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Sample records for convenio marco para

  1. Marco Polo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinetti, Carolyn

    This two day lesson plan for middle school students examines Marco Polo's travels and trade during the Middle Ages. The unit consists of four activities: (1) journal entry/brainstorming; (2) lecture on trade items of the Middle Ages and Marco Polo; (3) simulation of Marco Polo's Journey; and (4) a writing assignment. It provides step-by-step…

  2. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  3. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  4. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  5. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  6. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  7. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  8. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  9. The San Marco 5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglio, L.; Ponzi, U.; Arduini, C.

    1993-01-01

    The satellite San Marco 5 was injected into a low equatorial orbit on March 25, 1988 from the Italian San Marco Range (Kenya) and reentered on December 6, 1988. It was the last and most complex spacecraft of the San Marco aeronomic satellites, developed under a cooperative research program between the University of Rome and NASA, with the participation of DFVLR (Germany). The paper describes the scientific mission and the spacecraft design, which accommodates an integrated set of instruments in a very dense assembly. Particular aspects related to the management of the spacecraft in orbit and to the strategy for the satellite interrogation are also described.

  10. The Mark 15 Marco Library and Recent Updating of the Marco Code

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, P.B.

    2001-08-09

    This report discusses two tasks: (1) introduction of the Mark 15-MARCO library within the context of an overview of the methodology of MARCO and (2) assessment of the accuracy of MARCO calculations of the Mark 15 MOC at beginning of cycle.

  11. Análisis del futuro marco de referencia internacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, G. R.; Arias, E. F.

    La técnica de interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI) se aplica hoy a la astrometría para el cálculo de posiciones precisas de radiofuentes extragalácticas. Por tratarse de objetos lejanos, sus movimientos propios aparentes pueden considerarse nulos; esta propiedad hace que los catálogos de radiofuentes extragalácticas VLBI constituyan la mejor materialización de un sistema de referencia celeste inercial definido cinemáticamente. La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste internacional materializado por las coordenadas ecuatoriales de objetos extragalácticos observados con le técnica VLBI. Para superar la precisión astrométrica actual es necesaria una mejora en la modelización de aquellos fenómenos que pueden introducir desviaciones sistemáticas en el marco de referencia celeste. El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto las sistematicidades presentes en los distintos marcos de referencia elaborados con el próposito de materializar el nuevo sistema de referencia celeste de la IAU. Para la comparación de los distintos marcos de referencia se propone un modelo de tres rotaciones diferenciales más un término lineal que procura absorber los efectos sistemáticos presentes en las coordenadas. Se analiza igualmente la estabilidad de la solución cuando se utilizan distintos conjuntos de objetos de definición.

  12. 76 FR 72369 - Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf of Mexico, Marco Island, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... No. USCG-2011-0968] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display, Gulf... the vicinity of Marco Island Marriott Beach Resort in Marco Island, Florida during the Marco Island Marriott Charity Fireworks Display on Friday, February 17, 2012. The safety zone is necessary to...

  13. Discovering Marco Polo: A Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This guide is designed for teachers who wish to teach about Marco Polo and his travels to China during the 13th century. The guide was originally developed for use with a television series about Marco Polo; it can successfully be used independent of the series, however. A prologue gives the reader a basic introduction to what is known of the life…

  14. History of the Italian San Marco equatorial mobile range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Events leading to the development of the San Marco Equatorial Range are presented. Included are background information leading to the cooperative space program between the United States and Italy, conceptual planning, training activities, equipment design and fabrication, and range utilization. The technical support provided the San Marco Program by Scout Project Office, and other NASA installations is described.

  15. 75 FR 22712 - Proposed Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... control tower has made controlled airspace necessary at San Marcos Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking... establishing Class D airspace at San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX. An air traffic control...

  16. 75 FR 41983 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... airspace for San Marcos Municipal Airport, San Marcos, TX. Establishment of an air traffic control tower... establishing Class D airspace at San Marcos, TX. Establishment of an air traffic control tower at San...

  17. Backwater Flooding in San Marcos, TX from the Blanco River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earl, Richard; Gaenzle, Kyle G.; Hollier, Andi B.

    2016-01-01

    Large sections of San Marcos, TX were flooded in Oct. 1998, May 2015, and Oct. 2015. Much of the flooding in Oct. 1998 and Oct. 2015 was produced by overbank flooding of San Marcos River and its tributaries by spills from upstream dams. The May 2015 flooding was almost entirely produced by backwater flooding from the Blanco River whose confluence is approximately 2.2 miles southeast of downtown. We use the stage height of the Blanco River to generate maps of the areas of San Marcos that are lower than the flood peaks and compare those results with data for the observed extent of flooding in San Marcos. Our preliminary results suggest that the flooding occurred at locations more than 20 feet lower than the maximum stage height of the Blanco River at San Marcos gage (08171350). This suggest that the datum for either gage 08171350 or 08170500 (San Marcos River at San Marcos) or both are incorrect. There are plans for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to construct a Blanco River bypass that will divert Blanco River floodwaters approximately 2 miles farther downstream, but the $60 million price makes its implementation problematic.

  18. MarcoPolo Narrows the Search for Useful Classroom Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of how teachers can conduct more efficient Internet searches in order to find sites that are unbiased, reliable, and accurate. Presents the MarcoPolo Project, a partnership among seven leading educational institutions, as a service that provides teachers with credible content through an easy-to-use Web interface. (NB)

  19. SETA: An Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Piccioni, G.; Ammannito, E.; Capria, M. T.; Coradini, A.; Migliorini, A.; Battistelli, E.; Preti, G.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the Marco Polo target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution on the order of meters.

  20. The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimary, Donald L.

    With the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos from his 20-year rule of the Philippines, the news media regained its freedom and its voice, and now faces a new set of problems: low circulation, questionable ethical standards of reporters and their lack of experience, and ominous indications from the Corazon Aquino government that the administration might…

  1. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  2. Marco Paul's Travels on the Erie Canal: An Educational Voyage. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williammee, Janet; King, Rhonda

    In Jacob Abbott's book, "Marco Paul's Travels on the Erie Canal," Marco's cousin Forester explains to Marco that there are two modes of acquiring knowledge--through books and through observation. Students obtain more complete and meaningful understanding of a topic when provided with experiences that use both primary and secondary…

  3. MarcoPolo-R near earth asteroid sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Benner, L. A. M.; Binzel, R. P.; Bland, P. A.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Cerroni, P.; Dotto, E.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L.-M.; Licandro, J.; Marty, B.; Muinonen, K.; Nathues, A.; Oberst, J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Robert, F.; Saladino, R.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ulamec, S.; Zolensky, M.

    2012-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) proposed in collaboration with NASA. It will rendezvous with a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. MarcoPolo-R will return bulk samples (up to 2 kg) from an organic-rich binary asteroid to Earth for laboratory analyses, allowing us to: explore the origin of planetary materials and initial stages of habitable planet formation; identify and characterize the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid; understand the unique geomorphology, dynamics and evolution of a binary NEA. This project is based on the previous Marco Polo mission study, which was selected for the Assessment Phase of the first round of Cosmic Vision. Its scientific rationale was highly ranked by ESA committees and it was not selected only because the estimated cost was higher than the allotted amount for an M class mission. The cost of MarcoPolo-R will be reduced to within the ESA medium mission budget by collaboration with APL (John Hopkins University) and JPL in the NASA program for coordination with ESA's Cosmic Vision Call. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. A number of other possible primitive single targets of high scientific interest have been identified covering a wide range of possible launch dates. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 is as follows: a single primary spacecraft provided by ESA, carrying

  4. Uranium minerals from the San Marcos District, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Cortés, Manuel; Fuentes-Cobas, Luis; Torres-Moye, Enrique; Esparza-Ponce, Hilda; Montero-Cabrera, María Elena

    2010-05-01

    The mineralogy of the two uranium deposits (Victorino and San Marcos I) of Sierra San Marcos, located 30 km northwest of Chihuahua City, Mexico, was studied by optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry. At the San Marcos I deposit, uranophane Ca(UO2)2Si2O7·6(H2O) (the dominant mineral at both deposits) and metatyuyamunite Ca(UO2)(V2O8)·3(H2O) were observed. Uranophane, uraninite (UO2+x), masuyite Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)·3(H2O), and becquerelite Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 ·(8H2O) are present at the Victorino deposit. Field observations, coupled with analytical data, suggest the following sequence of mineralization: (1) deposition of uraninite, (2) alteration of uraninite to masuyite, (3) deposition of uranophane, (4) micro-fracturing, (5) calcite deposition in the micro-fractures, and (6) formation of becquerelite. The investigated deposits were formed by high-to low-temperature hydrothermal activity during post-orogenic evolution of Sierra San Marcos. The secondary mineralization occurred through a combination of hydrothermal and supergene alteration events. Becquerelite was formed in situ by reaction of uraninite with geothermal carbonated solutions, which led to almost complete dissolution of the precursor uraninite. The Victorino deposit represents the second known occurrence of becquerelite in Mexico, the other being the uranium deposits at Peña Blanca in Chihuahua State.

  5. MarcoPolo-R: Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2012-07-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected for the assessment study in the framework of ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-25 program. MarcoPolo-R is an European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a primitive carbon-rich NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020-2024. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 foresees a single primary spacecraft, carrying the Earth re-entry capsule and sample acquisition and transfer system, launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou. The scientific payload includes state-of-the-art instruments, e.g. a camera system for high resolution imaging from orbit and on the surface, spectrometers covering visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths, a neutral-particle analyser, a radio science experiment and optional laser altimeter. If resources are available, an optional Lander will be added to perform in-situ characterization close to the sampling site, and internal structure investigations. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes. The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be

  6. The San Marco 3 neutral atmosphere composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelz, D. T.; Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Clem, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental instrumentation of the San Marco 3 satellite is described along with the calibration and operation. The instrumentation for the following experiments was included: an air density experiment for measuring the instantaneous drag force, and thus the neutral particle total mass density; a neutral atmosphere composition experiment for measuring the densities of helium, atomic and molecular oxygen, molecular nitrogen and argon; and a neutral atmosphere temperature experiment to determine the gas kinetic temperature by measuring molecular nitrogen density variations in an orificed spherical chamber as a function of angle of attack.

  7. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

    2009-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small

  8. Comparative solar EUV flux for the San Marco ASSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Chakrabarti, S.; Schmidtke, G.; Doll, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Airglow and Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco D/L satellite has measured solar extreme ultraviolet irradiances. The data are currently being released for analysis. As a preliminary step in evaluating this important dataset, modeled solar irradiances from 4 to 105 nm are presented for comparison to the San Marco data. The comparable flux for March-December 1988 is obtained from a revised and extended empirical solar EUV model derived from OSO 1, OSO 3, OSO 4, OSO 6, AEROS A, and AE-E satellite and six rocket flight datasets. Solar rotational features are prominent on several occasions in the model time series. A useful example is the modeled integrated flux between 30-31 nm which includes the Si XI (30.3-nm) and He II (30.4-nm) irradiance. The modeled flux in this 1-nm range shows both an absolute 22 percent increase from beginning to end of mission and a solar rotational variability with a typical peak-to-valley ratio of 14 percent.

  9. A Naturally-Occurring Transcript Variant of MARCO Reveals the SRCR Domain is Critical for Function

    PubMed Central

    Novakowski, Kyle E.; Huynh, Angela; Han, SeongJun; Dorrington, Michael G.; Yin, Charles; Tu, Zhongyuan; Pelka, Peter; Whyte, Peter; Guarné, Alba; Sakamoto, Kaori; Bowdish, Dawn M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a Class A Scavenger Receptor (cA-SR) that recognizes and phagocytoses of a wide variety of pathogens. Most cA-SRs that contain a C-terminal Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain use the proximal collagenous domain to bind ligands. In contrast, for the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO in phagocytosis, adhesion and pro-inflammatory signalling is less clear. The discovery of a naturally-occurring transcript variant lacking the SRCR domain, MARCOII, provided the opportunity to study the role of the SRCR domain of MARCO. We tested whether the SRCR domain is required for ligand binding, promoting downstream signalling, and enhancing cellular adhesion. Unlike cells expressing full-length MARCO, ligand binding was abolished in MARCOII-expressing cells. Furthermore, co-expression of MARCO and MARCOII impaired phagocytic function, indicating that MARCOII acts as a dominant negative variant. Unlike MARCO, expression of MARCOII did not enhance Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in response to bacterial stimulation. MARCO-expressing cells were more adherent and exhibited a dendritic-like phenotype, while MARCOII-expressing cells were less adherent and did not exhibit changes in morphology. These data suggest the SRCR domain of MARCO is the key domain in modulating ligand binding, enhancing downstream pro-inflammatory signalling, and MARCO-mediated cellular adhesion. PMID:26888252

  10. MarcoPolo-R: Mission and Spacecraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacocke, L.; Kemble, S.; Chapuy, M.; Scheer, H.

    2013-09-01

    The MarcoPolo-R mission is a candidate for the European Space Agency's medium-class Cosmic Vision programme, with the aim to obtain a 100 g sample of asteroid surface material and return it safely to the Earth. Astrium is one of two industrial contractors currently studying the mission to Phase A level, and the team has been working on the mission and spacecraft design since January 2012. Asteroids are some of the most primitive bodies in our solar system and are key to understanding the formation of the Earth, Sun and other planetary bodies. A returned sample would allow extensive analyses in the large laboratory-sized instruments here on Earth that are not possible with in-situ instruments. This analysis would also increase our understanding of the composition and structure of asteroids, and aid in plans for asteroid deflection techniques. In addition, the mission would be a valuable precursor for missions such as Mars Sample Return, demonstrating a high speed Earth re-entry and hard landing of an entry capsule. Following extensive mission analysis of both the baseline asteroid target 1996 FG3 and alternatives, a particularly favourable trajectory was found to the asteroid 2008 EV5 resulting in a mission duration of 4.5 to 6 years. In October 2012, the MarcoPolo-R baseline target was changed to 2008 EV5 due to its extremely primitive nature, which may pre-date the Sun. This change has a number of advantages: reduced DeltaV requirements, an orbit with a more benign thermal environment, reduced communications distances, and a reduced complexity propulsion system - all of which simplify the spacecraft design significantly. The single spacecraft would launch between 2022 and 2024 on a Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle from Kourou. Solar electric propulsion is necessary for the outward and return transfers due to the DeltaV requirements, to minimise propellant mass. Once rendezvous with the asteroid is achieved, an observation campaign will begin to characterise the

  11. SETA-Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer for Marco Polo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, M. Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra; Battistelli, Enrico; Preti, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    The Marco Polo NEO sample return M-class mission has been selected for assessment study within the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The Marco Polo mission proposes to do a sample return mission to Near Earth Asteroid. With this mission we have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the entire mission. The imaging spectrometer is a key instrument being capable to characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire asteroid and to analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment. SETA is a Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer able to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target in order to characterize the mineral properties of the surface. The spectral sampling is of at least 20 nm and the spatial resolution of the order of meter. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter

  12. Marco Polo : an Italian Mission Scoring a lot of Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pippo, Simonetta; Bracciaferri, Fabio M.

    2002-01-01

    The first astronaut of the European Astronaut Corps of Italian nationality, Roberto Vittori, will fly on a Soyuz capsule at the end of April 2002, opening a new era of space flight. The mission, sponsored by the Italian Space Agency, has been developed in the framework of an ESA- ROSAVIAKOSMOS agreement, reached in order to give European astronauts additional possibilities to fly. It's the first mission of this kind. In addition to that, this is the real first time in which a Soyuz mission is in the hands of two cosmonauts, and one of them is non Russian. On the same flight, in fact, Mark Shuttleworth, the second tourist in the history of space activities, is going to fly, performing also a set of scientific experiments. Marco Polo is also the first mission in which the two Agencies, ASI and ESA, are developing a joint commercialisation program, devoted to attire sponsors for improving research and development activities in the Human Spaceflight area. This will allow the two agencies to improve also the quality of life on Earth. A comprehensive scientific program is also foreseen accompanying Vittori on board, mainly in the field of life science. Experiments devoted to neurophysiology, arms rehabilitation, test of new materials for dressing in space, evaluation of the behaviour of the Nobel Prize Montalcini discovery named NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) will be performed on board. A R&D payload for Blood Pressure Measurements could have in the future commercial spin-off. In addition, a possible institutional sponsorship of the World Health Organization is under discussion. It will be the real first time in which a space mission gets this kind of sponsorship, and this strictly related to the World Health Day this year, devoted in promoting health throughout movement, i.e. "Move for Health". The Italian Space Agency proposed a joint combination of the two slogans, coupling the "Move for Health" message with the Italian "Space for Health" one. This is because of the Marco

  13. Archaeological Geophysics at the San Marcos Pueblo, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, K.; Joiner, C. J.; Musa, D.; Allred, I.; Delhaye, R. P.; Zorin, N.; Feucht, D. W.; Johnston, G.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The students and faculty of the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) geophysical field course have studied the San Marcos Pueblo (LA 98) since 2004. This activity has provided instruction in near-surface geophysics and research into the application of geophysical techniques to southwestern archaeological problems. Our study site, the San Marcos Pueblo, is a classical and colonial period (1200-1680) pueblo that was once one of the largest communities in the southwest. Previous SAGE publications have discussed the discovery of archaeological features, the underlying geology and hydrological conditions. This study focuses on the interpretation of 'El Mapo Grande', 150 m X 150 m, high-resolution (0.5 m) maps of magnetic and electrical properties and 12 seismic refraction lines. The map covers room block, plaza and midden areas as well as areas where colonial period metallurgical activities were known to have occurred. We acquired magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data in 30 m X 30 m quads producing geophysical maps of each quad (2 or 3 produced each year). Total magnetic field measurements were made with a Geometrics cesium vapor magnetometer, GPR data collected using a Sensors and Software 250 MHz radar were on 0.5 m spaced lines, and EM data were acquired with a Geonics EM-31 on 1 m spaced lines. Seismic data were collected on interconnected lines with 0.5 m receiver and 3 m source interval. El Mapo Grande shows anomalies correlated among the diverse physical properties that were mapped. The edges of strong magnetic anomalies correlate with areas of high GPR scattering possibly associated with rocky floors under room blocks. Areas of high magnetic response are associated with hill-slope erosion channels and plumes of debris in the plaza to the south that are apparently washing down from the metallurgical sites near room blocks. EM data display a good correlation with the magnetic map. Debris channels and plumes are more

  14. Scavenger Receptor MARCO Orchestrates Early Defenses and Contributes to Fungal Containment during Cryptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jintao; Flaczyk, Adam; Neal, Lori M; Fa, Zhenzong; Eastman, Alison J; Malachowski, Antoni N; Cheng, Daphne; Moore, Bethany B; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Osterholzer, John J; Olszewski, Michal A

    2017-03-15

    The scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) promotes protective innate immunity against bacterial and parasitic infections; however, its role in host immunity against fungal pathogens, including the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, remains unknown. Using a mouse model of C. neoformans infection, we demonstrated that MARCO deficiency leads to impaired fungal control during the afferent phase of cryptococcal infection. Diminished fungal containment in MARCO(-/-) mice was accompanied by impaired recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) and lower moDC costimulatory maturation. The reduced recruitment and activation of mononuclear phagocytes in MARCO(-/-) mice was linked to diminished early expression of IFN-γ along with profound suppression of CCL2 and CCL7 chemokines, providing evidence for roles of MARCO in activation of the CCR2 axis during C. neoformans infection. Lastly, we found that MARCO was involved in C. neoformans phagocytosis by resident pulmonary macrophages and DC. We conclude that MARCO facilitates early interactions between C. neoformans and lung-resident cells and promotes the production of CCR2 ligands. In turn, this contributes to a more robust recruitment and activation of moDC that opposes rapid fungal expansion during the afferent phase of cryptococcal infection.

  15. Near-Earth Object Exploration and Marco Polo-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Therefore robotic investigations of NEAs, such as ESA's Marco Polo-R sample return mission to 2008 EV5, would allow NASA and its international partners to gain critical operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., close proximity operations, surface sample collection, etc.) under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a potential human destination. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  16. Preflight study of San Marco D/L GaAs solar cell panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The solar array for the San Marco D/L spacecraft is described and the performance of 4 GaAs solar cell panels are examined. In comparison to the typical Si solar cell panel for San Marco D/L, it is shown that each GaAs solar cell panel provides at least 23 percent more specific power at maximum output and 28 deg C. Also described here, are several measurements that will be made to evaluate the relative performance of Si and GaAs solar cell panels during the San Marco D/L flight.

  17. Origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Crow, Cassi L.

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is one of the most productive aquifers in the Nation and is the primary source of water for the rapidly growing San Antonio area. Springs issuing from the Edwards aquifer provide habitat for several threatened and endangered species, serve as locations for recreational activities, and supply downstream users. Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are major discharge points for the Edwards aquifer, and their discharges are used as thresholds in groundwater management strategies. Regional flow paths originating in the western part of the aquifer are generally understood to supply discharge at Comal Springs. In contrast, the hydrologic connection of San Marcos Springs with the regional Edwards aquifer flow system is less understood. During November 2008–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, collected and analyzed hydrologic and geochemical data from springs, groundwater wells, and streams to gain a better understanding of the origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs. During the study, climatic and hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought to wetter than normal. The wide range of hydrologic conditions that occurred during this study—and corresponding changes in surface-water, groundwater and spring discharge, and in physicochemical properties and geochemistry—provides insight into the origin of the water discharging from San Marcos Springs. Three orifices at San Marcos Springs (Deep, Diversion, and Weissmuller Springs) were selected to be representative of larger springs at the spring complex. Key findings include that discharge at San Marcos Springs was dominated by regional recharge sources and groundwater flow paths and that different orifices of San Marcos Springs respond differently to changes in hydrologic conditions; Deep Spring was less responsive to changes in hydrologic conditions than were Diversion Spring and

  18. MARCO variants are associated with phagocytosis, pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility and Beijing lineage

    PubMed Central

    Thuong, N T T; Tram, T T B; Dinh, T D; Thai, P V K; Heemskerk, D; Bang, N D; Chau, T T H; Russell, D G; Thwaites, G E; Hawn, T R; Caws, M; Dunstan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) has an important role in the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). We hypothesized that MARCO polymorphisms are associated with phagocytosis, tuberculosis (TB) disease susceptibility and presentation, and infecting lineage. We used a human cellular model to examine how MARCO genotype mediates the immune response; a case–control study to investigate tuberculosis host genetic susceptibility; and a host–pathogen genetic analysis to study host–pathogen interactions. Two MARCO heterozygous (AG) genotypes (single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2278589 and rs6751745) were associated with impaired phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate-cord factor and β-glucan-coated beads in macrophages. The heterozygous genotypes of rs2278589 and rs6751745 were also associated with increased risk of pulmonary TB (PTB; rs2278589, P=0.001, odds ratio (OR)=1.6; rs6751745, P=0.009, OR=1.4), and with severe chest X-ray abnormalities (P=0.007, OR=1.6). These two genotypes were also associated with the Beijing lineage (rs2278589, P=0.001, OR=1.7; rs6751745, P=0.01, OR=1.5). Together, these results suggest that MARCO polymorphisms may regulate phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis and susceptibility and severity of PTB. They also suggest MARCO genotype and Beijing strains may interact to increase the risk of PTB. PMID:27853145

  19. Un Nuevo Convenio para el Aprendizaje: Una Sociedad para Mejorar los Resultados Educativos en el Estado de Nueva York (A New Compact for Learning: A Partnership To Improve Educational Results in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary, Middle and Secondary Education.

    This Spanish translation of the abridged version of "A New Compact for Learning" acknowledges the current U.S. education system's inadequacy to educate U.S. citizenry and introduces New York State's New Compact for Learning, intended as a plan to reorganize New York's own system. The compact's fundamental principles are: (1) recognizing…

  20. Radar Tomography of Asteroids ASSERT / Marco Polo-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Zine, S.; Barucci, A.; Biele, J.; Ho, T.; Kofman, W. W.; Krause, C.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Prado, J.; Souyris, J.; Ulamec, S.; Assert Team

    2011-12-01

    The internal structure of NEAs remains largely unknown. It is a key point for the understanding of asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. From a science point of view, the internal structure is also a key point for the understanding of asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. For risk management and mitigation, it is required to characterize whether a small asteroid will survive the transit through the atmosphere and also to define a deflection policy. There are some indirect evidences that a rubble pile structure is really common at least for objects larger than a few hundreds of meters in diameter. But a more precise characterisation of the internal structure is required, such as the size and the structure of the main blobs and their distribution within the NEAs main body as well as a statistical characterisation of the surface regolith in term of density and size distribution. Radar tomography is the only way to image the internal structure from decimetric to global scale in order to better understand the nature of the primary object and its posterior alterations. It is also a way to estimate the ratio between micro- and macro-porosity. Bistatic radar tomography is an original technique, developed with the CONSERT Experiment (Rosetta / ESA) to image ant characterize the internal structures of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimeko with a signal transmitted from the Orbiter to the Lander. By regards to a more classical monostatic radar like Marsis (MarsExpress/ESA), this bistatic configuration requires limited resources (mass, power and dataflow) and increases the capacity of deep sounding. So ASSERT (ASteroid Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission) is proposed to instrument a MASCOT-type lander e.g. as payload of the ESA Marco Polo R mission (ESA). The first addressed question is a rubble pile or a monolithic body: For a rubble pile, the tomography will allow to estimate the size distribution of the boulders by direct imaging or statistical analysis of the

  1. Marco Polo: Hunting and Capture of Material from a Primitive Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, Javier

    A description of the Spanish contribution to the Marco Polo mission and of the mission itself is presented. Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object (NEO). Submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, Marco Polo passed the first evaluation process on October 2007. Seventeen Spanish researchers belonging to six Spanish institutes signed the proposal. The mission is planned to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class that cannot be related to known meteorite types, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge on the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of the life on Earth. Three Spanish institutes are involved in the feasibility studies of two instruments: the THERmal MAPper (THERMAP) and the Marco Polo Camera System (MPCS).

  2. The aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos River headsprings, Hays County, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Worsham, McLean L. D.; Gibson, Randy; Huffman, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The San Marcos River in Central Texas has been well studied and has been demonstrated to be remarkably specious. Prior to the present study, research on free-living invertebrates in the San Marcos River only dealt with hard bodied taxa with the exception of the report of one gastrotrich, and one subterranean platyhelminth that only incidentally occurs in the head spring outflows. The remainder of the soft-bodied metazoan fauna that inhabit the San Marcos River had never been studied. Our study surveyed the annelid fauna and some other soft-bodied invertebrates of the San Marcos River headsprings. At least four species of Hirudinida, two species of Aphanoneura, one species of Branchiobdellida, and 11 (possibly 13) species of oligochaetous clitellates were collected. Other vermiform taxa collected included at least three species of Turbellaria and one species of Nemertea. We provide the results of the first survey of the aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos Springs, along with a dichotomous key to these annelids that includes photos of some representative specimens, and line drawings to elucidate potentially confusing diagnostic structures. PMID:27853397

  3. The aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos River headsprings, Hays County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Worsham, McLean L D; Gibson, Randy; Huffman, David G

    2016-01-01

    The San Marcos River in Central Texas has been well studied and has been demonstrated to be remarkably specious. Prior to the present study, research on free-living invertebrates in the San Marcos River only dealt with hard bodied taxa with the exception of the report of one gastrotrich, and one subterranean platyhelminth that only incidentally occurs in the head spring outflows. The remainder of the soft-bodied metazoan fauna that inhabit the San Marcos River had never been studied. Our study surveyed the annelid fauna and some other soft-bodied invertebrates of the San Marcos River headsprings. At least four species of Hirudinida, two species of Aphanoneura, one species of Branchiobdellida, and 11 (possibly 13) species of oligochaetous clitellates were collected. Other vermiform taxa collected included at least three species of Turbellaria and one species of Nemertea. We provide the results of the first survey of the aquatic annelid fauna of the San Marcos Springs, along with a dichotomous key to these annelids that includes photos of some representative specimens, and line drawings to elucidate potentially confusing diagnostic structures.

  4. Gravity Investigations with the MarcoPolo-R Radio Science Experiment RSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, T. P.; Pätzold, M.; Bellerose, J.; Barriot, J. P.; Oberst, J.; Hahn, M.; Tellmann, S.; Remus, S.; Förstner, R.; Häusler, B.

    2013-09-01

    The ESA sample return mission MarcoPolo-R is one of the current candidate M3 missions. It will rendezvous with a primitive Near Earth Asteroid (NEA), scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth [3] The determination of the global physical properties of the mission target, the Near Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5, is among others one science objective of the MarcoPolo-R mission. In this context one key parameter is the gravity field, especially GM (gravitational constant times the mass) and the low order gravity coefficients C20 and C22 of the asteroid.

  5. The San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan: Using HCP's as a Tool for Ecological Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Howard, M. S.; Arsuffi, T. L.

    2005-05-01

    The San Marcos River in San Marcos, Hays County, Texas is a biologically unique system with several listed species found in the headwaters. Flowing from the Edwards Aquifer and the second largest spring system in Texas, the water is clear and thermally constant. The physical and biological character of the habitat within and surrounding the river has been severely degraded by human activity. As a means of dealing with the continued disturbance and finding a balance between human needs and conservation, the San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan was written as provided by Section 10(a) of the Endangered Species Act. The plan provides habitat mitigation for the fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola), Comal Springs riffle beetle, (Heterelmis comalensis), and San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana), while allowing for incidental take resulting from specific restoration and management projects. We used a science-based ecological/experimental approach to address some of the problems and optimize solutions, including restoration of stream banks damaged from overuse, planning for permanent access points and trails, removal of silt deposits caused by extensive flood control structures, wet-pond construction, managing flow, and the control of submerged and emergent non-native vegetation to improve habitat and enhance recreation.

  6. Stability and Evolution of Orbits around Binary Asteroids: Applications to the Marco Polo Mission Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickhusen, K.; Oberst, J.; Hussmann, H.; Shi, X.; Damme, F.

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the orbit stability of a spacecraft moving around a small Near-Earth-Asteroid (NEA), focusing on the primary target of the Marco Polo Mission: 175706 (1996 FG3). The simulation showed that most orbits are unstable over time but under certain conditions the S/C stays in orbit without crashing or escaping into space.

  7. Orbital stability during the mapping and approach phases of the MarcoPolo-R spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickhusen, K.; Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Luedicke, F.

    2012-09-01

    In support of the Marco-Polo-R mission we are analyzing the motion of the spacecraft in the vicinity of its primary target, the binary asteroid system 175706 (1996 FG3). We ran simulations in order to support the general mapping, the approach, and the sampling phase

  8. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project ’MarcoPolo’. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  9. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project 'MarcoPolo'. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  10. Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The San Marcos Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program for 1972-73 was evaluated in this report. The program consisted of 684 students in grades K-5 in 4 elementary schools. The majority of these students were Mexican American with only 18% monolingual English speakers. The program's objectives were, first, to provide bilingual…

  11. Project Marco Polo: Bridging the Gap between Natural and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.; Rea, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Describes Project Marco Polo in which students, teachers, and staff from "National Geographic" and the U.S. Navy traveled to Japan. Reports that they studied Japanese culture, oceanography, and natural science while on the trip. Includes excerpts from field journals kept by the participants, photographs of the trip, and a map. (DK)

  12. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission in ESA assessment study phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A.; Böhnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Dotto, E.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Lara, L. M.; Marty, B.; Koschny, D.

    2012-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, optimization of the mission, and consolidation of the collaboration with other partners (NASA, AEB…). The main goal of the MarcoPolo-R mission is to return unaltered NEA material for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. The limited sampling provided by meteorites does not offer the most primitive material available in near-Earth space. More primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in Earth laboratories can instruments measure the individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith with the necessary precision and sensitivity to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive

  13. Dr. Marco Marra: Pioneer and Visionary in Cancer Genomics Research | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Marco Marra is a highly distinguished genomics and bioinformatics researcher. He is the Director of Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre at the BC Cancer Agency and holds a faculty position at the University of British Columbia. The Centre is a state-of-the-art sequencing facility in Vancouver, Canada, with a major focus on the study of cancers.  Many of their research projects are undertaken in collaborations with other Canadian and international institutions.

  14. 78 FR 48293 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; San Marcos, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... from the 4.2-mile radius of the airport, and small segments of Class E airspace extend 13.1 miles west, 11.1 miles northwest, 10.4 miles both east and south, and 9.6 miles southeast of the 6.7-mile radius... upward from the surface to and including 3,100 feet MSL within a 4.2-mile radius of San Marcos...

  15. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission in ESA assessment study phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert; Barucci, Antonella; Michel, Patrick; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian; Green, Simon; Lara, Luisa; Marty, Bernard; Romstedt, Jens; Agnolon, David; Koschny, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is an European-led sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive (341843) 2008 EV5, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes and it will provide a sample from a known target with known geological context. Direct investigation of both the regolith and fresh interior fragments is also impossible by any means other than sample return. Primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies.

  16. INSPIRE and MarCO - Technology Development for the First Deep Space CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    INSPIRE (Interplanetary NanoSpacecraft Pathfinder In a Relevant Environment) and MarCO (Mars Cube One) will open the door for tiny spacecraft to explore the solar system. INSPIRE serves as a trailblazer, designed to demonstrate new technology needed for deep space. MarCO will open the door for NanoSpacecraft to serve in support roles for much larger primary missions - in this case, providing a real-time relay of for the InSight project and will likely be the first CubeSats to reach deep space. Together, these four spacecraft (two for each mission) enable fundamental science objectives to be met with tiny vehicles. Originally designed for a March, 2016 launch with the InSight mission to Mars, the MarCO spacecraft are now complete and in storage. When launched with the InSight lander from Vandenberg Air Force Base, the spacecraft will begin a 6.5 month cruise to Mars. Soon after InSight itself separates from the upper stage of the launch vehicle, the two MarCO CubeSats will deploy and independently fly to Mars to support telecommunications relay for InSight's entry, descent, and landing sequence. These spacecraft will have onboard capability for deep space trajectory correction maneuvers; high-speed direct-to-Earth & DSN-compatible communications; an advanced navigation transponder; a large deployable reflect-array high gain antenna; and a robust software suite. This talk will present an overview of the INSPIRE and MarCO projects, including a concept of operations, details of the spacecraft and subsystem design, and lessons learned from integration and test. Finally, the talk will outline how lessons from these spacecraft are already being utilized in the next generation of interplanetary CubeSats, as well as a brief vision of their applicability for solar system exploration. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  17. Thorium isotopes in colloidal fraction of water from San Marcos Dam, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral-Lares, M.; Melgoza, A.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.

    2013-07-01

    The main interest of this stiidy is to assess the contents and distribution of Th-series isotopes in colloidal fraction of surface water from San Marcos dam, because the suspended particulate matter serves as transport medium for several pollutants. The aim of this work was to assess the distribution of thorium isotopes (232Th and 230Th) contained in suspended matter. Samples were taken from three surface points along the San Marcos dam: water input, midpoint, and near to dam wall. In this last point, a depth sampling was also carried out. Here, three depth points were taken at 0.4, 8 and 15 meters. To evaluate the thorium behavior in surface water, from every water sample the colloidal fraction was separated, between 1 and 0.1 μm. Thorium isotopes concentraron in samples were obtained by alpha spectrometry. Activity concentrations obtained of 232Th and 230Th in surface points ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 Bq ṡ L-1, whereas in depth points ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 Bq ṡ L-1, respectively. The results show that 230Th is in higher concentration than 232Th in colloidal fraction. This can be attributed to a preference of these colloids to adsorb uranium. Thus, the activity ratio 230Th/232Th in colloidal fraction showed values from 2.3 to 10.2. In surface points along the dam, 230Th activity concentration decreases while 232Th concentration remains constant. On the other hand, activity concentrations of both isotopes showed a pointed out enhancement with depth. The results have shown a possible lixiviation of uranium from geological substrate into the surface water and an important fractionation of thorium isotopes, which suggest that thorium is non-homogeneously distributed along San Marcos dam.

  18. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  19. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  20. Aeronomic studies with the San Marco D/Itg: ODA and ASSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, M.

    1990-12-01

    Contributions to the study of the aeronomy of the terrestrial thermosphere using the research satellite San Marco D/Itg were made. The aim was to explore the time-space behavior of thermosphere and ionosphere during interaction with solar radiation and solar wind. The software experiment ODA determines the gas density in the perigee of the satellite orbit from the orbit change. The solar spectrometer ASSI measures solar radiation from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to the visible range, as well as airglow in the EUV to determine the space-time behavior of oxygen and nitrogen.

  1. [The Hospital of the people of San Marcos. First in Aguascalientes, Mexico].

    PubMed

    López de la Peña, Xavier A

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, the major hospital of San Juan de Dios has been historically considered the first hospital in Aguascalientes,Mexico, founded on 1685. However, in this paper we report that the Hospital of the people of San Marcos, in operation at least since 1630, was really the first hospital in the state in functions and which services to the needy population continued until today’s last notice, as of 1728. As evidence, we offer various first-hand documentary sources obtained in different archive files, which give credit to this modest charity institution. The aforementioned for the memory and pride of the history of health care in Aguascalientes and Mexico.

  2. Evaluation of acoustic doppler velocity meters to quantify flow from Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal

  3. Solar measurements from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the solar spectral irradiance from the Airglow-Solar Spectrometer Instrument (ASSI) on the San Marco 5 satellite is the focus for this research grant. A pre-print copy of the paper describing the calibrations of and results from the San Marco ASSI is attached to this report. The calibration of the ASSI included (1) transfer of photometric calibration from a rocket experiment and the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), (2) use of the on-board radioactive calibration sources, (3) validation of the ASSI sensitivity over its field of view, and (4) determining the degradation of the spectrometers. We have determined that the absolute values for the solar irradiance needs adjustment in the current proxy models of the solar UV irradiance, and the amount of solar variability from the proxy models are in reasonable agreement with the ASSI measurements. This research grant also has supported the development of a new solar EUV irradiance proxy model. We expected that the magnetic flux is responsible for most of the heating, via Alfen waves, in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. From examining time series of solar irradiance data and magnetic fields at different levels, we did indeed find that the chromospheric emissions correlate best with the large magnetic field levels.

  4. Sample return from a Near Earth Object: Future perspectives from Marco Polo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert; Barucci, M. A.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Binzel, Richard P.; Koschny, Detlef; Agnolon, David; Romstedt, Jens

    We are entering in a new era of space exploration defined by sample return missions. The study of extraterrestrial samples in the laboratory has given us many insights to Solar System formation and evolution, but is hampered by having to rely on the arrival of meteorites -fairly random samples from asteroids, the Moon and Mars. There is now increased interest from the scientific community in the acquisition of samples from specific parent-bodies; this is reflected by proposals for an increasing number of sample return missions within international programs of Solar System exploration. The study of extraterrestrial samples in laboratory provides new opportunities to advance fun-damental issues on the origin and evolution of the Solar System, on primordial cosmochemistry and on nature of the building blocks of terrestrial planets. Samples returned from primitive carbonaceous small bodies could help us in deciphering relevant clues on the origin and early evolution of life on Earth. Once returned on Earth, samples will undergo preliminary charac-terization and classification within dedicated sample curation facilities before being delivered to worldwide laboratories for detailed investigation of the elemental and isotopic compositions, mineralogy, petrology, organic and interstellar grain inventories, etc. The samples returned from the surface of a primitive NEO will contain material more primitive than currently avail-able from meteorites as this is generally lost during atmospheric entry, with only more coherent meteorites, the product of asteroidal modification, surviving to be collected on the surface of the Earth. Marco Polo was shortlisted for the assessment phase of ESA's Cosmic Vision program to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as a C-or D-type asteroid or extinct comet. Although the scientific objectives were very highly rated it was not selected for mission development as an ESA-only Medium Mission because it exceeded

  5. A launch strategy for high-inclination orbit missions from the San Marco Equatorial Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinalducci, Antonio

    The San Marco Equatorial Range (SMER), due to its favourable geographic position (less than three degrees away from the Equator), has represented an ideal launch facility to achieve low-inclination and equatorial orbits. However, safety restrictions does not allow to achieve high-inclination orbits by in-plane launch maneuvers, requiring a large fuel expense for plane-change by means of the so called dog-leg maneuver. A guidance system has been developed to execute the out-of-plane maneuver during the guided ascent phase, in order to reduce the Δv required for plane changes. The numerical test of this guidance algorithm showed satisfying performances in terms of orbit acquisition (small errors on the orbital elements); at the same time, it proved itself capable to execute plane-change maneuvers, allowing signifiant reductions in fuel consumption with respect to the dog-leg technique.

  6. San Marco D/L solar array system design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diruscio, M.; Agneni, A.; Day, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The design and performance of the solar array system for the San Marco D/L spacecraft is described in detail. The solar array system design is shown to be suitable for spacecraft which have elastically sensitized outer surfaces to measure aerodynamic forces. However, the performance of this solar array system is shown to be at least 30 percent less efficient than conventional spacecraft solar array designs. An on-board experiment to compare the in-flight performances of Si and GaAs solar cell panels is also described. Preflight performance data show that at beginning-of-life, air mass zero solar illumination, 28 C and peak power output the Si panels are at last 20 percent less efficient than the GaAs panels.

  7. Geochemical evaluation of the geothermal resources in the San Marcos region, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Hanshaw, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of hot springs in the San Marcos region of Guatemala are internally consistent with a hydrologic model in which a deep 240??C reservoir and one or more shallow 195-200??C reservoirs are present. Variations in hot-spring water compositions results from a combination of boiling, mixing with cold, dilute water, and chemical re-equilibration with decreasing temperature. The recharge water for the deep 240??C reservoir is isotopically heavier than the local meteoric water and probably comes from many kilometers to the west or southwest. The water in the shallow reservoir is a mixture of the 240??C water with about 20 ?? 5% of cold, locally derived meteoric water. After mixing, the water in the shallow reservoir re-equilibrates with reservoir rock at 195-200??C. In some places additional mixing with cold water occurs after water leaves the shallow reservoir. ?? 1986.

  8. THERMAP : a mid-infrared spectro-imager for the Marco Polo R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, O.; Brageot, E.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Lamy, P.; Jorda, L.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Delbó, M.

    2012-09-01

    We present THERMAP, a mid-infrared (8-16 μm) spectro-imager based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays. Due to the recent technological development of these detectors, which have undergone significant improvements in the last decade, we wanted to test their performances for a space mission to small bodies in the inner Solar System. THERMAP was selected by ESA in January 2012 for a one year assessment study, in the framework of a call for declaration of interest in science instrumentation for the Marco Polo R Cosmic Vision mission. In this paper, we present some results of this study and in particular demonstrate that the new generation of uncooled micro-bolometer detectors has all the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to fulfill the scientific objectives of the Marco Polo R mission. THERMAP scientific objectives - The midinfrared instrument of the Marco Polo R mission must be able i) to determine the surface temperature by mapping the entire surface with an absolute accuracy of at least 5 K (goal 1 K) above 200 K, ii) to determine the thermal inertia with an accuracy of 10% and iii) to determine the surface composition by mapping the entire surface with a spectral resolution of 70 between 8 and 16 μm. The above mappings should be performed with a spatial resolution of 10 m for the entire surface (global characterization) and 10 cm for the sampling sites (local characterization). THERMAP imaging capabilities - In order to test the imaging capabilities of the THERMAP uncooled microbolometer detector, we set up an experiment based on a 640x480 ULIS micro-bolometer array, a germanium objective and a black body. Using the results of this experiment, we show that calibrated radiometric images can be obtained down to at least 258 K (lower limit of our experiment), and that two calibration points are sufficient to determine the absolute scene temperature with an accuracy better than 1.5 K. An extrapolation to lower temperatures provides an accuracy of about 5

  9. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  10. Uranium in the surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River environment (Chihuahua, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  11. Lifetime predictions for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and San Marco spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. A.; Ward, D. T.; Schmitt, M. W.; Phenneger, M. C.; Vaughn, F. J.; Lupisella, M. L.

    1989-10-01

    Lifetime prediction techniques developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) are described. These techniques were developed to predict the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft orbit, which is decaying due to atmospheric drag, with reentry predicted to occur before the end of 1989. Lifetime predictions were also performed for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was deployed on the 1984 SMM repair mission and is scheduled for retrieval on another Space Transportation System (STS) mission later this year. Concepts used in the lifetime predictions were tested on the San Marco spacecraft, which reentered the Earth's atmosphere on December 6, 1988. Ephemerides predicting the orbit evolution of the San Marco spacecraft until reentry were generated over the final 90 days of the mission when the altitude was less than 380 kilometers. The errors in the predicted ephemerides are due to errors in the prediction of atmospheric density variations over the lifetime of the satellite. To model the time dependence of the atmospheric densities, predictions of the solar flux at the 10.7-centimeter wavelength were used in conjunction with Harris-Priester (HP) atmospheric density tables. Orbital state vectors, together with the spacecraft mass and area, are used as input to the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Propagations proceed in monthly segments, with the nominal atmospheric drag model scaled for each month according to the predicted monthly average value of F10.7. Calibration propagations are performed over a period of known orbital decay to obtain the effective ballistic coefficient. Progagations using plus or minus 2 sigma solar flux predictions are also generated to estimate the despersion in expected reentry dates. Definitive orbits are compared with these predictions as time expases. As updated vectors are received, these are also propagated to reentryto continually update the lifetime predictions.

  12. Free Actin Impairs Macrophage Bacterial Defenses via Scavenger Receptor MARCO Interaction, with Reversal by Plasma Gelsolin.

    PubMed

    Ordija, Christine M; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Yang, Zhiping; Deloid, Glen M; de Oliveira Valdo, Melina; Wang, Zhi; Bedugnis, Alice; Noah, Terry L; Jones, Samuel; Koziel, Henry; Kobzik, Lester

    2017-04-06

    Lung injury can release intracellular actin into the alveolar milieu, and is also associated with increased susceptibility to secondary infections. We investigated the effect of free (extracellular) actin on lung macrophage host defense functions. Western blot analysis demonstrated free actin release into the lung lavage fluids of mouse models of ozone injury, influenza infection and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia, and in samples from patients following burn and inhalation injury. Using levels comparable to those observed in lung injury, we found that free actin markedly inhibited murine lung macrophage binding and uptake in vitro of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus and E. coli e.g., S. pneumoniae, mean % inhibition, actin vs vehicle: 85 ± 0.3 (SD), n = 22, p <.001). Similar effects were observed on the ability of primary human macrophages to bind and ingest fluorescent S. aureus (~75 % inhibition). Plasma gelsolin (pGSN), a protein that functions to bind and cleave actin, restored bacterial binding and uptake by both murine and human macrophages. Scavenger receptor inhibitors reduced binding of fluorescent actin by murine macrophages (fluorescence index (x 10-3) after incubation with vehicle, actin, or actin + polyinosinic acid, respectively: 0.8 ± 0.7, 101.7 ± 50.7, 52.7 ± 16.9, n = 5-6, p < 0.05). In addition, actin binding was reduced in a MARCO / SR-AI/II deficient cell line and by normal AMs obtained from MARCO -/- mice. After release from injured cells during lung injury, free actin likely contributes to impaired host defense by blocking scavenger receptor binding of bacteria. This mechanism for increased risk of secondary infections after lung injury or inflammation may represent another target for therapeutic intervention with pGSN.

  13. Lifetime predictions for the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and San Marco spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. A.; Ward, D. T.; Schmitt, M. W.; Phenneger, M. C.; Vaughn, F. J.; Lupisella, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    Lifetime prediction techniques developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) are described. These techniques were developed to predict the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft orbit, which is decaying due to atmospheric drag, with reentry predicted to occur before the end of 1989. Lifetime predictions were also performed for the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was deployed on the 1984 SMM repair mission and is scheduled for retrieval on another Space Transportation System (STS) mission later this year. Concepts used in the lifetime predictions were tested on the San Marco spacecraft, which reentered the Earth's atmosphere on December 6, 1988. Ephemerides predicting the orbit evolution of the San Marco spacecraft until reentry were generated over the final 90 days of the mission when the altitude was less than 380 kilometers. The errors in the predicted ephemerides are due to errors in the prediction of atmospheric density variations over the lifetime of the satellite. To model the time dependence of the atmospheric densities, predictions of the solar flux at the 10.7-centimeter wavelength were used in conjunction with Harris-Priester (HP) atmospheric density tables. Orbital state vectors, together with the spacecraft mass and area, are used as input to the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). Propagations proceed in monthly segments, with the nominal atmospheric drag model scaled for each month according to the predicted monthly average value of F10.7. Calibration propagations are performed over a period of known orbital decay to obtain the effective ballistic coefficient. Progagations using plus or minus 2 sigma solar flux predictions are also generated to estimate the despersion in expected reentry dates. Definitive orbits are compared with these predictions as time expases. As updated vectors are received, these are also propagated to reentryto continually update the lifetime predictions.

  14. THERMAP: the mid-infrared (8-16 µm) spectro-imager of the ESA Marco Polo R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, O.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Alí Lagoa, V.; Brageot, E.; Davidsson, B.; Delbó, M.; Delsanti, A.; Garcia-Talavera, M. R.; Green, S.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lamy, P.; Lellouch, E.; Levacher, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rozitis, B.; Sunshine, J.; Vernazza, P.

    2013-09-01

    THERMAP is a mid-infrared (8-16 μm) spectroimager, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) in February 2013 for the scientific payload of the Marco Polo R M-class mission. We present in this paper the instrument and its scientific objectives.

  15. Herschel observations of the Marco Polo-R asteroid 175706 (1996 FG3).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Barucci, A.; Gònzalez-Garcìa, B.; Dotto, E.; Küppers, M.

    2012-09-01

    Background: The Marco Polo-R mission has been selected for the assessment study phase of the ESA M3 missions. This ESA-led sample return mission to the binary asteroid 1996 FG3 (launch window between 2020 and 2024) is proposed with a design that allows it to fit within the pre-defined cost cap of a M-class mission. The binary nature of the target will allow more precise measurements of mass, gravity, and density than for a single object, as well as additional insights into the geology and geophysics of the system. The asteroid has been classified by Binzel et al. [1] as a C-type. It is considered to be a typical example of a primitive object [2]. Dynamically, this is an Apollo asteroid with semimajor axis a of 1.054 AU, eccentricity e of 0.35, and and inclination i of 1.98 degrees. Measurements of the albedo derived from thermal infrared observations give a value of pV = 0.042 (+0.035 -0.017), and a combined diameter of D = 1.84 (+0.56 -0.47) km [3]. The Herschel observations : The MACH-11 (Measurements of 11 Asteroids & Comets) Programme observed this binary asteroid in two occasions in November of 2012. The observations performed had a duration of 0.6 hours with the asteroid pair moving rapidly at 6'/hr thus making removal of the background quite straightforward. The observations were performed in two observing blocks; the first block consisted of a 2 repetition blue/red map, the second block consisted of a 2 repetition green/red map, with the intention to observe the target at different phase angles. Our Results : Our measurements will serve to update the known radiometric properties for this binary asteroid through their inclusion into a thermophysical model (TPM) [4] which has been validated against a large database of asteroids including targets of other spacecraft mission e.g. Lutetia [5], Itokawa [6]. Using existing sets of published thermal observations (Spitzer, TNG NICS), combined with our Herschel observations, applied within this thermophysical model

  16. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission candidate as ESA-M3 class mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Lara, Luisa-M.; Marty, Bernard; Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Cheng, Andy; Bohnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John R.; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.

    2015-03-01

    MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESAfs Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R is a European-led mission with a proposed NASA contribution. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3). The aim of the new Assessment Study is to reduce the cost of the mission while maintaining its high science level, on the basis of advanced studies and technologies, as well as optimization of the mission. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive binary NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive binary NEA (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return: the choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily compared to a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible to obtain from a single object. Precise measurements of the mutual orbit and rotation state of both components can be used to probe higher-level harmonics of the gravitational potential, and therefore the internal structure. A unique opportunity is offered to study the dynamical evolution driven by the YORP/Yarkovsky thermal effects. Possible migration of regolith on the primary from poles to equator allows the increasing maturity of asteroidal regolith with time to be expressed as a latitude-dependent trend, with the most-weathered material at the equator matching what is seen in the secondary. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system

  17. The Silk Road, Marco Polo, a Bible and its proteome: a detective story.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Lucia; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Saccenti, Riccardo; Gulotta, Davide; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2012-06-18

    Around the end of XIII century (at the time of young Marco Polo's first trip to China at the court of Khubilai Khan in Khan Baliq) a pocket Bible was delivered by a Franciscan friar to the Mogul Emperor, in the framework of the evangelization program of the Far East. Four centuries later, in 1685, this Bible was rediscovered by the Jesuit Philippe Couplet in the house of a rich Chinese in Nanchin and donated to Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. This Bible was recently "unearthed" in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, wrapped up in a precious yellow silk cloth, in a rather ruined state. After two years of restoration, the Bible will return to China in 2012 for a celebration of its >700years of life and of its remarkable return trip on the Silk Road. On account of the thinness of the parchment (barely 80μm thickness, the size of each foil being 16.5×11cm) it was widely held that the pages were produced from foetal lambskins. On tiny fragments of the margins of a foil, after several unsuccessful attempts at digesting the vellum, we were able to obtain a tryptic peptide mixture, which, upon mass spectrometry analysis, yielded the identity of 8 unique proteins, belonging to the genus Bos taurus, thus confirming the origin of the vellum from calfskins rather than from foetal lambskins. Our results prove that it is possible to obtain reliable protein extraction and IDs from ancient parchment documents.

  18. 238,234U contents on Lepomis Cyanellus from San Marcos dam located in a uraniferous area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, Magaly Cabral; Luna-Porres, Mayra Y.; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2014-07-01

    Fish species are suitable biomonitors of radioisotopes in aquatic systems. In the present study, it was made the determination of uranium isotopic contents on fish fillet (Lepomis Cyanellus) from San Marcos dam which is located in uranium mineralized zone. Uranium activity concentrations (AC) in fish samples were obtained on wet weight (ww), using liquid scintillation. 238U and 234U AC in fish fillet ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0167 Bq kg-1, and from 0.0013 to 0.0394 Bq kg-1, respectively. The activity ratio (234U/overflow="scroll">238U) in fish fillet ranged from 2.2 to 8.8. Lepomis cyanellus from San Marcos dam shows bioaccumulation factor (FB) of 0.6 L kg-1. The results suggest that the Lepomis Cyanellus in environments with high U contents tends to have a greater bioaccumulation compared to others.

  19. Experimental exposure of adult San Marcos salamanders and larval leopard frogs to the cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Huston, D C; Cantu, V; Huffman, D G

    2014-04-01

    The gill parasite Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is an exotic parasite of concern in Texas because it has been shown to infect multiple threatened and endangered fish species. The purpose of this study was to determine if C. formosanus could present a threat to larval anurans, as well as threatened neotenic salamanders endemic to the spring-fed systems of Texas. We exposed adults of the San Marcos salamander Eurycea nana (Caudata: Plethodontidae) and tadpoles of the Rio Grande leopard frog Lithobates berlandieri (Anura: Ranidae) to the cercariae of C. formosanus . The San Marcos salamander showed no signs of metacercarial infection, suggesting that E. nana may be refractory to C. formosanus cercariae. Centrocestus formosanus readily infects the gills of leopard frog tadpoles, but the metacercariae apparently died prior to reaching maturity in our tadpoles.

  20. FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.

    2012-04-01

    The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.

  1. The earliest maize from San Marcos Tehuacán is a partial domesticate with genomic evidence of inbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Vallebueno-Estrada, Miguel; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Martínez González, Javier; García Cook, Angel; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pioneering archaeological expeditions lead by Richard MacNeish in the 1960s identified the valley of Tehuacán as an important center of early Mesoamerican agriculture, providing by far the widest collection of ancient crop remains, including maize. In 2012, a new exploration of San Marcos cave (Tehuacán, Mexico) yielded nonmanipulated maize specimens dating at a similar age of 5,300–4,970 calibrated y B.P. On the basis of shotgun sequencing and genomic comparisons to Balsas teosinte and modern maize, we show herein that the earliest maize from San Marcos cave was a partial domesticate diverging from the landraces and containing ancestral allelic variants that are absent from extant maize populations. Whereas some domestication loci, such as teosinte branched1 (tb1) and brittle endosperm2 (bt2), had already lost most of the nucleotide variability present in Balsas teosinte, others, such as teosinte glume architecture1 (tga1) and sugary1 (su1), conserved partial levels of nucleotide variability that are absent from extant maize. Genetic comparisons among three temporally convergent samples revealed that they were homozygous and identical by descent across their genome. Our results indicate that the earliest maize from San Marcos was already inbred, opening the possibility for Tehuacán maize cultivation evolving from reduced founder populations of isolated and perhaps self-pollinated individuals. PMID:27872313

  2. Telescience with MARCO/HOLOP on board the spacelab D2-mission as a preparation for Columbus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, E.; Geist, W.; Heimann, K.; Heyland, D.; Hibsch, G.; Schmidt, K. D.

    The implementation of the telescience concept and its test in precursor missions is mandatory for experiment operations in the Columbus era with respect to enhancements in science quality and quantity. During the German D2 Spacelab mission, scheduled for spring 1993, a fluid physics experiment (MARCO, MARangoni COnvection in an open boat) will be performed in the telescience mode, using the HOLOP-D2 (HOLographic OPtics laboratory) experiment facility. MARCO will be remotely operated by the experimenter from a USOC (User Support and Operations Center). DLR/MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, located at Cologne, Germany) will play the role of this USOC, being connected to DLR/GSOC (German Space Operations Center, located in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany) via remote data, voice and video lines. Telescience with MARCO/HOLOP is a joint effort between DARA GmbH (Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrt-Angelegenheiten), DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.) and ESA (European Space Agency).

  3. The earliest maize from San Marcos Tehuacán is a partial domesticate with genomic evidence of inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Vallebueno-Estrada, Miguel; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Martínez González, Javier; García Cook, Angel; Montiel, Rafael; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-12-06

    Pioneering archaeological expeditions lead by Richard MacNeish in the 1960s identified the valley of Tehuacán as an important center of early Mesoamerican agriculture, providing by far the widest collection of ancient crop remains, including maize. In 2012, a new exploration of San Marcos cave (Tehuacán, Mexico) yielded nonmanipulated maize specimens dating at a similar age of 5,300-4,970 calibrated y B.P. On the basis of shotgun sequencing and genomic comparisons to Balsas teosinte and modern maize, we show herein that the earliest maize from San Marcos cave was a partial domesticate diverging from the landraces and containing ancestral allelic variants that are absent from extant maize populations. Whereas some domestication loci, such as teosinte branched1 (tb1) and brittle endosperm2 (bt2), had already lost most of the nucleotide variability present in Balsas teosinte, others, such as teosinte glume architecture1 (tga1) and sugary1 (su1), conserved partial levels of nucleotide variability that are absent from extant maize. Genetic comparisons among three temporally convergent samples revealed that they were homozygous and identical by descent across their genome. Our results indicate that the earliest maize from San Marcos was already inbred, opening the possibility for Tehuacán maize cultivation evolving from reduced founder populations of isolated and perhaps self-pollinated individuals.

  4. Survey and Modelling for the Bim of Basilica of San Marco in Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fregonese, L.; Taffurelli, L.; Adami, A.; Chiarini, S.; Cremonesi, S.; Helder, J.; Spezzoni, A.

    2017-02-01

    The Basilica of San Marco is a singular case in the field of Cultural heritage, as it constitutes a construction site always active for the maintenance and preservation of the basilica itself. The continuous intervention of conservation, due to the particular environmental conditions of Venice and the opening to the public, together with the complexity of the building itself, imposes the need to identify an optimized management system. For this reason, in 2013 the Procurator of St. Marco Basilica commissioned the construction of a 3D model of the Basilica to be used for the creation of a BIM. The model must meet the required precision of the scale of 1:50, and should also include, in addition to the geometric description, a description of the mosaic and marble surfaces of the basilica through high resolution orthophoto which are essential for the restoration of the mosaics. The complexity of the church and the large and continuous flow of public led to work in non-optimal conditions especially for the acquisition stage. The basilica has certain peculiarities that led to some important choices, for example the use of photogrammetry instead of laser scanning technique. The same technique was preferred also by the need to realize, in addition to the geometric model, high-resolution orthophotos of marbles and mosaic surfaces. The modelling of the basilica has highlighted a number of problems related to the building features. The basilica, indeed, is the result of the juxtaposition of elements (capitals, columns) with different origin, which therefore cannot be standardized in special libraries. Moreover, especially in the extensive mosaic areas, there are not edges that characterize the architecture, but only beveled surfaces. This has resulted in a change also in the modeling paradigm with the need to identify alternative systems even for the construction of simple elements. Therefore, we decided to model using NURBS since it is the method that allows greater

  5. Marco Polo: International Small Solar System Body Exploration Mission in 2010's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    Since 2000, Japanese scientists and engineers have investigated new generation primitive body missions in the post-Hayabusa era in 2010's. Receiving the Minorbody Exploration Forum Final Report, ISAS established the nation-wide Small Body Exploration Working Group (SBE-WG) in 2004. After the successful exploration of the S-type NEO Itokawa by Hayabusa in 2005, the Hayabusa-2 concept emerged for a C-type asteroid sample return by the original Hayabusa spacecraft system with minor improvements and modifications. In parallel to that effort, the SBE-WG continued to develop the post-Hayabusa mission concept as "Hayabusa Mk-II," a fully model-changed, advanced spacecraft with the sample return capability from the most primitive bodies of the solar system. It is this Hayabusa Mk-II that has became the foundation of the International small body exploration concept "Marco Polo" since 2006. Jointly proposed to the first call of the ESA Cosmic Vision by scientists from Japan, Europe, and the U.S., the Marco Polo concept was selected as one of the M-class mission candidates for the assessment study phase in the fall of 2007. In 2008, the international joint study team has been created and its mission definitions, system requirements, and target selections are currently under the study. The top-level scientific themes are to decode the solar system formation and evolution in the astrobiology and astromineralogy contexts as one of the most important scientific challenges of 2010's. These themes are sub-divided into several objectives to be achieved by both instruments carried onboard the mother spacecraft (MSC), a large lander, or small hopping rovers and returned samples. The initial mission target candicdates include comet-asteroid transition (CAT) objects, D-type asteroids and C-type binary asteroids in near-Earth orbits. In the baseline scenario, a Soyuz launcher provided by ESA will launch the JAXA-made MSC with sampling and other in-situ science instruments provided by

  6. Behavioral and physiological antipredator responses of the San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew R; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to predatory stimuli typically results in the elevation of circulating glucocorticoid levels and a behavioral response of freezing or escape behavior in many prey species. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid in amphibians and is known to be important in modulating many behaviors and developmental functions. The federally threatened San Marcos salamander, Eurycea nana, decreases activity in response to both native and introduced predatory fish, however, experience may further influence these interactions. To better understand the indirect effects of fish predators on this salamander, we examined both the antipredator behavior and water-borne CORT release rates in response to chemical cues (kairomones) from two fish species that varied in temporal risk of predation: (1) a low encounter frequency predator (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), (2) a high encounter frequency predator (redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus), and (3) a blank water control. Salamanders reduced activity (antipredator response) after exposure to both predator treatments, but not to the blank water control, and the response to M. salmoides was significantly stronger than that to L. auritus. The CORT response (post-stimulus/pre-stimulus release rates) did not differ between the blank water control and L. auritus treatments, and both were significantly less than the CORT response to M. salmoides. Overall, E. nana showed a decreased antipredator response and no CORT response towards the high encounter frequency L. auritus as compared to the low encounter frequency M. salmoides. Eurycea nana may mute antipredator and CORT responses to high temporal frequency predators. There was, however, no correlation between CORT release rates and antipredator behavior, which suggests that the presence of predators may be affecting CORT response and behavior independently.

  7. CAMAM instrument suite for MarcoPolo-R mission to an asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, Marek; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike; Meyer, Stefan; Wurz, Peter; Thomas, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    CAMAM (Composition And Morphology of Asteroid's Material) is an analytical instrument suite developed for investigation of composition and morphology of asteroidal matter for the MarcoPolo-R sample return mission from a primitive near-Earth asteroid. The instrument combines a microscope-camera system (MCS), a laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS), and a regolith particle trap (PT). PT uses a charged metallic foil to attract mm-sized or smaller regolith particles from a dust cloud that will be lifted up during the sampling phase. A translational mechanism will deliver the samples to the measurement location inside the CAMAM instrument. CAMAM will conduct measurements by complementary methodologies in a symbiotic way and will allow characterisation of regolith samples by optical investigation and mass spectrometry. MCS will identify and characterise sample components, such as chondrules, matrix, refractory inclusions, down to individual micro-metre-sized grains and particles. Surface features larger than a few µm will be characterised by multicolour imagery, imagery of fluorescence induced by UV sample irradiation, and polarisation analysis of light reflected from the surface. The microscope will yield structural details and morphology of a sample including sample shape, size and texture. Investigation of optical spectral properties of the sample surface will also provide an insight to surface mineralogy and help in identification of organic compound deposits. LMS will conduct measurements of the elemental composition of a sample down to a level of ppm, the isotopic distribution of elements, and also will investigate the molecular compounds that are located on the sample surface. CAMAM studies will allow a comprehensive investigation of the interrelationship between grains, their structure, chemical composition, mineralogy, and adsorbed molecules. We will discuss concepts underlying CAMAM instrument operation and demonstrate instrumental performance

  8. Airglow-solar spectrometer instrument (20-700 nm) aboard the San Marco D/L satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Seidl, P.; Wita, C.

    1985-10-01

    The ASSI experiment aboard the San Marco D/L aeronomy satellite will monitor the airglow, solar, and interplanetary radiations from the EUV through the visible spectral regions. Four spectrometers with solar pointing control cover this broad region using channels with eighteen overlapping wavelength ranges with spectral resolutions from 0.8 to 3.0 nm, which are adequate for aeronomy. Large dynamic ranges up to 1:10 to the 11th permit the measurement of faint airglow or interplanetary radiation and intense solar emissions with one and the same instrument. Instrumental details such as the special optical design and calibration procedures are presented in detail.

  9. An investigation of geometry and noise corrections to San Marco-C neutral atmospheric composition experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the calculation of ambient densities from San Marco-C neutral atmospheric composition experiment data is considered. A brief description is given of the data measurement method, followed by a description of both the theoretical and experimental data curves. Geometry, electrometer distortions, and noise effects are then studied in terms of their effects on the ideal data form. From these considerations two data reduction methods are evolved. The first is an iterative integration technique that exploits the symmetry of the experimental data about the minimum angle of attack. For the analysis of geometry effects, a second method using interval averaging was developed and studied.

  10. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a dynamic adhesive molecule that enhances uptake of carbon nanotubes by CHO-K1 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2012-02-15

    The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a highly promising nanomaterial, is similar to that of asbestos because both types of particles have a fibrous shape and are biopersistent. Here, we investigated the characteristics of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a membrane receptor expressed on macrophages that recognizes environmental or unopsonized particles, and we assessed whether and how MARCO was involved in cellular uptake of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). MARCO-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells took up polystyrene beads irrespective of the particle size (20 nm–1 μm). In the culture of MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells dendritic structures were observed on the bottom of culture dishes, and the edges of these dendritic structures were continually renewed as the cell body migrated along the dendritic structures. MWCNTs were first tethered to the dendritic structures and then taken up by the cell body. MWCNTs appeared to be taken up via membrane ruffling like macropinocytosis, rather than phagocytosis. The cytotoxic EC{sub 50} value of MWCNTs in MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells was calculated to be 6.1 μg/mL and transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the toxicity of MWCNTs may be due to the incomplete inclusion of MWCNTs by the membrane structure. -- Highlights: ►Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tethered to MARCO in vitro. ►CNTs were taken up rapidly into the cell body via MARCO by membrane ruffling. ►The incomplete inclusion of CNTs by membranes caused cytotoxicity.

  11. Origin and characteristics of discharge at San Marcos Springs based on hydrologic and geochemical data (2008-10), Bexar, Comal, and Hays Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Crow, Cassi L.

    2012-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas is a productive and important water resource. Several large springs issuing from the aquifer are major discharge points, popular locations for recreational activities, and habitat for threatened and endangered species. Discharges from Comal and San Marcos Springs, the first and second largest spring complexes in Texas, are used as thresholds in groundwater management strategies for the Edwards aquifer. Comal Springs is generally understood to be supplied by predominantly regional groundwater flow paths; the hydrologic connection of San Marcos Springs with the regional flow system, however, is less understood. During November 2008–December 2010, a hydrologic and geochemical investigation of San Marcos Springs was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System. The primary objective of this study was to define and characterize sources of discharge from San Marcos Springs. During this study, hydrologic conditions transitioned from exceptional drought (the dry period, November 1, 2008 to September 8, 2009) to wetter than normal (the wet period, September 9, 2009 to December 31, 2010), which provided the opportunity to investigate the hydrogeology of San Marcos Springs under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Water samples were collected from streams, groundwater wells, and springs at and in the vicinity of San Marcos Springs, including periodic (routine) sampling (every 3–7 weeks) and sampling in response to storms. Samples were analyzed for major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and selected stable and radiogenic isotopes (deuterium, oxygen, carbon, strontium). Additionally, selected physicochemical properties were measured continuously at several sites, and hydrologic data were compiled from other USGS efforts (stream and spring discharge). Potential aquifer recharge was evaluated from local streams, and daily recharge or gain/loss estimates were computed for several

  12. Marco Polo - A Mission to Return a Sample from a Near-Earth Object - Science Requirements and Operational Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Barucci, Antonella; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, John; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian; F. Green, Simon; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Jürgen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard; Agnolon, David; Romstedt, Jens

    Marco Polo is a mission to return a sample from a near-Earth object of primitive type (class C or D). It is foreseen as a collaborative effort between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Marco Polo is currently in a Phase-A study (status as of summer 2009). This paper focuses on the scientific requirements provided to the industrial study consortia in Europe as well as the possible mission scenario at the target object in order to achieve the overall mission science objectives. The main scientific reasons for going to a near-Earth object are to understand the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula, to understand how major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating) influence the history of planetesimals, whether primitive class objects contain presolar material, what the organics were in primitive materials, how organics could shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life, and what the role of impacts by NEOs would be in the origin and evolution of life on Earth.

  13. The Cretaceous sediment-hosted copper deposits of San Marcos (Coahuila, Northeastern Mexico): An approach to ore-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alonso, Donají; Canet, Carles; González-Partida, Eduardo; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; Alfonso, Pura; Caballero-Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lozano-Santa Cruz, Rufino

    2011-04-01

    In the San Marcos ranges of Cuatrociénegas, NE Mexico, several sediment-hosted copper deposits occur within the boundary between the Coahuila Block, a basement high mostly granitic in composition and Late Paleozoic to Triassic in age, and the Mesozoic Sabinas rift basin. This boundary is outlined by the regional-scale synsedimentary San Marcos Fault. At the basin scale, the copper mineralization occurs at the top of a ˜1000 m thick red-bed succession (San Marcos Formation, Berrisian), a few meters below a conformable, transitional contact with micritic limestones (Cupido Formation, Hauterivian to Aptian). It consists of successive decimeter-thick roughly stratiform copper-rich horizons placed just above the red-beds, in a transitional unit of carbonaceous grey-beds grading to micritic limestones. The host rocks are fine- to medium-grained arkoses, with poorly sorted and subangular to subrounded grains. The detrital grains are cemented by quartz and minor calcite; besides, late iron oxide grain-coating cement occurs at the footwall unmineralized red-beds. The source area of the sediments, indicated by their modal composition, is an uplifted basement. The contents of SiO 2 (40.70-87.50 wt.%), Al 2O 3 (5.91-22.00 wt.%), K 2O (3.68-12.50 wt.%), Na 2O (0.03-2.03 wt.%) and CaO (0.09-3.78 wt.%) are within the ranges expected for arkoses. Major oxide ratios indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic setting was a passive margin. The outcropping copper mineralization essentially consists in a supergene assemblage of chrysocolla, malachite and azurite. All that remains of the primary mineralization are micron-sized chalcocite grains shielded by quartz cement. In addition, pyrite subhedral grains occur scattered throughout the copper-mineralized horizons. In these weathered orebodies copper contents range between 4.24 and 7.72 wt.%, silver between 5 and 92 ppm, and cobalt from 8 to 91 ppm. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite crystals from

  14. The analysis of bronze alloys from the equestrian statue of Marco Aurelio by means of a thin sample XRF technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, M.; Cesareo, R.; Marabelli, M.; Guida, G.

    1989-02-01

    The choice of the methods that can be employed in the elemental characterization of archaeological alloys strongly depends on the type, state of conservation and dimensions of the object. The present article describes the analytical approach used for the bronze equestrian statue of Marco Aurelio, for which "in loco" nondestructive analyses could not be performed. The technique is based on the XRF analysis of samples that were previously cored from the statue in small quantities (200 mg), dissolved and deposited on a support in the form of a thin layer. The article also shows some of the results concerned with the analysis of approximately 100 samples; such results were found to be in good agreement with the typical compositions of ancient bronzes.

  15. Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid and Marco Polo-R Mission Target (175706) 1996 FG3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, L. A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Lawrence, K. J.; Taylor, P. A.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Busch, M. W.; Margot, J. L.; Naidu, S. P.; Magri, C.; Shepard, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    We report Arecibo (2380 MHz), 13-cm) and Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5-cm) delay-Doppler radar observations of binary near-Earth asteroid and Marco Polo-R mission target (175706) 1996 FG3 that were obtained on nine dates November-December, 2011.

  16. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    PubMed Central

    Malagón, Filiberto

    2008-01-01

    This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  17. The Close-Up Camera of the Marco-Polo-R Asteroid Mission, Science Objectives and Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Souchon, A.; Josset, M.; Hofmann, B.; Leya, I.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Michel, P.; Hoffmann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Dotto, E.; Ferri, F.; Cellino, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Lara, L. M.; Grande, M.; Cockell, C.; Martins, Z.; Neubeck, A.; Korablev, O.; Ohtake, M.; Paar, G.; Muinonen, K.

    2013-09-01

    The CUC (Close-Up Camera) is part of the selected scientific payload for the MarcoPolo-R mission. It is a powerful, miniaturized, low-power, efficient and highly adaptive system of 820 g, composed of three main parts: a flexible structure focus mechanism allows the acquisition of sharp images of any target from 10 cm to infinity; a colour Active Pixel Sensor with 2652 x 1768 x 3 pixels provides RGB colours keeping the spatial resolution; a high-performance integrated electronics system allows a good flexibility for the operations of the CUC. The CUC is designed to characterize at high resolution and in colour the sampling area and provide the geological context of the sample prior to the sampling operations, which is crucial for the subsequent analysis of the sample back to Earth. The aim is to determine physical key properties of the target's surface, such as grain size distribution, textural, mineralogical, structural, and morphological details in geologic materials, influence of space weathering processes. Thanks to its varying focal length, CUC images can also be acquired before and after the sampling operation: - during the descent, to provide information on the unperturbed regolith surface state of a larger area around the sampling site, - during the ascent, to study how the sampling process will have altered the structural properties of the surface. With its ~14° field of view (diagonal), the CUC can also contribute to the local and global characterization phases, in synergy with the other instruments.

  18. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  19. Europa Jupiter System Mission and Marco Polo Mission: Italian partecipation in studies of laser altimeters for Jovian moons and asteroids exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santovito, M. R.; Hussman, H.; Oberst, J.; Lingenauber, K.

    CO.RI.S.T.A. (Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems) is member of international science teams devoted to the studies of laser altimeters to fly on Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and Marco Polo Mission, currently under study of ESA's Cosmic Vision program as L-class and M-class mission respectively. Both the studies will focus on the assessment of alternative technical approaches that would reduce the mass, size and power requirements. In particular a Single Photon Counting (SPC) device will be studied taking into account the robustness against false detections due to harsh radiation environment in the Jupiter system. Innovative technical aspects which will characterize the studies of laser altimeters in the scenarios of EJSM and MarcoPolo, which will permit us to make major contributions to the science goals of the two missions.

  20. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager based on an uncooled micro-bolometer for the Marco Polo R mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brageot, E.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Reynaud, J. L.; Fargant, G.

    2011-10-01

    We report on an on-going feasibility study of a midinfrared (8-18 μm) spectro-imager for the Marco Polo R mission (THERMAP). Based on the recent development of uncooled micro-bolometer technology, we can now use these detectors for planetary missions. We present our results on using this detector to perform calibrated radiometric images, and a preliminary assessment of its performances for spectroscopic measurements of a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA).

  1. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules. Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10). Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163. MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO.

  2. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules. Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10). Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163. MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO. PMID:26886650

  3. New observations of asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, primary target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Licandro, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.

    2011-06-01

    Context. Near-Earth asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is the primary target of the ESA Marco Polo-R mission, which was selected for the assessment study phase of ESA M3 missions. This is a primitive (C-type), binary asteroid that will allow new research to be performed. The primary is a rapidly rotating (3.6 h) small asteroid (1.4 km diameter) that is almost spherical and has a satellite of ~400 m. Aims: We analyse new ground-based spectroscopic data of 1996 FG3 to help us characterise its surface composition and prepare for the mission. Methods: We obtained a near-infrared spectrum covering the range 0.8-2.5 μm, using the camera-spectrograph NICS at the 3.6 m telescope TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo), located at "El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory on La Palma, Spain. We combine our near-infrared spectrum with previously published data, and compare all the available spectra of this asteroid with the spectra of meteorites to constrain the mineralogy of the asteroid. Results: Our spectrum of FG3 differs remarkably from previously published ones. Spectral classification performed using the complete visible and near-infrared range yields more than one result, varying from C to Xk types. However, all the possible spectral types indicate that this asteroid is a primitive object. The comparison with meteorites behaves in the same way, providing several good matches to our new near-infrared spectrum (CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, and L6 and H4 ordinary chondrites), and only one match in the case of the previously published spectra (weakly shocked H4 ordinary chondrite, dark vein). The albedo of the asteroid (~0.04), is typical of a primitive object, and is consistent with the reflectance value at 0.55 μm of the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. Further observations will be essential to help us characterise more clearly the mineralogy of this asteroid.

  4. The San Marcos Pueblo Archaeological Site: A Review and Update of Ongoing Work by the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poje, M. S. L.; Berry, K.; Brandt, T. W.; Irwin, T. C.; Creighton, A.; MacLennan, K. J.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.

    2014-12-01

    The San Marcos Pueblo, one of the largest and most important cities of the pre-European Southwest, has long been a place of curiosity for archaeologists and geophysicists alike. Despite numerous archaeological investigations, primarily test excavations and surface surveys carried out at San Marcos from the early 1900s to the present, the site retains pottery sherds scattered along the surface from when it was first occupied in the thirteenth century to its abandonment during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Geophysical investigations have identified locations of kivas (ceremonial pits), middens (trash heaps), room blocks and possible metallurgy activity in the area. The site is located south of Santa Fe, NM and to the east of the Cerrillos Hills, a source for lead ore and turquoise. The students of SAGE have studied the San Marcos Pueblo for the past 11 years, and produced a map of the northeastern portion of the Pueblo colloquially called 'El Mapa Grande.' Ground penetrating radar (GPR), magnetics, and electromagnetic (EM) data were acquired on 30mx30m grids and seismic refraction data on various profiles throughout El Mapa Grande. During the 2014 field season new GPR data were acquired on two grids, magnetics data on one, and multiple grids were resurveyed with magnetics and EM to enhance resolution. The most recent GPR data extend coverage of two large anomalies that are part of linear EW-trending structures previously identified and consistent with a possible block wall or midden. Low GPR scatter and circular magnetic lows define several kivas. A target area in the NE of El Mapa Grande was thought to be related to metallurgic activity. Analysis of previous seismic data did not resolve any subsurface features corresponding to a metallurgy operation, but detected the magnetically-chaotic Ancha formation. Comparison with magnetic profile data support the interpretation that this anomaly is caused by a sub-crop of the Ancha Formation.

  5. Recognition of hyper-extended rifted margin remnants in the internal zone of the Alpine belt: A tribute to Marco Beltrando

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Geoffroy; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Marco Beltrando was part of the young generation of Alpine geologists who challenged the interpretation of the Western Alps by combining a classical field approach and modern techniques (e.g. 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology). His work provides the foundation to re-interpret some of the classical sections through the Alpine belt and may impact the way of thinking about the nature and structure of internal parts of collisional orogens. This contribution will present the main outcomes of the work of Marco Beltrando and their implications for the understanding of Alpine type orogens. Since his PhD, Marco Beltrando focused most of his work on the study of the internal parts of the Western Alps. He investigated in great details the complex, multiphase structural and metamorphic evolution of the Penninic units in the Western Alps. He concluded that these units went through several cycles of shortening and extension during the Alpine orogeny, with major implications for the Alps but also other orogenic belts. After his PhD, he focused his research on the pre-orogenic evolution of the Alpine belt. He first worked on the Petit St. Bernard area, where he identified relics of the former hyper-extended Tethyan rifted margin. Thanks to his work and his amazing knowledge of the Western Alps, he understood the potential importance of rift-inheritance in controlling the architecture and evolution of the Alpine belt. In parallel to the study of the orogenic evolution, he developed a new methodology to recognize rift-related lithostratigraphic units in highly deformed and metamorphosed parts of the Alps. His innovative work allowed a re-assessment of several areas in the Western Alps and demonstrates the importance of rift inheritance. Recently, he started a new research project on the evolution of the Southern Alps highlighting the importance of heating and cooling cycles resulting from complex successions of rifting events. In spite of his young age, Marco Beltrando was at

  6. [The role of the class A scavenger receptors, SR-A and MARCO, in the immune system. Part 2. Contribution to recognition and phagocytosis of pathogens as well as induction of immune response].

    PubMed

    Józefowski, Szczepan

    2012-02-29

    Recognition of pathogens by innate immune cells is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which include the class A scavenger receptors (SR), SR-A/CD204 and MARCO. It seems that in addition to activating innate immune responses, phagocytosis and inflammation, this initial, PRR-mediated recognition also determines polarization of adaptive immune responses (Th1, Th2, Th17 or Treg). It has been demonstrated that class A SR are major PRR mediating opsonin-independent phagocytosis. SR-A- or MARCO-deficient mice exhibit impaired ability to control bacterial infections, resulting in increased mortality. Our results suggest that in addition to impaired bacterial destruction by macrophages, dysregulation of immune responses may contribute to defective antibacterial defense in class A SR-deficient mice. Using specific receptor ligation with antibodies, we showed that SR-A and MARCO regulate in an opposite manner production of IL-12 in macrophages, the cytokine playing a crucial role in Th1/Th2 polarization of adaptive immune responses. Together with the observation that expression of MARCO is increased by different Th1-polarizing factors and decreased by Th2-polarizing factors, these results suggest that changes in relative expression levels of SR-A and MARCO may be a mechanism of sustained polarization of adaptive immune responses.

  7. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  8. A new Eimeria sP. from the plumbeous Central American caecilian, Dermophis mexicanus (amphibia: gymnophiona) from Volcán Tajumulco, Department of San Marcos, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Asmundsson, I M; Campbell, J A; Duszynski, D W

    2000-04-01

    Fresh fecal samples from 5 caecilians (Dermophis mexicanus) were collected and examined for coccidia in the summer of 1998. The caecilians were collected in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. Two of the 5 (40%) specimens of caecilians contained an Eimeria species that is described here as new. This represents the first coccidia described from a gymnophionian host. Sporulated oocysts are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 19.5 X 17.7 (16-23 x 15-21) microm, micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, and 3 (or more) polar granules are always present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11.0 X 7.2 (10-12 x 6-9); a Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present.

  9. Stability and Evolution of Orbits Around the Binary Asteroid 175706 (1996 FG3) and Asteroids 162173 (1999 JU3) and 101955 (1999 RQ36): Implications for the MARCO-POLO-R Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, H.; Oberst, J.; Wickhusen, K.; Shi, X.; Damme, F.; Luedicke, F.; Lupovka, V.; Bauer, S.

    2012-05-01

    In support of the Marco-Polo-R mission, we have carried out numerical simulations of spacecraft trajectories searching for stable orbits about the asteroids 175706(1996 FG3), 1999 RQ36 and 1999 JU3 under the influence of solar radiation pressure.

  10. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis

    2016-08-01

    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with <3 % NaCl equivalent salinity and with a magmatic source of sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with

  11. Strategies, Programs and Projects 2008 of the Astrophysical Group "SPACE-Universidad Nacional Mayor De San Marcos, Peru" - Preparing for the IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Victor; Aguilar, M.; Huisacayna, J.

    2008-05-01

    We present a review of our efforts to introduce astronomy as scientific career in Peru, showing how our astronomy outreach programs have been one of the most important keys to reach our national astronomical scientific goals, remarking the crucial role that the celebration of the IYA2009 must play, in order to promote PhD programmes in astronomy in developing countries. We show the importance of the creation of the Seminario Permanente de Astronomía y Ciencias Espaciales (SPACE) in the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, as an academic scientific and cultural center in Peru, to support our 26 years-old "Astronomical Fridays” which are addressed to wide range of public, from schoolchildren to scientists. We also show how important was to rediscover our ancient astronomical cultural past of Incas in order to promote the construction of a Astronomical Center located near Cusco city over 4000 meters above sea level, which includes a tourist-educational observatory, a scientific optical observatory and a solar radio observatory.

  12. Deployment of a lander on the binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, potential target of the european MarcoPolo-R sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Michel, Patrick; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    The idea of deploying a lander on the secondary body of the binary primitive asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is investigated. 1996 FG3 is the backup target of the European sample return space mission MarcoPolo-R under assessment study at the European Space Agency in the framework of the M3 Medium-Class mission competition. The launch will take place in 2022-2024, depending on its selection at the end of 2013. A lander is indicated as an optional payload, depending on mass availability on the spacecraft. Obviously, the possible complexity of a lander deployment is also an important parameter to take into account. Here we demonstrate that, considering worst case scenarios and low requirements on the spacecraft GNC and deployment mechanism, the operations are easy to implement and safe for the main spacecraft. The concept of operations is to deploy a light lander from the L2 Lagrange point of the binary system, on a ballistic trajectory that will impact the secondary asteroid. The fundamental principles of this strategy are briefly presented and a detailed model of 1996 FG3 is considered, to which the strategy is applied. We show that the deployment is successful in 99.94% of cases.

  13. Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid and Marco Polo-R Mission Target (175706) 1996 FG3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Lawrence, K. J.; Taylor, P. A.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Busch, M. W.; Margot, J.; Naidu, S. P.; Magri, C.; Shepard, M. K.

    2012-10-01

    We report Arecibo (2380 MHz), 13-cm) and Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5-cm) delay-Doppler radar observations of binary near-Earth asteroid and Marco Polo-R mission target (175706) 1996 FG3 that were obtained on nine dates between November 6-December 17, 2011. The images achieve resolutions as fine as 75 m in range and place hundreds of pixels on the primary. The images provide thorough rotational coverage by the primary and reveal a rounded, slightly elongated object with a visible extent of 0.9 km. If the visible extent is about ½ of the actual extent, which would be true for a sphere, then the equatorial diameter is about 1.8 km. The primary has features along its leading edge that resemble the signature of the pronounced ridge on the equator of binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4. The images sample a wide range of orbital positions by the secondary, resolve it in range and Doppler frequency, show that it is elongated and roughly 500 m in diameter, and suggest that its rotation is synchronous (or nearly so) with the orbital period of 16.1 h estimated by Scheirich and Pravec (2009, Icarus 200, 531-547). We observe a maximum range separation of 2.5 km that, combined with the nearly circular eccentricity found by Scheirich and Pravec from inversion of lightcurves, establishes a lower bound on the semimajor axis. 1996 FG3 has a circular polarization ratio SC/OC = 0.34±0.02 that is comparable to that of 25143 Itokawa (0.28±0.04), suggesting similar degrees of near-surface roughness. The radar data will yield a 3D model of the primary, possibly a coarse-resolution model of the secondary, more precise orbit fitting, and estimates of the system’s mass and bulk density.

  14. The supplemental instruction program: Student perceptions of the learning environment and impact on student academic achievement in college science at California State University, San Marcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizer, Suzanne Elizabeth

    Higher education in science has been criticized and calls to increase student learning and persistence to degree has been recognized as a national problem by the Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the National Academy of Sciences. One mode of academic assistance that may directly address this issue is the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in science courses. SI is a specific model of academic assistance designed to help students in historically difficult science classes master course content, thus increasing their academic achievement and retention. This study assessed the SI program at California State University, San Marcos, in supported science courses. Specifically, academic achievement based on final course grades were compared between SI participating and nonparticipating students, multiple affective factors were measured at the beginning and end of the semester, and students' perceptions of the classroom and SI session learning environments recorded. Overall, students who attended five or more SI sessions achieved higher final course grades. Students who chose to participate in SI had higher initial levels of responsibility and anxiety. Additionally, SI participants experienced a reduction in anxiety over the semester whereas nonparticipants experienced an increase in anxiety from beginning to the end of the semester. The learning environment of SI embodies higher levels of constructivist principles of active learning such as cooperation, cohesiveness, innovation, and personalization---with one exception for the physics course, which is a based on problem-based learning. Structural equation modeling of variables indicates that high self-efficacy at the end of the semester is directly related to high final course grades; this is mediated by cohesion in the classroom and the cooperation evidenced in SI sessions. These findings are elaborated by student descriptions of what happened in SI

  15. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  16. Concentrations of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane in Women Exposed to Woodsmoke in a Cookstove Intervention Study in San Marcos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Commodore, Adwoa A.; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chang, Yan; Hartinger, Stella M.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Gil, Ana I.; Hall, Daniel B.; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Vena, John E.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Naeher, Luke P.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly half of the world’s population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. The effect of woodsmoke exposure on oxidative stress was examined by investigating the association between woodsmoke exposure and biomarkers of DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane) among control and intervention stove users. HAP exposure assessment was conducted within the framework of a community-randomized controlled trial of 51 communities in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. The first morning urine voids after 48hr HAP exposure assessment from a subset of 45 control and 39 intervention stove users were analyzed for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane. General linear models and correlation analyses were performed. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers ranged from 11.2 to 2270.0 μg/g creatinine (median: 132.6 μg/g creatinine) for 8-OHdG and from 0.1 to 4.5 μg/g creatinine (median: 0.8 μg/g creatinine) for 8-isoprostane among all study subjects (n=84). After controlling for the effects of traffic in the community and eating food exposed to fire among all subjects, cooking time was weakly, but positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG (r=0.29, p=0.01, n=80). Subjects’ real-time personal CO exposures were negatively associated with 8-OHdG, particularly the maximum 30-second CO exposure during the sampling period (r=−0.32, p=0.001, n=73). 48hr time integrated personal PM2.5 was negatively, but marginally associated with urinary 8-isoprostane (r=−0.21, p=0.09, n=69) after controlling for the effect of distance of homes to the road. Urinary 8-isoprostane levels reported in the available literature are comparable to results found in the current study. However there were relatively high levels of urinary 8-OHdG compared to data in the available literature for 8-OHdG excretion. Results suggest a sustained systemic oxidative stress among these Peruvian women

  17. [The role of the class A scavenger receptors, SR-A and MARCO, in the immune system. Part 1. The structure of receptors, their ligand binding repertoires and ability to initiate intracellular signaling].

    PubMed

    Józefowski, Szczepan

    2012-02-29

    Recognition of pathogens by innate immune cells is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which include scavenger receptors (SR). The class A SR, SR-A/CD204 and MARCO, are characterized by the presence of collagenous and SR cysteine-rich domains in their extracellular portions. Both receptors are expressed mainly on macrophages and dendritic cells. Thanks to their ability to bind to a wide range of polyanionic ligands, the class A SR may participate in numerous functions of these cells, such as endocytosis, and adhesion to extracellular matrix and to other cells. Among SR-A ligands are oxidized lipoproteins and β-amyloid fibrils, which link SR-A to the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the demonstration of class A SR involvement in so many processes, the lack of selective ligands precluded reaching definite conclusions concerning their signaling abilities. Using specific receptor ligation with antibodies, we showed that SR-A and MARCO trigger intracellular signaling, modulating pro-inflammatory and microbicidal activities of macrophages. Surprisingly, despite similarities in structure and ligand binding repertoires, SR-A and MARCO exert opposite effects on interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in macrophages. SR-A ligation also stimulated H₂O₂ and IL-10 production, but had no effect on the release of several other cytokines. These limited effects of specific SR-A ligation contrast with generalized enhancement of immune responses observed in SR-A-deficient mice. Recent studies have revealed that many of these effects of SR-A deficiency may be caused by compensatory changes in the expression of other receptors and/or disinhibition of signal transduction from receptors belonging to the Toll/IL-1R family, rather than by the loss of the receptor function of SR-A.

  18. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Video Gallery

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  19. An investigation of the low-ΔV near-Earth asteroids (341843) 2008 EV5 and (52381) 1993 HA. Two suitable targets for the ARM and MarcoPolo-M5 space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Popescu, M.; Monteiro, F.; Lantz, C.; Lazzaro, D.; Merlin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) under development by NASA is being planned to collect a multi-meter boulder from a near-Earth asteroid (NEA), and to bring it to the cis-lunar space in the mid-2020's for future study and exploitation by a crewed mission. The MarcoPolo-M5 project is being proposed in 2016 for the M5 mission opportunity by ESA, to bring back to Earth a sample from a very primitive D-type NEA. As D-types are very rare within the NEA population, considerable effort is still in progress to characterize easily accessible targets with unknown surface composition, in order to discover further asteroids that belong to this taxonomic group. Aims: We aim to further characterize the physical properties of two optimal targets for sample return space missions, the low-ΔV NEAs (341843) 2008 EV5 and (52381) 1993 HA. The asteroid 2008 EV5 is the baseline target of ARM, but only one spectrum of this object exists in the literature. The asteroid 1993 HA is a very favourable target for a space mission based on its dynamical properties: here we intend to assess if it is a suitable target for MarcoPolo-M5. Methods: We obtained visible spectroscopy of 2008 EV5 with the FORS2 instrument at ESO-VLT (Paranal, Chile), at different rotational phases. We also obtained visible and near-infrared spectroscopy of 1993 HA, using the EFOSC2 and SOfI instruments at ESO-NTT (La Silla, Chile). Visible photometry of 1993 HA was carried out within the IMPACTON project at the Observatório Astronômico do Sertão de Itaparica (Itacuruba, Brazil). Results: Our new observations are in agreement with the C-type classification of 2008 EV5, which is a requirement for the ARM mission. We obtained five visible spectra which do not show any variability within the limits of noise, suggesting a homogeneous surface. We obtained the first ever spectroscopic dataset ( 0.4-1.6 μm) for 1993 HA, finding a featureless, red-sloped behaviour typical of D-types (a T or X classification is also

  20. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  1. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived from ground-based MAX-DOAS system in Guangzhou, China and comparison with satellite observations: First results within the EU FP7 project MarcoPolo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosoglou, Theano; Kouremeti, Natalia; Bais, Alkis; Zyrichidou, Irene; Li, Shu; Balis, Dimitris; Huang, Zhonghui

    2016-04-01

    A miniature MAX-DOAS system, Phaethon, has been developed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, for ground-based monitoring of column densities of atmospheric gases. Simultaneous measurements with two Phaethon systems at the city centre of Thessaloniki and at a rural location about 30 km away have shown that Phaethon provides NO2 and HCHO tropospheric column measurements of acceptable accuracy under both low and high air-pollution levels. Currently three systems have been deployed in areas with different pollution patterns to support air quality and satellite validation studies. In the framework of the EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo project, one of the Phaethon systems has been installed since April 2015 in the Guangzhou region in China. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived at Guangzhou during the first 10 months of operation are compared with corresponding retrievals from OMI/Aura and GOME-2/Metop-A and /Metop-B satellite sensors. The area is characterized by humid subtropical monsoon climate and cloud-free conditions are rather rare from early March to mid-October. Despite this limitation and the short period of operation of Phaethon in Guangzhou, the agreement between ground-based and satellite observations is generally good for both NO2 and HCHO. It appears that GOME-2 sensors seem to underestimate the tropospheric NO2, possibly due to their large pixel size, whereas the comparison with OMI data is better, especially when a small cloud fraction (< 0.2) is used for cloud screening.

  2. Calcineurin hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate.

    PubMed

    Spannaus-Martin, Donna J; Martin, Bruce L

    2004-04-01

    para-Nitrophenyl phosphorothioate (pNPT) was hydrolyzed by calcineurin at initial rates slightly, but comparable to rates for para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Kinetic characterization yielded higher estimates for both Km and Vmax compared to pNPP. Metal ion activation of phosphorothioate hydrolysis was more promiscuous. Unlike the hydrolysis of with pNPP, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ activated calcineurin as well as Mn2+.

  3. A note on para-holomorphic Riemannian-Einstein manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Cristian; Ionescu, Alexandru; Manea, Adelina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this note is the study of Einstein condition for para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics in the para-complex geometry framework. First, we make some general considerations about para-complex Riemannian manifolds (not necessarily para-holomorphic). Next, using a one-to-one correspondence between para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics and para-Kähler-Norden metrics, we study the Einstein condition for a para-holomorphic Riemannian metric and the associated real para-Kähler-Norden metric on a para-complex manifold. Finally, it is shown that every semi-simple para-complex Lie group inherits a natural para-Kählerian-Norden Einstein metric.

  4. Project Marco Polo: Experiences Applying Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trygestad, JoAnn; Nelson, Jasmine

    1993-01-01

    Describes a summer 1992 study tour of Egypt and Greece by 15 teachers, 15 students, and 5 geography administrators. Focuses on the experiences and attitudes of one eighth-grade student. Asserts that her presentations to student and adult groups have encouraged other students to become more interested in travel and other cultures. (CFR)

  5. Ortho-para-hydrogen equilibration on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rossow, William B.

    1992-01-01

    Voyager IRIS observations reveal that the Jovian para-hydrogen fraction is not in thermodynamic equilibrium near the NH3 cloud top, implying that a vertical gradient exists between the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25 at depth and the cloud top values. The height-dependent para-hydrogen profile is obtained using an anisotropic multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. A vertical correlation is found to exist between the location of the para-hydrogen gradient and the NH3 cloud, strongly suggesting that paramagnetic conversion on NH3 cloud particle surfaces is the dominant equilibration mechanism. Below the NH3 cloud layer, the para fraction is constant with depth and equal to the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25. The degree of cloud-top equilibration appears to depend on the optical depth of the NH3 cloud layer. Belt-zone variations in the para-hydrogen profile seem to be due to differences in the strength of the vertical mixing.

  6. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  7. Para-methylstyrene from toluene and acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.A.; Occelli, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    High yields of para-methylstyrene (PMS) were obtained in this study by coupling toluene and acetaldehyde then cracking the resultant 1,1-ditolylethane (DTE) to give equimolar amounts of PMS and toluene. In the first step, a total DTE and ''trimer'' yield of 98% on toluene and 93% on acetaldehyde was obtained using 98% sulfuric acid as catalyst at 5-10/sup 0/C. In the second step, a choline chloride-offretite cracked DTE with 84.0% conversion and 91% selectivity to PMS and toluene. Additional PMS can be obtained by cracking the by-product ''trimer'' formed by coupling DTE and toluene with acetaldehyde. Zeolite Rho was as active but yielded less PMS (86%) and produced more para-ethyltoluene (PET), an undesirable by-product.

  8. Relaciones Culturales de Mexico: Convenios de Intercambio Cultural y Asistencia Tecnica (Mexican Cultural Relations: Cultural Exchange and Technical Assistance Agreements).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n10 p43-83, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) describing briefly Mexico's cultural relations with 23 nations with which she has cultural exchange agreements. The reasons for cultural exchange are stated, such as the belief that cultural relations promote good relations among nations. The agreements concluded between…

  9. Un Marco Abierto: Un Manual de Matematicas y Ciencas Utilizando Inteligencias Multiples Disenado para Estudiantes Bilingues de Educacion General y Especial (An Open Framework: A Math and Science Manual Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Designed for Bilingual Students in General and Special Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This manual incorporates a Multiple Intelligences perspective into its presentation of themes and lesson ideas for Spanish-English bilingual elementary school students in grades 4-8 and is designed for both gifted and special education uses. Each unit includes practice activities, semantic maps to illustrate and help organize ideas as well as…

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  11. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45°-τ-180°-τ) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-τ-90x-τ) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization.

  12. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  13. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  14. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  15. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  16. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  17. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  18. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in neutron thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L. L.; Brun, T. O.

    1998-01-01

    The large difference in neutron scattering cross-section at low neutron energies between ortho- and para-hydrogen was recognized early on. In view of this difference (more than an order of magnitude), one might legitimately ask whether the ortho/para ratio has a significant effect on the neutron thermalization properties of a cold hydrogen moderator. Several experiments performed in the 60`s and early 70`s with a variety of source and (liquid hydrogen) moderator configurations attempted to investigate this. The results tend to show that the ortho/para ratio does indeed have an effect on the energy spectrum of the neutron beam produced. Unfortunately, the results are not always consistent with each other and much unknown territory remains to be explored. The problem has been approached from a computational standpoint, but these isolated efforts are far from having examined the ortho/para-hydrogen problem in neutron moderation in all its complexity. Because of space limitations, the authors cannot cover, even briefly, all the aspects of the ortho/para question here. This paper will summarize experiments meant to investigate the effect of the ortho/para ratio on the neutron energy spectrum produced by liquid hydrogen moderators.

  19. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  20. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  1. Hox and ParaHox genes: a review on molluscs.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Barucca, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans during embryo development. Body plan evolution and diversification are affected by variations in the number and sequence of Hox and ParaHox genes, as well as by their expression patterns. For this reason Hox and ParaHox gene investigation in the phylum Mollusca is of great interest, as this is one of the most important taxa of protostomes, characterized by a high morphological diversity. The comparison of the works reviewed here indicates that species of molluscs, belonging to different classes, share a similar composition of Hox and ParaHox genes. Therefore evidence suggests that the wide morphological diversity of this taxon could be ascribed to differences in Hox gene interactions and expressions and changes in the Hox downstream genes rather than to Hox cluster composition. Moreover the data available on Hox and ParaHox genes in molluscs compared with those of other Lophotrochozoa shed light on the complex and controversial evolutionary histories that these genes have undergone within protostomes.

  2. Evolution of invertebrate deuterostomes and Hox/ParaHox genes.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro

    2011-06-01

    Transcription factors encoded by Antennapedia-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in controlling development of animals, and are often found clustered in animal genomes. The Hox and ParaHox gene clusters have been regarded as evolutionary sisters and evolved from a putative common ancestral gene complex, the ProtoHox cluster, prior to the divergence of the Cnidaria and Bilateria (bilaterally symmetrical animals). The Deuterostomia is a monophyletic group of animals that belongs to the Bilateria, and a sister group to the Protostomia. The deuterostomes include the vertebrates (to which we belong), invertebrate chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms and possibly xenoturbellids, as well as acoelomorphs. The studies of Hox and ParaHox genes provide insights into the origin and subsequent evolution of the bilaterian animals. Recently, it becomes apparent that among the Hox and ParaHox genes, there are significant variations in organization on the chromosome, expression pattern, and function. In this review, focusing on invertebrate deuterostomes, I first summarize recent findings about Hox and ParaHox genes. Next, citing unsolved issues, I try to provide clues that might allow us to reconstruct the common ancestor of deuterostomes, as well as understand the roles of Hox and ParaHox genes in the development and evolution of deuterostomes.

  3. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

    2010-11-01

    Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  4. Quantum simulation of driven para-Bose oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderete, C. Huerta; Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics allows paraparticles with mixed Bose-Fermi statistics that have not been experimentally confirmed. We propose a trapped-ion scheme whose effective dynamics are equivalent to a driven para-Bose oscillator of even order. Our mapping suggest highly entangled vibrational and internal ion states as the laboratory equivalent of quantum simulated parabosons. Furthermore, we show the generation and reconstruction of coherent oscillations and para-Bose analogs of Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states from population inversion measurements in the laboratory frame. Our proposal, apart from demonstrating an analog quantum simulator of para-Bose oscillators, provides a quantum state engineering tool that foreshadows the potential use of paraparticle dynamics in the design of quantum information systems.

  5. Ortho and para-armalcolite samples in Apollo 17.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two paragenetically contrasting forms of armalcolite are present in basalts from the Apollo 17 Taurus-Littrow landing site. These armalcolites differ in optical properties, in crystal habit and in their distribution between coarse and fine grained rocks. It is proposed to call the two armalcolite forms ortho-armalcolite and para-armalcolite. Texural relationships and the evidence of experimental melting show that ortho-armalcolite is always the first crystalline phase to appear from unusually titanium rich magmas. The origin of para-armalcolite is not yet fully understood.

  6. On some examples of para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2017-02-01

    Spaces equipped with two complementary (distinct) congruences of self-dual null strings and at least one congruence of anti-self-dual null strings are considered. It is shown that if such spaces are Einsteinian then the vacuum Einstein field equations can be reduced to a single nonlinear partial differential equation of the second order. Different forms of these equations are analyzed. Finally, several new explicit metrics of the para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0 are presented. Some relation of that metrics to a modern approach to mechanical issues is discussed.

  7. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  8. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  9. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  10. Shading and shadowing on Canaletto's Piazza San Marco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W. A.; de Ridder, Huib

    2014-02-01

    Whereas the 17th century painter Canaletto was a master in linear perspective of the architectural elements, he seems to have had considerable difficulty with linear perspective of shadows. A common trick to avoid shadow perspective problems is to set the (solar) illumination direction parallel to the projection screen. We investigated in one painting where Canaletto clearly used this trick, whether he followed this light direction choice consistently through in how he shades the persons. We approached this question with a perceptual experiment where we measured perceived light directions in isolated details of the paintings. Specifically, we controlled whether observers could only see the (cast) shadow, only shading or both. We found different trends in all three conditions. The results indicate that Canaletto probably used different shading than the parallel light direction would predict. We interpret the results as a form or artistic freedom that Canaletto used to shade the persons individually.

  11. Travel, Tourism, and Geographic Field Work: Project Marco Polo 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.; St. Peter, Patrice H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a 3-week study tour of Egypt and Greece by 15 geography teachers, 15 students, and 5 administrators during summer 1992. Discusses nine processes that were used to provide structure for the trip's events. Concludes that a geography teacher's task is to evoke in students the spirit of the traveler. (CFR)

  12. Kit para aplicar la metodología de Lean en el gobierno

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Este Kit para comenzar a aplicar la metodología Lean (Gobierno optimizado) ofrece información para ayudar a las agencias de protección ambiental a planificar e implementar iniciativas Lean exitosas.

  13. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

  14. Conversion of para and ortho hydrogen in the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Hunten, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed which partially equilibrates the para and ortho rotational levels of molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Catalytic reactions between the free-radical surface sites of aerosol particles and hydrogen modecules yield significant equilibration near 1 bar pressure, if the efficiency of conversion per collision is between 10 to the -8th and 10 to the -10th and the effective eddy mixing coefficient is 10,000 sq cm/sec. At lower pressures the ortho-para ratio retains the value at the top of the cloud layer, except for a very small effect from conversion in the thermosphere. The influence of conversion on the specific heat and adiabatic lapse rate is also investigated. The effect is found to be generally small, though is can rise to 10% inside the aerosol layer.

  15. Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: its radiographic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, A; Murayama, S; Ohuchida, T; Russell, W J

    1988-01-01

    On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not established. Out of 93 serially imaged opacities, 90 changed, including 37 of the 40 instances (92.5%) of the discrete type and 53 instances (100%) of the amorphous and segmented types--due to periarthritis calcarea. At least 43 of 90 densities were newly developed. Mean age at first detection was 47.7 years. Three of the discrete densities were unchanged and represented os acetabula. Thus, recognition of para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea is not only of academic importance; it can facilitate proper treatment as well.

  16. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Para-Phenylene PBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    give high molecular weight m-phenylene PBI (Reference 7). The polymer was completely soluble in methanesulfonic acid and 98% formic acid . Polymer with...mono- mer is a white crystalline solid which can be quantitatively hydrolized in an acid medium to give the free TAB. Stoichiometric quantities of IX...WEIGHT "PARA"-PHENYLENE PBI TECHNICAL REPORT AFML-TR-74-199 NOVEMBER 1974 Distribution limited to U.S.Government agencies only, test and evaluation

  17. Production Ratio for Para- and Ortho-Ps in Photodetachment of Ps^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Para- and ortho-Ps atoms are formed in the photodetachment of positronium negative ion. Since the lifetime against the pair annihilation is much shorter for para-Ps( ns) than for ortho-Ps( ns), the production ratio of para- and ortho-Ps atoms is important for the photodetachment experiments. We have derived the ratio explicitly.

  18. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

  19. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  20. Surgical treatment of para-oesophageal hiatal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M. L.; Duffy, J. P.; Beggs, F. D.; Salama, F. D.; Knowles, K. R.; Morgan, W. E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic antireflux surgery has stimulated interest in laparoscopic para-oesophageal hiatal hernia repair. This review of our practice over 10 years using a standard transthoracic technique was undertaken to establish the safety and effectiveness of the open technique to allow comparison. Sixty patients with para-oesophageal hiatal hernia were operated on between 1989 and 1999. There were 38 women and 22 men with a median age of 69.5 years. There were 47 elective and 13 emergency presentations. Operation consisted of a left thoracotomy, hernia reduction and crural repair. An antireflux procedure was added in selected patients. There were no deaths among the elective cases and one among the emergency cases. Median follow-up time was 19 months. There was one recurrence (1.5%). Seven patients (12%) required a single oesophagoscopy and dilatation up to 2 years postoperatively but have been asymptomatic since. Two patients (3%) developed symptomatic reflux which has been well controlled on proton-pump inhibitors. Transthoracic para-oesophageal hernia repair can be safely performed with minimal recurrence. PMID:11777134

  1. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  2. Studies on barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate NLO single crystal by unidirectional growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthrakumar, R.; Vesta, C.; Jose, M.; Sugandhi, K.; Krishnan, S.; Jerome Das, S.

    2010-08-01

    The unidirectional crystal growth technique has been employed for the bulk growth of semi-organic nonlinear optical barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate single crystals along the (2 2 0) direction with almost high solute-crystal conversion efficiency. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal and powder XRD analyses in order to confirm the crystal identity. Optical absorption studies reveal very high transmittance in the entire visible and near IR region. The presence of various functional groups is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Low dielectric loss at high frequency region is indicative of enhanced optical quality with lesser defects. Photoconductivity measurements carried out on the grown crystal reveal the negative photoconducting nature.

  3. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study.

  4. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  5. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  6. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  7. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  8. Para-hydrogen narrow filament evaporation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarova, T. G.; Gogolin, A. A.; Montero, S.

    2012-11-01

    Undercooling of liquid para-hydrogen (pH2) below its freezing point at equilibrium (13.8 K) has been shown recently in flowing micro-filaments evaporating in low density background gas [M. Kühnel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245301 (2011)]. An hydrodynamical model accounting for this process is reported here. Analytical expressions for the local temperature T of a filament, averaged over its cross section, are obtained as a function of distance z to the nozzle. Comparison with the experiment is shown. It is shown also that the thermocapillary forces induce a parabolic profile of velocity across the jet.

  9. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  10. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  11. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  12. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  13. Crystal growth and DFT insight on sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate single crystal for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Boobalan, Maria Susai; Anthuvan Babu, S.; Ramalingam, S.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate (SPPD) were grown by slow evaporation technique and its structure has been studied by FT-IR, FT-Raman and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The optical and electrical properties were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, and dielectric studies respectively. SPPD was thermally stable up to 128 °C as determined by TG-DTA curves. Using the Kurtz-Perry powder method, the second-harmonic generation efficiency was found to be five times to that of KDP. Third-order nonlinear response was studied using Z-scan technique with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and NLO parameters such as intensity dependent refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order susceptibility were also estimated. The molecular geometry from X-ray experiment in the ground state has been compared using density functional theory (DFT) with appropriate basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability also calculated using DFT approaches. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its nonlinear optical activity and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital technique. HOMO-LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule. Based on optimized ground state geometries, Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to study donor-acceptor interactions.

  14. Oropouche Virus. 3. Entomological Observations from Three Epidemics in Para, Brazil, 1975,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-06

    by block number) OROPOUCHE VIRUS, CULICOIDES PARAENSIS, EPIDEMICS, BRAZIL, PARA I&2 ABSThAC (Cantmus = revers e e* I nessamy and idewtty by block nmbe...8217)URBAN EPIDEMTCS OF OROPOUCHE ORO FEVER IN THREE MUNICIPALITIES IN PARA, BR.tZIL WERE SrUDIED IN 1975. CULICOIDES PARAENSIS GOELDI WERE COLLECTED...Urban epidemics of Oropouche (ORO) fever in three municipalities in Para, Brazil were studied in 1975. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi) were collected during

  15. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in dense clouds, protoplanets, and planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decampli, W. M.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    If ortho- and para-hydrogen achieve a thermal ratio on dynamical time scales in a molecular hydrogen cloud, then the specific heat is high enough in the temperature range 35-70 K to possibly induce hydrodynamic collapse. The ortho-para ratio in many interstellar cloud fragments is expected to meet this condition. The same may have been true for the primitive solar nebula. Detailed hydrodynamic and hydrostatic calculations are presented that show the effects of the assumed ortho-para ratio on the evolution of Jupiter during its protoplanetary phase. Some possible consequences of a thermalized ortho-para ratio in the atmospheres of the giant planets are also discussed.

  16. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  17. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  18. Electron impact ionization dynamics of para-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Ning, C. G.; Colgan, J.; Ingólfsson, O.; Madison, D. H.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for the electron impact ionization of the unresolved combination of the 4 highest occupied molecular orbitals (4b3g, 5b2u, 1b1g, and 2b3u) of para-benzoquinone are reported. These were obtained in an asymmetric coplanar geometry with the scattered electron being observed at the angles -7.5°, -10.0°, -12.5° and -15.0°. The experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level, with a marginal level of agreement between them being found. The character of the ionized orbitals, through calculated momentum profiles, provides some qualitative interpretation for the measured angular distributions of the TDCS.

  19. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  20. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Mukkanna, Krishna Sumanth; Stone, Natalie M; Ingram, John R

    2017-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the commonest and most well-known component of hair dyes. Oxidative hair dyes and dark henna temporary tattoos contain PPD. Individuals may be sensitized to PPD by temporary henna tattooing in addition to dyeing their hair. PPD allergy can cause severe reactions and may result in complications. In recent years, frequency of positive patch test reactions to PPD has been increasing. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur, in particular to other hair dye components. Hairdressers are at a high risk for PPD allergy and require counseling regarding techniques to minimize exposure and protective measures while handling hair dye. We focus this review on the current perspectives of diagnosis and management of PPD allergy. PMID:28176912

  1. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  2. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  3. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  4. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-03

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  5. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  6. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  7. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  8. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  9. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry I.

    2016-09-01

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of preliminary release 16.1 in September 2016. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark (√) in the corresponding column. The definition of “feature” has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors, except problems involving features only available in serial mode. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds; compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  11. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  12. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  13. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  14. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  15. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  16. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures.

  17. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction.

  18. Blood transfusion in the para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E

    1990-08-01

    The H-deficient phenotypes found in Chinese so far, have all been secretors of soluble blood group substances in saliva. The corresponding isoagglutinin activity (e.g. anti-B in OB(Hm) persons) has been found to be weak in all cases. To determine the clinical significance of these weak isoagglutinins 51Cr red cell survival tests were performed on three OB(Hm) individuals transfused with small volumes (4 ml) of groups B and O RBC. Rapid destruction of most of the RBC occurred whether or not the isoagglutinins of the OB(Hm) individuals were indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) reactive. When a larger volume (54 ml packed RBC) of group B cells (weakly incompatible by IAGT) was transfused to another OB(Hm) individual with IAGT active anti-HI, the survival of the transfused RBC was 93% at 24 h, with 30% of the RBC remaining in the circulation at 28 d in contrast to 76% as would be expected if the survival was normal. Therefore when whole units of blood of normal ABO blood groups, compatible by IAGT, are transfused, the survival is expected to be almost normal. These weak isoagglutinins may not be very clinically significant and we suggest that when para-Bombay blood is not available, the compatibility testing for OA(Hm) persons should be performed with group A and group O packed RBC; OB(Hm) with group B and group O packed RBC: OAB(Hm) with groups A, B, AB and O packed RBC. For cross matching, the indirect antiglobulin test by a prewarmed technique should be used.

  19. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa.

  20. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  1. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  2. Cold-plasma assisted hydrophobisation of cellulose fibres with styrene and para-halogenated homologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Santos Silva, M. J.; Belgacem, M. N.

    2012-07-01

    Cold-plasma-assisted treatment of additive-free hand sheet paper samples with styrene (ST), para-fluorostyrene (FST), para-fluoro-α-methylstyrene (FMST) and para-chloro-α-methylstyrene (ClMST) and para-bromostyrene (BrST) was studied and found that the grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by contact angle measurement. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the contact angle value of a drop of water deposited at the surface of paper increased from 40° for unmodified substrate to 102, 99, 116, 100 and 107°, for ST-, FST- FMST-, ClMST- and BrST-treated samples, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. In fact, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 25 mJ/m2 to practically zero, indicating that treated surfaces were rendered totally non polar.

  3. Genomic organisation of the seven ParaHox genes of coelacanths.

    PubMed

    Mulley, John F; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-09-01

    Human and mouse genomes contain six ParaHox genes implicated in gut and neural patterning. In coelacanths and cartilaginous fish, an additional ParaHox gene exists-Pdx2-that dates back to the genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Here we examine the genomic arrangement and flanking genes of all ParaHox genes in coelacanths, to determine the full complement of these genes. We find that coelacanths have seven ParaHox genes in total, in four chromosomal locations, revealing that five gene losses occurred soon after vertebrate genome duplication. Comparison of intergenic sequences reveals that some Pdx1 regulatory regions associated with development of pancreatic islets are older than tetrapods, that Pdx1 and Pdx2 share few if any conserved non-coding elements, and that there is very high sequence conservation between coelacanth species.

  4. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  5. Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Para-Diiodobenzene Polymorphism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenta; Watson, Mark A; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Maezono, Ryo

    2015-03-10

    We revisit our investigation of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation of para-diiodobenzene (p-DIB) molecular crystal polymorphism. [See J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1789-1794.] We perform, for the first time, a rigorous study of finite-size effects and choice of nodal surface on the prediction of polymorph stability in molecular crystals using fixed-node DMC. Our calculations are the largest that are currently feasible using the resources of the K-computer and provide insights into the formidable challenge of predicting such properties from first principles. In particular, we show that finite-size effects can influence the trial nodal surface of a small (1 × 1 × 1) simulation cell considerably. Therefore, we repeated our DMC simulations with a 1 × 3 × 3 simulation cell, which is the largest such calculation to date. We used a density functional theory (DFT) nodal surface generated with the PBE functional, and we accumulated statistical samples with ∼6.4 × 10(5) core hours for each polymorph. Our final results predict a polymorph stability that is consistent with experiment, but they also indicate that the results in our previous paper were somewhat fortuitous. We analyze the finite-size errors using model periodic Coulomb (MPC) interactions and kinetic energy corrections, according to the CCMH scheme of Chiesa, Ceperley, Martin, and Holzmann. We investigate the dependence of the finite-size errors on different aspect ratios of the simulation cell (k-mesh convergence) in order to understand how to choose an appropriate ratio for the DMC calculations. Even in the most expensive simulations currently possible, we show that the finite size errors in the DMC total energies are much larger than the energy difference between the two polymorphs, although error cancellation means that the polymorph prediction is accurate. Finally, we found that the T-move scheme is essential for these massive DMC simulations in order to circumvent population explosions and

  6. para-C-H Borylation of Benzene Derivatives by a Bulky Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yutaro; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-04-22

    A highly para-selective aromatic C-H borylation has been accomplished. By a new iridium catalyst bearing a bulky diphosphine ligand, Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP, the C-H borylation of monosubstituted benzenes can be affected with para-selectivity up to 91%. This catalytic system is quite different from the usual iridium catalysts that cannot distinguish meta- and para-C-H bonds of monosubstituted benzene derivatives, resulting in the preferred formation of meta-products. The para-selectivity increases with increasing bulkiness of the substituent on the arene, indicating that the regioselectivity of the present reaction is primarily controlled by steric repulsion between substrate and catalyst. Caramiphen, an anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, was converted into five derivatives via our para-selective borylation. The present [Ir(cod)OH]2/Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst represents a unique, sterically controlled, para-selective, aromatic C-H borylation system that should find use in streamlined, predictable chemical synthesis and in the rapid discovery and optimization of pharmaceuticals and materials.

  7. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA

  8. Spontaneous Emission Between - and Para-Levels of Water-Ion H_2O^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Oka, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear spin conversion interaction of water ion, H_2O^+, has been studied to derive spontaneous emission lifetime between ortho- and para-levels. H_2O^+ is a radical ion with the ^2B_1 electronic ground state. Its off-diagonal electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(S_aΔ I_b + S_bΔ I_a), connects para and ortho levels, because Δ I = I_1 - I_2 has nonvanishing matrix elements between I = 0 and 1. The mixing by this term with Tab = 72 MHz predicted by ab initio theory in the MRD-CI/Bk level, is many orders of magnitude larger than for closed shell molecules because of the large magnetic interaction due to the un-paired electron. Using the molecular constants reported by Mürtz et al. by FIR-LMR, we searched for ortho and para coupling channels below 1000 cm-1 with accidental near degeneracy between para and ortho levels. For example, hyperfine components of the 42,2(ortho) and 33,0(para) levels mix by 1.2 × 10-3 due to their near degeneracy (Δ E = 0.417 cm-1), and give the ortho-para spontaneous emission lifetime of about 0.63 year. The most significant low lying 10,1(para) and 11,1(ortho) levels, on the contrary, mix only by 8.7 × 10-5 because of their large separation (Δ E = 16.267 cm-1) and give the spontaneous emission lifetime from 10,1(para) to 00,0(ortho) of about 100 year.These results qualitatively help to understand the observed high ortho- to para- H_2O^+ ratio of 4.8 ± 0.5 toward Sgr B2 but they are too slow to compete with the conversion by collision unless the number density of the region is very low (n ˜1 cm-3) or radiative temperature is very high (T_r > 100 K). M. Staikova, B. Engels, M. Peric, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, Mol. Phys. 80, 1485 (1993) P. Mürtz, L.R. Zink, K.M. Evenson, and J.M. Brown J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9744 (1998). LP. Schilke, et al., A&A 521, L11 (2010).

  9. Estimation of Carbon Storage in Para Rubber Plantation in Eastern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charoenjit, K.; Zuddas, P.; Allemand, P.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to estimate the carbon stock and sequestration in Para rubber plantation of East Thailand using the THAICHOTE (Thailand Earth Observation System data). For that purpose we identify the area of every stage class Para rubber plantation by the analysis of different image objects (i.e., rule base and multiple regression classifications) and we map the carbon stock and sequestration of each Para rubber class using biomass allometric regressions and carbon content equations. THAICHOTE data include Multispectral image (4 bands at 15x15 m spatial resolution), Panchromatic image (2x2 m spatial resolution) and Stereo image, data acquisition from December 2011-April 2012. The preliminary investigated area is located in Wangchun, (Eastern, Thailand) and covers about 20 Km2. Calibrating the class stage, by image analysis that integrated edge-based segmentation, reflectance, remote sensing indices, texture analysis and canopy height model (CHM), we found that best classification was obtained by multiple regression (accuracy of 80%) compared to rule base logical operation (accuracy 70%) suggesting that manual 3D stereo measurements or Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) both are able to construct the CHM. The results of this study indicate that for a total Para rubber biomass of 14,651 tons, the amount of stored carbon is of 7,326 tons. Mature stage of Para rubber plantations exhibits the highest capacity of sequestering with a global flux of 0.21 tons C/ Km2/year.

  10. The ortho/para ratio of water vapor in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Larson, Harold P.; Weaver, Harold A.

    1986-01-01

    The ortho/para ratio of H2O is shown to be an invariant in the cometary coma. The dependence of ortho-para ratio on temperature in thermal equilibrium is given, and the nuclear-spin-temperature is defined. Its relation to the physical temperature of the cometary ices is discussed, and the prospects for using the observed ortho/para ratio to infer properties of the cometary nucleus are explored. The ortho/para ratio in Halley's comet is derived from high resolution infrared spectra of near 2.7 microns wavelength. On UT December 24.1, 1985 it was 2.73 + or - 0.17, and on UT March 22.7, 1986 it was 3.23 + or - 0.37. The nuclear-spin-temperature was 35 K (+9 K, -5 K) pre-perihelion, and less than 40 K post-perihelion, at the 67% confidence limit. Both numbers are consistent with modeled values of the equilibrium temperature of the cometary nucleus at aphelion (47 K). However, at the 95% confidence limit they are also fully consistent with temperatures less than 50 K, corresponding to an ortho/para ratio of about 3.0.

  11. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  12. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  13. The School of Posture as a postural training method for Paraíba Telecommunications Operators.

    PubMed

    Cardia, M C; Soares Màsculo, F

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes to show the experience of posture training accomplished in the Paraíba State Telecommunication Company, using the knowledge of the Back School. The sample was composed of 12 operators, employees of the company, representing 31% of this population. The model applied in TELPA (Paraíba Telecommunication Company, Brazil) was based on the models of Sherbrooke, Canada, and of the School of Posture of Paraìba Federal University. Fifty-eight point four percent of participants showed a reduction of column pain, 25% improved the quality of the rest and the received training was considered enough for the learning of correct postures at work in 75% of the cases. The whole population approved of the training, and 83.3% of the cases considered that this training influenced their lives very positively.

  14. Production and characterization of para-hydrogen gas for matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.; Ramanathan, N.; Gopi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Normal hydrogen (n-H2) has 3:1 ortho/para ratio and the production of enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) from normal hydrogen is useful for many applications including matrix isolation experiments. In this paper, we describe the design, development and fabrication of the ortho-para converter that is capable of producing enriched p-H2. The p-H2 thus produced was probed using infrared and Raman techniques. Using infrared measurement, the thickness and the purity of the p-H2 matrix were determined. The purity of p-H2 was determined to be >99%. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and acetylene (C2H2) were studied in p-H2 and n-H2 matrices and the results were compared with the conventional inert matrices.

  15. Evidence for disequilibrium of ortho and para hydrogen on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of an analysis of the ortho state/para state ratio (parallel/antiparallel) for molecular H2 in the Jovian atmosphere using Voyager IR spectrometer (IRIS) data are reported. The study was undertaken to expand the understanding of the thermodynamics of a predominantly H2 atmosphere, which takes about 100 million sec to reach equilibrium. IRIS data provided 4.3/cm resolution in the 300-700/cm spectral range dominated by H2 lines. Approximately 600 spectra were examined to detect any disequilibrium between the hydrogen species. The results indicate that the ortho-para ratio is not in an equilibrium state in the upper Jovian troposphere. A thorough mapping of the para-state molecules in the upper atmosphere could therefore aid in mapping the atmospheric flowfield.

  16. Modelos Teoricos de Linhas de Recombinacao EM Radio Frequencias Para Regioes H II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Z.; Cancoro, A. C. O.

    1987-05-01

    Foram feitos modelos de linhas de recombinção provenientes de regiões HII nas frequências de rádio para distintos números quãnticos. Estes modelos consideram regrões H II esfericamente simétricas com variações radiais na densidade e temperatura eletrônica, efeitos de colisoes inelásticas dos eletrons (alargarnento por pressão), e afastarnento do equiliíbrio termodinâmico local. 0 bojetivo é construir o perfil da linha para cada ponto da nuvern e obter o valor médio resultante da sua convoluçã com o feixe da antena de tarnanho comparável corn o tarnanho angular da nuvern para posterIor cornpara o corn

  17. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  18. Conocimiento de Energía: Principios Esenciales y Conceptos Fundamentales para la Educación de Energía

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    This is the Spanish version of our Energy Literacy guidebook. Esta guía presenta conceptos de energía que, cuando se entienden y se aplican, ayudan a individuos y a comunidades a tomar decisiones sobre la energía con conocimiento de causa. No es un currículo sino que ofrece un marco sobre el cual puede basarse un plan de estudios. La guía se dirige a cualquier persona que participe en la educación de energía.

  19. Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E K; Adamska, Maja

    2014-10-30

    Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome.

  20. Quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es), electronic (σp) and lipophilic (πp) parameters of the para substituents. Experimental Approach For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. Key Results MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Conclusions and Implications Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es) are key determinants of this selectivity. PMID:25438806

  1. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  2. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage.

    PubMed

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y-C; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J; Johannessen, Ole G; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-08-07

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho-para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment.

  3. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  4. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to…

  5. Anuncios de servicio público para proteger a los trabajadores de plaguicidas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estos archivos de anuncios de servicio público se pueden descargar libremente para su uso en la formación, transmisiones de audio, etc.(These public service announcement files can be freely downloaded for use in training, audio broadcasts, etc.)

  6. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  7. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  8. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  9. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

  10. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  11. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de…

  12. Performance characteristics of magnesium/para-nitrophenol cells in 2:1 magnesium electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.; Sivashanugam, A.; Sridharan, R. )

    1993-11-01

    1 V/1 Ah magnesium/para-nitrophenol (PNP) reserve cells were fabricated and their performance was evaluated in different electrolytes [2M aqueous solutions of Mg(C1O[sub 4])[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], and MgBr[sub 2

  13. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  14. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  15. Intact cluster and chordate-like expression of ParaHox genes in a sea star

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParaHox genes are thought to be major players in patterning the gut of several bilaterian taxa. Though this is a fundamental role that these transcription factors play, their activities are not limited to the endoderm and extend to both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues. Three genes compose the ParaHox group: Gsx, Xlox and Cdx. In some taxa (mostly chordates but to some degree also in protostomes) the three genes are arranged into a genomic cluster, in a similar fashion to what has been shown for the better-known Hox genes. Sea urchins possess the full complement of ParaHox genes but they are all dispersed throughout the genome, an arrangement that, perhaps, represented the primitive condition for all echinoderms. In order to understand the evolutionary history of this group of genes we cloned and characterized all ParaHox genes, studied their expression patterns and identified their genomic loci in a member of an earlier branching group of echinoderms, the asteroid Patiria miniata. Results We identified the three ParaHox orthologs in the genome of P. miniata. While one of them, PmGsx is provided as maternal message, with no zygotic activation afterwards, the other two, PmLox and PmCdx are expressed during embryogenesis, within restricted domains of both endoderm and ectoderm. Screening of a Patiria bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library led to the identification of a clone containing the three genes. The transcriptional directions of PmGsx and PmLox are opposed to that of the PmCdx gene within the cluster. Conclusions The identification of P. miniata ParaHox genes has revealed the fact that these genes are clustered in the genome, in contrast to what has been reported for echinoids. Since the presence of an intact cluster, or at least a partial cluster, has been reported in chordates and polychaetes respectively, it becomes clear that within echinoderms, sea urchins have modified the original bilaterian arrangement. Moreover, the sea star

  16. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  17. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  18. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods.

  19. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria.

  20. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr‐Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr‐Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr‐Lox genes and the Acr‐Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co‐opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  1. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

    2014-06-14

    Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

  2. Saturn’s Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturn’s 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturn’s tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (“knee”) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturn’s tropospheric haze layer. Saturn’s para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal ‘knee’ and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere

  3. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  4. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  5. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  6. Differential regulation of ParaHox genes by retinoic acid in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Benoit, Gérard; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Ferrier, David E K

    2009-03-01

    The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Like the Hox cluster, the ParaHox cluster displays spatial and temporal regulation of the component genes along the anterior/posterior axis in a manner that correlates with the gene positions within the cluster (a feature called collinearity). The ParaHox cluster is however a simpler system to study because it is composed of only three genes. We provide a detailed analysis of the amphioxus ParaHox cluster and, for the first time in a single species, examine the regulation of the cluster in response to a single developmental signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA). Embryos treated with either RA or RA antagonist display altered ParaHox gene expression: AmphiGsx expression shifts in the neural tube, and the endodermal boundary between AmphiXlox and AmphiCdx shifts its anterior/posterior position. We identified several putative retinoic acid response elements and in vitro assays suggest some may participate in RA regulation of the ParaHox genes. By comparison to vertebrate ParaHox gene regulation we explore the evolutionary implications. This work highlights how insights into the regulation and evolution of more complex vertebrate arrangements can be obtained through studies of a simpler, unduplicated amphioxus gene cluster.

  7. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  8. Functional expression of Drosophila para sodium channels. Modulation by the membrane protein TipE and toxin pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Warmke, J W; Reenan, R A; Wang, P; Qian, S; Arena, J P; Wang, J; Wunderler, D; Liu, K; Kaczorowski, G J; Van der Ploeg, L H; Ganetzky, B; Cohen, C J

    1997-08-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel alpha subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd congruent with 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels.

  9. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of Para red in foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wei, Keyi; Li, Hao; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

    2012-05-07

    Para red is a synthetic dye and a potential genotoxic carcinogen. A hapten mimicking Para red structure was synthesized by introducing a carboxyl to the naphthol part of Para red and coupled to carrier protein to form an immunogen for the production of specific antibodies. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Para red in food samples. The limit of detection and inhibition half-maximum concentrations of Para red in phosphate buffered saline with 10% methanol were 0.06 and 2.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. Cross-reactivity values of the ELISA with the tested compounds including Sudan red I, II, III, IV, and G, sunset yellow, 2-naphthol, and 4-nitroaniline were ≤0.2%. This assay was used to determine Para red in tomato sauce, chilli sauce, chilli powder and sausage samples after ultrasonic extraction, cleanup and concentration steps. The average recoveries, repeatability (intraday extractions and analysis), and intra-laboratory reproducibility (interday extractions and analysis) were in the range 90-108%, 4-12% and 8-17%, respectively. This assay was compared to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for 28 samples, displaying a good correlation (R(2) = 0.95). Para red residues in 53 real world samples determined by ELISA were below the limit of detection.

  10. A Density Functional Approach to Para-hydrogen at Zero Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Barranco, Manuel; Navarro, Jesús; Pi, Marti

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a density functional (DF) built so as to reproduce either the metastable liquid or the solid equation of state of bulk para-hydrogen, as derived from quantum Monte Carlo zero temperature calculations. As an application, we have used it to study the structure and energetics of small para-hydrogen clusters made of up to N=40 molecules. We compare our results for liquid clusters with diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations and find a fair agreement between them. In particular, the transition found within DMC between hollow-core structures for small N values and center-filled structures at higher N values is reproduced. The present DF approach yields results for (pH_2)_N clusters indicating that for small N values a liquid-like character of the clusters prevails, while solid-like clusters are instead energetically favored for N ≥ 15.

  11. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions.

  12. Potential of Brachiaria mutica (Para grass) for bioethanol production from Loktak Lake.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Okram, Aswini Kumar; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; George, Emrin; Pandey, Ashok

    2017-03-12

    The aim of present study was to evaluate feasibility of using the Para grass as feedstock for production of bioethanol. Process involved the pretreatment with dilute acid or alkali and followed by enzymatic saccharification with commercial cellulase. Maximum sugar release of 696mg/g was obtained from 10% biomass loading and 0.5% w/v of alkali whereas in the case of acid pretreatment maximum sugar of 660mg/g was obtained from 20% biomass loading and 2% w/v acid loading. Results showed that Para grass utilization as a biorefinery feedstock can be a potential strategy to address the sustainable utilization of this invasive grass thereby keeping its population in check in the Loktak Lake.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  14. Jupiter's Tropospheric Dynamics from SOFIA Mapping of Temperature, Para-Hydrogen, and Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    We request time with FORCAST to observe Jupiter at mid-infrared wavelengths using 8-37 micron grism spectroscopy of the collisionally-induced H2-He continuum to derive the zonal mean tropospheric temperatures and para-H2 distribution. In addition, we request imaging in discrete filters between 5 and 37 micron to provide spatial context for the spectroscopy. This proposal is a follow-up of our successful observations in May 2014, where we confirmed the N-S polar asymmetry in the para-H2 fraction detected by Voyager 1, also during late summer in Jupiter's northern hemisphere. In spring 2017, during a world-wide campaign in support of the Juno mission, it gets close to southern summer solstice. This timing is ideal to assess seasonable variability on the planet.

  15. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

  16. Charge Transfer Directed Radical Substitution Enables para-Selective C–H Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Efficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho- and meta- selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein, we introduce a previously unappreciated concept which enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit areneto-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate that the selectivity is predictable by a simple theoretical tool and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of charge transfer directed radical substitution could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions. PMID:27442288

  17. H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Brewer, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) about 1-2 10 to the -9th relative to molecular hydrogen toward TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and about 5 10 to the -10th for L134N are derived. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are about 1.8 toward the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. A ratio of about 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538 is derived, while a value of about 2 for Orion (KL) is found.

  18. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  19. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved.

  20. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  1. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

    2009-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

  2. Synthesis and Properties of Rodlike Aromatic Heterocyclic Polymers: Phenylated Para-Terphenylene-Polybenzobis-Oxazoles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    Polybenzobisoxazoles 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Dr. J. F. Wolfe Dr. F. E. Arnold 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...number) Para-ordered Polymers Polybenzobisoxazoles Polyphenylated Terphenylene 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block...poly(amide hydrazide) fibers 1-4 recently described in the literature meet the first two of these criteria. The overriding structural feature of

  3. Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John; Ahrens, James; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

  4. ParaDiS on Blue Gene/L: stepping up to the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hommes, G; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Cook, R; Hiratani, M; Oppestrup, T; Rhee, M; Tang, M

    2006-06-09

    This paper reports on the efforts to enable fully scalable simulations of Dislocation Line Dynamics (DLD) for direct calculations of strength of crystalline materials. DLD simulations are challenging and do not lend themselves naturally to parallel computing. Through a combinations of novel physical approaches, mathematical algorithms and computational science developments, a new DLD code ParaDiS is shown to take meaningful advantage of BG/L and, by doing so, to enable discovery class science by computation.

  5. ParaDiS on BlueGene/L: scalable line dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Fier, J; Hiratani, M; Pierce, T; Tang, M; Rhee, M; Yates, R K; Arsenlis, A

    2004-04-29

    We describe an innovative highly parallel application program, ParaDiS, which computes the plastic strength of materials by tracing the evolution of dislocation lines over time. We discuss the issues of scaling the code to tens of thousands of processors, and present early scaling results of the code run on a prototype of the BlueGene/L supercomputer being developed by IBM in partnership with the US DOE's ASC program.

  6. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  7. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  8. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  9. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  10. Beyond Hox: the role of ParaHox genes in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Vijay P S; Humphries, R Keith; Buske, Christian

    2012-07-19

    During the past decade it was recognized that homeobox gene families such as the clustered Hox genes play pivotal roles both in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. More recently, similar roles have also become apparent for members of the ParaHox gene cluster, evolutionarily closely related to the Hox gene cluster. This is in particular found for the caudal-type homeobox genes (Cdx) genes, known to act as upstream regulators of Hox genes. The CDX gene family member CDX2 belongs to the most frequent aberrantly expressed proto-oncogenes in human acute leukemias and is highly leukemogenic in experimental models. Correlative studies indicate that CDX2 functions as master regulator of perturbed HOX gene expression in human acute myeloid leukemia, locating this ParaHox gene at a central position for initiating and maintaining HOX gene dysregulation as a driving leukemogenic force. There are still few data about potential upstream regulators initiating aberrant CDX2 expression in human leukemias or about critical downstream targets of CDX2 in leukemic cells. Characterizing this network will hopefully open the way to therapeutic approaches that target deregulated ParaHox genes in human leukemia.

  11. The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  12. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

  13. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  14. ParaView visualization of Abaqus output on the mechanical deformation of complex microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingbin; Li, Jiang; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Abaqus® is a popular software suite for finite element analysis. It delivers linear and nonlinear analyses of mechanical and fluid dynamics, includes multi-body system and multi-physics coupling. However, the visualization capability of Abaqus using its CAE module is limited. Models from microtomography have extremely complicated structures, and datasets of Abaqus output are huge, requiring a visualization tool more powerful than Abaqus/CAE. We convert Abaqus output into the XML-based VTK format by developing a Python script and then using ParaView to visualize the results. Such capabilities as volume rendering, tensor glyphs, superior animation and other filters allow ParaView to offer excellent visualizing manifestations. ParaView's parallel visualization makes it possible to visualize very big data. To support full parallel visualization, the Python script achieves data partitioning by reorganizing all nodes, elements and the corresponding results on those nodes and elements. The data partition scheme minimizes data redundancy and works efficiently. Given its good readability and extendibility, the script can be extended to the processing of more different problems in Abaqus. We share the script with Abaqus users on GitHub.

  15. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

  16. Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

  17. ParaDock: a flexible non-specific DNA--rigid protein docking algorithm.

    PubMed

    Banitt, Itamar; Wolfson, Haim J

    2011-11-01

    Accurate prediction of protein-DNA complexes could provide an important stepping stone towards a thorough comprehension of vital intracellular processes. Few attempts were made to tackle this issue, focusing on binding patch prediction, protein function classification and distance constraints-based docking. We introduce ParaDock: a novel ab initio protein-DNA docking algorithm. ParaDock combines short DNA fragments, which have been rigidly docked to the protein based on geometric complementarity, to create bent planar DNA molecules of arbitrary sequence. Our algorithm was tested on the bound and unbound targets of a protein-DNA benchmark comprised of 47 complexes. With neither addressing protein flexibility, nor applying any refinement procedure, CAPRI acceptable solutions were obtained among the 10 top ranked hypotheses in 83% of the bound complexes, and 70% of the unbound. Without requiring prior knowledge of DNA length and sequence, and within <2 h per target on a standard 2.0 GHz single processor CPU, ParaDock offers a fast ab initio docking solution.

  18. Electrical detection of ortho–para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho–para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51±0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon. PMID:26299447

  19. The ParaShield entry vehicle concept - Basic theory and flight test development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    The ParaShield concept of the Space Systems Laboratory is an ultra-low ballistic coefficient entry vehicle, created to meet the need for entry vehicle technology to return mass from low earth orbit. The concept involves decoupling the ballistic coefficient from the launch vehicle parameters, to pick a value (beta) which optimizes the desired entry vehicle characteristics. Trajectory simulations show that, as the ballistic coefficient is lowered to range of 100-150 Pa, the total heat load and peak heating flux drop markedly, due to primary deceleration in regions of extremely low dynamic pressure. These same low values of beta also result in a low terminal velocity, allowing the use of simple impact attenuation to provide a soft landing on water or dry land. Because the deployable fabric framework serves the functions of both heat shield and parachute, it is referred to as a ParaShield. The experience gained from the design, construction, and integration of a ParaShield test vehicle is discussed.

  20. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  1. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  2. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source

  3. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  4. Drag balance measurements in the San Marco D/L mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arduini, C.; Broglio, L.; Ponzi, U.

    1993-01-01

    After a brief discussion on the processing of the data and on their expected accuracy, the paper presents some results which are mostly describing the neutral density of the thermosphere in terms of dependence on local time and altitude. Although partial and preliminary, the data set allows the determination of the midnight density bulge shape in the altitude range of 258-400 km. The comparison of the 'statistical' profiles with the 'instantaneous' ones shows the presence of relatively fast variations; in addition, wavelike dynamic phenomena are evident in some passes in the night sector of the atmosphere.

  5. A passively controlled appendage deployment system for the San Marco D/L spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, W. E.; Frisch, H. P.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical simulation of deployment dynamics of these two axis concepts as well as the evolution of practical designs for the add on deployable inertia boom units is described. With the boom free to swing back in response to Coriolis forces as well as outwards in response to centrifugal forces, the kinematics of motion are complex but admit the possibility of absorbing deployment energy in frictional or other damping devices about the radial axis, where large amplitude motions can occur and where the design envelope allows more available volume. An acceptable range is defined for frictional damping for any given spin rate. Inadequate damping allows boom motions which strike the spacecraft; excessive damping causes the boom to swing out and latch with damaging violence. The acceptable range is a design parameter and must accommodate spin rate tolerance and also the tolerance and repeatability of the damping mechanisms.

  6. Philippine Counterinsurgency during the Presidencies of Magsaysay, Marcos, and Ramos: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Juan, Kelley, Kevin, Lee, Max, Mike, and TW, for making this year, one of the best years in my life. Fourth, I would like to thank my friends...soldiers and officers in my last assignment for making sure that my family would be able to join me before graduation. Fifth, I would like to thank my...their inspiration and sacrifices. Their short stay at Leavenworth makes my stay here more meaningful and complete. Above all, I would like to

  7. [Description of chagas disease in the Valle de Iguala, Guerrero state, Mexico- Marco].

    PubMed

    Becerril-Flores, Marco Antonio; Valle-De La Cruz, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    There are reports regarding the presence of triatomine vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' disease, and infected individuals on the coast and zones south of the State of Guerrero, Mexico. Nonetheless, there are no completed reports in the Valley of Iguala. To know with greater precision endemic zones, seropositive individuals and their health condition, T. cruzi-infected triatomines and characteristics of dwellings were studied. Seroprevalence was 1.8% by indirect ELISA and latex agglutination techniques were carried out in serum of 450 individuals of three municipalities of the Valley of Iguala. We reported presence of triatomine and conditions of dwellings. Of 71 triatomines collected, 38.2% were infected with T. cruzi. Triatoma pallidipennis was the only triatomine species found. No seropositive persons presented intestinal, or cardiac problems. The greatest percentage of infected triatomines was observed in rural zones as compared to urban. Results suggest considerable risk of infection in the Valley of Iguala but studies regarding the infectivity capacity of T. cruzi strains are required.

  8. IR reflectance spectra of pristine Antarctic CM chondrites to characterize Marco Polo-R mission target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.; Alonso-Azcárate, J.; Fornasier, S.; Belskaya, I.; Binzel, R.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    The hydrated groups of carbonaceous chondrites (hereafter CCs) exhibit different degrees of aqueous alteration. Primary minerals were transformed in their parent bodies by the action of the water. Most of the water was probably accreted as ice or bounded in hydrated minerals. Moderate heating associated with residual radioactivity or collisional compaction released that water to soak temporarily the materials forming these asteroids. Evidence for static and dynamic aqueous mineral products has been described [1, 2], at the same time that the different degrees of alteration exhibited for members of the CM group were characterized [3, 4]. We apply here a new IR spectroscopic technique that allows to assess the amount of adsorbed water present in minerals forming carbonaceous chondrites.

  9. Marco Said I Look like Charcoal: A Puerto Rican's Exploration of Her Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Yarma Velazquez

    2008-01-01

    When race is so self-evident that it becomes "unspoken," it becomes a text that can be arbitrarily read or not read at all. When race is thought of as shades or textures of color that paint the already loaded canvas of our ethnicities, it is the reader who has the power of interpretation, opening the possibility for multiple readings that will…

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Berkeley 90. III. Cluster parameters (Marco+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, A.; Negueruela, I.

    2017-01-01

    We present tables with coordinates in J2000, Johnson photometry and near-IR photometry for stars in the open cluster Berkeley 90 and a field to the southeast of this region. We used the imager and spectrograph Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (ALFOSC) on the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at the La Palma observatory to obtain UBVR photometry on the night of 2007 July 9, and spectroscopy of 20 selected stars on the nights of 2004 October 4, 2005 October 2-4 and 2007 July 10. We also downloaded UKIDSS (https://www.ukidss.org/archive/archive.html) images in the JHKS filters to perform deep near-IR photometry. (2 data files).

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: KB Homes, San Marcos, California

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Designed to produce as much energy as it uses, the ZeroHouse incorporates a PV system, R-15 fiberglass batts in walls, and slab-on-grade foundation. The builder ranked fifth in the nation on Builder Magazine’s 2012 Top 100 ranking of U.S. home builders based on number of housing starts, and won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  12. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P.; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W.; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 +/- 0.3 nm, 1.3 +/- 0.2 nm, and 1.1 +/- 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species.Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent

  13. Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

  14. ParaSight-F rapid manual diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed Central

    Uguen, C.; Rabodonirina, M.; De Pina, J. J.; Vigier, J. P.; Martet, G.; Maret, M.; Peyron, F.

    1995-01-01

    The ParaSight(R)-F test is a qualitative diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum, which is based on the detection by a monoclonal antibody of a species-specific soluble antigen (histidine-rich protein (HRP-II)) in whole blood and which can be performed without special equipment. A visual reading is given by a polyclonal antibody coupled with dye-loaded liposomes; when positive, a pink line appears. The test has been compared with microscopic examination of thin blood smears and with Quantitative Buffy Coat malaria test (QBC(R) in a single-blind study. A total of 358 patients who had returned to France from malarial areas and consulted their doctor with symptoms or for a routine examination were enrolled in the study; 33 of them were found to have a falciparum malaria infection by the diagnostic test. On the day of consultation, the specificity of the ParaSight(R)-F test was 99% and its sensitivity 94%. The follow-up of infected patients after treatment showed that the test became negative later than the other reference tests. There was no correlation between antigen persistence and the intensity of the ParaSight(R)-F signal or circulating parasitaemia. No cross-reaction was noted for seven malaria cases due to other Plasmodium species. The test was performed quickly (10 tests in 20 minutes), was easy to read, and required minimal space. For cases of imported malaria, the test's specificity and low threshold for detection could make it a valuable adjunct test. However, in its present form, it cannot replace microscopic techniques which are species-specific and quantitative. In endemic areas, the test seems to be very promising by its results and ease of use according to published field studies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8846490

  15. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  16. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4′-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4′-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  17. Summary of Documentation for DYNA3D-ParaDyn's Software Quality Assurance Regression Test Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, Edward

    2016-08-18

    The Software Quality Assurance (SQA) regression test suite for DYNA3D (Zywicz and Lin, 2015) and ParaDyn (DeGroot, et al., 2015) currently contains approximately 600 problems divided into 21 suites, and is a required component of ParaDyn’s SQA plan (Ferencz and Oliver, 2013). The regression suite allows developers to ensure that software modifications do not unintentionally alter the code response. The entire regression suite is run prior to permanently incorporating any software modification or addition. When code modifications alter test problem results, the specific cause must be determined and fully understood before the software changes and revised test answers can be incorporated. The regression suite is executed on LLNL platforms using a Python script and an associated data file. The user specifies the DYNA3D or ParaDyn executable, number of processors to use, test problems to run, and other options to the script. The data file details how each problem and its answer extraction scripts are executed. For each problem in the regression suite there exists an input deck, an eight-processor partition file, an answer file, and various extraction scripts. These scripts assemble a temporary answer file in a specific format from the simulation results. The temporary and stored answer files are compared to a specific level of numerical precision, and when differences are detected the test problem is flagged as failed. Presently, numerical results are stored and compared to 16 digits. At this accuracy level different processor types, compilers, number of partitions, etc. impact the results to various degrees. Thus, for consistency purposes the regression suite is run with ParaDyn using 8 processors on machines with a specific processor type (currently the Intel Xeon E5530 processor). For non-parallel regression problems, i.e., the two XFEM problems, DYNA3D is used instead. When environments or platforms change, executables using the current source code and the new

  18. Electrically conducting poly(para-phenylene sulfide) prepared by doping with nitrosyl salts from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubner, Michael; Cukor, Peter; Jopson, Harriet; Deits, Walter

    1982-03-01

    Para(polyphenylene sulfide) may be doped spontaneously and rapidly with nitrosyl salts (NOPF6, NOSbF6) from solution to yield an electrically conducting material (10-1ohm-1cm-1). The level of conductivity is primarily dependent on the extent of dopant incorporation, which in turn is determined by the polymer’s crystallinity; the more amorphous the polymer, the more dopant it takes up and the more conductive it becomes. The incorporation of dopants produces irreversible chemical changes in the polymer resulting in the deterioration of its mechanical properties.

  19. ParaCEST MRI contrast agents capable of derivatization via"click" chemistry.

    PubMed

    Milne, Mark; Chicas, Kirby; Li, Alex; Bartha, Robert; Hudson, Robert H E

    2012-01-14

    A comprehensive series of lanthanide chelates has been prepared with a tetrapropargyl DOTAM type ligand. The complexes have been characterized by a combination of (1)H NMR, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, CEST and relaxation studies and have also been evaluated for potential use as paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (ParaCEST) contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We demonstrate the functionalization of several chelates by means of alkyne-azide "click" chemistry in which a glucosyl azide is used to produce a tetra-substituted carbohydrate-decorated lanthanide complex. The carbohydrate periphery of the chelates has a potent influence on the CEST properties as described herein.

  20. NMR at earth's magnetic field using para-hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Hamans, Bob C; Andreychenko, Anna; Heerschap, Arend; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A method to achieve NMR of dilute samples in the earth's magnetic field by applying para-hydrogen induced polarization is presented. Maximum achievable polarization enhancements were calculated by numerically simulating the experiment and compared to the experimental results and to the thermal equilibrium in the earth's magnetic field. Simultaneous 19F and 1H NMR detection on a sub-milliliter sample of a fluorinated alkyne at millimolar concentration (∼10(18) nuclear spins) was realized with just one single scan. A highly resolved spectrum with a signal/noise ratio higher than 50:1 was obtained without using an auxiliary magnet or any form of radio frequency shielding.

  1. Path integral molecular dynamics simulation of solid para-hydrogen with an aluminum impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirijanian, Dina T.; Alexander, Millard H.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2002-11-01

    The equilibrium properties of an aluminum impurity trapped in solid para-hydrogen have been studied. The results were compared to those of a previous study by Krumrine et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 113 (2000) 9079] with an atomic boron. In the presence of vacancy defect, when the orientation-dependent Al- pH 2 potential is used, the Al atom is displaced to a position half way between its original substituted site and the vacancy site. Thermodynamic results also indicate that the presence of a neighboring vacancy helps to stabilize the Al impurity to a far greater extent than in the case of the B impurity.

  2. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  3. Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobacter metallireducens is catalyzed by the periplasmic para-cresol methylhydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Holmes, Dawn E; Zhang, Tian

    2015-10-01

    Two pathways for para-cresol (p-cresol) degradation by anaerobic bacteria have been elucidated; one involves fumarate addition at the methyl group of p-cresol by a hydroxylbenzylsuccinate synthase protein while the other utilizes a methylhydroxylase protein (PCMH) to catalyze hydroxylation of the methyl group of p-cresol. In Geobacter metallireducens, in vitro enzymatic assays showed that p-cresol is degraded via the methylhydroxylation pathway. However, prior to this study these results had not been confirmed by genetic analyses. In this work, the gene coding for benzylsuccinate-CoA dehydrogenase (bbsG), an enzyme required for toluene degradation by G. metallireducens that is homologous to the p-hydroxybenzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in p-cresol degradation by Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 via fumarate addition, and the gene encoding the alpha prime subunit of PCMH (pcmI), were deleted to investigate the possibility of co-existing p-cresol degradation pathways in G. metallireducens. The absence of a functional PcmI protein completely inhibited p-cresol degradation, while deletion of the bbsG gene had little impact. These results further support the observation that G. metallireducens utilizes a PCMH-initiated pathway for p-cresol degradation.

  4. Para-position derivatives of fungal anthelmintic cyclodepsipeptides engineered with Streptomyces venezuelae antibiotic biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Koji; Sumida, Naomi; Okakura, Kaoru; Moriya, Tatsuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-07-01

    PF1022A, a cyclooctadepsipeptide possessing strong anthelmintic properties and produced by the filamentous fungus Rosellinia sp. PF1022, consists of four alternating residues of N-methyl-L-leucine and four residues of D-lactate or D-phenyllactate. PF1022A derivatives obtained through modification of their benzene ring at the para-position with nitro or amino groups act as valuable starting materials for the synthesis of compounds with improved anthelmintic activities. Here we describe the production of such derivatives by fermentation through metabolic engineering of the PF1022A biosynthetic pathway in Rosellinia sp. PF1022. Three genes cloned from Streptomyces venezuelae, and required for the biosynthesis of p-aminophenylpyruvate from chorismate in the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway, were expressed in a chorismate mutase-deficient strain derived from Rosellinia sp. PF1022. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses confirmed that this approach facilitated the production of PF1022A derivatives specifically modified at the para-position. This fermentation method is environmentally safe and can be used for the industrial scale production of PF1022A derivatives.

  5. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2017-02-15

    This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO2 with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer.

  6. Theoretical study of the preferential solvation effect on the solvatochromic shifts of para-nitroaniline.

    PubMed

    Frutos-Puerto, Samuel; Aguilar, Manuel A; Fdez Galván, Ignacio

    2013-02-28

    The origin of the nonlinear solvatochromic shift of para-nitroaniline was investigated using a mean-field sequential QM/MM method, with electron transitions computed at the CASPT2/cc-pVDZ level. Experimental data shows that the solvatochromic shift has a strong nonlinear behavior in certain solvent mixtures. We studied the case of cyclohexane-triethylamine mixtures. The results are in good agreement with the experiments and correctly reproduce the nonlinear variation of the solvent shift. Preferential solvation is clearly observed, where the local solvent composition in the neighborhood of the solute is significantly different from the bulk. It is found that even at low triethylamine concentrations a strong hydrogen bond is formed between para-nitroaniline and triethylamine, and cyclohexane is practically absent from the first solvation layer already at a molar fraction of 0.6 in triethylamine. The hydrogen bond formed is sufficiently long-lived to determine an asymmetric environment around the solute molecule. The resulting nonlinear solvent effect is mainly due to this hydrogen bond influence, although there is also a small contribution from dielectric enrichment.

  7. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics.

  8. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  9. Effects of para-fluorine substituent of polystyrene on gradient-index fiber-optic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kotaro; Suzuki, Akifumi; Makino, Kenji; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of fluorine substituent of polystyrene (PSt) on gradient-index fiber-optic properties, a poly(para-fluorostyrene) (P(p-FSt))-based graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI POF) is fabricated, and its properties are compared with those of a PSt-based GI POF. The para-fluorine substitution positively affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the core, wavelength dispersion of the optimum refractive index profile, bandwidth, and attenuation. The core Tg of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is 88 °C, which is higher than that of the PSt-based GI POF by 9 °C when both fibers have an identical numerical aperture (NA = 0.2). The optimum refractive index profile coefficient for the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF varies from 2.2 to 2.1 in the 600-800 nm range, whereas that for the PSt-based GI POF varies from 2.6 to 2.3 in the same wavelength region. The bandwidth of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is intrinsically higher than that of PSt-based GI POF. Moreover, the fiber attenuation of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF was significantly smaller than that of the PSt-based GI POF over the source wavelength range. Our study demonstrates that P(p-FSt) has favorable properties as a GI POF base material.

  10. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  11. WormBase ParaSite - a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Shafie, Myriam; Kersey, Paul; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-11-27

    The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite.wormbase.org) for interrogating helminth genomes on a large scale. Data from over 100 nematode and platyhelminth species are integrated, adding value by way of systematic and consistent functional annotation (e.g. protein domains and Gene Ontology terms), gene expression analysis (e.g. alignment of life-stage specific transcriptome data sets), and comparative analysis (e.g. orthologues and paralogues). We provide several ways of exploring the data, including genome browsers, genome and gene summary pages, text search, sequence search, a query wizard, bulk downloads, and programmatic interfaces. In this review, we provide an overview of the back-end infrastructure and analysis behind WormBase ParaSite, and the displays and tools available to users for interrogating helminth genomic data.

  12. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.

  13. Asymmetric Top Rotors in Superfluid Para-Hydrogen Nano-Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Hui; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    We present the first simulation study of bosonic clusters doped with an asymmetric top molecule. A variation of the path-integral Monte Carlo method is developed to study a para-water (pH_2O) impurity in para-hydrogen (pH_2) clusters. The growth pattern of the doped clusters is similar in nature to that of the pure clusters. The pH_2O molecule appears to rotate freely in the cluster due to its large rotational constants and the lack of adiabatic following. The presence of pH_2O substantially quenches the superfluid response of pH_2 with respect to the space fixed frame. We also study the behaviour of a sulphur dioxide (32S16O_2) dopant in the pH_2 clusters. For such a heavy rotor, the adiabatic following of the pH_2 molecules is established and the superfluid renormalization of the rotational constants is observed. The rotational structure of the SO_2-p(H_2)_N clusters' ro-vibrational spectra is predicted. The connection between the superfluid response respect to the external boundary rotation and the dopant rotation is discussed.

  14. Herschel/SPIRE observations of water production rates and ortho-to-para ratios in comets★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas G.; Rawlings, Jonathan M. C.; Swinyard, Bruce M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents Herschel/SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) spectroscopic observations of several fundamental rotational ortho- and para-water transitions seen in three Jupiter-family comets and one Oort-cloud comet. Radiative transfer models that include excitation by collisions with neutrals and electrons, and by solar infrared radiation, were used to produce synthetic emission line profiles originating in the cometary coma. Ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) were determined and used to derived water production rates for all comets. Comparisons are made with the water production rates derived using an OPR of 3. The OPR of three of the comets in this study is much lower than the statistical equilibrium value of 3; however they agree with observations of comets 1P/Halley and C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), and the protoplanetary disc TW Hydrae. These results provide evidence suggesting that OPR variation is caused by post-sublimation gas-phase nuclear-spin conversion processes. The water production rates of all comets agree with previous work and, in general, decrease with increasing nucleocentric offset. This could be due to a temperature profile, additional water source or OPR variation in the comae, or model inaccuracies.

  15. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  16. Association of plasma ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio with responsiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in dialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Kun, Szilárd; Mikolás, Esztella; Molnár, Gergo A; Sélley, Eszter; Laczy, Boglárka; Csiky, Botond; Kovács, Tibor; Wittmann, István

    2014-09-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often ESA-hyporesponsive associated with free radical production. Hydroxyl free radical converts phenylalanine into ortho-tyrosine, while physiological isomer para-tyrosine is formed enzymatically, mainly in the kidney. Production of 'para-tyrosine' is decreased in ESRF and it can be replaced by ortho-tyrosine in proteins. Our aim was to study the role of tyrosines in ESA-responsiveness. Methods Four groups of volunteers were involved in our cross-sectional study: healthy volunteers (CONTR; n = 16), patients on hemodialysis without ESA-treatment (non-ESA-HD; n = 8), hemodialyzed patients with ESA-treatment (ESA-HD; n = 40), and patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD; n = 21). Plasma ortho-, para-tyrosine, and phenylalanine levels were detected using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-method. ESA-demand was expressed by ESA-dose, ESA-dose/body weight, and erythropoietin resistance index1 (ERI1, weekly ESA-dose/body weight/hemoglobin). Results We found significantly lower para-tyrosine levels in all groups of dialyzed patients when compared with control subjects, while in contrast ortho-tyrosine levels and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were comparatively significantly higher in dialyzed patients. Among groups of dialyzed patients the ortho-tyrosine level and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were significantly higher in ESA-HD than in the non-ESA-HD and CAPD groups. There was a correlation between weekly ESA-dose/body weight, ERI1, and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio (r = 0.441, P = 0.001; r = 0.434, P = 0.001, respectively). Our most important finding was that the ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio proved to be an independent predictor of ERI1 (β = 0.330, P = 0.016). In these multivariate regression models most of the known predictors of ESA-hyporesponsiveness were included. Discussion Our findings may

  17. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  18. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  19. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates.

  20. Determination of the ortho to para ratio of H2Cl+ and H2O+ from submillimeter observations.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Maryvonne; de Luca, Massimo; Lis, Dariusz C; Kramer, Carsten; Navarro, Santiago; Neufeld, David; Indriolo, Nick; Godard, Benjamin; Le Petit, Franck; Peng, Ruisheng; Phillips, Thomas G; Roueff, Evelyne

    2013-10-03

    The opening of the submillimeter sky with the Herschel Space Observatory has led to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, H2O(+), H2Cl(+), and HCl(+), which are important intermediates in the synthesis of water vapor and hydrogen chloride. In this paper, we report new observations of H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) performed with both Herschel and ground-based telescopes, to determine the abundances of their ortho and para forms separately and derive the ortho-to-para ratio. At the achieved signal-to-noise ratio, the observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratios of 3 for both H2O(+) and H2Cl(+), in all velocity components detected along the lines-of-sight to the massive star-forming regions W31C and W49N. We discuss the mechanisms that contribute to establishing the observed ortho-to-para ratio and point to the need for a better understanding of chemical reactions, which are important for establishing the H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) ortho-to-para ratios.

  1. Amine vs. carboxylic acid protonation in ortho-, meta-, and para-aminobenzoic acid: An IRMPD spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismesia, Adam P.; Nicholls, Georgina R.; Polfer, Nicolas C.

    2017-02-01

    Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and computational chemistry are applied to the ortho-, meta-, and para- positional isomers of aminobenzoic acid to investigate whether the amine or the carboxylic acid are the favored sites of proton attachment in the gas phase. The NH and OH stretching modes yield distinct patterns that establish the carboxylic acid as the site of protonation in para-aminobenzoic acid, as opposed to the amine group in ortho- and meta-aminobenzoic acid, in agreement with computed thermochemistries. The trends for para- and meta-substitutions can be rationalized simplistically by inductive effects and resonant stabilization, and will be discussed in light of computed charge distributions based from electrostatic potentials. In ortho-aminobenzoic acid, the close proximity of the amine and acid groups allow a simultaneous interaction of the proton with both groups, thus stabilizing and delocalizing the charge more effectively, and compensating for some of the resonance stabilization effects.

  2. A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis from Co-Occurring Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miyeong; Lee, Young-Joon; Park, Ji-Ho; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan; Jung, Eun-Jung; Ju, Young-tae; Jeong, Chi-Young; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Ha, Woo-Song

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old man was diagnosed with two synchronous adenocarcinomas, a Borrmann type IV advanced gastric adenocarcinoma in his antrum and a well-differentiated Borrmann type I carcinoma on the anterior wall of the higher body of his stomach. Pre-operatively, computed tomography of the abdomen revealed the presence of advanced gastric cancer with peri-gastric and para-aortic lymph node (LN) metastasis. He planned for palliative total gastrectomy owing to the risk of obstruction by the antral lesion. We performed a frozen biopsy of a para-aortic LN during surgery and found that the origin of the para-aortic LN metastasis was from undiagnosed prostate cancer. Thus, we performed radical total gastrectomy and D2 LN dissection. Post-operatively, his total prostate-specific antigen levels were high (227 ng/mL) and he was discharged 8 days after surgery without any complications. PMID:28337367

  3. Molecular hydrogen in the vicinity of NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 - Temperature and ortho-to-para ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Susan; Reuter, Dennis C.; Mumma, Michael J.; Storrs, Alex D.

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the active star-forming region near NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 were made. The relative intensities of the v = 1-0 Q(1), Q(3), and Q(5) lines of molecular hydrogen are used to calculate a rotational excitation temperature. Comparison of the measured intensity of the Q(2) transition relative to the intensity of Q(1) and Q(3) permitted the retrieval of the ratio of ortho-to-para hydrogen. It is found that an ortho-to-para ratio of between 1.6 and 2.35 is needed to explain the Q-branch line intensity ratios, depending on the excitation model used. This range in ortho-to-para ratios implies a range of molecular hydrogen formation temperature of approximately 105 K to 140 K.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for Cysticercus tenuicollis in goats and sheep in Paraíba, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Dayana Firmino de; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Santos, Vinícius Mamede Dos; Gouveia, Vitória Régia; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevêdo, Sérgio Santos de

    2017-01-26

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for C. tenuicollis among goats and sheep in slaughterhouses in Paraíba. 390 animals (195 goats and 195 sheep) in the municipalities of Patos and Esperança, Paraíba, Brazil, were inspected between February and May 2014. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis was 39% (76/195) in goats and 17.4% (34/195) in sheep. In both species, most of the cysticerci vesicles were located at the omentum and mesentery. The only risk factor found was extensive sheep farming. It can be concluded that C. tenuicollis is highly prevalent in small ruminants in Paraíba, being more prevalent in goats than in sheep. Extensively-reared sheep were twice as likely to develop infection by this parasite.

  5. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  6. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  7. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J. S. S. V.; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) instrument is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 Å, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching 1 m s-1 over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of 10 cm s-1 in the optical and <1 m s-1 in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the data reduction and RV analysis pipeline as instrument characterization progresses and we gather longer baselines of data. Secondly, we discuss how our experience with PARAS is a critical component in the development of future cutting edge instruments like (1) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph optimized to look for planets around M dwarfs, scheduled to be commissioned on the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2017, and (2) the NEID optical spectrograph, designed in response to the NN-EXPLORE call for an extreme precision Doppler spectrometer (EPDS) for the WIYN telescope. In anticipation of instruments like TESS and GAIA, the ground-based RV support system is being reinforced. We emphasize that instruments like PARAS will play an intrinsic role in providing both complementary follow-up and battlefront experience for these next generation of precision velocimeters.

  8. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; ...

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  9. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Ortho C-H Arylation of Aromatic Nitriles with Arylboronates and Observation of Partial Para Arylation.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Yuta; Kitazawa, Kentaroh; Miyake, Masashi; Kochi, Takuya; Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi

    2016-12-29

    Ruthenium-catalyzed C-H arylation of aromatic nitriles with arylboronates is described. The use of RuH2(CO){P(4-MeC6H4)3}3 as a catalyst provided higher yields of the ortho arylation products than the conventional RuH2(CO)(PPh3)3 catalyst. The arylation takes place mostly at the ortho positions, but unprecedented para arylation was also partially observed to give ortho,para diarylation products. In addition to C-H bond cleavage, the cyano group was also found to function as a directing group for cleavage of C-O bonds in aryl ethers.

  10. Evaluation of para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant as a source of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Krebs, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. The data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the emission rate is controlled by gas-phase mass transfer. Results indicate that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. Full-scale house tests were also conducted to measure mass transfer coefficients based on the model developed. The values of the mass transfer coefficient obtained are very comparable to those estimated by theoretical heat transfer studies.

  11. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  12. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer for investigation of the interaction of Para Red with serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zeng, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    Para Red (PR) has been isolated from food additives, and shown to be toxic to humans. To facilitate examination of its toxicity, the interaction between PR and serum albumins (SA) was studied using fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The experiments showed that the fluorescence intensity of serum albumins decreased with increasing concentrations of PR, which resulted from the binding of PR and SA. The binding constant, number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions were shown to play a key role in the binding process. Competition experiments indicated that PR mainly binds to Trp residues of SA within the site I. As the CD and three-dimensional spectra revealed, the addition of PR induced a conformational change in SA.

  13. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  14. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  15. pH-dependent spectral properties of para-aminobenzoic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Mitchell P.; McGuire, Colin; Stennett, Elana M. S.; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Canache, Daniela; Novak, Marnie; Schmidtke, Sarah J.

    2011-12-01

    The local environment dictates the structural and functional properties of many important chemical and biological systems. The impact of pH on the photophysical properties of a series of para-aminobenzoic acids is examined using a combination of experimental spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation, PABA derivatives may undergo an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) resulting in the formation of a zwitterionic species. The thermodynamics of the excited state reaction and temperature-dependence of the radiative emission processes are evaluated through variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy carried out in a range of aqueous buffers. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze structural changes with modifications at the amine position and different protonation states. The ICT is only observed in the tertiary amine, which calculations show has more sp 2 character than the primary or secondary amines. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the ICT reaction is driven by entropy.

  16. Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

    2004-09-11

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  17. Leaf Pressure Volume Data in Caxiuana and Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Thomas; Moorcroft, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Pressure volume curve measurements on leaves of canopy trees from the from the Caxiuana and Tapajos National Forests, Para, Brazil. Tapajos samples were harvested from the km 67 forested area, which is adjacent to the decommissioned throughfall exclusion drought experimental plot. Caxiuana samples were harvested from trees growing in the throughfall exclusion plots. Data were collected in 2011. Dataset includes: date of measurement, site ID, plot ID, tree ID (species, tree tag #), leaf area, fresh weight, relative weight, leaf water potential, and leaf water loss. P-V curve parameters (turgor loss point, osmotic potential, and bulk modulus of elasticity) can be found in Powell et al. (2017) Differences in xylem cavitation resistance and leaf hydraulic traits explain differences in drought tolerance among mature Amazon rainforest trees. Global Change Biology.

  18. Evaluation of apparent viscosity of Para rubber latex by diffuse reflection near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Chowbankrang, Rawiphan; Williams, Phil

    2012-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflection mode was used to evaluate the apparent viscosity of Para rubber field latex and concentrated latex over the wavelength range of 1100 to 2500 nm, using partial least square regression (PLSR). The model with ten principal components (PCs) developed using the raw spectra accurately predicted the apparent viscosity with correlation coefficient (r), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias of 0.974, 8.6 cP, and -0.4 cP, respectively. The ratio of the SEP to the standard deviation (RPD) and the ratio of the SEP to the range (RER) for the prediction were 4.4 and 16.7, respectively. Therefore, the model can be used for measurement of the apparent viscosity of field latex and concentrated latex in quality assurance and process control in the factory.

  19. Genomic organization of Hox and ParaHox clusters in the echinoderm, Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kenneth W; McDougall, Carmel; Cummins, Scott F; Hall, Mike; Degnan, Bernard M; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    The organization of echinoderm Hox clusters is of interest due to the role that Hox genes play in deuterostome development and body plan organization, and the unique gene order of the Hox complex in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, which has been linked to the unique development of the axial region. Here, it has been reported that the Hox and ParaHox clusters of Acanthaster planci, a corallivorous starfish found in the Pacific and Indian oceans, generally resembles the chordate and hemichordate clusters. The A. planci Hox cluster shared with sea urchins the loss of one of the medial Hox genes, even-skipped (Evx) at the anterior of the cluster, as well as organization of the posterior Hox genes.

  20. [Neurocience in the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfredo Baratas

    2007-01-01

    The development of the Neurociencias in the Spain at the first third of the 20th century had a strong histological and pathological component. The work of Santiago Ramon and Cajal and Luis Simarro was continued by some excellent disciples: Nicolas Achúcarro, Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora, Fernando de Castro, etc. Some of them had to make compatible diverse occupations, even the professional exercise of psychiatry, before obtaining a modest - but stable - position of investigation. In spite of some misalignments in the institutional development of the centers and the personal biographical ups and downs, the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios was the great institution that fomented the international formation of the investigators and equipped to them with the means to develop its work.

  1. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  2. A Very Rare Cause of a Relapsing Para-Oesophageal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Wespi, Simon Peter; Frei, Remus; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is uncommon and most often accompanied by involvement of more distal parts. Its presentation is mostly non-specific, and therefore a diagnosis, especially in isolated oesophageal disease, is difficult. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient who was referred to our gastroenterology department because of a para-oesophageal abscess. Under antibiotic treatment the abscess healed, but despite great diagnostic efforts, its aetiology remained unclear. Three years later the patient was hospitalized again because of an abscess at the same site. Endoscopy showed disseminated ulcerations of the lower oesophagus, raising suspicion of CD. After excluding other possible causes, we made the diagnosis of isolated CD of the oesophagus. We review the available literature on this topic and discuss the clinical presentation, symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histology as well as treatment of oesophageal CD. PMID:27403115

  3. pH-dependent spectral properties of para-aminobenzoic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Mitchell P; McGuire, Colin; Stennett, Elana M S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Canache, Daniela; Novak, Marnie; Schmidtke, Sarah J

    2011-12-15

    The local environment dictates the structural and functional properties of many important chemical and biological systems. The impact of pH on the photophysical properties of a series of para-aminobenzoic acids is examined using a combination of experimental spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation, PABA derivatives may undergo an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) resulting in the formation of a zwitterionic species. The thermodynamics of the excited state reaction and temperature-dependence of the radiative emission processes are evaluated through variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy carried out in a range of aqueous buffers. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze structural changes with modifications at the amine position and different protonation states. The ICT is only observed in the tertiary amine, which calculations show has more sp(2) character than the primary or secondary amines. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the ICT reaction is driven by entropy.

  4. Food for Life / Comida para la Vida: creating a food festival to raise diabetes awareness.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2009-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the "Food for Life Festival," or "Festival Comida para la Vida." This article will describe the community's perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care.

  5. Food for Life/Comida para la Vida: Creating a Food Festival to Raise Diabetes Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2012-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the “Food for Life Festival,” or “Festival Comida para la Vida.” This article will describe the community’s perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Nonlinear Optical Chromophore para Bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothy, V. Bena; Vijayakumar, T.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Udayalekshmi, K.; Ramamurthy, K.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the hydrogen bonded non-linear optical (NLO) material para Bromo Acetanilide (PBA) is carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Ab initio molecular orbital computations have been performed at HF/6-31G(d) level to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensities and first hyperpolarizability. The lowering of the imino stretching wavenumbers suggests the existence of strong intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding substantiated by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Blue shifting CH stretching wavenumbers, simultaneous activation of carbonyl stretching mode and the strong activation of low wavenumber H-bond stretching vibrations shows the presence of intramolecular charge transfer in the molecule.

  7. Quantum dynamical simulations for nuclear spin selective laser control of ortho- and para-fulvene.

    PubMed

    Belz, S; Grohmann, T; Leibscher, M

    2009-07-21

    In the present paper we explore the prospects for laser control of the photoinduced nonadiabatic dynamics of para- and ortho-fulvene with the help of quantum dynamical simulations. Previous investigations [Bearpark et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 5253 (1996); Alfalah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124318 (2009)] show that photoisomerization of fulvene is hindered by ultrafast radiationless decay through a conical intersection at planar configuration. Here, we demonstrate that photoisomerization can nevertheless be initiated by damping unfavorable nuclear vibrations with properly designed laser pulses. Moreover, we show that the resulting intramolecular torsion is nuclear spin selective. The selectivity of the photoexcitation with respect to the nuclear spin isomers can be further enhanced by applying an optimized sequence of two laser pulses.

  8. Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2005-03-01

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node Shell elements and eight-node Brick elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes - DYNA3D and ParaDyn - which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  9. Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: an ethnozoological approach.

    PubMed

    Licarião, Morgana R; Bezerra, Dandara M M; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2013-03-01

    Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB), Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%), with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%). The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande.

  10. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  11. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho-para conversion.

    PubMed

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)-para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o-p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o-p conversion.

  12. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework.

  13. Shaped Ceria Nanocrystals Catalyze Efficient and Selective Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Evan W; Zheng, Haibin; Zhou, Ronghui; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E; Bowers, Clifford R

    2015-11-23

    Intense para-hydrogen-enhanced NMR signals are observed in the hydrogenation of propene and propyne over ceria nanocubes, nano-octahedra, and nanorods. The well-defined ceria shapes, synthesized by a hydrothermal method, expose different crystalline facets with various oxygen vacancy densities, which are known to play a role in hydrogenation and oxidation catalysis. While the catalytic activity of the hydrogenation of propene over ceria is strongly facet-dependent, the pairwise selectivity is low (2.4% at 375 °C), which is consistent with stepwise H atom transfer, and it is the same for all three nanocrystal shapes. Selective semi-hydrogenation of propyne over ceria nanocubes yields hyperpolarized propene with a similar pairwise selectivity of (2.7% at 300 °C), indicating product formation predominantly by a non-pairwise addition. Ceria is also shown to be an efficient pairwise replacement catalyst for propene.

  14. Unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline by sequential Fermi resonances.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiarui; Zhu, Ling; Feng, Yanting; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Zhenglong; Xia, Lixin; Liu, Liwei; Ma, Fengcai

    2014-01-01

    In this communication, we report the unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline (PNA) by sequential Fermi resonances. The combinational mode 1292 cm(-1) in the experimental Raman spectrum indirectly gains the initial spectral weight at 1392 cm(-1) by three sequential Fermi resonances. These Fermi resonances result in the strong interaction between the donor group of NH2 and the acceptor group of NO2. Our theoretical calculations provide reasonable interpretation for the abnormal Raman spectra of PNA. Experimental surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of PNA further confirmed our conclusion, where the strongest Raman peak at 1292 cm(-1) is very weak, while the Raman peak at 1392 cm(-1) becoming the strongest Raman peak, which is consistent with the theoretical simulations.

  15. Long-range excitons in conjugated polymers with ring torsions: poly( para-phenylene) and polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Kikuo

    1998-08-01

    Ring torsion effects on the optical excitation properties of poly( para-phenylene) (PPP) and polyaniline (PAN) are investigated by extending the Shimoi-Abe model (Shimoi Y and Abe S 1996 Synth. Met. 78 219). The model is solved using the intermediate-exciton formalism. Long-range excitons are characterized, and the long-range component of the oscillator strengths is calculated. We find that ring torsions affect the long-range excitons in PAN more readily than those in PPP, due to the larger torsion angle of PAN and the large number of bonds whose hopping integrals are modulated by torsions. Next, ring torsional disorder effects simulated by the Gaussian distribution function are analysed. The long-range component of the total oscillator strengths after sample averaging is nearly independent of the disorder strength in the PPP case, while that in the PAN case decreases readily as the disorder becomes stronger.

  16. Path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulation of para-hydrogen sandwiched by graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamino, Yuki; Kinugawa, Kenichi

    2016-11-01

    The carbon-hydrogen composite systems of para-hydrogen (p-H2) sandwiched by a couple of graphene sheets have been investigated by means of path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulations at 17 K. It has been shown that sandwiched hydrogen is liquid-like but p-H2 molecules are preferably adsorbed onto the graphene sheets because of attractive graphene-hydrogen interaction. The diffusion coefficient of p-H2 molecules in the direction parallel to the graphene sheets is comparable to that in pure liquid p-H2. There exists a characteristic mode of 140 cm-1 of the p-H2 molecules, attributed to adsorption-binding motion perpendicular to the graphene sheets.

  17. Extraperitoneal Robotic-Assisted Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy in Gynecologic Cancer Staging: Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the current evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and applicability of extraperitoneal robotic-assisted para-aortic lymphadenectomy (ExtRA-PAL) as the staging procedure of gynecologic malignancies. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, Web of Science databases, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for original studies reporting outcomes of ExtRA-PAL. Quality of the included studies and their level of recommendation were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines, respectively. Overall, 62 studies were identified; after a process of evidence acquisition 5 original investigations were available for this review that included 98 patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL. The main surgical indication was staging for cervical cancer (n = 71, 72%). The mean (SD) number of para-aortic node yielded was 15.4 (±4.7) nodes. Blood transfusion and intraoperative complication rates were 2% and 6%, respectively. ExtRA-PAL was completed in 88 patients (90%). Six (6%) and 4 (4%) patients had conversion to other minimally invasive procedures and open surgery, respectively. Success rate was 99% among patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL without concomitant procedures. Overall, mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 2.8 (±0.5) days. Twenty-four patients (24%) developed postoperative events. According to the Clavien-Dindo grading system, grades IIIa and IIIb morbidity rates were 12% and 2%, respectively. No grades IV and V morbidity occurred. ExtRA-PAL is associated with a high success rate and a relative low morbidity rate. However, because of the limited data on this issue, further studies are warranted to assess the long-term effectiveness of this procedure.

  18. Effects of lead on K(+)-para-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and protection by thiol reagents.

    PubMed

    Rajanna, B; Chetty, C S; McBride, V; Rajanna, S

    1990-01-01

    Lead (Pb) inhibited K(+)-stimulated para-nitrophenyl phosphatase (K(+)-PNPPase) of rat brain P2 fraction in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 3.5 microM. Altered pH versus activity demonstrated comparable inhibitions by Pb in buffered acidic, neutral and alkaline pH ranges. Inhibition of enzyme activity was higher at lower temperatures (17-27 degrees C) compared to 37 degrees C. Preincubation of enzyme with sulfhydryl (-SH) agents such as cysteine (Cyst) and dithiothreitol (DTT) but not glutathione (GSH) protected against Pb-inhibition. Uncompetitive type of inhibition with respect to the activation of K+ was indicated by a decrease in Vmax from 16.2 to 8.37 mumoles of para-nitrophenol (PNP)/mg protein/hr and Km from 18.99 to 12.39 mM. Kinetic studies on substrate (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) activation in the presence of Pb (3.5 microM) indicated a significant decrease in Vmax from 8.94 to 4.69 mumoles of PNP/mg protein/hr with no change in Km. Cyst (3 microM) and DTT (10 microM) reversed the Pb-inhibited Vmax from 4.69 to 8.38 and 7.24 mumoles of PNP/mg protein/hr respectively. These results suggest that the critical conformational property of K(+)-PNPPase is sensitive to Pb. The data also indicates that the Pb inhibits Na(+)-K+ ATPase system by interacting with dephosphorylation of the enzyme-phosphoryl complex, while Cyst and DTT protected against Pb-inhibition.

  19. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  20. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of deprotonated ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenol.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel J; Gichuhi, Wilson K; Miller, Elisa M; Lehman, Julia H; Lineberger, W Carl

    2017-02-21

    The anion photoelectron spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenoxide, as well as methyl deprotonated meta-methylphenol, were measured. Using the Slow Electron Velocity Map Imaging technique, the Electron Affinities (EAs) of the o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl radicals were measured as follows: 2.1991±0.0014, 2.2177±0.0014, and 2.1199±0.0014 eV, respectively. The EA of m-methylenephenol was also obtained, 1.024±0.008 eV. In all four cases, the dominant vibrational progressions observed are due to several ring distortion vibrational normal modes that were activated upon photodetachment, leading to vibrational progressions spaced by ∼500 cm(-1). Using the methylphenol O-H bond dissociation energies reported by King et al. and revised by Karsili et al., a thermodynamic cycle was constructed and the acidities of the methylphenol isomers were determined as follows: ΔacidH298K(0)=348.39±0.25, 348.82±0.25, 350.08±0.25, and 349.60±0.25 kcal/mol for cis-ortho-, trans-ortho-, m-, and p-methylphenol, respectively. The excitation energies for the ground doublet state to the lowest excited doublet state electronic transition in o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl were also measured as follows: 1.029±0.009, 0.962±0.002, and 1.029±0.009 eV, respectively. In the photoelectron spectra of the neutral excited states, C-O stretching modes were excited in addition to ring distortion modes. Electron autodetachment was observed in the cases of both m- and p-methylphenoxide, with the para isomer showing a lower photon energy onset for this phenomenon.

  1. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of deprotonated ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel J.; Gichuhi, Wilson K.; Miller, Elisa M.; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2017-02-01

    The anion photoelectron spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenoxide, as well as methyl deprotonated meta-methylphenol, were measured. Using the Slow Electron Velocity Map Imaging technique, the Electron Affinities (EAs) of the o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl radicals were measured as follows: 2.1991±0.0014, 2.2177±0.0014, and 2.1199±0.0014 eV, respectively. The EA of m-methylenephenol was also obtained, 1.024±0.008 eV. In all four cases, the dominant vibrational progressions observed are due to several ring distortion vibrational normal modes that were activated upon photodetachment, leading to vibrational progressions spaced by ˜500 cm-1. Using the methylphenol O-H bond dissociation energies reported by King et al. and revised by Karsili et al., a thermodynamic cycle was constructed and the acidities of the methylphenol isomers were determined as follows: Δa c i dH298K 0=348.39 ±0.25 , 348.82±0.25, 350.08±0.25, and 349.60±0.25 kcal/mol for cis-ortho-, trans-ortho-, m-, and p-methylphenol, respectively. The excitation energies for the ground doublet state to the lowest excited doublet state electronic transition in o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl were also measured as follows: 1.029±0.009, 0.962±0.002, and 1.029±0.009 eV, respectively. In the photoelectron spectra of the neutral excited states, C-O stretching modes were excited in addition to ring distortion modes. Electron autodetachment was observed in the cases of both m- and p-methylphenoxide, with the para isomer showing a lower photon energy onset for this phenomenon.

  2. Electron Spin Polarization Transfer to ortho-H2 by Interaction of para-H2 with Paramagnetic Species: A Key to a Novel para → ortho Conversion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, Camilla; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Canet, Daniel

    2015-05-07

    We report that at ambient temperature and with 100% enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) dissolved in organic solvents, paramagnetic spin catalysis of para → ortho hydrogen conversion is accompanied at the onset by a negative ortho-hydrogen (o-H2) proton NMR signal. This novel finding indicates an electron spin polarization transfer, and we show here that this can only occur if the H2 molecule is dissociated upon its transient adsorption by the paramagnetic catalyst. Following desorption, o-H2 is created until the thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. A simple theory confirms that in the presence of a static magnetic field, the hyperfine coupling between unpaired electrons and nuclear spins is responsible for the observed polarization transfer. Owing to the negative electron gyromagnetic ratio, this explains the experimental results and ascertains an as yet unexplored mechanism for para → ortho conversion. Finally, we show that the recovery of o-H2 magnetization toward equilibrium can be simply modeled, leading to the para → ortho conversion rate.

  3. [Genetics and the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas].

    PubMed

    Peláez, Raquel Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the essential paper developed by the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios in the origin of the Spanish genetics, using for that the most relevant researchers of the time, and between them two women, Jimena Fernández de la Vega and Käte Pariser.

  4. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  5. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of S2Cl2: a candidate molecule for measuring ortho-para transition.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Ota, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

    2013-10-03

    S2Cl2 is a candidate for the observation of ortho-para transition. To estimate the ortho-para mixing in a hyperfine-resolved rotational state, pure rotational transitions were measured by millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy using two different experimental set-ups. The transitions from the term value around 20 K was measured with a supersonic jet and those around 200 K were measured with a dry ice cooled gas cell. Several hundred peaks were assigned for the naturally abundant S2(35)Cl2 and S2(35)Cl(37)Cl isotopic species and the rotational molecular parameters including the fourth-order and sixth-order centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The hyperfine structures were partly resolved in some Q-branch transitions, which were well described with the hyperfine constants determined by FTMW spectroscopy in the centimeter-wave region. With the new rotational constants determined in our study and the previous hyperfine constants, it will be possible to obtain a more reliable ortho-para mixing ratio and to narrow down the possible candidate transitions in the mm-wave region for the observation of ortho-para transition.

  6. Electrochemical determination of para-nitrophenol at apatite-modified carbon paste electrode: application in river water samples.

    PubMed

    El Mhammedi, M A; Achak, M; Bakasse, M; Chtaini, A

    2009-04-15

    The behavior of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for para-nitrophenol detection by cyclic and square wave voltammetry (SWV) was studied. The electrode was built by incorporating the hydroxyapatite (HAP) to carbon paste. The overall analysis involved a two-step procedure: an accumulation step at open circuit, followed by medium exchange to a pure electrolyte solution for the voltammetric quantification. During the preconcentration step, para-nitrophenol was adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite surface. The influence of various experimental parameters on the HAP-CPE response was investigated (i.e. pH, carbon paste composition, accumulation time). Under the optimized conditions, the reduction peak shows that the peak height was found to be directly proportional to the para-nitrophenol concentration in the range comprised between 2x10(-7) mol L(-1) and 1x10(-4) mol L(-1). With this, it was possible to determine detection limit (DL), which resulted in 8x10(-9) mol L(-1) for peak 1. The proposed electrode (HAP-CPE) presented good repeatability, evaluated in term of relative standard deviation (R.S.D.=2.87%) for n=7 and was applied for para-nitrophenol determination in water samples. The average recovery for these samples was 86.2%.

  7. PLASMA CLEARANCE OF VITELLOGENIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS AFTER CESSATION OF EXPOSURE TO 17BETA-ESTRADIOL AND PARA-NONYLPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were performed to determine the rate of vitellogenin plasma accumulation and clearance in male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) during and after exposure to either 17b-estradiol (E2) or para-nonylphenol (p-NP). Adult fish were continuously exposed to aqu...

  8. Four novel sequences in Drosophila melanogaster homologous to the auxiliary Para sodium channel subunit TipE.

    PubMed

    Derst, Christian; Walther, Christian; Veh, Rüdiger W; Wicher, Dieter; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2006-01-20

    TipE is an auxiliary subunit of the Drosophila Para sodium channel. Here we describe four sequences, TEH1-4, homologous to TipE in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, harboring all typical structures of both TipE and the beta-Subunit family of big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels: short cytosolic N- and C-terminal stretches, two transmembrane domains, and a large extracellular loop with two disulfide bonds. Whereas TEH1 and TEH2 lack the TipE-specific extension in the extracellular loop, both TEH3 and TEH4 possess two extracellular EGF-like domains. A CNS-specific expression was found for TEH1, while TEH2-4 were more widely expressed. The genes for TEH2-4 are localized close to the tipE gene on chromosome 3L. Coexpression of TEH subunits with Para in Xenopus oocytes showed a strong (30-fold, TEH1), medium (5- to 10-fold, TEH2 and TEH3), or no (TEH4) increase in sodium current amplitude, while TipE increased the current 20-fold. In addition, steady-state inactivation and the recovery from fast inactivation were altered by coexpression of Para with TEH1. We conclude that members of the TEH-family are auxiliary subunits for Para sodium channels and possibly other ion channels.

  9. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  10. 75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... made from DuPont Kevlar. DuPont supplies its Kevlar staple fiber to four major and six minor yarn... para-aramid yarns: DuPont TM which makes Kevlar , and the Teijin Group which makes Twaron. DuPont TM...

  11. Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  12. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  13. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut, Xlox the midgut gland or

  14. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  15. La EPA propone normas más rigurosas para las personas que aplican los plaguicidas de más alto riesgo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  16. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Squamous Cell Anal Cancer With Para-aortic Nodal Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Joseph C.; Das, Prajnan; Eng, Cathy; Reish, Andrew G.; Beddar, A. Sam; Delclos, Marc E.; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of toxicity, locoregional control, distant control, and survival in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement, treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 6 patients with squamous cell anal cancer and para-aortic nodal involvement were treated with IMRT and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor was treated with a median dose of 57.5 Gy (range, 54-60 Gy), involved para-aortic, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes were treated with a median dose of 55 Gy (range, 50.5-55 Gy), and noninvolved nodal regions were treated with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 43.5-45 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients had a recurrence at the primary tumor, pelvic/inguinal nodes, or para-aortic nodes, whereas 2 patients developed distant metastases to the liver. Four of the 6 patients are alive. The 3-year actuarial locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 100%, 56%, and 63%, respectively. Four of the 6 patients developed Grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity during chemoradiation. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy could potentially serve as definitive therapy in anal cancer patients with para-aortic nodal involvement. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated in these patients, as demonstrated by the distant failure rates. These patients need to be followed carefully because of the potential for treatment-related toxicities.

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR parA promoter region involved in autoregulation, incompatibility and plasmid partitioning.

    PubMed

    Gallie, D R; Kado, C I

    1987-02-05

    The locus responsible for directing proper plasmid partitioning of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTAR is contained within a 1259 base-pair region. Insertions or deletions within this locus can result in the loss of the plasmid's ability to partition properly. One protein product (parA), approximately 25,000 Mr, is expressed from the par locus in Escherichia coli and A. tumefaciens protein analysis systems in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of the locus revealed a single 23,500 Mr open reading frame, confirming the protein data. A 248 base-pair region immediately upstream from the 23,500 Mr open reading frame, containing an array of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats each of which are separated by exactly ten base-pairs of A + T-rich (75%) sequence, not only serves to provide the promoter but is also involved in parA autoregulation. In addition, this region containing a set of 12 seven-base-pair palindromic repeats, is responsible for plasmid-associated incompatibility within Inc Ag-1 and also functions as the cis-acting recognition site at which parA interacts to bring about partitioning. Transcriptional analysis indicated that only the DNA strand responsible for parA is actively transcribed, and that active transcription of the opposite strand of par can inhibit the production of parA, resulting in plasmid destabilization. The presence of the par locus in a plasmid results in stable inheritance within a wide range of members of Rhizobiaceae. Segregation rates of par-defective derivatives can be influenced by the host.

  18. Monoamine transporter and receptor interaction profiles of novel psychoactive substances: para-halogenated amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones.

    PubMed

    Rickli, Anna; Hoener, Marius C; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacology of novel psychoactive substances is mostly unknown. We evaluated the transporter and receptor interaction profiles of a series of para-(4)-substituted amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones. We tested the potency of these compounds to inhibit the norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) transporters (NET, DAT, and SERT, respectively) using human embryonic kidney 293 cells that express the respective human transporters. We also tested the substance-induced efflux of NE, DA, and 5-HT from monoamine-loaded cells, binding affinities to monoamine receptors, and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Para-(4)-substituted amphetamines, including 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 4-ethylmethcathinone, 4-fluoroamphetamine, 4-fluoromethamphetamine, 4-fluoromethcatinone (flephedrone), and 4-bromomethcathinone, were relatively more serotonergic (lower DAT:SERT ratio) compared with their analogs amphetamine, methamphetamine, and methcathinone. The 4-methyl, 4-ethyl, and 4-bromo groups resulted in enhanced serotonergic properties compared with the 4-fluoro group. The para-substituted amphetamines released NE and DA. 4-Fluoramphetamine, 4-flouromethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone, and 4-ethylmethcathinone also released 5-HT similarly to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The pyrovalerone cathinones 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, pyrovalerone, α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone potently inhibited the NET and DAT but not the SERT. Naphyrone was the only pyrovalerone that also inhibited the SERT. The pyrovalerone cathinones did not release monoamines. Most of the para-substituted amphetamines exhibited affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor but no relevant activation of the 5-HT2B receptor. All the cathinones exhibited reduced trace amine-associated receptor 1 binding compared with the non-β-keto-amphetamines. In conclusion, para-substituted amphetamines exhibited

  19. ParaCalc®--a novel tool to evaluate the economic importance of worm infections on the dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Van der Voort, Mariska; Hogeveen, Henk; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-03-23

    Subclinical infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke are important causes of production losses in grazing cattle. Although there is an extensive compilation of literature describing the effect of these infections on animal performance, only a few attempts have been made to convert these production losses to an economic cost. Here, we propose a novel tool (ParaCalc(®)), available as a web-application, to provide herd-specific estimates of the costs of these infections on dairy farms. ParaCalc(®) is a deterministic spread-sheet model where results from diagnostic methods to monitor the helminth infection status on a herd and anthelmintic usage are used as input parameters. Default values are provided to describe the effects of the infections on production and the cost of these production losses, but the latter can be adapted to improve the herd-specificity of the cost estimate. After development, ParaCalc(®) was applied on input parameters that were available for 93 Belgian dairy herds. In addition, the tool was provided to 6 veterinarians and their user experiences were evaluated. The estimated median [25th-75th percentile] cost per year per cow was € 46 [29-58] and € 6 [0-19] for gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infection, respectively. For both infections, the major components in the total costs were those associated with milk production losses in the adult cows. The veterinarians evaluated ParaCalc(®) as a useful tool to raise the farmers' awareness on the costs of worm infections, providing added value for their services. However, the score given for user-friendliness was diverse among users. Although the model behind ParaCalc(®) is a strong simplification of the real herd processes inducing economic losses, the tool may be used in the future to support economic decisions on helminth control.

  20. An NMR study of cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation using para-hydrogen induced polarisation.

    PubMed

    Godard, Cyril; Duckett, Simon B; Polas, Stacey; Tooze, Robert; Whitwood, Adrian C

    2009-04-14

    The syntheses of Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)2PR2R' (R, R' = Ph, Me; R, R' = Me, Ph; R = R' = Ph, Cy, CH2Ph) and Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)(L) (L = dmpe and dppe) are described, and X-ray structures for Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)(dppe) and the PPh2Me, PCy3 derivatives reported. The relative ability of Co(eta3-C3H5)(CO)2(PR2R') to exchange phosphine for CO follows the trend PMe2Ph < PPh2Me < PCy3 < P(CH2Ph)3 < PPh3. Reactions of the allyl complexes with para-hydrogen (p-H2) lead to the observation of para-hydrogen induced polarisation (PHIP) in both liberated propene and propane. Reaction of these complexes with both CO and H2 leads to the detection of linear acyl containing species Co(COCH2CH2CH3)(CO)3(PR2R') and branched acyl complexes Co(COCH(CH3)2)(CO)3(PR2R') via the PHIP effect. In the case of PPh2Me, additional signals for Co(COCH2CH2CH3)(CO)2(PPh2Me)(propene) and Co(COCH(CH3)2)(CO)2(PPh2Me)(propene) are also detected. When the reactions of H2 and diphenylacetylene are studied with the same precursor, Co(CO)3(PPh2Me)(CHPhCH2Ph) is seen. Studies on how the appearance and ratio, of the PHIP enhanced signals vary as a function of reaction temperature and H2 : CO ratio are reported. These profiles are used to learn about the mechanism of catalysis and reveal how the rates of key steps leading to linear and branched hydroformylation products vary with the phosphine. These data also reveal that the PMe2Ph and PPh2Me based systems yield the highest selectivity for linear hydroformylation products.

  1. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

  2. Cosmoeducação: uma proposta para o ensino de astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, L. A. L.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Entende-se por cosmoeducação o desenvolvimento vivencial da unidade homem-cosmo. Este conceito é norteado pela psicologia transpessoal, que estuda o ser humano em sua totalidade, onde suas relações ecológicas e cósmicas são de grande importância. Constata-se uma necessidade latente no ser humano moderno em resgatar uma relação holística com o Universo. Neste trabalho exploramos meios de cultivar a consciência de que o ser humano constitui parte integrante do cosmo e se relaciona com este com o objetivo de promover em si uma percepção ambiental mais ampla. Nossa hipótese de trabalho inicial foi que o ensino de conteúdos básicos em astronomia realizado através de uma abordagem holística, que incorpore práticas vivenciais correlacionadas àqueles conteúdos, pode despertar no indivíduo sua identidade cósmica. O método que utilizamos é o fenomenológico e o universo desta pesquisa é um grupo de estudantes da disciplina de Astronomia (Curso de Licenciatura em Geografia/UFRN), onde realizamos observação participante, entrevistas, depoimentos e as práticas vivenciais mencionadas. Neste caso estamos desenvolvendo e adaptando exercícios de algumas técnicas terapêuticas de psicologia transpessoal, que um de nós (LALM) tem aplicado no contexto clínico, para trabalhar aspectos cognitivos envolvidos naquele processo de conscientização cósmica. Resultados parciais claramente referendam a hipótese inicial. Um resultado a destacar é fruto de uma dinâmica de representação corporal interiorizada do eclipse lunar, envolvendo um pequeno grupo daqueles estudantes, na qual conteúdos míticos afloraram de maneira espontânea e contundente para todos, sugerindo ressonância, ou pelo menos isomorfismo, entre o macro e o microcosmo. Este e outros resultados são discutidos em detalhe neste trabalho. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP).

  3. Clinical significance of para-aortic lymph node dissection and prognosis in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianxian; Xing, Hui; Li, Lin; Huang, Yanli; Zhou, Min; Liu, Qiong; Qin, Xiaomin; He, Min

    2014-03-01

    Lymph node metastasis has an important effect on prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. Moreover, the impact of para-aortic lymph node (PAN) removal on patient prognosis is still unclear. In this study, 80 patients were divided into groups A and B. Group A consisted of 30 patients who underwent PAN + pelvic lymph node (PLN) dissection, whereas group B consisted of 50 patients who only underwent PLN dissection. Analysis of the correlation between PAN clearance and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer was conducted. Nineteen cases of lymph node metastasis were found in group A, among whom seven cases were positive for PAN, three cases for PLN, and nine cases for both PAN and PLN. In group B, 13 cases were positive for lymph node metastasis. Our study suggested that the metastatic rate of lymph node is 40.0%. Lymph node metastasis was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, tumor differentiation, and histological type both in groups A and B (P < 0.05). In groups A and B, the three-year survival rates were 77.9% and 69.0%, and the five-year survival rates were 46.7% and 39.2%, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The three-year survival rates of PLN metastasis in groups A and B were 68.5% and 41.4%, and the five-year survival rates were 49.7% and 26.4%, respectively. Furthermore, PLN-positive patients who cleared PAN had significantly higher survival rate (P = 0.044). In group A, the three-year survival rates of positive and negative lymph nodes were 43.5% and 72.7%, and the five-year survival rates were 27.2% and 58.5%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.048). Cox model analysis of single factor suggested that lymph node status affected the survival rate (P < 0.01), which was the death risk factor. Consequently, in ovarian carcinoma cytoreductive surgery, resection of the para-aortic lymph node, which has an important function in clinical treatment and prognosis of patients with

  4. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  5. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  6. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  7. Local Ecological Knowledge about Endangered Primates in a Rural Community in Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres Junior, Emanuel Ubaldino; Valença-Montenegro, Mônica Mafra; Castro, Carla Soraia Soares de

    2016-01-01

    The study of local ecological knowledge (LEK) fosters a better understanding of the relationship between humans and the environment. We assessed respondents' ecological knowledge of primates in a rural community located near the Atlantic Forest remnants in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Populations of Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkeys), Sapajus flavius (blonde capuchins), and Callithrix jacchus (the common marmoset) inhabit the region. We conducted 200 semi-structured interviews and applied thematic content analysis, with weighting, to the responses to quantify the LEK. Respondents showed a low LEK, despite the community's proximity to forest remnants. However, the LEK was significantly higher among men, as well as among those who had a greater degree of contact with the primates. Age did not influence LEK. The studied community apparently does not intensively exploit the forest resources nor does it economically depend on primates, which may explain these individuals' low levels of knowledge about these animals. Such data may support future studies, as well as environmental education and action plans, especially for A. belzebul and S. flavius, both of which are endangered species and targets of the National Action Plan for the Conservation of the Primates of the Northeast.

  8. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K.; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  9. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  10. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  11. Long-Range Ruthenium-Amine Electronic Communication through the para-Oligophenylene Wire

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun-Jian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The studies of long-range electronic communication are hampered by solubility and potential-splitting issues. A “hybridized redox-asymmetry” method using a combination of organic and inorganic redox species is proposed and exemplified to overcome these two issues. Complexes 1(PF6)–6(PF6) (from short to long in length) with the organic redox-active amine and inorganic cyclometalated ruthenium termini bridged by the para-oligophenylene wire have been prepared. Complex 6 has the longest Ru-amine geometrical distance of 27.85 Å. Complexes 3(PF6) and 4(PF6) show lamellar crystal packing on the basis of a head-to-tail anti-parallelly aligned dimeric structure. Two redox waves are observed for all complexes in the potential region between +0.2 and +0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. The electrochemical potential splitting is 410, 220, 143, 112, 107, and 105 mV for 1(PF6) through 6(PF6), respectively. Ruthenium (+2) to aminium (N•+) charge transfer transitions have been identified for the odd-electron compounds 12+–62+ by spectroelectrochemical measurements. The electronic communication between amine and ruthenium decreases exponentially with a decay slope of −0.137 Å−1. DFT calculations have been performed to complement these experimental results. PMID:26344929

  12. Time-resolved rotational spectroscopy of para-difluorobenzene·Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichert, A.; Riehn, C.; Matylitsky, V. V.; Jarzeba, W.; Brutschy, B.

    2002-07-01

    We report on time-resolved rotational spectroscopy experiments of the cluster para-difluorobenzene·Ar ( pDFB·Ar) by picosecond laser pulses in a supersonic expansion. Rotational coherences of pDFB·Ar are generated by resonant electronic excitation and probed by time-resolved fluorescence depletion spectroscopy and time-resolved photoionization ((1+1') PPI) spectroscopy. The former allows the determination of both ground and excited state rotational constants, whereas the latter technique enables the separate study of the excited state with the benefit of mass-selective detection. Since pDFB·Ar represents a near symmetric oblate rotor, persistent J-type transients with tJ≈ n/2( A+ B) could be measured. From their analysis, (A″+B″)=2234.9±2 MHz and (A'+B')=2237.9±2 MHz were obtained. A structural investigation, based on data of the pDFB monomer, is presented resulting in a pDFB·Ar center-of-mass distance of both moieties of R z=3.543±0.017 Å with a change of ΔR z=-0.057±0.009 Å upon electronic excitation. These results are compared to data of former frequency-resolved experiments and ab initio computations.

  13. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-28

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  14. [Psychometric properties of the Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés (EAEAE)].

    PubMed

    Godoy Izquierdo, Débora; Godoy García, Juan F; López-Chicheri García, Isabel; Martínez Delgado, Antonio; Gutiérrez Jiménez, Susana; Vázquez Vázquez, Luisa

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the theoretical construct of and an instrument for its assessment, the Escala de Autoeficacia para el Afrontamiento del Estrés (EAEAE; in English, Coping with Stress Self-Efficacy Scale), as well as the results obtained concerning its psychometric properties from an adult population. 812 individuals, aged 18 to 64 years old ( M = 26.46, SD = 9.93, 62.6% females and 37.4% males), recruited from various contexts, participated in this study. Participants completed the EAEAE along with other measures of constructs theoretically related to this specific self-efficacy. The EAEAE shows appropriate reliability in its complete form as well as in its two subscales of Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations, and adequate factorial construct validity (which reveals the bi-dimensionality of the instrument), and convergent validity with the remaining measures. The characteristics of brevity and ease of application of the scale, in addition to its adequate psychometric properties, indicate that the EAEAE is an appropriate tool to assess and investigate coping with stress self-efficacy in research as well as clinical settings.

  15. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the Production of para-Hydroxy Benzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shiqin; Plan, Manuel R.; Winter, Gal; Krömer, Jens O.

    2016-01-01

    para-Hydroxy benzoic acid (PHBA) is the key component for preparing parabens, a common preservatives in food, drugs, and personal care products, as well as high-performance bioplastics such as liquid crystal polymers. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was engineered to produce PHBA from glucose via the shikimate pathway intermediate chorismate. To obtain the PHBA production strain, chorismate lyase UbiC from Escherichia coli and a feedback resistant 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase encoded by gene aroGD146N were overexpressed individually and simultaneously. In addition, genes related to product degradation (pobA) or competing for the precursor chorismate (pheA and trpE) were deleted from the genome. To further improve PHBA production, the glucose metabolism repressor hexR was knocked out in order to increase erythrose 4-phosphate and NADPH supply. The best strain achieved a maximum titer of 1.73 g L−1 and a carbon yield of 18.1% (C-mol C-mol−1) in a non-optimized fed-batch fermentation. This is to date the highest PHBA concentration produced by P. putida using a chorismate lyase. PMID:27965953

  17. Virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma associated with idiopathic-acquired generalized anhidrosis in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Pinar; Luquette, Mark; Haymon, Marie Louise; Valerie, Evans; Morales, Jaime; Vargas, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence. Virilization, alone or in combination with signs of overproduction of other adrenal hormones, is the most common clinical presentation. Here we report an unusual case of an African-American female adolescent presenting with idiopathic acquired generalized anhidrosis, dysregulation of body temperature, absence of adult body odor and dry skin in the face of a virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma. Virilization signs regressed soon after removal of the tumor, but normalization of the 3alpha-androstenediol glucuronide (3alpha-AG) took longer compared to other measurable androgens; accompanied by anhidrosis. The association of remitting anhidrosis with normalized levels of 3alpha-AG suggests it might be a possible mechanism for anhidrosis. High 3alpha-AG levels might implicate the increased peripheral conversion of weak pro-androgens with different biochemical structure. We recommend obtaining 3alpha-AG beside other androgens in virilized patients with atypical dermatological symptoms in the face of hyperandrogenism.

  18. Theoretical study of para-nitro-aniline adsorption on the Au(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cui; Monti, Susanna; Li, Xin; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Ågren, Hans; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structure, bonding properties and dynamics of para-nitro-aniline (PNA) adsorbed on the Au(111) surface for a sub-monolayer coverge have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) static calculations and quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Four main adsorption geometries have been identified by DFT energy optimization with the gradient corrected PBE functional and accounting for the role of the van del Waals (vdW) interaction. Quantum dynamics calculations starting from the four different structures have been performed at room temperature to estimate the relative stability of the adsorbates and the presence of barriers for their interconversion. Quantum simulations suggest that the most stable adsorption geometry at room temperature is that of PNA with a slightly distorted molecular plane almost parallel to the Au(111) surface. In a second less populated configuration the PNA molecule interacts with the substrate by its NO2 group while the molecular plane is orthogonal to the surface. The N 1s electron photoemission spectrum has been simulated for the identified adsorbate geometries and a measurable variation of the absolute and relative chemical shift for the two nitrogen atoms in comparison with the known values for PNA in gas phase is predicted.

  19. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 (13C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  20. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  1. Dynamics and lithium binding energies of polyelectrolytes based on functionalized poly(para-phenylene terephthalamide).

    PubMed

    Grozema, F C; Best, A S; van Eijck, L; Stride, J; Kearley, G J; de Leeuw, S W; Picken, S J

    2005-04-28

    Polyelectrolyte materials are an interesting class of electrolytes for use in fuel cell and battery applications. Poly(para-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) is a liquid crystalline polymer that, when sulfonated, is a polyelectrolyte that exhibits moderate ion conductivity at elevated temperatures. In this work, quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments were performed to gain insight into the effect of the presence of lithium counterions on the chain dynamics in the material. It was found that the addition of lithium ions decreases the dynamics of the chains. Additionally, the binding of lithium ions to the sulfonic acids groups was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It was found that the local surroundings of the sulfonic acid group have very little effect on the lithium-ion binding energy. Binding energies for a variety of different systems were all calculated to be around 150 kcal/mol. The DFT calculations also show the existence of a structure in which a single lithium ion interacts with two sulfonic acid moieties on different chains. The formation of such "electrostatic cross-links" is believed to be the source of the increased tendency to aggregate and the reduced dynamics in the presence of lithium ions.

  2. Origin of the low-energy emission band in epitaxially grown para-sexiphenyl nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.; Skryshevski, Yu.; Piryatinski, Yu.; Beinik, I.; Teichert, C.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Sitter, H.; Andreev, A.; Frank, P.; Winkler, A.

    2009-02-01

    A comparative study of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of para-sexiphenyl (PSP) films grown by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and hot wall epitaxy (HWE) under comparable conditions is presented. Using different template substrates [mica(001) and KCl(001) surfaces] as well as different OMBE growth conditions has enabled us to vary greatly the morphology of the PSP crystallites while keeping their chemical structure virtually untouched. We prove that the broad redshifted emission band has a structure-related origin rather than being due to monomolecular oxidative defects. We conclude that the growth conditions and type of template substrate impacts substantially on the film morphology (measured by atomic force microscopy) and emission properties of the PSP films. The relative intensity of the defect emission band observed in the delayed spectra was found to correlate with the structural quality of PSP crystallites. In particular, the defect emission has been found to be drastically suppressed when (i) a KCl template substrate was used instead of mica in HWE-grown films, and (ii) in the OMBE-grown films dominated by growth mounds composed of upright standing molecules as opposed to the films consisting of crystallites formed by molecules lying parallel to the substrate.

  3. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  4. Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2005-03-01

    The present special issue of physica status solidi (b), guest-edited by Krzysztof W. Wojciechowski, Andrew Alderson, Arkadiusz Braka, and Kim L. Alderson, is dedicated to Auxetics and Related Systems - materials which exhibit negative Poisson's ratio behaviour. Most papers were presented at a workshop which was held in Pozna-Bdlewo, 27-30 June 2004.In our Editor's Choice [1] novel simulations with a parallel finite element program, ParaDyn, have been conducted to study the formation of auxetic materials. Structures composed of either brick elements (hexahedra) or shell elements are constructed in a regular array of panels. These structures are compressed and relaxed to form an initial state for an auxetic (foam-like) material. The foam structure shown is composed of 208896 shell elements arranged in four by four panels. Applying a uniaxial compression to this structure characterizes the material behaviour of the lateral surfaces as normal (expanding) or auxetic (compressing).The first author, William G. Hoover, has been working in areas such as statistical and applied mechanics, nonlinear and molecular dynamics and is now pursuing, as he states on his own webpage, an active retired research career as Professor Emeritus of UC Davis.

  5. Performance of three different anodes in electrochemical degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Murugaesan, Pramila; Aravind, Priyadharshini; Muniyandi, Neelavannan Guruswamy; Kandasamy, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, removal of pollutants from wastewater by electrochemical oxidation has become an attractive method. The present investigation deals with the degradation of 4-para-nitrophenol (4-PNP) by electrochemical oxidation using three different anodes, namely TiO2-RuO2-IrO2/Ti (titanium substrate insoluble anode - TSIA)), IrO2-PbO2/Ti and graphite. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-PNP was carried out employing sodium chloride as the supporting electrolyte, at pH 7 with a current density of 15 mA/cm(2). The degradation of 4-PNP by electro-oxidation was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. The performance efficiency and current efficiency of the three anodic materials in this study were evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD). Comparisons of energy consumption for the three anodes employed were also calculated. Among electrodes investigated, the IrO2-PbO2/Ti electrode resulted in 98% of COD removal in 30 min comparatively at a less energy consumption of 1 × 10(-2) kWh m(-3), depicting its higher performance efficiency in 4-PNP degradation.

  6. [La Junta para Ampliación de Estudios and the development of Spanish psychology].

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Helio; Herrero, Fania

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades of the XIXth century, there was an awakening of consciousness for the need of a Spanish cultural renovation, of which one of the aims was to create and develop a Spanish science, resembling the scientific models already established in more advanced countries. There was a desire of Europeanization. Since it was a global social objective, it was necessary to start from the educator's training. In this climate the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas, appeared. The role that the Junta played in Spanish research and in the innovation in the Psychopedagogical field through the first third of the XXth century was extremely important. The Junta's policy of scholarship was one of its most substantial achievements, for it made possible that the country reached in a few decades (1907-1936) the European scientific and psychological level. The relations among Spanish teachers and the Institute J.J. Rousseau is to highlighted, as "Geneva School" was to influence deeply the further development of psychology in Spain.

  7. Synthesis and methemoglobinemia-inducing properties of analogues of para-aminopropiophenone designed as humane rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Rennison, David; Conole, Daniel; Tingle, Malcolm D; Yang, Junpeng; Eason, Charles T; Brimble, Margaret A

    2013-12-15

    A number of structural analogues of the known toxicant para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) have been prepared and evaluated for their capacity to induce methemoglobinemia--with a view to their possible application as humane pest control agents. It was found that an optimal lipophilicity for the formation of methemoglobin (metHb) in vitro existed for alkyl analogues of PAPP (aminophenones 1-20; compound 6 metHb% = 74.1 ± 2). Besides lipophilicity, this structural sub-class suggested there were certain structural requirements for activity, with both branched (10-16) and cyclic (17-20) alkyl analogues exhibiting inferior in vitro metHb induction. Of the four candidates (compounds 4, 6, 13 and 23) evaluated in vivo, 4 exhibited the greatest toxicity. In parallel, aminophenone bioisosteres, including oximes 30-32, sulfoxide 33, sulfone 34 and sulfonamides 35-36, were found to be inferior metHb inducers to lead ketone 4. Closer examination of Hammett substituent constants suggests that a particular combination of the field and resonance parameters may be significant with respect to the redox mechanisms behind PAPPs metHb toxicity.

  8. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  9. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quantum effects on translation and rotation of molecular chlorine in solid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Antonio; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2014-07-01

    Structure and quantum effects of a Cl2 molecule embedded in fcc and hcp para-hydrogen (pH2) crystals are investigated in the zero-temperature limit. The interaction is modelled in terms of Cl2-pH2 and pH2-pH2 pair potentials from ab initio CCSD(T) and MP2 calculations. Translational and rotational motions of the molecules are described within three-dimensional anharmonic Einstein and Devonshire models, respectively, where the crystals are either treated as rigid or allowed to relax. The pH2 molecules, as well as the heavier Cl2 molecule, show large translational zero-point energies (ZPEs) and undergo large-amplitude translational motions. This gives rise to substantial reductions in the cohesive energies and expansions of the lattices, in agreement with experimental results for pure hydrogen crystals. The rotational dynamics of the Cl2 impurity is restricted to small-amplitude librations, again with high librational ZPEs, which are described in terms of two-dimensional non-degenerate anharmonic oscillators. The lattice relaxation causes qualitative changes of the rotational energy surfaces, which finally favour librations around the crystallographic directions pointing towards the nearest neighbours, both for fcc and hcp lattices. Implications on the reactant orientation in the experimentally observed laser-induced chemical reaction, Cl + H2 → HCl + H, are discussed.

  10. Para-toluenesulfonamide induces tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liang, Chenyuan; Zhang, Zhuoyuan; Pan, Jian; Xia, Hui; Zhong, Nanshan; Li, Longjiang

    2015-11-01

    Para-toluenesulfonamide (PTS) has been implicated with anticancer effects against a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PTS on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (Tca-8113) and explored the lysosomal and mitochondrial changes after PTS treatment in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography showed that PTS selectively accumulated in Tca-8113 cells with a relatively low concentration in normal fibroblasts. Next, the effects of PTS on cell viability, invasion, and cell death were determined. PTS significantly inhibited Tca-8113 cells' viability and invasive ability with increased cancer cell death. Flow cytometric analysis and the lactate dehydrogenase release assay showed that PTS induced cancer cell death by activating apoptosis and necrosis simultaneously. Morphological changes, such as cellular shrinkage, nuclear condensation as well as formation of apoptotic body and secondary lysosomes, were observed, indicating that PTS might induce cell death through disturbing lysosomal stability. Lysosomal integrity assay and western blot showed that PTS increased lysosomal membrane permeabilization associated with activation of lysosomal cathepsin B. Finally, PTS was shown to inhibit ATP biosynthesis and induce the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the use of PTS in cancer therapy.

  11. Simultaneous manipulation and observation of multiple ro-vibrational eigenstates in solid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Hiroyuki; Ohmori, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    We have experimentally performed the coherent control of delocalized ro-vibrational wave packets (RVWs) of solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) by the wave packet interferometry (WPI) combined with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). RVWs of solid p-H2 are delocalized in the crystal, and the wave function with wave vector k ˜ 0 is selectively excited via the stimulated Raman process. We have excited the RVW twice by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses with delay controlled by a stabilized Michelson interferometer. Using a broad-band laser pulse, multiple ro-vibrational states can be excited simultaneously. We have observed the time-dependent Ramsey fringe spectra as a function of the inter-pulse delay by a spectrally resolved CARS technique using a narrow-band probe pulse, resolving the different intermediate states. Due to the different fringe oscillation periods among those intermediate states, we can manipulate their amplitude ratio by tuning the inter-pulse delay on the sub-femtosecond time scale. The state-selective manipulation and detection of the CARS signal combined with the WPI is a general and efficient protocol for the control of the interference of multiple quantum states in various quantum systems.

  12. Kinetic analyses and pyrolytic behavior of Para grass (Urochloa mutica) for its bioenergy potential.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajjad; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Al Ayed, Omar S; Ye, Guangbin; Luo, Huibo; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Rashid, Umer; Arbi Nehdi, Imededdine; Qadir, Ghulam

    2017-01-01

    The biomass of Urochloa mutica was subjected to thermal degradation analyses to understand its pyrolytic behavior for bioenergy production. Thermal degradation experiments were performed at three different heating rates, 10, 30 and 50°Cmin(-1) using simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analyzer, under an inert environment. The kinetic analyses were performed using isoconversional models of Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO). The high heating value was calculated as 15.04MJmol(-1). The activation energy (E) values were shown to be ranging from 103 through 233 kJmol(-1). Pre-exponential factors (A) indicated the reaction to follow first order kinetics. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) was measured to be ranging from 169 to 173kJmol(-1) and 168 to 172kJmol(-1), calculated by KAS and FWO methods, respectively. We have shown that Para grass biomass has considerable bioenergy potential comparable to established bioenergy crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus.

  13. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  14. [Comparative assessment of antioxidant activity of para-aminobenzoic acid and emoxipin in retina].

    PubMed

    Akberova, S I; Musaev Galbinur, P I; Magomedov, N M; Babaev, Kh F; Gakhramanov, Kh M; Stroeva, O G

    1998-01-01

    Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rat and guinea pig retina exposed to hypoxic hypoxia is studied. PABA was injected intraperitoneally and parabulbarly before and after hypoxic exposure. Antioxidant activities of PABA and emoxipin were compared. An intraperitoneal injection of PABA in a dose of 10 mg/kg 24 h before hypoxia virtually completely prevented accumulation of lipid peroxides and preserved catalase activity in the retina. Parabulbar injection of 0.01% PABA solution 1 h before hypoxia prevented LPO intensification, stabilized catalase activity in hypoxia, and protected the retina starting from the moment immediately after hypoxic exposure. The efficacy of 0.01% PABA is comparable with that of 1% emoxipin, and a 0.01% solution of emoxipin is less effective than PABA in the same concentration. PABA exerts an antioxidant effect after hypoxia by decreasing the abnormally high level of lipid peroxides and reducing catalase activity in the retina after parabulbar injection of the drug. All the studied concentrations of the drug (from 0.007 to 0.08%) are active, but the optimal dose for the retina is 0.04%. By its efficacy this concentration is equivalent to 1% emoxipin.

  15. Transport properties of liquid para-hydrogen: The path integral centroid molecular dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetani, Yoshiteru; Kinugawa, Kenichi

    2003-11-01

    Several fundamental transport properties of a quantum liquid para-hydrogen (p-H2) at 17 K have been numerically evaluated by means of the quantum dynamics simulation called the path integral centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). For comparison, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have also been performed under the same condition. In accordance with the previous path integral simulations, the calculated static properties of the liquid agree well with the experimental results. For the diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and shear viscosity, the CMD predicts the values closer to the experimental ones though the classical MD results are far from the reality. The agreement of the CMD result with the experimental one is especially good for the shear viscosity with the difference less than 5%. The calculated diffusion coefficient and the thermal conductivity agree with the experimental values at least in the same order. We predict that the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity for liquid p-H2 is much larger than classical van der Waals simple liquids such as rare gas liquids.

  16. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an “all-out” strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  17. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  18. Different ortho and para electronic effects on hydrolysis and cytotoxicity of diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" Ti(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Peri, Dani; Meker, Sigalit; Manna, Cesar M; Tshuva, Edit Y

    2011-02-07

    Bis(isopropoxo) Ti(IV) complexes of diamino bis(phenolato) "salan" ligands were prepared, their hydrolysis in 1:9 water/THF solutions was investigated, and their cytotoxicity toward colon HT-29 and ovarian OVCAR-1 cells was measured. In particular, electronic effects at positions ortho and para to the binding phenolato unit were analyzed. We found that para substituents of different electronic features, including Me, Cl, OMe, and NO(2), have very little influence on hydrolysis rate, and all para-substituted ortho-H complexes hydrolyze slowly to give O-bridged clusters with a t(1/2) of 1-2 h for isopropoxo release. Consequently, no clear cytotoxicity pattern is observed as well, where the largest influence of para substituents appears to be of a steric nature. These complexes exhibit IC(50) values of 2-18 μM toward the cells analyzed, with activity which is mostly higher than those of Cp(2)TiCl(2), (bzac)(2)Ti(OiPr)(2) and cisplatin. On the contrary, major electronic effects are observed for substituents at the ortho position, with an influence that exceeds even that of steric hindrance. Ortho-chloro or -bromo substituted compounds possess extremely high hydrolytic stability where no major isopropoxo release as isopropanol occurs for days. In accordance, very high cytotoxicity toward colon and ovarian cells is observed for ortho-Cl and -Br complexes, with IC(50) values of 1-8 μM, where the most cytotoxic complexes are the ortho-Cl-para-Me and ortho-Br-para-Me derivatives. In this series of ortho-substituted complexes, the halogen radius is of lesser influence both on hydrolysis and on cytotoxicity, while OMe substituents do not impose similar effect of hydrolytic stability and cytotoxicity enhancement. Therefore, hydrolytic stability and cytotoxic activity are clearly intertwined, and thus this family of readily available Ti(IV) salan complexes exhibiting both features in an enhanced manner is highly attractive for further exploration.

  19. Adapting a Common Photographic Camera to Take Pictures of the Sky. (Spanish Title: Adaptando Una Camara Fotografica Comun Para Obtener Fotografias del Cielo.) Adaptando Uma Câmera Fotográfica Manual Simples Para Fotografar o Céu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; Pereira, Ricardo Francisco

    2007-12-01

    In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera (a low-cost method). It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. En este trabajo será introducido un método de astrofotografia que utiliza una cámara fotográfica non-reflex (un método de bajo costo). Serán revisados algunos procesos fotográficos comúnmente utilizados actualmente para comparación con los objetivos de este trabajo. O presente artigo procura introduzir um método de astrofotografia utilizando uma câmera fotográfica não reflex, de baixo custo. É feita uma revisão do processo fotográfico comumente empregado para fins de comparação com os objetivos pretendidos no presente trabalho.

  20. A case of nearly mistaken AB para-Bombay blood group donor transplanted to a group 'O' recipient.

    PubMed

    Townamchai, Natavudh; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Avihingsanon, Yingyos

    2014-10-31

    Unintentional ABO mismatch kidney transplantation can cause detrimental hyperacute rejection. We report the first successful ABO incompatible kidney transplantation from an AB para-Bombay donor to O recipient. At the initial evaluation, the donor's ABO type was discordance on the cell typing and serum typing, which typed to be 'O' as cell typing and 'AB' as serum typing. At the second investigation, it was confirmed that the donor had a unique, rare but not uncommon blood type AB para-Bombay which was incompatible with the recipient's blood group. The kidney transplantation was successfully performed by an ABO incompatible preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and rituximab. The serum creatinine at 12 months post-transplantation was 1.3 mg/dL. The pathology of the kidney biopsy showed no signs of rejection.

  1. The total neutron cross-section of an ortho-para mixture of gaseous hydrogen at 75K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, G.; Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    2004-07-01

    From the data of a transmission experiment we have extracted the total neutron cross-section of a sample of gaseous hydrogen (T=75.03K, p=84.8bar, n=8.42nm-3) with a thermodynamic equilibrium ortho-para content (48% ortho, 52% para). The experiment was carried out on the PEARL instrument operating at the ISIS pulsed neutron source. After an accurate data reduction, the neutron spectra have been analyzed in the framework of the Modified Young and Koppel (MYK) theory, which is a successful extension to interacting fluids of the original Young and Koppel model valid for a dilute gas of hydrogen molecules. The total cross-section calculated with MYK theory, whose unique unknown parameter-the mean kinetic energy of the molecular centre of mass-was obtained through an independent path integral Monte Carlo simulation, shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Trends in electron-ion dissociative recombination of benzene analogs with functional group substitutions: Negative Hammett σpara values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, David; Lawson, Patrick Andrew; Adams, Nigel; Dotan, Itzhak

    2014-06-01

    An in-depth study of the effects of functional group substitution on benzene's electron-ion dissociative recombination (e-IDR) rate constant has been conducted. The e-IDR rate constants for benzene, biphenyl, toluene, ethylbenzene, anisole, phenol, and aniline have been measured using a Flowing Afterglow equipped with an electrostatic Langmuir probe (FALP). These measurements have been made over a series of temperatures from 300 to 550 K. A relationship between the Hammett σpara values for each compound and rate constant has indicated a trend in the e-IDR rate constants and possibly in their temperature dependence data. The Hammett σpara value is a method to describe the effect a functional group substituted to a benzene ring has upon the reaction rate constant.

  3. Connection between the observable and centroid structural properties of a quantum fluid: application to liquid para-hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Blinov, Nicholas; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2004-02-22

    It is shown that the discrepancy between path integral Monte Carlo [M. Zoppi et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 092204 (2002)] and path integral centroid molecular dynamics [F. J. Bermejo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5359 (2000)] calculations of the static structure factor of liquid para-hydrogen can be explained based on a deconvolution equation connecting centroid and physical radial distribution functions. An explicit expression for the kernel of the deconvolution equation has been obtained using functional derivative techniques. In the superposition approximation, this kernel is given by the functional derivative of the effective potential with respect to the pairwise classical potential. Results of path integral Monte Carlo calculations for the radial distribution function and the static structure factor of liquid para-hydrogen are presented.

  4. Connection between the observable and centroid structural properties of a quantum fluid: Application to liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Nicholas; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2004-02-01

    It is shown that the discrepancy between path integral Monte Carlo [M. Zoppi et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 092204 (2002)] and path integral centroid molecular dynamics [F. J. Bermejo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5359 (2000)] calculations of the static structure factor of liquid para-hydrogen can be explained based on a deconvolution equation connecting centroid and physical radial distribution functions. An explicit expression for the kernel of the deconvolution equation has been obtained using functional derivative techniques. In the superposition approximation, this kernel is given by the functional derivative of the effective potential with respect to the pairwise classical potential. Results of path integral Monte Carlo calculations for the radial distribution function and the static structure factor of liquid para-hydrogen are presented.

  5. Output performance of a liquid-N/sub 2/-cooled, para-H/sub 2/ Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Midorikawa, K.; Tashiro, H.; Aoki, Y.; Ohashi, K.; Nagasaka, K.; Toyoda, K.; Namba, S.

    1985-03-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) of a transversely excited atmosphere-CO/sub 2/ laser in para-H/sub 2/ was studied with a liquid-N/sub 2/-cooled multiple-pass cell. Line-tunable output from 13.7 to 17.2 ..mu..m was obtained by changing CO/sub 2/ pump lines. Threshold pump energies required for SRRS were measured to be 0.9 and 1.5 J for the 9P(20) and 10P(20) CO/sub 2/ lines, respectively. Above the threshold, the Stokes output energies for the 10-..mu..m band pumping increased in proportion to the increase of the pump energies, while the increase of the Stokes output for the 9-..mu..m band pumping was limited. Para-H/sub 2/ pressure dependence of the Stokes output energy showed that the Stokes gain became constant for pressures above 250 Torr at 100 K.

  6. Genetic organization and embryonic expression of the ParaHox genes in the sea urchin S. purpuratus: insights into the relationship between clustering and colinearity.

    PubMed

    Arnone, Maria I; Rizzo, Francesca; Annunciata, Rosella; Cameron, R Andrew; Peterson, Kevin J; Martínez, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    The ANTP family of homeodomain transcription factors consists of three major groups, the NKL, the extended Hox, and the Hox/ParaHox family. Hox genes and ParaHox genes are often linked in the genome forming two clusters of genes, the Hox cluster and the ParaHox cluster, and are expressed along the major body axis in a nested fashion, following the relative positions of the genes within these clusters, a property called colinearity. While the presences of a Hox cluster and a ParaHox cluster appear to be primitive for bilaterians, few taxa have actually been examined for spatial and temporal colinearity, and, aside from chordates, even fewer still manifest it. Here we show that the ParaHox genes of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus show both spatial and temporal colinearity, but with peculiarities. Specifically, two of the three ParaHox genes-discovered through the S. purpuratus genome project-Sp-lox and Sp-Cdx, are expressed in the developing gut with nested domains in a spatially colinear manner. However, transcripts of Sp-Gsx, although anterior of Sp-lox, are detected in the ectoderm and not in the gut. Strikingly, the expression of the three ParaHox genes would follow temporal colinearity if they were clustered in the same order as in chordates, but each ParaHox gene is actually found on a different genomic scaffold (>300 kb each), which suggests that they are not linked into a single coherent cluster. Therefore, ParaHox genes are dispersed in the genome and are used during embryogenesis in a temporally and spatially coherent manner, whereas the Hox genes, now fully sequenced and annotated, are still linked and are employed as a complex only during the emergence of the adult body plan in the larva.

  7. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  8. Nitration of endogenous para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and the metabolism of nitrotyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Ali R; Pannala, Ananth S; Orie, Nelson N; Ollosson, Richard; Harry, David; Rice-Evans, Catherine A; Moore, Kevin P

    2003-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, can nitrate tyrosine in proteins to form nitrotyrosine. Nitrotyrosine is metabolized to 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (NHPA), which is excreted in the urine. This has led to the notion that measurement of urinary NHPA may provide a time-integrated index of nitrotyrosine formation in vivo. However, it is not known whether NHPA is derived exclusively from metabolism of nitrotyrosine, or whether it can be formed by nitration of circulating para -hydroxyphenylacetic acid (PHPA), a metabolite of tyrosine. In the present study, we have developed a gas chromatography MS assay for NHPA and PHPA to determine whether or not NHPA can be formed directly by nitration of PHPA. Following the injection of nitrotyrosine, 0.5+/-0.16% of injected dose was recovered unchanged as nitrotyrosine, and 4.3+/-0.2% as NHPA in the urine. To determine whether or not NHPA could be formed by the nitration of PHPA, deuterium-labelled PHPA ([(2)H(6)]PHPA) was injected, and the formation of deuterated NHPA ([(2)H(5)]NHPA) was measured. Of the infused [(2)H(6)]PHPA, 78+/-2% was recovered in the urine unchanged, and approx. 0.23% was recovered as [(2)H(5)]NHPA. Since the plasma concentration of PHPA is markedly higher than free nitrotyrosine (approx. 400-fold), the nitration of high-circulating endogenous PHPA to form NHPA becomes very significant and accounts for the majority of NHPA excreted in urine. This is the first study to demonstrate that NHPA can be formed by nitration of PHPA in vivo, and that this is the major route for its formation. PMID:12797864

  9. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  10. OrthoParaMap: Distinguishing orthologs from paralogs by integrating comparative genome data and gene phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B; Young, Nevin D

    2003-01-01

    Background In eukaryotic genomes, most genes are members of gene families. When comparing genes from two species, therefore, most genes in one species will be homologous to multiple genes in the second. This often makes it difficult to distinguish orthologs (separated through speciation) from paralogs (separated by other types of gene duplication). Combining phylogenetic relationships and genomic position in both genomes helps to distinguish between these scenarios. This kind of comparison can also help to describe how gene families have evolved within a single genome that has undergone polyploidy or other large-scale duplications, as in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana – and probably most plant genomes. Results We describe a suite of programs called OrthoParaMap (OPM) that makes genomic comparisons, identifies syntenic regions, determines whether sets of genes in a gene family are related through speciation or internal chromosomal duplications, maps this information onto phylogenetic trees, and infers internal nodes within the phylogenetic tree that may represent local – as opposed to speciation or segmental – duplication. We describe the application of the software using three examples: the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) gene family on the X chromosomes of mouse and human; the 20S proteasome subunit gene family in Arabidopsis, and the major latex protein gene family in Arabidopsis. Conclusion OPM combines comparative genomic positional information and phylogenetic reconstructions to identify which gene duplications are likely to have arisen through internal genomic duplications (such as polyploidy), through speciation, or through local duplications (such as unequal crossing-over). The software is freely available at . PMID:12952558

  11. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  12. Incidence, clinical features and para-clinical findings of achalasia in Algeria: Experience of 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Tebaibia, Amar; Boudjella, Mohammed Amine; Boutarene, Djamel; Benmediouni, Farouk; Brahimi, Hakim; Oumnia, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence of achalasia in Algeria and to determine its clinical and para-clinical profile. To evaluate the impact of continuing medical education (CME) on the incidence of this disease. METHODS From 1990 to 2014, 1256 patients with achalasia were enrolled in this prospective study. A campaign of CME on diagnosis involving different regions of the country was conducted between 1999 and 2003. Annual incidence and prevalence were calculated by relating the number of diagnosed cases to 105 inhabitants. Each patient completed a standardized questionnaire, and underwent upper endoscopy, barium swallow and esophageal manometry. We systematically looked for Allgrove syndrome and familial achalasia. RESULTS The mean annual incidence raised from 0.04 (95%CI: 0.028-0.052) during the 1990s to 0.27/105 inhabitants/year (95%CI: 0.215-0.321) during the 2000s. The incidence of the disease was two and half times higher in the north and the center compared to the south of the country. One-hundred-and-twenty-nine (10%) were children and 97 (7.7%) had Allgrove syndrome. Familial achalasia was noted in 18 different families. Patients had dysphagia (99%), regurgitation (83%), chest pain (51%), heartburn 24.5% and weight loss (70%). The lower esophageal sphincter was hypertensive in 53% and hypotensive in 0.6%. CONCLUSION The mean incidence of achalasia in Algeria is at least 0.27/105 inhabitants. A good impact on the incidence of CME was noted. A gradient of incidence between different regions of the country was found. This variability is probably related to genetic and environmental factors. The discovery of an infantile achalasia must lead to looking for Allgrove syndrome and similar cases in the family. PMID:27784974

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

  14. Tyrosine-lipid peroxide adducts from radical termination: para coupling and intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization.

    PubMed

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N; Kim, Hye-young H; Hatch, Duane M; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael; Porter, Ned A

    2010-12-15

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogues of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry (MS). The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic (13)C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl (13)C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All of the NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignments of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision-induced dissociation data. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined, and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion to give a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found in either the primary or cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts, which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein cross-links via interprotein Michael adducts.

  15. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  16. Variability of kinetic parameters due to biomass acclimation: case of para-nitrophenol biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Rezouga, Fériel; Hamdi, Moktar; Sperandio, Mathieu

    2009-11-01

    The study regards para-nitrophenol (p-NP) removal by a mixed culture in a batch reactor under aerobic conditions performed at low ratio substrate (p-NP) to p-NP degrading microorganisms (0.09 < I(0)/(X(B,PNP))(0) < 0.80 g COD(PNP)g VSS(-1)). p-NP biodegradation was modelled with a dual-biomass kinetic including Haldane formalism. The purpose was to examine the effect of operating conditions of acclimation phases in the kinetic parameters estimated by respirometric measurements. The experiments were conducted with a series of successive additions of p-NP and a biogenic substrate (Ss) in different proportions (0 < R = Ss/I < 6.6). To place emphasis on decisive role played by frequency and amount of p-NP supply, a parallel was drawn with continuous processes, characterising acclimation cycles by different organic loading rate (207 < OLR < 1490 mg COD(PNP) l(-1) d(-1)). During acclimation, results showed progressively decreasing half saturation constant (K(s)(PNP)) values (11.4-1.21 mg CODl(-1)) whereas inhibition coefficient K(I)(PNP) increased (72.4-289 mg CODl(-1)), as the specific degradation rate increased. The inverse behaviour was observed during starvation periods. At the end of acclimation, higher values of growth yield (0.39 < Y(PNP) < 0.63 mg COD(X) mg COD(PNP)(-1)) and maximum growth rate (1.09 < mu(max)(PNP) < 2.01 d(-1)) were obtained for cycles with low R.

  17. STM imaging ortho- and para-fluorothiophenol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Deng, Ke; Fichou, Denis; Xie, Si-Shen; Nion, Aymeric; Wang, Chen

    2009-05-05

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of para- and ortho-fluorothiophenol (p- and o-FTP) spontaneously formed on Au(111) substrate have been contrasted through investigation by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at room temperature. High-resolution STM imaging reveals that p-FTP adopts a 6 x radical3R30 degrees molecule arrangement containing six molecules. Two different kinds of p-FTP molecule dimer line structures have been formed on Au(111) by intermolecular pi-pi stacking along 112 substrate directions, besides a single p-FTP molecule line. In contrast, o-FTP molecules self-assemble into a much looser wave-like SAM, which can be described as a 5 x 3 radical3R30 degrees structure containing two molecules. Periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the two systems suggest that these kinds of FTP molecules preferentially take the asymmetrical positions between 3-fold face-centered cubic (fcc) hollow and bridge sites on Au(111), tilting from the substrate surface. Theoretical simulation gives apparent average tilted angles of 58 degrees and 68 degrees for p-FTP and o-FTP with respect to the surface normal, respectively. This simulation shows that o-FTP is more inclined to lie down toward the Au(111) surface compared to p-FTP. The difference between p-FTP and o-FTP SAM structures can be qualitatively understood in terms of the variation of intermolecular dipole-dipole orientation. This suggests that, besides well-known Au-S and pi-pi interactions, electrostatic interactions including dipole-dipole, quadrupole-quadrupole, and dipole-quadrupole interactions might also play an important role in influencing the SAM structures formed by aromatic thiols with a permanent dipole moment.

  18. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C. . E-mail: peter.brooks@med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21{sup CIP1} and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21{sup CIP1}. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest.

  19. Multistep conversion of para-substituted phenols by phenol hydroxylase and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Shengnan; Ma, Qiao; Kong, Chunlei; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti

    2013-04-01

    A multistep conversion system of para-substituted phenols by recombinant phenol hydroxylase (PH(IND)) and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (BphC(LA-4)) was constructed in this study. Docking studies with different para-substituted phenols and corresponding catechols inside of the active site of PH(IND) and BphC(LA-4) predicted that all the substrates should be transformed. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the products of multistep conversion were the corresponding para-substituted catechols and semialdehydes. For the first-step conversion, the formation rate of 4-fluorocatechol (0.39 μM/min/mg dry weight) by strain PH(IND) hydroxylation was 1.15, 6.50, 3.00, and 1.18-fold higher than the formation of 4-chlorocatechol, 4-bromocatechol, 4-nitrocatechol, and 4-methylcatechol, respectively. For the second-step conversion, the formation rates of semialdehydes by strain BphC(LA-4) were as follows: 5-fluoro-HODA>5-chloro-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-nitro-ODA>5-bromo-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-methyl-ODA. The present study suggested that the multistep conversion by both ring hydroxylase and cleavage dioxygenase should be potential in the synthesis of industrial precursors and provide a novel avenue in the wastewater recycling treatment.

  20. Importance of the Anchor Group Position (Para versus Meta) in Tetraphenylmethane Tripods: Synthesis and Self-Assembly Features.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Marcin; Valášek, Michal; Homberg, Jan; Edelmann, Kevin; Gerhard, Lukas; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Fuhr, Olaf; Wächter, Tobias; Zharnikov, Michael; Kolivoška, Viliam; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Mészáros, Gábor; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Mayor, Marcel

    2016-09-05

    The efficient synthesis of tripodal platforms based on tetraphenylmethane with three acetyl-protected thiol groups in either meta or para positions relative to the central sp(3) carbon for deposition on Au (111) surfaces is reported. These platforms are intended to provide a vertical arrangement of the substituent in position 4 of the perpendicular phenyl ring and an electronic coupling to the gold substrate. The self-assembly features of both derivatives are analyzed on Au (111) surfaces by low-temperature ultra-high-vacuum STM, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and reductive voltammetric desorption studies. These experiments indicated that the meta derivative forms a well-ordered monolayer, with most of the anchoring groups bound to the surface, whereas the para derivative forms a multilayer film with physically adsorbed adlayers on the chemisorbed para monolayer. Single-molecule conductance values for both tripodal platforms are obtained through an STM break junction experiment.

  1. Developmental validation of the ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System-A novel approach to DNA profiling.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Stephen; Dawnay, Nick; Ball, Glyn; Stafford-Allen, Beccy; Tribble, Nicholas; Rendell, Paul; Neary, Kelsey; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack; Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Mendel, Julian; Mills, DeEtta K; Wells, Simon

    2015-07-01

    DNA profiling through the analysis of STRs remains one of the most widely used tools in human identification across the world. Current laboratory STR analysis is slow, costly and requires expert users and interpretation which can lead to instances of delayed investigations or non-testing of evidence on budget grounds. The ParaDNA(®) Intelligence System has been designed to provide a simple, fast and robust way to profile DNA samples in a lab or field-deployable manner. The system analyses 5-STRs plus amelogenin to deliver a DNA profile that enables users to gain rapid investigative leads and intelligent prioritisation of samples in human identity testing applications. Utilising an innovative sample collector, minimal training is required to enable both DNA analysts and nonspecialist personnel to analyse biological samples directly, without prior processing, in approximately 75min. The test uses direct PCR with fluorescent HyBeacon(®) detection of STR allele lengths to provide a DNA profile. The developmental validation study described here followed the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines and tested the sensitivity, reproducibility, accuracy, inhibitor tolerance, and performance of the ParaDNA Intelligence System on a range of mock evidence items. The data collected demonstrate that the ParaDNA Intelligence System displays useful DNA profiles when sampling a variety of evidence items including blood, saliva, semen and touch DNA items indicating the potential to benefit a number of applications in fields such as forensic, military and disaster victim identification (DVI).

  2. Deposition, clearance, and shortening of Kevlar para-aramid fibrils in acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D P; Merriman, E A; Kennedy, G L; Lee, K P

    1993-10-01

    The deposition and clearance of lung-deposited Kevlar para-aramid fibrils (subfibers) have been investigated as part of a subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity testing program. Fibrils recovered from lung tissue in para-aramid-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats were microscopically counted and measured after exposures to airborne fibrils which were about 12 microns median length (ML) and < 0.3 micron median diameter. In each of three studies lung-recovered fibrils were progressively shorter with increasing residence time in the lungs. Twenty-eight days after a single 6-hr exposure at 400 respirable fibrils per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) the ML of recovered fibrils decreased to about 5 microns. Twenty-four months after a 3-week exposure to 25 or 400 f/cm3, fibrils reached about 2 microns ML. After 2 years of continuous exposure at 2.5, 25, or 100 f/cm3 or 1 year exposure plus 1 year recovery at 400 f/cm3, fibril ML approached 4 microns. In the 2-year study, the lung-fiber accumulation rate/exposure concentration was similar for the three highest concentrations and was about 3 x greater than that seen at 2.5 f/cm3, indicating that concentrations of about 25 f/cm3 or more may overwhelm clearance mechanisms. Time required for fibrils to be reduced to < 5 microns in the lung was markedly less at lower exposure concentration and shorter exposure time. The primary shortening mechanism is proposed to be long fibril cutting by enzymatic attack at fibril defects. However, length-selective fibril deposition and clearance may contribute to shortening in the first few days after exposure. The enzymatic cutting hypothesis is supported by measured increases in numbers of short fibers following cessation of exposures, continued shortening of the fibril length distribution up to 2 years following exposure, and in vitro fibril shortening after 3 months in a proteolytic enzyme preparation. The conclusion is that para-aramid fibrils are less durable in the lungs of rats than expected from

  3. Challenges in preparing, preserving and detecting para-water in bulk: overcoming proton exchange and other hurdles.

    PubMed

    Mammoli, Daniele; Salvi, Nicola; Milani, Jonas; Buratto, Roberto; Bornet, Aurélien; Sehgal, Akansha Ashvani; Canet, Estel; Pelupessy, Philippe; Carnevale, Diego; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2015-10-28

    Para-water is an analogue of para-hydrogen, where the two proton spins are in a quantum state that is antisymmetric under permutation, also known as singlet state. The populations of the nuclear spin states in para-water are believed to have long lifetimes just like other Long-Lived States (LLSs). This hypothesis can be verified by measuring the relaxation of an excess or a deficiency of para-water, also known as a "Triplet-Singlet Imbalance" (TSI), i.e., a difference between the average population of the three triplet states T (that are symmetric under permutation) and the population of the singlet state S. In analogy with our recent findings on ethanol and fumarate, we propose to adapt the procedure for Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (D-DNP) to prepare such a TSI in frozen water at very low temperatures in the vicinity of 1.2 K. After rapid heating and dissolution using an aprotic solvent, the TSI should be largely preserved. To assess this hypothesis, we studied the lifetime of water as a molecular entity when diluted in various solvents. In neat liquid H2O, proton exchange rates have been characterized by spin-echo experiments on oxygen-17 in natural abundance, with and without proton decoupling. One-dimensional exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) has been used to study proton exchange rates in H2O, HDO and D2O mixtures diluted in various aprotic solvents. In the case of 50 mM H2O in dioxane-d8, the proton exchange lifetime is about 20 s. After dissolving, one can observe this TSI by monitoring intensities in oxygen-17 spectra of H2O (if necessary using isotopically enriched samples) where the AX2 system comprising a "spy" oxygen A and two protons X2 gives rise to binomial multiplets only if the TSI vanishes. Alternatively, fast chemical addition to a suitable substrate (such as an activated aldehyde or ketone) can provide AX2 systems where a carbon-13 acts as a spy nucleus. Proton signals that relax to equilibrium with two distinct time constants can be

  4. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

  5. Concordance study between the ParaDNA® Intelligence Test, a rapid DNA profiling assay, and a conventional STR typing kit (AmpFlSTR® SGM Plus®).

    PubMed

    Ball, G; Dawnay, N; Stafford-Allen, B; Panasiuk, M; Rendell, P; Blackman, S; Duxbury, N; Wells, S

    2015-05-01

    The ParaDNA® Intelligence Test enables STR profiling directly from human biological samples and evidence items collected from crime scene in 75min. Designed for non-expert use this system allows DNA information to be available to investigators before it would typically be available from a laboratory. The ParaDNA Intelligence Test system amplifies D3S1358, D8S119, D16S539, D18S1358 and TH01 STR loci and the gender typing locus amelogenin and detects the alleles present with HyBeacon® probes. Individual DNA samples from 381 UK Caucasian individuals were analysed using AmpFlSTR® SGM Plus® and the ParaDNA Intelligence Test with the derived STR profiles compared. Here we describe the high level of concordance demonstrated between the two systems and discuss this with reference to allele frequencies and the discriminatory power offered by the ParaDNA Intelligence Test.

  6. Effects of number and position of meta and para carboxyphenyl groups of zinc porphyrins in dye-sensitized solar cells: structure-performance relationship.

    PubMed

    Ambre, Ram B; Mane, Sandeep B; Chang, Gao-Fong; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2015-01-28

    Porphyrin sensitizers containing meta- and para-carboxyphenyl groups in their meso positions have been synthesized and investigated for their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The superior performance of para-derivative compared to meta-derivative porphyrins was revealed by optical spectroscopy, electrochemical property measurements, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and stability performance. Absorption spectra of para-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins on TiO2 show a broader Soret band compared to meta-carboxyphenyl-substituted porphyrins. ATR-FTIR spectra of the studied porphyrins on TiO2 were applied to investigate the number and mode of carboxyl groups attached to TiO2. The VOC, JSC, and IPCE values of para-series porphyrins were distinctly superior to those of meta-series porphyrins. The Nyquist plots of the studied porphyrins show that charge injection in para-series porphyrins is superior to that in meta-series porphyrins. The orthogonally positioned para derivatives have more efficient charge injection and charge transfer over charge recombination, whereas the efficiencies of flat-oriented meta derivatives are retarded by rapid charge recombination. Photovoltaic measurements of the studied meta- and para-carboxyphenyl-functionalized porphyrins show that the number and position of carboxyphenyl groups play a crucial role in the performance of the DSSC. Our results indicate that para-carboxyphenyl derivatives outperform meta-carboxyphenyl derivatives to give better device performance. This study will serve as a guideline for the design and development of organic, porphyrin, and ruthenium dyes in DSSCs.

  7. Infrared Spectra of the 2-CHLOROETHYL Radical in Solid Para-Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicangelo, Jay C.; Bahou, Mohammed; Golec, Barbara; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2011-06-01

    The reaction of chlorine atoms with ethylene and two of its deuterium isotopomers in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) matrices at 3 K has been studied using infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation at 365 nm of a co-deposited mixture of Cl2, C2H4, and p-H2 at 3 K produces a series of new lines in the infrared spectrum. Several of the new lines are readily assigned to the gauche and trans conformers of 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl) resulting from the addition of two Cl atoms to C2H4. Of the remaining lines, a strong line at 664 Cm-1 and three weaker lines at 562, 1070, and 1228 Cm-1 are concluded to be due to a single carrier based on their behavior upon subsequent annealing to 4.5 K and irradiation at 254 and 214 nm. When the positions and intensities of these lines are compared to the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ predicted vibrational spectra of the possible species that could result from the addition and abstraction reactions of one Cl atom with C2H4, the best agreement is found with the 2-chloroethyl radical (CdotCH2CH2Cl). In order to confirm this assignment, isotopic experiments were performed with C2D4 and t-C2H2D2 and the corresponding infrared bands due to the deuterium isotopomers of this radical (CdotCD2CD2Cl and \\cdotCHDCHDCl) have been observed. A final set of experiments were performed following irradiation of the Cl2/C2H4/p-H2 mixture at 365 nm, in which the matrix was irradiated with filtered infrared light from a globar source, which has been shown to induce a reaction between isolated Cl atoms and matrix H2 to produce HCl and H atoms. In our experiments, the major products observed were HCl and ethyl chloride (CH3CH2Cl) and the possible mechanism of the formation of ethyl chloride will be discussed. P. Brana, B. Menendez, T. Fernandez, and J. A. Sordo, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10842 (2000) P. L. Raston and D. T. Anderson, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3124 (2006)

  8. Infrared Spectra of the 2-CHLOROPROPYL Radical in Solid Para-Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amicangelo, Jay C.; Golec, Barbara; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2012-06-01

    The reaction of chlorine atoms with propylene and one of its deuterium isotopomers in solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) matrices at 3.2 K has been studied using infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation at 365 nm of a co-deposited mixture of Cl2, C3H6, and p-H2 at 3.2 K produces a series of new lines in the infrared spectrum. Several of the new lines are readily assigned to the gauche and trans conformers of 1,2-dichloropropane (CH3CHClCH2Cl) resulting from the addition of two Cl atoms to C3H6. Weak lines observed at 802 and 975 cm-1 and at 813 and 981 cm-1 that become more prominent upon secondary irradiation at 254 and 214 nm are assigned to the allyl radical (C3H5) and an HCl-allyl radical complex (HCl-C3H5), respectively. Of the remaining lines, a strong line at 650 cm-1 and weaker lines at 532, 1008, 1133, 1150, 1215 and 1382 cm-1 are concluded to be due to a single carrier based on their behavior upon subsequent annealing to 4.5 K and irradiation at 254 and 214 nm. When the positions and intensities of these lines are compared to the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ predicted vibrational spectra of the possible species that could result from the addition and abstraction reactions of one Cl atom with C3H6a, the best agreement is found with the 2-chloropropyl radical (CH3CHClCH2...). Isotopic experiments were performed with 3,3,3-C3H3D3 and the corresponding infrared peaks due to the deuterium isotopomer of this radical (CD3CHClCH2...) have also been observed. A final set of experiments were performed following irradiation of the Cl2/C3H6/p-H2 mixture at 365 nm, in which the matrix was irradiated with filtered infrared light from a globar source, which has been shown to induce a reaction between isolated Cl atoms and matrix H2 to produce HCl and H atoms. In our experiments, the major products observed after infrared irradiation are HCl, 2-chloropropane (CH3CHClCH3) and the isopropyl radical (CH3CH...CH3) and the possible mechanisms of formation of these species will be discussed. P. Brana

  9. Failures of TDDFT in describing the lowest intramolecular charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Christiansen, Ove; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Kongsted, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the failure of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with the CAM-B3LYP exchange-correlation (xc) functional coupled to the polarisable embedding (PE) scheme (PE-CAM-B3LYP) in reproducing the solvatochromic shift of the lowest intense charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroaniline (pNA) in water by comparing with results obtained with the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) model also coupled to the polarisable embedding scheme (PE-CCSD). We determine the amount of charge separation in the ground and excited charge-transfer state with both methods by calculating the electric dipole moments in the gas phase and for 100 solvent configurations. We find that CAM-B3LYP overestimates the amount of charge separation inherent in the ground state and TDDFT/CAM-B3LYP drastically underestimates this amount in the excited charge-transfer state. As the errors in the solvatochromatic shift are found to be inverse proportional to the change in dipole moment upon excitation, we conclude that the flaws in the description of the solvatochromic shift of this excitation are related to TDDFT itself and how it responds to the solvent effects modelled by the PE scheme. We recommend therefore to benchmark results of TDDFT calculations with CAM-B3LYP for intramolecular charge-transfer excitations in molecular systems similar to pNA against higher level ab initio wave function methods, like, e.g. CCSD, prior to their use. Using the calculated change in dipole moment upon excitation as a measure for charge-transfer character, we furthermore confirm that the difference between excitation energies calculated with TDDFT and with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TDDFT is indeed correlated with the charge-transfer character of a given electronic transition both in vacuo and in solution. This is supported by a corresponding correlation between the change in dipole moment and the size of the Λ index diagnostic for the investigated CT excitation.

  10. An integrated management tool for rockfall evaluation along transportation corridors: the ParaChute research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutier, Catherine; Locat, Jacques; Mayers, Mélanie; Noël, François; Turmel, Dominique; Jacob, Chantal; Dorval, Pierre; Bossé, François; Gionet, Pierre; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall is a significant hazard along linear infrastructures due to the presence of natural and man-made rock slopes. Knowing where the problematic rockfalls source areas are is of primary importance to properly manage and mitigate the risk associated to rockfall along linear infrastructures. The aim of the ParaChute research project is to integrate various technologies into a workflow for rockfall characterization for such infrastructures, using a 220 km-long railroad as the study site which is located on Québec's North Shore, Canada. The objectives of this 3-year project which started in 2014 are: (1) to optimize the use of terrestrial, mobile and airborne laser scanners data into terrain analysis, structural geology analysis and rockfall susceptibility rating, (2) to further develop the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetry applied to rock cliff characterization, and (3) to integrate rockfall simulation studies into a rock slope classification system similar to the Rockfall Hazard Rating System. Firstly, based on laser scanner data and aerial photographs, the morpho-structural features of the terrain (genetic material, landform, drainage, etc.) are mapped. The result can be used to assess all types of mass movements. Secondly, to guide field work and decrease uncertainty of various parameters, systematic rockfall simulations and a first structural analysis are made from point clouds acquired by mobile and airborne laser scanner. The simulation results are used to recognize the rock slopes that have potentially problematic rockfall paths, meaning they could reach the linear infrastructure. Other rock slopes are not included in the inventory. Field work is carried out to validate and complete the rock slopes characterization previously made from remote sensing technique. Because some or parts of cliffs are not visible or accessible from the railroad, we are currently developing the use of photogrammetry by UAV in order to complete the

  11. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operação regular no INPE, em São José dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS é dedicado às observações de explosões solares decimétricas com alta resolução temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenômenos associados com a liberação de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 explosões solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas características morfológicas. Na análise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de explosões solares deve-se considerar a variação do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em função da freqüência e a variação temporal, além da complexidade das explosões e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo variável. Com o intuito de realizar tal análise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, é constituído de várias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e análise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes à filtragem do ruído de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de ruído foram testadas nos diversos grupos de explosões solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcançando um bom resultado na diminuição do ruído de fundo e obtendo, em conseqüência, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogêneo ressaltando as áreas onde existem explosões solares e tornando mais precisas as determinações dos parâmetros observacionais de cada explosão. Estes resultados serão apresentados e discutidos.

  12. The change in upper tract urolithiasis composition, surgical treatments and outcomes of para and quadriplegic patients over time.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Marisa M; Gettman, Matthew T; Patterson, David E; Rangel, Laureano; Krambeck, Amy E

    2014-10-01

    Stone disease in patients with spinal cord injury is a source of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have indicated a decrease in infection-based urolithiasis in recent decades. We aimed to identify changes in stone composition and surgical outcomes in patients with para and quadriplegia over time. A retrospective review of para and quadriplegic patients from 1986 to 2011 who underwent surgical intervention for urolithiasis was performed, identifying 95 patients. The Mantel-Haenszel Chi square test was used to compare change in stone composition over time. The mean patient age was 44.0 years (range 18-88) and treatment included percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) 40 (42.1 %), ureteroscopy 28 (29.5 %), shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) 26 (27.4 %), and nephrectomy 1 (1 %). Overall stone-free status was found in 47.4 % with 19.0 % requiring a repeat procedure. The median hospital stay for patients undergoing SWL was 2.5 days, ureteroscopy 5 days, and PCNL 6 days. Infection-based stone composition was identified in 23 patients (36.5 %). We evaluated the linear change in percent of each stone component over time and identified increasing components of calcium oxalate dihydrate (p = 0.002) and calcium carbonate (p = 0.009). However, over a period of 25 years, the incidence of infection-based stone did not change (p = 0.57). Para and quadriplegic patients with urolithiasis can be difficult to treat surgically with prolonged hospitalizations, low stone-free status, and often require additional procedures. Despite improvements in antibiotic agents and management of neurogenic bladders, infection-based calculi continue to be a significant source of morbidity to this patient population.

  13. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of CH_3F-({ortho}-H_2){n} Cluster in Solid {para}-H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

    2015-06-01

    The absorption spectrum of the ν3 (C-F stretching) mode of CH_3F in solid {para}-H_2 by FTIR showed a series of equal interval peaks. Their interpretation was that the {}-th peak of this series was due to CH_3F-({ortho}-H_2){n} clusters which were formed CH_3F and {n}'s {ortho}-H_2 in first nearest neighbor sites of the {para}-H_2 crystal with {hcp} structure. In order to understand this system in more detail, we have studied these peaks, especially {n} = 0 - 3 corresponding to 1037 - 1041 wn, by using high-resolution and high-sensitive infrared quantum cascade (QC) laser spectroscopy. Before now, we found many peaks around each {n}-th peak of the cluster, which we didn't know their origins. We observed photochromic phenomenon of these peaks by taking an advantage of the high brightness of the laser. In this study, we focus on satellite series consisting of six peaks which locate at the lower energy side of each main peak. All the peaks showed a common red shouldered line profile, which corresponds to partly resolved transitions of {ortho}- and {para}- CH_3F. The spectral pattern and time behavior of the peaks may suggest that these satellite series originate from a family of CH_3F clusters involving {ortho}-H_2 in second nearest neighbor sites. A model function assuming this idea is used to resolve the observed spectrum into each Lorentzian component, and then some common features of the satellite peaks are extracted and the physical meanings of them will be discussed. K. Yoshioka and D. T. Anderson, J. Chem. Phys. 119 (2003) 4731-4742 A. R. W. McKellar, A. Mizoguchi, and H. Kanamori, J. Chem. Phys. 135 (2011) 124511 A. R. W. McKellar, A. Mizoguchi, and H. Kanamori, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13 (2011) 11587-11589.

  14. [Dietary training for school food service providers in support of the Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Dávila, Carolina; Rangel-Peniche, Diana Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: en apoyo a la problemática de sobrepeso y obesidad en México, en el 2010 se publicó el Acuerdo Nacional para la Salud Alimentaria. A nivel escolar, los comodatarios se consideraron fundamentales para cumplir con ciertos compromisos. El objetivo de esta intervención fue capacitar a comodatarios de los Establecimientos de Consumo Escolar (ECE) en cuanto a los criterios establecidos en los “Lineamientos Generales para el Expendio y Distribución de Alimentos en Planteles de Educación Básica.” Métodos: participaron 13 ECE en San Luis Potosí. Con base en un diagnóstico inicial, se diseñó un curso-taller de 5 sesiones. Se evaluaron conocimientos en materia alimentaria al inicio y al final de las sesiones. Se obtuvo el porcentaje de apego en cuanto a higiene general, preparación y distribución de alimentos, al inicio, al mes y a los dos meses postintervención. Resultados: los comodatarios presentaron pocos conocimientos en los objetivos que persigue el “Acuerdo” en grupos y combinación de alimentos así como en lectura de etiquetas; con cambios significativos en los dos últimos tras la intervención. El porcentaje inicial de cumplimiento en higiene general fue del 60 %, con un incremento de casi 20 % postcapacitación. La preparación y distribución de alimentos no presentaron cambios significativos. Conclusiones: los comodatarios adquirieron conocimientos sobre los lineamientos que debe cubrir un ECE, sin ponerlos en práctica, dado el impacto que ello implica en su economía.

  15. Domain 2 of Drosophila para voltage-gated sodium channel confers insect properties to a rat brain channel.

    PubMed

    Shichor, Iris; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Ilan, Nitza; Chikashvili, Dodo; Stuhmer, Walter; Gordon, Dalia; Lotan, Ilana

    2002-06-01

    The ability of the excitatory anti-insect-selective scorpion toxin AahIT (Androctonus australis hector) to exclusively bind to and modify the insect voltage-gated sodium channel (NaCh) makes it a unique tool to unravel the structural differences between mammalian and insect channels, a prerequisite in the design of selective pesticides. To localize the insect NaCh domain that binds AahIT, we constructed a chimeric channel composed of rat brain NaCh alpha-subunit (rBIIA) in which domain-2 (D2) was replaced by that of Drosophila Para (paralytic temperature-sensitive). The choice of D2 was dictated by the similarity between AahIT and scorpion beta-toxins pertaining to both their binding and action and the essential role of D2 in the beta-toxins binding site on mammalian channels. Expression of the chimera rBIIA-ParaD2 in Xenopus oocytes gave rise to voltage-gated and TTX-sensitive NaChs that, like rBIIA, were sensitive to scorpion alpha-toxins and regulated by the auxiliary subunit beta(1) but not by the insect TipE. Notably, like Drosophila Para/TipE, but unlike rBIIA/beta(1), the chimera gained sensitivity to AahIT, indicating that the phyletic selectivity of AahIT is conferred by the insect NaCh D2. Furthermore, the chimera acquired additional insect channel properties; its activation was shifted to more positive potentials, and the effect of alpha-toxins was potentiated. Our results highlight the key role of D2 in the selective recognition of anti-insect excitatory toxins and in the modulation of NaCh gating. We also provide a methodological approach to the study of ion channels that are difficult to express in model expression systems.

  16. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-11-28

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmann's operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to

  17. Selective and Efficient Generation of ortho-Brominated para-Substituted Phenols in ACS-Grade Methanol.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, David; Saes, Bartholomeus W H; Johnston, Heather J; Boys, Sarah K; Healy, Alan; Hulme, Alison N

    2016-01-13

    The mono ortho-bromination of phenolic building blocks by NBS has been achieved in short reaction times (15-20 min) using ACS-grade methanol as a solvent. The reactions can be conducted on phenol, naphthol and biphenol substrates, giving yields of >86% on gram scale. Excellent selectivity for the desired mono ortho-brominated products is achieved in the presence of 10 mol % para-TsOH, and the reaction is shown to be tolerant of a range of substituents, including CH3, F, and NHBoc.

  18. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  19. Cloning and functional analysis of TipE, a novel membrane protein that enhances Drosophila para sodium channel function.

    PubMed

    Feng, G; Deák, P; Chopra, M; Hall, L M

    1995-09-22

    Voltage-dependent sodium channels are involved in the initiation and propagation of action potentials in many excitable cells. Here we report that tipE, a gene defined by a temperature-sensitive paralytic mutation in Drosophila, encodes a novel integral membrane protein that dramatically stimulates functional expression in Xenopus oocytes of the Drosophila sodium channel alpha subunit encoded by the paralytic (para) locus. Using a heat shock promoter to control tipE+ gene expression in transgenic flies, we demonstrate that tipE+ gene expression is required during pupal development to rescue adult paralysis. In addition, we demonstrate a role for the tipE gene product in adults.

  20. Mineral Status in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Para Grass Combined with Different Levels of Protein Derived from Cassava Foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sath, K.; Pauly, T.; Holtenius, K.

    2013-01-01

    Eight male cattle of the Local Yellow breed with an average live weight of 121 kg and an average age of 18 months were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of sun-dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage supplementation on mineral metabolism in growing cattle fed rice straw and para grass as basal diet. Rice straw ad libitum and para grass (Brachiaria mutica) at 1% DM of BW comprised the basal diet. The study was arranged as a 4×4 double Latin square design, with cassava foliage contributing 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 g CP/kg BW. The cassava foliage intake was lower than the planned levels. DM consumption was significantly affected by cassava foliage supplementation, with the largest intake observed at the two highest levels of cassava foliage supplementation. Rice straw intake showed the opposite pattern, with lower intake at higher cassava foliage supplementation. No refusals occurred for para grass in any of the treatments. Ca, P, Mg, K, S and Mn intake increased significantly with increasing intake of cassava foliage, but Na intake was not affected by treatment. Faecal excretion of Ca, Mg, S and Mn increased significantly with increasing cassava foliage intake. There were no differences between P, K and Na excretion in faeces. There was a significant diet effect on Mg, S and Mn digestibility. Mg and Mn digestibility increased with increasing cassava foliage supplementation, while S digestibility decreased. Ca, P, K and Na digestibility was not affected by diet. There was a significant effect of treatment on P retention, with the highest value observed for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. Ca and Mg showed similar trends, with the highest retention again for supplementation with 1.6 g CP/kg BW cassava foliage. There were weak but significant positive correlations between nitrogen retention and the macro minerals Ca, P and Mg. Furthermore, retention of all these minerals was positively correlated. Mineral losses in urine were not affected

  1. Simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones as compounds neuroprotective against oxidative stress in a manner associated with specific transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Takumi Saitoh, Sachie; Hosaka, Manami; Kosaka, Kunio

    2009-02-06

    Electrophilic compounds protect neurons through the activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and the induction of phase-2 enzymes [T. Satoh, S.A. Lipton, Redox regulation of neuronal survival by electrophilic compounds, Trends Neurosci. 30 (2007) 38-45; T. Satoh, S. Okamoto, J. Cui, Y. Watanabe, K. Furuta, M. Suzuki, K. Tohyama, S.A. Lipton, Activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway for neuroprotection by electrophilic phase II inducers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (2006) 768-773]. Hydroquinone-type electrophilic compounds such as tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and carnosic acid (CA) have attracted special attention, because the oxidative conversion of 'hydroquinone' to 'quinone' is essential for the transcriptional activation of the above-mentioned enzymes [T. Satoh, K. Kosaka, K. Itoh, A. Kobayashi, M. Yamamoto, Y. Shimojo, C. Kitajima, J. Cui, J. Kamins, S. Okamoto, T. Shirasawa, S.A. Lipton, Carnosic acid, a catechol-type electrophilic compound, protect neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of specific cysteine, J. Neurochem. 104 (2008) 1161-1131; A.D. Kraft, D.A. Johnson, J.A. Johnson, Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-dependent antioxidant response element activation by tert-butylhydroquinone and sulforaphane occurring preferentially in astrocytes conditions neurons against oxidative insult, J. Neurosci. 24 (2004) 1101-1112]. In the present study, we examined the relationship between electrophilicity and the protective effects afforded by electrophilic compounds. Electrophilicity was assessed in terms of the ability of a compound to bind to a cysteine on bovine serum albumin, by which we found that neuroprotective hydroquinones [TBHQ (para-) and CA (ortho-)] had distinctive patterns of cysteine binding compared with other electrophilic compounds. Further, we found that isomers of simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones such as 2-methylhydroquinone (para-) and 4-methyl-catechol (ortho-) [not in abstract] had

  2. Application of meta- and para-Phenylenediamine as Enhanced Oxime Ligation Catalysts for Protein Labeling, PEGylation, Immobilization, and Release.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Mohammad M; Rashidian, Mohammad; Zhang, Yi; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-02-02

    Meta- and para-phenylenediamines have recently been shown to catalyze oxime and hydrazone ligation reactions at rates much faster than aniline, a commonly used catalyst. Here, we demonstrate how these new catalysts can be used in a generally applicable procedure for fluorescent labeling, PEGylation, immobilization, and release of aldehyde- and ketone- functionalized proteins. The chemical orthogonality of phenylenediamine-catalyzed oxime ligation versus copper-catalyzed click reaction has also been harnessed for simultaneous dual labeling of bifunctional proteins containing both aldehyde and alkyne groups in high yield.

  3. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  4. Brain targeting by intranasal drug delivery (INDD): a combined effect of trans-neural and para-neuronal pathway.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Gulam; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen H; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Baboota, Sanjula; Ali, Javed; Ahuja, Alka

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intranasal drug delivery for brain targeting has emerged as a hope of remedy for various CNS disorders. The nose to brain absorption of therapeutic molecules claims two effective pathways, which include trans-neuronal for immediate action and para-neuronal for delayed action. To evaluate the contribution of both the pathways in absorption of therapeutic molecules and nanocarriers, lidocaine, a nerve-blocking agent, was used to impair the action potential of olfactory nerve. An anti-Parkinson drug ropinirole was covalently complexes with (99m)Tc in presence of SnCl2 using in-house developed reduction technology. The radiolabeled formulations were administered intranasally in lidocaine challenged rabbit and rat. The qualitative and quantitative outcomes of neural and non-neural pathways were estimated using gamma scintigraphy and UHPLC-MS/MS, respectively. The results showed a significant (p ≤ 0.005) increase in radioactivity counts and drug concentration in the brain of rabbit and rat compared to the animal groups challenged with lidocaine. This concludes the significant contribution (p ≤ 0.005) of trans-neuronal and para-neuronal pathway in nose to brain drug delivery. Therefore, results proved that it is an art of a formulator scientist to make the drug carriers to exploit the choice of absorption pathway for their instant and extent of action.

  5. Theoretical study on the influence of different para-substituents on 13C NMR of the single carbonyl curcumin analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Fei-yun; Ran, Ming; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    The structure of eight kinds of different para-substituents curcumin analogues has been optimized at the level of B3LYP/6-31G( d, p), under which the stability has been verified by means of vibration analysis. Moreover, NMR spectra of curcumin analogues compounds have been studied at the level of B3LYP/6-311G( d, p) by GIAO method. The results show that the structure of eight compounds, a larger conjugated system, has good planarity. The effect of ortho-substituents on bond lengths and bond angles is greater than para and meta. Different substituents and different positions of substituents all have different influence on NMR of the single carbonyl curcumin analogues. In general, after the hydrogen atom on the benzene ring is substituted by other groups, the δ value of α-C changes significantly, the δ value of ortho-carbon atom may also have great change, but the δ value change of meta-carbon atoms is not too obvious. The effect of substituent electronegativity on α-C atoms presents obvious regularity, while the influence of conjugate effect on carbon atoms of benzene ring is more complex. Finally, the bigger substituted alkyl is, the more the δ value of α-C increases.

  6. Preparation of Pt/polypyrrole-para toluene sulfonate hydrogen peroxide sensitive electrode for the utilizing as a biosensor.

    PubMed

    Çete, Servet; Bal, Özgür

    2013-12-01

    A film electrode with electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py) and para-toluene sulfonate (pTS) as a anionic dopant is prepared and its sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide is investigated. The polypyrrole is deposited on a 0.5 cm(2) Pt plate an electrochemically prepared pTS ion-doped polypyrrole film by scanning the electrode potential between - 0.8 and + 0.8 V at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. The electrode's sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide is investigated at room temperature using 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.5. The working potential is found as a 0.3 V. The concentrations of pyrrole and pTS are 50mM M and 25 mM. Polypyrrole was coated on the electrode surface within 10 cycles. İmmobilization of glucose oxidase carried out on Pt/polypyrrole-para toluene sulfonate (Pt/PPy-pTS) film by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The morphology of electrodes was characterized by SEM and AFM. Moreover, contact angle measurements were made with 1 μL water of polymer film and enzyme electrode. It has shown that enzyme electrode is very sensitive against to glucose.

  7. Development of a Highly Biocompatible Antituberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation Based on Para-Aminosalicylic Acid—Zinc Layered Hydroxide Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J.; Geilich, Benjamin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a lethal epidemic, difficult to control disease, claiming thousands of lives every year. We have developed a nanodelivery formulation based on para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and zinc layered hydroxide using zinc nitrate salt as a precursor. The developed formulation has a fourfold higher efficacy of PAS against mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found to be at 1.40 μg/mL compared to the free drug PAS with a MIC of 5.0 μg/mL. The newly developed formulation was also found active against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. The formulation was also found to be biocompatible with human normal lung cells MRC-5 and mouse fibroblast cells-3T3. The in vitro release of PAS from the formulation was found to be sustained in a human body simulated phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at pH values of 7.4 and 4.8. Most importantly the nanocomposite prepared using zinc nitrate salt was advantageous in terms of yield and free from toxic zinc oxide contamination and had higher biocompatibility compared to one prepared using a zinc oxide precursor. In summary, these promising in vitro results are highly encouraging for the continued investigation of para-aminosalicylic acid and zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposites in vivo and eventual preclinical studies. PMID:25050392

  8. A comparative study between para-aminophenyl and ortho-aminophenyl benzothiazoles using NMR and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Pierens, G K; Venkatachalam, T K; Reutens, D

    2014-08-01

    Ortho-substituted and para-substituted aminophenyl benzothiazoles were synthesised and characterised using NMR spectroscopy. A comparison of the proton chemical shift values reveals significant differences in the observed chemical shift values for the NH protons indicating the presence of a hydrogen bond in all ortho-substituted compounds as compared to the para compounds. The presence of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the ortho amino substituted aminophenyl benzothiazole forces the molecule to be planar which may be an additional advantage in developing these compounds as Alzheimer's imaging agent because the binding to amyloid fibrils prefers planar compounds. The splitting pattern of the methylene proton next to the amino group also showed significant coupling to the amino proton consistent with the notion of the existence of slow exchange and hydrogen bond in the ortho-substituted compounds. This is further verified by density functional theory calculations which yielded a near planar low energy conformer for all the o-aminophenyl benzothiazoles and displayed a hydrogen bond from the amine proton to the nitrogen of the thiazole ring. A detailed analysis of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR chemical shifts and density functional theory calculated structures of the compounds are described.

  9. Vaccinia topoisomerase and Cre recombinase catalyze direct ligation of activated DNA substrates containing a 3'-para-nitrophenyl phosphate ester.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, G; Cheng, C; Shuman, S; Burgin, A B

    2000-09-01

    DNA topoisomerases and DNA site-specific recombinases are involved in a diverse set of cellular processes but both function by making transient breaks in DNA. Type IB topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases cleave DNA by transesterification of an active site tyrosine to generate a DNA-3'-phosphotyrosyl-enzyme adduct and a free 5'-hydroxyl (5'-OH). Strand ligation results when the 5'-OH attacks the covalent complex and displaces the enzyme. We describe the synthesis of 3'-phospho-(para-nitrophenyl) oligonucleotides (3'-pNP DNAs), which mimic the natural 3'-phosphotyrosyl intermediate, and demonstrate that such pre-activated strands are substrates for DNA ligation by vaccinia topoisomerase and Cre recombinase. Ligation occurs by direct attack of a 5'-OH strand on the 3'-pNP DNA (i.e., without a covalent protein-DNA intermediate) and generates free para-nitrophenol as a product. The chromogenic DNA substrate allows ligation to be studied in real-time and in the absence of competing cleavage reactions and can be exploited for high-throughput screening of topoisomerase/recombinase inhibitors.

  10. Comportamiento Sexual y Autoeficacia para la Negociación de Sexo Más Seguro en Personas Heterosexuales

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    La autoeficacia se le ha identificado como uno de los factores que puede facilitar o dificultar llevar a cabo sexo más seguro. Estudios revelan que las personas que están el relaciones estables usan métodos de protección menos frecuente que quienes tienen parejas casuales. Realizamos un estudio con 447 personas heterosexuales activas sexualmente. Les administramos un cuestionario dirigido a medir el comportamiento sexual, el uso del condón masculino y la práctica de la masturbación mutua, y la autoeficacia para llevar a cabo estas conductas. Los resultados reflejan que los hombres están más activos sexualmente y que el uso del condón y la práctica de la masturbación mutua como alternativa de sexo más seguro es muy baja. En los casos donde se usa el condón esta práctica es realizada en su mayoría por las personas que se encuentran en una relación de pareja casual. No obstante, los/las participantes tienen altos niveles de autoeficacia hacia ambas prácticas. Aunque la autoeficacia es uno de los factores que incide en decidir llevar a cabo sexo más seguro, ésta no es suficiente para que esta meta se logre. PMID:22837585

  11. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  12. Participatory and decentralized water resources management: challenges and perspectives for the North Paraíba River Basin committee - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M A F M; Vieira, Z M C L; Ribeiro, M M R

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law 9433/1997) establishes participatory and decentralized management, involving civil society, water users and governmental bodies, with the basin committees as the basis of this process. Fifteen years after its implementation, it is possible to perceive accomplishments, but, at the same time, there are some difficulties in regards to the operation of the basin committees in the country. Considering the North Paraíba River Basin - which is completely included in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and presents great social and economic importance for the state - this article analyzes the process of formation, installation and functioning of its Basin Committee (CBH-PB), focusing on its composition, the reasons for the mobilization and demobilization of its members, the intra-relations between segments, and the inter-relations between the CBH-PB and other entities of the State Water Management System (the Water Executive Agency and the State Water Resources Council). The level of decentralization and the quality of participatory management (as it is being performed at the CBH-PB) are discussed and guidelines are suggested in order to allow greater effectiveness to the committee.

  13. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  14. In vitro cell culture, platelet adhesion tests and in vivo implant tests of plasma-polymerized para-xylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chia-Man; Yeh, Chou-Ming; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2013-09-01

    Plasma-polymerized para-xylene (PPX) was developed in a previous study by adjusting the process parameters: pulse frequency of the power supply (ωp) and para-xylene monomer flow rate (fp). All the obtained PPX films exhibit an amorphous structure and present hydrophobicity (water contact angle ranging from 98.5° to 121.1°), higher film growth rate and good fibroblast cell proliferation. In this study, in vitro tests (fibroblast cell compatibility and platelet adhesion) and an in vivo animal study were performed by using PPX deposited industrial-grade silicone sheets (IGS) and compared with medical-grade silicone ones (MS), which were commonly manufactured into catheters or drainage tubes in clinical use. The results reveal that PPX deposited at high ωp or high fp, in comparison with MS, exhibit better cell proliferation and clearly shows less cell adhesion regardless of ωp and fp. PPX also exhibit a comparatively lower level of platelet adhesion than MS. In the animal study, PPX-coated IGS result in similar local tissue responses at 3, 7 and 28 days (short-term) and 84 days (long-term) after subcutaneous implantation the abdominal wall of rodents compared with respective responses to MS. These results suggest that PPX-coated industrial-grade silicone is one alternative to high cost medical-grade silicone.

  15. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H2.

    PubMed

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Kalugina, Yulia; Stoecklin, Thierry; Vera, Mario Hernández; Lique, François

    2013-12-14

    We present a new four-dimensional potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of HCN by H2. Ab initio calculations of the HCN-H2 van der Waals complex, considering both molecules as rigid rotors, were carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] level of theory using an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The equilibrium structure is linear HCN-H2 with the nitrogen pointing towards H2 at an intermolecular separation of 7.20 a0. The corresponding well depth is -195.20 cm(-1). A secondary minimum of -183.59 cm(-1) was found for a T-shape configuration with the H of HCN pointing to the center of mass of H2. We also determine the rovibrational energy levels of the HCN-para-H2 and HCN-ortho-H2 complexes. The calculated dissociation energies for the para and ortho complexes are 37.79 cm(-1) and 60.26 cm(-1), respectively. The calculated ro-vibrational transitions in the HCN-H2 complex are found to agree by more than 0.5% with the available experimental data, confirming the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

  16. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  17. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  18. Mix-infection of S. Typhi and ParaTyphi A in Typhoid Fever and Chronic Typhoid Carriers: A Nested PCR Based Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Kumar, Gopal; Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Shukla, Vijay K; Kumar, Kailash; Singh, Tej Bali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Enteric fever is a systemic disease caused by Salmonella organism such as serotypes Typhi and ParaTyphi A, B, C. Salmonella ParaTyphi A contributes more than 50% of all the enteric fever cases and it has recently been projected as an emerging pathogen. Materials and Methods: The present study was aimed to detect Salmonella Typhi and ParaTyphi A in urine, blood and stool specimens collected from cases of enteric fever (110), chronic typhoid carriers (46) and healthy controls (75) to explore the possibility of mixed infection by nested PCR. A new nested PCR primer was designed targeting putative fimbrial protein (stkG) gene which is one of the fimbrial gene families to Salmonella ParaTyphi A and for S. Typhi already reported primers targeting flagellin (fliC) gene. Results: Large volume of urine specimens (15 ml) was found to be the best for detection of Salmonella serotypes. The urine sample was found to have mixed-infection by both the serotypes in 40.9% of the cases but lower in blood (27.3%) and stool (13.6%). Conclusion: The present study concludes that occurrence of mixed infection may be quite frequent in typhoid and chronic typhoid carriers’ individuals, although the reported recent rise in ParaTyphi A incidence may not be real. PMID:25584217

  19. Synthesis of polychlorinated terphenyl mixtures and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry data of tetra- to octachlorinated ortho-, meta-, and para-terphenyls.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Kirres, Jochen; Bendig, Paul

    2012-11-09

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of polyhalogenated compounds previously used in similar applications as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). According to present knowledge all industrial production was closed in the 1970s. The total PCT manufacture reached about 5% of the production of PCBs. Unlike the PCBs, PCTs have been scarcely analyzed in environmental samples mostly due to analytical difficulties. PCTs were synthesized by the chlorination of technical terphenyl which consists of ortho-, meta- and para-terphenyls. This procedure led to very complex mixtures of polychlorinated compounds whose composition, especially with regard to the terphenyl backbones, remained unknown. Here we report the individual chlorination of the three terphenyl backbones to mixtures of Tetra- to OctaCTs, respectively. The average degree of chlorination of the ortho-, meta- and para-PCTs ranged from 6.8 to 7.4. These products were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in electron ionization (GC/EI-MS) and electron capture negative ion (GC/ECNI-MS) modes. The elution order of isomers was ortho-PCTs≪meta-PCTs<para-PCTs. In both GC/MS modes, the mass spectra of ortho-PCTs differed from those of the meta- and para-homologues in that the molecular ion was less prominent (GC/EI-MS) or very frequently absent (GC/ECNI-MS). In addition, the relative GC/ECNI-MS responses of para-PCTs were on average higher compared with meta- and ortho-PCTs.

  20. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Molecular Hydrogen in HH 54: Measurement of a Nonequilibrium Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Harwit, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We have detected the S(1), S(2), S(3), S(4), and S(5) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen toward the outflow source HH 54 using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. The observed H2 line ratios indicate the presence of warm molecular gas with an H2 density of at least 10(sup 5) /cc and a temperature approximately 650 K in which the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is only 1.2 -+ 0.4, significantly smaller than the equilibrium ratio of 3 expected in gas at that temperature. These observations imply that the measured ratio of ortho- to para-H2 is the legacy of an earlier stage in the thermal history of the gas when the gas had reached equilibrium at a temperature approximately 90 K. Based upon the expected timescale for equilibration, we argue that the nonequilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 observed in HH 54 serves as a chronometer that places a conservative upper limit of approximately 5000 yr on the period for which the emitting gas has been warm. The S(2)/,S(l) and S(3)/S(1) H2 line ratios measured toward HH 54 are consistent with recent theoretical models of Timmermann for the conversion of para- to ortho-H2 behind slow, C-type shocks, but only if the preshock ratio of ortho- to para-H2 was approximately < 0.2.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry of VdBH 222 stars and field stars (Marco+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, A.; Negueruela, I.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Dorda, R.; Clark, J. S.

    2014-05-01

    We obtained UBVR photometry of VdBH 222 using the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (EFOSC2) on the NTT on the night of 24 June 2012. The instrument was equipped with CCD#40, which is a Loral/Lesser, thinned, AR-coated, UV-flooded, and MPP chip that is controlled by ESO-FIERA. It covers a field of view of and 4.1'x4.1' and has a pixel scale of 0.12". The JHK images were obtained using the Son OF Isaac (SOFI) near-IR spectrograph and camera on the NTT on 13 July 2008, equipped with a CCD providing a pixel scale of 0.288arcsec and an field of view of 4.92x4.95' (4 data files).

  2. Marco Polo-R Target Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3: Possible Evidence for an Annual Thermal Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F. E.; Emery, J. P.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Pre- and post-perihelion spectral measurements (0.8-2.5 µm) of 1996 FG3 show substantially different thermal fluxes. We may be detecting deep absorption and re-radiation of the annual thermal wave rather than just diurnal thermal flux balance.

  3. Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    Comprised of 27 classrooms from grade levels 1-6, the program was primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils with limited English speaking ability. However, due to parental requests, almost 16% monolingual English-speakers were accepted into the program. Of the 717 pupils participating in the program 84.6% were Mexican American.…

  4. Final Evaluation Report of the San Marcos Consolidated Independent School District's Bilingual Education Program, 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Helene W.

    The program is primarily designed to provide bilingual education for pupils, in grades K-6, with limited English-speaking ability. Due to parental requests, approximately 16 percent monolingual English-speakers have been accepted into the program. Of the 529 children enrolled in the program, 89 percent have Spanish surnames. Objectives for the…

  5. La Capacitacion de Docentes en el Marco de la Regionalizacion Educativa (In-Service Teacher Training within Educational Regional Planning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    A paper discusses inservice teacher training in the context of regionalized education, with reference to recent Latin American efforts to regionalize, decentralize, and de-concentrate educational systems in order to provide relavant and adequate regional educational systems and so make equal education possible. Basic concepts in regionalized…

  6. Pathfinder Lander Rover Recharge System, and MARCO POLO Controls and ACME Regolith Feed System Controls and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Sarah Diem

    2015-01-01

    This project stems from the Exploration, Research, and Technology Directorate (UB) Projects Division, and one of their main initiatives is the "Journey to Mars". Landing on the surface of Mars which is millions of miles away is an incredibly large challenge. The terrain is covered in boulders, deep canyons, volcanic mountains, and spotted with sand dunes. The robotic lander is a kind of spacecraft with multiple purposes. One purpose is to be the protective shell for the Martian rover and absorb the impact from the landing forces; another purpose is to be a place where the rovers can come back to, actively communicate with, and recharge their batteries from. Rovers have been instrumental to the Journey to Mars initiative. They have been performing key research on the terrain of the red planet, trying to unlock the mysteries of the land for over a decade. The rovers that will need charging will not all have the same kind of internal battery either. RASSOR batteries may differ from the PbAC batteries inside Red Rover's chassis. NASA has invested heavily in the exploration of the surface of Mars. A driving force behind further exploration is the need for a more efficient operation of Martian rovers. One way is to reduce the weight as much as possible to reduce power consumption given the same mission parameters. In order to reduce the mass of the rovers, power generation, communication, and sample analysis systems currently onboard Martian rovers can be moved to a stationary lander deck. Positioning these systems from the rover to the Lander deck allows a taskforce of smaller, lighter rovers to perform the same tasks currently performed by or planned for larger rovers. A major task in transferring these systems to a stationary lander deck is ensuring that power can be transferred to the rovers.

  7. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) AS A POTENTIAL INDICATOR OF MARINE MARCO BENTHIC ACTIVITY ALONG POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a local hospital CAT scanner. These image data were transferred to a personal computer at our laboratory using specially developed software. Previously, we reported an inverse correlation (r2 = 0.98, P<0.01) between the average sediment x-ray atte...

  8. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

  9. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  10. Solvent-free synthesis of novel para-menthane-3,8-diol ester derivatives from citronellal using a polymer-supported scandium triflate catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Mafu, Lubabalo; Zeelie, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Summary The use of natural resources as a chemical feedstock for the synthesis of added-value products is gaining interest; as such we report an environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of para-menthane-3,8-diol from natural citronellal oil in 96% yield, under solvent free aqueous conditions. The acylation of para-menthane-3,8-diol with various acid anhydrides over polymer-supported scandium triflate (PS-Sc(OTf)3) catalyst was subsequently developed, where both hydroxy groups of para-menthane-3,8-diol could be simultaneous acylated under mild reaction conditions to form the corresponding diesters in good yields. The advantages of this method include a simple procedure from natural resources, using solvent-free reaction conditions. PMID:27829910

  11. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Anne I; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L P; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution.

  12. Out-of-field organ doses and associated radiogenic risks from para-aortic radiotherapy for testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis Berris, Theocharis; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Charalambos; Lyraraki, Efrossyni

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to (a) calculate the radiation dose to out-of-field organs from radiotherapy for stage I testicular seminoma and (b) estimate the associated radiogenic risks. Methods: Monte Carlo methodology was employed to model radiation therapy with typical anteroposterior and posteroanterior para-aortic fields on an anthropomorphic phantom simulating an average adult. The radiation dose received by all main and remaining organs that defined by the ICRP publication 103 and excluded from the treatment volume was calculated. The effect of field dimensions on each organ dose was determined. Additional therapy simulations were generated by introducing shielding blocks to protect the kidneys from primary radiation. The gonadal dose was employed to assess the risk of heritable effects for irradiated male patients of reproductive potential. The lifetime attributable risks (LAR) of radiotherapy-induced cancer were estimated using gender- and organ-specific risk coefficients for patient ages of 20, 30, 40, and 50 years old. The risk values were compared with the respective nominal risks. Results: Para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 5.0–538.6 mGy. Blocked field treatment led to a dose change up to 28%. The mean organ dose variation by increasing or decreasing the applied field dimensions was 18.7% ± 3.9% and 20.8% ± 4.5%, respectively. The out-of-field photon doses increased the lifetime intrinsic risk of developing thyroid, lung, bladder, prostate, and esophageal cancer by (0.1–1.4)%, (0.4–1.1)%, (2.5–5.4)%, (0.2–0.4)%, and (6.4–9.2)%, respectively, depending upon the patient age at exposure and the field size employed. A low risk for heritable effects of less than 0.029% was found compared with the natural incidence of these defects. Conclusions: Testicular cancer survivors are subjected to an increased risk for the induction of bladder and esophageal cancer following para-aortic radiotherapy. The

  13. Influence of climate variability on land degradation (desertification) in the watershed of the upper Paraíba River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Telma Lucia Bezerra; de Azevedo, Pedro Vieira; Costa dos Santos, Carlos Antonio

    2017-02-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the influence of the rainfall and aridity index variability on the process of land degradation (desertification) in order to establish the current degree of increase or decrease in dryness in the watershed of the upper Paraíba River. It included all or part of 18 municipalities, distributed in the western and eastern Cariri regions of Paraíba state. The monthly average values of reference evapotranspiration according to Penman-Monteith method were applied in the annual hydrological balance for obtaining the annual time series of the aridity index for the period from 1950 to 2013. The Mann-Kendall test (MK) was used for trend identification in the annual time series of rainfall and aridity index, at a significance level of α = 0.05. The slope of the trends was obtained by Sen's method, and the values of rainfall, aridity index, and statistics MK were spatially kriging, to generate thematic maps. The results indicate an increase in rainfall and reduced dryness in the watershed of the upper Paraíba River, conditions that do not contribute to trigger the process of land degradation (desertification), indicating that the cause of this environmental problem is not climatic. Thus, it can be suggested that the observed manifestations of land degradation (desertification) derive much of human than climatic actions. However, there is a trend of increasing dryness and reducing rainfall in the central portion of the watershed, with stronger core in the location of Camalaú. The spatial distribution of rainfall and aridity index shows that minimum values of rainfall coincide with maximum values of the aridity index. Higher values of rainfall were observed in the northwestern portion of the watershed, while the northeast and southeast portions had the lower rainfall values, with the strongest core in the locality of Cabaceiras. The eastern sector of the watershed has high dryness, unlike the western sector, rainier, with minimum values of dryness

  14. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  15. La para-osteo-arthropathie neurogene dans le syndrome de guillain barre: complication rare (à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature)

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Hatim; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Shimi, Mohamed; El Ibrahimi, Abdelhalim; El Mrini, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Les para-ostéo-arthropathies neurogènes sont des complications classiques des affections neurologiques centrales, surtout dans les contextes traumatiques. Elles surviennent principalement au voisinage des grosses articulations. Leur physiopathologie exacte reste inconnue malgré de très nombreux travaux et cas rapportés. Il semble que leur survenue au décours d'affections neurologiques périphériques soit exceptionnelle. Nous présentons le cas d'une para-ostéo-arthropathie de hanche bilatérale compliquant un syndrome de Guillain-Barré. PMID:26161168

  16. Structure-activity approach in the reactivation of tabun-phosphorylated human acetylcholinesterase with bispyridinium para-aldoximes.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Calić, Maja; Sinko, Goran; Bosak, Anita

    2007-06-01

    We investigated interactions of bispyridinium para-aldoximes N,N'-(propano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl) pyridinium bromide (TMB-4), N,N'-(ethano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium methanosulphonate (DMB-4), and N,N'-(methano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium chloride (MMB-4) with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase phosphorylated by tabun. We analysed aldoxime conformations to determine the flexibility of aldoxime as an important feature for binding to the acetylcholinesterase active site. Tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase was completely reactivated only by the most flexible bispyridinium aldoxime - TMB-4 with a propylene chain between two rings. Shorter linkers than propylene (methylene or ethylene) as in MMB-4 and DMB-4 did not allow appropriate orientation in the active site, and MMB-4 and DMB-4 were not efficient reactivators of tabun-phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase. Since aldoximes are also reversible inhibitors of native acetylcholinesterase, we determined dissociation constants and their protective index against acetylcholinesterase inactivation by tabun.

  17. Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid para-hydrogen by nuclear and electron wave packet approach.

    PubMed

    Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Ando, Koji

    2014-05-07

    Liquid para-hydrogen (p-H2) is a typical quantum liquid which exhibits strong nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) and thus anomalous static and dynamic properties. We propose a real-time simulation method of wave packet (WP) molecular dynamics (MD) based on non-empirical intra- and inter-molecular interactions of non-spherical hydrogen molecules, and apply it to condensed-phase p-H2. The NQEs, such as WP delocalization and zero-point energy, are taken into account without perturbative expansion of prepared model potential functions but with explicit interactions between nuclear and electron WPs. The developed MD simulation for 100 ps with 1200 hydrogen molecules is realized at feasible computational cost, by which basic experimental properties of p-H2 liquid such as radial distribution functions, self-diffusion coefficients, and shear viscosities are all well reproduced.

  18. Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Michelle S P; Santiago, Idalina M F L; Cortez, Creuza S; Trindade, Priscila M; Mourão, José S

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations) and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance). Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks), mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens genidens (0.7), Callinectes exasperatus (0.73) and Anomalocardia brasiliana (0.46). The diversity of resources exploited demonstrates the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to MRE families, and the data gathered can serve as a basis for formulating public policies to promote the equal participation of women in fishing and environmental conservation.

  19. Overriding ortho-para selectivity via a traceless directing group relay strategy: the meta-selective arylation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Luo, Junfei; Preciado, Sara; Larrosa, Igor

    2014-03-19

    The direct functionalization of phenols at the ortho and para position is generally facilitated by the electron-donating nature of the hydroxyl group. Accessing meta-functionalized phenols from the parent phenols, on the other hand, generally requires lengthy synthetic sequences. Here, we report the first methodology for the one-pot direct meta-selective arylation of phenols. This methodology is based on a traceless directing group relay strategy. In this process carbon dioxide is used as a transient directing group which facilitates a palladium catalyzed arylation meta to the phenol hydroxyl group with iodoarenes. This transformation proceeds with complete meta-selectivity and is compatible with a variety of functional groups both in the phenol and in the iodoarene coupling partner.

  20. Adaptive resolution simulation of liquid para-hydrogen: testing the robustness of the quantum-classical adaptive coupling.

    PubMed

    Poma, A B; Delle Site, L

    2011-06-14

    Adaptive resolution simulations for classical systems are currently made within a reasonably consistent theoretical framework. Recently we have extended this approach to the quantum-classical coupling by mapping the quantum nature of an atom onto a classical polymer ring representation within the path integral approach [Poma & Delle Site, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2010, 104, 250201]. In this way the process of interfacing adaptively a quantum representation to a classical one corresponds to the problem of interfacing two regions with a different number of effective "classical" degrees of freedom; thus the classical formulation of the adaptive algorithm applies straightforwardly to the quantum-classical problem. In this work we show the robustness of such an approach for a liquid of para-hydrogen at low temperature. This system represents a highly challenging conceptual and technical test for the adaptive approach due to the extreme thermodynamical conditions where quantum effects play a central role.