantha; Maresca, Bruno; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with complementary imaging

  20. On the controversy about the sharpness of human cochlear tuning.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Eustaquio-Martin, Almudena

    2013-10-01

    In signal processing terms, the operation of the mammalian cochlea in the inner ear may be likened to a bank of filters. Based on otoacoustic emission evidence, it has been recently claimed that cochlear tuning is sharper for human than for other mammals. The claim was corroborated with a behavioral method that involves the masking of pure tones with forward notched noises (NN). Using this method, it has been further claimed that human cochlear tuning is sharper than suggested by earlier behavioral studies. These claims are controversial. Here, we contribute to the controversy by theoretically assessing the accuracy of the NN method at inferring the bandwidth (BW) of nonlinear cochlear filters. Behavioral forward masking was mimicked using a computer model of the squared basilar membrane response followed by a temporal integrator. Isoresponse and isolevel versions of the forward masking NN method were applied to infer the already known BW of the cochlear filter used in the model. We show that isolevel methods were overall more accurate than isoresponse methods. We also show that BWs for NNs and sinusoids equate only for isolevel methods and when the levels of the two stimuli are appropriately scaled. Lastly, we show that the inferred BW depends on the method version (isolevel BW was twice as broad as isoresponse BW at 40 dB SPL) and on the stimulus level (isoresponse and isolevel BW decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing level over the level range where cochlear responses went from linear to compressive). We suggest that the latter may contribute to explaining the reported differences in cochlear tuning across behavioral studies and species. We further suggest that given the well-established nonlinear nature of cochlear responses, even greater care must be exercised when using a single BW value to describe and compare cochlear tuning.

  1. European Composite Honeycomb Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschepe, Christoph; Sauerbrey, Martin; Klebor, Maximillian; Henriksen, Torben

    2014-06-01

    A European CFRP honeycomb material for high demanding structure applications like antenna reflectors and optical benches was developed in the frame of an ESA GSTP project.The composite honeycomb was designed according to requirements defined by the European space industry. A developed manufacturing technique based on prepreg moulding enables the production of homogeneous CFRP honeycomb blocks. All characteristic material properties, including compression, tension and shear strength and CTE, were determined in a comprehensive verification test campaign. Competitiveness to comparable products was further verified by a representative breadboard.

  2. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  3. Gluten Sensitivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... like medicines, vitamins, and supplements. People with gluten sensitivity have problems with gluten. It is different from ... small intestine. Some of the symptoms of gluten sensitivity are similar to celiac disease. They include tiredness ...

  4. Sensitivity analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  5. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  6. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  7. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  8. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  9. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  10. Scientific Experts and the Controversy About Teaching Creation/Evolution in the UK Press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgaier, Joachim

    2010-06-01

    The issue whether creationist accounts of the origins of life should be taught in science education alongside or even instead Darwin’s theory of evolution is controversial in many countries. In 2002 there was a controversy around teaching creationism in science classes at a secondary school in England. The research presented in this paper uses this controversy around teaching creationism/evolution as case study to find out more about the public representation of science education. Here it focuses on the question who the experts were that appeared in the press coverage and examines the role of scientific experts in this controversy. Expertise is a key resource in many public controversies involving science and can also have an impact on decision-making processes and on the public opinion. Also the way expert sources are presented in media accounts of socio-scientific controversies can have an effect on how their credibility is perceived and the arguments being made.

  11. Print Media and Public Reaction to the Controversy over NEA Funding for Robert Mapplethorpe's "The Perfect Moment" Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Douglas M.; MacKenzie, Jill A.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on agenda-building and public controversies, and on print media coverage of controversial art by examining media coverage of Robert Mapplethorpe's photography exhibit and the controversy that emerged surrounding National Endowment for the Arts funding. Finds two ironic outcomes of the controversy: increased museum…

  12. Medical Device Regulation: A Comparison of the United States and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Maak, Travis G; Wylie, James D

    2016-08-01

    Medical device regulation is a controversial topic in both the United States and the European Union. Many physicians and innovators in the United States cite a restrictive US FDA regulatory process as the reason for earlier and more rapid clinical advances in Europe. The FDA approval process mandates that a device be proved efficacious compared with a control or be substantially equivalent to a predicate device, whereas the European Union approval process mandates that the device perform its intended function. Stringent, peer-reviewed safety data have not been reported. However, after recent high-profile device failures, political pressure in both the United States and the European Union has favored more restrictive approval processes. Substantial reforms of the European Union process within the next 5 to 10 years will result in a more stringent approach to device regulation, similar to that of the FDA. Changes in the FDA regulatory process have been suggested but are not imminent.

  13. Echo Park controversy and the American conservation movement

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, M.W.T.

    1986-01-01

    During the twentieth century, a few conservation battles have pitted in as classic a fashion the foes of preservation and development as that waged during the 1950s over Dinosaur National Monument. The issue was whether to build the proposed Echo Park Dam within Dinosaur National Monument. The Monument spans the Utah-Colorado border, and comprises the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers. Echo Park, a lovely, peaceful meadow flanked by massive sandstone walls at the rivers' confluence, became the storm-center of controversy when the Bureau of Reclamation made plans to dam the Green River just two miles to the south. The dam would have flooded a hundred miles of this canyon country, and the proposal startled the nation's major conservation organizations and occupied their attention for several years. Their effort to prevent the dam ultimately succeeded, and their story is critical in tracing the roots of contemporary conservation. In the end, pressure from conservation groups helped to delete the dam from the legislation, and Dinosaur's river canyons were preserved.

  14. Our Way to Understand the World: Darwin's Controversial Inheritance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Salomon, Michael

    Shortly after he had completed the first draft of his theory of evolution in 1844, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend Joseph Hooker, the botanist, that publishing the theory seemed to him "like confessing a murder" (Glaubrecht 2009, p. 161). Right from the beginning, Darwin was aware of the far-reaching impact his theory would have. And this was probably one of the main reasons for his postponing the publication of his ideas for such a long time. After the completion of the 230 page text in 1844, it was another 15 years (!) before his famous book On the Origin of Species was published. Since that time 150 years have passed, but the theory of evolution is as controversial as ever. Darwin's dangerous idea is still putting many traditional world views through some very hard tests. This is the central theme to which I have devoted the following thoughts. I have divided my study into three parts: I shall start by shedding some light on the conflict between Darwin's challenging idea and traditional (Christian) beliefs, a conflict that has lasted till this very day. In the second part, I want to focus on the ideological abuse of the theory of evolution. The third and final part introduces Julian Huxley's concept of 'evolutionary humanism', which links Darwin's scientific inheritance with a distinctly humanist ethic.

  15. Microorganisms in periradicular tissues: Do they exist? A perennial controversy

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Dudeja, Krishan Kumar; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani

    2015-01-01

    There is no greater association between the basic science and the practice of endodontics than that of microbiology. One of the strongest factors contributing to the controversies often encountered in the endodontic field is the lack of understanding that the disease processes of the pulp and periradicular tissues generally have a microbiological etiology. The vast majority of diseases of dental pulp and periradicular tissues are associated with microorganisms. After the microbial invasion of these tissues, the host responds with both nonspecific inflammatory responses and with specific immunologic responses to encounter such infections. The aim of this study is to fill the gaps in our knowledge regarding the role of microorganisms in endodontics and to discuss in depth whether their presence in periradicular lesions is a myth or a reality. An electronic search was carried out on PubMed database (custom range of almost 50 years) and Google using specific keywords and phrases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were specified and around 50 articles were found suitable for inclusion. Full text of all the articles was retrieved and studied. Appropriate data were extracted and pooled and finally synthesized. It is important to understand the close relationship between the presence of microorganisms and endodontic disease process to develop an effective rationale for treatment. PMID:26980965

  16. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

  17. A VLBI Resolution of the Pleiades Distance Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Carl; Reid, Mark J.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Stauffer, John R.; Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The Pleiades is the best studied open cluster in the sky. It is one of the primary open clusters used to define the 'Zero Age Main Sequence' and hence it serves as a cornerstone for programs which use main-sequence fitting to derive distances to other clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy. This role is called into question by the 'Pleiades distance controversy' - the distance to the Pleiades from the Hipparcos space astrometry mission of about 120 pc is significantly different from the distance of 133 pc derived from other techniques. In order to resolve this issue, the Very Long Baseline Array combined with the Green Bank, Effelsberg, and Arecibo telescopes are being used to derive a new, independent trigonometric parallax distance to the Pleiades. From four Pleiades systems we find a distance of 136.2+/-1.2 pc, the most accurate and precise distance to the cluster yet measured. In this contribution we present preliminary parallaxes for the remaining four Pleiades systems not published in Melis et al. (2014, Science 345, 1029). Additionally, binary orbit model fits and preliminary stellar masses are presented for two multiple systems in our sample with significant orbital motion observed during our VLBI monitoring.Funding for this research came from the NSF through awards No. AST-1003318 and No. AST-1313428.

  18. Controversies in the Diagnosis and Management of NAFLD and NASH

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit; Caldwell, Stephen H.; Kowdley, Kris; Charlton, Michael; Tetri, Brent; Harrison, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in a subset of patients with NAFLD and is characterized by the presence of hepa-tocellular injury, which is progressive in a substantial proportion of cases and can lead to cirrhosis and all of its complications. Although the diagnosis of NAFLD can be made through imaging studies or liver biopsy, the diagnosis of NASH still requires histologic confirmation. Liver biopsy should be performed in the presence of risk factors for advanced disease. Measures aimed at promoting weight loss, a healthier lifestyle, and optimization of metabolic risk factors remain the cornerstone of management of NAFLD. Therapeutic agents that are presently considered the most promising in NAFLD are effective in less than 50% of patients. Among patients with biopsy-proven NASH, treatment with pharmacologic agents should be considered; however, the role of specific agents in NASH still needs further study. Despite a wealth of research over the past 15 years, many controversies remain with respect to the diagnosis and management of NAFLD and NASH as well as the influence of alcohol on liver disease progression in these patients. PMID:24976805

  19. The Soul in Medicine: Rabbinic and Scientific Controversies.

    PubMed

    Zukier, Henri

    2016-12-01

    The practice of medicine relies on a combination of two very different sources, and requires two kinds of talents: a cognitive-instrumental, knowledge-based and disease-centered approach; and a psychological, expressive-relational and patient-centered approach. Throughout the centuries, the mix between the cognitive and expressive dimensions, and the relative emphasis given to each approach, has varied considerably. Current evidence-based medicine privileges the cognitive-performative dimension. The recent developments within medicine are indicative of the inherent and lasting tension between the cognitive and expressive dimensions. Not surprisingly, then, related terms of debate are also apparent in medieval rabbinic discussions of medical practice. However, the rabbinic and medical traditions resolved the tension in very different ways. This paper explores a conceptual link between the modern dynamics of the cognitive and the socio-relational dimensions, and a complementary rabbinic controversy starting in the thirteenth century, originally between Maimonides and Nahmanides, both physicians. There are significant interactions between the modern evolution in the roles of doctors and patients, and the rabbinic approaches to physicians and illness. The mapping of the two debates about doctors and patients suggests that the tension between science and soul, and the dynamics of integrating them, has characterized medicine through the ages, though they can lead to different outcomes.

  20. The controversial place of vitamin C in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Verrax, J; Calderon, P Buc

    2008-12-15

    In 2008, we celebrate the 80th anniversary of the discovery of vitamin C. Since then, we know that vitamin C possesses few pharmacological actions although it is still perceived by the public as a "miracle-pill" capable to heal a variety of illnesses. Cancer is one of the most common diseases for which a beneficial role of vitamin C has been claimed. Thus, its dietary use has been proposed in cancer prevention for several years. Apart from this nutritional aspect, an extensive and often confusing literature exists about the use of vitamin C in cancer that has considerably discredited its use. Nevertheless, recent pharmacokinetic data suggest that pharmacologic concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved by intravenous injections. Since these concentrations exhibit anticancer activities in vitro, this raises the controversial question of the re-evaluation of vitamin C in cancer treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this commentary is to make a critical review of our current knowledge of vitamin C, focusing on the rationale that could support its use in cancer therapy.

  1. [Linoleic acid and the immune system. Controversies about lipid emulsions].

    PubMed

    García de Lorenzo, A; Culebras, J M

    1992-01-01

    The selection of a given lipidic function for nutritional backup requires not only knowledge of the metabolism of the different existing lipidic emulsions and of their specific therapeutic indications, but also of their contraindications and controversies because, apart from their calorific value, the contribution of liposoluble vitamins and their function in preventing essential fatty acid deficiencies, we know that they are powerful metabolic modulators. This in associated with the fact that manipulation of dietary lipids (enteral or parenteral) can affect and modulate the response to the disease, attack or infection by improving or impairing the different immune functions. This review is focused on the scientific publications which have examined the varying effects of lipidic emulsions, in quantity and in quality (particularly linoleic acid) on the immune system, on the fatty acid composition of the cellular membranes and on the production of and prostaglandins and leukotrienes. An update is given of the known interrelation between lipids and immunity, with appraisal of triglycerides and long-medium -- and short-chain fatty acids, mixtures of medium -- and long-chain triglycerides, the proportions between infinity-3/infinity-6, and structured lipids.

  2. Graphene spintronics: puzzling controversies and challenges for spin manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Stephan; Valenzuela, Sergio O.

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the current puzzling controversy between theory and experimental results concerning the mechanisms leading to spin relaxation in graphene-based materials. On the experimental side, it is surprising that regardless of the quality of the graphene monolayer, which is characterized by the carrier mobility, the typical Hanle precession measurements yield spin diffusion times (τs) in the order of τs ˜ 0.1-1 ns (at low temperatures), which is several orders of magnitude below the theoretical estimates based on the expected low intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene. The results are weakly dependent on whether graphene is deposited onto SiO2 or boron-nitride substrates or is suspended, with the mobility spanning 3 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, extraction form two-terminal magnetoresistance measurements, accounting for contact effects results in τs ˜ 0.1 µs, and corresponding diffusion lengths of about 100 µm up to room temperature. Such discrepancy jeopardizes further progress towards spin manipulation on a lateral graphene two-dimensional platform. After a presentation of basic concepts, we here discuss state-of-the-art literature and the limits of all known approaches to describe spin transport in massless-Dirac fermions, in which the effects of strong local spin-orbit coupling ceases to be accessible with perturbative approaches. We focus on the limits of conventional views of spin transport in graphene and offer novel perspectives for further progress.

  3. The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Changes or introductions of technology or equipment can affect how a sport is played or influence its performances. This article conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify any case studies of controversial events surrounding the implementation or use of sports technology. 56 articles were identified that highlighted 31 different case studies found over a three decade time period. Thematic analysis revealed six distinctive themes when reviewing the articles. Whilst the sport of golf had the highest number of case studies, it was found that a significant level of attention had been recorded in the cases of Oscar Pistorius use of prosthetic legs in athletics and the use of full length swimsuits in swimming. The trend surrounding the number of articles was shown to be initially intermittent but saw a peak period from 2008 to 2010. However, the frequency of such articles since this peak has been more consistent. It is proposed that long periods of time without intervention or resolution by a governing body often increases the peer-reviewed attention paid to such cases in examples such as those identified in this systematic review.

  4. Cancer stem cells in lung cancer: Evidence and controversies.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer, Muhammad; Peacock, Craig D; Matsui, William; Ganju, Vinod; Watkins, D Neil

    2013-07-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is based on a myriad of experimental and clinical observations suggesting that the malignant phenotype is sustained by a subset of cells characterized by the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation and innate resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. CSC may be responsible for disease recurrence after definitive therapy and may therefore be functionally synonymous with minimal residual disease. Similar to other solid tumours, several putative surface markers for lung CSC have been identified, including CD133 and CD44. In addition, expression and/or activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH and capacity of cells to exclude membrane permeable dyes (known as the 'side population') correlate with stem-like function in vitro and in vivo. Embryonic stem cell pathways such as Hedgehog, Notch and WNT may also be active in lung cancers stem cells and therefore may be therapeutically targetable for maintenance therapy in patients achieving a complete response to surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This paper will review the evidence regarding the existence and function of lung CSC in the context of the experimental and clinical evidence and discuss some ongoing controversies regarding this model.

  5. Spanking children: the controversies, findings, and new directions.

    PubMed

    Benjet, Corina; Kazdin, Alan E

    2003-03-01

    The use of spanking as a discipline technique is quite prevalent, even though whether or not to spank children is controversial among lay and professional audiences alike. Considerable research on the topic has been analyzed in several reviews of the literature that often reach different and sometimes opposite conclusions. Opposing conclusions are not inherently problematic as research develops in an area. However, we propose that both methodological limitations of the research to date as well as the limited focus of the research questions have prevented a better understanding of the impact of parental spanking on child development. The purpose of this article is to convey the basis for limited progress to date and, more importantly, to reformulate the research agenda. The goal is to move toward a resolution of the most relevant questions to parents, professionals, and policymakers. We propose an expanded research agenda that addresses the goals of parental discipline, the direct and concomitant effects of spanking, the influences that foster and maintain the use of spanking, and the processes through which spanking operates.

  6. Maternal obesity and inflammatory mediators: A controversial association.

    PubMed

    Pendeloski, Karen Priscilla Tezotto; Ono, Erika; Torloni, Maria Regina; Mattar, Rosiane; Daher, Silvia

    2017-03-22

    The link between maternal obesity and inflammatory mediators is still unclear. Our aim was to summarize the main findings of recently published studies on this topic. We performed a search in Medline for studies published in the last years on obesity, human pregnancy, and inflammatory mediators. We report the findings of 30 studies. The characteristics and number of participants, study design, gestational age at sample collection, and type of sample varied widely. Approximately two-thirds of them investigated more than one mediator, and 50% included participants in only one trimester of pregnancy. The most frequently investigated mediators were leptin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6. Almost all studies reported an association between maternal obesity, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels but not with IL-1β and IL-10. The association of IL-6, TNF-α, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), adiponectin, and resistin with maternal obesity is still controversial. To clarify the physiopathological link between maternal obesity and inflammation, more high-quality studies are needed.

  7. The controversy surrounding OxyContin abuse: issues and solutions.

    PubMed

    Jayawant, Sujata S; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2005-06-01

    This paper overviews the controversies surrounding the abuse of prescription analgesic OxyContin((R)) (oxycodone hydrochloride; Purdue Pharma, Stamford, CT, USA). It discusses solutions to this medication-related issue, which has been touted as reaching epidemic proportions. Relevant literature from 1990 to 2004 was identified through a MEDLINE search, and a thorough internet-based search was conducted to obtain the latest updates and government reports. OxyContin became popular as a street drug through its ability to induce a quick heroin-like euphoria. The media hype surrounding OxyContin abuse and the "black box" warning on its label may have added to the abuse and diversion. The US Food and Drug Administration took steps by writing letters to Purdue Pharma, the manufacturers of OxyContin. Purdue Pharma developed a database to identify OxyContin abusers throughout the nation and also launched campaigns to educate patients through the internet. Further suggestions to managing the abuse of OxyContin include: community pharmacists' assessment of behavioral risk factors that could lead to patient medication abuse; medication abuse risk management courses for physicians; development of a national database linking all pharmacies specifically designed to identify abusers; and tamper-resistant prescription pads for controlled substances, which seems the most plausible and immediate solution to this problem.

  8. Chemoradiation for gastric cancer: controversies, updates and novel techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fan, M; Hu, W

    2015-01-01

    The INT0116 trial established the role of adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) in the multidisciplinary approach to the management of locally advanced gastric cancer. However, whether adjuvant CRT is indispensable for patients undergoing D2 dissection remains undefined. The adjuvant chemoradiation therapy in stomach cancer (ARTIST) trial, which was designed to compare adjuvant chemotherapy to CRT, failed to demonstrate differences in disease-free and overall survival in the whole study group; however, subgroup analysis indicated that patients with lymph node metastasis may benefit from additional radiation. A follow-up ARTIST II trial is currently under way. The efficacy of adjuvant CRT remains controversial because of variation among studies in the inclusion criteria and treatment delivery methods; however, the identification of patients who would benefit from CRT is critical. Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy protect normal tissues via motion management and decreased radiation-induced toxicity and contribute to plan optimization. Further studies integrating clinical and molecular factors as well as neoadjuvant CRT are warranted. PMID:25827208

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy indications and controversies in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wiatrek, Rebecca; Kruper, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer. Its use in breast cancer has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials and validated in multiple prospective studies. Additionally, it has been verified that SLNB has decreased morbidity when compared to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The technique used to perform sentinel lymph node mapping was also evaluated in multiple studies and the accuracy rate increases when radiocolloid and blue dye are used in combination. As SLNB became more accepted, contraindications were delineated and are still debated. Patients who have clinically positive lymph nodes or core biopsy-proven positive lymph nodes should not have SLNB, but should have an ALND as their staging procedure. The safety of SLNB in pregnant patients is not fully established. However, patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer and patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy are considered candidates for SLNB. However, the details of which specific neoadjuvant patients should have SLNB are currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) benefit from SLNB when mastectomy is planned and when there is a high clinical suspicion of invasion. With the advent of SLNB, pathologic review of breast cancer lymph nodes has evolved. The significance of occult metastasis in SLNB patients is currently being debated. Additionally, the most controversial subject with regards to SLNB is determining which patients with positive SLNs benefit from further axillary dissection.

  10. Ethical controversies in organ donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    The persistent mismatch between the supply of and need for transplantable organs has led to efforts to increase the supply, including controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD). Controlled DCD involves organ recovery after the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment and the declaration of death according to the cardiorespiratory criteria. Two central ethical issues in DCD are when organ recovery can begin and how to manage conflicts of interests. The "dead donor rule" should be maintained, and donors in cases of DCD should only be declared dead after the permanent cessation of circulatory function. Permanence is generally established by a 2- to 5-minute waiting period. Given ongoing controversy over whether the cessation must also be irreversible, physicians should not be required to participate in DCD. Because the preparation for organ recovery in DCD begins before the declaration of death, there are potential conflicts between the donor's and recipient's interests. These conflicts can be managed in a variety of ways, including informed consent and separating the various participants' roles. For example, informed consent should be sought for premortem interventions to improve organ viability, and organ procurement organization personnel and members of the transplant team should not be involved in the discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment or the declaration of death. It is also important to emphasize that potential donors in cases of DCD should receive integrated interdisciplinary palliative care, including sedation and analgesia.

  11. Vaccine safety controversies and the future of vaccination programs.

    PubMed

    François, Guido; Duclos, Philippe; Margolis, Harold; Lavanchy, Daniel; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Meheus, André; Lambert, Paul-Henri; Emiroğlu, Nedret; Badur, Selim; Van Damme, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    In the years following the hepatitis B vaccination/multiple sclerosis controversy, a number of new issues regarding vaccine safety have been raised, in some cases leading to more debate and confusion. Against this background, an international group of experts was convened to review the current points of view concerning the use of thimerosal as a preservative and its potential risks; the suggested link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the alleged association between aluminum-containing vaccines/macrophagic myofasciitis and general systemic complaints; a possible link between vaccination and autoimmune pathology; and a hypothetical link between measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and autism. At present, there are no data to conclude that childhood vaccines, and in particular hepatitis B vaccine, pose a serious health risk or justify a change in current immunization practice. However, vaccine "scares" continue to have an international impact on immunization coverage. Creating a positive environment for immunization can be achieved by repositioning the value of vaccines and vaccination, supported by evidence-based information. The role of international organizations, the media, and the industry in the implementation of communication strategies was discussed and the impact of litigation issues on vaccination was evaluated. The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board confirms its commitment to current recommendations for universal and risk group hepatitis B vaccination and further encourages the conduct of vaccine safety studies and the dissemination of their results.

  12. Emerging from the rib: resolving the turtle controversies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ritva; Riccio, Paul; Gilbert, Scott F; Cebra-Thomas, Judith

    2015-05-01

    Two of the major controversies in the present study of turtle shell development involve the mechanism by which the carapacial ridge initiates shell formation and the mechanism by which each rib forms the costal bones adjacent to it. This paper claims that both sides of each debate might be correct-but within the species examined. Mechanism is more properly "mechanisms," and there is more than one single way to initiate carapace formation and to form the costal bones. In the initiation of the shell, the rib precursors may be kept dorsal by either "axial displacement" (in the hard-shell turtles) or "axial arrest" (in the soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus), or by a combination of these. The former process would deflect the rib into the dorsal dermis and allow it to continue its growth there, while the latter process would truncate rib growth. In both instances, though, the result is to keep the ribs from extending into the ventral body wall. Our recent work has shown that the properties of the carapacial ridge, a key evolutionary innovation of turtles, differ greatly between these two groups. Similarly, the mechanism of costal bone formation may differ between soft-shell and hard-shell turtles, in that the hard-shell species may have both periosteal flattening as well as dermal bone induction, while the soft-shelled turtles may have only the first of these processes.

  13. Treatment of scabies and pediculosis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Unlike many other skin diseases, success or failure of therapy of ectoparasitic infestation depends much more on how to use the topical preparation and whom we treat than on which scabicide or pediculicides to use. The diagnosis of scabies should no longer rely on the rather uncommon and unpractical sign of finding a burrow or the number of parasites per infected patient. Most infested individuals have been shown to have several-fold more acari than the oft-quoted average of 12 adult acari per infected patient that appears in most of our textbooks (stemming from Mellanby's work). Contrary to what Mellanby taught us, we know that indirect transmission (ie, without personal contact) does occur. As to which agent to use, the winner remains undeclared at present. Although indirect contact transmission of hair lice has been clarified after thousands of years of infestation, there are still numerous questions, uncertainties, disagreements, and controversies on the subject; for example, we know that lice survive immersion in water but are probably not transmitted in swimming pools. There is no consensus on the best or most correct way to diagnose lice, nor is the problem of resistance resolved. We do not recommend a "no-nit" policy.

  14. Issues, indications, and controversies regarding intratympanic steroid perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of Review Office based Intratympanic inner ear steroid perfusion treatment (ITPs) for Meniere’s disease, autoimmune inner ear disease and sudden sensorineural hearing loss has been expanding over the past 10-15 years, yet remains controversial. The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature of basic science and human studies of ITPs treatment. Current Findings Animal studies exist regarding the delivery, distribution, biochemical and microbiological changes in the inner ear post ITPs. However, few clinical studies exist of ITPs treatment in sudden sensorineural hearing loss and even less in treating Meniere’s disease. There are no consistent studies regarding drug delivery methods, type and concentration of steroids. Moreover, there are no studies comparing ITPs results to the natural history of Meniere’s disease. Summary ITPs has impacted otology and neurotology practice due to increased utilization. A sound understanding of the basic science and clinical studies is needed to establish long term efficacy of ITPs in controlling hearing loss in Meniere’s disease by comparison to its natural history, as well as, potential application to other pathologies. PMID:18797285

  15. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B.

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  16. Controversy over genetically modified organisms: the governing laws and regulations.

    PubMed

    Keatley, K L

    2000-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are increasingly becoming a topic of controversy in the U.S. and abroad. The public is questioning their safety and wanting the products labeled as genetically modified. There are other concerns from some of the scientific world and some government officials and organizations such as the Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) that question whether adequate research has been done to qualify GMOs as safe for long-term use. Of particular concern are the allergenic properties, a GMO may impart, possible transfer effects of antibiotic resistance (given that antibiotic resistant marker genes are used for many GMOs), the expression of previously unexpressed traits, and the drift of pollen from genetically modified crops. It has also been noted that the laws and regulations governing the biotechnology world are outdated, are not comprehensive, and span too many agencies. The primary agencies currently regulating biotechnology are the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  17. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  18. Roles of glucocorticoids in human parturition: a controversial fact?

    PubMed

    Li, X Q; Zhu, P; Myatt, L; Sun, K

    2014-05-01

    The pivotal role of glucocorticoids in the initiation of parturition has been very well documented in several domestic mammalian animal species. However the role of glucocorticoids in human parturition remains controversial mainly because of the absence of effect of synthetic glucocorticoids, given to promote fetal organ maturation in pregnant women with threatened preterm delivery, on the length of gestation. This article will review studies of glucocorticoids in human parturition and provide evidence for an important role of glucocorticoids in human parturition as well but a simultaneous high concentration of estrogen within the intrauterine tissues may be necessary for GCs to initiate parturition. The synthetic GCs dexamethasone and betamethasone pass through the placenta intact resulting in potent negative feedback on the fetal HPA axis and diminished production of DHEA from fetal adrenal glands for estrogen synthesis by the placenta. This may negate the effect of systemic administration of GCs on the induction of labor, especially in cases where the myometrium is not yet fully primed by estrogen. Endogenous glucocorticoids are inactivated by the placental 11β-HSD2 thus limiting the negative feedback of maternal cortisol on the fetal HPA axis and allowing the simultaneous rise of cortisol and estrogen levels towards the end of gestation. Therefore, endogenous glucocorticoids, particularly glucocorticoids produced locally in the intrauterine tissues may play an important role in parturition in humans by enhancing prostaglandin production in the fetal membranes and stimulating estrogen and CRH production in the placenta.

  19. Controversies in the Mechanism of Total Parenteral Nutrition Induced Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jain Ajay; Teckman, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30,000 patients are permanently dependent on Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) for survival with several folds higher requiring TPN for a prolonged duration. Unfortunately, it can cause potentially fatal complications. TPN infusion results in impairment of gut mucosal integrity, enhanced inflammation, increased cytokine expression and trans-mucosal bacterial permeation. It also causes endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters and Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD), which includes steatosis, disrupted glucose metabolism, disrupted lipid metabolism, cholestasis and liver failure. Despite multiple theories, its etiology and pathophysiology remains elusive and is likely multifactorial. An important cause for TPN related pathologies appears to be a disruption in the normal enterohepatic circulation due to a lack of feeding during such therapy. This is further validated by the fact that in clinical settings, once cholestasis sets in, its reversal occurs when a patient is receiving a major portion of calories enterally. There are several other postulated mechanisms including gut bacterial permeation predisposing to endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters. An additional potential mechanism includes toxicity of the TPN solution itself, such as lipid mediated hepatic toxicity. Prematurity, leading to a poor development of bile acid regulating nuclear receptors and transporters has also been implicated as a causative factor. This review presents the current controversies and research into mechanisms of TPN associated injury. PMID:27417369

  20. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  1. RESOLVING VEGA AND THE INCLINATION CONTROVERSY WITH CHARA/MIRC

    SciTech Connect

    Monnier, J. D.; Che Xiao; Baron, F.; Kraus, S.; Zhao Ming; Ekstroem, S.; Maestro, V.; Tuthill, P. G.; Aufdenberg, Jason; Georgy, C.; McAlister, H.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; Turner, N.; Pedretti, E.; Ridgway, S.; Thureau, N.

    2012-12-10

    Optical and infrared interferometers definitively established that the photometric standard Vega (={alpha} Lyrae) is a rapidly rotating star viewed nearly pole-on. Recent independent spectroscopic analyses could not reconcile the inferred inclination angle with the observed line profiles, preferring a larger inclination. In order to resolve this controversy, we observed Vega using the six-beam Michigan Infrared Combiner on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array. With our greater angular resolution and dense (u, v)-coverage, we find that Vega is rotating less rapidly and with a smaller gravity darkening coefficient than previous interferometric results. Our models are compatible with low photospheric macroturbulence and are also consistent with the possible rotational period of {approx}0.71 days recently reported based on magnetic field observations. Our updated evolutionary analysis explicitly incorporates rapid rotation, finding Vega to have a mass of 2.15{sup +0.10}{sub -0.15} M{sub Sun} and an age 700{sup -75}{sub +150} Myr, substantially older than previous estimates with errors dominated by lingering metallicity uncertainties (Z = 0.006{sup +0.003}{sub -0.002}).

  2. [Sensitive skin: a complex syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escalas-Taberner, J; González-Guerra, E; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that ever larger numbers of people report having sensitive skin, for which a European prevalence of 50% is estimated. Sensitive skin is characterized by hyperreactivity, with manifestations varying in relation to many factors. The pathogenesis of this disorder is poorly understood, although studies point to a biophysical mechanism. Objective diagnosis of sensitive skin is difficult, as information comes mainly from the patient's report of symptoms in the absence of effective, strongly predictive tests because of great interindividual variability in skin sensitivity. Substances that trigger a reaction in hypersensitive skin also vary greatly. The impact of this syndrome on quality of life is considerable and patients often present psychiatric symptoms; therefore, dermatologists should explore this possibility when taking a patient's history. Patient cooperation and physician persistence are both essential for treating sensitive skin.

  3. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  4. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  5. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  6. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Satogata, T

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  7. Hypericin--the facts about a controversial agent.

    PubMed

    Kubin, A; Wierrani, F; Burner, U; Alth, G; Grünberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Hypericin is a naturally occurring substance found in the common St. John's Wort (Hypericum species) and can also be synthesized from the anthraquinone derivative emodin. As the main component of Hypericum perforatum, it has traditionally been used throughout the history of folk medicine. In the last three decades, hypericin has also become the subject of intensive biochemical research and is proving to be a multifunctional agent in drug and medicinal applications. Recent studies report antidepressive, antineoplastic, antitumor and antiviral (human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus) activities of hypericin; intriguing information even if confirmation of data is incomplete and mechanisms of these activities still remain largely unexplained. In other contemporary studies, screening hypericin for inhibitory effects on various pharmaceutically important enzymes such as MAO (monoaminoxidase), PKC (protein kinase C), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase and CYP (cytochrome P450), has yielded results supporting therapeutic potential. Research of hypericin and its effect on GABA-activated (gamma amino butyric acid) currents and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartat) receptors also indicate the therapeutic potential of this substance whereby new insights in stroke research (apoplexy) are expected. Also in the relatively newly established fields of medical photochemistry and photobiology, intensive research reveals hypericin to be a promising novel therapeutic and diagnostic agent in treatment and detection of cancer (photodynamic activation of free radical production). Hypericin is not new to the research community, but it is achieving a new and promising status as an effective agent in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. New, although controversial data, over the recent years dictate further research, re-evaluation and discussion of this substance. Our up-to-date summary of hypericin, its activities and potentials, is aimed to contribute to

  8. Key non-controversial concepts of population education.

    PubMed

    Sikes, O J; Palacio, J; Kerr, B

    1993-03-01

    The important components of population education should focus on sexuality rather than sex education; content for inclusion depends upon whether the goal is population awareness or critical awareness. Population awareness is the better understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of population changes experienced by a community, country, region. Critical awareness is the intent and ability to change the sociocultural or educational characteristics that influence fertility, mortality, and migration. 6 basic concepts with universal applicability are discussed, because if not handled properly, the topic become controversial. The concepts are linked to developing thinking or reasoning ability. The concepts are as follows: 1) respect for others, particularly those of the opposite sex; 2) development of self-esteem for both boys and girls; 3) the knowledge that planning is possible and desirable; 4) postponement of first pregnancy; 5) acceptance of responsibility for the consequences of behavior; and 6) the ability to recognize and withstand social pressure. When children learn respect for others, there is little likelihood that others will be harmed. Respect for girls and women is particularly important, and harmful stereotyping and their effects should be pointed out. The key is to develop healthy attitudes and values toward people, not just an intellectualization of gender issues. Self-esteem is used here to mean self-worth in the present and the future. Children can be helped to develop confidence, perseverance, and optimism. Children need to understand that carefully thought out decisions should precede a birth; fatalism and destiny is a choice. Postponing the first pregnancy can lead to economic, emotional, and physical benefits. Risk to the health of the mother and baby occurs during the teen years. The best time for pregnancy is between the ages of 20 and 30 years. A pregnancy in the teen years may have longterm consequences such as more pregnancy and

  9. Beyond the guidelines: challenges, controversies, and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Radix, Anita; Silva, Manel

    2014-06-01

    Transgender and gender-nonconforming youth have unique medical and psychosocial needs that frequently go unmet. For youth who wish to have their physical appearance congruent with their gender identity, treatment guidelines are available that advocate the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues (puberty blockers) and cross-sex hormone regimens. Although medical transition was once considered highly controversial, there is a mounting body of evidence that providing a supportive and affirming environment, as well as appropriate medical intervention, results in improved health outcomes. Primary care pediatricians may be unaware of current guidelines and consequently the need for treatment and/or timely referrals. Transgender youth often face other hurdles to initiation of therapy, including refusal of care and harassment in medical settings, denial of coverage by insurance plans, and the high cost of puberty blockers. Because transgender youth younger than 18 years depend on their families for medical decision making, they may be unable to access necessary medical treatment when parents do not support their transition plan. Medical transition impacts many aspects of the medical system, such as insurance coverage, billing, electronic health records, and preventive health care maintenance. These issues may become more apparent with the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and increased use of electronic records and clinical decision support. The implementation of the ACA may also present new opportunities and protections for transgender individuals. Primary pediatricians are often the first providers families and youth reach out to for advice, and they can assist families with negotiating these complex medical, legal, social, and economic challenges and optimizing access to safe and appropriate health care services.

  10. Controversies about the occurrence of chloral hydrate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, Agata; Nawrocki, Jacek

    2009-05-01

    Besides trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), chloral hydrate (CH) is the next most prevalent disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, formed as a result of the reaction between chlorine and natural organic matter (NOM). Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde) should be limited in drinking water because of its adverse health effect. The controversies concerning the appearance of CH in disinfected water found in literature are discussed in the present paper. According to some authors the CH yield during chlorination of water depends only on TOC. However, there are other data available that do not confirm this relationship. Another fact requiring clarification is the dependence of CH formation on pH. In the present study, CH formation is analysed in different types of water disinfected with different doses of chlorine. Formation of CH is correlated with the dose of Cl(2) and the contact time. The formation of chloral hydrate takes place as long as chlorine is available in the water. Total organic carbon (TOC) is not considered the main factor influencing the production of chloral hydrate in water treated with Cl(2) as the production depends also on the nature of NOM. Higher levels of CH are observed at alkaline conditions (pH>7). A significant correlation (R(2)>0.9) between the concentrations of chloral hydrate and chloroform has been observed. The preozonation increases significantly the chloral hydrate formation potential in the water treated. Biofiltration process does not remove all of CH precursors and its efficiency depends strongly on the contact time. Chloral hydrate was analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector with the detection limit 0.1 microg L(-1).

  11. Current controversies in the relationships between autism and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2015-06-01

    The controversies that have arisen in endeavoring to establish the nature of the relationships between autism and epilepsy might be summarized in a few simple questions, most of which do not yet have clear, complete answers. Does epilepsy cause autism? Does autism cause epilepsy? Are there underlying brain mechanisms that predispose to both conditions? What is the role of genetics in this regard? What is the importance of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors? Do any of the proposed relationships between autism and epilepsy provide insight into useful management or treatment? Is the prognosis of either autism or epilepsy different when the other condition is also present? What is the role of additional comorbidities, such as intellectual impairment or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in the relationship between the two conditions and in influencing treatment choices? From the evidence currently available, it would appear that epilepsy can rarely be the cause of autistic features but is not the cause of autism in most cases. There is currently no credible mechanism for suggesting that autism might cause epilepsy. There is strong evidence for an underlying predisposition for both conditions, particularly arising from genetic investigations. However, many issues remain unresolved. Considering the amount of research that has been published in this area, it is surprising that so few definitive answers have been established. The papers in this issue's special section provide additional insights into the relationships between autism and epilepsy; while they do not provide answers to all the questions, they represent considerable progress in this area and, at the very least, give some strong indication of what research might, in the future, provide such answers.

  12. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy. There are some controversies of the role, target volumes and dose of radiotherapy (RT) in the literature over decades. The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities, and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer. The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) trial, intergroup trial (INT 0116) enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone. Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT. The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study (CROSS) used a lower RT dose of 41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result. Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists. Pre-operative and post-operative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control. Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia, but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT. The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation. On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include: ZTOG1201 trial (a phase II trial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT) and QUINTETT (a phase III trial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis). These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer. PMID:25132924

  13. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  14. Key Controversies in Colloid and Crystalloid Fluid Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leedahl, David D.; Kashani, Kianoush B.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 2 centuries have passed since the use of intravenous fluid became a foundational component of clinical practice. Despite a steady stream of published investigations on the topic, questions surrounding the choice, dose, timing, targets, and cost-effectiveness of various fluid options remain insufficiently answered. In recent years, 2 of the most debated topics reference the role of albumin in acute care and the safety of normal saline. Although albumin has a place in therapy for specific patient populations, its high cost relative to other fluids makes it a less desirable option for hospitals and health systems with escalating formulary scrutiny. Pharmacists bear responsibility for reconciling this disparity and supporting the rational use of albumin in acute care through a careful evaluation of recently published literature. In parallel, it has become clear that crystalloids should no longer be considered a homogenous class of fluids. The past reliance on normal saline has been questioned due to recent findings of renal dysfunction attributable to the solution’s supraphysiologic chloride concentration. These safety concerns with 0.9% sodium chloride may result in a practice shift toward more routine use of “balanced crystalloids,” such as lactated Ringer’s or Plasma-Lyte, that mimic the composition of extracellular fluid. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence regarding these 2 important fluid controversies that are likely to affect hospital pharmacists in the coming decades — the evidence-based use of human albumin and the rising role of balanced salt solutions in clinical practice. PMID:26405334

  15. Compounded Testosterone Troches TO OPTIMIZE HEALTH AND THE TESTOSTERONE CONTROVERSY.

    PubMed

    Guth, Michael A S

    2015-01-01

    been swayed against prescribing testosterone replacement therapy to their aging male patients. The testosterone controversy stems largely from poorly designed clinical studies in which patients were subjected to testosterone replacement therapy without having their estradiol and dihydrotestosterone levels properly controlled.

  16. Jurassic paleopole controversy: Contributions from the Atlantic-bordering continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Voo, Rob

    1992-11-01

    The Early-early Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous mean paleopoles for North America, Europe, South America, and Africa are very well grouped in appropriate continental reconstructions, but the intervening late Middle and Late Jurassic segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) is poorly defined and controversial. The available paleopoles, reconstructed for the partial opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, form a scattered grouping with no coherent age patterns, illustrating that they do not constitute a robust data set. Uncertainties in the reconstruction parameters between North America and Europe also play a role. However, excellent paleomagnetic results exist for tectonic elements near the margin of west Gondwana that are unlikely to have been significantly displaced with respect to cratonic Africa and South America. These results have not previously been used for APWP reconstructions, because local rotations are thought to have deflected the paleopoles in many cases. The inclinations of such results, however, can be used to determine a locus of paleopole positions. Paleopole loci for about 150 and 170 Ma were determined from results from Spain, Italy, Lebanon, and the Chilean Andes, and these were rotated with appropriate parameters to give locus intersections in North American coordinates. A late Middle Jurassic (early Callovian) best estimate of the paleopole in North American coordinates is located at about lat 70°N, long 135°E, and a Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) best estimate is located at about 70°N, 155°E. The resulting Jurassic-Early Cretaceous APWP follows roughly the 70th parallel, passing through the middle of the scattered individual paleopoles from the cratonic parts of the Atlantic-bordering continents.

  17. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Concepts and Controversies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nicholas W.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Chapman, Sandra C.; Crosby, Norma B.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by the late Per Bak and his colleagues, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been one of the most stimulating concepts to come out of statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory in the last few decades, and has played a significant role in the development of complexity science. SOC, and more generally fractals and power laws, have attracted much comment, ranging from the very positive to the polemical. The other papers (Aschwanden et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2014, this issue; McAteer et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2015, this issue; Sharma et al. in Space Sci. Rev. 2015, in preparation) in this special issue showcase the considerable body of observations in solar, magnetospheric and fusion plasma inspired by the SOC idea, and expose the fertile role the new paradigm has played in approaches to modeling and understanding multiscale plasma instabilities. This very broad impact, and the necessary process of adapting a scientific hypothesis to the conditions of a given physical system, has meant that SOC as studied in these fields has sometimes differed significantly from the definition originally given by its creators. In Bak's own field of theoretical physics there are significant observational and theoretical open questions, even 25 years on (Pruessner 2012). One aim of the present review is to address the dichotomy between the great reception SOC has received in some areas, and its shortcomings, as they became manifest in the controversies it triggered. Our article tries to clear up what we think are misunderstandings of SOC in fields more remote from its origins in statistical mechanics, condensed matter and dynamical systems by revisiting Bak, Tang and Wiesenfeld's original papers.

  18. Diagnostic Criteria for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pitfalls and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Marla E.; Chizen, Donna R.; Pierson, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that as many as 1.4 million Canadian women may be afflicted with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Although PCOS is heralded as one of the most common endocrine disorders occurring in women, its diagnosis, management, and associated long-term health risks remain controversial. Historically, the combination of androgen excess and anovulation has been considered the hallmark of PCOS. To date, while these symptoms remain the most prevalent among PCOS patients, neither is considered an absolute requisite for the syndrome. Inclusion of ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries as a diagnostic marker has substantially broadened the phenotypic spectrum of PCOS, yet much debate surrounds the validity of these newly identified milder variants of the syndrome. Difficulty in resolving the spectrum of PCOS stems from the continued use of inconsistent and inaccurate methods of evaluating androgen excess, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. At present, there is no clear-cut definition of biochemical hyperandrogenemia, particularly since we depend on poor laboratory standards for measuring androgens in women. Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism are ill-defined in women with PCOS, and the diagnosis of both hirsutism and polycystic ovarian morphology remains alarmingly subjective. Lastly, there is an inappropriate tendency to assign ovulatory status solely on the basis of menstrual cycle history or poorly timed endocrine measurements. In this review, we elaborate on these limitations and propose possible resolutions for clinical and research settings. By stimulating awareness of these limitations, we hope to generate a dialogue aimed at solidifying the evaluation of PCOS in Canadian women. PMID:18786289

  19. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy].

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Chiaki

    2009-01-01

    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  20. Controversy in the management of optic nerve glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, L.; Sagerman, R.H.; King, G.A.; Chung, C.T.; Dubowy, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    The records of 16 patients with optic nerve glioma treated between 1961 and 1984 were reviewed. All patients except two had extension of tumor beyond the chiasm to the hypothalamus, adjacent brain and/or along the posterior optic tract. Eleven of 16 cases were biopsy-proven, two patients had craniotomy and visual inspection but no biopsy was performed, and in two cases the biopsy was not diagnostic. Fourteen patients received radiation therapy, usually consisting of 50 Gy in 5 weeks (range 40-56 Gy), one patient was treated surgically and one with chemotherapy. With a follow-up of 1 to 20 years, 7 of the 14 patients irradiated are alive, three patients are dead of disease at 3, 6 and 9 years post-treatment, three were lost to follow-up at 1, 8, and 8 years, and one is dead of intercurrent disease at 5.5 years. Overall vision was improved in five patients and stable in seven following treatment. In two patients, vision could not be evaluated because of young age at presentation. Four patients had recurrences. One was retreated with 30 Gy in 3 weeks and shows no evidence of disease at 20 years. The three other patients died of their disease. There is controversy over the best treatment for these patients. Based on these results and a review of the literature, the authors recommendation is to irradiate tumors with extension beyond the chiasm at the time of presentation rather than waiting for increasing symptoms because function that is lost may not always be recovered. Chemotherapy needs to be further investigated but holds promise, especially for the younger children.

  1. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  2. "Treason in the Textbooks": Reinterpreting the Harold Rugg Textbook Controversy in the Context of Wartime Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Charles

    2008-01-01

    For most educational historians, the Harold Rugg textbook controversy serves as an example of the mid-twentieth-century "assault" on progressive education. By restricting their analyses of the textbook controversy to the "rise and fall" of the progressivism paradigm, however, scholars have generally missed Americans' more measured approach to the…

  3. 18 CFR 385.218 - Simplified procedure for complaints involving small controversies (Rule 218).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to complainants if the amount in controversy is less than $100,000 and the impact on other entities... amount in controversy; (5) A statement why the complaint will have a de minimis impact on other entities; (6) The facts and circumstances surrounding the complaint, including the legal or...

  4. 18 CFR 385.218 - Simplified procedure for complaints involving small controversies (Rule 218).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to complainants if the amount in controversy is less than $100,000 and the impact on other entities... amount in controversy; (5) A statement why the complaint will have a de minimis impact on other entities; (6) The facts and circumstances surrounding the complaint, including the legal or...

  5. 18 CFR 385.218 - Simplified procedure for complaints involving small controversies (Rule 218).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to complainants if the amount in controversy is less than $100,000 and the impact on other entities... amount in controversy; (5) A statement why the complaint will have a de minimis impact on other entities; (6) The facts and circumstances surrounding the complaint, including the legal or...

  6. 18 CFR 385.218 - Simplified procedure for complaints involving small controversies (Rule 218).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to complainants if the amount in controversy is less than $100,000 and the impact on other entities... amount in controversy; (5) A statement why the complaint will have a de minimis impact on other entities; (6) The facts and circumstances surrounding the complaint, including the legal or...

  7. The Problem of Catholic School Teachers Deferring to the Home on Controversial Religious Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Graham P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper observes that an ironic tension occurs in the discussion of controversial issues in some Catholic schools. One technique that teachers use in response to student disagreement with the official Church view on a controversial issue like contraception, homosexuality, or female ordination is to present Church teaching but then suggest that…

  8. What Is a Controversial Issue? Implications for the Treatment of Religious Beliefs in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooling, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    An important debate in the literature on controversial issues concerns how to identify them. This matters for teachers because settled issues should be taught directively and controversial issues should be taught nondirectively. Teachers are professionally accountable for this decision. This article examines the contribution of Michael Hand to the…

  9. Deliberating International Science Policy Controversies: Uncertainty and AIDS in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paroske, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    International science policy controversies involve disputes over cultural differences in the assessment of knowledge claims and competing visions of the policy-making process between different nations. This essay analyzes these dynamics in the recent controversy surrounding AIDS policy in South Africa. It develops the notion of an epistemological…

  10. Controversial Issues and the Teaching of A-Level Biology: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    This thesis focuses on the espoused beliefs, values, and attitudes of experienced A-Level Biology teachers in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of major interest is the thinking behind what the teachers in this study regard as the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues given the teaching…

  11. A History of the Kanawha County Textbook Controversy, April 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candor, Catherine Ann

    The background of the Kanawha County, language arts textbook controversy is described, and several factors are examined as possible precipitating elements in the controversy. The major actions, reactions, and occurrences in Kanawha County from April 1974 to April 1975 are reported, and various sources are used to document positions taken by…

  12. Controversy over Student's Art Exhibit at Yale Raises Issues of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the controversy surrounding a Yale University art student, Aliza Shvarts, who told the campus newspaper that she had repeatedly inseminated herself artificially and then induced abortions as part of her senior thesis. The controversy has created massive reverberations throughout academe, especially in the already hotly…

  13. The Role of Historical-Philosophical Controversies in Teaching Sciences: The Debate between Biot and Ampere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, Jose Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the viability of using controversies in teaching. An educational project has been elaborated in which some historical-philosophical clashes were introduced into the classical syllabus of physics. The historical-philosophical controversy dealt with here, took place between the French physicists Biot and Ampere in the 19th…

  14. Major Trends and Issues in Early Childhood Education: Challenges, Controversies, and Insights. (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Joan Packer, Ed.; Jalongo, Mary Renck, Ed.

    Noting that understanding the contexts, continuities, and controversies of early childhood education is especially challenging because of the diversity in the field, this book provides a critical examination of the issues and controversies surrounding early childhood practices, policies, and professional development. Following an introduction…

  15. The Controversy Goes On--"Can Computers Think?" Part I: Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugel, Peter

    1985-01-01

    The controversy over whether or not machines can think has attracted the attention of philosophers, psychologists, neurologists, computer scientists, and writers of science fiction. Various topics and issues related to this controversy are discussed, including turing machines and the relationship between computer history and mathematical…

  16. Florida Pre-Service Teachers' and Their Attitudes Towards the Use of Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambosk, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this attitudinal study is to investigate the role that social studies methods courses in Florida play in examining controversial issues with their pre-service teachers. Five research questions established the parameters for the investigation of pre-service teachers' attitudes toward the use of controversial issues through the…

  17. Addressing Controversies in Science Education: A Pragmatic Approach to Evolution Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-01-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is…

  18. Scientific Experts and the Controversy about Teaching Creation/Evolution in the UK Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgaier, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The issue whether creationist accounts of the origins of life should be taught in science education alongside or even instead Darwin's theory of evolution is controversial in many countries. In 2002 there was a controversy around teaching creationism in science classes at a secondary school in England. The research presented in this paper uses…

  19. Annotated Bibliography of Materials Relating to the Evolution-Creationism Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Buzz

    In examining the literature on materials relating to the evolution-creationism controversy, it was found that there have been no comprehensive bibliographies compiled since the early 1980s. This paper presents an annotated bibliography on the creationism-evolution controversy including materials published or made available since 1980. (ASK)

  20. The Emergence of the Controversy around the Theory of Evolution and Creationism in UK Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgaier, Joachim; Holliman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The question of whether religious explanations about the origin of life should be taught alongside scientific accounts in compulsory science education has sparked controversy in several countries for decades. An important site for these controversies is media reporting. This article presents the results of a quantitative and qualitative analysis…

  1. Liberalism, Communitarianism and Discussion Method as a Means of Reconciling Controversial Moral Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Basil R.

    1997-01-01

    Sets out the positions of Liberal and Communitarian philosophers on the fundamental requirements for a democratic civil society. Argues that a cultural, pluralist, democratic society will be characterized by a diversity of controversial moral positions at a range of levels. Offers discussion as a method of reconciling controversial moral…

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of Evidence in Teaching Controversial Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Eighty-three teachers across the curriculum were interviewed to explain their views on and approaches to, the teaching of socio-scientific controversial issues to 14-19 year olds, particularly with regard to developments in biomedicine and biotechnology. This study focused on teachers' views on the nature of evidence in controversial issues and…

  3. The Status of Learning Disabilities in the States: Consensus or Controversy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, Gaye

    1986-01-01

    To determine the degree of controversy or consensus regarding definitions at the state level, questionnaires focusing on six learning disability topics were sent to each state education agency (SEA) and the District of Columbia. In general, more consensus than controversy exists when broad areas are considered. Changes in some SEA definitions…

  4. A Survey of Appalachian Middle & High School Teacher Perceptions of Controversial Current Events Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Kimberlee A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of a sample of Appalachian middle and high school social studies teachers regarding the teaching of controversial current events. Specifically, the survey ascertained the teachers' familiarity with school district administrative policies regarding the teaching of controversial current events, their perceptions…

  5. Controversial Issues--Teachers' Attitudes and Practices in the Context of Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oulton, Christopher; Day, Vanessa; Dillon, Justin; Grace, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Current conceptions of citizenship favour public involvement in dialogue on controversial issues such as GM food. 'Students with higher levels of civic knowledge are more likely to expect to participate in political and civic activities as adults' (Kerr et al., 2003, p. 4). Young people need to be aware of the nature of controversy and be able to…

  6. Controversial Biological Issues: An Exploratory Tool for Accessing Teacher Thinking in Relation to Classroom Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina S.

    The research reported here focuses on the beliefs, values and attitudes of one experienced biology teacher (Teacher A) in relation to the teaching of controversial biological issues. Of specific interest is the thinking behind what this teacher conceptualizes are the possibilities and problems for the teaching of controversial issues as part of…

  7. Teacher College Students' Views of Controversial Environmental Issues: Ambivalence and Readiness to Adopt a Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Dreyfus, Amos

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important goals of discussing controversial issues in the classroom is to educate students to possess an inclination towards reason, open mindedness and fairness. However, research tends to show that teachers are not adequately trained to lead fruitful discussions about controversial issues and do not possess the necessary skills…

  8. Muscle Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency: A Review of Enzymatic Controversy and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Diana; Motlagh, Leila; Robaa, Dina; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase) II muscle deficiency is the most common form of muscle fatty acid metabolism disorders. In contrast to carnitine deficiency, it is clinically characterized by attacks of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis without persistent muscle weakness and lipid accumulation in muscle fibers. The biochemical consequences of the disease-causing mutations are still discussed controversially. CPT activity in muscles of patients with CPT II deficiency ranged from not detectable to reduced to normal. Based on the observation that in patients, total CPT is completely inhibited by malony-CoA, a deficiency of malonyl-CoA-insensitive CPT II has been suggested. In contrast, it has also been shown that in muscle CPT II deficiency, CPT II protein is present in normal concentrations with normal enzymatic activity. However, CPT II in patients is abnormally sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA, Triton X-100 and fatty acid metabolites. A recent study on human recombinant CPT II enzymes (His6-N-hCPT2 and His6-N-hCPT2/S113L) revealed that the wild-type and the S113L variants showed the same enzymatic activity. However, the mutated enzyme showed an abnormal thermal destabilization at 40 and 45 °C and an abnormal sensitivity to inhibition by malony-CoA. The thermolability of the mutant enzyme might explain why symptoms in muscle CPT II deficiency mainly occur during prolonged exercise, infections and exposure to cold. In addition, the abnormally regulated enzyme might be mostly inhibited when the fatty acid metabolism is stressed. PMID:28054946

  9. European summer temperatures since Roman times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luterbacher, Jürg

    2016-04-01

    temperatures we find slightly better agreement between the reconstruction and the model simulations with high-end estimates for total solar irradiance. Temperature differences between the medieval period, the recent period and the Little Ice Age are larger in the reconstructions than the simulations. This may indicate either inflated variability of the reconstructions, a lack of sensitivity to external forcing on sub-hemispheric scales in the climate models and/or an underestimation of internal variability on centennial and longer time scales including the misinterpretation of internal feedback mechanisms. Reference: Euro-Med 2k Consortium, 2016: European summer temperatures since Roman times. Environ. Res. Lett., in press

  10. Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lindzen, Richard

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  11. [Controversy on diagnostic and treatment of rhinosinusitis in children].

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a significant health problem both in children and adult. A growing interest in RS resulted in two documents of European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps group (EPOS). This consensus offers evidence-based recommendations on diagnosis and treatment of RS and is intended to be a state-of- the art review for the specialists as well as the general practitioners.The recommendations divide rhinosinusitis as follows: acute viral or acute bacterial, recurrent and chronic RS. The symptoms of acute RS may increase after 5 day or persist after 10 days with less than 12 weeks duration. In recurrent RS there are about 6 episodes of acute RS during one year. Chronic RS is likely when symptoms of RS persist for longer than 12 weeks. Treatment of common cold is only symptomatic, while antibiotics and/or nasal steroids are recommended in severe acute RS. Endoscopic sinus surgery is indicated in chronic RS only when medical treatment fails and optimal medical treatment should always be continued after surgery. The computer tomography is the gold standard for diagnostics in cases of complication of RS or planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).

  12. Biophotonics: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Thierry; Cochard, Jacques; Breussin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine the opportunities and challenges for Biophotonics business development in Europe for the next five years with a focus on sensors and systems: for health diagnostics and monitoring; for air, water and food safety and quality control. The development of this roadmap was initiated and supported by EPIC (The European Photonics Industry Consortium). We summarize the final roadmap data: market application segments and trends, analysis of the market access criteria, analysis of the technology trends and major bottlenecks and challenges per application.

  13. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  14. The European Cooperation Is Facing New Challenges--Some Impact on Citizenship Education in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oonk, Henk

    2014-01-01

    The crisis in Europe constitutes a major test for the very pursuit of European integration and for its legitimacy in the eyes of the citizens. In this paper a number of striking economic aspects of the crisis will be discussed next to political tensions concerning sensitive issues. Given the decline in the support for the European integration…

  15. [The Beijing conference: a controversy and new challenges].

    PubMed

    Tavares, M

    1995-01-01

    The World Conference on Women was held in August and September 1995 in Beijing, 20 years after the first such conference was held in Mexico in 1975. 30,000 women took part at this third conference in Beijing and at the forum of the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) held 60 km away. The experiences during those days reinforced the idea that questions of equality are connected to questions of development. Another notion was that the rights of women are also associated with major issues of society. The Platform of Action approved 12 primary areas of interest: poverty, education, health, violence, armed conflicts, economic inequality, inequality in power and in making decisions, mechanisms for equality, human rights, means of social communication, environment and development, and children and young girls. The issue of health, including reproductive rights, was debated between the Vatican and Islamic countries on the one side and the European Union on the other. Some problems surfaced about reproductive rights even during the preparatory meetings on the part of Ireland and Austria. At the NGO forum, however, Irish women demonstrated for the right to abortion and divorce. In the last days of the conference, the Vatican and Islamic countries tried to block the addition of wording concerning sexual and reproductive rights to the Platform of Action. After hours of negotiations, the wording was not included in the Declaration of Principles, but it was incorporated in Article 97 of the Platform. The Vatican, during the final part of the conference, insisted on its representation as a state with equal status relative to other UN member states; yet it is incapable of accepting social change and transforming its dogmas. Its positions against contraception and abortion demonstrated that the hierarchy of the Catholic Church persists in its regressive views.

  16. Is European Defense a Bridge too Far?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-08

    Defense, European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified During the last several decades the European Union has not paid much...obvious European defense shortcomings. Then, after the Cologne European Council of June 1999, the European Union launched the European Security and...considerably and the military capabilities of the European Union have been strengthened with initiatives such as the battlegroup concept and the development of

  17. Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A

    2013-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur'an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. 'Sensitivity' to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of 'do no harm', endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

  18. Resolving the Latemar Controversy: a new magnetostratigraphy at Rio Sacuz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, Z.; Kodama, K. P.

    2011-12-01

    A new magnetostratigraphic study of the Middle Triassic Ambata, Plattenkalke, and Knollenkalke Formations at Rio Sacuz, northern Italy, suggests a depositional duration of ~1 my for the entire Latemar Platform, effectively resolving the debate informally known as "the Latemar Controversy." This debate is framed around an order of magnitude discrepancy in the depositional durations suggested by cyclostratigraphic (~12 my) and geochronologic (~1 my) methods (Preto et al, 2001; Mundil et al., 2003). Since a previous magnetostratigraphic study (Kent et al. 2004) of the Latemar was affected by lightning strikes, this study determined the magnetostratigraphy of a correlative section unaffected by lightning. Horizons were collected approximately every meter throughout the 70 m section in order to take into account the limiting hypothesis of the long depositional duration, which gives the smallest stratigraphic chron thickness (~3m). At least three individually oriented samples were collected with a gasoline-powered sampling drill from each horizon, for a total of 65 sites and 213 samples. The organic-rich, muddy, pelagic limestone samples were thermally demagnetized in 25°C temperature steps from 100°C up to 550°C and measured with a superconducting magnetometer to isolate their characteristic remanence. Most samples were completely demagnetized by 400°C, however, approximately 10% of the samples were not demagnetized until 500°C. Vector endpoint diagrams show good linear trends into the origin for 90% of samples. A N-R-N-R sequence was observed at Rio Sacuz with 1n (0-27 m), 1r (27-36 m), 2n (36-62 m) and 2r (62-65 m) in contrast to predominately one polarity for the Kent et al. (2004) study. Thermal demagnetization of orthogonal IRMs applied in 1 T and 0.16 T fields indicates that the magnetic carriers were greigite and magnetite. The greigite and magnetite carry the same paleomagnetic direction, suggesting a primary depositional remanence for the magnetite and

  19. Molecular structures of amyloid and prion fibrils: consensus versus controversy.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Robert; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-07-16

    Many peptides and proteins self-assemble into amyloid fibrils. Examples include mammalian and fungal prion proteins, polypeptides associated with human amyloid diseases, and proteins that may have biologically functional amyloid states. To understand the propensity for polypeptides to form amyloid fibrils and to facilitate rational design of amyloid inhibitors and imaging agents, it is necessary to elucidate the molecular structures of these fibrils. Although fibril structures were largely mysterious 15 years ago, a considerable body of reliable structural information about amyloid fibril structures now exists, with essential contributions from solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. This Account reviews results from our laboratories and discusses several structural issues that have been controversial. In many cases, the amino acid sequences of amyloid fibrils do not uniquely determine their molecular structures. Self-propagating, molecular-level polymorphism complicates the structure determination problem and can lead to apparent disagreements between results from different laboratories, particularly when different laboratories study different polymorphs. For 40-residue β-amyloid (Aβ₁₋₄₀) fibrils associated with Alzheimer's disease, we have developed detailed structural models from solid state NMR and electron microscopy data for two polymorphs. These polymorphs have similar peptide conformations, identical in-register parallel β-sheet organizations, but different overall symmetry. Other polymorphs have also been partially characterized by solid state NMR and appear to have similar structures. In contrast, cryo-electron microscopy studies that use significantly different fibril growth conditions have identified structures that appear (at low resolution) to be different from those examined by solid state NMR. Based on solid state NMR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, the in-register parallel β-sheet organization

  20. Late-onset hypogonadism: current concepts and controversies of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2014-01-01

    Although suppressed serum testosterone (T) is common in ageing men, only a small proportion of them develop the genuine syndrome of low T associated with diffuse sexual (e.g., erectile dysfunction), physical (e.g. loss of vigor and frailty) and psychological (e.g., depression) symptoms. This syndrome carries many names, including male menopause or climacterium, andropause and partial androgen deficiency of the ageing male (PADAM). Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) describes it best and is therefore generally preferred. The decrease of T in LOH is often marginal, and hypogonadism can be either due to primary testicular failure (low T, high luteinizing hormone (LH)) or secondary to a hypothalamic-pituitary failure (low T, low or inappropriately normal LH). The latter form is more common and it is usually associated with overweight/obesity or chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frailty). A problem with the diagnosis of LOH is that often the symptoms (in 20%-40% of unselected men) and low circulating T (in 20% of men >70 years of age) do not coincide in the same individual. The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) has recently defined the strict diagnostic criteria for LOH to include the simultaneous presence of reproducibly low serum T (total T <11 nmol l-1 and free T <220 pmol l-1 ) and three sexual symptoms (erectile dysfunction, and reduced frequency of sexual thoughts and morning erections). By these criteria, only 2% of 40- to 80-year-old men have LOH. In particular obesity, but also impaired general health, are more common causes of low T than chronological age per se. Evidence-based information whether, and how, LOH should be treated is sparse. The most logical approach is lifestyle modification, weight reduction and good treatment of comorbid diseases. T replacement is widely used for the treatment, but evidence-based information about its real benefi ts and short- and

  1. A Story Without an Ending: The Quantum Physics Controversy 1950 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Olival

    For many decades there has been controversy about the epistemological and ontological implications of quantum mechanics. This article will make some preliminary remarks about how physicists managed the scientific, philosophical, and even political aspects, of the controversy in order to establish a modus operandi for their work. The existence of such a lasting controversy, and its history, is relevant to the teaching of quantum physics because the choice of the interpretation to be taught impacts on students' understanding of quantum concepts and on their understanding of the goal of science.

  2. Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: still remains a controversy.

    PubMed

    Vidimliski, Pavlina Dzekova; Nikolov, Igor; Geshkovska, Nadica Matevska; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Rostaing, Lionel; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C. The viral replication in the liver cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells was present in all clinical presentations of occult hepatitis C. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells represent an extra-hepatic site of HCV replication. The reason why HCV RNA was not detectable in the serum of patients with occult hepatitis C, could be the low number of circulating viral particles not detectable by the diagnostic tests with low sensitivity. It is uncertain whether occult hepatitis C is a different clinical entity or just a form of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system.

  3. A New Impetus for European Youth. European Commission White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    Despite their highly divergent situations, young people largely share the same values, ambitions, and difficulties. Despite the more complex social and economic context in which young Europeans are currently living, they are well equipped to adapt. National and European policymakers must facilitate this process of change by making young people…

  4. Emanuel Edward Klein--the father of British microbiology and the case of the animal vivisection controversy of 1875.

    PubMed

    Atalić, Bruno; Fatović-Ferencić, Stella

    2009-10-01

    The new Appendix A of the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes, which gives guidelines for accommodation and care of animals and was approved on June 15, 2006, was the main reason the authors decided to investigate the origins of the regulations of animal experiments. Although one might assume that the regulation had its origin in the United Nations conventions, the truth is that its origins are a hundred years old. The authors present a case of the nineteenth-century vivisection controversy brought about by the publication of the Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory in 1873, in which John Burdon-Sanderson, Emanuel Edward Klein, Michael Foster, and Thomas Lauder Brunton described a series of vivisection experiments they performed on animals for research purposes. It was the first case of vivisection to be examined, processed, and condemned for inhuman behavior toward animals before an official body, leading to enactment of the Cruelty to Animals Act in 1876. The case reveals a specific ethos of science in the second half of the nineteenth century, which was characterized by a deep commitment of scientists to the scientific enterprise and their strong belief that science could solve social problems, combined with an overt insensitivity to the suffering of experimental animals. The central figure in the case was Emanuel Edward Klein, a disciple of the Central European medical tradition (Vienna Medical School) and a direct follower of the experimental school of Brücke, Stricker, Magendie, and Bernard. Because of his undisguised attitudes and opinions on the use of vivisection, Klein became a paradigm of the new scientific identity, strongly influencing the stereotypic image of a scientist, and polarizing the public opinion on vivisection in England in the nineteenth century and for some considerable time afterward.

  5. European Cenozoic rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Peter A.

    1992-07-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system extends from the coast of the North Sea to the Mediterranean over a distance of some 1100 km; it finds its southern prolongation in the Valencia Trough and a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic chain crossing the Atlas ranges. Development of this mega-rift was paralleled by orogenic activity in the Alps and Pyrenees. Major rift domes, accompanied by subsidence reversal of their axial grabens, developed 20-40 Ma after beginning of rifting. Uplift of the Rhenish Shield is related to progressive thermal lithospheric thinning; the Vosges-Black Forest and the Massif Central domes are probably underlain by asthenoliths emplaced at the crust/mantle boundary. Evolution of this rift system, is thought to be governed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and by early phases of a plate-boundary reorganization that may lead to the break-up of the present continent assembly.

  6. Optranet: a European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanjean, Marie

    2003-10-01

    In a situation where curricula did not adjust at the required pace and many students are getting attracted out of science and technology, the shortage of skilled workers at the technician and engineer level is known to be a threat to development. In spite of a serious crisis in 2001, the trend of an increased presence of optical technologies remains unchanged and is bound to remain part of the landscape for decades. The level of investment required and the markets make Europe the best scale to plan for unified curricula and a global analysis of the human resources needs. There is no agreement on the definition of a trained optician, and European countries differ in the way they educate opticians, source of a lack of clarity and visibility which is detrimental to attracting good students and to the job market. Through its closely work with companies, OPTRANET will propose measures to enhance the adequacy and the visibility of the training offer.

  7. The exobiology exploration of Mars: a survey of the European approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André

    2000-09-01

    The similarities between the early histories of Mars and Earth raise the concomitant basic question: does our knowledge of primitive terrestrial life and of the early history of Mars allow us to expect life to have developed on Mars? The paper by McKay et al. (1996. Science 273, 924-930.) reported possible relic biogenic activity in a Martian meteorite. Although this discovery is certain to be controversial, it gave a new impetus to the search for fossil life on Mars. American, European and Japanese space agencies have planned a very intensive exploration of Mars with a great emphasis on exobiology. Here are summarized the European approaches including the European Space Agency (ESA) Exobiology Multi-user Facility and the Beagle 2 exobiology lander of the ESA Mars Express mission.

  8. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  9. Radiofrequency (mobile telephones) Exposures and Health Risks: Findings and Controversies - Linet

    Cancer.gov

    Radiofrequency (mobile telephones) Exposures and Health Risks: Findings and Controversies by Dr. Martha Linet - part of the Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course on the health effects of radiation exposure

  10. Metaphysics for an enlightened public: The controversy over monads in Germany, 1746-1748.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This essay analyzes the controversy that attended the prize essay question on monads proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1746. The controversy was first touched off by an anonymous pamphlet published by the mathematician Leonhard Euler, the academy's most well known member, that attacked the doctrine of monads. It peaked with the awarding of the prize to Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, whose winning essay closely followed Euler's arguments. This essay discusses the controversy as one instance in a broader quarrel in the German academic community over the suitability of Christian Wolff's philosophy as the foundation for a broad range of academic disciplines, including natural philosophy. It also analyzes the controversy as displaying the central role of the periodical press in the emergent German public sphere.

  11. The Peculiar Institution: New Trends and Controversies in Researching and Teaching Slavery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how, because of its richness and controversy, the study of slavery has captured the interest and imagination of many different theorists. Today, with new technologies and research trends, the study of slavery is entering an accelerated cycle. (EV)

  12. Toward the Resolution of the Controversy Surrounding the Effects and Social Health Implications of Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1974-01-01

    The controversy over marijuana continues because of two primary factors: 1) lack of knowledge and understanding among the general public; and 2) failure to deal with society's role in safeguarding the health of the individual and the nation. (Author)

  13. [Addressing the controversy regarding the association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism].

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Lisset; Hernández, Adrián V; Suárez Moreno, Víctor; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Vaccination is one of the most important public health interventions in the reduction childhood morbidity and mortality. Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound used as preservante in multi-dose vials. Often in Peru, there are waves of controversy about the safety of this type of vaccines, mainly arguing that there is an association between them and autism. As a result of these controversies, there have been some voices asking for laws banning thimerosal-containing vaccines, which would have a large impact in costs and the logistic aspects of the public vaccination programs. The aim of this article is to review the literature for the main controversies about thimerosal in vaccines and its supposed association to autism. We made an historical review about these controversies given the available scientific evidence and the statements from important international organizations. We concluded that the current available evidence do not support an association between thimerosal and childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism.

  14. Brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2016: advances, challenges and controversies.

    PubMed

    Keep, Richard F; Jones, Hazel C; Drewes, Lester R

    2017-02-02

    This editorial highlights some of the advances that occurred in relation to brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2016. It also aims to raise some of the attendant controversies and challenges in such research.

  15. 37 CFR 251.72 - Declaration of controversy: Initiation of arbitration proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the claimants to either cable, satellite carrier, or digital audio recording devices and media royalties, the Librarian shall publish in the Federal Register a declaration of controversy along with...

  16. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  17. The European Dimension in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Directorate of Education, Culture and Sport, Documentation Section.

    This paper addresses concerns about a European dimension in education that has been created by the enlargement of the European Union (EU) (the inclusion of Austria, Finland, and Sweden) and the gradual transformations of institutions into a future federal state. Sections of the paper include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Defining the…

  18. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  19. Selenium or no selenium--that is the question in tumor patients: a new controversy.

    PubMed

    Muecke, Ralph; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Micke, Oliver

    2010-06-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more attention from both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses on the following clinical aspects: protection of normal tissues, sensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that it has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism, and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. In 2009, a significant benefit of sodium selenite supplementation-with no protection of tumor cells, which is often suspected by oncologists- was shown in a prospective randomized trial in gynecologic cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. More recently, concerns arose from 2 large clinical prevention trials (NPC, SELECT) that selenium may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Despite obvious flaws in both studies and good counterarguments, controversy remains on the possible advantages and risks of selenium in cancer prevention. However, in the light of the recent clinical trials the potential benefits of selenium supplementation in tumor patients are becoming obvious, even though further research is needed.

  20. Integrating microbial decontamination with organic acids in HACCP programmes for muscle foods: prospects and controversies.

    PubMed

    Smulders, F J; Greer, G G

    1998-11-10

    A considerable literature reports the antibacterial efficacy of dilute solutions of organic acids (lactic, acetic). With carcasses an overall reduction in surface contaminants of 1.5 log cycles can be expected. Carcass decontamination may not improve the safety of the resultant meat, but laboratory trials confirm that acid decontamination of subprimal and retail cuts is more efficacious. An advantage over many other intervention strategies is that residual antimicrobial activity is demonstrable over extended periods of storage. These studies have also shown that some meatborne pathogens are particularly sensitive to organic acids (i.e., Yersinia enterocolitica) while others are resistant (i.e., E. coli O157:H7). Dilute solutions of organic acids (1 to 3%) are generally without effect on the desirable sensory properties of meat when used as a carcass decontaminant. However, dependent on treatment conditions, lactic and acetic acid can produce adverse sensory changes when applied directly to meat cuts, with irreversible changes in appearance being a frequent occurrence. It is speculated that organic acid decontamination will be implemented in American abattoirs in an effort to meet specified performance standards for pathogen reduction as part of an overall HACCP program. In contrast, the EU advocates that strictly controlled processing hygiene is sufficient to ensure the safety of the product. Additional research is necessary to establish a set of treatment conditions that may permit a practicable reduction in bacterial contamination throughout the processing chain with a measurable effect on safety and storage life, without imposing any change in sensory properties. It will also be necessary to develop standard, objective measures to assess HACCP and the efficacy of decontamination procedures. Without such commercial studies controversy on the practicality of acid decontamination will persist.