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Sample records for conveniently prepared tc-99m

  1. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  2. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  3. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We have shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  4. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We hve shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/Tc/sub 4/-. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  5. A Tc-99m labeled laminin derived peptide, Tc-99m-YIGSR for thrombus specific imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.

    1994-05-01

    Laminin derived adhesive peptides were studied as potential agents for thrombus specific imaging. Using a novel peptide Tc-99m labeling method studies were performed in vitro using human whole blood clots and platelets, and in vivo scintigraphy in animals with experimental thrombi. Aliquots of 0.1 ml human blood were placed in inclined Petri dishes until clot was well formed. Clots were rinsed 3x with phosphate buffer and 10 {mu}Ci Tc-99m YIGSR II was added. After incubation at room temperature for 1 hr, clots were again washed 3x. Residual activity was measured. Platelets were harvested using routine methods and incubated with Tc-99m YIGSR II, washed and assayed. Blocking experiments using cold YIGSR II showed that the Tc-99m labeled peptide preparation YIGSR II binds specifically and selectively to clot and platelets as compared to control experiments using nonspecific human Tc-99m IgG. Tissue distribution studies showed rapid blood clearance, urinary excretion and to a lesser degree GI tract excretion. Tc-99m YIGSR II was lower in all organs except kidneys compared to Tc-99m 50 H.19, Tc-99m IgG and Tc-99m YIGSR I. Tc-99m-YIGSR II consistently visualized thrombi within 30 min p.i. In vivo scintigraphic (thrombus/contralateral side) ratio was 3:1 and ex vivo direct counting (thrombosed to nonthrombosed vessel segment) was 5.4: 1. Compared to monoclonal antibodies peptide preparations are non- or minimally immunogenic, preparation is probably less expensive and there is also less danger of viral DNA contamination. These considerations and our data indicate that the Tc-99m-YIGSR II peptide has significant potential as a thrombus imaging agent.

  6. Tc-99m Labeled carrier for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Henze, Eberhard

    1984-01-01

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by non-covalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  7. TC-99M labeled carrier for imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.

    1984-02-14

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by noncovalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  8. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  9. Comparison of Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m HSA and Tc-99m HIG uptake in rheumatoid arthritis and its variants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, M; Bernay, I; Basoglu, T; Canturk, F

    1999-12-01

    Tc-99m polyclonal immunoglobulin-G has been shown to be a successful agent in the depiction of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to compare the uptake behaviors of Tc-99m HIG and Tc-99m MDP in RA and variants of rheumatoid arthritis (VRA). Seventeen patients with RA and 8 patients with VRA presenting with active inflammation were included in this study. Ten subjects with well-diagnosed degenerative joint disease constituted the control group. All joints in patients were also imaged with Tc-99m HSA to evaluate the vascularization status of the joints. Tc-99m HIG and HSA scans were obtained at 2, 4 and 24 hours after the injection of 555 MBq Tc-99m HIG and 296 MBq Tc-99m HSA. Conventional bone scans were performed 4 hours after the injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Target-to-background (T/B) ratios were obtained exclusively over the joint regions. Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios of the active joints in RA were significantly higher than those of the non-active joints and the control group (p < 0.05). Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios in active joints showed a progressive increase between 2 and 24 hour images (p < 0.05). In contrast, Tc-99m HSA T/B ratios decreased in all active joints significantly (p < 0.05) except the ankle joint region (p > 0.05). The T/B ratios in Tc-99m MDP bone scans were higher in all active joints than in non-active RA joints and joints of controls but significantly differences were only detected in wrist and elbow joints. All clinically active joints in VRA patients accumulated Tc-99m HIG and HSA, and showed increased Tc-99m MDP uptake. These joints had a very similar Tc-99m HIG retention pattern to the RA joints. The detection rate of active joint inflammation with Tc-99m HIG was much higher than that with Tc-99m MDP. The increasing Tc-99m HIG uptake ratio between 2 and 24 hours in contrast to Tc-99m HSA indicates the presence of other binding mechanisms besides increased vascularity in RA.

  10. A comparison of bone imaging with Tc-99m DPD and Tc-99m MDP: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Zorn-Bopp, E.; Reuschel, W.; Muenzing, W.; Moser, E.A.; Seiderer, M.

    1982-03-01

    Bone to soft tissue (ST) ratios for both high-uptake bone (sacrum) and low-uptake bone (femoral diaphysis) were obtained with a derivative of phosphonic acid, TC-99m 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD), in 26 normal subjects and 177 patients with malignant disease but without metastases. Tests were run 2 hr after tracer injection. Similar ratios were obtained with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in 220 normal subjects and 451 patients. With MDP, the influence of incubation time (5-10 min in 416 cases, 45 min in 185 cases) on these ratios was determined. DPD was superior to MDP for both ratios. With MDP, prolonged incubation time yielded significantly enhanced ratios; however, the ratios for the DPD were still higher. With either agent and preparation, sacrum-to-ST ratios decreased with increasing subject age, and in patients with malignant disease the ratios tended to be higher than those obtained from normals.

  11. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  12. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-09-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function.

  13. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression.

  14. Hemobilia detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Wholey, M.H.; Ismail-Beigi, F.

    1982-01-01

    Tc-99m labeled red blood cells were successfully used to determine the site of hemorrhage in a 67-year-old man with hemobilia. A false hepatic artery aneurysm was confirmed at angiography and ultimately successfully embolized. The relative merits of using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells for detecting sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are discussed.

  15. Discordant hepatic uptake between Tc-99m sulfur colloid and Tc-99m DISIDA in hypervitaminosis A

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.M.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Davidson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Scintigraphic findings in a patient with biopsy-proven hypervitaminosis A included markedly impaired hepatic uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid but essentially normal uptake of Tc-99m DISIDA. This case presents a potential cause for image discordance with these two agents.

  16. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  17. Comparison of the tumor-seeking agent Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid and the renal imaging agent Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Nakajima, T.; Yomoda, I.; Masuda, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Hata, N.

    1985-03-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, interest has been focused on the design of the (+5) oxidation state Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMSA) as a tumor-seeking agent. Tc-99m(V) DMSA holds a TcO4(3-) core and, like PO4(3-), has excellent characteristics for tumor uptake, but has a different distribution than the well-known renal scanning agent, Tc-99m DMSA. The differences in chemical behavior of Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are discussed. Three cases in which neoplasms were studied with Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are presented. Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m(V) DMSA, having a common ligand and tracer but, with the metal ion core in a different oxidation state, the uptake characteristics are altered markedly.

  18. Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kadanali, A; Varoglu, E; Kerek, M; Tasyaran, M A

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) scintigraphy for the diagnosis of brucellosis, and to compare its effectiveness in the diagnosis of osteoarticular involvement in comparison with bone scanning. Of 30 patients with brucellosis, Tc-99m HIG detected osteoarticular involvement in 18 (60%) patients, in whom the sacroiliac joints were affected most commonly (n = 13; 72.2%), with statistically predominant bilateral involvement (p < 0.05). By bone scanning, the rate of osteoarticular involvement was 70% (21 of 30 patients), and the joints affected most commonly were sacroiliac (15 of 21 patients; 71.4%). Although bilateral involvement was observed mostly by bone scanning, there was no significant difference between the rate of bilateral and unilateral involvement. The anatomical distribution of osteoarticular complications, as detected by Tc-99m HIG and bone scintigraphy, did not differ significantly. With Tc-99m HIG, orchitis was detected in two patients and paravertebral abscess in one patient. Since bone scanning did not detect these soft tissue complications, Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy might be useful for the detection of both osteoarticular and soft tissue complications resulting from brucellosis.

  19. Changes in biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals due to impurities - Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, A.; Horiuchi, K.

    1981-06-01

    In this review the influence of impurities in RP such as Tc-99m complexes of bleomycin, pyridoxylidene-glutamate, DMSA, phosphate derivatives, and Ga-67 citrate will be further discussed from the point of view of their preparation as a way to understanding the labeling reaction of the useful form of a given RP.

  20. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  1. Results of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m EHIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, S.M.; Ahmed, R.; Rok

    1989-05-01

    Tc-99m labelled 2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyliminodiacetic acid (EHIDA) is a non-toxic radiopharmaceutical that was found to undergo rapid biliary excretion in a normal human, with accumulation of radioactivity in the gall bladder and intestine. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and the passage of the same into the intestine within 15 to 40 minutes, with or without visualization of the gall bladder. In the jaundiced patient, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion was increased. Tc-99m EHIDA has been extensively investigated in 1634 patients to evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders.

  2. Poor Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake, re-evaluation with Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy in Lowe syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Demirel, Koray; Diri, Akif; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2011-01-01

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules as low molecular weight proteins. In Lowe syndrome this mechanism is impaired and so poor DMSA uptake is seen. Poor DMSA uptake was shown in very few studies, but none mentioned normal Tc-99m MAG3 uptake. In this case, the patient had poor DMSA uptake, normal MAG3 uptake and a neurogenic bladder in anterior to the left kidney that attenuates left kidney. PMID:23559713

  3. Statistical parametric mapping demonstrates asymmetric uptake with Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in normal brain.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Jones, David T; Stead, Matt; Kazemi, Noojan; O'Brien, Terence J; So, Elson L; Blumenfeld, Hal; Mullan, Brian P; Worrell, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate diethylester (ECD) and Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of a variety of neurologic disorders. Although these tracers have been very helpful in diagnosing and guiding treatment of neurologic disease, data describing the distribution and laterality of these tracers in normal resting brain are limited. Advances in quantitative functional imaging have demonstrated the value of using resting studies from control populations as a baseline to account for physiologic fluctuations in cerebral perfusion. Here, we report results from 30 resting Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans and 14 resting Tc-99m HMPAO scans of normal volunteers with no history of neurologic disease. Scans were analyzed with regions of interest and with statistical parametric mapping, with comparisons performed laterally (left vs. right), as well as for age, gender, and handedness. The results show regions of significant asymmetry in the normal controls affecting widespread areas in the cerebral hemispheres, but most marked in superior parietotemporal region and frontal lobes. The results have important implications for the use of normal control SPECT images in the evaluation of patients with neurologic disease.

  4. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  5. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  6. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  7. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  8. Radiochemical analysis of Tc-99m human serum albumin with high-pressure liquid chromatography: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Goldsmith, S J; Pollina, R; Lipszyc, H

    1982-04-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be performed with an aqueous size-exclusion column to separate proteins or other macromolecules on the basis of molecular size. An HPLC system with a Spherogel-TSK SW column was modified to detect simultaneously uv absorption and radioactivity. Characteristic retention times (RT) were determined for pure human serum albumin (HSA) (RT = 17 min) and pertechnetate (RT = 28.5 min). When analysis was performed on Tc-99m HSA preparations, Tc-99m radioactivity was resolved into five different peaks, with RT ranging from 10.2 to 28.5 min. Less than 2% radioactivity was associated with the pertechnetate peak, whereas the remaining Tc-99m was protein bound. Most of the activity (90%) corresponded to the albumin peak, and 7% was bound to contaminants of high molecular weight with RTs of 10.2 and 14 min. Rapid separation of various radiochemical components differing in molecular size provides an improved basis for understanding the biodistribution of a Tc-99m HSA preparation. This technique would be useful for the preparation and analysis of various radiolabeled macromolecules such as enzymes, immunoglobulins, and other proteins.

  9. Radiochemical analysis of Tc-99m human serum albumin with high-pressure liquid chromatography: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Pollina, R.; Lipszyc, H.

    1982-04-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be performed with an aqueous size-exclusion column to separate proteins or other macromolecules on the basis of molecular size. An HPLC system with a Spherogel-TSK SW column was modified to detect simultaneously uv absorption and radioactivity. Characteristic retention times (RT) were determined for pure human serum albumin (HSA) (RT = 17 min) and pertechnetate (RT = 28.5 min). When analysis was performed on Tc-99m HSA preparations, Tc-99m radioactivity was resolved into five different peaks, with RT ranging from 10.2 to 28.5 min. Less than 2% radioactivity was associated with the pertechnetate peak, whereas the remaining Tc-99m was protein bound. Most of the activity (90%) corresponded to the albumin peak, and 7% was bound to contaminants of high molecular weight with RTs of 10.2 and 14 min. Rapid separation of various radiochemical components differing in molecular size provides an improved basis for understanding the biodistribution of a Tc-99m HSA preparation. This technique would be useful for the preparation and analysis of various radiolabeled macromolecules such as enzymes, immunoglobulins, and other proteins.

  10. Tc-99m dextran: a new blood-pool-labeling agent for radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Robinson, G.D.; Kuhl, D.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of imaging the cadiac blood pool with dextran (Dx) labeled with Tc-99m (Tc) after Sn/sup 2 +/ reduction. Stannous dextrane (SnDx) kits were prepared in advance and labeling was performed by adding Tc-99m. The labeling efficiency was greater than 95%. Technetium-99m dextran (TcDx) was highly stable both in vivo and in vitro. In seven dogs we compared the quality of blood-pool images obtained with TcDx of different molecular weights ( 4 x 10/sup 4/ = Dx-40; 5 x 10/sup 5/ = Dx-500; 1 x 10/sup 6/ = Dx-2000) and with Tc-99m red blood cells (TcRBC) labeled in vitro, and determined the organ distribution of this new agent by whole-body scanning and blood sampling. TcDx provided high-quality cardiac blood-pool images up to 60 min after injection. The heart-to-lung ratios averaged 3.7 for TcDx-40, 3.9 for TcDx-500, and 5.4 for TcRBC at 60 min. Whereas TcDx-40 showed a relatively rapid initial urinary excretion and TcDx-2000 was degraded rapidly, TcDx-500 demonstrated the best kinetics for blood-pool imaging. Thus, TcDx is a new radiopharmaceutical with high labeling efficiency and stability. It overcomes a number of the limitations of currently used blood-labeling agents and may become useful for blood-pool imaging in man.

  11. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  12. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics.

  13. Tc-99m tetrofosmin: A new diagnostic tracer for parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kumabe, Tsutomu; Morita, Seiichiro

    1995-10-01

    A 42-year-old woman with hyperparathyroidism had a CT scan that was suggestive of a small nodular lesion in the left lower neck. Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin parathyroid imaging were performed 10 minutes and 2 hours after tracer injection. Early imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi demonstrated thyroid and focal uptake in the left lower neck. On delayed imaging, finding suggested a parathyroid adenoma. Imaging with Tc-99m tetrofosmin demonstrated similar findings. The abnormal parathyroid gland was an adenoma. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine oxine (HM-PAO) uptake in a bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Sameshima, M.; Uwada, O.; Watanabe, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uptake of Tc-99m Hexamethylpropylene-amine Oxine (HM-PAO) was seen in bone metastases from carcinoma of the lung. The uptake was prominent when compared to Tc-99m MDP, I-123 IMP, and Ga-67 citrate. Brain imaging with Tc-99m HM-PAO and N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) is now frequently performed. Uptake of these agents has been reported in brain tumors and melanomas. In this report, uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO in a metastatic lesion in bone is discussed.

  15. Regional radioactivity discrepancy between Tc-99m GSA and Tc-99m phytate liver scans in a patient with massive hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Akaki, Shiro; Saeki, Mototsugu; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuhei; Kuroda, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Hiraki, Yoshio; Uraoka, Toshio; Baba, Nobuyuki; Sakaguchi, Kosaku

    2002-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman with severe acute hepatitis underwent a Tc-99m galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scan. Intense accumulation was observed in the cephalic region of the right hepatic lobe, whereas the accumulation was reduced in the left lobe and the caudal region of the right lobe. A computed tomographic (CT) scan showed that the left lobe and the caudal region of the right posterior segment had atrophied and become hypodense, which were thought to represent postnecrotic scarring after massive hepatic necrosis. The relatively hyperdense region in the right lobe was slightly swollen and was thought to represent regenerating liver tissue or a "potato liver." Compared with the CT, the regions of elevated Tc-99m GSA accumulation correlated well with the areas of regenerating liver tissue, and the regions with reduced accumulation corresponded closely with the areas of postnecrotic scarring. On a Tc-99m phytate scan, unlike the Tc-99m GSA scan, the radiocolloid accumulation was intense in the left lobe and caudal region of the right lobe and reduced in the cephalic region of the right lobe. Together, the Tc-99m GSA scan and the Tc-99m phytate scan formed a set of exact "nega-posi" images. Biopsy specimens obtained during laparoscopy showed a few hepatocyte columns in the postnecrotic scarred left lobe. Severe disruption of the hepatocytes, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, and obvious Kupffer cell hypertrophy and clustering were also observed.

  16. Diagnosing protein losing enteropathy: A new approach using Tc-99m human immunoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, A.; Kashyap, R.; Chopra, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    Tc-99m HIG has recently come into prominence as an inflammation seeking radiotracer. The authors describe a novel use of the agent for imaging protein-losing enteropathy. The agent may have certain advantages over Tc-99m HSA, which is currently being used for imaging protein loss. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  18. Gel chromatographic behavior of Tc-99m-labeled compounds in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds (Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar, Tc-99m glucoheptonate, Tc-99m DTPA, Tc-99m disofenin) with the chromatographic gels, to determine their relative molecular sizes and molecular structures in aqueous solution, which are based on their biomenbrane transport mechanism and quality control analysis. Each Tc-99m-labeled compound was eluted and analyzed by three different gel chromatrography systems varying buffers: Sephadex G-25, Sephadex LH-20 and Bio-Gel P-4. The best separation between the elution peaks of all compounds except Tc-99m glucoheptonate was achieved on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCL buffer (pH 7.6) (1:1) which could avoid the aromatic interaction with the gels. Tc-99m glucoheptonate was well eluted only on a Bio-Gel P-4 column but its elution peak was not separated from other compounds' peaks. The elution of Tc-99m disofenin was delayed on Sephadex G-25 gel and Bio-Gel P-4 columns in 0.9% NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer(ph 7.6) and on Sephadex LH-20 column in methanol-Tris-HCl buffer, because of the aromatic ring interaction with the gels. The relative molecular size index ( Kav ) calculated from the elution volume of the gel chromatography. Kav of Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar(MW=163), Tc-99m DTPA (MW=492.) and TC-99m disofenin (MW=707) on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCl buffer(pH 7.6) (1:1), which was the most suitable combination of the gel and the buffer, were 0.976, 0.477 and 0.200, respectively. They inversely correlated with their estimated molecular weight. The interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds with the chromatographic gels should be considered in quality control procedure for Tc-99m radiopharamaceuticals.

  19. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  20. Synthesis and biodistribution of neutral lipid-soluble Tc-99m complexes that cross the blood-brain barrier. [Monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Molnar, M.; Billings, J.; Wicks, R.; Blau, M.

    1984-03-01

    Three Tc-99m-labeled neutral 1,2-dithia-5,8-diazacyclodecane (BAT) chelates that are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were prepared and evaluated. Biodistribution (i.v.) in rats showed a significant brain uptake (1-3%/whole brain) at 2 min. At 15 min the uptake dropped to about a tenth of the original level, indicating free passage in both directions across the BBB. Gamma camera images of a monkey confirmed the high initial brain uptake. This group of Tc-99m BAT compounds clearly exhibited in vivo stability and the ability to cross the BBB after an i.v. injection. Derivatives containing tertiary amine groups should have prolonged brain retention and might be suitable for SPECT studies of brain perfusion.

  1. Imaging of primary and regionally metastatic lung cancer with Tc-99m SESTAMIBI

    SciTech Connect

    Akansel, G.; Liu, Y.; Uygur, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The significance of pulmonary, hilar, and mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging was retrospectively investigated. SPECT myocardial perfusion images for 34 adult patients (ages: 52-to-82 years) with known lung cancer undergoing preoperative assessment of cardiac status and 29 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} patients with normal chest radiographs and no history of lung cancer were reviewed. For the 29 patients without lung cancer there was no abnormal pulmonary, hilar, or mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI. For the 34 patients with histologically proven lung cancer, Tc-99m SESTAMIBI uptake was detected in 27 of 34 primary pulmonary lesions (79% sensitivity), 2 of 4 surgically proven hilar metastases, and 1 of 4 mediastinal metastases. The smallest lesion detected was 1.0 cm in diameter and the largest lesion not detected was 5.5 cm in diameter. For squamous cell carcinoma, 20 of 22 primary lesions were detected (91% sensitivity). Tc-99m SESTAMIBI detected 5 of 34 primary pulmonary lesions, 2 of 4 hilar metasteses, and 1 of 4 mediastinal metastases not identified by conventional chest radiographs. CT was superior to Tc-99m SESTAMIBI for detection of primary pulmonary lesions and was similar to Tc-99m SESTAMIBI in the limited number of cases with hilar and mediastinal metastatic involvement. We conclude that abnormal pulmonary, hilar, or mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI may be a clinically significant finding which should be correlated with chest radiography or CT.

  2. Demonstrating alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver by Tc-99m BIDA scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver underwent Tc-99m BIDA studies. All demonstrated 1) persistently high blood pool activity in the heart, lung, and soft tissue, 2) slow hepatic tracer uptake, 3) prolonged liver-to-bowel transit time, and 4) visualization of an enlarged spleen. Four of the six patients demonstrated evidence of ascites and in one patient there were visible collateral veins of the abdomen. These findings are due primarily to hepatic dysfunction and retaining Tc-99m BIDA in blood pool because of Tc-99m BIDA exclusively hepatic excretion and little or no alternative renal excretion. All six Tc-99m sulfur colloid studies were performed concomitantly. Except for bone marrow uptake and reversal of the normal liver-spleen ratio of radioactivity, the imaging abnormalities observed with Tc-99m BIDA were similar to those seen by Tc-99m SC. It is concluded that with Tc-99m BIDA studies, three of six abnormal findings, as described, suggest a decompensated stage of cirrhosis of the liver.

  3. Quantitative analysis by digital computer of Tc-99m N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (Tc-99m PMT) hepatogram in diffuse parenchymal liver diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Narabayashi, I.; Ishido, N.; Sugimura, K.; Nabeshima, K.; Sugimura, C.; Matsuo, M.; Kimura, S.; Kajita, A.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m N-pyridoxyl-5 methyltryptophan (Tc-99m PMT) hepatograms were analyzed to provide information about the liver and bile duct. Calculations were based on a 4 compartmental model and included corrections for blood, tissue, liver and bile backgrounds. The time-activity curves for Tc-99m PMT in the cardiac region were described as the sum of 2 exponential functions, while curves for the hepatic region were described as the sum of 3 exponential components. The measured hepatograms were compared with simulated hepatograms and good agreement between the two curves showed that the compartmental model adequately described the blood and bile activities in vivo. Hepatic excretion rates were 0.179 +- 0.028 in 3 normal subjects. 0.102 +- 0.012 in 4 patients of chronic hepatitis and 0.116 +- 0.061 in 6 patients of liver cirrhosis. In the cases of diffuse parenchyal liver diseases, there were lower rate constants for the excretion from the liver to the bile ducts than in normals and the relative distribution values also larger than normal. Prior to the development of this compartmental model, no useful kinetic model had been found which could satisfactorily explain the time-activity curves. Experience in human studies proves this method to be accurate in determining the rate constants for hepatobiliary transport of Tc-99m PMT.

  4. Visualization of cutaneous hemangioma with Tc-99m tagged red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Vujic, I.; Spicer, K.M.

    1981-10-01

    Scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBCs) was used to evaluate a patient with a large cutaneous hemangioma. The usefulness of this procedure when combined with arteriography is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol coated liposomes labeled with Tc-99m as a blood pool agent

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.; Goins, B.

    1994-05-01

    This investigation evaluated Tc-99m liposomes coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a blood pool agent in comparison with Tc-99m liposomes carrying no surface charge (Neutral) and with Tc-99m autologous red cells. Liposomes (135 nm diameter) encapsulating glutathione were labeled with Tc-99m using the lipophilic chelator, HMPAO as previously described. Autologous red cells were labeled using an Ultratag kit. Labeling efficiencies averaged 66%, 52%, and 97% for the PEG liposomes. Neutral liposomes, and red cells, respectively. Rabbits (3-3.5 Kg) were injected IV via ear vein with 2.0 mls of PEG liposomes (2 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=5). Neutral liposomes (1.3 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=4), or red cells (2.6 mCi, n=2). Gamma camera images were acquired at 5,22, and 45 minutes, and 2,20,and 44 hours post-injection. Blood samples were obtained at each time point to determine clearance kinetics. Circulation half lives of both Tc-99m liposome formulations were longer than Tc-99m red cells (8 hrs), with the half life of PEG liposomes (35 hrs) 1.6 times longer than Neutral liposomes (22 hrs). In vivo stability of the Tc-99m label was excellent for the liposomes with only 3.5-4% bladder activity at 45 minutes compared to 12% bladder activity for the red cells. Excellent blood pool images were obtained for the PEG liposomes in the rabbit. Heart/liver ratios calculated from region of interest analysis of 45 minutes images were 1.9, 1.5, and 1.7 for PEG liposomes, Neutral liposomes and red cells. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Tc-99m PEG liposomes to perform gated cardiac blood pool and rapid gastrointestinal bleeding studies.

  6. Regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, S.B.; Oberle, P.O.; Hoffman, T.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Pickett, R.D.; Neirinckx, R.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-PnAO) is a neutral lipophilic chelate that rapidly and passively enters the cerebral cortex (80% on first pass in baboon brain) and then clears exponentially leaving inadequate activity to perform conventional SPECT brain imaging. When side chains are attached to the PnAO backbone lipophilicity is increased, as well as brain retention. In this work the authors evaluated regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-PnAO and several of its derivatives in rat brain using serial autoradiography (ARG). Autoradiographs of each Tc-99m chelate at 5 sec. post peak brain uptake demonstrate discrete grey to white matter differentiation. White matter tracts are well delineated and the darker areas of grey matter appearing in the midbrain and thalamus, corresponding to areas of high capillary density and high blood flow documented with C-14-iodoantipyrine, are easily distinguished. Within 5 min. of the peak uptake the regional uptake and grey/white differentiation is lost on the Tc-99m-PnAO ARG. In contrast the 5 min. ARG of the more lipophilic Tc-99m, chelate with dimethyl-PnAO (DMPnAO) shows the complete reverse of the 5 sec. ARG, with greater activity in the white matter tracts than in the grey matter. One of the derivatives, tetramethyl-PAO (TMPAO) complexed with Tc-99m is retained in the grey matter of rat brain and shows persistent grey to white localization for at least 60 min., analogous to what has been reported with I-123-IMP. These results suggest that Tc-99m-TMPAO or one of its derivatives may be appropriate for SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow abnormalities.

  7. p-carboxyethyl-phenylglyoxal bis(n-methylthiosemicarbazone) (CE-DTS), a bifunctional chelating agent for Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Arano, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Furukawa, T.; Saji, H.; Endo, K.; Torizaka, K.

    1985-05-01

    In the search for bifunctional chelating agents (BCA) with better affinity, selectivity and stability as for Tc-99m, synthesis of a novel BCA containing di-thio-semicarbazone as for Tc-99m chelating site has offered interesting characteristics for the labeling of macromolecules. In the present paper, monoclonal IgG (MoAb) against human thyroglobulin was selected as a model and conditions for coupling, labeling reactions were tested along with immunological reactivity. CE-DTS was coupled to MoAb by the azido method and effect of conjugation on the MoAb immunoreactivity was followed by RIA. When CE-DTS was coupled to MoAb at the molar ratio of 1:1, no loss of its original immunoreactivity was observed. Tc-99m labeling, using the stannous ion reducing method, indicated the reaction pH as being a determinant parameter. The reducing agent prepared in tartrate buffer (pH 3) offered high yield and stable Tc-99m-CE-DTS-MoAb, as evidence by HPLC. In vivo studies in mice indicated percent of injected dose and blood clearance alike the I-131-MoAb. This good labeled state of Tc-99m-CE-DTS-MoAb was also demonstrated by using second antibody reaction in serum of mice. The newly synthesized CE-DTS offered good basis for the Tc-99m labeling of monclonal antibodies with preserved immunological properties, as desirable for the radioimmunodetection. Work with tumor related monoclonal antibodies is under progress.

  8. Effect of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate on bacterial survival in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Stathis, V.J.; Miller, C.M.; Doerr, G.F.; Coffey, J.L.; Hladik, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Survival of Staphylococcus epidermidis (10(2) organisms/ml) in solutions containing various levels of radioactivity was assessed. Six test preparations contained nonbacteriostatic 0.9% sodium chloride solution; four of these contained technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate (99mTcO-4) in various quantities (80, 250, 500, and 750 mCi). A fifth contained technetium that had decayed to an essentially nonradioactive form, and a sixth contained 0.9% sodium chloride solution only. Each of the six 20-ml solutions was inoculated with 2 ml of single-strength trypticase soy broth (TSB) containing 10(3) organisms/ml. At various times up to 12 hours after inoculation, 1-ml aliquots of each test solution were withdrawn and passed through 0.22-micron filters, thereby preventing further irradiation of the filtered organisms. The filters were incubated in single-strength TSB at 37 degrees C, and samples were examined for turbidity at 24, 48, and 72 hours. After 24 hours, 25 of the 36 sample tubes showed turbidity; after 48 hours, the turbid samples totaled 28. Bacteria in the two nonradioactive solutions remained viable throughout the 12-hour sampling period. Accumulated doses of radiation obtained in the 250-, 500-, and 750-mCi samples inhibited bacterial growth. To be a valid quality-control measure, sterility monitoring of prepared radiopharmaceutical dosage forms may need to be performed concurrently with their preparation.

  9. Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin scintigraphy – indications other than pulmonary embolism: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sunny J; Babu, Sanjay; Subramanyam, Padma; Shanmuga Sundaram, Palaniswamy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin (MAA) is synonymous for lung perfusion scintigraphy and is part of the study in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. We wanted to highlight the utilities of Tc-99m MAA other than pulmonary embolism as a pictorial assay. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy under various indications were included in this pictorial essay. Commercially available TechneScan LyoMAA cold kit from Mallinckrodt Medical B.V., Holland was used. Acquisition protocols for different indications are described in this article. Different clinical indications (e.g., pulmonary artery stenosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome, FEV1 calculation in lung surgery planning, selective internal radiation therapy planning, venography for deep venous thrombosis, left to right cardiac shunts, etc.) where Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy was asked for; how it helped in different clinical scenarios and how it can be used clinically is explained with unique and interesting case examples and images. We also reviewed the literature to look for certain remote indications of MAA imaging for the sake of completion like – (shunt scintigraphy, peritoneopleural communication, etc.) Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA is a very useful radiopharmaceutical, which can be used for many other indications apart from the commonly used indication of lung perfusion scan in pulmonary embolism. It can provide useful clinical information in other indications, which we try to highlight in this article. PMID:24250023

  10. Ectopic Intrathymic Parathyroid adenoma demonstrated on Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT.

    PubMed

    Usmani, S; Oteifa, M; Abu Huda, F; Javaid, A; Amanguno, H G; Al Kandari, F

    2016-05-01

    Intrathymic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. In this case, Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT successfully localized abnormal tracer uptake in the mediastinum with corresponding low density lesion on CT images suggestive of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma which late on confirmed on histopathology. After the median sternotomy a large intrathymic parathyroid adenoma was identified and excised. With the help of gamma probe the surgeons detect the lesion early and with more confidence as well as reducing the total operation time. Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT scintigraphy and gamma probe localization is recommended for preoperative and intra operative localization of ectopic parathyroid adenomas.

  11. Preliminary dosimetry investigation of Tc-99m diagnostic radionuclide by NIPAM gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, You-Ruei; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Yu, Bi-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hau; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    The N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) gel dosimeter was investigated as a suitable material for measuring absorbed doses from radionuclide sources. In this study, NIPAM gel dosimeter was used to evaluate the dose distributions of the Tc-99m radionuclide in NIPAM gel. The accumulated radioactivity range of the Tc-99m NIPAM gel is from approximately 0 MBq to 13.6 MBq (about 0.37 mCi). The NIPAM gel dosimeter with high stability and high-dose linear and non-energy dependent properties can provide various radiopharmaceutical activity intensities in the conduct of dose assessment in nuclear medicine, thereby producing the most promising dose verification tools.

  12. Unusual Tc-99m MDP and I-123 MIBG images in focal pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.; Lenoir, P.; Delree, M.; Ramet, J.; Piepsz, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with an inflammatory syndrome. Because Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy revealed increased tracer uptake at the upper pole of the right kidney, further studies were oriented towards a diagnosis of renal or adrenal pathology. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulated at the site of the abnormal MDP uptake. The diagnosis of neuroblastoma or allied disorder was excluded on the basis of other investigations and further evaluation, suggesting that the MIBG uptake was a false-positive. Findings on clinical imaging, laboratory findings, Tc-99m DMSA imaging, sonography, and CT scanning were highly suggestive of acute focal pyelonephritis.

  13. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  14. Quantitative simultaneous In-111/Tc-99m planar imaging in a long-bone infection phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuping; Park, Mi-Ae; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    2007-12-01

    In-111-white-blood-cell and Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid dual-radionuclide imaging are frequently utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. We have developed a quantitative planar imaging method in which Tc-99m and In-111 scans are acquired simultaneously in accurate spatial registration. Long, thin tubes containing only In-111 or Tc-99m were first imaged in a list mode within a water bath inclined with respect to the water surface; from these, 12 energy spectra corresponding to different Tc/In ratios were synthesized. Triple-energy-window (TEW) parameters for scatter and radionuclide crosstalk correction, including scatter windows and weights, were optimized using 100 noise realizations of each of the spectra (1200 total). A long-bone phantom containing a simulated infection site was then imaged in water with five In/Tc ratios; 100 noise realizations of two conjugate-view images were generated from each acquisition (500 total). Two regions of interest (ROIs) were defined, and the ratio of In/Tc count ratios in these two ROIs was evaluated with and without the TEW scatter correction and geometric mean attenuation compensation. The average bias improved from 17.2% to 5.3%, with comparable precision. TEW corrections with non-optimized but practical energy windows also improved the bias to 6.4%. Compared with subjective visual assessment, quantitation of In-111/Tc-99m ratios may improve diagnostic accuracy and could eventually permit grading of osteomyelitis.

  15. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  16. Tc-99m DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of Tc-99m DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of Tc-99m DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) with time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of Tc-99m DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies.

  17. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  18. Post-traumatic pulmonary accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R A; Hladik, W B

    1982-02-01

    A case is reported in which accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid in one lung occurred following trauma, although the lung remained clear radiographically. Another trauma case is mentioned in which the uptake was bilateral. The cause of this phenomenon is unclear; several potential mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Ulcerative colitis and a bleeding polyp detected on Tc-99m-pertechnetate abdominal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.

    1981-10-01

    Two children with rectal bleeding were diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis and a bleeding colonic polyp respectively using abdominal scanning with Tc-99m pertechnetate. Early flow studies are recommended with careful attention paid to the amount of time abnormal areas of activity are seen on the abdominal scan.

  20. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver paté as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Christian, P E; Moore, J G; Datz, F L

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. We have compared the stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled puréed meat (liver paté) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver paté were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. Our in vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver paté. The paté labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its preparation was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver paté. Labeled liver paté is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  1. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  2. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  3. Lung uptake on Tc-99m albumin colloid liver spleen scan and on Ga-67 scan in angiotropic lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kacki, M.H.; Joyce, J.M.; Coupal, J.J.; Ryo, U.Y. )

    1990-03-01

    Lung uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid has been reported in various hepatic and extrahepatic diseases, and lung uptake of gallium-67 may occur in patients with various interstitial lung disease without radiographic abnormality. This may be the first case of Tc-99m albumin colloid and Ga-67 lung uptake in a patient with angiotropic lymphoma of the liver, spleen, and uterus.

  4. Choledochal cyst complicated by acute cholecystitis and bypass obstruction: diagnostic role of Tc-99m-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Gold, M.; Goldstein, R.D.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    An unusual case of malignant degeneration of a choledochal cyst is presented. The presence of acute cholecystitis with the cystic duct originating from the cyst as well as the subsequent obstruction of the cyst-jejunal surgical anastomosis was readily detected with Tc-99m-dimethyl-iminodiacetic (Tc-99m-HIDA) cholescintigraphy.

  5. Observations on Tc-99m-erythrocyte venography in normal subjects and in patients with deep vein thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Leger, J.; Stern, J.; Derbekyan, V.; Skinner, B.

    1981-07-01

    Blood pool imaging of the lower limbs with Tc-99m-erythrocytes demonstrates the deep venous channels of the leg. The radionuclide image of deep vein thrombosis, by this method, appears sufficiently distinctive to suggest that Tc-99m-erythrocyte venography may be a useful screening examination for deep vein patency.

  6. Demonstrating patency of STA-MCA anastomosis with Tc-99m albumin microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Etani, H.; Kimura, K.; Yoneda, S.; Tsuda, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Kataoka, K.; Iwata, Y.; Abe, H.

    1983-02-01

    A patient with occlusion of the left internal carotid artery underwent an anastomosis between branches of the left superficial temporal and middle cerebral arteries (STA-MCA). A left carotid angiogram 9 days later showed extreme, tapered narrowing of the involved STA branch, with no filling of the MCA from the bypass. A year later, symptoms had improved slightly, and a minimally invasive study was made with Tc-99m human albumin microspheres. This showed patency of the bypass, with intracranial perfusion in the MCA field, findings later confirmed by a repeat left carotid angiogram. It appears that Tc-99m HAM scintigraphy will be useful in assessing the effectiveness of this and other bypass operations.

  7. Efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Tyler, J.L.; Kulkarni, M.V.

    1983-03-01

    We studied the efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal evidence of acute myocardial infarction. Only patients with positive enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had scans with greater than or equal to 2+ focal uptake. None of 26 patients with negative or equivocal enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had greater than 2+ diffuse uptake. These results support the contention that infarct-avid imaging has little clinical utility in patients with equivocal evidence of myocardial infarction.

  8. Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy: the distended photon-deficient gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Segal, H.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with distended, photon-deficient gallbladders are presented. Markedly delayed appearance of Tc-99m HIDA in a distended gallbladder may represent chronic cholescystitis, partial obstruction of the common bile duct or physiologic gallbladder distention. Obtaining delayed images is important in this group of patients to avoid premature diagnosis of cystic-duct obstruction. If the distended gallbladder fails to visualize within 24 h, hydrops with cystic-duct obstruction is suggested.

  9. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, G.; Kempi, V.; van der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  10. Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy: the distended photon-deficient gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Segal, H.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with distended, photon-deficient gallbladders are presented. Markedly delayed appearance of Tc-99m HIDA in a distended gallbladder may represent chronic cholecystitis, partial obstruction of the common bile duct, or physiologic gallbladder distention. Obtaining delayed images is important in this group of patients to avoid premature diagnosis of cystic-duct obstruction. If the distended gallbladder fails to visualize within 24 hr, hydrops with cysic-duct obstruction is suggested.

  11. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraph

    SciTech Connect

    Kempi, G.E.; Van Der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  12. Diagnosis of clinically unsuspected gallbladder perforation in an obese patient, by Tc-99m IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Mesgarzadeh, M.; Haines, J.E.; Bobba, V.R.; Von Dollen, L.E.; Jarboe, G.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.

    1983-11-01

    A male Pickwickian syndrome patient was admitted to the hospital with sudden onset of abdominal pain. Physical examination was equivocal. Due to patient's ileus and morbid obesity (weight 450 lb), neither TCT scan nor ultrasound was possible. A Tc-99m PIPIDA hepatobiliary imaging study revealed intraperitoneal leakage of radioactive bile with collection of the activity in both abdominal gutters, indicating gallbladder rupture. Prompt surgery confirmed the diagnosis.

  13. Avid thyroid uptake of (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate in children with goitrous cretinism

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Domstad, P.A.; Choy, Y.C.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-07-01

    Three children with goitrous hypothyroidism had thyroid scans with (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate, which showed symmetrically enlarged thyroid glands with uniformly increased activities compared to little activities in the salivary glands and low body background activities. These scan findings, simulating those of Graves' disease, reflect acid trapping of this tracer, analogous to that seen with I-131. Perchlorate discharge test was positive in two patients, indicating an organification defect.

  14. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance.

  15. Evaluation of peritoneovenous shunt patency with Tc-99m labeled microspheres.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, G; D'Ovidio, N G; Casu, A R; Mura, R; Costanza, C; Lai, N; LeVeen, H H

    1983-04-01

    The LeVeen peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) was investigated in 40 cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Five millicuries of Tc-99m-tagged human albumin microspheres (15-36 microns) were injected into the peritoneal cavity between the umbilicus and the left anterior superior iliac spine. The radiotracer was always detectable by scintigram in the lungs when the shunt was patent. In case of malfunction, by contrast, the radioactivity was either restricted to the venous tube or confined below the diaphragm for at least 4 hr. In the presence of complete obstruction, whereas the tube was not visualized after peritoneal injection, it was outlined by direct injection of 2 mCi of Tc-99m albumin microspheres into its subcutaneous tract, where it crossed the 12th rib, immediately above the valve. This technique sufficed to establish whether the site of obstruction was at the valve or in the tubing itself. In one patient, poor visualization of the tube and a delayed image of the lungs was caused by partial occlusion of the valve with fibrinoid debris. This radiotracer method proved simple, quick, and led to an immediate selective replacement when the shunt was not patent. Therefore, the use of this test is recommended for a definitive diagnosis, since there were neither false negatives nor false positives. No complications such as embolism or bacterial infection were encountered with Tc-99m human albumin microspheres, which are excellent tracers. PMID:6220137

  16. Optimisation of simultaneous tl-201/tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction with monte-carlo-based scatter correction.

    PubMed

    Kangasmaa, Tuija; Kuikka, Jyrki; Sohlberg, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT is seriously hampered by down-scatter from Tc-99m into the Tl-201 energy window. This paper presents and optimises the ordered-subsets-expectation-maximisation-(OS-EM-) based reconstruction algorithm, which corrects the down-scatter using an efficient Monte Carlo (MC) simulator. The algorithm starts by first reconstructing the Tc-99m image with attenuation, collimator response, and MC-based scatter correction. The reconstructed Tc-99m image is then used as an input for an efficient MC-based down-scatter simulation of Tc-99m photons into the Tl-201 window. This down-scatter estimate is finally used in the Tl-201 reconstruction to correct the crosstalk between the two isotopes. The mathematical 4D NCAT phantom and physical cardiac phantoms were used to optimise the number of OS-EM iterations where the scatter estimate is updated and the number of MC simulated photons. The results showed that two scatter update iterations and 10(5) simulated photons are enough for the Tc-99m and Tl-201 reconstructions, whereas 10(6) simulated photons are needed to generate good quality down-scatter estimates. With these parameters, the entire Tl-201/Tc-99m dual isotope reconstruction can be accomplished in less than 3 minutes.

  17. Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GHA) renal uptake: Influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m-GHA is widely used for renal imaging but little is known about its handling by the kidney. Simultaneous single injection clearances of Tc-99m-GHA and I-125 Iothalamate were performed on 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats divided among six groups: I Control; II Dehydrated; III Mannitol infusion; IV Probenecid; V Alkaline urine (sodium bicarbonate); and VI Acid urine (ammonium chloride). Plasma concentration and urine excretion were followed during 80 minutes post injection. The livers and kidneys were removed and counted 120 minutes post injection. Total clearance of GHA was lower than Iothalamate in controls (0.90 +- 0.24 S.D. ml/min/100gr vs 1.47 +- 0.18, p < 0.005) but clearance of the protein free supernate was higher (1.67 +- 0.28 p=N.S.) raising a possibility of degree of tubular secretion. Unlike Tc-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) acidification of the urine appeared to have no effect on the amount of GHA in the urine (66.1 +- 6.35% Inj. dose vs 67.19 +- 6.05 p=n.s.) and hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1%. Kidney uptake of GHA was 11.16 +- 1.53 (% Inj. dose) in controls. This varied slightly among groups but was markedly reduced by Probenecid blockade (4.08 +- 1.75, p < 0.0005). It appears that liver uptake of GHA is minimal, the non-protein bound fraction is freely filtered and its clearance correlates significantly with the GFR. Importantly renal accumulation of GHA is blocked by probenecid suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by the enzyme system involved in PAH and Hippuran transport. It thus appears that measurement of renal function with GHA represents a different aspect of function than DMSA.

  18. Sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m antral scan in the diagnosis of retained gastric antrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; P'eng, F.K.; Yeh, P.H.

    1984-03-01

    Retained gastric antrum (RGA) is a major factor in recurrent peptic ulcer. We studied 121 patients with proven anastomotic ulcers following subtotal gastrectomy and Billroth II reconstruction with sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m to determine the presence of RGA. Of the patients, 59 required surgery, 22 had RGA, and 16 had a positive scan for RGA. This noninvasive examination has 100% specificity. If RGA is identified before operation, minimal time is wasted in exploration of the abdomen, which is especially important in dealing with emergency cases. When an antral scan is negative for RGA, the surgeon is still advised to search for this condition.

  19. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    SciTech Connect

    Liem, Peng Hong; Tran, Hoai Nam; Sembiring, Tagor Malem; Arbie, Bakri

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  20. Scintigraphy of hepatic hemangiomas: the value of Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells - concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Royal, H.D.; Israel, O; Parker, J.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen patients with hepatic hemangiomas were evaluated by Tc-99m colloid scintigraphy and Tc-99m RBC angiography, including flow studies and early and delayed static studies. On colloid scintigraphy, the liver appeared enlarged, with single or multiple focal defects. During the flow and early static Tc-99m RBC studies, the lesions showed poor perfusion and were filled only partially or not at all. Delayed Tc-99m RBC studies demonstrated the whole extent of the lesion and all the lesions when multiple hemangiomas were present. A flow study showing decreased perfusion and a late blood-pool study showing increased local blood volume appear characteristic of hemangiomas. Liver biopsy should not be attempted in such cases.

  1. Scintigraphy of hepatic hemangiomas: the value of Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Royal, H.D.; Israel, O.; Parker, J.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen patients with hepatic hemangiomas were evaluated by Tc-99m colloid scintigraphy and Tc-99m RBC angiography, including flow studies and early and delayed static studies. On colloid scintigraphy, the liver appeared enlarged, with single or multiple focal defects. During the flow and early static Tc-99m RBC studies, the lesions showed poor perfusion and were filled only partially or not at all. Delayed Tc-99m RBC studies demonstrated the whole extent of the lesion and all the lesions when multiple hemangiomas were present. A flow study showing decreased perfusion and a late blood-pool study showing increased local blood volume appear characteristic of hemangiomas. Liver biopsy should not be attempted in such cases.

  2. The normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary study

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, V.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The biliary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p less than 0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p less than 0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  3. Normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary stud

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, W.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA TC 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The billiary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p<0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p<0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  4. SUV measurement of normal vertebrae using SPECT/CT with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Nawata, Shintaro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015. Various SUVs were calculated based on body-weight, lean-body-weight (lbw), Japanese lean-body-weight (jlbw) and Japanese bone-mineral-content (jbmc). SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a wide range of values. Among these, the maximum body-weight based SUV showed the lowest coefficient of variation. The SUVs also showed relatively small intra-subject variability. In addition, all SUVs showed moderate and significant correlation with height. Moreover, lbw-, jlbw-, and jbmc-based SUVs of men were significantly higher than those of women. In conclusions, SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a relatively large inter-individual variability and small intra-individual variability. As a quantitative imaging biomarker, SUVs might require standardization with adequate reference data for the same subject to minimize variability. PMID:27766184

  5. Drug-induced modulation of Tc-99m pyrophosphate tissue distribution: what is involved

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    More than ten years after their introduction, Tc-99m-labeled phosphates and phosphonates (TcP) continue to be of interest to the investigator and to hold promise for new clinical applications in the future. Initially, TcP compounds were valued because of their bone-seeking properties. Emphasis shifted from bone to soft tissue when Bonte et al. introduced Tc-99m-labeled pyrophosphate (TcPPi) for myocardial infarct scanning. Detailed information about TcPPi uptake in ischemic and necrotic myocardial tissue at the subcellular level has accumulated. Therefore, understanding of the mechanism of TcPPi uptake in infarcted myocardium is more detailed than understanding of uptake by bone. A new, and potentially powerful, approach to the use of TcP is being proposed by Carr et al. The authors attempt to modulate favorably the tissue distribution of TcPPi by prior administration of drugs in pharmacological quantities. The authors demonstrate that uptake of TcPPi can be enhanced in the necrotic myocardium, uptake by bone can be reduced, and the lesion-to-blood ratio can be altered favorably when vitamin D/sub 3/ or desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) is administered in pharmacological doses before the TcPPi injection. A short review is presented of background information helpful for interpreting the drug effects on TcPPi uptake in bone or necrotic myocardial tissue.

  6. The effect of maleate induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal handling of Tc-99m DMSA in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the healthy kidney Tc-99m DMSA accumulates in the proximal tubular cells. Consequently, impairment of the reabsorptive function of these cells may alter the renal handling of this static renal imaging agent. The authors investigated in rats the effects of a sodiummaleate (Ma) (2mmol/kg iv) induced proximal tubular dysfunction on the renal accumulation and excretion of Tc-99m DMSA. Such a treatment results in a moderate fall of the glomerular filtration rate, glycosuria, aminoaciduria and a tubular proteinuria. In 7 adult male Wistar rats, Tc-99m DMSA scans were taken before Ma, on the day of treatment, and 1 week thereafter. The accumulation of Tc-99m DMSA in kidneys (Ki) and bladder (Bl) was determined at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after i.v. injection. The results, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose, are presented. The findings show that a reversible Ma induced impairment of the proximal reabsorptive capacity severely alters the renal tubular handling of Tc-99m DMSA. In contrast to the control situation, only a small fraction of the DMSA is retained in the kidney and the majority is transported directly to the urinary bladder. When similar alterations are observed in clinical Tc-99m DMSA scans, this may be an indication of an impairment of the proximal tubular function.

  7. Neuroblastoma: Imaging evaluation by sequential Tc-99m MDP, I-131 MIBG, and Ga-67 citrate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Friedman, A.; Sandler, M.P.; Kedar, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Fourteen children with histopathologically confirmed neuroblastoma underwent sequential correlative imaging studies using I-131 MIBG, Tc-99m MDP, and Ga-67 citrate during various stages of the disease. Of the patients 86% showed I-131 MIBG accumulation in the primary tumoral site, whereas 71% showed Tc-99m MDP and 79% Ga-67 citrate uptake. In 86% at least one of the two latter radiopharmaceuticals concentrated in the primary tumor. The use of all three radiopharmaceuticals raised the detection rate to 93%. Of the osseous or extraosseous metastases 100% were detected by Tc-99m MDP studies. The I-131 MIBG studies were positive in 71% of the osseous metastases and in 70% of the extraosseous metastases. No Ga-67 citrate uptake was demonstrated in osseous metastases, although one extraosseous lung metastasis concentrated this radiopharmaceutical. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging was the best method for diagnosing metastatic spread of the disease and for monitoring the results of treatment. Primary tumor uptake was best indicated by I-131 MIBG. Both Ga-67 citrate and I-131 MIBG were superior to Tc-99m MDP with regard to accurately demonstrating the extent of primary tumors. Only Tc-99m MDP indicated the relationship of these tumors to the kidneys and neighboring osseous structures, providing early screening of kidney compression. Ga-67 citrate study was mainly indicated in tumors with catecholamine depletion, which failed to concentrate the other two radiopharmaceuticals. I-131 MIBG proved especially useful in detecting neuroblastoma with negative Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate studies and also proved to be helpful with those cases in which I-131 MIBG was planned for therapy. The following strategy is suggested for evaluating neuroblastoma.

  8. Muscle necrosis in the extremities: evaluation with Tc-99m pyrophosphate scanning--a retrospective review

    SciTech Connect

    Timmons, J.H.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.J.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    A retrospective review was done of 34 extremities studied between 1981 and 1985 with technetium-99m pyrophosphate scanning; 22 were subsequently amputated. Results of detailed pathologic examination or immediate postoperative examination of the resected extremity were available in 16 cases. In these cases, scanning had allowed correct prediction of the level of amputation and of the specific areas of muscle infarction in 13 cases. In the one case in which amputation was performed for infection rather than muscle necrosis, the lack of necrosis was correctly predicted with the scan. The limited results of this study indicate that the Tc-99m pyrophosphate scan allows the location of necrotic muscle to be predicted accurately and may therefore be a useful adjunct in determining the best level for ultimate amputation. Special caution is required in those cases in which muscle necrosis is due to acute causes (e.g., traumatic thrombosis) rather than chronic vascular disease.

  9. Relative decreased splenic uptake of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, J.L.; Burke, T.S.; Fratkin, M.J.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.; Goodrich, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Relative spleen/liver activity ratio was determined from posterior projection images using a photodensitometric method. Ratios from scans of 22 patients with proven pancreatic carcinoma (12 from rectilinear scans and 10 from scintillation camera images) were determined and compared to studies from patients documented as normal and to randomly selected liver/spleen imaging studies which had been previously interpreted as normal. The mean ratio from the pancreatic carcinoma group was significantly lower than the means of the respective normal groups (p(t) less than .0001 for rectilinear scans and p(t) less than .001 for scintigrams). There was no significant difference between the means of the proven normal and randomly selected normal groups or between the two pancreatic carcinoma groups. Splenic vascular alteration is discussed as a possible reason for decreased splenic distribution of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in this patient group.

  10. Liver cysts associated with polycystic kidney disease: Role of Tc-99m hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, M.; Keeffe, E.B. )

    1989-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman with multiple hepatic cysts associated with autosomal polycystic kidney disease was evaluated for abdominal discomfort and new liver test abnormalities following blind aspirations of her liver cysts. Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary imaging revealed a markedly enlarged liver with multiple photon deficient areas, focal retention of isotope in the left hepatic ductal system, no accumulation of radionuclide in cysts, and an unusual medial gallbladder position. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography confirmed all of these findings. Abdominal discomfort and liver biochemical abnormalities were attributed to cyst compression of nearby structures, including bile ducts. Hepatobiliary imaging is useful to exclude communication of bile ducts with hepatic cysts, to detect incidental abnormalities such as partial bile duct obstruction, and to distinguish the gallbladder from nearby hepatic cysts.

  11. Radiation dose calculation for Tc-99m HIDA in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.V.R.; Kingston, E.

    1981-02-01

    Radiation dose from Tc-99m HIDA has been calculated for normal subjects and for patients with various hepatobiliary diseases classified into four groups based on serum bilirubin level. The calculation was performed on biokinetic radioactivity data from blood, urine, liver, gallbladder, and intestines, using a biological approach that included a catenary model of the digestive organs. For normal subjects the critical organs were the gallbladder and the upper and lower large intestine, with doses of 910, 300, 200 mrad/mCi, respectively. The bone marrow, ovaries, and testes received 24, 62, and 4 mrad/mCi. For Group 4 patients with severe hepatobiliary disease (bilirubin > 10 mg/dl), the critical organs were the kidney, urinary bladder, and gallbladder, with doses of 130, 110, and 100 mrad/mCi. The bone marrow, ovaries, and testes received 9, 13, and 5 mrad/mCi. Thus the critical organs and overall radiation doses to organs change between health and disease.

  12. Exercise increases the lung clearance of inhaled Tc-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Galle, P.

    1985-05-01

    It has been suggested that blood flow have little effect on the lung clearance of Tc-99m DTPA which depends on the alveolar distension. However an increase of pulmonary blood flow, induces a recruitment of new vascular areas which can enhance this clearance. To assess this hypothesis the pulmonary apical and basal clearances of a sumicronic aerosol of Tc-99m DTPA were studied at rest and at exercise in seven non smoking volunteers in upright posture. As a matter of fact exercising upright is known to increase primarily the apical blood flow. After inhalation the subjects were seated on a bicycle their back against a gamma camera which was linked to a computer. The lung radioactivity was registered successively during a resting and an exercising period. At rest there was a gradient of clearance from the apex to the base of the lung, the apical clearance being significantly higher. At exercise (50 Watts, 60 c. min /sup -1/, 7 min.) this regional gradient was enhanced by a large and significant increase of the apical clearances (0.0340 min /sup -1/ +-0.0063 SD versus 0.00183 min /sup -1/ +- 0.074 SD at rest, n = 7, p < 0.01). By contrast the changes of the basal clearances were slight and unsignificant (0.0146 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0062 SD versus 0.0140 min /sup -1/ +- 0.0082 SD). Since exercise induces little distension of the apical alveoli but drastically enhances the apical blood flow, the observed increase of the apical lung clearance could be primarily attributed to the recruitment of new capillaries induced by exercise in the apices. This led to an increase of the surface area permeability product.

  13. Simultaneous Tc-99m skeletal and In-111 hip arthrographic scintimaging complementing contrast radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Uri, B.G.; Stiner, P.; Mock, B.H.; Capello, W.

    1984-01-01

    Prosthetic hip replacement has become a frequent procedure with femoral component (FC) loosening occurring frequently at a rate of 24% at 7 yrs post arthroplasty. Pain may occur from a variety of causes and identification of loosening as the cause is critical. Experience with radiographic contrast arthrography (XA) alone has often resulted in equivocal studies because of confusion caused by the radio-opaque glue-bone interface and adjacent radiolucency of the FC. Radionuclide arthrography (RA) with Tc-99m Sulfur Colloid (SC) has been previously shown to improve the efficiency of FC loosening determination. However, with extravasation or other confusing patterns of tracer distribution more precise localization relative to skeletal structure is required with RA. Simultaneous use of RA using In-111 (IN) chloride (0.2 mCi) injected with contrast at XA superimposed on prior injected TC-99m MDP (20 mCi) skeletal imaging (SI) has considerably improved interpretation and complemented XA, correlated with surgery. Fifty RA and XA patients have been studied: 18 with SC alone, 7 with SC and IN in the joint space simultaneously and 25 with IN RA and SI. Simultaneous joint injection RA with IN and SC demonstrated exactly the same pattern with no translocation of IN. Thirty patients had surgery with 20 loose FC verified; all loose by RA but only 16 by XA plus 2 false positives. Also simultaneous SI has shown unreliable criteria for FC loosening. Thus, addition of simultaneous RA and SI for FC evaluation is a valuable adjunct in 20% of patients in the performance of arthrography.

  14. Comparison of Tc-99m HIG and Ga-67 citrate in the evaluation of bacterial abscess in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Güngör, F; Karayalçin, B; Gültekin, M; Paksoy, N; Sentürk, U K; Kaputlu, I; Yildiz, A; Erkiliç, M

    1996-02-01

    Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) has been shown to be able to localize an inflammatory site. There are several possible explanations for HIG accumulation at focal infection sites such as increased vascular permeability, binding of the Fc part of Ig to Fc receptors of leucocytes and binding directly to bacteria. In this study, we compared Tc-99m HIG and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy in localizing acute bacterial abscesses induced by E. coli and S. aureus. Serial scintigrams were performed at 1, 4, 24 hr after injection. Tc-99m HIG showed greater accumulation at all times with both infections agents than Ga-67 citrate (p < 0.05). While Tc-99m HIG showed greater accumulation in S. aureus than E. coli (p < 0.05), there was no statistically significant difference between E. coli and S. aureus (p > 0.05) by Ga-67 citrate. Our study suggests that Tc-99m HIG is a superior agent to Ga-67 and bacterial affinity can be a factor responsible for HIG accumulation at focal sites of inflammation.

  15. The use of Tc-99m MDP bone scanning in the study of vascularized bone implants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Dee, P.; Lambruschi, P.G.; Hiebert, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The extent to which the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining bone growth in the immature animal was studied by excision and reimplantation of the upper tibia in two groups of puppies. In one group the reimplant was totally devascularized, and in a second group attempts were made to preserve the nutrient vessels to the reimplant. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) was used to assess the effectiveness with which the nutrient circulation was maintained. With one exception the Tc-99m MDP scans proved to be reliable in indicating the potential for continued growth after reimplantation. It was found that the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining longitudinal bone growth in metaphyseal reimplants in immature animals. Complete devascularization results in cessation of growth. The Tc-99m MDP bone scan should prove of critical importance in the assessment of free vascularized transplants of immature bone.

  16. The role of Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in predicting clinical response to chemotherapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dirlik, Aysegul; Burak, Zeynep; Goksel, Tuncay; Erinc, Ruya; Karakus, Haydar; Ozcan, Zehra; Veral, Ali; Ozhan, Mustafa

    2002-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in lung cancer. Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) has been demonstrated to be a non-invasive marker to diagnose MDRI related P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) expression in various solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the degree of Tc-99m MIBI uptake and its retention on delayed images and the response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Twenty-three patients (1 woman and 22 men, age range 40-67 years) with lung cancer (9 small cell and 14 non-small cell) were examined with Tc-99m MIBI imaging before chemotherapy. After i.v. administration of 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI, planar and SPECT imaging at 30 minutes and 2 hours was performed. Tumor to normal lung uptake ratio (T/N) and percent retention were measured. Response to chemotherapy was evaluated according to follow-up CT and grouped as complete responders (CR), partial responders (PR) and non-responders (NR). Clinical follow-up and CT evaluation revealed that 12 patients had partial remission, 4 patients had complete remission and 7 patients had no-remission after chemotherapy. Statistically, there was no significant correlation between early (30 min), delayed (2 hr) T/N ratios and percent retention of Tc-99m MIBI with chemotherapeutic response of the lung cancer among the three groups (p > 0.05). Results of the current study imply that Tc-99m MIBI uptake and the retention index may not correlate with chemotherapy response in lung cancer, so that the accuracy of this method needs to be verified in a larger series with additional investigation at the molecular level.

  17. Improved SPECT reconstruction of Tc-99m sestamibi distribution in breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David H.; Gagne, George M.; Huda, Walter; Tillapough-Fay, Gwen M.; Hellwig, Bradford J.; Thomas, Deaver F.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a new image reconstruction method to reduce the presence of image artifacts in scintimammography. SPECT data are mathematically modified prior to conventional image processing, followed by an inverse transform, which permits the tomographic visualization of low signals in the presence of large background intensities observed in scintimammography. Images of Tc-99m sestamibi distribution were obtained in a modeled `breast tissue', with a high activity in the `myocardium' as compared to the `breast tissue' (i.e. 20:1). Image reconstruction with the modified algorithm were qualitatively correct and demonstrated the regions of enhanced uptake (lesions) with no evidence of artifacts from the background counts in the heart. Comparison with MRI demonstrated that the hot regions were properly located and correlated with the MRI data. In contrast, a standard (i.e. Filtered Back Projection) reconstruction resulted in streak artifacts in place of `breast tissue' which rendered them clinically useless. This new approach to scintimammography offers the prospect of significantly reducing image artifacts and improving imaging accuracy.

  18. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, J.S.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Downing, D.

    1986-03-01

    This retrospective study was done to determine the value of combined bone (technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate) and gallium-67 citrate imaging in selected children with complicated clinical situations. Thirty-one children were evaluated for suspected osteomyelitis by bone scan followed within 4 days by a gallium scan. These 31 children represented a subpopulation in whom the Tc-99m scan is known to be potentially unreliable in diagnosing acute osteomyelitis. Eight children had acute osteomyelitis by strict criteria, while 23 did not. The bone scan successfully identified five of the eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in ten of the other 23. The gallium scan correctly identified all eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in seven of the other 23. The gallium scan was significantly less specific when the suspected lesion was in the extremities compared with central locations; causes of false-positive gallium scans included fracture and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Combined gallium and bone scanning increased accuracy of the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis. Both tests may, however, be abnormal in conditions other than osteomyelitis. These findings emphasize the importance of correlating all imaging studies in detection of osteomyelitis.

  19. Differential diagnosis of regional cerebral hyperfixation of TC-99m HMPAO on SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned after intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.

  20. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Improved method for the direct labeling of antibodies with Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, B.A.; Hawkins, E.; Budd, P. ); Deleide, G.; Seccamani, E.; Bonino, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies and antibody fragments have been treated with stannous chloride or organic reducing agents to reduce disulfide bonds, providing sulfhydryl groups for binding reduced Tc-99m. The reduced antibody, additives and stannous salts are lyophilized. To radiolabel, sodium pertechnetate solution is added, which dissolves the protein and other reagents. The pertechnetate is reduced by the stannous ions and becomes bound to the antibody. After radiolabeling the shelf-life of the product exceeds the half-life of the radionuclide. One of the more effective additives is human serum albumin, which serves as a carrier protein, agent to protect against autoradiolysis and possibly as a transfer ligand. Many different antibodies have been labeled using this method. The most widely studied antibody is an anti-melanoma fragment which has now been used clinically in more than 1000 cases and has been proven effective for the diagnostic localization of melanoma. In summary, a single vial, one step procedure for the direct labeling of antibodies in the presence of human serum albumin has been developed, extensively characterized, and clinically validated. The method is used with murine monoclonal IgG fragments, IgM and human gamma globulin. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Utility of the SPECT Tc-99m labeled RBC blood pool scan in the detection of hepatic hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1989-11-01

    The sensitivity of SPECT imaging of hepatic blood pool activity using Tc-99m labeled RBCs was contrasted with magnetic resonance and CT imaging in 22 cases. SPECT is a noninvasive technique with a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. It is helpful for clarifying equivocal magnetic resonance imaging results.

  3. Intense muscle uptake of Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP in a patient with aplastic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Batte, W.G. Jr.; Yeh, S.D.; Rosenblum, M.K.; Larson, S.M. )

    1991-06-01

    An unusual distribution of Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in several muscle groups is described in a 14-year-old boy with aplastic anemia and normal renal function at the time of imaging. Although the patient did not develop musculo-skeletal signs or symptoms, a subsequent autopsy revealed widespread muscle calcification.

  4. Relationship between Tl-201, Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate and F-18 2-deoxyglucose uptake in ischemically injured dog myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Huang, S.C.; Ellison, D.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Parodi, O.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that enhanced glucose utilization in reperfused myocardium as assessed by F-18 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and positron tomography predicts functional recovery. In this study, we compared segmental uptake of F-18 FDG with that of Tl-201 and Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi) as conventional markers of tissue viability in seven dogs after a 3-hour intracoronary balloon occlusion and 20 hours of reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined with microspheres. Regional retention fractions were calculated from tracer tissue concentrations, the arterial input function, and blood flow. Ischemic injury was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and histologic analysis. At 24 hours, blood flow was 22% lower in reperfused than in control myocardium (p less than 0.05). Uptake of Tl-201 was related linearly to blood flow (r = 0.92), while glucose utilization and Tc-99m PPi were 2.9 (p less than 0.01) and 4.7 (p less than 0.05) times higher in reperfused than in control myocardium. Retention fractions of Tc-99m PPi increased with the degree of ischemic injury, while F-18 FDG uptake was highest in segments with mild cell injury. Thus, in ischemically injured myocardium, Tl-201 primarily reflects blood flow. F-18 FDG as a marker of glucose utilization identifies ischemically injured but viable tissue. The admixture of necrotic cells can be determined with Tc-99m PPi. Our results indicate that a dual tracer approach might best characterize the presence and extent of reversibly and of irreversibly injured tissue in a given myocardial region.

  5. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD. PMID:26091475

  6. Potential Role of Tc-99m DTPA Diuretic Renal Scan in the Diagnosis of Calyceal Diverticulum in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Shih, Shin-Lin; Tsai, Jeng-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) diuretic scan to diagnose calyceal diverticulum (CD). From January 2000 to June 2014, children with evidence of renal cystic lesions of undetermined diagnosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Computed tomography urography (CTU) and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic scan were performed to characterize the precise anatomy. The diagnosis of CD depended on visualization of a renal cystic lesion with filling of contrast material or radiotracer from the collecting system on CTU or diuretic renal scan. Children who had positive findings of CD on 1 or both imaging studies were selected and analyzed. Both CTU and Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan were performed in 39 children. A total of 9 (23.1 %) children with CD were diagnosed. All 9 children had positive diagnosis of CD on diuretic renal scan. Only 6 (66.7%) children could be diagnosed by CTU, and CD was missed by CTU in 3 subjects. The differential renal functions in patients with CD were 46% to 55%. The time of radiotracer appearance in the CD ranged from the 8th to the 24th minute. Seven patients had persistent accumulation of radiotracer in their CD at the end of the study. Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan seems to be more sensitive than CTU in diagnosing CD. The possible reasons of higher sensitivity are discussed. Additional advantages that Tc-99m DTPA diuretic renal scan provides include the following: continuous monitoring, less radiation doses, and information on renal function, making it an attractive alternative to CTU for diagnosis of CD.

  7. Biodistribution of TC-99m sestamibi in rats utilizing whole-body autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, M.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Arora, J.

    1994-05-01

    Current biodistribution models for Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) rely on gross imaging methods via Anger camera or at best, excision of animal tissue and counting tissue samples. These methods do not allow for detection of intra-organ inhomogeneities and small accumulations of activity are often treated as nonspecific background. The goal of this work was to examine the biodistribution of MIBI using whole-body autoradiography to obtain very detailed activity distribution information. Four anesthetized albino rats (300 g {plus_minus}10 g ) were injected into a dorsal metatarsal vein with an average of 333 MBq MIBI. One rat each was sacrificed at 5, 20, 60 and 180 minutes post-injection. Animals were embedded, frozen and slices (50-100 {mu}m thick) were obtained using a PMV-2250 macro-cryo-microtome and autoradiographs were made of slices. Cardiac uptake remained consistently high at all time points. All muscular areas exhibited uptake, including the diaphragm and GI tract wells. Significant MIBI uptake was observed in many different glands, including the submaxillary, suprarenal, thymus, lacrimal, harderian and thyroid. Pancreatic uptake was observed at each time. MIBI cleared from the liver and spleen quickly, with significant activity in the bowel at 5 minutes. High small bowel content activity was observed at all time points. The contents of the distal stomach and colon accumulated activity in all but the 5 minute studies. Clearance from the kidneys occurred between 1 and 3 hours, although kidney activity remained similar to the heart at 3 hours. Bladder activity was observed as early as 20 minutes, with the highest at the 3 hour time point. Very slight testicular uptake was observed in the epidydmis and wall of the scrotal sac. Although these autoradiographs confirm existing kinetics, they provide a unique, high-resolution record of previously unknown MIBI deposition areas such as the pancreas and GI tract lining.

  8. Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in small cell lung cancer: A predictor of response to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bom, H.S.; Kim, Y.C.; Song, H.C.

    1996-05-01

    Patients(pts) with small cell lung cancer(SCLC) often fail to respond to chemotherapy due to multi-drug resistance(MDR). Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) was reported to be a suitable transport substrate of P-glycoprotein, a cytoplasmic membrane protein encoded by the MDR gene. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the degree of MIBI uptake in SCLC or its retention on delayed imaging correlated with response to chemotherapy. 19 pts (M:F=13:6, mean age 60.2 {plus_minus} 10.9) with biopsy-proven SCLC had MIBI SPECT 3 to 7 days before starting chemotherapy. Imaging was acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of 740MBq MIBI using single head rotating gamma camera. Tumor-to-normal lung uptake ratio(T/NL) was measured. Per cent retention(%R) was measured as: %R = (T/NL at 4 hour {divided_by} T/NL at 1 hour) X 100. All patients received VAP chemotherapy (VP-16 100mg/m{sup 2}, adriamycin 40mg/m{sup 2}, cisplatin 25mg/m{sup 2}) every 4 weeks for at least 3 times. Response to chemotherapy was grouped as complete remission(CR), partial remission (PR), and no remission(NR) according to the change of tumor size on chest X-ray and computed tomographic images. Differences in T/NL and %R among the 3 groups were analyzed using ANOVA. These preliminary data indicate that SCLC with a higher MIBI uptake is more likely to respond to chemotherapy than that with a lower uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between the MIBI retention and the response to chemotherapy.

  9. Use of Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA) to determine hepatic blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Hutak, D.P.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-NGA is a new liver radiopharmaceutical which binds to a hepatocyte-specific membrane receptor. Three characteristics of Tc-NGA can be exploited in the measurement of hepatic blood flow (HBF): 1) ability to alter the affinity of Tc-NGA for its receptor by changing the galactose: albumin ratio; 2) ability to achieve a high specific activity with Tc-99m labeling; and 3) ability to administer a high molar dose of Tc-NGA without physiologic side effects. In addition, kinetic modeling of Tc-NGA dynamic data can provide estimates of hepatic receptor concentration. In experimental studies in young pigs, HBF was determined using two techniques: 1) kinetic modeling of dynamic data using moderate affinity, low specific activity Tc-NGA (Group A, n=12); and 2) clearance (CL) technique using high affinity, high specific activity Tc-NGA (Group B, n=4). In both groups, HBF was determined simultaneously by continuous infusion of indocyanine green (CI-ICG) with hepatic vein sampling. Regression analysis of HBF measurements obtained with the Tc-NGA kinetic modeling technique and the CI-ICG technique (Group A) revealed good correlation between the two techniques (r=0.802, p=0.02). Similarly, HBF determination by the clearance technique (Group B) provided highly accurate measurements when compared to the CI-ICG technique. Hepatic blood flow measurements by the clearance technique (CL-NGA) fell within one standard deviation of the error associated with each CI-ICG HBF measurement (all CI-ICG standard deviations were less than 10%).

  10. Radiation-dose calculation for five Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Kingston, E.; Turner, F.E.

    1982-11-01

    The radiation absorbed doses from five commercially available hepatobiliary agents-Tc-99m-tagged analogs of IDA (EIDA, PIPIDA, HIDA, PBIDA, DISIDA*) have been calculated from biokinetic data in 41 normal subjects. Serial gamma images, with blood and urine samples, were obtained to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the source organs: blood, kidey, bladder, liver, gallbladder, and intestines. The critical organ was the gallbladder, with an absorbed-dose range of 690 to 780 mrad/mCi. Absorbed doses for other target organs were: upper large intestine 320 to 370 mrad/mCi, lower large intestine 210 to 240, small intestine 170 to 200, liver 65 (DISIDA) to 130 (PBIDA), ovaries 63 to 72, and urinary bladder wall 23 (PBIDA) to 36 (EIDA). The radiation absorbed dose was largely independent of changes in chemical structure except in (a) the liver, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of two in proportion to the rate of excretion of the IDA agent from the liver, and (b) the urinary bladder, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of 1.6 because of differences in rate of excretion. When the stimulus for gallbladder emptying is changed from whole-meal ingestion to cholecystokinin injection, the absorbed dose to the gallbladder increases to approx. 1 rad/mCi; if no gallbladder emptying is assumed, its absorbed dose increases to approx. 1.9 rad/mCi. In the absence of contraindication, the gallbladder absorbed dose may thus be decreased by inducing gallbladder emptying at the end of the imaging study.

  11. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic manifestations of hyperparathyroidism in a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Sehgal, Aditi Khurana; Jaiman, Ashish; Sethi, Ravinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the first differential diagnosis when a patient presents with asymptomatic hypercalcemia. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can be as grave as skeletal, cardiovascular, and neuropsychological changes. Skeletal manifestations are relatively common, and patient may present with generalized or focal bone pains, fragility fractures, subperiosteal bone resorption, and osteolytic lesions like brown tumors and salt and pepper appearance of the skull. However, focal osteosclerotic lesions of the skull are rare findings in hyperparathyroidism. Only a few cases of associated osteosclerosis are reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma with coexisting osteolytic and osteosclerotic skull lesions on Tc99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan.

  12. Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scintigraphy performed before and after pulmonary embolectomy for saddle-type pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Shih, W J; Robinson, M C; Huber, C; Pulmano, C

    1995-02-01

    A 58-year-old man had shortness of breath, hypotension, and decreased partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) on the eighteenth day after undergoing craniotomy for a meningioma. Tc-99m MAA pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy showed little perfusion to the right lung and left lower lung and multiple perfusion defects in the left upper lung. Although the results of concurrent chest radiography were negative for pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary angiography demonstrated a saddle-type embolism. The patient underwent emergency pulmonary artery embolectomy to remove blood clots and organized thromboemboli from the main pulmonary artery and the right and left pulmonary arteries. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and a second Tc-99m MAA lung perfusion scan demonstrated marked improvement in lung perfusion.

  13. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  14. Gastrointestinal bleeding: an accessory spleen causing a false-positive Tc-99m-sulfur colloid study

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, S.; Sunaryo, F.P.; Ziegler, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    A Tc-99m-sulfur colloid abdominal scan was performed on a 12-year-old girl to localize the site of gastrointestinal bleeding. The study was normal. When bleeding recurred two weeks later, a repeat study revealed a focal abnormality in the upper abdomen. This was thought to be compatible with a small bleed. However, at surgery an accessory spleen was found, accounting for the abnormal scan.

  15. Regional evaluation of renal dynamics in post transplant kidneys with Tc-99m DTPA and scinti-camera

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Akuta, K.; Aoki, S.; Furunishi, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nakane, Y.; Pak, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the regional renal dynamic process (renal perfusion, accumulation and clearance) using Tc-99m DTPA and assess for the regional renal indices from this analysis early to detect acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection of post transplant kidneys. The subjects were 6 normal donors and 10 post renal transplant patients. Tc-99m DTPA (20 mCi) was injected into the vein by a bolus, and its activity change in the kidney was measured by a scintillation camera, and stored each 1 sec. for 20 sec. following each 15 sec. for 20 min. in the computer, to calculate the renal functional indices: the perfusion index, the blood flow mean transit time, the accumulation rate and the clearance rate in the cortex, medulla and pelvis, whose R.O.I. regions were separated in the early and late scinti-images. The accumulation ratio, a new parameter, which is the second upslope part of Tc-99m DTPA renogram, and the clearance rate were calculated from H/A method. The authors made the functional images of these indices to estimate their regional distribution. The accumulation rate and the clearance rate only in the cortex were markedly decreased in the acute tubular necrosis and the rejection, which functional images showed irregular distributions. It was possible to evaluate the renal perfusion with Tc-99m DTPA, separated from the renal accumulation and clearance process. The authors' method gave the assessment of the regional renal disorders with the functional images; the renal disorders in acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection exist mainly in the cortex.

  16. Scintigraphic detection of occult hemorrhage using RBCs labeled in vitro with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, S.R.; Kolina, J.S.; Kaplan, K.A.; McAuley, R.J.; Lull, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Scintigraphy with RBCs labeled with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate effectively located the source of hemorrhage in a patient receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy. (The patient was initially seen with a large hematoma on the flank.) More important, the procedure was used to monitor activity in this otherwise-occult bleeding site. Scintigraphic studies may be useful in the management of these difficult clinical problems.

  17. Tc-99m red blood cell venography in deep venous thrombosis of the lower limb. An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Rush, C.L.

    1985-03-01

    Tc-99m red blood cell venography is a simple and sensitive technique for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb. The static high count blood pool images of the deep venous system of the leg are readily interpretable and show good correlation with contrast venography. The advantages and limitations of this technique in the clinical setting are discussed in detail in this review.

  18. Determination of inflammation of reflex sympathetic dystrophy at early stages with Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Okudan, Berna; Celik, Canan

    2006-03-01

    The pathogenesis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is not completely understood. However, an excessive regional inflammation, sensitization of primary somatosensory afferents, and sensitization of spinal neurons are considered to have a role in the pathogenesis of RSD. The underlying pathophysiology relating the clinical picture may help to determine the pharmacotherapeutic approach for an individual patient. Scintigraphy using radiolabelled human polyclonal non-specific immunoglobulin (HIG) has been recognized as a useful tool for the localization of inflammatory disorders. Thirty-six consecutive RSD patients associated with hemiplegia were included in this study. All the patients in this study had three phases bone scan and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy. On admission, of 36 patients with positive bone scan, 30 had positive Tc-99m HIG scan. All the patients were symptomatic at the time of bone scanning. On the contrary, 24 out of 36 patients subsequently became asymptomatic at an 8-month re-evaluation period. Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy is a non-invasive complementary method for the determination of ongoing inflammatory reactions which also aids the clinicians to predict the response to anti-inflammatory therapy at the very early phase of RSD associated with hemiplegia. This preliminary study may be a source of inspiration for further studies with larger series and longer follow-up .

  19. Tc-99m red blood cells for the study of rapid hemolytic processes associated with heterologous blood transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetto, A.R.; Harrison, C.R.; Blumhardt, R.; Trow, L.L.

    1984-10-01

    Chromium-51 labeled erythrocytes (Cr-51 RBC) are suitable for the study of hematologic disorders which involve relatively slow destruction of circulating erythrocytes, taking several days to several weeks. However, Cr-51 RBC are not suitable for investigating rapid hemolytic processes which occur within a matter of a few hours due to the variable and unpredictable elution of Cr-51 from the erythrocytes during the first 24 hours or so. Imaging, which could be useful in identifying organ systems involved in the hemolytic process, cannot be performed with Cr-51 RBC because of the high dose commitment caused by the low yield of gamma rays from Cr-51 (2). A method of labeling RBC with Tc-99m, which results in a radiopharmaceutical that combines the excellent dosimetric and imaging qualities of Tc-99m with an extremely stable bond between the Tc-99m and the RBC, is reported. The successful application of this technique in providing red cell support for a cancer patient with an unusual history of intravascular hemolytic transfusion reactions is also reported.

  20. Transient global amnesia: a study with Tc-99m ECD SPECT shortly after symptom onset and after recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Cho, Sang Soo; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Young Hwan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterized by sudden loss of memory of recent events, transient inability to retain new information, and retrograde amnesia. We investigated the changes of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with TGA shortly after symptom onset and after recovery using Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (Tc-99m ECD SPECT) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. METHODS Six right-handed patients with TGA were studied using Tc-99m ECD SPECT shortly after symptom onset and after recovery. As a control group, six healthy individuals were also studied. Images were analyzed using SPM8 using voxel-based analysis to estimate the differences between TGA patients and controls. RESULTS There was significant hypoperfusion in the left hippocampus, left thalamus, and bilateral cerebellum. In the follow-up SPECT scan, hypoperfusion in hippocampus and thalamus were restored, while hypoperfusion was noted in the temporoparietal region. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism of TGA may be temporary ischemia in the hippocampus and thalamus. There was significant restoration of perfusion in the hippocampus and thalamus after recovery from TGA. PMID:27535207

  1. Effect of trifluoperazine on Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdülrezzak, Ümmühan; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Silov, Güler; Özdal, Ayşegül; Turhal, Özgül

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an effect of trifluoperazine on Tc-99m  methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) uptake in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NCLC). Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with biopsy-proven advanced NCLC who had no previous history of chemo-radiotherapy, underwent baseline dual phase planar, single photon emission computed tomography and whole body Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy performed at 20 and 120 min. After oral administration of trifluoperazine (5 mg, 2 times a day, for 5 days), dual phase Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy was repeated. For each patient, and for both studies, regions of interest were drawn over the tumor area (T) and over the normal lung area (L) on the contralateral side in transverse slices where tumor was visualized clearly. Then, early and delayed T/L ratios and washout rate (WR) were calculated. Results: Tc-99m MIBI was accumulated in the cancer tissue in all of the patients. Delayed ratio after the oral administration of trifluoperazine (DR2) was significantly higher (P = 0.039) than delayed ratio before trifluoperazine (DR1). We found no significant differences of early ratio before trifluoperazine (ER1) and early ratio after trifluoperazine (ER2), and washout rate before (WR1) and washout rate after trifluoperazine (WR2). Conclusion: In patients with advanced NCLC, trifluoperazine treatment in addition to chemotherapy might be useful. However, our results need to be confirmed in larger series of patients. PMID:27095857

  2. Dissociation of reticuloendothelial cell and hepatocyte functions in alcoholic liver disease: a clinical study with a new Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B.K.; Weir, G.J. Jr.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1981-07-01

    Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scintigrams were abnormal in four patients with hepatic dysfunction due to chronic alcohol abuse. Minimal uptake of radiocolloid in the liver suggested local reticuloendothelial (RE) cell failure. Imaging with a new hepatobiliary agent, Tc-99m-PIPIDA, revealed rapid hepatic accumulation and excretion of radiotracer with adequate visualization of the organ. Scintigraphic findings in these patients indicated a dissociation of hepatocyte and RE cell functions. Demonstration of adequate hepatocyte function with severe RE failure in alcoholic liver disease using a Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent has not been previously reported.

  3. Augmenting tumor uptake of Tc-99m monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with biological response modifiers: Influence of interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Thakur, M.L.; Wilder, S.

    1994-05-01

    Following the evaluation of radiolabeled MAbs for scintigraphic imaging or therapy, low tumor uptake emerged as one of the most prominent problems. The aim of this investigation was to examine the influence of interferon (IFN)-{alpha}2b in augmenting uptake of Tc-99m labeled antimelanoma MAb 31.3 in nude mice bearing experimental human melanoma. MAb was labeled with Tc-99m by our ascorbic acid mediated reduction technique, analyzed and 20 {mu}g containing 40-120 {mu}Ci Tc-99m were administered i.v., 1 hr following i.m. or i.v. administration of 10K, 20K, or 100K i.u. IFN-{alpha}2b. Animals receiving 0.9% saline similarly served as controls. 4 and 24 hrs later, animals were sacrificed, imaged, and dissected for tissue distribution studies. Tumor blood flow was measured before and after administration of IFN by color Doppler imaging technique, intratumoral temperature was recorded using thermocouples, and tumor histology was performed to visualize tumor lymphocytic infiltration. Although no excessive lymphocytic infiltration was seen within 72 hr post-injection of IFN, and only a modest increase in tumor temperature was noted, a significant increase in blood flow was observed within 45 min. as differentiated by amplitudes at peak systolic and end diastolic cardiac cycles. The best tumor uptake enhancement was noted at 24 hr following i.m. administration of 20K i.u. IFN and measured greater than 300% of the control value (7.2{plus_minus}1.2%/g vs. 2.2{plus_minus}1.4%/g). IFN-{alpha}2b enhances tumor blood flow in experimental tumors and significantly augments the uptake of radiolabeled MAbs.

  4. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide

    SciTech Connect

    Domstad, P.A.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.J.; Beihn, R.; Yonts, S.; Choy, Y.C.; Mandelstam, P.; DeLand, F.H.

    1980-11-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +- 32.9 min (mean +- s.e.m. normal 40 to 85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +- 45 (p < 0.05). Metoclopramide significantly shortened BGET in this subgroup to 101 +- 40 min, with return to normal values in eight of the 12 patients given the drug. The Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide.

  5. [A biliary fistula after T-tube removal in the transplant patient: its diagnosis by Tc-99m-HIDA].

    PubMed

    Calleja Kempin, I J; Polo Melero, J R; Bitini, A; Domínguez, P; Clemente, G; García Sabrido, J L; Bañares, R; Pérez Ferreiroa, J; Serantes, A

    1992-09-01

    The Tc-99m HIDA scan is a valuable study after liver transplantation, associated with other image techniques. We have used this technique as a reliable and objective diagnostic method for biliary fistula after removal of the T-tube in 5 liver transplantation patients with pain after T-tube removal. All five patients who developed fistula not only were diagnosed immediately but, furthermore, the surgical technique was indicated by the gammagraphic study. After this experience, we propose to remove the T-tube during the Tc-99 HIDA scan.

  6. Simplified method of selective spleen scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled erythrocytes: clinical applications. Concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.

    1980-05-01

    We report our initial clinical experience with a simplified spleen-imaging technique that requires no red cell washing or special kits. Thirty minutes after an injection of ''cold'' pyrophosphate containing 0.5 mg of stannous chloride or fluoride, a blood sample is drawn, 2 mCi of pertechnetate (Tc-99m) are added, the sample is incubated at 49 to 50/sup 0/ for 35 min, and then reinjected into the patient. We have studied 13 patients with this technique, and have found it useful in the clarification of various questionable splenic abnormalities found on the sulfur colloid scan, as well as in the detection of splenosis.

  7. Internal carotid occlusion: assessment, by Tc-99m-tagged microspheres, of bypass from superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery

    SciTech Connect

    Etani, H.; Kimura, K.; Iwata, Y.; Yoneda, S.; Imaizumi, M.; Nukada, T.

    1981-01-01

    The assessment of regional blood perfusion through the STA-MCA anastomosis was performed by the method of intracarotid injection of Tc-99m-labeled human albumin microspheres (HAM scintigraphy). This study included 11 anastomoses in 10 cases with occlusion of the internal carotid artery, who were treated by bypass surgery. The area of intracranial perfusion through the bypass was well defined in all cases by HAM scintigraphy. This method is excellent for imaging the regional blood perfusion through the anastomotic vessel, and the scintigraphic findings agree well with those of postoperative angiography. HAM scintigraphy will partially replace postoperative angiography because of its simplicity and low invasiveness.

  8. Internal carotid occlusion: assessment, by Tc-99m-tagged microspheres, of bypass from superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery

    SciTech Connect

    Etani, H.; Kimura, K.; Iwata, Y.

    1981-10-01

    The assessment of regional blood perfusion through the STA-MCA anastomosis was performed by the method of intracarotid injection of Tc-99m-labeled human albumin microspheres (HAM scintigraphy). This study included 11 anastomoses in 10 cases with occlusion of the internal carotid artery, who were treated by bypass surgery. The area of intracranial perfusion through the bypass was well defined in all cases by HAM scintigraphy. This method is excellent for imaging the regional blood perfusion through the anastomotic vessel, and the scintigraphic findings agree well with those of postoperative angiography. HAM scintigraphy will partially replace postoperative angiography because of its simplicity and low invasiveness.

  9. Planar and SPECT Tc-99m red blood cell imaging in hepatic cavernous hemangiomas and other hepatic lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Intenzo, C.; Kim, S.; Madsen, M.; Desai, A.; Park, C.

    1988-04-01

    The utility of Tc-99m RBC imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic cavernous hemangiomas has been established. Of the 25 patients with various focal hepatic lesions evaluated, 16 were diagnosed as having hemangiomas: eight proven by surgery, two proven by angiography, and six proven by maintaining a stable clinical course ranging from 6 to 12 months with normal follow-up liver function tests. Although fourteen of these were detected by planar imaging, two were detected by SPECT only. Two patients with large hemangiomas had false-negative scans, whereas the remaining seven patients had other liver lesions.

  10. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide.

    PubMed

    Domstad, P A; Kim, E E; Coupal, J J; Beihn, R; Yonts, S; Choy, Y C; Mandelstam, P; DeLand, F H

    1980-11-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +/- 32.9 min (mean +/- s.e.m. normal 40-85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +/- 45 (p < 0.05). Metoclopramide significantly shortened BGET in this subgroup to 101 +/- 40 min, with return to normal values in eight of the 12 patients given the drug. The Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide.

  11. Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy with Tc-99m-MAA: use of a totally implanted drug delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Thrall, J.H.; Yang, P.J.; Walker, S.C.; Cozzi, E.A.; Niederhuber, J.E.; Gyves, J.W.; Ensminger, W.D.; Tuscan, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    Tc-99m-MAA hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS) using a totally implanted drug delivery system was employed for hepatic arterial chemotherapy in 147 patients (335 studies). Complete perfusion of the involved liver was seen in 88% of patients initially and remained good on follow-up. A significant decrease in hepatic and/or extrahepatic perfusion associated with a hot spot at the tip of the catheter indicated hepatic arterial thrombosis. Extrahepatic perfusion was seen in 14% of cases, usually in the distribution of the stomach, small bowel, and spleen. Significant symptoms of drug toxicity were seen in 70% of patients with extrahepatic perfusion, compared to 19% of those without it.

  12. Subacute and chronic bone infections: Diagnosis using In-111, Ga-67 and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikh, W.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Mnaymneh, W.; Hourani, M.; Heal, A.; Duncan, R.C.; Burnett, A.; Ashkar, F.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of subacute or chronic bone infection was examined in 21 orthopedic patients. In-111 WBC imaging was compared with gallium-67 and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate skeletal scintigraphy and bone radiography, all studies being performed within 1 week. In-111 WBC scintigraphy showed no definite advantage over Ga-67 scintigraphy in the identification of chronic bone infection. The two tests had the same sensitivity and similar specificity. Bone radiography had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 67%. A negative Tc-99m MDP bone scintigram ruled out infection, but because of low specific, final evaluation required performance of Ga-67 or In-111 WBC scintigraphy.

  13. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.; Waugh, R.C.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Bautoviovich, G.J.; Dyer, I.A.; Fulton, R.R.; Morris, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPG alone and in combination wth RV in the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was less sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition.

  14. Possible explanation of appearance of Warthin's tumor on I-123 and Tc-99m-pertechnetate scans

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Weisberger, E.C.

    1981-06-01

    A 71-year old man presented with a parotid mass and a thyroid nodule. An I-123 scan revealed a ''cold'' nodule in the thyroid and uptake of the radioactive iodine in the parotid mass. On a Tc-99m-pertechnetate salivary gland scan, the parotid mass was ''hot'' and did not wash out with sodium perchlorate. At surgery, he was found to have a Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland and an adenomatous goiter. The reasons for the scan appearance of the Warthin's tumor are discussed. Since Warthin's tumors are benign and uptake of radioactive iodine in the extrathyroidal deposits of thyroid carcinoma is rare with the thyroid gland in place, the uptake of iodine by a salivary gland mass probably indicates a benign process.

  15. Evaluation of cerebral hemodynamic changes by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT after radiosurgery of small arteriovenous malformations (AVM)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Pan, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    Treatment of small AVMs (<3 cm) by stereotaxic radio-surgery using gamma unit has been a promising noninvasive method. However, cerebral hemodynamic changes after gamma unit treatment is obscure. This study assessed the effect of radiosurgery on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in treatment of small AVMs. Nine patients (pts) with small AVMs were imaged with SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO prior to stereotactic radio-surgery. The pts were treated with a Leskell gamma unit with doses of radiation in the range of 36 Gy to 44 Gy at target center. All pts underwent HMPAO SPECT scans about 3 months after radiosurgery. Pts were also studied with CT/MR scans. Pre treatment HMPAO SPECT showed decreased rCBF in the regions of nidi of AVMs of all pts and in the adjacent zones in 2 pts. Increased rCBF surrounding the nidus was noted in 2 AVMs. After treatment, rCBF of 2 pts returned to normal, 6 pts showed much improvement of rCBF and 1 remained no change. No more perfusion abnormalities were seen in the adjacent zones of all AVMs after radiosurgery. Cross cerebellar diaschisis noted in one case also disappeared after radiosurgery. Post treatment CT/MR scans showed slightly decrease in size of AVMs in 6 pts. All pts had great improvement after treatment. Normalization of rCBF correlated well with improvements in the neurological symptoms. In conclusion, comparison of pre and post treatment Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of gamma unit radiosurgery on small AVMs.

  16. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  17. Discordant Tc-99m sulfur colloid and In-113m chloride blood pool images in patients with acute amebic liver abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Reba, R.C.; Tu, Y.C.; Yeh, S.H.

    1983-07-01

    Using combined Tc-99m sulfur colloid and In-113m chloride eluate imaging, studies from 32 patients with proven amebic liver abscess were analyzed. The results revealed good perfusion of the amebic lesion in three, poor perfusion in 11, and absent perfusion in 18. These results appear to depend on abscess size and age. Images with In-113m seem to be better than those with Tc-99m sulfur colloid in depicting amebic liver abscess during antiamebic therapy. Overall, the In-113m images provide more precise information concerning abscess size and shape.

  18. Tl-201 and Tc-99m-Sestamibi SPECT for brain tumor detection: Comparison using MRI coregistration

    SciTech Connect

    Darcourt, J.; Itti, L.; Chang, L.

    1994-05-01

    Tl-201 (Tl) brain SPECT has been validated for the differential diagnosis of high versus low grade gliomas and recurrence versus radiation necrosis. We compared this technique to Tc-99m-Sestamibi (MIBI) SPECT in 9 patients (pts) with brain tumors using MRI coregistration. Pts were injected with 4 mCi of Tl and brain SPECT was performed using a dedicated brain system. This was immediately following by an injection of 20 mCi of MIBI and a brain SPECT using the same camera and with the pt in the same position. Four pts were studied for the diagnosis of radiation necrosis vs. tumor recurrence (2 had biopsy proven recurrence); 5 pts were studied for primary tumor evaluation: 2 meningiomas, 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 low-grade astrocytoma, 1 cysticercosis. Coregistration was performed for every pt by 3D surface fitting of the inner skull MIBI contour to the MRI brain surface extracted automatically. ROIs were drawn on the MRI and applied to the coregistered MIBI and Tl images for tumor to non-tumor ratios T/NT calculations. There was a tight correlation between MIBI and Tl T/NT (r-0.96) and a 1.5 threshold separated radiation necrosis from recurrence and low from high grade primary tumors. Therefore, the data already available on Tl brain tumor imaging can be used with MIBI SPECT with the advantage of a better image quality (2.5 to 4 times more counts).

  19. Distribution of lung blood on modified bilateral Glenn shunt evaluated by Tc-99m-MAA lung perfusion scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Si, Biao; Luan, Zhao-sheng; Wang, Tong-jian; Ning, Yan-song; Li, Na; Zhu, Meng; Liu, Zhong-min; Ding, Guang-hong; Qiao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of lung blood in a modified bilateral Glenn procedure designed in our institute with lung perfusion scintigraphy. Sixteen consecutive patients who underwent modified bilateral Glenn operation from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 7 patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn shunt. Radionuclide lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m-macro aggregated albumin (MAA) in all patients. For the patients in modified bilateral Glenn group, the time at which the radioactivity accumulation peaked did not differ significantly between the right and left lung field (t = 0.608, P = 0.554). The incidence of perfusion abnormality in each lung lobe also did not differ significantly (P = 0.426 by Fisher exact test). The radioactive counts were higher in the right lung than in the left lung, but the difference was not statistically significant (t = 1.502, P = 0.157). Radioactive perfusion in the lower lung field was significantly greater than that in the upper field (t = 4.368, P < 0.001). Compared with that in the bidirectional Glenn group, the ratio of radioactivity in the right lung to that in left lung was significantly lower in the modified bilateral Glenn group (t = 3.686, P = 0.002). Lung perfusion scintigraphy confirmed the benefit of the modified bilateral Glenn shunt with regard to more balanced blood perfusion in both lungs. PMID:27661042

  20. Interobserver variability in the interpretation of myocardial images with Tc-99m-labeled diphosphonate and pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, A.; Acero, A.P.; Cardenas, M.; Huerta, D.; Rodriguez, A.; de Garay, R.

    1980-01-01

    Without prior knowledge of the significant clinical data, six observers have independently evaluated a consecutive series of 250 myocardial scans made with Tc-99m-labeled phosphates: 127 with MDP and 123 with PPi. Of the 226 patients, all having acute precordial chest pain, 169 were shown to have acute myocardial infarction while 57 suffered acute distress from other causes. The six observers, varying in their experience with nuclear medicine, compared the intensity of uptake in the heart with that in bone, and rated their impression of a positive image by a six-category scale - that is, one with five criterion levels. Results were expressed as receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, from which the optimal individual criterion level for each observer was determined. We found very high interobserver variability in the perception of the shades of myocardial concentration, although they were based on strict and apparently objective criteria. This variability has a direct influence on the overall performance of each observer. In every instance, PPi was demonstrated to be a better tracer than MDP for myocardial imaging. The bias of the experience, visual perception, and psychology of the observer at the time of the reading of the images seems to be significant, as is the presence of uncorrected visual defects. These results justify the setting of special programs to evaluateperiodically the performance of every physician who interprets studies, to establish his optimal individual criterion level instead of using a fixed criterion level to decide whether an image is positive.

  1. Etiology of cardiogenic shock early after open-heart surgery: Assessment by Tc-99m RBC wall motion scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.; Gray, R.; Chaux, A.; Lee, M.; Matloff, J.; Raymond, M.; Berman, D.

    1984-01-01

    When life-threatening cardiogenic shock (CI 1.8 1/min/m/sup 2/, elevated right and left-side filling pressures) occurs early (0-48 hrs) after open-heart surgery, routine approaches frequently cannot distinguish between expected etiologies: (1) transient systolic failure of the LV, RV, or both, common early postoperatively (postop); (2) perioperative infarct of the LV or RV; (3) myocardial restriction due to active pericardial bleeding or to accumulated clots and fluid; (4) diminished LV reserve from aneurysmectomy; and (5) residual valvular regurgitation. Distinction is critical, because (1), (2), and (4) will be treated by optimizing preload and afterload; (3) with urgent (if active bleeding) or semi-urgent surgery; and (5) with repeat valvular surgery. In 22 pts with unexpected early postop cardiogenic shock, Tc-99m-RBC equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography revealed: global LV (3 pts) or RV (3 pts) dysfunction, new segmental LV dysfunction (2 pts), active bleeding (5 pts) and/or accumulated pericardial fluid ( 8 pts) with hyperdynamic LV and RV, and a small hyperdynamic LV without effusion (1 pt), providing a specific etiologic diagnosis in all cases. In the Cardiac Surgical ICU, therapeutic decisions frequently await and depend on the results of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, now routinely performed in postop pts with unexpected cardiogenic shock.

  2. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.; Waugh, R.C.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Bautovich, G.J.; Dyer, I.A.; Fulton, R.R.; Morris, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. A range of normal values was defined in 19 subjects for per cent change in venous capacitance and venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPG alone and in combination with RV in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. RPG proved to be a reliable technique for the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was less sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition. When RPG is used as the criterion for the detection of ileofemoral vein thrombosis and RV is used as the criterion for the detection of calf vein thrombosis, the combined techniques show improved sensitivity (92%) and specificity (93%) for the detection of all deep venous thromboses.

  3. Role of Tc-99m phosphate complexes and gallium-67 in the diagnosis and management of maxillofacial disease: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Marlette, J.M.; Browne, G.A.; Elson, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Osteomyelitis of maxillofacial bones is difficult to differentiate from the results of trauma or malignancy, yet successful management is dependent upon early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. To determine if gallium-67 could differentiate infection from trauma or malignancy, 61 Tc-99m phosphate scans and 52 gallium-67 scans were made in 42 patients with maxillofacial disease. In all patients, definitive diagnosis was determined by surgery and/or clinical followup. Bone scans were positive in 37 patients. Gallium-67 scans were positive in 16 patients. Subsequent surgery and/or clinical followup demonstrated active osteomyelitis in 15 patients. From the data we conclude that: (a) the addition of Ga-67 scanning to the bone scans in evaluation of maxillofacial disease contributes significantly to differentiating trauma from osteomyelitis; (b) radiographic changes do not accurately reflect bone activity or differentiate osteomyelitis from trauma or malignancy; and (c) reduction in accumulation of gallium-67 in followup scans is a useful indicator for the termination of therapy in osteomyelitis.

  4. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Results: Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of Tc-99m is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (Tc-99m) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. Conclusions: The online filtration of Tc-99m from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. PMID:24163509

  5. Pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT: does it have a place in predicting survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Mustafa, M; Abd El-Hadi, E; Monier, A; Badwey, A; Saad, E

    2015-01-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) is reported as a useful tool for detection of residual or recurrent gliomas. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 40 patients [21 males and 19 females; mean age 48.6 ± 12.2 years] with GBM were included. Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT was done after surgery and before onset of radiation therapy or chemotherapy (Baseline study), at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months as a follow-up after therapy. The end point of the study was clinical follow-up for 2 years and/or death. 4-6 weeks after therapy, 40 and 60 % had negative and positive Tc-99m (V) DMSA for viable tumor tissues respectively (P = 0.09). At 6 months follow-up, 62.5 % of (V) DMSA negative patients and 12.5 % of the positive subjects were responders (P = 0.001). The median over-all survival (OS) of all patients was 12.3 month [range 5-24 month]. Patients with positive (V) DMSA had worse survival (8.87 month) compared to the negative ones (16.67 month) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT studies at 4-6 weeks and 6-months follow-up were independent prognostic factors for survival [OR 1.069; 95 % CI 1.417-2.174; P = 0.03 and OR 1.055; 95 % CI 0.821-1.186; P = 0.01 respectively]. Stratification of tumors into risk groups based on prognostic parameters may improve outcome by altering or intensifying treatment methods. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid brain SPECT may have an additional prognostic role in patients with GBM which needs further evaluation in larger future series.

  6. Acute Tc-99m DMSA scan for identifying dilating vesicoureteral reflux in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mantadakis, Elpis; Vouloumanou, Evridiki K; Georgantzi, Georgia G; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Falagas, Matthew E

    2011-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding the type and/or sequence of imaging studies needed during the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in young children. Several investigators have claimed that because acute-phase Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal-scan results are abnormal in the presence of dilating vesicoureteral reflux, a normal DMSA-scan result makes voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) unnecessary in the primary examination of infants with UTI. To evaluate the accuracy of acute-phase DMSA scanning in identifying dilating (grades III through V) vesicoureteral reflux documented by VCUG in children with a first febrile UTI, we performed a meta-analysis of the accuracy of diagnostic tests as reported from relevant studies identified through the PubMed and Scopus databases. Patient-based and renal unit-based analyses were performed. Overall, 13 cohort studies were identified. Nine studies involved patients younger than 2 years, 3 involved children aged 16 years or younger, and 1 involved exclusively neonates. Girls constituted 22% to 85% of the involved children. Pooled (95% confidence intervals) sensitivity and specificity rates of DMSA scanning were 79% and 53%, respectively, for the patient-based analysis (8 studies) and 60% and 65% for the renal unit-based analysis (5 studies). The respective areas under the hierarchical summary receiver operating curves were 0.71 and 0.67. Marked statistical heterogeneity was observed in both analyses, as indicated by I(2) test values of 91% and 87%, respectively. Acute-phase DMSA renal scanning cannot be recommended as replacement for VCUG in the evaluation of young children with a first febrile UTI.

  7. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the VNIIM, Russian Federation and ENEA-INMRI, Italy, in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m and KCRV update in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michottea, C.; Nonisa, M.; Alekseevb, I. V.; Kharitonovb, I. A.; Tereshchenkob, E. E.; Zanevskiyb, A. V.; Capognic, M.; De Felicec, P.; Fazioc, A.; Carconic, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, comparisons of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the VNIIM (Russian Federation) and at the ENEA-INMRI (Italy), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. Ampoules containing about 32 kBq of 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for three half-lives. There are now nine results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m comparison. This comparison is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m has been updated to include eligible results from BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR or the SIRTI and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Analysis in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Using TC-99M Hmpao and a Three - Spect System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Maximian Felix

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with a cognitive task of semantic word retrieval (verbal fluency) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and compare with the rCBF distribution of normal controls. Two groups of patients with low and high verbal fluency scores and two groups of normal controls were selected to determine a relationship between rCBF and verbal performance. A three-detector gamma camera (TRIAD 88) was used with radiotracer Tc-99m HMPAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to obtain 3D rCBF maps. The performance characteristics of the camera was comprehensively studied before being utilized for clinical studies. In addition, technical improvements were implemented in the form of scatter correction and MRI-SPECT coregistration to potentially enhance the quantitative accuracy of the rCBF data. The performance analysis of the gamma camera showed remarkable consistency among the three-detector heads and yielded results that were consistent with the manufacturer's specification. Measurements of physical objects also showed excellent image quality. The coregistration of SPECT and MRI images allowed more accurate anatomical localization for extraction of regional blood flow information. The validation of the scatter correction technique with physical phantoms indicated marked improvements in quantitative accuracy. There was marked difference in activation patterns between patients and normals. In normals, individually subjects showed either an increase or a decrease in blood flow to left frontal and temporal, however, on average, there was not a statistically significant change. The lack of significant change may suggest large variability among subjects chosen or that the individual changes are not large enough to be significant. The results from MS patients showed several left cortical areas with statistically significant change in blood flow after cognitive activation

  9. Use of the cavity-to-myocardial count ratio with Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT to predict reduced left ventricular function

    SciTech Connect

    Heerden, B.B. van; Heerden, P.D.R. van; Wasserman, H.J.

    1994-05-01

    In patients with left ventricular dysfunction, the left ventricular cavity appears abnormally photopenic on SPECT images, both with T1-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi showed a linear correlation between the cavity-to-myocardial count ratio (C/M ratio) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with T1-201 SPECT. Using an exercise ratio of 0.4 as the lower limit of normal, they could predict a reduced LVEF with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 78%. The purpose of our study was to ascertain whether the C/M ratio could also be used as an indicator of LVEF when using Tc-99m sestamibi as imaging agent.

  10. Identification of severe and extensive coronary artery disease by postexercise regional wall motion abnormalities in Tc-99m sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sharir, T; Bacher-Stier, C; Dhar, S; Lewin, H C; Miranda, R; Friedman, J D; Germano, G; Berman, D S

    2000-12-01

    Postexercise wall motion abnormality (WMA) in patients with normal resting myocardial perfusion may represent prolonged postischemic stunning, and may be related to the presence of severe angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). This study assesses the diagnostic value of postexercise WMA by technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with normal resting perfusion. Ninety-nine patients underwent exercise gated Tc-99m sestamibi/resting thallium-201 SPECT and coronary angiography within 90 days of nuclear testing. All patients had normal perfusion at rest. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated an incremental value of wall motion and perfusion over perfusion data alone in identifying severe and extensive CAD. Sensitivity for identifying any severely stenosed coronary artery by WMA was significantly higher than by severe perfusion defect (78% vs 49%, p <0.0001). Overall specificities of severe perfusion defect and WMA were 91% and 85%, respectively (p = NS). Thus, postexercise WMA detected by gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT in patients with normal resting perfusion is a sensitive marker of severe and extensive CAD.

  11. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast Identified by Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Claimon, Apichaya; Chuthapisith, Suebwong; Samarnthai, Norasate; Pusuwan, Pawana

    2015-08-01

    The authors reported an uncommon presentation of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma to the breast detected by Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT in a 49 years old woman who, previously, had carcinoid tumor of left main bronchus and invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast. Later, the patient developed left breast mass. Core needle biopsy of the mass revealed poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. The disease remained stable for 12 years without any treatment on that left breast (due to patient's rejection). On the later investigation using Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy examination, rather than invasive ductal carcinoma, metastatic neuroendocrine cancer was suggested. The final diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination after surgical excision. Multiple metastatic lesions of neuroendocrine carcinoma at lung, liver, ovaries, and bones were also depicted. Due to the good behavior of the disease, patient had been doing well for eight months, without specific treatment. This report confirmed the advantage and the accuracy of Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in detection of neuroendocrine carcinoma. Furthermore, metastatic neuroendocrine tumor should be in differential diagnosis for patient with breast mass together with history of neuroendocrine tumor

  12. A review of the cost-effectiveness of Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography in diagnosis of breast cancer in Taiwanese women with indeterminate mammographically dense breast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Shan; Wang, Wei-Hua; Chan, Tam; Sun, Shung-Shung; Kao, Albert

    2002-11-01

    In general, biopsy is the preferred management method for women with indeterminate mammographically dense breasts. In this review, we describe a decision analysis model comparing technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) scintimammography and excisional biopsy as breast cancer evaluation strategies for hypothetical cohorts of estimated 16,000-40,000 women with indeterminate mammographic probability of malignancy because of mammographically dense breasts. In cost-effectiveness analysis, quantitative decision tree sensitivity analysis was used to compare the conventional excision biopsy alone strategy (strategy A) with decision strategy for screening with Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography before excision biopsy (strategy B) after an indeterminate mammogram. Strategy B showed a cost saving of US dollars 649,600-1,624,000 in reducing the cost of unnecessary biopsies. The total cost of strategy B showed a cost saving of US dollars 123,075-307,776 compared to strategy A. The analysis data indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography can save the cost of unnecessary biopsies in Taiwanese women with non-diagnostic mammogram because of mammographically dense breasts. PMID:12356511

  13. Reproducibility of area at risk assessment in acute myocardial infarction by T1- and T2-mapping sequences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in comparison to Tc99m-sestamibi SPECT.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Birgit; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Jähnichen, Christin; Kastrati, Adnan; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Area at risk (AAR) is an important parameter for the assessment of the salvage area after revascularization in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). By combining AAR assessment by T2-weighted imaging and scar quantification by late gadolinium enhancement imaging cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers a promising alternative to the "classical" modality of Tc99m-sestamibi single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Current T2 weighted sequences for edema imaging in CMR are limited by low contrast to noise ratios and motion artifacts. During the last years novel CMR imaging techniques for quantification of acute myocardial injury, particularly the T1-mapping and T2-mapping, have attracted rising attention. But no direct comparison between the different sequences in the setting of AMI or a validation against SPECT has been reported so far. We analyzed 14 patients undergoing primary coronary revascularization in AMI in whom both a pre-intervention Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT and CMR imaging at a median of 3.4 (interquartile range 3.3-3.6) days after the acute event were performed. Size of AAR was measured by three different non-contrast CMR techniques on corresponding short axis slices: T2-weighted, fat-suppressed turbospin echo sequence (TSE), T2-mapping from T2-prepared balanced steady state free precession sequences (T2-MAP) and T1-mapping from modified look locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequences. For each CMR sequence, the AAR was quantified by appropriate methods (absolute values for mapping sequences, comparison with remote myocardium for other sequences) and correlated with Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT. All measurements were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The size of the AAR assessed by CMR was 28.7 ± 20.9 % of left ventricular myocardial volume (%LV) for TSE, 45.8 ± 16.6 %LV for T2-MAP, and 40.1 ± 14.4 %LV for MOLLI. AAR assessed by SPECT measured 41.6 ± 20.7 %LV. Correlation analysis revealed best correlation with SPECT for T2-MAP at a T2-threshold of 60 ms

  14. Is Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography useful in the prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy responses in breast cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cui; Zhang, Chengpeng; Liu, Jianjun; Tong, Linjun; Huang, Gang

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) scintimammography in the prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in breast cancer. 'PubMed' (MEDLINE included) and Embase database were searched for relevant publications in English. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with Quality Assessment of Diagnosis Accuracy Studies (QUADAS), and 'Meta-Disc' and 'Stata' software were used to determine pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and construct a summary receiver-operating characteristic curve. Fourteen studies (a total of 503 individuals) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity was 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-0.92] and the pooled specificity was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64-0.74). Pooled likelihood ratio (LRp), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), and DOR were 2.64 (95% CI: 1.81-3.85), 0.26 (95% CI: 0.15-0.46), and 12.06 (95% CI: 6.94-20.96), respectively. The area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.86. For the prediction of pathological complete response (10 studies included), the pooled sensitivity and specificity and DOR were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.93), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.62-0.72), and 11.43 (95% CI: 5.95-21.97). Our results indicated that Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography had acceptable sensitivity in the prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in breast cancer; however, its relatively low specificity showed that a combination of other imaging modalities would still be needed. Subgroup analysis indicated that performing early mid-treatment Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography (using the reduction rate of one or two cycles or within the first half-courses of chemotherapy compared with the baseline) was better than carrying out later (after three or more courses) or post-treatment scintimammography in the prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response.

  15. A new dual-isotope convolution cross-talk correction method: a Tl-201/Tc-99m SPECT cardiac phantom study.

    PubMed

    Knesaurek, K

    1994-10-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging provides a clear advantage in situations where two concurrent metabolic, anatomic, or background measurements are desired. It obviates the need for two separate imaging sessions, reduces patient motion problems, and provides exact image registration between images. However, a potential limitation of dual-isotope SPECT imaging is contribution of scattered and primary photons from one radionuclide into the second radionuclide's photopeak energy window, referred to here as cross-talk. Cross-talk in both photopeak energy windows can significantly degrade image quality, resolution, and quantitation to an unacceptable level. Simple cross-talk correction method used in dual-radionuclide in vitro counting, even applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis, does not account for the differences in spatial distribution of the photopeak and cross-talk photons. Here a new convolution cross-talk correction method is presented. The convolution filters are derived from point response functions (PRFs) for Tc-99m and Tl-201 point sources. Three separate acquisitions were performed, each with two 20% wide energy windows, one centered at 140 keV and another at 70 keV. The first acquisition was done with Tc-99m solution only, the second with Tl-201 solution only, and the third with a mixture of Tc-99m and Tl-201. The nonuniform RH-2 thorax-heart phantom was used to test a new correction technique. The main difficulty and limitation of the convolution correction approach is caused by the variation in PRF as a function of depth. Thus, average PRF should be used in the creation of an approximative filter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7869989

  16. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R. )

    1991-03-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient.

  17. Landau-Kleffner syndrome: relation of clinical, EEG and Tc-99m-HMPAO brain SPECT findings and improvement in EEG after treatment.

    PubMed

    Sayit, E; Dirik, E; Durak, H; Uzuner, N; Anal, O; Cevik, N T

    1999-12-01

    Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare childhood disorder characterized by acquired aphasia with seizures and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT was performed in three right handed children with LKS. A relative decrease in perfusion was found in the left temporal cortex of all three patients and also in the left frontoparietal cortex of one patient with hyperkinetic behavior. Degree of regional cerebral perfusion impairment did not correlate with the severity of clinical and EEG abnormalities. Asymmetrical temporoparietal perfusion appears characteristic of LKS. SPECT findings in LKS were evaluated as useful in elucidating the pathogenic features of the disorder in the brain.

  18. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 04: An iterative triple energy window (TEW) approach to cross talk correction in quantitative small animal Tc99m and In111 SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, P; Timmins, R; Wells, R G

    2014-08-15

    Dual isotope SPECT allows simultaneous measurement of two different tracers in vivo. With In111 (emission energies of 171keV and 245keV) and Tc99m (140keV), quantification of Tc99m is degraded by cross talk from the In111 photons that scatter and are detected at an energy corresponding to Tc99m. TEW uses counts recorded in two narrow windows surrounding the Tc99m primary window to estimate scatter. Iterative TEW corrects for the bias introduced into the TEW estimate resulting from un-scattered counts detected in the scatter windows. The contamination in the scatter windows is iteratively estimated and subtracted as a fraction of the scatter-corrected primary window counts. The iterative TEW approach was validated with a small-animal SPECT/CT camera using a 2.5mL plastic container holding thoroughly mixed Tc99m/In111 activity fractions of 0.15, 0.28, 0.52, 0.99, 2.47 and 6.90. Dose calibrator measurements were the gold standard. Uncorrected for scatter, the Tc99m activity was over-estimated by as much as 80%. Unmodified TEW underestimated the Tc99m activity by 13%. With iterative TEW corrections applied in projection space, the Tc99m activity was estimated within 5% of truth across all activity fractions above 0.15. This is an improvement over the non-iterative TEW, which could not sufficiently correct for scatter in the 0.15 and 0.28 phantoms.

  19. Enhanced cross-talk correction technique for simultaneous dual-isotope imaging: a TL-201/Tc-99m myocardial perfusion SPECT dog study.

    PubMed

    Knesaurek, K; Machac, J

    1997-12-01

    A newly developed cross-talk correction method for simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging was tested in a canine model. The method is based on the assumption that the transformations, which modify the primary energy window images into the scatter images as viewed in the other energy windows, are known. These transformations were found by measuring the point spread functions (PSFs) in two different energy windows for both isotopes in water. The dual-isotope correction method is described by two convolution equations which were applied in frequency space. The equations take into account the different spatial distributions of the primary and scatter cross-talk photons. The new enhancement of the method was in applying restoration filters to the resulting corrected images. Three separate studies were acquired in our dog study: two single-isotope and one dual-isotope study. The single isotope images were used as references. The contrast between the left ventricle cavity (LVC) and the myocardium was used in transaxial and short-axis slices as a parameter to evaluate results of dual-isotope correction method with restoration. The change in contrast in the dual-isotope corrected images in both energy windows, i.e., Tc-99m primary window (140 keV) and Tl-201 primary window (70 keV), was significant. The only exception was for the short-axis Tc-99m window images. The corrected 140 keV dual-isotope short-axis slice had the contrast of 0.60 vs 0.58, which was the value in the noncorrected dual-isotope short-axis slice. For dual-isotope 140 keV transaxial slice, the contrast changed from 0.72 to 0.82 after correction. In comparison, for single-isotope Tc-99m 140 keV transaxial slice, contrast changed from 0.62 to 0.84 after restoration correction. There was less change in contrast in the short-axis Tc-99m 140 keV slice, i.e., from 0.56 to 0.61. In the Tl-201 primary window for the transaxial slices the improvement of contrast was from 0.38 to 0.64, and for short-axis slices

  20. Acute myocardial imaging with TC-99m sestamibi identifies the culprit coronary artery in the emergency room assessment of patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Stowers, S.A.; Thompson, R.C.; Fulmer, H.

    1994-05-01

    Acute myocardial perfusion scintigraphy significantly increases diagnostic accuracy and provides independent predictive information in emergency room (ER) patients with typical angina and a normal or non-diagnostic ECG. We evaluated the correlation between location of perfusion defect on the acute nuclear perfusion scan and location of coronary arterial narrowing demonstrated by pre-hospital discharge coronary angiography. ER patients (n=150) with typical angina and a normal or non-diagnostic ECG had 10-30 mCi of Tc-99m Sestamibi injected while acutely symptomatic. 11 patients with a normal scan and 33 patients with an abnormal scan (total n=44) underwent pre-hospital discharge coronary angiography. Overall diagnostic accuracy in the detection of any significant ({ge}70%) angiographic stenosis was high (84%, p=.001). The diagnostic accuracy of anterior, lateral, and inferior perfusion abnormalities in the detection of significant stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA), respectively was determined.

  1. [Radioisotopic quantification of kidney function using Tc-99m-DMSA. Comparison with creatinine clearance in children with a single kidney].

    PubMed

    Baillet, G; Gagnadoux, M F; Mathonnat, F; de Vernejoul, P; Broyer, M

    1986-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of renal function quantification with Tc 99m-DMSA in children, we compared DMSA renal uptake and creatinine clearance in 16 cases of children with single kidney. The age of the patients ranged from two month to fourteen years. DMSA renal uptake was measured 7 hours after injection and was normalized in percent of the injected activity. A significant correlation was found between creatinine clearance and DMSA uptake (Pearson's r = 0.866, p less than 0.01). Normal creatinine clearance in children (80 to 120 ml/min-1 X 1.73 m-2) allowed determination of normal renal uptake (36 to 60%). This study indicates that in cases of asymmetrical renal impairment renal uptake reflects split renal creatinine clearance. Since the former is much easier to measure, DMSA should play an important role in the evaluation of differential renal function.

  2. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

  3. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

  4. Doses to the hand during the administration of radiolabeled antibodies containing Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W.

    1997-02-01

    Exposure of the hands of medical personnel administering radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) was evaluated on the basis of (a) observing and photo-documenting administration techniques, and (b) experimental data on doses to thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on fingers of phantom hands holding syringes, and on syringes, with radionuclides in the syringes in each case. Actual exposure data for I-131 and Lu-177 were obtained in field studies. Variations in handling and administration techniques were identified. Dose rates measured using TLDs on the surface of loaded syringes were adjusted for differences in electronic stopping power, absorption coefficients, and attenuation between dosimeters and tissue to estimate dose-to-skin averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 7 mg cm{sup {minus}2} depth for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177. Dose rate coefficients to the skin, if in contact with the syringe wall, were 89, 1.9, 3.8, and 0.41 {micro}Sv s{sup {minus}1} per 37 MBq (1 mCi) for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177, respectively. For dose reduction, when using Y-90 the importance was clearly indicated of (a) avoiding direct contact with syringes containing RABs, if practical, and (b) using a beta-particle shield on the syringe. In using a syringe for injection, doses can best be approximated for the geometry studied by (a) wearing a finger dosimeter on the middle finger, toward the outside of the hand, on the hand operating the plunger, and (b) wearing finger dosimeters on the inner (palm) side of the finger on the hand that supports the syringe for energetic beta-particle emitters, such as Y-90 and Re-188.

  5. In vivo click reaction between Tc-99m-labeled azadibenzocyclooctyne-MAMA and 2-nitroimidazole-azide for tumor hypoxia targeting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Chu, Taiwei

    2015-10-15

    The bioactivity of nitroimidazole in Tc-99m-labeled 2-nitroimidazole, a traditional solid tumor hypoxia-imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is reduced by the presence of large ligand and metallic radionuclide, exhibiting lower tumor-to-nontumor ratios. In an effort to solve this general problem, a pretargeting strategy based on click chemistry (strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition) was applied. The functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: an azide group linked to 2-nitroimidazole (2NIM-Az) serves for tumor hypoxia-targeting and azadibenzocyclooctyne conjugated with monoamine monoamide dithiol ligand (AM) functions as radiolabeling and binding group to azides in vivo. 2NIM-triazole-MAMA was obtained from in vitro click reaction with a reaction rate constant of 0.98M(-1)s(-1). AM and 2NIM-triazole-MAMA were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The hypoxia-pretargeting biodistribution was studied in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor; (99m)Tc-AM and (99m)Tc-triazole-2NIM were used as blank control and conventional control. Compared to the control groups, the pretargeting experiment exhibits the best radio-uptake and retention in tumor, with higher tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios (up to 8.55 and 1.44 at 8h post-(99m)Tc-complex-injection, respectively). To some extent, the pretargeting strategy protects the bioactivity of nitroimidazole and therefore provides an innovative approach for the development of tumor hypoxia-SPECT imaging agents. PMID:26358160

  6. In vivo click reaction between Tc-99m-labeled azadibenzocyclooctyne-MAMA and 2-nitroimidazole-azide for tumor hypoxia targeting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Chu, Taiwei

    2015-10-15

    The bioactivity of nitroimidazole in Tc-99m-labeled 2-nitroimidazole, a traditional solid tumor hypoxia-imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is reduced by the presence of large ligand and metallic radionuclide, exhibiting lower tumor-to-nontumor ratios. In an effort to solve this general problem, a pretargeting strategy based on click chemistry (strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition) was applied. The functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: an azide group linked to 2-nitroimidazole (2NIM-Az) serves for tumor hypoxia-targeting and azadibenzocyclooctyne conjugated with monoamine monoamide dithiol ligand (AM) functions as radiolabeling and binding group to azides in vivo. 2NIM-triazole-MAMA was obtained from in vitro click reaction with a reaction rate constant of 0.98M(-1)s(-1). AM and 2NIM-triazole-MAMA were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The hypoxia-pretargeting biodistribution was studied in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor; (99m)Tc-AM and (99m)Tc-triazole-2NIM were used as blank control and conventional control. Compared to the control groups, the pretargeting experiment exhibits the best radio-uptake and retention in tumor, with higher tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios (up to 8.55 and 1.44 at 8h post-(99m)Tc-complex-injection, respectively). To some extent, the pretargeting strategy protects the bioactivity of nitroimidazole and therefore provides an innovative approach for the development of tumor hypoxia-SPECT imaging agents.

  7. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1988-07-05

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of [sup 99m]Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available for the reduction of technetium. No Drawings

  8. Method and kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with TC-99M

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Babich, John W.; Straub, Rita; Richards, Powell

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  9. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  10. Comparison of Renal Function between Robot-Assisted and Open Partial Nephrectomy as Determined by Tc 99m-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We compared postoperative renal function impairment between patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) and those undergoing open partial nephrectomy (OPN) by using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scintigraphy. Patients who underwent partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2013 were eligible and were matched by propensity score, based on age, tumor size, exophytic properties of tumor, and location relative to the polar lines. Of the 403 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy, 114 (28%) underwent RAPN and 289 (72%) underwent OPN. Mean follow-up duration was 35.2 months. Following propensity matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in tumor exophytic properties (P = 0.818) or nephrometry score (P = 0.527). Renal ischemic time (24.4 minutes vs. 17.8 minutes, P < 0.001) was significantly longer in the RAPN group than in the OPN group, while the other characteristics were similar. Multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative renal unit function (P = 0.011) and nephrometry score (P = 0.041) were independently correlated with a reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The operative method did not correlate with renal function impairment (P = 0.704). Postoperative renal function impairment was similar between patients who underwent OPN and those who underwent RAPN, despite RAPN having a longer ischemic time. PMID:27134496

  11. Use of pre-operative Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to eliminate neck exploration in mediastinal parathyroid adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damadi, Amir; Harkema, James; Kareti, Rao; Saxe, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    A 66-year-old white woman was found to have an elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on routine health evaluation. Physical examination was unremarkable as was ultrasonography of the neck. A sestamibi parathyroid scan revealed abnormal uptake in the anterior mediastinum. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated an anterior mediastinal mass compatible with a parathyroid adenoma but no neck masses. The patient underwent mediastinoscopy that was converted to a median sternotomy to fully access the mass. The mass was completely resected with surrounding thymus gland. Frozen section confirmed that excised tissue was parathyroid gland in origin. An intraoperative PTH obtained 20 minutes after specimen removal showed a decrease of more than 50% from preoperative levels. The strategy for initial surgery for hyperparathyroidism when a sestamibi scan is "positive" in the mediastinum (only) is a point of some controversy. Traditional recommendations have been to "clear the neck" of abnormal parathyroid tissue before undertaking a more morbid sternotomy. Mediastinoscopy was attempted to remove the mediastinal lesion and to avoid a sternotomy. Preoperative Tc99m sestamibi scintigraphy, frozen section histology, and intraoperative PTH monitoring permitted the authors to conclude that neck exploration was unnecessary.

  12. Intracoronary Infusion of Autologous CD133+ Cells in Myocardial Infarction and Tracing by Tc99m MIBI Scintigraphy of the Heart Areas Involved in Cell Homing

    PubMed Central

    Kurbonov, Ubaidullo; Dustov, Abdusamad; Barotov, Alisher; Khidirov, Murtazokul; Mirojov, Giesidin; Rahimov, Zikrie; Navjuvonov, Navjuvon; Rizoev, Eraj; Olimov, Nasim; Goibov, Alijon; Karim-Zade, Bakhtovar; Rakhmatov, Mukim; Muminjonov, Suhayli; Didari, Azadeh; Irgasheva, Jamila; Bobokhojaev, Oktam; Gulmuradov, Tashpulat; Therwath, Amu; Rakhmonov, Sohibnazar; Mirshahi, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    CD133 mesenchymal cells were enriched using magnetic microbead anti-CD133 antibody from bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs). Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry analysis using specific antibodies revealed that these cells were essentially 89 ± 4% CD133+ and 8 ± 5% CD34+. CD133+/CD34+ BMMNCs secrete important bioactive proteins such as cardiotrophin-1, angiogenic and neurogenic factors, morphogenetic proteins, and proinflammatory and remodeling factors in vitro. Single intracoronary infusions of autologous CD133+/CD34+ BMMNCs are effective and reduce infarct size in patients as analyzed by Tc99m MIBI myocardial scintigraphy. The majority of patients were treated via left coronary artery. Nine months after cell therapy, 5 out of 8 patients showed a net positive response to therapy in different regions of the heart. Uptake of Tc99 isotope and revitalization of the heart area in inferoseptal region are more pronounced (P = 0.016) as compared to apex and anterosptal regions after intracoronary injection of the stem cells. The cells chosen here have the properties essential for their potential use in cell therapy and their homing can be followed without major difficulty by the scintigraphy. The cell therapy proposed here is safe and should be practiced, as we found, in conjunction with scintigraphic observation of areas of heart which respond optimally to the infusion of autologous CD133+/CD34+ BMMNCs. PMID:23983717

  13. Distribution of lung blood on modified bilateral Glenn shunt evaluated by Tc-99m-MAA lung perfusion scintigraphy: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Si, Biao; Luan, Zhao-Sheng; Wang, Tong-Jian; Ning, Yan-Song; Li, Na; Zhu, Meng; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ding, Guang-Hong; Qiao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of lung blood in a modified bilateral Glenn procedure designed in our institute with lung perfusion scintigraphy. Sixteen consecutive patients who underwent modified bilateral Glenn operation from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 7 patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn shunt. Radionuclide lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m-macro aggregated albumin (MAA) in all patients. For the patients in modified bilateral Glenn group, the time at which the radioactivity accumulation peaked did not differ significantly between the right and left lung field (t = 0.608, P = 0.554). The incidence of perfusion abnormality in each lung lobe also did not differ significantly (P = 0.426 by Fisher exact test). The radioactive counts were higher in the right lung than in the left lung, but the difference was not statistically significant (t = 1.502, P = 0.157). Radioactive perfusion in the lower lung field was significantly greater than that in the upper field (t = 4.368, P < 0.001). Compared with that in the bidirectional Glenn group, the ratio of radioactivity in the right lung to that in left lung was significantly lower in the modified bilateral Glenn group (t = 3.686, P = 0.002). Lung perfusion scintigraphy confirmed the benefit of the modified bilateral Glenn shunt with regard to more balanced blood perfusion in both lungs. PMID:27661042

  14. Effect of vitamin D3, other drugs altering serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations, and desoxycorticosterone on the distribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate between target and nontarget tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.

    1981-06-01

    Radioactive imaging agents are chemically designed for selective distribution. Another approach to selectivity is to find stable compounds that favorably influence this distribution. Using a rat model of myocardial necrosis, we studied effects of various stable compounds (as a single, large dose or fractionated into short series) on the ratio, uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) by the target lesion/uptake by the principal nontarget, bone (L/B). Vitamin D3s ability to increase L/B was mediated by the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia that it caused. The hypercalcemia was accompanied by increased (Ca) in the lesion. In contrast, pulse doses of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at 7 and 6 hr before killing increased uptake by lesion, increasing L/B from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 0.45 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.01), with no change in serum (Ca) and minimal changes in serum (P), (Na), and (K). DOCA also increased the lesion-to-blood ratio from 6.5 +/- 0.07 to 15.4 +/- 3.9 (p less than 0.05). These results encourage further study of DOCA's effect and investigation of other stable drugs that may influence distribution of other imaging agents.

  15. Distribution of lung blood on modified bilateral Glenn shunt evaluated by Tc-99m-MAA lung perfusion scintigraphy: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Si, Biao; Luan, Zhao-Sheng; Wang, Tong-Jian; Ning, Yan-Song; Li, Na; Zhu, Meng; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ding, Guang-Hong; Qiao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of lung blood in a modified bilateral Glenn procedure designed in our institute with lung perfusion scintigraphy. Sixteen consecutive patients who underwent modified bilateral Glenn operation from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 7 patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn shunt. Radionuclide lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m-macro aggregated albumin (MAA) in all patients. For the patients in modified bilateral Glenn group, the time at which the radioactivity accumulation peaked did not differ significantly between the right and left lung field (t = 0.608, P = 0.554). The incidence of perfusion abnormality in each lung lobe also did not differ significantly (P = 0.426 by Fisher exact test). The radioactive counts were higher in the right lung than in the left lung, but the difference was not statistically significant (t = 1.502, P = 0.157). Radioactive perfusion in the lower lung field was significantly greater than that in the upper field (t = 4.368, P < 0.001). Compared with that in the bidirectional Glenn group, the ratio of radioactivity in the right lung to that in left lung was significantly lower in the modified bilateral Glenn group (t = 3.686, P = 0.002). Lung perfusion scintigraphy confirmed the benefit of the modified bilateral Glenn shunt with regard to more balanced blood perfusion in both lungs.

  16. Glioma residual or recurrence versus radiation necrosis: accuracy of pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT compared to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS): initial results.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Moustafa, Hosna; Ahmed, Ebaa; El-Toukhy, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    We compared pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) for the detection of residual or recurrent gliomas after surgery and radiotherapy. A total of 24 glioma patients, previously operated upon and treated with radiotherapy, were studied. SPECT was acquired 2-3 h post-administration of 555-740 MBq of Tc-99m (V) DMSA. Lesion to normal (L/N) delayed uptake ratio was calculated as: mean counts of tumor ROI (L)/mean counts of normal mirror symmetric ROI (N). (1)H-MRS was performed using a 1.5-T scanner equipped with a spectroscopy package. SPECT and (1)H-MRS results were compared with pathology or follow-up neuroimaging studies. SPECT and (1)H-MRS showed concordant residue or recurrence in 9/24 (37.5%) patients. Both were true negative in 6/24 (25%) patients. SPECT and (1)H-MRS disagreed in 9 recurrences [7/9 (77.8%) and 2/9 (22.2%) were true positive by SPECT and (1)H-MRS, respectively]. Sensitivity of SPECT and (1)H-MRS in detecting recurrence was 88.8 and 61.1% with accuracies of 91.6 and 70.8%, respectively. A positive association between the delayed L/N ratio and tumor grade was found; the higher the grade, the higher is the L/N ratio (r = 0.62, P = 0.001). Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT is more accurate compared to (1)H-MRS for the detection of tumor residual tissues or recurrence in glioma patients with previous radiotherapy. It allows early and non-invasive differentiation of residual tumor or recurrence from irradiation necrosis.

  17. Unusual mediastinal lymph node uptake and peritoneopleural fistula demonstrated on Technetium-99m macro-aggregated human serum albumin (Tc-99m MAA) peritoneal scintigraphy in a patient with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tan, C J; Thang, S P; Lam, W W

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal radionuclide scan is an established imaging modality for evaluating peritoneopleural communications. In this case report, unusual mediastinal lymph node radiotracer uptake is seen in a patient with portal hypertension on peritoneal scintigraphy. This was suspected to be due to marked lymphatic enlargement from longstanding portal hypertension since childhood, permitting passage of the large Tc-99m MAA particle. The nodes were morphologically benign on CT. Mediastinal lymph node uptake on peritoneal scintigraphy is rare but should not raise undue clinical concern, particularly in a patient with chronic portal hypertension. Anatomic correlation with SPECT-CT can provide reassurance. PMID:27326945

  18. Reversible ischemia in severe stress Tc-99m-Sestamibi perfusion defects: Assessment with gated tomographic polar map Fourier amplitude and amplitude/perfusion ratio images and correlation with resting images

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Taillon, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    Reversible ischemia in myocardial segments with severe hypoperfusion ({le}50% of normal activity) on stress Tc-99m-Sestamibi (MIBI) images was assessed with ECG-gated tomographic (GSPECT) indices of myocardial thickening, as reflected by an increase in regional count density during systole. GSPECT bullseye plots were generated for each of 8 frames acquired after stress MIBI injection in 39 patients with coronary artery disease and at least one severe perfusion defect on summed SPECT images. Using first harmonic Fourier amplitude (AMP) and AMP to perfusion ratio (APR) images, regional myocardial systolic thickening was assessed using a 5-segment model, scored 0 to 3, for absent, minimal, mildly reduced or normal thickening. These data were regionally compared with defect reversibility assessed using a separate-day or a preceding same-day resting MIBI injection images, in which these segments were scored from 0 to 3 for absent, minimal, partial or complete defect reversibility. Of 91 severe stress defects, 16 showed absent, 18 minimal, 43 partial, and 14 complete reversibility on resting images. Both AMP and APR scores were in statistically significant agreement (p=.0218 and .0006) with resting image reversibility grades, with 79% (p=.0324) and 86% (p=.0001) agreement on the presence of reversibility on resting imaging, respectively. AMP correctly identified 89% of the reversibility defects on rest images, while the APR identified 99% (p=.0248 vs. AMP). On analysis of segment scores, the AMP slightly underestimated the degree of rest image reversibility (p=.0235), while APR images indicated more reversibility thin did resting images (p=.0092). In conclusion, GSPECT MIBI bullseye Fourier AMP images correlate well with the pattern of reversibility on resting MIBI in severe stress perfusion defects. When indexed for the degree of hypoperfusion, the Fourier images depict a greater degree of defect reversibility than resting MIBI images.

  19. Development of more efficacious {Tc}-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  20. Convenience and the hierarchy of meal preparation. Cooking and domestic education in the Netherlands, 1910-1930.

    PubMed

    Verriet, Jon

    2015-11-01

    The concept of convenience in food products and meal preparation has changed rapidly during the twentieth century. However, there is little investigation into the way attitudes towards this concept have changed, which curbs our understanding of the importance of, and need for, convenience today. This paper uses the magazine of the Dutch schools of domestic education to examine their stance on convenience in meal preparation during the 1910s and 1920s. Recipes and articles are quantitatively and qualitatively analysed to estimate the importance of convenience in food preparation and consumption. The results of this analysis show that there was a hierarchy of values with regard to food choice: convenience was definitely valued, but matters of frugality and nutrition generally dominated. This provides not just a nuanced image of the role of domestic education (demanding yet flexible), but it also gives insight into the mechanics of food choice, which may at least partly still apply today. PMID:25724499

  1. Tc-99m IDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Fordham, E.W.

    1982-10-01

    Recently it has been suggested that cholescintigraphy is unreliable in the detection of acute cholecystitis when acute pancreatitis is present. During a recent 17 month interval, twenty-one patients with a firmly established diagnosis of acute pancreatitis underwent cholescintigraphy in our laboratory. The gallbladder failed to visualize in only five cases, all of whom had acute cholecystitis. These data, and those available in the literature, lead us to conclude that cholescintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis whether or not acute pancreatitis is present.

  2. [Comparison of time, material and preparation costs as well as nutritive value of conventionally prepared soups and sauces and corresponding "convenience foods"].

    PubMed

    Güthe-Hausmann, M; Wirths, W

    1976-12-01

    In a survey the food and labour costs arising in connection with the preparation in feeding centers - with about a thousand dinners - of conventionally cooked soups and sauces and corresponding convenience food were determined. For soups food costs are lower for convenience food than for conventionally prepared soups. Regarding the sauces, the costs of one of the two preparation manners is not definetely more favourable than the other one. The cost scheme will shift to the disadvantage of convenience food whenever it has to be modified in default of a comparable product, as for instance in the case of béchamel-sauce and horse-radish sauce. Considering the factor time, convenience food will be unambiguously superior to conventionally cooked soups and sauces. The preparation of convenience soups takes only between one fifth and one eighth of the necessary time for the preparation of conventionally, of sauces only between one sixth and one twelfth of the required time. Soups and sauces made out of convenience food have a lower energy content than the conventionally cooked ones.

  3. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2004-08-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selective technology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from 2-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The product structure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept of environmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  4. A convenient method to prepare emulsified polyacrylate nanoparticles from powders [corrected] for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C; Turos, Edward

    2011-08-01

    We describe a method to obtain purified, polyacrylate nanoparticles in a homogeneous powdered form that can be readily reconstituted in aqueous media for in vivo applications. Polyacrylate-based nanoparticles can be easily prepared by emulsion polymerization using a 7:3 mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant and potassium persulfate as a water-soluble radical initiator. The resulting emulsions contain nanoparticles measuring 40-50 nm in diameter with uniform morphology, and can be purified by centrifugation and dialysis to remove larger coagulants as well as residual surfactant and monomers associated with toxicity. These purified emulsions can be lyophilized in the presence of maltose (a non-toxic cryoprotectant) to provide a homogeneous dried powder, which can be reconstituted as an emulsion by addition of an aqueous diluent. Dynamic light scattering and microbiological experiments were carried out on the reconstituted nanoparticles. This procedure allows for ready preparation of nanoparticle emulsions for drug delivery applications. PMID:21704525

  5. Convenient preparation of 68Ga-based PET-radiopharmaceuticals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Velikyan, I; Maecke, H; Langstrom, B

    2008-02-01

    A straightforward labeling using generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga, which provides high quality images, may result in kit type production of PET radiopharmaceuticals and make PET examinations possible also at centers lacking accelerators. The introduction of macrocyclic bifunctional chelators that would provide fast (68)Ga-complexation at room temperature would simplify even further tracer preparation and open wide possibilities for (68)Ga-labeling of fragile and potent macromolecules. Gallium-68 has the potential to facilitate development of clinically practical PET and to promote PET technique for individualized medicine. The macrocyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid (NOTA), and its derivative coupled to an eight amino acid residue peptide (NODAGA-TATE, [NODAGA (0), Tyr(3)]Octreotate) were labeled with (68)Ge/(68)Ga-generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga. Formation kinetics of (68)Ga-NOTA was studied as a function of pH and formation kinetics of (68)Ga-NODAGA-TATE was studied as a function of the bioconjugate concentration. The nearly quantitative radioactivity incorporation (RAI>95%) for (68)Ga-NOTA was achieved within less than 10 min at room temperature and pH 3.5. The concentrations of NODAGA-TATE required for RAI of >90% and >95% were, respectively, 2-5 and 10 microM. In both cases the purification of the (68)Ga-labeled products was not necessary since the radiochemical purity was >95% and the preparation buffer, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) is suitable for human use. In order to confirm the identity of the products, complexes comprising (nat)Ga were synthesized and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The complex was found to be stable in the reaction mixture, phosphate buffer, and human plasma during 4.5 h incubation. Free and peptide conjugated NOTA formed stable complexes with (68)Ga at room temperature within 10 min. This might be of special interest for the labeling of fragile and potent

  6. "Convenience Food."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  7. Convenient Preparation and Detailed Analysis of a Series of NHC-Stabilized Phosphorus(I) Dyes and Their Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Charles L B; Binder, Justin F; Swidan, Ala'aeddeen; Nguyen, Jennifer H; Kosnik, Stephanie C; Ellis, Bobby D

    2016-07-18

    A safe, convenient, and P-atom-efficient synthesis of N-heterocyclic-carbene- (NHC-) stabilized phosphorus(I) bromide salts is reported that involves P(+) transfer from an easily prepared triphosphenium precursor. The resulting family of phosphamethine cyanine dyes featuring N,N'-dialkyl-substituted 4,5-dimethylimidazole-2-ylidenes ((R)NHC(Me)) and benzimidazole-2-ylidenes ((R)NHC(B)) (R = Me, Et, iPr) have been fully characterized. We found that increasing N-alkyl group size causes increased twisting of the carbene fragments from the C-P-C plane, which decreases the magnitude of hyperconjugation between the π-type lone pair on phosphorus and the carbene fragments. This decrease is manifested as changes in the (31)P NMR chemical shifts, magnitudes of the P-C coupling constants, and electronic spectra of the cations. The reactivities of these ions toward various oxidants are reported: Oxidation by sulfur generates dithiophosphinium salts, protonation or methylation gives dicationic phosphines, and coordination to 1 or 2 equiv of gold(I) chloride results in mono or bimetallic complexes, respectively. PMID:27355235

  8. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  9. [Quantification of separate renal function using Tc 99m DTPA and Tc 99m DMSA. Correlations between individual isotopic data and creatinine clearance].

    PubMed

    Chevet, D; Moisan, A; Le Pogamp, P; Le Cloirec, J; Wehbe, B; Herry, J Y

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study (30 controls and 100 renal patients) is to compare one to each other the values of renal function measured with: 1--the DTPA 99mTc , 2--the DMSA 99mTc , and 3--the creatinine clearance. After the control values being established, correlations are done for the whole group (n = 130) between the creatinine clearance, the DTPA 99mTc clearance and the fixation rate of the DMSA 99mTc . The correlations obtained are:--Clcr Versus Cldtpa = 0,91.--Clcr Versus % Dmsa = 0,90. - Cldtpa Versus % Dmsa = 0,93. and indicate the two isotopic tests performed give similar quantitative results than creatinine clearance. Camera and computer allow to measure the separate renal function one by one, the two isotopic test giving similar values for each kidney. The results of these studies give a good concordance with the observed diseases, except for partial renal artery stenosis. The pyelic retention of DMSA 99mTc product, in condition of ureteral compression, gives a potential overestimation of this test and is a matter to debate. The extreme simplicity and facility of DMSA 99mTc procedures make this investigation accessible to any patient and give excellent morphological and functional tests. DTPA 99mTc clearances--global and separate kidney--give a more sensitive approach than DMSA 99mTc does because vascular captation , elimination rates could be focused. DTPA 99mTc procedure is to be used in patients with transplanted kidney, silent IVP kidney, contrast media contraindication or for exploring glomerular clearance without urine collection.

  10. On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Cham, Thau-Ming; Chung, Mei-Ing

    2007-04-01

    Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application.

  11. Convenience experimentation.

    PubMed

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data.

  12. [Study of the usefulness of a kit containing imipenem/cilastatin powder with diluent for injection: convenience of use and preparation].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, T; Kuroyama, M; Shimda, S

    1996-02-01

    The usefulness of a newly developed imipenem/cilastatin powder-and-diluent kit packed in non-glass container was compared to that packed in commercially available glass vials. The imipenem/cilastatin powder-and-diluent kit container is made of a polyolefin bag with two chambers that contain imipenem/cilastatin powder and diluent (0.9% saline, 100 ml), respectively. The convenience of use of the kit and the time required for the preparation of the dosing solution were evaluated by nurses and pharmacists at the Kitasato University East Hospital. The newly developed kit received higher scores with regard to convenience of use and led to a 46 approximately 59% reduction in the time required for preparation as compared to the commercially available glass vials.

  13. Osteoid osteoma simulating osteomyelitis: differentiation with Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Türkölmez, Seyda; Cayir, Derya; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2006-04-01

    We present a case of osteoid osteoma with a history of mild pain, local swelling and point tenderness on the right lower leg. The diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was difficult due to the atypical clinical history and misleading radiological and bone scan findings. When it is difficult to differentiate an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis using CT, MRI or bone scan; HIG scintigraphy can be used to exclude an infection.

  14. [Indirect articular lymphography using Tc 99m-labeled Dextran in animals].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M; Pedroso de Lima, J; Cardoso, A; Mendes, F; Pires, J; Canha, N; Branco, R

    1990-01-01

    Looking for a standardization of the articular lymphoscintigraphy, an experimental research was conducted on 14 dogs injected in the ankle, with 2.5 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled dextran (P.M. = 70,000). Good scintigraphic images of the lymphatic system have been obtained. After having collected blood samples during the experimentation as well as aliquots of organs and of tissues, after the necropsy of the animal, it was verified that the 99m Tc-labeled dextran was useful for quantitative studies of the articular lymphatic drainage. The activities attained, in the drainage lymph nodes of injected articulation, are 152 times superior to those obtained in the kidney and one gramma of popliteal ganglion was 8929 times more active than one gramma of blood. The dextran 70,000, widely used in our clinical routine, can be injected to the human being, without any risk, and it may be the tracer which permits studies of the articular lymphatic drainage and the usage of the lymphoscintigraphy, already in expansion in many other Medicine branches, in the articular studies, nowadays.

  15. Assessment of soft tissue hemangiomas in children utilizing Tc-99m labelled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemangiomas may present in infancy as soft tissue masses. Occasionally these lesions may be extensive or may not be clinically recognized as a hemangioma, often causing concern for the presence of a malignant lesion. In later childhood these lesions, which may be occult, may cause overgrowth of an extremity. Evaluation of soft tissue masses suspected of being a hemangioma utilizing Technetium 99m labelled red blood cells has been very valuable. This method allows a dynamic evaluation of first pass blood flow. Subsequent static scintiphotos allow an assessment of the lesion itself. These scintiphotos may be obtained sequentially to evaluate therapy. Twenty patients were evaluated by this method ranging in age from two months to eleven years. There were 13 females and seven males. Lesions evaluated by this method include six hemangiomas of the head and neck: parotic region (2), facial (3), and tongue (1). Extremity lesions were evaluated in six children including both upper extremity (1) and lower extremity (5). Torso lesions evaluated include chest wall (2), abdominal wall (2), and one hemangioma of the gut. This procedure is quickly performed on an outpatient basis, has high anatomic resolution, provides and assessment of these lesions in a manner not available by any other imaging procedure and usually requires no sedation. The radiation exposure for this procedure is low (approximately, a 400mR total body dose) and has been well tolerated by both patients and their parents. Scintigraphic evaluation should be the first diagnostic method utilized in the evaluation of these lesions.

  16. Mo-99/Tc-99m Separation: An Assessment of Technical Options

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, A; Pillai, M R A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of 99mTc from 99Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission 99Mo (F 99Mo) for production of 99Mo/99mTc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F 99Mo and consequently the shortage of 99Mo/99mTc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of 99Mo as well as 99mTc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade 99mTc from low specific activity 99Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing 99mTc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade 99mTc from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of 99mTc production.

  17. Incidentally detected diaphragmatic hernia mimicking angina pectoris with Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cınar, Alev; Sadıc, Murat; Demırel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years 99mTechnetium methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc MIBI) is widely used in the evaluation of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). In this imaging protocol besides the cardiac evaluation, numerous other organs are included in the field of view. 99mTechnetium MIBI is taken up in all metabolically active tissue in the body except for the brain. Extracardiac uptake patterns as benign or serious conditions can be revealed during the MPI. In the imaging protocol, we should be aware of distribution of this radiotracer in order to recognize the abnormal uptake. Here in, we present a large diaphragmatic hernia, seemed as a mirror vision of myocardium that was determined incidentally during the MPI with 99mTc MIBI. PMID:24379540

  18. Evaluation of soft tissue injury by Tc-99m bone agent scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Delpassand, E.S.; Dhekne, R.D.; Barron, B.J.; Moore, W.H. )

    1991-05-01

    Six patients with soft tissue injury secondary to different etiologic factors are presented. The degree and extent of tissue necrosis was precisely identified by scintigraphy. In two of these, radionuclide imaging helped to establish accurately the level of amputation that resulted in appropriate wound healing.

  19. Computed tomography and bone scintigraphy is polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Report of a case. [Tc 99m

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, T.; Iguchi, M.; Shimura, A.; Kruglik, G.D.

    1980-12-01

    A case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is presented in which the extent of bony lesions was defined on the results of the CT scan and bone scan with 99m Tc polyphosphate in addition to conventional radiography. These diagnostic procedures appear to be of considerable value in defining the extent of a variety of oral-maxillofacial bony lesions. This report describes the comparative findings from 99m Tc polyphosphate bone imaging and computed tomography (CT) in one patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

  20. Evaluation of Tc-99m leukocyte scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Marcus, C.S.; Henneman, P.L.; Inkelis, S.H.; Wilson, S.E.

    1987-05-01

    A new /sup 99m/Tc Microlite leukocyte scan was performed in 38 patients to assess its value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Autologous leukocytes are labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by inducing phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc albumin microcolloid particles. The advantages of this test over the standard indium-111 scan include superior imaging capability, a marked reduction (greater than 75%) in the radiation dose, and performance of the test including labeling, in less than 3 hr. Imaging is performed at 5-90 min postinjection of labeled cells. There were 19 male and 19 female patients with ages ranging from 10 to 80 years, in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was indeterminate on clinical examination. Of the 13 of the 38 patients (34%) who came to surgery 12 had acute appendicitis. The WBC scan correctly identified 10 of the 12 cases of appendicitis. There were two false-negative studies. In the nonoperative group of 25 patients admitted for observation, 21 studies were reported as negative and four identified other sites of inflammation. All patients with a negative study have remained asymptomatic on follow-up. With a sensitivity of 83% (10/12) and a specificity of 100% (26/26) the /sup 99m/Tc leukocyte scan provides a rapid and highly accurate method for diagnosis of appendicitis in this preliminary study of patients with equivocal clinical exams.

  1. Lymphatic spread of osteosarcoma shown by Tc-99m-MDP scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, S.

    1980-12-01

    Osteosarcoma usually spreads via the blood stream, resulting in pulmonary and skeletal metastases. The value of bone imaging in the management of these patients is widely accepted. Less commonly, the disease spreads via the lymphatics. Such a case is reported to show that bone imaging will detect progressive involvement of the lymph nodes.

  2. Occult gastric bleeding demonstrated by bone scan and Tc-99m-DTPA renal scan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Leiter, B.E.; Weitzman, F.; Shapiro, J.H.

    1981-10-01

    A patient is described who had coagulopathy and clinically intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding. The bleeding site was clearly shown on renal and bone imaging performed at a time when the patient was considered clinically to have stopped bleeding. A bleeding gastric ulcer was subsequently demonstrated by radionuclide and contrast angiography, and at surgery.

  3. Synthesis and reactivity of a conveniently prepared two-coordinate bis(amido) nickel(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Michael I; Tilley, T Don

    2012-07-21

    A strictly two-coordinate nickel(II) bis(amido) complex has been prepared and its reactivity towards a variety of small molecules is described. Ni[N(SiMe(3))(DIPP)](2) reacts with DMAP and acetonitrile to form T-shaped three-coordinate complexes, and preliminary results show that Ni[N(SiMe(3))(DIPP)](2) is a catalyst for the hydrosilation of olefins with secondary silanes at ambient temperature.

  4. Convenient preparative synthesis of ( sup 14 C)trehalose from ( sup 14 C)glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, B.; Boos, W. )

    1989-09-01

    At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose. This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize ({sup 14}C)trehalose from exogenous ({sup 14}C)glucose by using intact bacteria of a mutant (DF214) that could not metabolize glucose. The total yield of radiochemically pure trehalose from glucose was routinely more than 50%.

  5. Rapid and convenient method for preparing masters for microcontact printing with 1-12 {mu}m features

    SciTech Connect

    Zilch, Lloyd W.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Lua, Y.-Y.; Lee, Michael V.; Gertsch, Kevin R.; Cannon, Bennion R.; Perry, Robert M.; Sevy, Eric T.; Asplund, Matthew C.; Woolley, Adam T.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2004-09-01

    Mechanical scribing can be employed to create surfaces with recessed features. Through replica molding elastomeric copies of these scribed surfaces are created that function as stamps for microcontact printing. It is shown that this new method for creating masters for microcontact printing can be performed with a computer-controlled milling machine (CNC), making this method particularly straightforward and accessible to a large technical community that does not need to work in a particle free environment. Thus, no clean room, or other specialized equipment is required, as is commonly needed to prepare masters. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirms surface pattering by this method. Finally, it is shown that feature size in the scribed master can be controlled by varying the force on the tip during scribing.

  6. Rapid and convenient preparation of (4-/sup 3/H)NADP and stereospecifically tritiated NADP/sup 3/H

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, R.G.; Sartori, P.; Reich, V.

    1984-04-01

    The enzymatic preparation and chromatographic purification of (4-/sup 3/H)NADP and NADPH stereospecifically labeled with /sup 3/H on either the A or B faces at position 4 have been simplified. Commercially available (1-/sup 3/H)glucose was used as a starting material for the sequential synthesis of (4B-/sup 3/H)NADPH, (4-/sup 3/H)NADP, and (4A-/sup 3/H)NADPH. These products were rapidly purified by step elution of DEAE-cellulose minicolumns so that (4B-/sup 3/H)NADPH was produced and purified from (1-/sup 3/H)glucose in 2 h, (4-/sup 3/H)NADP in 5 h, and (4A-/sup 3/H)NADPH in 8 h. Yields of these products were 65 to 88% starting with (1-/sup 3/H)glucose. Analysis of the products by high-performance liquid chromatography indicated radiochemical purities of 82-95% for these compounds and specific activities equivalent to that of the starting material (10-15 Ci/mmol). 15 references.

  7. A simplified and convenient laboratory-scale preparation of 14N or 15N high molecular weight poly(dichlorophosphazene) directly from PCl5.

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Gabino A; García Alonso, Francisco J; Gómez-Elipe, Paloma; Fidalgo, J Ignacio; García Alvarez, J L; Presa-Soto, A

    2003-08-18

    A simple and convenient one-pot synthesis of THF solutions of high molecular weight poly(dichlorophosphazene) [NPCl(2)](n), or the (15)N isotopomer [(15)NPCl(2)](n), starting directly from PCl(5) and NH(4)Cl or (15)NH(4)Cl in a solution of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the presence of sulfamic acid and calcium sulfate dihydrate, is described. The solutions of [NPCl(2)](n) in THF, which are obtained free of poly(tetrahydrofuran) by preparing them in the presence of K(2)CO(3), can be reacted directly with phenols, biphenols, or even HO-CH(2)CF(3) in the presence of K(2)CO(3) or Cs(2)CO(3) to obtain, after a very simple workup, the corresponding polyphosphazene derivatives almost free of chlorine. PMID:12916107

  8. Convenient and controllable preparation of a novel uniformly nitrogen doped porous graphene/Pt nanoflower material and its highly-efficient electrochemical biosensing.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shuang; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yufan; Sun, Yuena; Li, Lanfen; Zhang, Hongyi; Shi, Zhihong; Li, Mingjie; Li, Meng

    2016-04-25

    By employing dopamine as a nitrogen source and reducing agent, the block copolymer P123 as a pore forming agent, and graphene oxide as a carbon precursor, we present, for the first time, a convenient and controllable approach to the preparation of a novel uniformly nitrogen doped porous graphene (N-PGR) material. Using the prepared N-PGR as the supporting material, a novel nitrogen doped porous graphene/Pt nanoflower material (Pt/N-PGR) was obtained by a green and simple method. The characterization results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), element mapping, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrate that Pt nanoflowers are uniformly dispersed on nitrogen doped porous graphene. Electrochemical measurements show that Pt/N-PGR-900/GCE exhibits improved electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction and glucose oxidation. Linear responses are found for H2O2 and glucose in the range of 0.5-40 326 μM and 0.5-133.5 mM with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.2 μM and 0.05 mM, respectively. In addition, Pt/N-PGR-900/GCE exhibits high sensitivity and good anti-interference ability. The superior catalytic activity and selectivity make Pt/N-PGR a promising nanomaterial for application in electrochemical biosensing studies.

  9. A conveniently prepared and hypersensitized small molecular fluorescent probe: Rapidly detecting free zinc ion in HepG2 cells and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiaoping; Sun, Ping; Li, Hong; Tian, Xiaohe; Zhang, Baowei; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng; Zhou, Hongping

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we reported a conveniently prepared fluorescent probe for zinc ions detection, which constructed by the condensation reaction between p-(benzothiazolyl)aniline with 4, 4- diethylaminesalicylaldehyde. The sensing ability of the probe toward zinc ions in vitro was tested by a series of UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy studies, which showed that the probe possessed high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5.8nM and a rapid response time of 10s. We also carried out fluorescent bio-imaging of the probe for zinc ions in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), which showed that the probe could be utilized to detect the intracellular endogenous zinc ions visually without introducing external zinc sources. Meanwhile, co-staining experiment with organelle selective trackers was performed to illustrate that the probe could locate at endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we successfully used it as a zinc ion developer in plant tissue, which clearly demonstrated the distribution of zinc ions in the growth stage of plant tissue. PMID:27414244

  10. Convenience Store Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This self-paced, individualized instructional guide is designed for use by those who are currently working in a convenience store or by those who wish to learn the basics of convenience store marketing and operations. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: today's convenience store, regular duties and…

  11. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  12. Reframing convenience food.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character. PMID:26678163

  13. Prognosis in patients with left ventricular apical aneurysm diagnosed by thallium-201 or Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT images.

    PubMed

    Krawczynska, E G; Alazraki, N P; Karatela, R; Jones, M E; Cooke, C D; Garcia, E V; Weintraub, W S

    1997-02-15

    The prognosis of patients with left ventricular (LV) aneurysm diagnosed by thallium single-photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) or technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT (MIBI) has not previously been defined. Of 9,505 Tl or MIBI patients, 139 with apical infarct and probable LV aneurysm on tomographic images were identified. Patients were grouped by the presence of divergent versus parallel LV walls. Divergent walls show increasing separation of the walls as they approach the apex on vertical or horizontal long-axis slices. The degree of the deformation at the apex (divergent vs parallel walls), extent of impaired myocardium (total number of pixels in the defect/total number of pixels in the myocardium x 100%), percentage of reversibility, and segmental and total severity of standard deviations of perfusion defects were calculated. Seventy-six patients underwent contrast ventriculography. Patients with divergent walls (n = 57) were older (p = 0.05), had lower ejection fractions (p = 0.012), higher lung uptake (only Tl patients (p = 0.06), and more frequent ST elevation on the resting electrocardiogram (p = 0.009) than patients with nondivergent (parallel) walls. For both groups, the percent impaired myocardium was comparably high (44 +/- 9% vs 46 +/- 10%). Analysis of asynergic segments in 76 patients who underwent contrast ventriculography showed more akinetic, paradoxical, or aneurysmal segments in the apical region of the left ventricle in the group with SPECT divergent walls. Cox model analysis showed divergence as the significant correlate of death. At 5 years, survival for the group with divergent walls was 52% compared with 75% for those with nondivergent walls (p = 0.008). Despite significant apical LV impairment in both groups, mortality was almost twice as high in the group with divergent walls compared with patients with parallel walls. Thus, patients with LV aneurysm diagnosed by radionuclide SPECT perfusion imaging have a higher mortality when displaying a divergent wall pattern than patients with lesser deformity.

  14. Delayed massive soft tissue uptake of Tc-99m MDP after radiation therapy for cancer of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.T.; Steuart, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    A patient with a history of breast cancer and known lung metastases was referred for a bone scan to investigate the cause of severe neck and right shoulder pain. The bone scan showed massive uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the soft tissue surrounding the right shoulder. A review of the patient`s history indicated that the patient had undergone radiation therapy to the right upper thorax and breast area 14 months previously and an acute radiation dermatitis of the proximal right arm and shoulder had developed. This had long since resolved. Physical examination and plain radiographs of the right shoulder and humerus failed to demonstrated any abnormality. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Validation of a kinetic model for receptor-mediated uptake of Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Krohn, K.A.; Woodle, E.S.; Scheibe, P.O.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-NGA is a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical which localizes specifically to the liver. The rate of uptake depends upon: 1) Tc-NGA-receptor affinity, k/sub b/, 2) molar dose, L/sub e/(O), and 3) hepatic blood flow, Q. The authors have proposed a kinetic model which describes hepatic uptake in terms of measurable physiochemical quantities: Q, k/sub b/, R, V/sub e/, V/sub h/ (systemic and liver blood volumes), and V/sub r/ (liver plasma volume). Computer simulations were compared to kinetic data (ROIs: precordium and liver, 420 data pts) resulting from injection into pigs (n=12) of Tc-NGAs of differing k/sub b/(0.6,1.2,1.8 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/sec/sup -1/). Each pig was studied twice using different molar doses (0.5 - 10. x 10/sup -8/mole). Measurements of V/sub e/ (Tc-RBCs) and Q (indocyanine green extraction) were obtained during each study. Weights of excised livers were used to calculate V/sub h/ and r. With exception of the low-dose, low-affinity studies, all data was fit to within a reduced chi-square of 3 by adjustment of 1/sub e/, 1/sub h/, c, ..cap alpha../sub m/ and the sigmas. The authors conclude that this model is a valid description of a receptor-binding process, however competition by endogenous ligand may prevent its use at low molar doses of low-k/sub b/ NGA.

  16. Definitive diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas: MR imaging versus Tc-99m-labeled red blood cell SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, B.A.; Weinreb, J.C.; Megibow, A.J.; Sanger, J.J.; Lubat, E.; Kanamuller, H.; Noz, M.E.; Bosniak, M.A. )

    1990-07-01

    Thirty-seven patients with 69 suspected hemangiomas found by means of computed tomography (CT) and/or ultrasound were studied with both 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and single photon emission CT (SPECT) with technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells. Using a criterion of perfusion-blood pool mismatch, SPECT readers diagnosed 50 of 64 hemangiomas and all five nonhemangiomas (sensitivity, 78% (95% confidence interval, 0.664 - 0.864); accuracy, 80% (0.69 - 0.877)). Qualitative analysis of lesion signal intensity on T2-weighted spin-echo MR images allowed readers to diagnose 58 of 64 hemangiomas and four of five nonhemangiomas (sensitivity, 91% (0.814 - 0.96); accuracy, 90% (0.807 - 0.951)). Because of the significantly higher cost of MR imaging and its inability to categorically differentiate hemangiomas from hypervascular metastases, the authors consider SPECT to be the method of choice for diagnosing hepatic hemangiomas. MR imaging should be reserved for the diagnosis of lesions smaller than 2.0 cm and for those 2.5 cm and smaller adjacent to the heart or major hepatic vessels; in such cases MR imaging was found superior to SPECT.

  17. Imaging human melanoma using a novel Tc-99m-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqin; Xu, Jingli; Yang, Jianquan; Feng, Changjian; Miao, Yubin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the human melanoma targeting property of (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex {hydrazinonicotinamide-8-aminooctanoic acid-Nle-c[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-CONH2} was determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografts to demonstrate its potential for human melanoma imaging. The IC50 value of HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex was 0.48±0.01nM in M21 human melanoma cells (1281receptors/cell). The M21 human melanoma uptake of (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex was 4.03±1.25, 3.26±1.23 and 3.36±1.48%ID/g at 0.5, 2 and 4h post-injection, respectively. Approximately 92% of injected dose cleared out the body via urinary system at 2h post-injection. (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex showed high tumor/blood, tumor/muscle and tumor/skin uptake ratios after 2h post-injection. The M21 human melanoma-xenografted tumor lesions were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex as an imaging probe at 2h post-injection. Overall, (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex exhibited favorable human melanoma imaging property, highlighting its potential as an imaging probe for human metastatic melanoma detection. PMID:27568083

  18. Filling of the gallbladder as studied by computer-assisted Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, W.; Kempi, V.

    1984-03-01

    Gallbladder filling was studied using computer-assisted cholescintigraphy in normal subjects who had fasted overnight. The gallbladder tended to visualize earlier than the distal part of the common bile duct. It appeared at approximately the same time regardless of whether or not there was passage of activity into the duodenum. This suggests that filling is not dependent on contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. Sequential images demonstrated that the activity entering the gallbladder rapidly reached the fundus. Time-activity curves showed a gradual buildup of activity in the bile ducts followed by sudden entrance into the gallbladder. Time-activity curves of the gallbladder's proximal and distal parts showed signs of an exchange of activity, suggesting that the gallbladder's motor function is not quiescent during fasting. Gallbladder motility could explain the periodic irregularities on the time-activity curve. These irregularities were smaller but no less frequent after morphine administration.

  19. SPECT brain perfusion imaging with Tc-99m ECD: Semi-quantitative regional analysis and database mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Schiepers, C.; Hegge, J.; De Roo, M.

    1994-05-01

    Brain SPECT is a well accepted method for the assessment of brain perfusion in various disorders such as epilepsy, stroke, dementia. A program for handling the tomographic data was developed, using a commercial spreadsheet (Microsoft EXCEL) with a set of macro`s for analysis, graphic display and database management of the final results.

  20. The detection and clinical significance of extrahepatic abdominal perfusion (EHP) using Tc-99m MAA hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Wahl, R.L.; Lahti, D.; Juni, J.E.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    HAPS has proven useful in the clinical management of patients receiving intraarterial chemotherapy for liver cancer. This therapy can be successful when the entire tumor-bearing liver is perfused, however abdominal EHP may reduce tumor exposure and increase systemic toxicity. EHP can be difficult to determine or be overlooked particularly when the stomach overlaps an enlarged left lobe of the liver. This study reports the frequency and clinical significance of EHP and evaluates the use of SPECT and EZ gas (NaHCO/sub 3/) to localize it. EHP was seen in 14% of 147 pts with surgically placed catheters, but was significantly more frequent, 53%, in 57 pts with percutaneously placed caths (rho <.005). Significantly more pts with EHP (70%) had symptoms of drug toxicity compared to 19% without EHP (rho <.005). Review of 73 HAPS studies using SPECT in addition to planar images showed EHP in 7. SPECT was very helpful in evaluating EHP suspected on planar images in 6 cases, confirming in 4, and excluding in 2. Two planar studies with likely EHP were confirmed by SPECT and 1 was inconclusive. EZ gas effervescent granulates have also been found useful in defining gastric EHP in 20 planar HAPS studies. These ''air-contrast'' views were helpful in confirming or excluding EHP in 80% of the studies and the initial impression was changed in 20%. Results were corroborated by oral Tc-DPTA and angiography. This study demonstrates that EHP is frequent and has important clinical significance but can be difficult to determine on HAPS. SPECT, EZ Gas and Tc-DPTA are very helpful in confirming or excluding suspected EHP.

  1. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. PMID:20832437

  2. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  3. Convenience foods. What, why, and when.

    PubMed

    Scholliers, Peter

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to assess the academic interest in convenience foods in the past decades in order to introduce this special section on historical dimensions of convenience foods, prepared by FOST, a unit that investigates the history and culture of food (up to today). First, the rise of academic interest is trailed since the appearance of the concept in the 1920s and, next, themes in connection to this interest are considered (e.g., time, health, or gender). Then, definitions of convenience foods are tracked since the 1950s, which leads to suggesting a clear focus (linking convenience foods to home cooking of meals and industrially produced foods). The conclusion stresses the changing definition of the concept, as well as the need to gain historical insight in present-day issues related to convenience foods.

  4. Preparation, evaluation, and first clinical use of 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) particles in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: utility of cold kits for convenient dose formulation at hospital radiopharmacy.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Rajeswari, A; Shinto, Ajit; Sarma, H D; Kamaleshwaran, K; Thirumalaisamy, P; Dash, Ashutosh

    2014-06-15

    While radiation synovectomy (RSV) constitutes a successful paradigm for the treatment of arthritis, a major cornerstone of its success resides in the selection of appropriate radiolabeled agent. Among the radionuclide used for RSV, the scope of using (177)Lu [T1/2  = 6.65 d, Eβ(max)  = 497 keV, Eγ  = 113 KeV (6.4%), 208 KeV (11%)] seemed to be attractive owing to its suitable decay characteristics, easy availability, and cost-effective production route. The present article describes a formulation of (177)Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) using ready-to-use kits of HA particles of 1-10 µm size range. The developed kits enable convenient one-step preparation of (177)Lu-HA (400 ± 30 MBq doses) in high radiochemical purity (>99%) and stability at hospital radiopharmacy. The preparation showed promising results in pre-clinical studies carried out in Wistar rats bearing arthritis in knee joints. In preliminary clinical investigation, significant improvement in the disease conditions was reported in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis of knee joints treated with 333 ± 46 MBq doses of (177)Lu-HA. The studies reveal that while (177)Lu labeled HA particles holds considerable promise as a cost-effective agent for RSV, the adopted strategy of using HA kits could be a potential step toward wider clinical utilization of radiolanthanide-labeled HA particles.

  5. Bone Scan "Hot Spot" at the Superior Lateral Orbital Margin Fronto-zygomatic Suture Uptake Characterized with Tc-99m MDP SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Thang, S P; Tan, A E H; Goh, A S W

    2011-07-01

    Findings of a solitary "hot spot" at the superior lateral orbital margin on bone scan scintigraphy is not uncommonly seen, and is often dismissed as a benign lesion. However, the exact etiology is indeterminate. We present two cases in which hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging was able to characterize and localize this uptake, demonstrating correlation to the right fronto-zygomatic suture.

  6. [Diagnostic possibilities of static gamma-scintigraphy using 99mTc pyrophosphate and Tc 99m phosphate in children with glomerulo nephritis].

    PubMed

    Mil'ko, V I; Bagdasarova, I V; Moskalenko, N I; Ivanov, D D

    1989-01-01

    Children with nephrotic glomerulonephritis were examined for incorporation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate and 99mTc-phosphone. The relationship was discovered between the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical drug and the sensitivity to glucocorticoids used in the pathogenetic treatment. Accumulation of the drug in the course of the treatment documents the presence of complete, partial remission or the disease activity. It is recommended that static gammascintigraphy should be carried out for early assessment of the efficacy of the treatment and its correction.

  7. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Final report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.; Seliskar, C.J.

    1998-08-04

    The primary goals of this project were twofold: (1) Development of a microsensor that would demonstrate the capability for in vivo monitoring of a radiopharmaceutical after its injection into a test animal; and (2) Exploration of capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a separation technique for the analysis of radiopharmaceuticals that are mixtures of different compounds. The combination of in vivo sensors for real-time monitoring of specific chemical states of a radiopharmaceutical in individual organs and CE for analysis of radiopharmaceuticals prior to injection would provide valuable information regarding the fate of an imaging agent after administration. Such information should give insight into strategies for the development of more efficacious radiopharmaceuticals.

  8. Simultaneous Tc-99m/I-123 dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation imaging using Siemens IQ-SPECT with SMARTZOOM collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Frey, Eric C.

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous dual-radionuclide myocardial perfusion/innervation SPECT imaging can provide important information about the mismatch between scar tissue and denervated regions. The Siemens IQ-SPECT system developed for cardiac imaging uses a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator to achieve a four-fold sensitivity for the cardiac region, compared to a typical parallel-hole low-energy high-resolution collimator, but without the data truncation that can result with conventional converging-beam collimators. The increased sensitivity allows shorter image acquisition times or reduced patient dose, making IQ-SPECT ideal for simultaneous dual-radionuclide SPECT, where reduced administrated activity is desirable in order to reduce patient radiation exposure. However, crosstalk is a major factor affecting the image quality in dual-radionuclide imaging. In this work we developed a model-based method that can estimate and compensate for the crosstalk in IQ-SPECT data. The crosstalk model takes into account interactions in the object and collimator-detector system. Scatter in the object was modeled using the effective source scatter estimation technique (ESSE), previously developed to model scatter with parallel-hole collimators. The geometric collimator-detector response was analytically modeled in the IQ-SPECT projector. The estimated crosstalk was then compensated for in an iterative reconstruction process. The new method was validated with data from both Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantom experiments. The results showed that the estimated crosstalk was in good agreement with simulated and measured results. After model-based compensation the images from simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisitions were similar in quality to those from single-radionuclide acquisitions that did not have crosstalk contamination. The proposed model-based method can be used to improve simultaneous dual-radionuclide images acquired using IQ-SPECT. This work also demonstrates that ESSE scatter modeling can be applied to non-parallel-beam projection geometries.

  9. The twenty-four/four hour ratio (T/F ratio) of Tc-99m MDP uptake in patients with bone metastases and degenerative changes

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, O.; Kleinhaus, U.; Keren, R.; Frankel, A.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Normal and metastatic bone differ in their histological structure. Normal bone is mainly lamellar while metastatic bone formation is made in a large part out of new woven bone. The woven bone has a much larger surface area than the more stable lamellar bone and it is lined with metabolically active osteoblasts. The crystalline structures in the woven bone are smaller and have a larger surface area available for absorption. Uptake of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals continues in new woven bone longer than in the lamellar bone. Bone scintigraphy was performed in 89 patients at four hours and 24 hours using a digital camera. The lesion to non lesion (L/N) ratio was determined using the camera computer. The T/F ratio was calculated: T/F=((L/N)-24)/((L/N)-4). Three groups were investigated. In 15 patients with metastatic bone carcinoma, T/F ratio was 1.46 +- 0.4. In 47 patients with degenerative joint disease the T/F ratio was 1.05 +- 0.06. In 27 patients with treated metastatic bone carcinoma the T/F ratio was 1.12 +- 0.13. The T/F ratio is significantly (p<0.001) different in patients with metastases compared to patients with benign degenerative disease. Chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment cause significant (p<0.001) reduction in the T/F ratio. The T/F ratio may have a potential in differentiating degenerative from neoplastic diseases and in the evaluation of patients with bone metastases undergoing treatment.

  10. Granulomatous interstitial pneumonia in a miniature swine associated with repeated intravenous injections of Tc-99m human serum albumin: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, J.E.; Young, J.T.

    1980-03-01

    Albumin lung-scanning agents have a proven high degree of safety, with the only contraindication to their use being allergic hypersensitivity. We have used these agents to investigate the physiologic effects of high G/sub z/ acceleratory forces on pulmonary perfusion using the miniature swine. Multiple doses of human macroaggregated albumin and human-albumin microspheres were given to a miniature swine at various levels of centrifugal acceleration over a 6-wk period. The dosages given were the same per kilogram as those used for routine clinical human studies. The animal subsequently died from a severe granulomatous interstitial pneumonia. The granulomatous lesions suggest that the pathogenesis may have involved a cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity. This interstitial pneumonia may represent the end point in a chronic hypersensitivity response to the human-albumin lung-scanning agents.

  11. Cationic lipophilic complexes of /sup 99/ /SUP m/ Tc and their use for myocardial and hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, E. A.; Glavan, K. A.

    1984-12-18

    A method of imaging organs with /sup 99/ /SUP m/ Tc radiopharmaceuticals, especially of hepatobiliary imaging and negative myocardial infarct imaging in a mammal which comprises administering to the mammal a hepatobiliary or myocardial imaging amount of a cationic lipophilic complex of Tc-99m and detecting the Tc-99m complex in the mammal. A method for the preparation of cationic lipophilic complexes of Tc-99m.

  12. Embracing the convenient care concept.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Allison H; McAndrew, Thomas M; Shearer, Debra; Donnelly, Gloria F; Miller, Howard A

    2010-01-01

    The landscape of primary care medicine is rapidly changing. The decline in interest, both in primary care fields and students choosing these career paths, has left a vacuum in the health care system that must be filled. One of the recent developments has been the birth of "convenient care centers," also known as "retail clinics." This form of health care delivery has mostly been entrepreneurial and based in retail organizations, such as drug stores. These walk-in clinics provide basic medical care for minor common medical conditions, such as sore throat, urinary tract infection, the common cold, and ear infections. Much of this care is provided not by physicians, but by nurse practitioners or physician assistants. After seeing the success of the earliest of these clinics, MinuteClinic by CVS, many other businesses joined the venture, and retail clinics popped up in Wal-Mart, Target, and many local grocery stores. Gradually, hospital systems, physician groups, and managed care companies have also entered the market, sometimes partnering with retail outlets, such as the local grocery store or Wal-Mart, and less often, starting a stand-alone facility. Only 12% of retail clinics are owned by hospital systems or physician groups, while 73% are owned by CVS, Walgreens, or Target. There is even a national nonprofit organization called the Convenient Care Association, started in 2006, and based in Philadelphia, PA. This new trend in delivering health care has been mostly, if not totally, ignored by the medical school practice plans, with the exception of the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, which has developed several "express care" clinics as stand-alone facilities. As a medical school practice plan and a division of general internal medicine, we could continue to keep a blind eye toward this new trend in primary care medicine or embrace the concept. We aim to develop a new convenient care model integrating our College of Medicine practice plan in partnership with our College of

  13. Embracing the convenient care concept.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Allison H; McAndrew, Thomas M; Shearer, Debra; Donnelly, Gloria F; Miller, Howard A

    2010-01-01

    The landscape of primary care medicine is rapidly changing. The decline in interest, both in primary care fields and students choosing these career paths, has left a vacuum in the health care system that must be filled. One of the recent developments has been the birth of "convenient care centers," also known as "retail clinics." This form of health care delivery has mostly been entrepreneurial and based in retail organizations, such as drug stores. These walk-in clinics provide basic medical care for minor common medical conditions, such as sore throat, urinary tract infection, the common cold, and ear infections. Much of this care is provided not by physicians, but by nurse practitioners or physician assistants. After seeing the success of the earliest of these clinics, MinuteClinic by CVS, many other businesses joined the venture, and retail clinics popped up in Wal-Mart, Target, and many local grocery stores. Gradually, hospital systems, physician groups, and managed care companies have also entered the market, sometimes partnering with retail outlets, such as the local grocery store or Wal-Mart, and less often, starting a stand-alone facility. Only 12% of retail clinics are owned by hospital systems or physician groups, while 73% are owned by CVS, Walgreens, or Target. There is even a national nonprofit organization called the Convenient Care Association, started in 2006, and based in Philadelphia, PA. This new trend in delivering health care has been mostly, if not totally, ignored by the medical school practice plans, with the exception of the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, which has developed several "express care" clinics as stand-alone facilities. As a medical school practice plan and a division of general internal medicine, we could continue to keep a blind eye toward this new trend in primary care medicine or embrace the concept. We aim to develop a new convenient care model integrating our College of Medicine practice plan in partnership with our College of

  14. A convenient method for the preparation of inverted tert-alkyl carboxylates from chiral tert-alcohols by a new type of oxidation-reduction condensation using 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Mukaiyama, Teruaki; Shintou, Taichi; Fukumoto, Kentaro

    2003-09-01

    Oxidation-reduction condensation using in situ-formed alkoxydiphenylphosphines, 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and carboxylic acids provided a new and efficient method for the preparation of inverted tert-alkyl carboxylates from various chiral tertiary alcohols.

  15. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. PMID:25656303

  16. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications.

  17. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    PubMed

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. PMID:20875475

  18. 21 CFR 1250.70 - Employee conveniences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee conveniences. 1250.70 Section 1250.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE...

  19. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

  20. F-18 FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m sulfur colloid SPECT imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of a case of dual solitary fibrous tumors of the retroperitoneum and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Javad; Subhawong, Andrea; Durand, Daniel James

    2012-03-01

    Although FDG PET is increasingly used for the staging of many types of sarcoma, little has been written regarding the FDG PET imaging characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor. We report a patient undergoing FDG PET/CT surveillance for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue who was incidentally found to have two soft tissue masses in the retroperitoneum and pancreatic tail. Due to their low degree of FDG avidity, they were followed conservatively for approximately one year as they gradually increased in size. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid SPECT helped confirm that the pancreatic tail mass was not a splenule, after which both lesions were surgically resected and found to be extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors without malignant features. These findings suggest that, as with other low-grade sarcomas, benign extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors exhibit relatively little glycolytic metabolism in vivo.

  1. Quantification of Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single photon emission computed tomography images using statistical probabilistic brain atlas in depressive end-stage renal disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang Heon; Pak, Kyoungjune; Kim, Keunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study adapted a statistical probabilistic anatomical map of the brain for single photon emission computed tomography images of depressive end-stage renal disease patients. This research aimed to investigate the relationship between symptom clusters, disease severity, and cerebral blood flow. Twenty-seven patients (16 males, 11 females) with stages 4 and 5 end-stage renal disease were enrolled, along with 25 healthy controls. All patients underwent depressive mood assessment and brain single photon emission computed tomography. The statistical probabilistic anatomical map images were used to calculate the brain single photon emission computed tomography counts. Asymmetric index was acquired and Pearson correlation analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between symptom factors, severity, and regional cerebral blood flow. The depression factors of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale showed a negative correlation with cerebral blood flow in the left amygdale. The insomnia factor showed negative correlations with cerebral blood flow in the left amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus. The anxiety factor showed a positive correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism in the cerebellar vermis and a negative correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism in the left globus pallidus, right inferior frontal gyrus, both temporal poles, and left parahippocampus. The overall depression severity (total scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) was negatively correlated with the statistical probabilistic anatomical map results in the left amygdala and right inferior frontal gyrus. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the disease severity and extent of cerebral blood flow quantified by a probabilistic brain atlas was related to various brain areas in terms of the overall severity and symptom factors in end-stage renal disease patients. PMID:25558229

  2. Cervical cytology screening convenient for the workforce.

    PubMed

    Andren, S M

    1991-01-01

    The study describes the demographic details and smear results of women attending a Well Woman Clinic in an Occupational Health setting over a two year period. The clinic is located close to the place of work, run during working hours, and operated by a doctor and nurse. Charging fees acceptable to women attending or their employers, the service has made a modest profit and offers scope for increasing the income against fixed costs. The age range attending is older than commonly found at screening clinics. The abnormal smear detection rate, 115 per 1000 is high while the proportion of inadequate results at 50 per 1000 compares favourably with other clinics. In an area with 13 per cent Asian population, only 5 per cent of attenders were Asian but of these one fifth had abnormal smears. A cervical cytology screening facility timed and located for the convenience of the working woman is found to attract a group of women in the older age range who have a high abnormal smear rate, and those who fail to attend elsewhere. PMID:1779673

  3. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  4. Convenience, food and family lives. A socio-typological study of household food expenditures in 21st-century Belgium.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to uncover the extent to which convenience foods have become embedded in today's diets. The paper focuses on households' food expenditures, collected by Statistics Belgium in 2005. The results show that households' reliance on (semi-) convenience food items and away-from-home consumption clearly differs over the life-course and amongst different social groups. Findings show that single-living households (single men in particular) look for more convenience in their food preparation patterns compared to couples and households with children. The consumption of semi-convenient meal components seems to be more closely related to the conventional definition of home-cooking, with older-generation, lower-educated, non-working and 'traditional' nuclear households being more likely to spend a larger share of their food budget on non-convenient and 'shortcut' ingredients. PMID:25963105

  5. [Improvement of the Convenience of White Petrolatum].

    PubMed

    Takaya, Kanami; Ohtani, Michiteru; Nozawa, Akane; Manabe, Haruka; Yamamura, Yoshikazu; Ohno, Yoshiko; Akabane, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    White petrolatum is frequently used as an oleaginous base, but has a drawback of poor usability. In this trial, white petrolatum was prepared at a lower melting point to improve its usability. Characteristic pharmaceutical values such as melting point, yield, and consistency were compared between a conventional product and ophthalmic white petrolatum. Usability was compared by administering a survey questionnaire and evaluating the comparable moisturizing effect by conductivity in humans. The melting point and yield value of the improved product were significantly lower compared with other white petrolatum products. In the survey, the improved product was rated excellent in five criteria. On a scale of 1 to 5, the average values for the five criteria for the improved product were 4.7, while the conventional product and ophthalmic white petrolatum were rated 3.0 and 3.5, respectively. No difference in moisturizing effect was observed among all petrolatums after application, from day 1 to day 14. In conclusion, the improved white petrolatum demonstrated better usability, and the moisturizing effect was equivalent to conventional product, suggesting that the use of this improved product may lead to improved adherence.

  6. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based, probability cluster…

  7. 40 CFR 51.355 - Test frequency and convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test frequency and convenience. 51.355... Requirements § 51.355 Test frequency and convenience. (a) The performance standards for I/M programs assume an annual test frequency; other schedules may be approved if the required emission targets are achieved....

  8. 40 CFR 51.355 - Test frequency and convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test frequency and convenience. 51.355... Requirements § 51.355 Test frequency and convenience. (a) The performance standards for I/M programs assume an annual test frequency; other schedules may be approved if the required emission targets are achieved....

  9. 40 CFR 51.355 - Test frequency and convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stations providing test services is sufficient to insure short waiting times to get a test and short... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test frequency and convenience. 51.355... Requirements § 51.355 Test frequency and convenience. (a) The performance standards for I/M programs assume...

  10. 40 CFR 51.355 - Test frequency and convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stations providing test services is sufficient to insure short waiting times to get a test and short... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test frequency and convenience. 51.355... Requirements § 51.355 Test frequency and convenience. (a) The performance standards for I/M programs assume...

  11. 40 CFR 51.355 - Test frequency and convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stations providing test services is sufficient to insure short waiting times to get a test and short... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test frequency and convenience. 51.355... Requirements § 51.355 Test frequency and convenience. (a) The performance standards for I/M programs assume...

  12. 45 CFR 92.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL, AND TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 92.44 Termination for convenience. Except...

  13. 14 CFR 1273.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 1273.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  14. 29 CFR 1470.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 1470.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  15. 29 CFR 1470.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 1470.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  16. 45 CFR 92.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL, AND TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 92.44 Termination for convenience. Except...

  17. Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial imaging: Same-day rest-stress studies and dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Taillefer, R. )

    1990-10-16

    Unlike thallium-201, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi does not redistribute in the myocardium after injection. Thus, 2 separate injections, 1 at rest and the other at stress (or after dipyridamole), are required to differentiate ischemia from scar. From a physical viewpoint, a 24-hour interval between the 2 injections is preferable for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. However, same-day studies are more convenient in clinical practice. Results of studies using different Tc-99m sestamibi injection protocols are presented with emphasis on the advantages of a rest-stress injection sequence with a low dose at rest (7 mCi) followed 2 hours later by a higher dose at stress (25 mCi). A prospective study was conducted in a patient population with proven CAD using same-day studies to compare a rest-stress (7 and 25 mCi, respectively) to a stress-rest (7 and 25 mCi) Tc-99m sestamibi injection sequence. There was an agreement in 87.3% of the analyzed segments between the 2 protocols. However, the largest discordance for type of defect applied to 7.4% of the segments judged ischemic in the rest-stress protocol, which were called scars on stress-rest. This study showed that a rest-stress sequence is preferable when using a same-day protocol with a short time interval (less than 2 hours) between the 2 Tc-99m sestamibi injections because the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence. Preliminary studies were performed to evaluate dipyridamole with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. These studies showed that treadmill and dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi imaging are comparable and the results are similar to those obtained with thallium-201.

  18. Exploitation of convenience food in view of a diet diversification for better nutrition.

    PubMed

    Berghofer, E

    2005-01-01

    Social and economic changes as well as technological innovations in recent years, have caused dramatic changes regarding the kind of nutrition supply observed. The provoking question now is, if a recommendable nutrition and diet diversification is possible with the convenience products available on the market at present. Depending on the degree of cooking or preparation the following convenience steps can be differentiated: initial grade--ready-for-kitchen processing--ready-to-cook--ready-to-mix--ready-to-heat--ready-to-eat. Various preservation strategies can be applied to the food products of each step. In order to keep the nutritional and sensory quality of the food product, these necessary preservation methods should, of course, be as gentle as possible. On each convenience-step a large variety of products exists. By separation of preparation from consumption and the therefore necessary preservation methods, these products are available throughout the whole year. Seasonal limitations are less important, which enhances diet diversification. On the other hand, an impoverishment in raw materials occurs due to the existing concentration tendencies in food production and especially in food trade. PMID:15702594

  19. Hospital Systems, Convenient Care Strategies, and Healthcare Reform.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer; Shay, Patrick; Roscoe, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Retail clinics (RCs) and urgent care centers (UCCs) are convenient care models that emerged on the healthcare scene in the past 10 to 15 years. Characterized as disruptive innovations, these models of healthcare delivery seem to follow a slightly different path from each other. Hospital systems, the very organizations that were originally threatened by convenient care models, are developing them and partnering with existing models. We posit that legislative changes such as the Affordable Care Act created challenges for hospital systems that accelerated their adoption of these models. In this study, we analyze 117 hospital systems in six states and report on their convenient care strategies. Our data suggest that UCCs are more prevalent than RCs among hospital systems, and that large and unexplained state-by-state variations exist in the adoption of these strategies. We also postulate about the future role of hospital systems in leading these innovations. PMID:27111934

  20. Conveniently assembled multiple-electrode-pair CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lihua; Li, Xiangyen; He, Anzhi

    2000-04-01

    A conveniently assembled multiple-electrode-pair (MEP) transversely excited amplify (TEA) CO2 laser is introduced in this paper. The laser is described from the view of device configuration, power supply, control circuit, and etc. The laser output is variable from single pulse to double pulse and multiple pulse with different assembly. We adopt a new alignment method for cavity. The pulse time interval given by control system is continuously adjustable from 0 to 150 microseconds. Experiments prove that the pulse series property is stable and that the pulse parameters are perfect. The conveniently assembled laser lay a foundation for the industry application of multiple-electrode-pair CO2 laser.

  1. 45 CFR 602.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 602.44 Section 602.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... subgrantee upon written notification to the awarding agency, setting forth the reasons for such...

  2. 45 CFR 602.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 602.44 Section 602.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... subgrantee upon written notification to the awarding agency, setting forth the reasons for such...

  3. 21 CFR 1403.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 1403.44 Section 1403.44 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  4. 21 CFR 1403.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 1403.44 Section 1403.44 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  5. 21 CFR 1403.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 1403.44 Section 1403.44 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  6. 21 CFR 1403.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 1403.44 Section 1403.44 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  7. 21 CFR 1403.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 1403.44 Section 1403.44 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  8. 34 CFR 303.423 - Convenience of proceedings; timelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... Parents and Children § 303.423 Convenience of proceedings; timelines. (a) Any proceeding for implementing... the parties). (See 34 CFR 300.512.) Thus, if a State, in meeting the requirements of § 303.420,...

  9. A convenient and reliable method for carbogen breathing in man.

    PubMed

    Kaanders, J H; van der Maazen, R W

    1993-12-01

    The feasibility of carbogen breathing and the intake of nicotinamide in combination with radiation therapy is currently being tested for clinical application. A dependable and convenient system for carbogen breathing is presented which can be easily combined with techniques for immobilization of the patient. The proposed method ensures adequate breathing of carbogen.

  10. 41 CFR 105-71.144 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 105-71.144 Section 105-71.144 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... the two parties shall agree upon the termination conditions, including the effective date and in...

  11. 36 CFR 1207.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 1207.44 Section 1207.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... the two parties shall agree upon the termination conditions, including the effective date and in...

  12. Less Expensive and More Convenient Gaucher's Disease Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2006-01-01

    A new research finding related to a less costly and more convenient treatment for Gaucher's disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder and genetic disorder affecting Jewish people of Eastern European ancestry is reported. The reports suggest that chemical chaperons could partially correct the genetic defect responsible for most cases of…

  13. 20 CFR 437.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 437.44 Section 437.44 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  14. 49 CFR 18.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 18.44 Section 18.44 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records, Retention,...

  15. 29 CFR 97.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 97.44 Section 97.44 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and...

  16. 34 CFR 80.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 80.44 Section 80.44 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  17. 20 CFR 437.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 437.44 Section 437.44 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  18. 20 CFR 437.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 437.44 Section 437.44 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  19. 20 CFR 437.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 437.44 Section 437.44 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  20. 22 CFR 135.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 135.44 Section 135.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  1. 20 CFR 437.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 437.44 Section 437.44 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Reports,...

  2. A novel convenient process to obtain a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction using a lignocellulose column.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Senji

    2003-05-01

    Lignocellulose prepared from sawdust was investigated for its potential application in obtaining a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction from tea extract. Tea polyphenols having gallate residues, namely, (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), were adsorbed on the lignocellulose column, while caffeine was passed through it. Adsorbed polyphenols were eluted with 60% ethanol, and the elute was found to consist mainly of EGCg and ECg. The caffeine/EGCg ratio was 0.696 before lignocellulose column treatment, but it became 0.004 after the column treatment. These results suggest that the lignocellulose column provides a useful and convenient process of purification of tea polyphenol fraction accompanied by decaffeination.

  3. A novel convenient process to obtain a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction using a lignocellulose column.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Senji

    2003-05-01

    Lignocellulose prepared from sawdust was investigated for its potential application in obtaining a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction from tea extract. Tea polyphenols having gallate residues, namely, (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), were adsorbed on the lignocellulose column, while caffeine was passed through it. Adsorbed polyphenols were eluted with 60% ethanol, and the elute was found to consist mainly of EGCg and ECg. The caffeine/EGCg ratio was 0.696 before lignocellulose column treatment, but it became 0.004 after the column treatment. These results suggest that the lignocellulose column provides a useful and convenient process of purification of tea polyphenol fraction accompanied by decaffeination. PMID:12720405

  4. Convenient methods for ingestion of molecular hydrogen: drinking, injection, and inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Seo, Tomoki; Sato, Bunpei; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Fumitake

    2015-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is clinically administered; however, in some hospitals, H2 is given to patients without consideration of its safe use. In the present study, we prepared convenient and safe devices for the drinking of super-saturated H2 water, for intravenous drip infusion of H2-rich saline, and for the inhalation of H2 gas. In order to provide useful information for researchers using these devices, the changes in H2 concentration were studied. Our experimental results should contribute to the advance of non-clinical and clinical research in H2 medicine. PMID:26504515

  5. Novel Convenient Synthesis of (10)B-Enriched Sodium Borohydride.

    PubMed

    Safronov, Alexander V; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2016-06-01

    A convenient and efficient synthesis of (10)B-enriched sodium borohydride [Na(10)BH4] from commercially available (10)B-enriched boric acid [(10)B(OH)3] is described. The reaction sequence (10)B(OH)3 → (10)B(On-Bu)3 → (10)BH3·Et3N → Na(10)BH4 afforded the product in 60-80% yield. The reaction was successfully scaled to hundreds of gram per run. PMID:27195803

  6. TRIMALLEOLAR FRACTURES—A Convenient Medial Approach for Surgical Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Alonzo J.

    1960-01-01

    In dealing surgically with trimalleolar fracture of the ankle joint in which the comminution is not severe, the medial approach is convenient and practicable. In the process of reducing the fracture the alignment can be directly observed. The fixation of the posterior fragment is done from the front rather than from the back of the tibia, Removal of the screws used for fixation is made considerably easier. PMID:13728499

  7. Health indicators: eliminating bias from convenience sampling estimators.

    PubMed

    Hedt, Bethany L; Pagano, Marcello

    2011-02-28

    Public health practitioners are often called upon to make inference about a health indicator for a population at large when the sole available information are data gathered from a convenience sample, such as data gathered on visitors to a clinic. These data may be of the highest quality and quite extensive, but the biases inherent in a convenience sample preclude the legitimate use of powerful inferential tools that are usually associated with a random sample. In general, we know nothing about those who do not visit the clinic beyond the fact that they do not visit the clinic. An alternative is to take a random sample of the population. However, we show that this solution would be wasteful if it excluded the use of available information. Hence, we present a simple annealing methodology that combines a relatively small, and presumably far less expensive, random sample with the convenience sample. This allows us to not only take advantage of powerful inferential tools, but also provides more accurate information than that available from just using data from the random sample alone. PMID:21290401

  8. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 (o)C) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user-friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source. PMID:26582511

  9. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-11-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user-friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source.

  10. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  11. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    PubMed

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household.

  12. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    PubMed

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  13. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user–friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source. PMID:26582511

  14. A convenient method for preparation of pure standards of peroxyacetyl nitrate for atmospheric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Torben; Hansen, Anne Maria; Thomsen, Erling Lund

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is synthesized by nitration of peracetic acid (1.2 M), extracted by n- heptane, and purified with normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified PAN solution is free of acetyl nitrate. The content of PAN is determined by means of hydrolysis of PAN into nitrite, and determination by ion chromatography of nitrite and nitrate (formed by oxidation of nitrite). The purified PAN solution is used for the calibration of the gas Chromatograph with electron capture detection.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of SnO2/Ag Hollow Microsphere via a Convenient Hydrothermal Route.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiuqing; Hu, Fuchao; Hou, Dongfang; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    SnO2/Ag hollow microsphere, assembled form SnO2 and Ag nanoparticles, was synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis method using Na2SnO3.3H2O, CO(NH2)2 and AgNO3 as raw materials. XRD, SEM, and TEM results revealed that the obtained SnO2/Ag hollow microsphere with diameters of ca.3-5 µm was built from uniformly distributed rutile SnO2 and cubic Ag nanoparticles. Moreover, XPS results indicate the existence of strong interaction between Ag and SnO2 nanoparticles, rather than simply physical contact, endowing the SnO2/Ag hollow microspheres with excellent photocatalytic performance in the degradation of RhB solution under visible light irradiation. PMID:27451773

  16. A convenient ligand exchange pathway to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin analogues.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Joachim; Sun, Xianru; Dechert, Sebastian; Schneider, Benjamin; Meyer, Franc

    2009-07-01

    The benzanellated analogues (NEt(4))(2)[Fe(2)S(2)(indolate)(4)] (2) and (NEt(4))(2)[Fe(2)S(2)(carbazolate)(4)] (3) of the previously reported parent (NEt(4))(2)[Fe(2)S(2)(pyrrolate)(4)] cluster (1) were synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. In contrast to 1 and 3, compound 2 can be applied as a versatile precursor in ligand exchange reactions with various thiophenols affording the thiophenolate-coordinate [2Fe-2S] clusters. Heteroaromatic thiols and chelating biphenols are suitable substrates in this conversion as well, providing a convenient access to a variety of new [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin analogues and related complexes. Several new S- and O-coordinate [2Fe-2S] clusters have been prepared and fully characterized, including five X-ray crystal structures. PMID:19662283

  17. Peroxynitrite scavenging by different antioxidants. Part I: convenient assay.

    PubMed

    Balavoine, G G; Geletii, Y V

    1999-01-01

    A convenient "tube" assay to quantify relative antioxidant activities in aqueous solutions has been developed. Peroxynitrite was employed as a biologically relevant source of radicals with Pyrogallol Red as a detecting molecule. A variety of compounds have been examined, namely polyphenols, uric acid, glutathione, and ascorbic acid. Competition kinetics were observed for the majority of examined compounds, except thymol and ascorbic acid. Pyrogallol Red was fully protected by ascorbic acid against the bleaching by peroxynitrite until its total consumption. The deviation from competition kinetics in the case of thymol was due to the formation of radicals from thymol and their subsequent reaction with Pyrogallol Red. Quercetin was the most efficient scavenger of free radicals. The measurements of relative antioxidant activities using Pyrogallol Red and other detecting molecules, such as gallocyanine and carminic acid, were in fair agreement. The assay was successfully used for a screening of antioxidant activity of plant extracts of unknown composition. PMID:10355895

  18. A convenient photocatalytic fluorination of unactivated C-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Shira D; Fan, Hope; Chang, Stanley; Martin, Rainer E; Britton, Robert

    2014-04-25

    Fluorination reactions are essential to modern medicinal chemistry, thus providing a means to block site-selective metabolic degradation of drugs and access radiotracers for positron emission tomography imaging. Despite current sophistication in fluorination reagents and processes, the fluorination of unactivated CH bonds remains a significant challenge. Reported herein is a convenient and economic process for direct fluorination of unactivated CH bonds that exploits the hydrogen abstracting ability of a decatungstate photocatalyst in combination with the mild fluorine atom transfer reagent N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide. This operationally straightforward reaction provides direct access to a wide range of fluorinated organic molecules, including structurally complex natural products, acyl fluorides, and fluorinated amino acid derivatives.

  19. Convenient synthesis of nickel (5,7,12,14,19,21,26,28- sup 13 C sub 8 )phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, A.G.M.; Broderick, W.E.; Hoffman, B.M.; Velazquez, C.S. )

    1989-06-23

    Metallophthalocyanines are convenient precursors for diverse low-dimensional electrical conductors. Recently we wished to prepare large quantities of nickel (5,7,12,14,19,21,26,28-{sup 13}C{sub 8})phthalocyanine (4) with high isotopic enrichment. Previously macrocycle 4 had been prepared at five times natural abundance by the cyclization of 1,2-dicyanobenzene (3). The partially labeled 1,2-dicyanobenzene (3) in turn was prepared from {sup 13}C-enriched potassium cyanide through the use of copper(I) cyanide. However, we were reluctant to employ this methodology to achieve greater enrichment because of the high cost of 99% potassium ({sup 13}C)cyanide and low overall yield of the process. Herein we report an efficient method to prepare 4 using (arene)tricarbonylchromium chemistry.

  20. Solid State Photochemical Isomerization: A Convenient Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the use of benzophenone in the role of a solid state sensitizer in a photochemical isomerization and as an indicator in preparative layer chromatography for purification of the isomeride. (Author/SA)

  1. [Ensure - complete and balanced nutrition, convenient on work].

    PubMed

    Kurenkov, A V; Iuriatin, A A

    2013-01-01

    The work conditions often may compromise a company ability to supply their employees with adequate, hot meals. For heavy labor workers and some office employees it is important to restore energy and nutrients with food, balanced in nutrients. The lack of adequate nutritive support can give a negative impact on different organs functions. One of the main principles of healthy nutrition is - diet must be balanced in nutrients. Which is easy to say, but difficult to implement, especially on some industries. Complete and balanced liquid and ready-to-use nutrition is new trend in nutrition of healthy people who cannot consume optimal diet, and in people with the risk of nutrient deficiencies. One-two packs of Ensure daily can significantly improve a worker ration. 2 and more packs could serve as a real complete and balanced lunch (>or=780 kcal). Also Ensure is easy to store and to deliver in distant places of work and can be recommended for use as a convenient, complete and balanced nutrition on work. PMID:24000730

  2. Convenient syntheses and transformations of 2-C-malonyl carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Sommermann, Thomas; Linker, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    2-C-malonyl carbohydrates were synthesized in only few steps and high yields by radical additions of malonates to glycals. For the first time, the undesired formation of nitrates was completely suppressed with anhydrous cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN) as oxidizing agent. A coherent explanation for the high stereoselectivities of the additions to gluco-configured glycals was provided by variation of the substituents in the 3-position. We established steric effects for the face selectivity, and electronic effects strongly influence the reactivity of the double bonds. The scope and limitation of transition-metal-mediated radical reactions in the synthesis of 2-C-branched carbohydrates was thoroughly investigated. Thus, unsaturated disaccharides and benzyl-protected glycals were used as substrates for the first time. Finally, the 2-C-malonyl carbohydrates were transformed into various products by decarboxylation, saponification and reduction, which afforded interesting precursors for C-disaccharides. In this paper we describe the syntheses of more than 40 new 2-C-analogues of carbohydrates, which were isolated in high yields in analytically pure form. Therefore, the transition-metal-mediated radical addition of malonates to glycals offers a simple and convenient entry to such important carbohydrate derivatives.

  3. A convenient method for hTfR1 inclusion body purification.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ming; Peng, Zheng-Xin; Shi, Chen-Yang; Tang, Rui; Manzo, Lawali Mamane; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Human transferrin receptor, referred as hTfR1, is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in most normal human tissues; however, the expression level of hTfR1 at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in tumor tissues is relatively higher. hTfR1 is a type II homodimeric transmembrane protein. The extracellular domain of hTfR1 consists of three domains: helical domain, apical, and protease-like domain. In order to prepare hTfR1 antibody, which can be utilized to deliver drugs across BBB through receptor-mediated endocytosis, we began to express the nonligand binding domain of hTfR1 in Escherichia coli BL21 Transetta (DE3). The TfR1 gene was first obtained from HepG2 cells by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then inserted into pET 32a(c+) vector. The protein was expressed in the form of inclusion body with extremely high purity by the E. coli BL21 Transetta (DE3), and the purity was further improved by size-exclusion chromatography. The Western blot test indicated that the recombinant protein was TfR1 as expected. Above all, this report provided a convenient protocol that could be fulfilled in order to prepare hTfR1 inclusion body, which failed to be purified by an Ni(2+) affinity column.

  4. Convenient synthesis of deazaflavin cofactor FO and its activity in F(420)-dependent NADP reductase.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad S; Le, Cuong Q; Joseph, Ebenezer; Nguyen, Toan Q; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Foss, Frank W

    2015-05-14

    F420 and FO are phenolic 5-deazaflavin cofactors that complement nicotinamide and flavin redox coenzymes in biochemical oxidoreductases and photocatalytic systems. Specifically, these 5-deazaflavins lack the single electron reactivity with O2 of riboflavin-derived coenzymes (FMN and FAD), and, in general, have a more negative redox potential than NAD(P)(+). For example, F420-dependent NADP(+) oxidoreductase (Fno) is critical to the conversion of CO2 to CH4 by methanogenic archaea, while FO functions as a light-harvesting agent in DNA repair. The preparation of these cofactors is an obstacle to their use in biochemical studies and biotechnology. Here, a convenient synthesis of FO was achieved by improving the redox stability of synthetic intermediates containing a polar, electron-rich aminophenol fragment. Improved yields and simplified purification techniques for FO are described. Additionally, Fno activity was restored with FO in the absence of F420. Investigating the FO-dependent NADP(+)/NADPH redox process by stopped-flow spectrophotometry, steady state kinetics were defined as having a Km of 4.00 ± 0.39 μM and a kcat of 5.27 ± 0.14 s(-1). The preparation of FO should enable future biochemical studies and novel uses of F420 mimics.

  5. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhou, Xichun; Pan, Zhengwei; Turchi, Craig

    2009-11-06

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoparticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanoparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: maltose > mannose > glucose > lactose > MAN5.

  6. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product. PMID:24587538

  7. A rapid, convenient, solventless green approach for the synthesis of oximes using grindstone chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthesis of oximes is an important reaction in organic chemistry, because these versatile oximes are used for protection, purification, and characterization of carbonyl compounds. Nitriles, amides via Beckmann rearrangement, nitro compounds, nitrones, amines, and azaheterocycles can be synthesised from oximes. They also find applications for selective α-activation. In inorganic chemistry, oximes act as a versatile ligand. Several procedures for the preparation of oximes exist, but, most of them have not addressed the green chemistry issue. They are associated with generation of pollutants, requirement of high reaction temperature, low yields, lack of a generalized procedure, etc. Hence, there is a demand for developing an efficient, convenient, and non-polluting or less polluting alternative method for the preparation of oximes. In this context, bismuth compounds are very useful as they are cheap in general, commercially available, air stable crystalline solids, safe, and non-toxic, hence easy to handle. Results Carbonyl compounds (aliphatic, heterocyclic, and aromatic) were converted into the corresponding oximes in excellent yields by simply grinding the reactants at room temperature without using any solvent in the presence of Bi2O3. Most importantly, this method minimizes waste disposal problems, provides a simple yet efficient example of unconventional methodology and requires short time. Conclusions We have developed a novel, quick, environmentally safe, and clean synthesis of aldoximes and ketoximes under solvent-free grinding condition. PMID:22373136

  8. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  9. Managing routine food choices in UK families: the role of convenience consumption.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Marylyn; Szmigin, Isabelle; Leek, Sheena

    2006-11-01

    The paper explores the meaning of convenience food for UK mothers, investigating the relationship between mothers and their families' food. The study examines the role of convenience food within the food strategies of contemporary UK families, and aims to elicit consumption meanings in the broader social context of family relationships with food, their rituals, routines and conventions. The findings reveal convenience has multiple meanings for UK women, and that convenience food has been incorporated into reinterpreted versions of homemade and "proper" meals. A hierarchy of acceptable convenience food is presented by the mothers, who tackle complex and conflicting family routines by introducing convenience solutions. Rules of eating have evolved, yet remain essentially controlled by the mother in terms of nutrition. While the traditional model of "proper" food remains aspirational, contemporary family lifestyles require that convenience food become part of the equation.

  10. Large-scale production of graphitic carbon nitride with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability via a convenient microwave treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Shuang; Liu, Na

    2016-08-01

    A convenient microwave treatment for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, N2-TPD, EPR, photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent measurements were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that microwave treatment can form many irregular pores in as-prepared g-C3N4, which causes the increased surface area and separation rate of electrons and holes. More importantly, microwave treatment causes the formation of many nitrogen vacancies in as-prepared g-C3N4. These nitrogen vacancies not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N2 molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from catalysts to N2 molecules, thus significantly improving the nitrogen photofixation ability. Moreover, the present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C3N4 which is significantly important for the practical application.

  11. Specific language impairment: a convenient label for whom?

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Sheena; Tomblin, Bruce; Law, James; McKean, Cristina; Mensah, Fiona K; Morgan, Angela; Goldfeld, Sharon; Nicholson, Jan M; Wake, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background The term ‘specific language impairment’ (SLI), in use since the 1980s, describes children with language impairment whose cognitive skills are within normal limits where there is no identifiable reason for the language impairment. SLI is determined by applying exclusionary criteria, so that it is defined by what it is not rather than by what it is. The recent decision to not include SLI in DSM-5 provoked much debate and concern from researchers and clinicians. Aims To explore how the term ‘specific language impairment’ emerged, to consider how disorders, including SLI, are generally defined and to explore how societal changes might impact on use the term. Methods & Procedures We reviewed the literature to explore the origins of the term ‘specific language impairment’ and present published evidence, as well as new analyses of population data, to explore the validity of continuing to use the term. Outcomes & Results and Conclusions & Implications We support the decision to exclude the term ‘specific language impairment’ from DSM-5 and conclude that the term has been a convenient label for researchers, but that the current classification is unacceptably arbitrary. Furthermore, we argue there is no empirical evidence to support the continued use of the term SLI and limited evidence that it has provided any real benefits for children and their families. In fact, the term may be disadvantageous to some due to the use of exclusionary criteria to determine eligibility for and access to speech pathology services. We propose the following recommendations. First, that the word ‘specific’ be removed and the label ‘language impairment’ be used. Second, that the exclusionary criteria be relaxed and in their place inclusionary criteria be adopted that take into account the fluid nature of language development particularly in the preschool period. Building on the goodwill and collaborations between the clinical and research communities we propose

  12. Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households?1234

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Background: “Processed foods” are defined as any foods other than raw agricultural commodities and can be categorized by the extent of changes occurring in foods as a result of processing. Conclusions about the association between the degree of food processing and nutritional quality are discrepant. Objective: We aimed to determine 2000–2012 trends in the contribution of processed and convenience food categories to purchases by US households and to compare saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content of purchases across levels of processing and convenience. Design: We analyzed purchases of consumer packaged goods for 157,142 households from the 2000–2012 Homescan Panel. We explicitly defined categories for classifying products by degree of industrial processing and separately by convenience of preparation. We classified >1.2 million products through use of barcode-specific descriptions and ingredient lists. Median saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content and the likelihood that purchases exceeded maximum daily intake recommendations for these components were compared across levels of processing or convenience by using quantile and logistic regression. Results: More than three-fourths of energy in purchases by US households came from moderately (15.9%) and highly processed (61.0%) foods and beverages in 2012 (939 kcal/d per capita). Trends between 2000 and 2012 were stable. When classifying foods by convenience, ready-to-eat (68.1%) and ready-to-heat (15.2%) products supplied the majority of energy in purchases. The adjusted proportion of household-level food purchases exceeding 10% kcal from saturated fat, 15% kcal from sugar, and 2400 mg sodium/2000 kcal simultaneously was significantly higher for highly processed (60.4%) and ready-to-eat (27.1%) food purchases than for purchases of less-processed foods (5.6%) or foods requiring cooking/preparation (4.9%). Conclusions: Highly processed food purchases are a dominant, unshifting part of US purchasing patterns

  13. Radiolabeled technetium chelates for use in renal function determinations

    DOEpatents

    Fritzberg, Alan; Kasina, Sudhakar; Johnson, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to novel radiopharmaceutical imaging agents incorporating Tc-99m as a radiolabel. In particular, the novel imaging agents disclosed herein have relatively high renal extraction efficiencies, and hence are useful for conducting renal function imaging procedures. The novel Tc-99m compounds of a present invention have the following general formula: ##STR1## wherein X is S or N; and wherein Y is--H or wherein Y is ##STR2## and where R.sub.1 is --H, --CH.sub.3, or --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is --H, --CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.3, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2 C.sub.6 H.sub.5, or --CH.sub.2 OH; and Z is --H, --CO.sub.2 H, --CONH.sub.2, --SO.sub.3 H, --SO.sub.2 NH.sub.2, or --CONHCH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H; and the Tc is Tc-99m; and water-soluble salts thereof. Of the foregoing, the presently preferred Tc-99m compound of the present invention is Tc-99m-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (Tc-99m-MAGGG). The present invention is also directed to novel chelating agents that may be reacted with Tc-99m to form the foregoing compounds. Such novel chelating agents have the following general formula. ##STR3## where X and Y have the same definitions as above, and wherein Y' is --H.sub.2 when X is N, or wherein Y' is --H, or a suitable protective group such as --COCH.sub.3, --COC.sub.6 H.sub.5, --CH.sub.2 NHCOCH.sub.3, --COCF.sub.3, or --COCH.sub.2 OH when X is S. The present invention also provides methods for preparing and using the novel Tc-99m compounds.

  14. Radiolabeled technetium chelates for use in renal function determinations

    DOEpatents

    Fritzberg, Alan; Kasina, Sudhaker; Johnson, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to novel radiopharmaceutical imaging agents incorporating Tc-99m as a radiolabel. In particular, the novel imaging agents disclosed herein have relatively high renal extraction efficiencies, and hence are useful for conducting renal function imaging procedures. The novel Tc-99m compounds of a present invention have the following general formula: ##STR1## wherein X is S or N; and wherein Y is --H or wherein Y is ##STR2## and where R.sub.1 is --H, --CH.sub.3, or --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is --H, --CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.3, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2 C.sub.6 H.sub.5, or --CH.sub.2 OH; and Z is --H, --CO.sub.2 H, --CONH.sub.2, --SO.sub.3 H, --SO.sub.2 NH.sub.2, or --CONHCH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H; and the Tc is Tc-99m; and water-soluble salts thereof. Of the foregoing, the presently preferred Tc-99m compound of the present invention is Tc-99m-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (Tc-99m-MAGGG). The present invention is also directed to novel chelating agents that may be reacted with Tc-99m to form the foregoing compounds. Such novel chelating agents have the following general formula. ##STR3## where X and Y have the same definitions as above, and wherein Y' is --H.sub.2 when X is N, or wherein Y' is --H, or a suitable protective group such as --COCH.sub.3, --COC.sub.6 H.sub.5, --CH.sub.2 NHCOCH.sub.3, --COCF.sub.3, or --COCH.sub.2 OH when X is S. The present invention also provides methods for preparing and using the novel Tc-99m compounds.

  15. 48 CFR 1649.101-71 - FEHBP termination for convenience clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 1649.101-71 FEHBP termination for convenience clause. The clause set forth...

  16. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored. PMID:17261344

  17. Effect of consumer cooking on furan in convenience foods.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Crews, C; Grundy, H; Mills, C; Matthews, W

    2008-01-01

    The effect of domestic preparation regimes on the level of the heat-formed toxicant furan was studied to provide useful information for exposure assessment and advice for manufacturers and consumers. Foods were cooked in a saucepan on a gas hob or microwaved and furan was determined by headspace sampling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, furan levels did not decrease as much when foods were cooked in a microwave oven when compared with the same foods cooked in a saucepan. Furan levels decreased in most canned and jarred foods after heating in a saucepan. Low levels of furan in soups in cartons were not changed by any procedure. Furan decreased slightly in foods on standing before consumption, but did so more rapidly on stirring. The levels also decreased slightly when foods were left to stand on plates; this observation is attributed to the volatility of furan.

  18. Fluorescence probe for the convenient and sensitive detection of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yuta; Yamato, Mayumi; Yamada, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive substances. The detection of ascorbic acid has traditionally been achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography and absorption spectrophotometry assays. However, the development of fluorescence probes for this purpose is highly desired because they provide a much more convenient and highly sensitive technique for the detection of this material. OFF-ON-type fluorescent probes have been developed for the detection of non-fluorescent compounds. Photo-induced electron transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer are the two main fluorescence quenching mechanisms for the detection of ascorbic acid, and several fluorescence probes have been reported based on redox-responsive metals and quantum dots. Profluorescent nitroxide compounds have also been developed as non-metal organic fluorescence probes for ascorbic acid. These nitroxide systems have a stable unpaired electron and can therefore react with ascorbic acid and a strong fluorescence quencher. Furthermore, recent synthetic advances have allowed for the synthesis of α-substituted nitroxides with varying levels of reactivity towards ascorbic acid. In this review, we have discussed the design strategies used for the preparation of fluorescent probes for ascorbic acid, with particular emphasis on profluorescent nitroxides, which are unique radical-based redox-active fluorescent probes.

  19. Fluorescence probe for the convenient and sensitive detection of ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yuta; Yamato, Mayumi; Yamada, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive substances. The detection of ascorbic acid has traditionally been achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography and absorption spectrophotometry assays. However, the development of fluorescence probes for this purpose is highly desired because they provide a much more convenient and highly sensitive technique for the detection of this material. OFF-ON-type fluorescent probes have been developed for the detection of non-fluorescent compounds. Photo-induced electron transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer are the two main fluorescence quenching mechanisms for the detection of ascorbic acid, and several fluorescence probes have been reported based on redox-responsive metals and quantum dots. Profluorescent nitroxide compounds have also been developed as non-metal organic fluorescence probes for ascorbic acid. These nitroxide systems have a stable unpaired electron and can therefore react with ascorbic acid and a strong fluorescence quencher. Furthermore, recent synthetic advances have allowed for the synthesis of α-substituted nitroxides with varying levels of reactivity towards ascorbic acid. In this review, we have discussed the design strategies used for the preparation of fluorescent probes for ascorbic acid, with particular emphasis on profluorescent nitroxides, which are unique radical-based redox-active fluorescent probes. PMID:26798193

  20. Combining vitamin A and vaccines: convenience or conflict?

    PubMed

    Benn, Christine Stabell

    2012-01-01

    with important consequences for mortality. First, a smaller dose of vitamin A was more beneficial than a larger dose for girls. Second, the effect of vitamin A given with DTP vaccine was significantly different from the effect of vitamin A given with measles vaccine, and children, who received vitamin A with DTP vaccine, had higher mortality than children, who had received vitamin A alone, or who did not receive anything. Third, vitamin A given with BCG at birth interacted negatively with subsequent DTP vaccines in girls. Fourth, the effect of vitamin A to older children in Ghana depended on vaccination status, being beneficial in boys, but harmful in girls who received DTP vaccine during follow-up. The results also show that boys and girls respond differently to vitamin A and vaccines. It is a common assumption within public health in low-income countries that interventions can be combined without producing unexpected consequences. The work presented in this thesis confronts this assumption; the results show that vitamin A and vaccines should be seen not only as specific interventions with specific and independent effects, but as immuno-modulators, which can interact with important consequences for overall mortality. Combining interventions can be convenient and lead to synergistic health benefits, but we documented several examples, where it also leads to unexpectedly increased mortality. Thus, to optimise the child health intervention policy in low-income countries a shift in paradigm is needed. Health interventions should no longer be seen as merely specific and independent, and the policy should probably not be the same for boys and girls. Though more complex, it is necessary to evaluate all health interventions in terms of their effect on overall mortality - and their potential interactions with other health interventions and potential sex-differential effects should always be investigated. Only in this way can we assure that the children in the poorest countries

  1. Combining vitamin A and vaccines: convenience or conflict?

    PubMed

    Benn, Christine Stabell

    2012-01-01

    with important consequences for mortality. First, a smaller dose of vitamin A was more beneficial than a larger dose for girls. Second, the effect of vitamin A given with DTP vaccine was significantly different from the effect of vitamin A given with measles vaccine, and children, who received vitamin A with DTP vaccine, had higher mortality than children, who had received vitamin A alone, or who did not receive anything. Third, vitamin A given with BCG at birth interacted negatively with subsequent DTP vaccines in girls. Fourth, the effect of vitamin A to older children in Ghana depended on vaccination status, being beneficial in boys, but harmful in girls who received DTP vaccine during follow-up. The results also show that boys and girls respond differently to vitamin A and vaccines. It is a common assumption within public health in low-income countries that interventions can be combined without producing unexpected consequences. The work presented in this thesis confronts this assumption; the results show that vitamin A and vaccines should be seen not only as specific interventions with specific and independent effects, but as immuno-modulators, which can interact with important consequences for overall mortality. Combining interventions can be convenient and lead to synergistic health benefits, but we documented several examples, where it also leads to unexpectedly increased mortality. Thus, to optimise the child health intervention policy in low-income countries a shift in paradigm is needed. Health interventions should no longer be seen as merely specific and independent, and the policy should probably not be the same for boys and girls. Though more complex, it is necessary to evaluate all health interventions in terms of their effect on overall mortality - and their potential interactions with other health interventions and potential sex-differential effects should always be investigated. Only in this way can we assure that the children in the poorest countries

  2. 75 FR 32535 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Under Subpart B; Week Ending May 22, 2010 Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity...

  3. 78 FR 20372 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B...

  4. Perceived Convenience in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model: Mobile Technology and English Learning for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…

  5. 48 CFR 49.503 - Termination for convenience of the Government and default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... convenience of the Government and default. 49.503 Section 49.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 49.503 Termination for convenience of the Government and default. (a) Cost-reimbursement contracts—(1... payments. If the contract is with an agency of the U.S. Government or with State, local, or...

  6. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  7. Disparities of Food Availability and Affordability within Convenience Stores in Bexar County, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T. S.; Salazar, Camerino I.; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G.

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our “grab and go” society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ2 = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ2 = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ2 = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = −2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices. PMID:23935645

  8. Disparities of food availability and affordability within convenience stores in Bexar County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T S; Salazar, Camerino I; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our "grab and go" society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ (2) = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ (2) = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ (2) = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = -2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices. PMID:23935645

  9. The ideology of convenience. Canned foods in women's magazines (Flanders, 1945-1960).

    PubMed

    Geyzen, Anneke

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the communication of canned foods in Flanders between 1945 and 1960. It forwards the antinomy between convenience and care as theoretical framework, it uses three women's magazines as source material, and it subjects this material to the technique of close reading. The results show that the discursive construction of canned foods differs according to the ideology of the magazines. Whereas the agrarian periodical discarded canned foods as careless convenience that menaced the idea of the good housewife, the socialist and the commercial publications undeniably accepted them as caring convenience that could facilitate the household chores of working women. The analysis, thus, deals with the ideological aspect of convenience food, an aspect that has only rarely been examined. PMID:25801669

  10. The ideology of convenience. Canned foods in women's magazines (Flanders, 1945-1960).

    PubMed

    Geyzen, Anneke

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the communication of canned foods in Flanders between 1945 and 1960. It forwards the antinomy between convenience and care as theoretical framework, it uses three women's magazines as source material, and it subjects this material to the technique of close reading. The results show that the discursive construction of canned foods differs according to the ideology of the magazines. Whereas the agrarian periodical discarded canned foods as careless convenience that menaced the idea of the good housewife, the socialist and the commercial publications undeniably accepted them as caring convenience that could facilitate the household chores of working women. The analysis, thus, deals with the ideological aspect of convenience food, an aspect that has only rarely been examined.

  11. Measuring the Impact of Convenient Water Supply on Household Time Use in Rural Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Masuda, Y.; Fortmann, L.; Smith-Nilson, M.; Gugerty, M.

    2012-12-01

    What is the impact of providing convenient water supply on water carriers' pattern of time use? How much of the freed time is re-allocated to paid market work, education (for girls), agricultural labor, or leisure? Do women report spending more time on activities they enjoy? Does convenient water supply lead to a re-allocation of leisure time to other household members? These questions are an important, but largely missing, piece of the economic evidence base for investment in the water supply sector. Cairncross and Valdmanis (2007) observe that "given the relevance of the time-saving benefit to water supply policy and the fact that the benefit is usually uppermost in the mind of the consumer, it is remarkable how few data have been collected on the amounts of time spent collecting water". We address this gap by measuring changes in time use among female water carriers before and after new water systems are installed in three rural villages in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. The timing of completion of the projects in the three villages was staggered over time for logistical reasons, so our quasi-experimental design allows us to control for any region-wide changes in time use. Because of low literacy levels, we used a pictorial time use elicitation approach based on respondents' recall of the previous day as well as the standard questions used in the DHS and LSMS ("how many minutes..."). We measured time use for all household members over the age of 10. We use this unique panel dataset with both pre- and post-project time use data to examine not only the effect on water carriers' time use but also any intra-household reallocation of time savings. In total, we interviewed 454 randomly-selected households in the three villages over three rainy seasons, and collected time use information on 1,590 household members. Primary water carriers spend (pre-project) an average of 110 minutes per day collecting water, roughly representative of water collection times reported in

  12. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  13. 48 CFR 52.249-5 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). 52.249-5 Section 52.249-5... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). As prescribed in 49.502(d), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Educational and...

  14. Convenience foods, as portrayed by a consumer organisation. Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats (1960-1995).

    PubMed

    Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    Food choice, both today and in the past, is driven by a broad range of interacting factors, in which culture is centrally placed. This paper will assess convenience foods by means of a qualitative analysis of comparative product tests done by Belgium's largest consumer organisation Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats, and will focus on the influence of socially and culturally normative values between the years 1960 and 1995. The tests provide a unique insight into attitudes to convenience foods within an organisation that saw its role in Belgian consumer society as being both educator and guide. The organisation's views on health, food safety, modernity, tradition, control over ingredients and content, gender roles and taste shaped its attitude to the role and meaning of what food is supposed to be. The organisation thereby both guided and re-affirmed normative values with respect to convenience foods. Values, which are culturally constructed, have always played a key role in the acceptability of products. Cultural and social inhibitions and fears over control of convenience foods, which persist today, were central in the consumer organisation's representation of convenience food.

  15. Convenience store visits by US adolescents: Rationale for healthier retail environments

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Parikh, Nina M.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Given interest in the public health impact of convenience stores, it is surprising that so little is known about the popularity of these destinations for youth. We surveyed 2,772 adolescents (age 13–16) from a nationally representative web panel of US households. Nearly half (47.5%) of adolescents reported visiting convenience stores at least weekly. Significant risk factors for frequent visits were age, being African American, living in rural areas and in areas with higher levels of neighborhood deprivation. With approximately 4.1 million US adolescents visiting convenience stores at least weekly, new policies and other interventions are needed to promote a healthier retail environment for youth. PMID:25955537

  16. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives. PMID:26993575

  17. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives.

  18. 78 FR 2710 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air... Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: January 7, 2013. Description: Application of SmartLynx...

  19. Convenient metal embedment into mesoporous silica channels for high catalytic performance in AB dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Sung-Kwan; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Yong Jae; Park, Jeunghee; Lee, Kyung Eun; Yoon, Chang Won; Nam, Suk Woo; Kang, Sang Ook

    2013-11-28

    The infiltration of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) into the channels of SBA-15 was conveniently achieved via an incipient wetness procedure employing a tetraglyme solution. Electron tomography demonstrated that PdNPs were outgrown preferentially from the channels. The resultant Pd/SBA-15 showed high performance in the dehydrogenation kinetics of ammonia borane. PMID:24121869

  20. 75 FR 57544 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending September 4, 2010 The following Applications...

  1. 78 FR 56984 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending August 17, 2013 The following Applications...

  2. 76 FR 35939 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending May 21, 2011 The following Applications...

  3. 77 FR 21145 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending March 24, 2012 The following Applications...

  4. 75 FR 48738 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending July 28, 2010 The following Applications...

  5. 75 FR 3274 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending December 2, 2009 The following Applications...

  6. 77 FR 31421 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending May 12, 2012 The following Applications...

  7. 76 FR 35938 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending May 28, 2011 The following Applications...

  8. 77 FR 13682 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending February 18, 2012 The following Applications...

  9. 77 FR 39793 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending June 23, 2012 The following Applications...

  10. 76 FR 10084 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending January 22, 2011 The following Applications...

  11. 76 FR 42762 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending June 25, 2011 The following Applications...

  12. 77 FR 27832 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending April 7, 2012 The following Applications...

  13. 76 FR 10085 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending January 1, 2011 The following Applications...

  14. 77 FR 21145 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending March 10, 2012 The following Applications...

  15. 76 FR 51458 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending July 30, 2011 The following Applications...

  16. 75 FR 22891 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending April 10, 2010 The following Applications...

  17. 75 FR 79070 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending November 6, 2010 The following Applications...

  18. 76 FR 20434 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending March 19, 2011 The following Applications...

  19. 76 FR 72025 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending October 22, 2011 The following Applications...

  20. 77 FR 67731 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending October 13, 2012 The following Applications...

  1. 76 FR 79752 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending December 3, 2011 The following Applications...

  2. 78 FR 45011 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending June 29, 2013 The following Applications...

  3. 75 FR 65702 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending October 8, 2010 The following Applications...

  4. 75 FR 42473 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending July 10, 2010 The following Applications...

  5. 76 FR 79752 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending December 10, 2011 The following Applications...

  6. 76 FR 54524 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) during the Week Ending August 20, 2011 The following Applications...

  7. 75 FR 6431 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending January 9, 2010. The following Applications...

  8. 77 FR 21145 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending March 3, 2012 The following Applications...

  9. 75 FR 79070 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending November 20, 2010 The following Applications...

  10. 77 FR 37732 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending June 9, 2012 The following Applications...

  11. 75 FR 53015 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending August 14, 2010 The following Applications...

  12. 77 FR 46146 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending July 7, 2012 The following Applications...

  13. 77 FR 63920 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending October 6, 2012 The following Applications...

  14. 75 FR 28096 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending May 6, 2010 The following Applications...

  15. 75 FR 22891 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending April 17, 2010 The following Applications...

  16. 76 FR 70210 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending October 22, 2011 The following Applications...

  17. 77 FR 49478 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending July 28, 2012 The following Applications...

  18. 76 FR 68256 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending September 17, 2011 The following Applications...

  19. 77 FR 54945 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending August 11, 2012 The following Applications...

  20. 76 FR 77050 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending November 19, 2011 The following Applications...

  1. 76 FR 10429 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending February 12, 2011 The following Applications...

  2. 48 CFR 52.249-2 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). 52.249-2 Section 52.249-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  3. Students' Dependence on Smart Phones: The Influence of Social Needs, Social Influences and Convenience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether social needs, social influences and convenience of smart phones affects students' dependence on them. This research also examines whether students' dependence on smart phones influences their purchase behaviour. This investigation is conducted among the students in a public university in the…

  4. The Prevalence of Gambling in College: A Review of Literature, Convenience Sample, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Chad; Krenzelok, Ann; Turner, Brian A.; Brett, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This project examined the level of gambling exhibited by a convenience sample of 155 college students at a large Midwestern university and compared it to previously completed work. The researchers found most college student gamblers engaged in the most popular form of gambling like casino games, card games, and betting pools for money. Gambling on…

  5. Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary data…

  6. 49 CFR 1150.23 - Modified certificate of public convenience and necessity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE CERTIFICATE TO CONSTRUCT... Board for a modified certificate of public convenience and necessity. Operations may commence immediately upon the filing; however, the Board will review the information filed, and if complete, will...

  7. 48 CFR 49.502 - Termination for convenience of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the Government. 49.502 Section 49.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Contract Termination Clauses...

  8. Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

  9. A convenient model and program for the assessment of abiotic degradation of chemicals in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Kloepffer, W.

    1989-06-01

    A convenient model for the estimation and comparison of rates of various degradation processes of chemicals in natural waters is described. The estimates are determined by combining physicochemical properties of the chemicals with properties of natural waters and solar photon irradiancies.

  10. 76 FR 73760 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending November 12, 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air... Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: November 29, 2011. Description: Application of Kabo Air...

  11. 77 FR 47691 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending July...

  12. 48 CFR 49.502 - Termination for convenience of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the Government. 49.502 Section 49.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Contract Termination Clauses...

  13. 77 FR 54944 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending August...

  14. 75 FR 60491 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B (Formerly Subpart Q) During the Week Ending September...

  15. 78 FR 2710 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ..., Inc. d/b/a National Airlines requesting an exemption and amended certificate of public convenience and...: January 2, 2013. Description: Application of National Air Cargo Group, Inc. d/b/a National Airlines... scheduled air transportation of persons, property and mail with large aircraft. National Airlines...

  16. Petroleum, Convenience, & Automotive Marketing [Student Book and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozek, Ed; Faught, Suzanne G.

    This student manual and answer book/teacher's guide focus on the industry-specific information and skills needed by students who plan to enter, or who may already be receiving, training in a petroleum-related business, such as a full-service gas station, convenience store, or automotive specialty service shop. The student manual contains 16…

  17. 48 CFR 52.249-2 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). 52.249-2 Section 52.249-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  18. 48 CFR 49.502 - Termination for convenience of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Government (Services) (Short Form) is appropriate, (ii) in contracts for research and development... Government (Services) (Short Form), is appropriate (see 49.502(c)), or one of the clauses prescribed or cited... Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form), in solicitations and contracts for services,...

  19. A convenient enantioselective CBS-reduction of arylketones in flow-microreactor systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Sonia; De Renzo, Maddalena; Carlucci, Claudia; Degennaro, Leonardo; Luisi, Renzo

    2016-05-01

    A convenient, versatile, and green CBS-asymmetric reduction of aryl and heteroaryl ketones has been developed by using the microreactor technology. The study demonstrates that it is possible to handle borane solution safely within microreactors and that the reaction performs well using 2-MeTHF as a greener solvent. PMID:27086654

  20. 48 CFR 809.270 - Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods. 809.270 Section 809.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 809.270 Qualified products...

  1. Developing a framework of service convenience in health care: An exploratory study for a primary care provider.

    PubMed

    Tuzovic, Sven; Kuppelwieser, Volker

    2016-01-01

    From retail health clinics and online appointment scheduling to (mobile) kiosks that enable patient check-in and automate the collection of copays and open balances, convenience has become an important topic in the health care sector over the last few years. While service convenience has also gained much interest in academia, one common limitation is that authors have adopted a "goods-centered" perspective focusing primarily on retail settings. Results of this exploratory study reveal that health care service convenience encompasses seven different dimensions: decision, access, scheduling, registration and check-in, transaction, care delivery, and postconsultation convenience. Implications and future research suggestions are discussed. PMID:27215644

  2. Obstetric "conveniences": elective induction of labor, cesarean birth on demand, and other potentially unnecessary interventions.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Thorman, Kathleen E

    2005-01-01

    Common obstetric interventions are often for "convenience" rather than for clinical indications. Before proceeding, it should be clear who is the beneficiary of the convenience. The primary healthcare provider must make sure that women and their partners have a full understanding of what is known about the associated risks, benefits, and alternative approaches of the proposed intervention. Thorough and accurate information allows women to choose what is best for them and their infant on the basis of the individual clinical situation. Ideally, this discussion takes place during the prenatal period when there is ample opportunity to ask questions, reflect on the potential implications, and confer with partners and family members. A review of common obstetric interventions is provided. While these interventions often are medically indicated for the well-being of mothers and infants, the evidence supporting their benefits when used electively is controversial.

  3. The Inconvenience of Convenience Cohorts: Rhabdomyosarcoma and the PAX-FOXO1 Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Hawkins, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Convenience cohorts” comprise individuals thought to represent the general population, but chosen because they are readily available for evaluation, rather than at random. As such, these methods are subject to bias and may be misleading. Convenience cohorts have been used to investigate the prognostic significance of chromosomal translocations between the PAX3 or PAX7 and the FOXO1 genes in rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common pediatric sarcoma. However, retrospective studies assessing the role of PAX-FOXO1 translocations have yielded inconsistent results. This review highlights the findings from several clinical correlation studies of the PAX-FOXO1 biomarker and illustrates the challenges of using such methods to draw clinical conclusions. PMID:22564868

  4. Polydopamine spheres as active templates for convenient synthesis of various nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Yang, Liping; Lin, Meng-Fang; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong; Lee, Pooi See

    2013-02-25

    In this work, monodisperse polydopamine (PDA) spheres with tunable diameters have been synthesized through a facile and low cost method using a deionized water and alcohol mixed solvent. The PDA spheres possess surface functional groups (-OH, -NH(2)), exhibiting an extraordinary versatile active nature. It is demonstrated that the PDA spheres could serve as an active template for the convenient synthesis of various nanostructures, e.g., MnO(2) hollow spheres or PDA/Fe(3)O(4) and PDA/Ag core/shell nanostructures. No surface modification or special treatment is required for the synthesis of these nanostructures, which makes the fabrication process simple and very convenient. The novel application of PDA/Fe(3)O(4) spheres as fillers in nanocomposites for high-performance capacitors is demonstrated, indicating a promising practicality. The PDA spheres provide a new general platform not only for the facile assembly of nanostructures but also a green synthetic template for practical applications.

  5. Atomic hydrogen beam source: a convenient, extended cavity, microwave discharge design.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E J; Brophy, J H

    1979-05-01

    An extended cavity design of a microwave discharge source for production of intense beams of atomic, radical, and metastable species in vacuo is described. The extended cavity enables the discharge to be run at the beam source nozzle while the power connection and tuning elements remain conveniently outside the apparatus. This design minimizes wall recombination losses to produce intense atomic hydrogen beams with considerably less engineering than previous discharge sources.

  6. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period.

  7. The Statistical Relationship between Product Life Cycle and Repeat Purchase Behavior in Convenience Stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Takayasu, M.

    The density function of product life cycles in convenience stores is found to follow the Weibull distribution. To clarify the parameters that determine these life cycles, we introduce the conditional market share---defined as the probability that a product is selected by customers only if it had been previously purchased---and the market share without any conditions. The product life cycle is more strongly correlated with the conditional market share of the product than with the latter type of market share.

  8. Convenient stability criteria for difference approximations of hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M.; Tadmor, E.

    1983-01-01

    New convenient stability criteria are provided in this paper for a large class of finite difference approximations to initial-boundary value problems associated with the hyperbolic system u sub t = au sub x + Bu + f in the quarter plane x or = 0, t or = 0. Using the new criteria, stability is easily established for numerous combinations of well known basic schemes and boundary conditions, thus generalizing many special cases studied in recent literature.

  9. Convenient stability criteria for difference approximations of hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M.; Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    New convenient stability criteria are provided in this paper for a large class of finite difference approximations to initial-boundary value problems associated with the hyperbolic system u sub t = au sub x + Bu + f in the quarter plane x or = 0, t or = 0. Using the new criteria, stability is easily established for numerous combinations of well known basic schemes and boundary conditins, thus generalizing many special cases studied in recent literature.

  10. Energy Saving Effects of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study of Convenience Stores in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period. PMID:22319396

  11. Commercial Motion Sensor Based Low-Cost and Convenient Interactive Treadmill †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Gravunder, Andrew; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Interactive treadmills were developed to improve the simulation of overground walking when compared to conventional treadmills. However, currently available interactive treadmills are expensive and inconvenient, which limits their use. We propose a low-cost and convenient version of the interactive treadmill that does not require expensive equipment and a complicated setup. As a substitute for high-cost sensors, such as motion capture systems, a low-cost motion sensor was used to recognize the subject’s intention for speed changing. Moreover, the sensor enables the subject to make a convenient and safe stop using gesture recognition. For further cost reduction, the novel interactive treadmill was based on an inexpensive treadmill platform and a novel high-level speed control scheme was applied to maximize performance for simulating overground walking. Pilot tests with ten healthy subjects were conducted and results demonstrated that the proposed treadmill achieves similar performance to a typical, costly, interactive treadmill that contains a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill, while providing a convenient and safe method for stopping. PMID:26393592

  12. Use of DNA barcoding to reveal species composition of convenience seafood.

    PubMed

    Huxley-Jones, Elizabeth; Shaw, Jennifer L A; Fletcher, Carly; Parnell, Juliette; Watts, Phillip C

    2012-04-01

    Increased education of consumers can be an effective tool for conservation of commercially harvested marine species when product labeling is accurate and allows an informed choice. However, generic labeling (e.g., as white fish or surimi) and mislabeling of seafood prevents this and may erode consumer confidence in seafood product labels in general. We used DNA barcoding to identify the species composition of two types of convenience seafood (i.e., products processed for ease of consumption): fish fingers (long pieces of fish covered with bread crumbs or batter, n = 241) and seafood sticks (long pieces of cooked fish, n = 30). In products labeled as either white fish or surimi, four teleost species were present. Less than 1.5% of fish fingers with species-specific information were mislabeled. Results of other studies show substantially more mislabeling (e.g., >25%) of teleost products, which likely reflects the lower economic gains associated with mislabeling of convenience seafood compared with whole fillets. In addition to species identification, seafood product labels should be required to contain information about, for example, harvesting practices, and our data indicate that consumers can have reasonable confidence in the accuracy of the labels of convenience seafood and thus select brands on the basis of information about current fisheries practice.

  13. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

  14. Compact fluorescent lights and the impact of convenience and knowledge on household recycling rates.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Travis P

    2011-06-01

    Increased energy costs, social marketing campaigns, public subsidies, and reduced retail prices have dramatically increased the number of compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) installed worldwide. CFLs provide many benefits, but they contain a very small amount of mercury. Given the billions of CFLs in use worldwide, they represent a significant source of mercury unless CFLs are recycled and the mercury recovered in an environmentally sound manner. In the state of Maine (northeast United States), despite mandated recycling of CFLs and availability of free CFL recycling, the household CFL recycling rate is very low. A study was undertaken to identify the primary factors responsible for low recycling. The first step was to survey householders who use CFLs. The 520 survey responses indicated that insufficient knowledge regarding recycling and inconvenience of the collection system are the two primary factors for the low recycling rate. To validate these findings, the second step was an examination of the current collection system to assess (a) the knowledge requirements necessary for recycling and (b) the convenience of the collection system. The results of this examination validated that knowledge requirements were excessively difficult to fulfill and the collection system is not sufficiently convenient. Based on these results, waste managers should focus on increasing convenience and simplifying access to information when designing or improving household collection and recycling of CFLs.

  15. Combining the role of convenience and consideration set size in explaining fish consumption in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rortveit, Asbjorn Warvik; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how convenience orientation, perceived product inconvenience and consideration set size are related to attitudes towards fish and fish consumption. The authors present a structural equation model (SEM) based on the integration of two previous studies. The results of a SEM analysis using Lisrel 8.72 on data from a Norwegian consumer survey (n=1630) suggest that convenience orientation and perceived product inconvenience have a negative effect on both consideration set size and consumption frequency. Attitude towards fish has the greatest impact on consumption frequency. The results also indicate that perceived product inconvenience is a key variable since it has a significant impact on attitude, and on consideration set size and consumption frequency. Further, the analyses confirm earlier findings suggesting that the effect of convenience orientation on consumption is partially mediated through perceived product inconvenience. The study also confirms earlier findings suggesting that the consideration set size affects consumption frequency. Practical implications drawn from this research are that the seafood industry would benefit from developing and positioning products that change beliefs about fish as an inconvenient product. Future research for other food categories should be done to enhance the external validity. PMID:19038300

  16. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

  17. Convenient immobilization of Pt-Sn bimetallic catalysts on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for direct alcohol electrocatalytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xizhang; Xue, Hua; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Huakai; Zang, Pengyuan; Qin, Xintai; Wang, Yangnian; Ma, Yanwen; Wu, Qiang; Hu, Zheng

    2011-09-30

    Pt-Sn alloy nanoparticles were conveniently immobilized on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) through microwave-assisted ethylene glycol reduction. The nanoparticles have a narrow particle size distribution with the average particle size around 3 nm as measured by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The binding energy of metallic Sn passively shifts due to the charge transfer from Sn to Pt, as revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst, Pt/NCNT presents a clear increase in activity for alcohol electro-oxidation due to the improved support, while the bimetallic Pt-Sn/NCNT has even higher activity owing to the alloying of Pt with Sn. Both Pt-Sn/NCNT and Pt/NCNT catalysts exhibit competitive long-term stability to Pt/C catalyst. The low cost, simple preparation and superior electrocatalytic performance indicate the great potential of Pt-Sn/NCNT in direct alcohol fuel cells.

  18. A convenient synthesis of benzo[c]naphtho[2,1-p]chrysene

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, S.; Scott, L.T.

    1996-10-04

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[c]-naphtho[2,1-p]chrysene (1) has recently attracted renewed attention as a potential precursor for the synthesis of bowl-shaped fullerene substructures. The published synthetic approaches to 1, however, are lengthy and entail one or more photocyclizations of stilbene-type compounds that suffer from competing [2 + 2]cycloaddition reactions at normal concentrations and are thereby rendered quite inefficient. The authors report here a convenient four-step synthesis of 1 that can be performed on a multigram scale starting from the commercially available {alpha}-tetralone (2) and 2-bromonaphthalene. 12 refs.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN SRS AND HANFORD 3013 INNER AND CONVENIENCE CANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2009-03-01

    Chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a plausible corrosion mechanism for the stainless steel 3013 containers during their lifetime for plutonium material storage if sufficient electrolyte is present within the container. Contributing factors for SCC, such as fabrication and welding residual stresses, are present in the 3013 cans. Convenience and inner cans from both Hanford and SRS are made by a flow form process, which cold works the stainless steel during fabrication. Additionally, the inner cans also are sealed at the can top with a closure weld to the sealing plug. Only SRS and Hanford were tested since moisture levels were significant for SCC. As part of the 3013 corrosion plan for FY09, testing in a boiling magnesium chloride solution was performed on actual 3013 convenience and inner cans to determine if the residual stresses were sufficient for the initiation and propagation of SCC. Additional testing in a 40% calcium chloride solution was also performed on 304L stainless steel SCC coupons, i.e. stressed teardrop-shaped samples (teardrops), and an inner can welded top to provide comparative results and to assess the effect of residual stresses in a less aggressive environment. The testing performed under this task consisted of 3013 inner and convenience cans and 304L teardrops exposed to a boiling magnesium chloride solutions per ASTM G36 and a 40% calcium chloride solution at 100 C following the guidance of ASTM G123. Cracking occurred in all can types including the inner can bottom and welded top and the bottoms of the SRS and Hanford convenience cans when exposed to the boiling magnesium chloride solution at 155 C. Cracking occurred at different times indicative of the residual stress levels in the cans. 304L teardrops cracked in the shortest time interval and therefore provide a conservative estimate for can performance. Testing in a 40% calcium chloride solution at 100 C demonstrated that cracking occurs in a less aggressive environment but at

  20. Convenient stability criteria for difference approximations of hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M.; Tadmor, E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve more versatile, convenient stability criteria for a wide class of finite-difference approximations to initial boundary value problems associated with the hyperbolic system u sub t = au sub x + Bu + f in the quarter-plane x greater than or equal to 0, t greater than or equal to 0. With these criteria, stability is easily established for a large number of examples, thus incorporating and generalizing many of the cases studied in recent literature.

  1. Modelling and Computation in the Valuation of Carbon Derivatives with Stochastic Convenience Yields

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission has risen dramatically during the last few decades, which mainstream researchers believe to be the main cause of climate change, especially the global warming. The mechanism of market-based carbon emission trading is regarded as a policy instrument to deal with global climate change. Although several empirical researches about the carbon allowance and its derivatives price have been made, theoretical results seem to be sparse. In this paper, we theoretically develop a mathematical model to price the CO2 emission allowance derivatives with stochastic convenience yields by the principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities. In the case of American options, we formulate the pricing problem to a linear parabolic variational inequality (VI) in two spatial dimensions and develop a power penalty method to solve it. Then, a fitted finite volume method is designed to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) resulting from the power penalty method and governing the futures, European and American option valuation. Moreover, some numerical results are performed to illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of this method. We find that the stochastic convenience yield does effect the valuation of carbon emission derivatives. In addition, some sensitivity analyses are also made to examine the effects of some parameters on the valuation results. PMID:26010900

  2. A convenient luminescence assay of ferroportin internalization to study its interaction with hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Song, Ge; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Ting; Liu, Ya-Li; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2013-04-01

    Hepcidin is a liver-secreted small disulfide-rich peptide that plays a key role in iron homeostasis by binding and mediating the internalization and degradation of the only iron efflux transporter so far known, ferroportin (Fpn). To study hepcidin-Fpn interactions, in the present study we established a convenient luminescence assay for the quantitative measurement of hepcidin-induced Fpn internalization by fusing a small nanoluciferase (NanoLuc, 171 amino acids) at the Fpn C-terminus. Once the NanoLuc-tagged Fpn was internalized, the measured luminescence was significantly decreased when assayed with the intact transiently transfected cells and an inducible expression system. Through the coexpression of a NanoLuc-tagged Fpn and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged Fpn by the use of an inducible bidirectional promoter, we could measure the hepcidin-induced Fpn internalization qualitatively and quantitatively on the basis of the fluorescence of the tagged EGFP and the luminescence of the tagged NanoLuc. Thus, our present study provides a novel and convenient assay for measuring the hepcidin-Fpn interaction qualitatively and quantitatively. Through coexpression of a NanoLuc-tagged wild-type Fpn and an EGFP-tagged hepcidin-insensitive mutant [C326S]Fpn, we demonstrated that the mutant Fpn had no effect on hepcidin-induced internalization of wild-type Fpn, suggesting that wild-type Fpn and mutant Fpn are functionally independent.

  3. Part III: the convenience of, and patient preference for, zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet.

    PubMed

    Dowson, Andrew J; Almqvist, Per

    2005-01-01

    As part of an optimal strategy for the management of migraine, the individual needs and preferences of patients need to be considered when of patients need to be considered when prescribing treatments. Zolmitriptan has been available as a conventional oral tablet for more than seven years, and is established as a highly effective, well-tolerated compound for the acute treatment of migraine. A bioequivalent, orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of zolmitriptan, which dissolves on the tongue without the need for additional fluid intake, has been developed. In a study designed to compare patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and conventional oral sumatriptan tablets, > 60% of the 186 patients questioned had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT, with > 80% of patients reporting that this was the more convenient and less disruptive therapy to take. Approximately 90% of patients agreed that, unlike a conventional tablet, zolmitriptan ODT can be taken wherever and whenever a migraine occurs. When patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and the ODT formulation of rizatriptan was compared in 171 migraineurs, 70% had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT to be superior to rizatriptan ODT with respect to taste and aftertaste, as well as packaging. In summary, not only is zolmitriptan ODT a convenient tablets, such as the sumatriptan oral tablet, but patients generally consider it to be a more attractive option for the acute treatment of migraine than the orally disintegrating version of rizatriptan.

  4. Hand-held digital books in radiology: convenient access to information.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, M P; Galvin, J R; Santer, D M; Erkonen, W E

    1995-02-01

    Radiologists need constant, convenient access to current information throughout the course of their daily work. Today most learning in radiology is obtained from the printed word in books, journals, and teaching files, supplemented by the spoken word in lectures and conferences. Although learning from printed material and lectures has been proved efficacious over time, these media share the disadvantage of not being conveniently available for reference during the course of daily work at the alternator or in the examination room when accurate and up-to-date information is needed the most. As a result, many important questions about patient care go unanswered. We have developed a technique--hand-held digital books--to lower this barrier to searching and retrieval. When radiologists have a digital library that can be carried with them, they will be able to incorporate current radiology information into their daily decision making. We describe a technique for creating hand-held digital books and their future use in radiology.

  5. Modelling and computation in the valuation of carbon derivatives with stochastic convenience yields.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission has risen dramatically during the last few decades, which mainstream researchers believe to be the main cause of climate change, especially the global warming. The mechanism of market-based carbon emission trading is regarded as a policy instrument to deal with global climate change. Although several empirical researches about the carbon allowance and its derivatives price have been made, theoretical results seem to be sparse. In this paper, we theoretically develop a mathematical model to price the CO2 emission allowance derivatives with stochastic convenience yields by the principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities. In the case of American options, we formulate the pricing problem to a linear parabolic variational inequality (VI) in two spatial dimensions and develop a power penalty method to solve it. Then, a fitted finite volume method is designed to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) resulting from the power penalty method and governing the futures, European and American option valuation. Moreover, some numerical results are performed to illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of this method. We find that the stochastic convenience yield does effect the valuation of carbon emission derivatives. In addition, some sensitivity analyses are also made to examine the effects of some parameters on the valuation results.

  6. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  7. High-generation second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) Dendrimers that contain isolation chromophores: convenient synthesis by using click chemistry and their increased NLO effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbo; Li, Conggang; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Ye, Cheng; Qin, Jingui; Li, Zhen

    2012-08-27

    Herein, high-generation dendrimers G4-NS and G5-NS, which contained 30 and 62 azo-benzene chromophore moieties, respectively, were conveniently prepared in high purity and satisfied yields by a combination of divergent and convergent approaches, coupled with the utilization of the powerful Sharpless click reaction. These dendrimers possessed a regular structure of alternating layers of nitro-based and sulfonyl-based azo chromophores in which the sulfonyl-based azo-chromophore moieties were utilized as co-isolation groups for the nitro-based moieties to achieve larger macroscopic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) effects. These high-generation dendrimers (G4-NS and G5-NS) displayed very large NLO efficiencies (up to 253.0 pm V(-1)), which is, to the best of our knowledge, the record highest efficiency for simple azo-chromophore moieties.

  8. Convenient and rapid removal of detergent from glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Kabayama, Kazuya

    2012-03-01

    Although detergents are often essential in protocols, they are usually incompatible with further biochemical analysis. There are several methods for detergent removal, but the procedures are complicated or suffer from sample loss. Here, we describe a convenient and rapid method for detergent removal from sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids (gangliosides) and neutral glycolipids in detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) microdomain. It is based on selective detergent extraction, in which the sample is dried on a glass tube, followed by washing with organic solvent. We investigated 18 organic solvents and used high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS) to confirm that dichloroethane (DCE) was the most suitable solvent and completely removed the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Furthermore, DCE extraction effectively removed interference caused by other nonionic, zwitterionic, or ionic detergents in MALDI-QIT-TOF MS analysis.

  9. Artificial TALE as a Convenient Protein Platform for Engineering Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Li, Fangfang; Cai, Jianyu; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Nan; Sun, Yuqiang; Guo, Yushuang; Yang, Xiuling; Wu, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-20

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that utilize a simple and predictable modality to recognize target DNA. This unique characteristic allows for the rapid assembly of artificial TALEs, with high DNA binding specificity, to any target DNA sequences for the creation of customizable sequence-specific nucleases used in genome engineering. Here, we report the use of an artificial TALE protein as a convenient platform for designing broad-spectrum resistance to begomoviruses, one of the most destructive plant virus groups, which cause tremendous losses worldwide. We showed that artificial TALEs, which were assembled based on conserved sequence motifs within begomovirus genomes, could confer partial resistance in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana to all three begomoviruses tested. Furthermore, the resistance was maintained even in the presence of their betasatellite. These results shed new light on the development of broad-spectrum resistance against DNA viruses, such as begomoviruses.

  10. A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shoji, M; Hamajima, Y; Takatsuka, K; Honoki, H; Nakajima, T; Kondo, T; Nakanishi, T

    2001-08-01

    A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium reagent was developed by measuring and analyzing the gamma-ray spectra of some reagents with no standard source. The counting rates (R) of photoelectric peaks of gamma-rays from nuclides with the same radioactivity divided by their emission probability (B) are expressed as a function of gamma-ray energy. The radioactivities of 234Th and 234mPa and 21.72 times that of 235U are equal to the radioactivity of 235U in natural uranium. Therefore, the plot of 21.72-fold R/B for 235U should be on a curve fitted to the points for 234Th and 234mPa in natural uranium. Depleted uranium with a 235U isotopic composition of less than 0.68% could be discriminated from natural uranium in the case of a reagent containing 4.0 g of uranium.

  11. Twin-Induced InSb Nanosails: A Convenient High Mobility Quantum System.

    PubMed

    de la Mata, María; Leturcq, Renaud; Plissard, Sébastien R; Rolland, Chloé; Magén, César; Arbiol, Jordi; Caroff, Philippe

    2016-02-10

    Ultra narrow bandgap III-V semiconductor nanomaterials provide a unique platform for realizing advanced nanoelectronics, thermoelectrics, infrared photodetection, and quantum transport physics. In this work we employ molecular beam epitaxy to synthesize novel nanosheet-like InSb nanostructures exhibiting superior electronic performance. Through careful morphological and crystallographic characterization we show how this unique geometry is the result of a single twinning event in an otherwise pure zinc blende structure. Four-terminal electrical measurements performed in both the Hall and van der Pauw configurations reveal a room temperature electron mobility greater than 12,000 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1). Quantized conductance in a quantum point contact processed with a split-gate configuration is also demonstrated. We thus introduce InSb "nanosails" as a versatile and convenient platform for realizing new device and physics experiments with a strong interplay between electronic and spin degrees of freedom.

  12. A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shoji, M; Hamajima, Y; Takatsuka, K; Honoki, H; Nakajima, T; Kondo, T; Nakanishi, T

    2001-08-01

    A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium reagent was developed by measuring and analyzing the gamma-ray spectra of some reagents with no standard source. The counting rates (R) of photoelectric peaks of gamma-rays from nuclides with the same radioactivity divided by their emission probability (B) are expressed as a function of gamma-ray energy. The radioactivities of 234Th and 234mPa and 21.72 times that of 235U are equal to the radioactivity of 235U in natural uranium. Therefore, the plot of 21.72-fold R/B for 235U should be on a curve fitted to the points for 234Th and 234mPa in natural uranium. Depleted uranium with a 235U isotopic composition of less than 0.68% could be discriminated from natural uranium in the case of a reagent containing 4.0 g of uranium. PMID:11393763

  13. Artificial TALE as a Convenient Protein Platform for Engineering Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Li, Fangfang; Cai, Jianyu; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Nan; Sun, Yuqiang; Guo, Yushuang; Yang, Xiuling; Wu, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that utilize a simple and predictable modality to recognize target DNA. This unique characteristic allows for the rapid assembly of artificial TALEs, with high DNA binding specificity, to any target DNA sequences for the creation of customizable sequence-specific nucleases used in genome engineering. Here, we report the use of an artificial TALE protein as a convenient platform for designing broad-spectrum resistance to begomoviruses, one of the most destructive plant virus groups, which cause tremendous losses worldwide. We showed that artificial TALEs, which were assembled based on conserved sequence motifs within begomovirus genomes, could confer partial resistance in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana to all three begomoviruses tested. Furthermore, the resistance was maintained even in the presence of their betasatellite. These results shed new light on the development of broad-spectrum resistance against DNA viruses, such as begomoviruses. PMID:26308041

  14. α-Fucosidase as a novel convenient biomarker for cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Dominic G.; Lehle, Simon; Borst, Andreas; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Essmann, Frank; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Due to its role in aging and antitumor defense, cellular senescence has recently attracted increasing interest. However, there is currently no single specific marker that can unequivocally detect senescent cells. Here, we identified α-L-fucosidase (α-Fuc) as a novel sensitive biomarker for cellular senescence. Regardless of the stress stimulus and cell type, α-Fuc activity was induced in all canonical types of cellular senescence, including replicative, DNA damage- and oncogene-induced senescence. Strikingly, in most models the degree of α-Fuc upregulation was higher than the induction of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), the current gold standard for senescence detection. As α-Fuc is convenient and easy to measure, we suggest its utility as a valuable marker, in particular in cells with low SA-β-Gal activity. PMID:23673343

  15. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor’s law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases. PMID:27310915

  16. A convenient test for lipase activity in aqueous-based solutions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; Chen, Cheng-Peng; Wang, Shu-Gen; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a convenient and accurate method for the measurement of lipase activity in a uniform aqueous-based substrate solution. In this work, lipase from Candida rugosa was used as the model lipase to test its catalytic ability toward p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP), which was suspended in a mixture of p-NPP ethanol solution and buffer. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer was used to efficiently measure the liberated p-nitrophenol without extraction or centrifugation. Several factors that affected lipase activity were investigated, such as the ratio of p-NPP ethanol solution to buffer, the concentrations of p-NPP and lipase, as well as the temperature, reaction time, pH and agitation rate. Additionally, enzyme catalytic parameters such as Km, Vm and "activation energy" were also assessed. We determined the optimal conditions for lipase in this homogeneous system and demonstrated lipase's catalytic performance in this condition followed Michealis-Menten kinetics. PMID:25765304

  17. A convenient test for lipase activity in aqueous-based solutions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; Chen, Cheng-Peng; Wang, Shu-Gen; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a convenient and accurate method for the measurement of lipase activity in a uniform aqueous-based substrate solution. In this work, lipase from Candida rugosa was used as the model lipase to test its catalytic ability toward p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP), which was suspended in a mixture of p-NPP ethanol solution and buffer. An ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer was used to efficiently measure the liberated p-nitrophenol without extraction or centrifugation. Several factors that affected lipase activity were investigated, such as the ratio of p-NPP ethanol solution to buffer, the concentrations of p-NPP and lipase, as well as the temperature, reaction time, pH and agitation rate. Additionally, enzyme catalytic parameters such as Km, Vm and "activation energy" were also assessed. We determined the optimal conditions for lipase in this homogeneous system and demonstrated lipase's catalytic performance in this condition followed Michealis-Menten kinetics.

  18. A convenient and accurate parallel Input/Output USB device for E-Prime.

    PubMed

    Canto, Rosario; Bufalari, Ilaria; D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    Psychological and neurophysiological experiments require the accurate control of timing and synchrony for Input/Output signals. For instance, a typical Event-Related Potential (ERP) study requires an extremely accurate synchronization of stimulus delivery with recordings. This is typically done via computer software such as E-Prime, and fast communications are typically assured by the Parallel Port (PP). However, the PP is an old and disappearing technology that, for example, is no longer available on portable computers. Here we propose a convenient USB device enabling parallel I/O capabilities. We tested this device against the PP on both a desktop and a laptop machine in different stress tests. Our data demonstrate the accuracy of our system, which suggests that it may be a good substitute for the PP with E-Prime.

  19. A Rich Client-Server Based Framework for Convenient Security and Management of Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badan, Stephen; Probst, Julien; Jaton, Markus; Vionnet, Damien; Wagen, Jean-Frédéric; Litzistorf, Gérald

    Contact lists, Emails, SMS or custom applications on a professional smartphone could hold very confidential or sensitive information. What could happen in case of theft or accidental loss of such devices? Such events could be detected by the separation between the smartphone and a Bluetooth companion device. This event should typically block the applications and delete personal and sensitive data. Here, a solution is proposed based on a secured framework application running on the mobile phone as a rich client connected to a security server. The framework offers strong and customizable authentication and secured connectivity. A security server manages all security issues. User applications are then loaded via the framework. User data can be secured, synchronized, pushed or pulled via the framework. This contribution proposes a convenient although secured environment based on a client-server architecture using external authentications. Several features of the proposed system are exposed and a practical demonstrator is described.

  20. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases. PMID:27310915

  1. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-zhen; Chu, Zhi-zhan; Chen, Chang-chao; Cao, Ao-cheng; Tong, Xin; Ouyang, Can-bin; Yuan, Qi-hang; Wang, Mi-nan; Wu, Zhong-kun; Wang, Hai-hong; Wang, Sheng-bin

    2015-01-01

    Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP) could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK), α-Amylase (Amy) and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases. PMID:26641240

  2. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-zhen; Chu, Zhi-zhan; Chen, Chang-chao; Cao, Ao-cheng; Tong, Xin; Ouyang, Can-bin; Yuan, Qi-hang; Wang, Mi-nan; Wu, Zhong-kun; Wang, Hai-hong; Wang, Sheng-bin

    2015-01-01

    Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP) could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK), α-Amylase (Amy) and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases. PMID:26641240

  3. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    PubMed Central

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  4. Measurement of Lung Phosphatidylcholines in Exhaled Breath Particles by a Convenient Collection Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Sandqvist, Sören; Beck, Olof

    2015-11-17

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative determination of four phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in human exhaled breath particles. Analytes were conveniently collected on an electrostatic polymer filter and extracted with methanol prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ultraperformance liquid chromatographic ethylene bridged hybrid phenyl column using a mobile phase consisting of water and methanol containing 4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% ammonia. The mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode. Detection limits for PC 16:0/16:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), PC 16:0/18:1, PC 16:0/18:2, and PC 18:0/18:2 were <0.01 ng/filter. Method recoveries at concentration levels of 0.1 and 10 ng/filter were 100-110% and 101-121%, respectively. Acceptable precision with coefficients of variation <20% and accuracies of 100% ± 20% were achieved. Identification of the individual PCs was performed on the basis of two product ions with correct ion ratios and chromatographic retention times. The highest amount in exhaled breath was found for DPPC with median concentration 1.14 ng/filter (range 0.6-21 ng/filter), and median molar ratios of DPPC/PC (16:0/18:1) of 1.98 (range 0.48-2.75). A different pattern with lower molar ratio (∼0.15) was found for oral fluid. The most significant element of this study was to use a precolumn in the LC system and to collecting exhaled particles in an electret polymer filter. Due to chromatographic interference by background contamination, an isolator column (PFC kit) was installed in between eluent mixer and injector to reduce contamination. This is the first LC/MS study where the method was successfully applied to analyze PCs in human exhaled breath by using a simple and convenient collection procedure. PMID:26505278

  5. Neighborhood availability of convenience stores and diet quality: findings from 20 years of follow-up in CARDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Jacobs, David R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined the association between neighborhood convenience stores and diet outcomes over 20 years of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS We used dietary data from CARDIA exam years 1985–6, 1992–3, and 2005–6 (n=3,299) and geographically and temporally matched neighborhood-level food resource (Dun & Bradstreet) and US Census data. We used random-effects repeated measures regression to estimate associations between availability of neighborhood convenience stores with diet outcomes, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. RESULTS In multivariable-adjusted analyses, greater availability of neighborhood convenience stores was associated with lower diet quality (mean score=66.3, SD=13.0) for participants with lower (versus higher) individual-level income (β, −2.40; 95% CI: −3.30, −1.51); associations at higher individual-level income were weaker. We observed similar associations with whole grain consumption across time, but no statistically significant associations with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages, snacks, processed meats, fruits, or vegetables. CONCLUSIONS Convenience stores may promote lower quality diets. Furthermore, low-income individuals may be most sensitive to convenience store availability, and thus may benefit most from improvements to the food environment. PMID:25790410

  6. Heterobifunctional reagents: A new approach to radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Liu, Z.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    The use of bifunctional chelate such as the cyclic anhydride of DTPA for radiolabeling antibodies (Abs) may lead to homopolymerization, and intra- or intermolecular cross-linking, with resulting denaturation and decrease immunoreactivity of Abs. The authors, therefore, investigated the use of heterobifunctional reagents, whereby one group selectively couples to the amino group of the Ab and the other group to the radiometal for Ab labeling. One such reagent, 2,6-Dioxo-N-(carboxymethyl)morphine (DCM) was synthesized by reacting nitrilotriacetic acid with acetic anhydride. The other agent tested was commercially available N-Succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). These agents were evaluated independently for their ability to label a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to a melanoma associated antigen (Ag). Labeling proceeded at a 2mg/ml concentration of the Ab, at HEPES pH 8.2, and 7.0, respectively, at room temperature for 30 min. The conjugate subsequently was labeled with Tc-99m or In-111. For comparison, the same labeled Abs also were prepared by using the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Binding of the Ab to melanoma cells and control cells then was assayed. The results of cell binding experiments (N=3 per agent) in the region of Ag excess (X+-SD) were as follows: 62.6 +- 2.83% for Tc-99m-DCM-MoAb and 41.3+-1.84% for Tc-99m-SPDP-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for Tc-99m-DTPA-MoAb (p<0.01); 56.2 +- 2.97% for In-111-DCM-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for In-111-DTPA-M0Ab. Binding of all agents to the control lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. These results suggest that heterobifunctional reagents can reduce the loss of immunoreactivity of labeled MoAbs.

  7. Reconsideration of the costs of convenience: quality, operational, and fiscal strategies to minimize elective labor induction.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice

    2010-01-01

    Elective induction of labor is at an all-time high in the United States despite known associated risks. It can lead to birth of an infant too early, a long labor, exposure to a high-alert medication with its potential side effects, unnecessary cesarean birth, and maternal and neonatal morbidity. There is a cascade of interventions related to elective induction such as an intravenous line, continuous electronic fetal monitoring, confinement to bed, amniotomy, pharmacologic labor stimulating agents, parental pain medications, and regional anesthesia, each with their own set of potential complications and risk of iatrogenic harm. These risks apply to all women having the procedure, however for nulliparous women before 41 weeks of gestation with an unfavorable cervix, the main risk is cesarean birth after unsuccessful labor induction with the potential for maternal and neonatal morbidity and increased healthcare costs. When cesarean occurs, subsequent births are likely to be via cesarean as well. Elective labor induction before 41 weeks is inconsistent with quality perinatal care, and performance of this unnecessary procedure should be minimized. Convenience as the reason for labor induction is contrary to a culture focused on patient safety. A review of current evidence, followed by changes in practice, is warranted to support the safest care possible during labor and birth. Various strategies to reduce the rate of elective induction in the United States are presented.

  8. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda. PMID:25791963

  9. Enhanced ethanol fermentation in a pervaporation membrane bioreactor with the convenient permeate vapor recovery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Senqing; Xiao, Zeyi; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Chunyan; Li, Weijia; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina

    2014-03-01

    A continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor was built for ethanol fermentation without a refrigeration unit to condense the permeate vapor. Two runs of experiment with a feature of complete and continuous coupling of fermentation and pervaporation were carried out, lasting for 192h and 264h, respectively. The experimental measurement indicated that the enhanced fermentation could be achieved with additional advantages of convenient permeate recovery and energy saving of the process. During the second experiment, the average cell concentration, glucose consumption rate, ethanol productivity, ethanol yield and total ethanol amount produced reached 19.8gL(-1), 6.06gL(-1)h(-1), 2.31gL(-1)h(-1), 0.38, and 609.8gL(-1), respectively. During the continuous fermentation process, ethanol removal in situ promoted the cell second growth obviously, but the accumulation of the secondary metabolites in the broth became the main inhibitor against the cell growth and fermentation.

  10. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a convenient model system for the study of DNA repair in photoautotrophic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Vlcek, Daniel; Sevcovicová, Andrea; Sviezená, Barbara; Gálová, Eliska; Miadoková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a convenient model organism for the study of basic biological processes, including DNA repair investigations. This review is focused on the studies of DNA repair pathways in C. reinhardtii. Emphasis is given to the connection of DNA repair with other cellular functions, namely the regulation of the cell cycle. Comparison with the results of repair investigations that are already available revealed the presence of all basic repair pathways in C. reinhardtii as well as special features characteristic of this alga. Among others, the involvement of UVSE1 gene in recombinational repair and uniparental inheritance of chloroplast genome, the specific role of TRXH1 gene in strand break repair, the requirement of PHR1 gene for full activity of PHR2 gene, or encoding of two excision repair proteins by the single REX1 gene. Contrary to yeast, mammals and higher plants, C. reinhardtii does not appear to contain the ortholog of RAD6 gene, which plays an important role in DNA translesion synthesis and mutagenesis. Completed genome sequences will be a basis for molecular analyses allowing to explain the differences that have been observed in DNA repair of this alga in comparison with other model organisms.

  11. The convenience of temporary housing complexes in Iwate Prefecture constructed after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibutani, Risa; Endo, Noriaki

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the convenience of temporary housing complexes in the Iwate Prefecture following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. The study was targeted at three major cities in the southern coastal area of Iwate Prefecture, namely, Kamaishi, Ofunato, and Rikuzen- Takata, that were most heavily struck by the earthquake-triggered tsunami. We conducted a network analysis in geographical information system software using the coordinate data of several daily infrastructures. Temporary housing complexes within the defined service area of each infrastructure were assigned a score of 1.00. The main findings are summarized below: 1) The temporary housing complexes in Rikuzen-Takata City were less accessible to infrastructures (as evidenced by the low coverage area of 1.00 scores) than the other investigated cities. 2) The scores of Kamaishi City and Ofunato City were statistically similar, but complexes in Ofunato City were surrounded by slightly more infrastructures (greater coverage area of 1.00 scores) than Kamaishi City. 3) We identified more than the predicted number of blank areas in the targeted areas. Thus, we consider that support services for people living in such areas are urgently required, especially in the realms of daily shopping, banking, and healthcare.

  12. OCT as a convenient tool to assess the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gater, Rachel; Khoshnaw, Nicholas; Nguyen, Dan; El Haj, Alicia J.; Yang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Eye diseases such as macular degeneration and glaucoma have profound consequences on the quality of human life. Without treatment, these diseases can lead to loss of sight. To develop better treatments for retinal diseases, including cell therapies and drug intervention, establishment of an efficient and reproducible 3D native retinal tissue system, enabled over a prolonged culture duration, will be valuable. The retina is a complex tissue, consisting of ten layers with a different density and cellular composition to each. Uniquely, as a light transmitting tissue, retinal refraction of light differs among the layers, forming a good basis to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessing the layered structure of the retina and its change during the culture and treatments. In this study, we develop a new methodology to generate retinal organotypic tissues and compare two substrates: filter paper and collagen hydrogel, to culture the organotypic tissue. Freshly slaughtered pig eyes have been obtained for use in this study. The layered morphology of intact organotypic retinal tissue cultured on two different substrates has been examined by spectral domain OCT. The viability of the tissues has been examined by live/dead fluorescence dye kit to cross validate the OCT images. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the use of a collagen hydrogel supports the viability of retinal organotypic tissue, capable of prolonged culture up to 2 weeks. OCT is a convenient tool for appraising the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples and is important in the development of current organotypic models.

  13. Convenient surface functionalization of whole-Teflon chips with polydopamine coating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bo; Xiong, Bin; Wu, Hongkai

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a convenient strategy to modify the surface of whole-Teflon microfluidic chips by coating the channel walls with a thin layer of polydopamine (PDA) film, which is formed by oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine in alkaline solution. Two coating strategies, static incubation and dynamic flow, are demonstrated and used for tuning the physical and chemical properties of the coated channel walls. The functionalized surfaces were investigated with the contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurements. The coating time was optimized according to the fluorescent intensity of the green fluorescent protein immobilized on the modified surface. Applications of the PDA-modified Teflon microchips in bioanalysis were demonstrated with a typical sandwich immunoassay. Moreover, long-term cell culture experiments on modified and native Teflon chips revealed that the chip biocompatibility can be greatly improved with PDA coating. The results indicate that the surface properties of the Teflon can be easily controlled by the PDA modification, thus greatly expanding the application scope of whole-Teflon chips for various chemical and biological research fields.

  14. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag(+)). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications. PMID:27677302

  15. Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity.

    PubMed

    Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-07-01

    The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price.

  16. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag+). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications.

  17. Nickel levels in convenience and fast foods: in vitro study of the dialyzable fraction.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Mesías, Marta; Bouzas, Paula R

    2011-03-15

    Nickel presence was determined in 170 samples of 43 different convenience and fast foods widely consumed in Spain. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used as analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked. Ni levels ranged from 18.50 to 95.00 ng g(-1) (fresh weight of edible portion). The most elevated Ni concentrations were found in egg- and pork-based foods and in sauces but there is a high variability inside of each one of these foods. Ni content increases in products that contain spices and aromatic herbs, whole cereals, dry fruits, cheese and mushrooms. Mean Ni dialyzable fraction estimated by in vitro assays ranged from 4.50 to 7.75%. This study shows that the probability of exposure to health risks from these foods is overall small. However, the present findings are of potential use in food composition tables and to estimate the Ni dietary intake and tolerable intake levels in accordance with the current dietary habits.

  18. Convenient surface functionalization of whole-Teflon chips with polydopamine coating

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Xiong, Bin; Wu, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a convenient strategy to modify the surface of whole-Teflon microfluidic chips by coating the channel walls with a thin layer of polydopamine (PDA) film, which is formed by oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine in alkaline solution. Two coating strategies, static incubation and dynamic flow, are demonstrated and used for tuning the physical and chemical properties of the coated channel walls. The functionalized surfaces were investigated with the contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy measurements. The coating time was optimized according to the fluorescent intensity of the green fluorescent protein immobilized on the modified surface. Applications of the PDA-modified Teflon microchips in bioanalysis were demonstrated with a typical sandwich immunoassay. Moreover, long-term cell culture experiments on modified and native Teflon chips revealed that the chip biocompatibility can be greatly improved with PDA coating. The results indicate that the surface properties of the Teflon can be easily controlled by the PDA modification, thus greatly expanding the application scope of whole-Teflon chips for various chemical and biological research fields. PMID:26339312

  19. Dry reagent technology for rapid, convenient measurements of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Oberhardt, B J; Dermott, S C; Taylor, M; Alkadi, Z Y; Abruzzini, A F; Gresalfi, N J

    1991-04-01

    Rapid coagulation and fibrinolysis assays suitable for use with an imprecisely measured sample volume (either whole blood or plasma) have been developed, utilizing a technology based on paramagnetic iron oxide particles (PIOP) that move in response to an oscillating magnetic field. PIOP are combined with appropriate test reagents for clotting and thrombolysis assays and formulated as dry reagents within a capillary test chamber. The minima and maxima of the PIOP oscillations define a two-sided waveform that provides kinetic information on fibrin polymerization and lysis. Subject to the chemistry of the dry reagent formulation, the resulting waveform can be used to define clotting time, lysis onset time, or fibrinogen variables. Applications to one-stage prothrombin time and one-stage activated partial thromboplastin time tests have yielded assays with consistently good correlations with other test methods. Applications to fibrinolysis studies have yielded global assays of thrombolytic activity, in that the assay results reflect the interactions of multiple factors associated with the effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy. Depending on the components utilized in a particular reagent formulation, one can derive information about the activity of such factors as fibrinogen, plasminogen, and related inhibitors, as well as the lytic agent being administered. Use of these assays in a clinical setting should provide a rapid, convenient alternative to conventional testing of coagulation variables and a reliable method for monitoring thrombolytic therapy. PMID:2015664

  20. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections: convenience vs. random community-based sampling.

    PubMed

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S; Harritshøj, L H; Krogfelt, K A; Linneberg, A; Mølbak, K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of reported infections of non-typhoid Salmonella is affected by biases inherent to passive laboratory surveillance, whereas analysis of blood sera may provide a less biased alternative to estimate the force of Salmonella transmission in humans. We developed a mathematical model that enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in blood donors (90% CrI 85-298) and 77/1000 in the community cohort (90% CrI 45-114). Although the differences between study populations decreased when accounting for different age distributions the estimates depend on the study population. It is important to be aware of this issue and define a certain population under surveillance in order to obtain consistent results in an application of serological measures for public health purposes.

  1. Reducing elevator energy use: A comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience

    PubMed Central

    Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.; Merrigan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two different procedures for reducing elevator energy use were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. In the first procedure, feedback about the amount of energy consumed by the elevators each week was posted on each elevator door. Later, signs advocating the use of stairs to save energy and improve health were posted next to the feedback signs. In the second procedure, the time required to travel between floors was increased by adding a delay to the elevator door closing mechanisms. Results indicated that neither feedback alone nor feedback plus educational signs reduced the amount of energy consumed by the elevators. However, use of the door delay reduced consumption by one-third in all elevators. A second experiment replicated the effect of the door delay on energy consumption and, in addition, demonstrated that the door delay also produced a reduction in the number of persons using the elevator. The second experiment also showed that, following an initial period during which a full delay was in effect, a gradual reduction of the delay interval resulted in continued energy conservation. Reduced convenience as a general strategy for energy conservation is discussed. PMID:16795648

  2. Evaluation of convenient pretreatment protocols for RNA virus metagenomics in serum and tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Rosseel, Toon; Ozhelvaci, Orkun; Freimanis, Graham; Van Borm, Steven

    2015-09-15

    Viral metagenomic approaches are increasingly being used for viral discovery. Various strategies are applied to enrich viral sequences, but there is often a lack of knowledge about their effective influence on the viral discovery sensitivity. We evaluate some convenient and widely used approaches for RNA virus discovery in clinical samples in order to reveal their sensitivity and potential bias introduced by the enrichment or amplifications steps. An RNA virus was artificially spiked at a fixed titer in serum and lung tissue, respectively, low and high nucleic acid content matrices. For serum, a simple DNase treatment on the RNA extract gave the maximum gain in proportion of viral sequences (83×), and a subsequent ribosomal RNA removal nearly doubled once more the proportion of viral sequences. For lung tissue, a ribosomal RNA depletion step on the RNA extract had the biggest gain in proportion of viral sequences (32×). We show also that direct sequencing of cDNA is recommended above an extra random PCR amplification step, and a that the virion enrichment strategy (filtration and nuclease treatment) has a beneficial effect for sequencing-based virus discovery. Our findings provide sample-dependent guidelines for targeted virus discovery strategies.

  3. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda.

  4. Pocket EZPIN device for healthcare IC cards to enhance the security and convenience of senior citizens.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jiun-Tze; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2008-04-01

    An application that adopts smart cards often requires users to enter a PIN (Personal Identification Number) code. In Taiwan's healthcare system, a PIN is used to protect a card holder's private data. However, should one forget one's PIN, the procedure to set up a new PIN is inconvenient. There is a higher probability that senior citizens may forget their PINs. We propose a device which stores the PIN of the cardholder's Healthcare IC card. When the healthcare IC card reader requires the cardholder to enter his/her PIN, the cardholder pushes a button of the device to remotely sends the cardholder's encrypted PIN, for example by Infra Red. The device is designed to be low cost and easy to carry, and, hence, affordable to be a gift to senior citizens. Moreover, if the cardholder should forget to take the device with him/her, the card still works as normal. The device would be helpful in ensuring the public's privacy and convenience in Taiwan's healthcare system.

  5. More than a Marriage of Convenience: The Convergence of Management and Indigenous Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursey-Bray, Melissa; Haugstetter, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In today's globalized world, there is an increasing imperative to operate in multiple and culturally diverse contexts. An intercultural approach to management education prepares students to work anywhere in the world. What lessons can be learned from other cultures that can enhance how managers operate in international forums? The authors seek to…

  6. Study of the Phototransference in GR-200 Dosimetric Material and its Convenience for Dose Re-estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Baly, L.; Otazo, M. R.; Molina, D.; Pernas, R.

    2006-09-08

    A study of the phototransference of charges from deep to dosimetric traps in GR-200 material is presented and its convenience for dose re-estimation in the dose range between 2 and 100mSv is also analyzed. The recovering coefficient (RC) defined as the ratio between the phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) and the original thermoluminescence (TL) of the dosimetric trap was used to evaluate the ratio of phototransferred charges from deep traps and the original charges in the dosimetric traps. The results show the convenience of this method for dose re-estimation for this material in the selected range of doses.

  7. Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: A total of 230 samples were collected, involving 100% of the food handlers, in 8 selected convenient food outlets with their main focus on preparing ready-to-eat foods. The workers’ cleaned and disinfected dominant hands were sampled for Total Plate Count (TPC), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacteria were isolated and counted using standard methods. Results: The highest bacterial count from the hand samples was 7.4 x 103 cfu.cm-2 and the lowest showed no detectable growth. Although hands with a count of 0 cfu.cm-2 were found in all of the plants, the results indicated that all the plants exceeded the legal limit for food surfaces or hands of < 100 cfu.cm-2 when the average bacterial counts on hands were compared. Sixty percent of the TPC analysed exceeded the legal limit and only 18% of the food handlers had no bacteria detectable on their hands. One sample tested positive for E. coli and S. aureus could not be detected on the hands of any of the food handlers. Conclusion: The study revealed that hand hygiene is unsatisfactory and may have serious implications for public health due to contamination of food from food handlers’ hands. This therefore underlined the importance of further training to improve food handlers’ knowledge of good hand washing practices. PMID:25097511

  8. A convenient method for identifying a small pulmonary nodule using a dyed swab and geometric mapping

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Takashi; Kawatani, Natsuko; Ohsawa, Fumi; Yoshikawa, Ryohei; Shimizu, Kimihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT)—guided lung needle marking is useful to identify pulmonary nodules. However, certain complications sometimes trigger severe after-effects or death. So, we present a convenient and safe method by which small pulmonary nodules can be identified using a particular dye [2% (w/v) gentian violet]. Methods A patient is initially placed in the lateral operative position. Under CT guidance, a “magic marker” is used to identify the skin above the pulmonary nodule. During the operation, the chest wall is punctured on that mark using a needle loop retractor (Mini Loop Retractor II). A swab saturated in the dye solution is attached to a silk thread and passed through the loop. The loop and string are subsequently retracted. The dye-stamp is apparent on the lung surface above the nodule after the lung is inflated. If the scapula, any vertebra, or the clavicle compromised access to a nodule, we used our geometric technique to locate that nodule. Results We used this technique to treat 51 lesions of 50 patients presenting from 2013 to 2015. Mean tumor diameter was 7 mm. All lesions were identified via thoracoscopy, all nodules were constrained by ring forceps, and wedge resections were performed using a stapler. All lesions lay very close to the staple markings, as judged by finger or instrument palpation. No complications were encountered. Conclusions The advantages of our technique are that it is simple and easy, air emboli are not an issue, the skin marking is rapid, safety is assured, and the skin marking does not require hospitalization. Our method is also useful such as following situations; it defines the margins of the cut line upon anatomical segmentectomy, indicates where a skin incision is required, and identifies impalpable nodules, which aids the lung resection but provides frozen sections to the pathologist. PMID:27747009

  9. Radial artery blood pressure measurement in neonates: an accurate and convenient technique in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gevers, M; van Genderingen, H R; Lafeber, H N; Hack, W W

    1995-01-01

    To achieve accurate blood pressure measurement through radial artery catheters in infants, we previously developed an experimental high-fidelity catheter-manometer system (CMS). As this system lacks facilities for flushing and for blood sampling, we aimed to further develop this technique in order to make the system suitable for clinical practice. In addition, we aimed to develop methods to automate processing of the pressure wave forms. The high-fidelity system to be improved consisted of a 24 Gauge catheter, a threeway stopcock and a tip-manometer. We inserted this system in the catheter-manometer system as routinely used i.e. the remaining end of the stopcock was connected to the fluid-filled CMS as used routinely. This combined system became clinically applicable, since blood samples could be obtained and flushing could be performed. The measurement chain was completed by application of a modified physiological monitor and a computerized method to analyze pressure wave forms. In this manner accurate beat-to-beat pressure parameters were obtained. This technique was applied to 25 neonates admitted for intensive care and requiring arterial access. Gestational age of these infants ranged from 25-40 (median 29) weeks and birth weight ranges from 500-3375 (median 1060) grams. In all infants the technique was found to be convenient and the high-fidelity blood pressure measurements were performed without any problems. The advantage of the present system is the potential for both correct intermittent recordings of arterial wave forms in close relation to clinical condition and for the establishment of accurate radial artery beat-to-beat pressure values in clinical practice.

  10. A simple and convenient method for the simultaneous in vitro study of metformin and glimepiride tablets.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rehan

    2014-11-01

    A simple and convenient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride in tablet dosage form of different pharmaceuticals companies. This method was validated and proved to be applicable for assay determination in intermediate and finished staged. More over a single medium dissolution of metformin HCl and glimepiride was established and the media was evaluated for comparative studies for different formulations. Reverse phase HPLC equipped with UV detector was used for the determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride. A mixture of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 0.05M pH 3.0 was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0ml/min. Promocil C18 5µ 100Aº 4.6 x 100mm C18 silica column was used and detection was carried out at 270nm. Method was found to be linear over the range of 4ppm to 16ppm for glimepiride and 170ppm to 680ppm for metformin HCl. Regression co-efficient were found to be 0.9949 and 0.9864 for glimepiride and metformin HCl respectively. Dissolution was performed in 500ml 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate at 37°C for 45min using paddle apparatus. Dissolution of glimepiride was found to be 98.60% and 101.08% in Orinase Met1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet respectively whereas metformin was found 99.41% and 98.59% in Orinase Met 1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet. RSD for all the dissolutions was less than 2.0% after completion. PMID:25362617

  11. Aluminum levels in convenience and fast foods: in vitro study of the absorbable fraction.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco E; Cabrera, Carmen; Lorenzo, M Luisa; López, M Carmen

    2002-12-01

    We evaluated the levels of aluminum in a total of 120 samples of 35 different convenience and fast foods that are widely consumed in Spain. Aluminum was determined in the samples mineralized with HNO3, HClO4 and V2O5, using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry as the analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked by statistically comparing the results with those obtained with a previous microwave oven mineralization stage and by analysis of several certified reference materials. No matrix effect was observed and aqueous standard solutions were used for calibration. The detection limit was 4.0 pg and the characteristic mass of 10.0 pg. Aluminum concentrations ranged from 0.85 to 38.10 microg/g, refereed to fresh weight of the edible portion. The presence of this metal was detected in all the samples we analyzed, but the most elevated levels were encountered in pork- and chicken- based foods (mean 8.45 and 13.94 microg/g, respectively). The more elevated Al concentrations were detected in foods with a greater content of spices and aromatic herbs, pasta, certain vegetables and additives, and foods packaged in Al vessels. The absorbable fraction of Al estimated with in vitro assays was between 0.85 and 2.15%. The growing popularity of these products in recent years requires additional data and a periodical control. In addition, the present findings are of potential use to efforts aimed at determining tolerable levels of Al intake from the diet.

  12. Convenient intelligent cursor control web systems for Internet users with severe motor-impairments.

    PubMed

    Surdilovic, Tihomir; Zhang, Yan-Qing

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to simplify and improve the efficiency of cursor control and its interactions on the computer screen by applying fuzzy logic in its decision-making to make Internet users with disabilities use the networked computers conveniently and easily. "Point and click" interactions are one of the key features of operating systems based of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) [C.E. Steriadis, P. Constantinou, Designing human-computer interfaces for quadriplegic people, ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum.-Interact. (TOCHI) 10 (2) (2003) 87-118.]. People with severe motor-impairments due to spinal cord injury (SCI) or spinal cord dysfunction (SCD), however, often have difficulty with accurate and efficient control of pointing devices, limiting their integration to society and unassisted control over their environment through the use of such operating systems [S. Keates, F. Hwang, P. Langdon, P.J. Clarkson, P. Robinson, Cursor measures for motion-impaired computer users, in: Proceedings of ACM SIGCAPH Conference of Assistive Technologies - ASSETS 2002, pp. 135-142.]. The questions "How can someone with severe motor-impairments perform 'point and click' interactions as accurately and efficiently as an able-bodied person?" and "How can these interactions be advanced through use of Computational Intelligence (CI)?" are the driving forces behind the research described in this paper. Through this research, a novel fuzzy mouse cursor control system (FMCCS) is described. The FMCCS core consists of several fuzzy control functions, which define different user interactions with the system. Design and descriptions of these functions, as well first prototype implementation and testing with real users sustaining severe disabilities are presented.

  13. Convenience of immobilized Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase as time-temperature-integrator (TTI).

    PubMed

    De Cordt, S F; Hendrickx, M E; Maesmans, G J; Tobback, P P

    1994-02-01

    For the immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase to porous glass beads, the performances of three possible linking agents, glutaric dialdehyde, benzoquinone and s-trichlorotriazine were assessed in respect of the protein yield, the enzymic activity and the thermostability of the immobilized enzyme. These three properties are to be evaluated in view of the possible use of the enzyme preparations as time-temperature-integrators (TTIs) for assessing the severity of heat pasteurization or sterilization processes of food or pharmaceuticals. All three linkers improved the enzyme's resistance to irreversible heat inactivation to a similar extent and in each case biphasic inactivation kinetics were observed, whereas the dissolved B. licheniformis alpha-amylase showed a simple first order decay. The immobilization yield, measured as protein per carrier weight, did not differ markedly for the three linkers, although the enzymic activity of the glutaric dialdehyde-linked enzyme was lower than that of the benzoquinone- and s-trichlorotriazine-linked preparations. PMID:7764538

  14. Convenient synthesis of hydroxytyrosol and its lipophilic derivatives from tyrosol or homovanillyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bernini, Roberta; Mincione, Enrico; Barontini, Maurizio; Crisante, Fernanda

    2008-10-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a naturally occurred o-phenolic compound exhibiting antioxidant properties, was synthesized by a three-step high-yielding procedure from natural and low-cost compounds such as tyrosol or homovanillyl alcohol. First, the efficient chemoselective protection of the alcoholic group of these compounds was performed by using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as reagent/solvent; second, the oxidation with 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) or Dess-Martin periodinane reagent (DMP) and in situ reduction with sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) allowed the preparation of carboxymethylated hydroxytyrosol; finally, by a mild hydrolytic step, hydroxytyrosol was obtained in high yield and purity, as confirmed by NMR spectra and HPLC profile. By using a similar methodology, lipophilic hydroxytyrosol derivatives, utilized as additives in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic preparations, were prepared. In fact, at first the chemoselective protection of the alcoholic group of tyrosol and homovanillyl alcohol was performed by using acyl chlorides without any catalyst to obtain the corresponding lipophilic derivatives, and then these compounds were converted in good yield and high purity into the hydroxytyrosol derivatives by oxidative/reductive pathway with IBX or DMP and Na2S2O4.

  15. Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone: A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish

    2006-01-01

    Chemical reactions induced by light have been utilized for synthesizing highly strained, thermodynamically unstable compounds, which are inaccessible through non-photochemical methods. Photochemical cycloaddition reactions, especially those leading to the formation of four-membered rings, constitute a convenient route to compounds that are…

  16. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  17. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Convenient method of measuring displacement currents with a heat flux sensor at the phase transition in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Yukio; Kojima, Akira; Yoshioka, Tadahiko; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Tozaki, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2001-04-01

    A convenient method has been developed to measure displacement currents along three crystallographic directions with a heat flux sensor on a fine temperature scale at the phase transition in solids. An example of the measurements is shown for the cubic-tetragonal phase transition in BaTiO3, revealing a complicated feature of the current flow at the transition point.

  18. 48 CFR 52.249-3 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). 52.249-3 Section 52.249-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  19. The Influence of Perceived Convenience and Curiosity on Continuance Intention in Mobile English Learning for High School Students Using PDAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Liang, Chaoyun; Yan, Chi-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Mobile learning aims to utilise communication devices such as mobile devices and wireless connection in combination with e-learning systems, allowing learners to experience convenient, instant and suitable learning at unrestricted time and place. Participants were 125 Taiwanese senior high school students, whose continuance intention was examined…

  20. Dehydrogenative [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloaddition of Cyano-yne-allene Substrates: Convenient Access to 2,6-Naphthyridine Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Haraburda, Ewelina; Lledó, Agustí; Roglans, Anna; Pla-Quintana, Anna

    2015-06-19

    A rhodium-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of cyano-yne-allene scaffolds followed by a dehydrogenative process enabling the direct synthesis of unsaturated pyridine-containing compounds that can be conveniently converted to 2,6-naphthyridine derivatives is reported.

  1. A convenient method for palladium-catalyzed reductive deuteration of organic substrates using deuterated hypophosphite in D2O.

    PubMed

    Oba, Makoto

    2015-05-15

    A convenient method for the deuteration of organic substrates using deuterated hypophosphite as the deuterium source was investigated. Transfer deuteration of organic substrates, such as aromatic halides, alkenes, alkynes, epoxides, and O-benzyl derivatives, in the presence of palladium on carbon in deuterium oxide proceeded efficiently to give the corresponding deuterated products in excellent yields with high deuterium contents. PMID:25732435

  2. 48 CFR 52.249-3 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). 52.249-3 Section 52.249-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  3. Identification of heme oxygenase-1 stimulators by a convenient ELISA-based bilirubin quantification assay.

    PubMed

    Rücker, Hannelore; Amslinger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    lipopolysaccharide and the specific HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX. Taken together, we developed a convenient and highly sensitive ELISA-based HO-1 enzyme activity assay, allowing the identification and characterization of molecules potentially useful for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  4. Rrhizogenesis in vitro is a convenient model for studying the root graviperceptive apparatus formation in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Sarnatska, Veresa; Ovcharenko, Yulia

    A root graviperceptive apparatus is known to form in microgravity but does not function in the absence of a gravitational vector, that has been shown in many spaceflight experiments with seedlings of different plant species. In statocytes, which are differentiated in microgravity, a nucleus is localized in the proximal part of a cell as at 1 g. Unlike control, amyloplastsstatoliths do not sedimented in the distal part of a cell in microgravity, they group in the cell center more often, sometimes they localized in the different part of a cell. In all these experiments, the objects of investigations were embryonal roots formed in seeds at 1 g. There is only single report that columella cells in roots, which developed de novo from callus in space flight, did not differentiate in statocytes. Therefore, we call to attention to rhizogenesis in vitro as a convenient model for studying the influence of microgravity on differentiation of a root graviperceptive apparatus. Two methods for obtaining of Arabidopsis thaliana roots in vitro are proposed: the first-from the primary callus of leaf origin and the second - from leaf fragments. Callus initiation and growth are successful on MS medium supplemented with vitamin B5, glycine, inositol, 2,4-D, kinetin, glucose and agar. For induction of rhizogenesis calli were transferred to medium without hormones or medium which contained one to ten of MS mineral salts and microelements, without vitamins and hormones. Rhyzogenesis was obtained without added growth substances, but considerably higher number of calli with roots and number of roots per callus are on MS medium diluted tenfold. Rhizogenesis in A. thaliana leaf segments should present no problem, but the most intensive root formation is obtained when culturing them for three day on diluted MS medium supplemented with salycilic acid and then on diluted MS medium only. The low temperature treatment for three days increases the number of roots formed. A role of both plasticity

  5. N-(/sup 3/H)acetyl-labeling, a convenient method for radiolabeling of glycosaminoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, M.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1982-01-15

    A method for the introduction of N-(/sup 3/H)acetyl groups into glycosaminoglycans is described. The procedure is based on (/sup 3/H)acetylation of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues by treating the polysaccharides with (/sup 3/H)acetic anhydride. Preparations of heparin and heparin sulfate were found to contain significant numbers of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues, as isolates. In contrast, such units could not be detected in chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid. These polysaccharides were therefore subjected to partial N-deacetylation by reaction with hydrazine in the presence of hydrazine sulfate. After treatment with (/sup 3/H)acetic anhydride, the specific activities of the resulting labeled polysaccharide preparations ranged between 0.1 X 10/sup 6/ and 0.6 X 10/sup 6/ cpm /sup 3/H/..mu..g of uronic acid. The /sup 3/H-labeled polysaccharide preparations did not differ significantly from the corresponding unlabeled starting materials with regard to polyanion properties (chromatography on DEAE-cellulose) or polymer chain size (gel chromatography). Further, the radiolabeled polysaccharide derivatives were susceptible to specific enzymatic degradation (chondroitinase ABC and mammalian heparitinase) and retained their ability to interact specifically with certain proteins - for example, (/sup 3/H)heparin with antithrombin (/sup 3/H)hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. These findings indicate that the labeling procedures did not induce any major structural derangement of the polysaccharide molecules. The method developed should be useful in providing labeled glycosaminoglycans for metabolic and enzymatic experiments as well as for studies on the interacion between glycosaminoglycans and other bilogical macromolecules.

  6. A convenient solid-phase method for synthesis of 3'-conjugates of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Stetsenko, D A; Gait, M J

    2001-01-01

    We present a new procedure for the preparation of 3'-conjugates of oligonucleotides through solid-phase synthesis. A suitable universal solid support was readily prepared using a series of peptide-like coupling reactions to incorporate first a spacer and then an L-homoserine branching unit. The N-alpha-position of the homoserine carries an Fmoc protecting group that is removed by treatment with piperidine to liberate an amino group suitable for attachment of the conjugate (e.g., small organic molecule, fluorescent group, cholesterol, biotin, amino acid, etc.) or for assembly of a short peptide. The side-chain hydroxyl group of the homoserine carries a trityl protecting group. After TFA deprotection, the hydroxyl group acts as the site for oligonucleotide assembly. An additional spacer, such as aminohexanoyl, may be incorporated easily between the conjugate molecule and the oligonucleotide. A number of examples of synthesis of 3'-conjugates of oligonucleotides and their analogues are described that involve standard automated oligonucleotide assembly and use of commercially available materials. The linkage between oligonucleotide and 3'-conjugate is chirally pure and is stable to conventional ammonia treatment used for oligonucleotide deprotection and release from the solid support. The homoserine-functionalized solid support system represents a simple and universal route to 3'-conjugates of oligonucleotides and their derivatives.

  7. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  8. Preparation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Chrys; Mellor, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In "Orange Juice or Orange Drink?," the authors provided evidence that many students are receiving credit for courses with little indication that they have learned the content implied by the course titles (Dougherty, Mellor, & Jian, 2006). Yet in pursuit of the goal of preparing all students for college and careers, many policymakers…

  9. Visualization of the liver, gallbladder, and intestine on bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Sherkow, L.; Ryo, U.Y.; Fabich, D.; Patel, G.C.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    Images of the liver, gallbladder, and/or intestine were visualized on bone scans on several occasions. Radiopharmaceutical quality control data, including molybdenum-99 and aluminum ion content in the Tc-99m eluate, free unbound Tc-99m, and hydrolyzed reduced Tc-99m in the labeled MDP, were all satisfactory. A minor defect in the quality of the Tc-99m generator was considered to be the probable cause of the unusual localization of the bone imaging agent.

  10. Better infrastructure: industry-academia partnerships--a marriage of convenience?

    PubMed

    Abraham, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The successful design and completion of clinical trials often requires participation of both industry and academia. Although there may be differing priorities for academic and industry participants, both bring important insights and resources to the clinical trial effort. Although industry generally is primarily responsible for preclinical development and funding of the study and academia for patient recruitment and participation in the data safety monitoring board and clinical coordinating center, there are also a number of important areas, including protocol design, data analysis, and manuscript preparation where both academia and industry can supply important insights. Inherent tensions may exist in the academic-industry relationship, including important issues relating to conflict of interest for both academic and industry participants. Nevertheless, the academic-industry partnership, if appropriately organized, can perform in a synergistic fashion, allowing exploration of novel therapies, elucidation of important mechanisms, and greater understanding of critical illness through using combined approaches that generate insights unable to be provided by either partner alone.

  11. Preparation of B-trichloroborazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of preparing B-trichloroborazine. Generally, the method includes the combination of gaseous boron trichloride in an anhydrous aprotic organic solvent followed by addition of excess gaseous ammonia at ambient temperature or below. The reaction mixture is heated to about 100 to 140 C followed by cooling, removal of the solid ammonium chloride at ambient temperature, distillation of the solvent under vacuum if necessary at a temperature of up to about 112 C, and recovery of the B-trichloroborazine. Solvents include toluene, benzene, xylene, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorinated aromatic compounds, or mixtures thereof. Toluene is a preferred solvent. The process provides a convenient synthesis of a material which often decomposes on standing. B-trichloroborazine is useful in a number of chemical reactions, and particularly in the formation of high temperature inorganic polymers and polymer precursors.

  12. Extending the life of a 99Tcm generator: a simple and convenient method for concentrating generator eluate for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Blower, P J

    1993-11-01

    99Tcm-pertechnetate can conveniently be concentrated 5-20-fold by passing up to 20 ml through a sequence of two (or three) disposable columns, one (or two) to remove chloride and one to concentrate the pertechnetate for subsequent elution with a small volume of saline. This procedure is useful for utilizing eluates with low radioactive concentration in applications that require high radioactive concentration.

  13. A One-Step System for Convenient and Flexible Assembly of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Wenye; Liang, Jing; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are powerful tools for targeted genome editing in diverse cell types and organisms. However, the highly identical TALE repeat sequences make it challenging to assemble TALEs using conventional cloning approaches, and multiple repeats in one plasmid are easily catalyzed for homologous recombination in bacteria. Although the methods for TALE assembly are constantly improving, these methods are not convenient because of laborious assembly steps or large module libraries, limiting their broad utility. To overcome the barrier of multiple assembly steps, we report a one-step system for the convenient and flexible assembly of a 180 TALE module library. This study is the first demonstration to ligate 9 mono-/dimer modules and one circular TALEN backbone vector in a one step process, generating 9.5 to 18.5 repeat sequences with an overall assembly rate higher than 50%. This system makes TALEN assembly much simpler than the conventional cloning of two DNA fragments because this strategy combines digestion and ligation into one step using circular vectors and different modules to avoid gel extraction. Therefore, this system provides a convenient tool for the application of TALEN-mediated genome editing in scientific studies and clinical trials. PMID:27604899

  14. Study on Use of Fuel-Cell Auxiliary Power Units in Refrigerator Cars Employed for Delivery to Convenience Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kamiyama, Hideyuki; Kogoshi, Sumio; Kudo, Yusuke; Fukada, Takafumi; Ogawa, Makoto

    The use of fuel-cell auxiliary power units (FC-APU) in refrigerator cars employed delivery to for convenience store delivery has been studied. The delivery pattern is assumed to be a typical pattern that includes driving between convenience stores or between a delivery center and a convenience store, unloading, driver's lunch break. The M15 driving mode, which simulates the driving condition in urban areas, is used as the driving mode in the delivery pattern. The FC-APU system includes a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) module, an inverter, and DC/DC converter. Bench tests of the FC-APU are performed to determine the hydrogen fuel consumption rate and the energy efficiency; these values depend on the output power of the PEFC module. The calculated relationship between the output power and fuel consumption rate of a current used system, which consists of an alternator and a secondary battery, are used to estimate the energy efficiency of the current used system. On the basis of the measurement data in this study and the results for the model proposed by Brodric et al. [C. J. Brodrick et al., Trans. Res. D, vol 7, pp. 303 (2002)], the payback period is calculated. The results indicate that the payback period would be 2.1 years when the FC-APU operates at a load of 70%.

  15. A One-Step System for Convenient and Flexible Assembly of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Wenye; Liang, Jing; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are powerful tools for targeted genome editing in diverse cell types and organisms. However, the highly identical TALE repeat sequences make it challenging to assemble TALEs using conventional cloning approaches, and multiple repeats in one plasmid are easily catalyzed for homologous recombination in bacteria. Although the methods for TALE assembly are constantly improving, these methods are not convenient because of laborious assembly steps or large module libraries, limiting their broad utility. To overcome the barrier of multiple assembly steps, we report a one-step system for the convenient and flexible assembly of a 180 TALE module library. This study is the first demonstration to ligate 9 mono-/dimer modules and one circular TALEN backbone vector in a one step process, generating 9.5 to 18.5 repeat sequences with an overall assembly rate higher than 50%. This system makes TALEN assembly much simpler than the conventional cloning of two DNA fragments because this strategy combines digestion and ligation into one step using circular vectors and different modules to avoid gel extraction. Therefore, this system provides a convenient tool for the application of TALEN-mediated genome editing in scientific studies and clinical trials. PMID:27604899

  16. A new series of C-6 unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines: convenient one-pot chemoselective synthesis, aggregation-induced and size-independent emission characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiuhua; Huang, Lan; Chen, Zhipeng; Zheng, Sichao; Lv, Longyun; Zhu, Zhibo; Cao, Derong; Jiang, Huanfeng; Liu, Shuwen

    2013-01-21

    A new series of C-6 unsubstituted tetrahydropyrimidines 6 have been directly synthesized via a convenient urea-catalyzed chemoselective five-component reaction (5CR) under mild conditions. Compounds 6 show typical aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) characteristics because they are practically no emissive in solution but emit blue or green fluorescence in aggregates with fluorescence yield up to 93%. One of the 5CR products, 6aa, exhibits blue- and green-fluorescence aggregates (bf- and gf-aggregates). The bf- and gf-aggregates are prepared under different conditions and proved to result from different J-aggregations by single-crystal X-ray analysis. In addition, the bf- and gf-aggregates of 6aa show unusual size-independent emission (SIE) characteristics because their maximum emission wavelengths in different sizes (suspension particles, film, powder and crystals) are the same, 434 and 484 nm, respectively. Based on the obtained experimental results, the 5CR mechanism, the origins of AIEE and SIE characteristics are discussed.

  17. Convenient route leading to neutral fac-M(CO)3(NNO) complexes (M = Re, 99mTc) coupled to amine pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Chiotellis, Aris; Tsoukalas, Charalambos; Pelecanou, Maria; Raptopoulou, Catherine; Terzis, Aris; Papadopoulos, Minas; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zetta; Pirmettis, Ioannis

    2008-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of three neutral tricarbonyl fac-M(CO)3(NNO) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes based on the picolylamine N,N-diacetic acid (PADA) ligand is reported. One of the two carboxylate groups of the PADA ligand is efficiently and conveniently derivatized with an amine nucleophile through the use of the PADA anhydride. In this work, aniline, benzylamine and pyrrolidine were used as model amine nucleophiles. The rhenium complexes were synthesized using the [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3Br3] precursor and fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods, and X-ray crystallography. The analogous technetium-99m complexes were also prepared quantitatively using the [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) precursor. The reaction scheme presented for the synthesis of the fac-M(CO)3(NNO) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes can be applied to the development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals because, in principle, any bioactive pharmacophore bearing an amine group can be used in the place of the model amine nucleophiles. PMID:18293919

  18. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding the colon

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Rabau, M.Y.; Avigad, I.; Borag, B.; Wolfstein, I.

    1985-08-01

    Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.

  19. A convenient method for complex permittivity measurement of thin materials at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, B. K.

    2006-05-01

    A practical problem in the reflection method for measuring permittivity of thin materials is the difficulty in ensuring the sample is placed exactly at the waveguide flange. A small position offset of the dielectric slab will give rise to significant errors in calculating the permittivity. To circumvent this problem, a measurement method using a waveguide partially filled with a thin material slab has been developed. The material sample can be easily prepared and inserted into the guide through a longitudinal slot on the broad wall of the waveguide. Multiple material slabs can be measured rapidly because one does not have to disconnect the waveguide system for sample placement. The method is verified with measurement of Teflon, glass and FR4 fibreglass. The measured permittivity show good agreement with published data. Subsequently, the permittivity of a vegetation leaf was measured. The method presented in this paper is particularly useful in measuring the permittivity of a thin and narrow slab of natural materials such as a paddy leaf.

  20. Two convenient low-temperature routes to single crystals of plutonium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Nathan A.; Wang, Shuao; Diwu, Juan; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2014-11-01

    During the solvothermal synthesis of a low-dimensional borate, KB5O7(OH)2ṡ2H2O, in the presence of Pu(III), single crystals of plutonium dioxide unexpectedly formed. Single crystals of PuO2 also formed during the hydrothermal synthesis of another borate, Na2B5O8(OH)ṡ2H2O, in the presence of Pu(III). The reactions were conducted at 170 °C and 150 °C, respectively, which are much lower temperature than previously reported preparations of crystalline PuO2. Yellow-green crystals with a tablet habit were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods with R1 = 1.26% for 19 unique observed reflections. PuO2 is cubic, space group Fm3‾m, and adopts the fluorite structure type. The lattice parameter was determined to be a = 5.421(5) Å giving a volume of 159.3(2) Å3. The absorption spectrum is consistent with Pu(IV).