Science.gov

Sample records for conventional arms control

  1. Conventional Arms Control and Europe's Future. Headline Series No. 287.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Stanley R.

    This brief issues booklet provides basic information about the arms control issue in Europe, as of 1988. The table of contents includes the following: (1) "Trying Again"; (2) "Prelude to Arms Control"; (3) "The First Attempts: MBFR (Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions) and CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in…

  2. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  3. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  4. Conventional Arms Control Revisited: Objectives in the New Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    ORIMiNG ORSANIZATION NMAE AMO -AGOMES UIIVX4AUTI I Ibj TASK? Thyi RAND Corporation Sanita Monica , CA. 90406 _____________Itn. CaiOO TR Lse4 arluCa MAI AN... convento settle this argumenlt We have instead strpalated an objective ofh"stalwav t conventional defense" capability: a balane in which NATO forces

  5. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  6. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  7. Outline of an on-site inspection regime for conventional arms control in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The complexity of the negotiations on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was emphasized recently by General John R. Galvin, SACEUR, when he stated, {open_quotes}The difficulties of comparing the relative strengths of strategic or intermediate-range nuclear arsenals pale in comparison with the problems of assessing the relative capabilities of opposing conventional forces.{open_quotes} Throughout this process, intensive and rigorous verification measures must be developed and enforced to ensure an acceptable degree of reliability. The eventual agreement will require a complex verification monitoring process covering a vast geographical area. The long-term success of the agreement to a large extent will depend on the level of confidence achieved by the verification process and the effective deployment of technological means will be essential to that process.

  8. US conventional arms transfer policy. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, R.H.

    1996-04-15

    Millions of people around the world have been killed by conventional arms since the end of World War II. If increasing access to conventional arms is partly responsible for political and military aggression in post-Cold War Europe, what should be the United States` response. This study explores the new US Conventional Arms Transfer Policy of February 1995 in terms of ends1 ways and means and its linkages to US National Security and National Military Strategies. Analysis focuses mainly on post- Cold War Europe, providing examples of multilateral arms control successes and recommendations for US policy implementation.

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dangerous because the measure of control by central political organs of the state over conventional weapons and their military use is substan...It is always under the control and guidance of governments of the interested parties, it is the most manageable and has the least inertia. It...JPRS-TAC-89-001 10 JANUARY 1989 —JPRS Report— Arms Control nTSTRJBUTlON STATEMfcwTA Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited n

  10. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    by S. Kulik U.S. Commitment to Space Arms Reagan Cited Weinberger Hit on ABM Treaty SDI, ABM Testing Violates Accords Said to Undermine ABM Treaty...that the creation of a large scale ABM system with outer space based elements is "a justified approach" to arms control. Yet the implementation of...countries agree that this is a new, long-term round of the arms race, and that the development of ABM weapons and the defense" system as a whole will

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-013 1 February 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS LE SOIR on Possible European Space Defense (Pierre Lefevre; Brussels LE SOIR, 12 Dec 85) 1 SALT/START ISSUES USSR Hits U.S. Accusations of...PRS«TAO86*013 1 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS LE SOIR ON POSSIBLE EUROPEAN SPACE DEFENSE Brussels LE SOIR in French 12 Dec 85 p 8 [Article by

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-23

    GDR, handguns , ammunition, explo- sives, communications and pioneer technology, certain ships, and military supplies are produced. In 1989, 1...appointed by the interior minister, and the defense, trade, and foreign ministers can issue licenses for arms traders to sign contracts. In disputed...Impossible Thought The group of politicians, diplomats, and soldiers who want to use arms control and disarmament to further their Own concealed

  15. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  16. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  17. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiations on all weapons categories. He said on Sunday in the ZDF [second German television] program "Bonn Direkt " that German foreign policy has...JPRS-TAC-89-021 25 MAY 1989 fflflBBl FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Arms Control A99S07A51® REPRODUCED BY U.S...Libyan Envoy Requests Meeting [THAI RAT 14 May] 16 Paper Criticizes U.S. Warning [MATICHON 13 May] 17 Foreign Minister Interviewed [Bangkok Radio

  18. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-TAC-89-025 21 JUNE 1989 !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -/P/? S #;# Arms Control \\ɘIÜ REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...Compromise on SNF Issue [ S . Gjoka; ZERIIPOPULLIT 31 May] 11 U.S. Troop Reduction Proposals Critiqued [ S . Beqari; ZERI I POPULLIT 7 Jun] 12 BULGARIA...Petrov; RABOTNICHESKO DELO 7 Jun] 16 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Commentary Critiques Bush CFE, SNF Proposals [B. Zagar ; Bratislava PRAVDA 3 Jun] 18

  19. Languages of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Sherr, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    The author points out that the distinction between a component and subcomponent and a matter of Russian-English translation must be resolved if the Reagan-Gorbachev talks were to progress. The Reagan Administration did not create the problem of what is a component and what is a subcomponent; that was left unresolved in 1972. But the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization approach surely exacerbates it at a most inopportune time for arms control. US protestations that SDI does nothing to undermine the ABM Treaty ring hollow indeed when the professed aim of developing and testing various subcomponents is to arrive at a point of full systems development. If the Soviets were taking this same approach, no US arms control expert, in or out of government, would condone it once the activity had been identified by national technical means as probably ABM-related. The US would place the burden on the Soviets to explain, if they could, why it was not. The scope of the SDI program throws an entirely new factor into the equation. The price for pursuing SDI will be a stalemate in arms control negotiations for an indefinite future, increasing charges of cheating by both sides, and continuation of the chill in US-Soviet relations. Unless this prospect is reversed, good intentions and hopes for peace will be illusory. 7 references.

  20. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    n r JPRS-TAC-85-057 25 November 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL f-—*lf^ S ;.řS », ;r%^V; ,*’ \\i.*? 19980728 ■£*V’:: FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...why he had decided to extend a programme launched last year of aid to penetration techniques. He had asked the Atomic Energy Commisariat (CEA) for...ICBM s , i.e. for those systems which constitute the basis of the strategic potential of the USSR. No though restrictions are set for the systems in

  1. Beyond Arms-Control Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Fung, Inez; Bowyer, Ted W.; Wofsy, Steven

    2013-02-15

    Expanded monitoring of the environment, everywhere and at all times, can advance arms control around the world, enhancing transparency among nations. In particular, improved characterization of the atmosphere now offers powerful opportunities for global monitoring, with multiple societal benefits. It may be useful to think of environmental monitoring as a long-term objective of arms-control verification.

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABM (Moscow TASS, 9, 10 Nov 85) 5 .U.S. ’New Interpretation’ 5 U.S. Posture Unchanged 5 PRAVDA 27 Oct Review of Week’s International Events...Space Arms Race (Beijing XINHUA, 8 Nov 85) ........................... 34 Briefs Senators Hit ABM Change 35 CSSR Representative Addresses UN...SDI AND SPACE ARMS TASS REPORTS NITZE NOVEMBER REMARKS ON SDI, ABM U.S. ’New Interpretation’ LD901421 Moscow TASS in English 1334 GMT 9 Nov 85

  3. Worldwide Report. Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    knowledgeable people and came to the conclusion that the Pentagon official who has taught his son from infancy to fear and hate the USSR has influenced...missile. The U.S. Administration fears that defeat of the. MX in Congress could undermine the U.S. position>at the arms talks here. The Soviet delegation...swaggering. Behind this there is not only the fear that the gigantic arms ex- penditure could bring about a deficit crisis of enormous proportions

  4. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    past 23 years, Senate President Jovito Salonga said yesterday. In an interview on government television, Salonga said the presence of nuclear arms...date and place not given] [Excerpts] The Bulgarian Government recently announced that it will reduce its armed forces by 10,000 soldiers, 200 tanks...unambiguous and does not leave any room for any kind of speculation, not even in Bonn’s government statement. Corresponding to the GDR’s peace

  5. Arms control and the MX

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    By 1969, Soviet ballistic missile deployments led the United States to project the vulnerability of Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos along with an imbalance in ICBM capabilities. The Nixon Administration planned two simultaneous responses: strategic arms negotiations, to limit the threat through mutually agreed restraints; and the Safeguard Anti-Ballistic Missile defense program, to defend, as necessary, the threatened ICBM force. The US succeeded in neither. The planned defense did not materialize, even though SALT failed to limit the growth of the Soviet threat. In the years after SALT I, the US planned, but again did not carry through, ICBM programs to enhance ICBM survivability and at the same time to approach essential equivalence with Soviet capabilities. This dissertation examines the relationship of the two US responses and how arms control affected the MX ICBM system. First, the effects of US arms control objectives and optimism on the MX are analyzed from the first MX systems study in 1974, supporting the new Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, to the deployment of MX in current Minuteman silos, supporting the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks. Here US arms control contributed to MX delays and highlighted ICBM capability over ICBM survivability. Second, the effect of specific arms control provisions are addressed topically for each strategic arms agreement. The framework they establish allowed ICBM capabilities to increase, but constrained ICBM survivability.

  6. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    means and ofI large-scale system of so-called ABM defense coupled with the buildup of strategic offensive arms is also aimed at smashing the strategic...strategic defense". On this basis they assert, firstly, that there is as yet no real threat of an all-embracing ABM system being deployed, and, se- PnlifUÜf...States is not violating any of its commitments on arms limitations, above all those envisaged under the ABM treaty. It is common knowledge that

  7. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-28

    Dec 85 [Text] Moscow, December 3 TASS —TASS political news analyst valerity Vavilov writes: The defence ministers of the twelve West European NATO...that during the second Taiwan crisis of 1958, the use of nuclear arms against China was very close to reality. (In August of that year, the U.S. 7th

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  10. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of its missiles in Western Europe is a continuation of the policy of upsetting the established approximate equilibrium in the illusory hope of...measures in Europe. The Soviet Union advocates a sharp reduction in the level of medium-range nuclear means, with strict observance of equilibrium ...maintaining strategic equilibrium and its stability. But if this happens, the case in point will be a new round of the arms race. As is known, there were no

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    19980715 176 REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED X Arms...South Korean authorities are not in a position, for some reasons, to respond to our proposal right now, they should take at least practical measures...prevented, he said, nuclear weapons and their delivery vehicles should be removed. But, if the United States is not prepared for this right now, we

  13. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    have to be comprehensively reduced before NATo cuts back on its arms. Those in the West, who attribute all progress to Gor- bachev’s behavior , have...disarmament expert Werner Hoyer stressed that there should not be any delay in beginning negotiations on this, from the German point of view. All...information or assistance, call FBIS, (202) 338-6735,or write to PO Box 2604, Washington, D.C. 20013. Department of Defense consumers are required to

  14. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    Viewed, by Tang Tianri 29 Issues Assessed, by Tang Xiushan 31 SPACE ARMS USSR: Reports, Comments on Bush Trip to Europe To Push SDI (Various...85) 99 Indian Prime Minister Criticizes ’Star Wars’ (Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA, 7 Jun 85) 101 Briefs USSR: U.S. Laser Test Planned 103 TASS...a tangible political disagree- ment. The Norwegian defense minister does not think that an attack will come of out of the blue . The foreign

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    effective measures to feelings of those Americans who are demanding effective measures to limit the arms race, Weinberger hypocritically said that the...way to conduct effective negotiations." Mr Weinberger knows very well that speaking the language of diktat to the Soviet Union is an activity with...the ABM Treaty"] [Text] The Soviet-American Treaty on the Limitation of ABM Systems, concluded in May 1972, has now been in effect for more than 13

  16. Sdi and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolf, H.G.

    1989-11-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, or SDI, and the pursuit of defenses to protect against ballistic missile attack are issues of significant debate. Some praise the proposal, first made in a presidential address to the nation on 23 March 1983, as a grand vision that will abolish nuclear blackmail by adopting a totally defensive posture. Others condemn it as being destabilizing, a Pandora's box of strategic transition that could precipitate armed conflict.

  17. Naval arms control: The opposition

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, J.R.

    1990-02-01

    The author observes that hope that naval arms control agreements might bolster Soviet mellowing and inhibit a return to confrontation must be balanced against the likelihood that whether or not the United States negotiates on naval arms control has little real effect on what happens in the Soviet Union and against the undesirability of being pinned down to a less advantageous military position if things go sour. The hope that U.S. willingness to formally limit and reduce American naval capabilities and options would compel the Soviets to reduce even further their potent land-based power on the Eurasian continent or their strategic nuclear power has to be balanced against the possibility that Soviet willingness to make such reductions is driven by factors that have very little to do with the naval relationship between the two nations. Ultimately, then, we are driven back to the dilemma faced by the professional military regarding naval arms control. Without compelling evidence that naval arms control proposals are beneficial in themselves, the author notes we need a clear exposition of how they fit with other negotiations to improve national security and a much better understanding of the role naval arms control negotiations should play in a comprehensive national arms control strategy.

  18. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  19. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    forthcoming special attack and developing the process of disarmament and session will, on the basis of detailed analysis of the most strengthening trust...Britain)--had received a suggestion from attack. It is true, NATO’s FOFA concept, the attack Moscow to draw up a position paper on conventional against the...Gorbachev. After FOFA concept by the necessity to prevent the further some time had passed following the drafting of the influx of units to the front

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    liquidation which is being worked out at the Geneva disarmament conference," spokesman for the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry Ivan Kulhanek said in...inspectors," Ivan Kulhanek said. GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC Honecker to Swedish Prime Minister on Conventional Forces Cuts LD2301162489 East Berlin ADN...the use, it’s all going to be scrapped," Lt Col V.A. Pavlov said. "They will go to the elimination site on their own. This is their final route

  1. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  2. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  3. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  4. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  5. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  6. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  7. Compliance and the future of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book: analyzes more than forty compliance controversies raised by the United States and the Soviet Union; examines all the major arms control agreements: SALT I and II, the ABM Treaty, the Limited Test Ban Treaty, the Threshold Test Ban Treaty, the Biological Weapons Conventions, and the Helsinki Final Act; reveals where both the United States and the Soviet Union have stretched reasonable interpretations of treaty provisions; and discusses how ambiguous treaty language can lead to unmerited accusations of noncompliance.

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    automated control systems, computerized complexes, high-speed computers capable of millions of operations a second and having a formidable memory; we have...be, since we do not yet know the number of tranports : how many lorries and what type. [Reporter] Will the Polish side have any control whatso... technology to Iraq when the Gulf crisis erupted. After stating that Brazil has no chemical weapons, Rezek justified the agreement. Rezek said: It is

  9. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  10. JPRS Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-08

    at meetings like this, soviet, American, West German, British and other experts represent only them- selves and their research centres . But I...under de Gaulle and G. Pompidou . As long as the factors which gave birth to the Atlantic system exist, it will continue to exist and to have a...Although American-French relations improved at first under G. Pompidou , this was only a temporary thaw. When Washington was unable to gain control of

  11. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    small schoolchildren learning their com- puter ABCs . The "turtle" is plugged into a computer and the robot rolls over a paper-covered floor drawing...conclusion: "There will always be unresolvable problems concerning the reliability of computer programs. This makes it highly probable that the ( ABM ...data as if tossing tiny balls that are shot down by another computer running an ABM control system program. But even if it is possible to conduct

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the control of the Soviet Army command, Czechoslovakia financed their operation at a total cost of 226 million crowns over the whole period...to shoulder any of the costs of the Soviet troop pullout, but recently Finance Minister Mihaly Kupa has hinted that Hungary would now be ready to...deadline for the last troops to leave. A Finance Ministry official has confirmed that the final sum will most likely be set against the Soviet debt

  13. Dual arm master controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  14. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  15. Low-cost robotic arm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  16. Issues for Future Nuclear Arms Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jay

    2011-04-01

    Ratification of the New START treaty may open the door to a path of progressive negotiations that could lead to systematic reduction of the numbers of deployed and reserve nuclear weapons. Those negotiations will require more than merely resolving technical, operational and policy questions. Their success will also demand adding successively larger numbers of partners and the building of trust among parties who have not been involved in such agreements before. At some point, questions of conventional arms limitations and larger confidence building steps will inevitably arise. Jay Davis, who last year chaired an APS/POPA study of technology issues for future nuclear arms control agreements, will outline the path, opportunities, and obstacles that lie ahead. Davis was an UNSCOM inspector in Iraq after the First Gulf War and the first director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  17. Arms Control: a Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    THE REAGAN YEARS. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987. (JX1974.7 R33 1987) Seaborg , Glenn T. STEMMING THE TIDE: ARMS CONTROL IN THE JOHNSON YEARS...William, and Seaborg , Glenn T. "Non-Nuclear States Move to End Testing." BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS, Vol. 45, June 1989, pp. 36-37. "European...STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE FORCE REDUCTION PORTION OF THE NUCLEAR AND SPACE TALKS IN GENEVA, by Edward L. Warner, III, Glenn A. Kent, and Randall J. DeValk. Note N

  18. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Courson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the computerised QuickSleeper system, in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Inclusion criteria are patients 7–15 years old with at least 2 first permanent molars belonging to the same dental arch (for the split-mouth RCT) or with a first permanent molar (for the parallel-arm RCT) requiring conservative or endodontic treatment limited to pulpotomy. The setting of this study is the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at 3 University dental hospitals in France. The primary outcome measure will be pain reported by the patient on a visual analogue scale concerning the insertion of the needle and the injection/infiltration. Secondary outcomes are latency, need for additional anaesthesia during the treatment and pain felt during the treatment. We will use a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation sequence for allocation to anaesthesia groups. The random sequences will be stratified by centre (and by dental arch for the parallel-arm RCT). Only participants will be blinded to group assignment. Data will be analysed by the intent-to-treat principle. In all, 160 patients will be included (30 in the split-mouth RCT, 130 in the parallel-arm RCT). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee for the protection of people (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Ile de France I) and will be conducted in full accordance with accepted ethical principles. Findings will be reported in scientific publications and at research conferences, and in

  19. Navy autonomy thwarts arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.

    1987-09-01

    During the past three decades the two superpowers have steadily modernized their naval forces, sent large numbers of nuclear weapons to sea, and engaged in provocative and potentially destabilizing operations. Currently the US is deploying new aircraft carriers, a new generation of fighter aircraft, and new surface ships with greater offensive and defensive power. The Soviet Union has deployed a new generation of attack submarines and is completing its first large aircraft carrier. And the Soviets are preparing to follow the US lead in deploying long-range, highly accurate sea-launched cruise missiles. These developments, accompanied by naval operations that increase the potential for superpower conflict at sea, should make naval arms control a high priority. But it has not been a focus of US-Soviet negotiations and only recently has garnered more interest from multilateral disarmament bodies. An examination of the record shows that bilateral efforts in this area have been minimal and impeded by strong opposition, particularly from the US Navy. The multilateral approach may be more promising because of five agreements affecting the seas that could offer precedents, but this will require improved coordination between the arms control and law of the sea processes. 10 references.

  20. Dual-arm manipulators with adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The described and improved multi-arm invention of this application presents three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative multi-arm robots which coordinate control over a common load. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through a load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions; while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are compensated for by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by novel adaptation laws.

  1. Is Negotiated Arms Control Possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panofsky, W. K. H.

    2014-11-01

    I had a very difficult time deciding on the topic of this talk, since Viki's interests cover such a broad range of activities with which I am also concerned. You can hear next week about the recent exciting work with the SLAC storage rings, a description of the design principles of such rings, and their future promise for new physics through Professor Richter's Loeb Lectures at Harvard. Talking about inelastic lepton scattering during an M.I.T. conference would be bringing coals to Newcastle, since the local M.I.T. physicists are primary agents in these experiments. Broad problems in high energy physics policy, for instance such questions as the relation between University users and the large laboratories, are matters of current concern to Viki and his friends in high energy physics, but I doubt whether many would sit still for a one-hour talk on that subject. I would therefore like to use the opportunity to express some personal views on certain current issues in arms control, since I know that there exists a wide spectrum of involvement and also opinion on this subject in the local community...

  2. Dynamic analysis for robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Explicit state equations provide detailed analytic insight into the dynamic behavior of a robot arm and facilitate the understanding of the control problem. The analytic strength of explicit state equations is exemplified for a given robot arm. In fact, for the quoted example, the explicit and exact state equations involve considerably less computation than the use of the known most efficient general-purpose computational algorithm for robot arm dynamics.

  3. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  4. Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-09-01

    Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control; MILSATs, ASATs, and national security; ASAT capabilities and countermeasures; ASAT arms control: history; ASAT arms control: options; and a comparative evaluation of ASAT policy options are discussed.

  5. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  6. JPRS report: Arms control, [May 17, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-17

    This document contains articles on arms control. Some topics discussed are chemical weapons, NATO, Warsaw Pact, military operations, socialism, disarmament, short range missiles, missile modernization, troop withdrawals, weapons manufacturing plants, nuclear testing, detonated weapons, and weapons modernization.

  7. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  8. Superpower arms control. Setting the record straight

    SciTech Connect

    Carnesale, A.; Haass, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book identifies the preconceptions about the arms control process and tests them against the historical record of negotiations and accords. The result is much-needed evidence and analysis of issues too often obscured by emotion and ideology, as well as important new conclusions about how arms control agreements have - or have not - influenced verification, meaningful restraints on new technology development, Soviet domestic policy, and U.S. defense spending.

  9. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  10. Motion control of 7-DOF arms: The configuration control approach

    SciTech Connect

    Homayoun Seraji; Long, M.K.; Lee, T.S. . Jet Propulsion Lab.)

    1993-04-01

    Graphics simulation and real-time implementation of configuration control schemes for a redundant 7-DOF Robotics Research arm are described. The arm kinematics and motion control schemes are described briefly. This is then followed by a description of a graphics simulation environment for 7-DOF arm control on the Silicon Graphics IRIS Workstation. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate elbow control, collision avoidance, and optimal joint movement as redundancy resolution goals for the 7-DOF arm. The laboratory setup for experimental validation of motion control of the 7-DOF Robotics Research arm is then described. The configuration control approach is implemented on a Motorola 68020/VME bus-based real-time controller, with elbow positioning for redundancy resolution. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of configuration control for real-time control of the 7-DOF arm.

  11. Analysis Of Control Of Cooperating Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1991-01-01

    Paper presents theoretical analysis of general problem of how to control motions of, and forces exerted by, several multiple-rigid-link robot arms that cooperatively manipulate common rigid object. Emphasis mainly on construction, via full-dynamics approach, of control laws relatively independent of dynamical models.

  12. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. editor

    1998-12-04

    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  13. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  14. Too many cooks Arms control by Committee: Managing negotiations with the Russians. [Book review about arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, G.

    1992-01-01

    The title for [open quotes]Too Many Cooks Arms Control by Committee: Managing Negotiations with the Russians[close quotes] comes from the cumbersome way in which arms control must be negotiated with interagency and congressional committees, as well as with foreign diplomats. The author's purpose for the book is to add to the recorded history of early negotiations, to help with teaching about arms control talks, and to distill lessons from 30 years of negotiations. The author reviews seven case studies of arms control negotiations against a common set of key questions. In addition to the comprehensive and partial test ban negotiations and the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the author covers Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) I and II, the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) talks, and the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty. Special attention is paid to presidential management of the unwieldy negotiating process, including the use of instructions to negotiators and White House bargaining tactics at home and abroad.

  15. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to... exporting arms, ammunition, or implements of war, see the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778), and...

  16. Robot-Arm Dynamic Control by Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Tarn, Tzyh J.; Chen, Yilong J.

    1987-01-01

    Feedforward and feedback schemes linearize responses to control inputs. Method for control of robot arm based on computed nonlinear feedback and state tranformations to linearize system and decouple robot end-effector motions along each of cartesian axes augmented with optimal scheme for correction of errors in workspace. Major new feature of control method is: optimal error-correction loop directly operates on task level and not on joint-servocontrol level.

  17. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  18. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-01

    Partial contents of this report include: SDI and Space arms, Slat and Start Issues, Violations, Treaty, Fabrications, Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces, Missiles, Nuclear Issues, Deployment, Chemical Weapons, Biological Weapons, European Conferences, Nuclear Testing and Free Zone Proposals, Ussr Attacks, Rejection, Moratorium Stances, TV Interviews, Public, International Calls, Delegates, Friendships, Environmental, Domestics, International Services, Nuclear Blast, White House Assurance, Non-nuclear Claims, Blast Exposes, Perle Justification, Antisatellite Weapon Tests, X-ray Laser, Related issues, Nuclear Free Zones, Peaceful, Nuclear Weapons, Television Services, Resumption, Arm Controls.

  19. Motion control of 7-DOF arms - The configuration control approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark K.; Lee, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    Graphics simulation and real-time implementation of configuration control schemes for a redundant 7-DOF Robotics Research arm are described. The arm kinematics and motion control schemes are described briefly. This is followed by a description of a graphics simulation environment for 7-DOF arm control on the Silicon Graphics IRIS Workstation. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate elbow control, collision avoidance, and optimal joint movement as redundancy resolution goals. The laboratory setup for experimental validation of motion control of the 7-DOF Robotics Research arm is then described. The configuration control approach is implemented on a Motorola-68020/VME-bus-based real-time controller, with elbow positioning for redundancy resolution. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of configuration control for real-time control.

  20. Gorbachev's arms-control strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogee, J.L.

    1987-01-22

    Soviet foreign policy under the Gorbachev administration, along with domestic policy, has been in a state of flux, particularly in the realm of arms-control policy. Both in substance and style, Gorbachev introduced a new dynamic in arms-control policy. He has skillfully manipulated the issue for propaganda appeal. But also he has shown flexibility in modifying Soviet positions both to respond to U.S. demands and to exert pressure on the United States to reach an agreement. Soviet arms-control objectives (some of which are incompatible) may be realized either through a formal agreement with the United States or without an agreement. These objectives include: (a) to use arms control to build a new framework for relations with the United States to replace detente; (b) to kill the Strategic Defense Initiative; (c) to constrain U.S. development in manned aircraft and cruise missiles (d) to deligitimize nuclear weapons as an instrument of military strategy; (e) to exacerbate differences between the United States and Europe. During his first year in power, Gorbachev relied heavily on propaganda with calls for eliminating nuclear weapons by the 21st century, his test ban moratorium and denunciation of SDI. After the 21st Party Congress he significantly modified Soviet positions closer to those of the United States with his acceptance of the zero option for INF forces, deep cuts in strategic weapons and willingness to accept limited research on SDI. Gorbachev now sees an arms control agreement as essential to his program for domestic reform and is prepared to make genuine concessions to achieve it.

  1. Verification and transparency in future arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

  2. Robot arm dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Variations in total inertia and gravity loads at the joint outputs are treated along with the relative importance of gravity and acceleration-generated reaction torques or forces versus inertia torques or forces. The relation between the dynamical state equations in explicit terms and servoing the manipulator is briefly discussed in the framework of state variable feedback control which also forms the basis of adaptive manipulator control. Exact state equations were determined for total inertia and gravity loads at the joint outputs as a function of joint variables, using the constant inertial and geometric parameters of the individual links defined in the respective link coordinate frames. The range of maximum variations in total inertia and gravity loads at the joint outputs was calculated for both no load and load in the hand. The main result is the construction of a set of greatly simplified state equations which describe the total inertia and gravity load variations at the output of the six joints with an average error of less than 5%.

  3. ArmAssist Robotic System versus Matched Conventional Therapy for Poststroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomić, Tijana J. Dimkić; Savić, Andrej M.; Vidaković, Aleksandra S.; Rodić, Sindi Z.; Isaković, Milica S.; Rodríguez-de-Pablo, Cristina; Keller, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The ArmAssist is a simple low-cost robotic system for upper limb motor training that combines known benefits of repetitive task-oriented training, greater intensity of practice, and less dependence on therapist assistance. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the efficacy of ArmAssist (AA) robotic training against matched conventional arm training in subacute stroke subjects with moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled within 3 months of stroke and randomly assigned to the AA group or Control group (n = 13 each). Both groups were trained 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) motor score, and the secondary outcomes were Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (WMFT-FAS) and Barthel index (BI). The AA group, in comparison to the Control group, showed significantly greater increases in FMA-UE score (18.0 ± 9.4 versus 7.5 ± 5.5, p = 0.002) and WMFT-FAS score (14.1 ± 7.9 versus 6.7 ± 7.8, p = 0.025) after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas the increase in BI was not significant (21.2 ± 24.8 versus 13.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.292). There were no adverse events. We conclude that arm training using the AA robotic device is safe and able to reduce motor deficits more effectively than matched conventional arm training in subacute phase of stroke. The study has been registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02729649. PMID:28251157

  4. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  5. Tags and seals for arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-09-18

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags might be considered as single-point markers, seals as two-point couplings, and nets as volume containment. The functions of an arms control tag can be considered to be two-fold: to provide field verification of the identity of a treaty-limited item (TLI), and to have a means of authentication of the tag and its tamper-revealing features. Authentication could take place in the field or be completed elsewhere. For CFE, the goal of tags and seals can be to reduce the overall cost of the entire verification system.

  6. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  7. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  8. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  9. XTOD to Conventional Facilities Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D

    2005-09-29

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS X-ray Transport and Diagnostics (XTOD) (WBS 1.5) and the LCLS Conventional Facilities (CF) (WBS 1.1). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Conventional Facilities provides x-ray, beamline and equipment enclosures, mounting surfaces, conventional utilities, compressed (clean, dry) air, process and purge gases, exhaust systems, power, and environmental conditions for the XTOD components and controls.

  10. Computer aided control of a mechanical arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Zermuehlen, r. O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for computer-aided remote control of a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm involved in the on-orbit servicing of a spacecraft is presented. The control configuration features a supervisory type of control in which each of the segments of a module exchange trajectory is controlled automatically under human supervision, with manual commands to proceed to the next step and in the event of a failure or undesirable outcome. The implementation of the supervisory system is discussed in terms of necessary onboard and ground- or Orbiter-based hardware and software, and a one-g demonstration system built to allow further investigation of system operation is described. Possible applications of the system include the construction of satellite solar power systems, environmental testing and the control of heliostat solar power stations.

  11. Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion With Shared Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion (DAGCM) primitive computer program implementing improved unified control scheme for two manipulator arms cooperating in task in which both grasp same object. Provides capabilities for autonomous, teleoperation, and shared control of two robot arms. Unifies cooperative dual-arm control with multi-sensor-based task control and makes complete task-control capability available to higher-level task-planning computer system via large set of input parameters used to describe desired force and position trajectories followed by manipulator arms. Some concepts discussed in "A Generalized-Compliant-Motion Primitive" (NPO-18134).

  12. Executive leadership and superpower arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Baglione, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the conditions that led the superpowers to undertake negotiations to limit weapons and sometimes conclude accords. This thesis presents a fourth approach. The leadership model emphasizes the executive-the Soviet general secretary and the American president-as the pivotal actor in arms control decision-making. The executive's perception of the source and level of threat consistently defines his preferred bargaining strategy, and domestic constraints on executive authority account for deviations from that approach. When he has considerable authority, the executive is able to pursue his preferred policy, but when the leader lacks power, other institutional actors within the domestic political system constrain the leader. To test the leadership model, the thesis examines four cases of American and Soviet arms control decision-making: the test ban talks of the late 1950s, the negotiations for the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, the intermediate nuclear forces discussions of the 1980s, and the last phase of the START negotiations from 1989 to 1991. In each of these case studies, the dissertation juxtaposes the leadership model with the previously accepted approaches to evaluate which explanation best conforms to the evidence. The case studies demonstrated the superiority of the leadership model. Neither the balance of power, the desire to strengthen stability, nor the bureaucratic order adequately accounts for arms control decision-making. Instead, the leader's perception f the threat and opportunity determined the nation's approach to the negotiations. Only concerns about coalition maintenance served to temper the executive's tack at the bargaining table.

  13. Malaria control strategies in French armed forces.

    PubMed

    Migliani, R; Pradines, B; Michel, R; Aoun, O; Dia, A; Deparis, X; Rapp, C

    2014-01-01

    Each year, 40,000 French soldiers deploy or travel through malaria-endemic areas. Despite the effective control measures that were successively implemented, malaria remains a public health concern in French armed forces with several important outbreaks and one lethal case every two years. This article describes the malaria control strategy in French armed forces which is based on three combined strategies: i) Anopheles vector control to prevent infection with the implementation of personal protection against vectors (PPAV) adapted to the field living conditions of the troops. ii) Chemoprophylaxis (CP) to prevent the disease based on prescription of effective and well tolerated doxycycline. iii) Management of cases through early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent death. In isolated conditions in endemic areas, rapid diagnosis tests (RDT) are used as first-line tests by military doctors. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria is based either on the piperaquine tetraphosphate-dihydroartemisinin association since 2013, or on the atovaquone-proguanil association. First-line treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria is based on IV artesunate. These measures are associated with constant education of the military, epidemiological surveillance of malaria cases and monitoring of parasite chemosensitivity.

  14. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-12-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

  15. Position And Force Control For Multiple-Arm Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad A.

    1988-01-01

    Number of arms increased without introducing undue complexity. Strategy and computer architecture developed for simultaneous control of positions of number of robot arms manipulating same object and of forces and torques that arms exert on object. Scheme enables coordinated manipulation of object, causing it to move along assigned trajectory and be subjected to assigned internal forces and torques.

  16. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    SciTech Connect

    Krepon, M. ); Caldwell, D. )

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized.

  17. Threat Control through Arms Control. Report to Congress 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNOLOGY DIVISION (NP/NST) 92 4 WEAPONS AND TECHNOLOGY CONTROL DIVISION ( WTC ) 93 G. OFFICE OF THE GENERAL COUNSEL (GC) 93 H OFFICE OF PUBLIC...Cooperation in Europe) Very significant progress has been made in European arms control. It is discussed in Chapter IV, Section A. B. EURASIA Collapse ...START agreement and the collapse of the Soviet Union could lead to new opportunities for a strategic dialogue between the U.S. and China. In light

  18. Arms control and the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  19. Arms Control and National Security: An Introduction. Advance Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms Control Association, Washington, DC.

    Suitable for use with high school students, this booklet on arms control and national security provides background information, describes basic concepts, reviews recent history, and offers suggestions for further reading. The first section, on American attitudes toward national security and arms control, defines five types of limits on weapons…

  20. Robot arm dynamic model reduction for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Lee, S.

    1983-01-01

    General methods are described by which the mathematical complexities of explicit and exact state equations of robot arms can be reduced to a simplified and compact state equation representation without introducing significant errors into the robot arm dynamic model. The model reduction methods are based on homogeneous coordinates and on the Langrangian algorithm for robot arm dynamics, and utilize matrix, vector and numeric analysis techniques. The derivation of differential vector representation of centripetal and Coriolis forces which has not yet been established in the literature is presented.

  1. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  2. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  3. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C

    2014-03-01

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226-35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear-quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law.

  4. Modelling and control of two coordinated robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the two arms as working on the same object simultaneously and as a closed kinematic chain. In both formulations, a novel dynamic control method is used which is based on feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling.

  5. Dual-arm generalized compliant motion with shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1993-03-01

    A multiple arm generalized compliant motion robot control system governs dual multi-joint robot arms handling an object with both of the arms in accordance with input parameters governing plural respective behaviors to be exhibited by the robot in respective behavior spaces simultaneously. A move-squeeze decomposition processor computes actual move and squeeze decomposition forces based upon current robot force sensor outputs. A compliant motion processor transforms plural object position perturbations of the plural behaviors from the respective behavior spaces to a common space and computes a relative transformation to a behavior-commanded object position in accordance with the object position perturbations of the plural behaviors. A kinematics processor updates a transformation to a current commanded object position based upon the relative transformation to the behavior-commanded object position. A multiple arm squeeze control processor computes from appropriate squeeze force input parameters and from actual squeeze forces for each of the arms, a squeeze control position perturbation for each of the arms, to provide squeeze control. An inverse kinematics processor computes from the commanded object position transformation and from the squeeze control position perturbation, new robot joint angles, and controls respective joints of the robot arms in accordance with the new robot joint angles.

  6. Dual arm generalized compliant motion with shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1993-03-01

    A multiple arm generalized compliant motion robot control system governs dual multi-joint robot arms handling an object with both of the arms in accordance with input parameters governing plural respective behaviors to be exhibited by the robot in respective behavior spaces simultaneously. A move-squeeze decomposition processor computes actual move and squeeze decomposition forces based upon current robot force sensor outputs. A compliant motion processor transforms plural object position perturbations of the plural behaviors from the respective behavior spaces to a common space and computes a relative transformation to a behavior-commanded object position in accordance with the object position perturbations of the plural behaviors. A kinematics processor updates a transformation to a current commanded object position based upon the relative transformation to the behavior-commanded object position. A multiple arm squeeze control processor computes from appropriate squeeze force input parameters and from actual squeeze forces for each of the arms, a squeeze control position perturbation for each of the arms, to provide squeeze control. An inverse kinematics processor computes from the commanded object position transformation and from the squeeze control position perturbation, new robot joint angles, and controls respective joints of the robot arms in accordance with the new robot joint angles.

  7. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  8. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  9. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the

  10. Robot arm force control through system linearization by nonlinear feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1988-01-01

    Based on a differential geometric feedback linearization technique for nonlinear time-varying systems, a dynamic force control method for robot arms is developed. It uses active force-moment measurements at the robot wrist. The controller design fully incorporate the robot-arm dynamics and is so general that it can be reduced to pure position control, hybrid position/force control, pure force control. The controller design is independent of the tasks to be performed. Computer simulations show that the controller improves the position error by a factor of ten in cases in which position errors generate force measurements. A theorem on linearization of time-varying system is also presented.

  11. British Military Requirements, Resources, and Conventional Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    rates range between 2 and 2.5 percent. The growth rate in the 1See Sandier and Murdoch , 1986; and Don, 1986, for more detailed budget forecasting...Retreat, Brassey’s Defence Publishers, London, 1986. Cook, Nick , "W Germany, UK and Italy set to order more Tornados," Jane’s Defence Weekly, February 13...1988, p. 245. Cook, Nick , "UKs Bloodhound successor: BAe in MSAM studies," Jane’s Defence Weekly, March 26, 1988, p. 551. Coxhead, C.D., "Pressure

  12. Arms Control and National Security: Revealed through Two Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Often, in a democratic society these watered down compromises, as they deal with arms control, fail to support arms control or national ’ 4 security...United States has made some progress in this area. Several years ago it was recognized that the communications systems were not as survivable against...defensive system. Today, SDI promises to do what was envisioned years 0 ago , that of reducing the worth of offensive weapons * .. and hopefully as a

  13. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Defense & Arms Control Studies Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    arms control policy. In I990 Dr. Postol was awarded the Leo Szilard Prize from the American Physical Society. In 1995, he received the Hilliard Roderick...our Army Fellow; Lt. Col. Leo Florick, a missile and arms control specialist, was our Air Force Fellow, and Lt. Comdr. David Radi, an intelligence spe...Brigade after which he assumed command of 1-67 Armor. LIEUTENANT COLONEL LEO FLORICK, USAF Air Force Fellow Lt. Col. Florick entered the Air Force in

  14. SINO-SOVIET RELATIONS AND ARMS CONTROL. JAPANESE ATTITUDES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Harvard University were jointly engaged in a research project on Sino-Soviet Relations and Arms Control under the sponsorship of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Because of Japan’s growing role in Asia and her special concern with the problems of East Asia, it seemed important to understand Japanese perspectives on the issues upon which we were working. Consequently, a separate but related series of Japanese-American discussions in Japan was arranged on ’Problems

  15. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  16. Configuration control of seven-degree-of-freedom arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor); Long, Mark K. (Inventor); Lee, Thomas S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A seven degree of freedom robot arm with a six degree of freedom end effector is controlled by a processor employing a 6 by 7 Jacobian matrix for defining location and orientation of the end effector in terms of the rotation angles of the joints, a 1 (or more) by 7 Jacobian matrix for defining 1 (or more) user specified kinematic functions constraining location or movement of selected portions of the arm in terms of the joint angles, the processor combining the two Jacobian matrices to produce an augmented 7 (or more) by 7 Jacobian matrix, the processor effecting control by computing in accordance with forward kinematics from the augmented 7 by 7 Jacobian matrix and from the seven joint angles of the arm a set of seven desired joint angles for transmittal to the joint servo loops of the arm. One of the kinematic functions constraints the orientation of the elbow plane of the arm. Another one of the kinematic functions minimizes a sum of gravitational torques on the joints. Still another kinematic function constrains the location of the arm to perform collision avoidance. Generically, one kinematic function minimizes a sum of selected mechanical parameters of at least some of the joints associated with weighting coefficients which may be changed during arm movement. The mechanical parameters may be velocity errors or gravity torques associated with individual joints.

  17. Configuration control of seven degree of freedom arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm with a six-degree-of-freedom end effector is controlled by a processor employing a 6-by-7 Jacobian matrix for defining location and orientation of the end effector in terms of the rotation angles of the joints, a 1 (or more)-by-7 Jacobian matrix for defining 1 (or more) user-specified kinematic functions constraining location or movement of selected portions of the arm in terms of the joint angles, the processor combining the two Jacobian matrices to produce an augmented 7 (or more)-by-7 Jacobian matrix, the processor effecting control by computing in accordance with forward kinematics from the augmented 7-by-7 Jacobian matrix and from the seven joint angles of the arm a set of seven desired joint angles for transmittal to the joint servo loops of the arms. One of the kinematic functions constrains the orientation of the elbow plane of the arm. Another one of the kinematic functions minimizing a sum of gravitational torques on the joints. Still another one of the kinematic functions constrains the location of the arm to perform collision avoidance. Generically, one of the kinematic functions minimizes a sum of selected mechanical parameters of at least some of the joints associated with weighting coefficients which may be changed during arm movement. The mechanical parameters may be velocity errors or position errors or gravity torques associated with individual joints.

  18. Packaging Of Control Circuits In A Robot Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, William

    1994-01-01

    Packaging system houses and connects control circuitry mounted on circuit boards within shoulder, upper section, and lower section of seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Has modular design that incorporates surface-mount technology, multilayer circuit boards, large-scale integrated circuits, and multi-layer flat cables between sections for compactness. Three sections of robot arm contain circuit modules in form of stardardized circuit boards. Each module contains two printed-circuit cards, one of each face.

  19. Applications of radiation measurements in arms control and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, D.; Reinitz, K.; Barnette, S.; O'Connell, M.; Sheely, K.

    1994-12-01

    Radiation measurements play a vital role in the development and implementation of U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy. The President's Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy reflects the changing realities of a post-Cold-War world and makes nonproliferation one of our nation's highest priorities. Key elements of the Policy concern international controls on plutonium and highly-enriched uranium. Current DOE work contributing to arms control and nonproliferation policy implementation is described with an emphasis on the role of radiation measurements.

  20. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  1. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-12-31

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency.

  2. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  3. Weintek interfaces for controlling the position of a robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Ilia, M.; Ilut, T.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Dragan, F.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the use of Weintek panels to control the position of a robotic arm, operated step by step on the three motor axes. PLC control interface is designed with a Weintek touch screen. The HMI Weintek eMT3070a is the user interface in the process command of the PLC. This HMI controls the local PLC, entering the coordinate on the axes X, Y and Z. The subject allows the development in a virtual environment for e-learning and monitoring the robotic arm actions.

  4. Force control of a multi-arm robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, Thomas E.; Soloway, Donald I.

    1988-01-01

    A force-compensated control method for multiple manipulators is presented that allows coordinated manipulation of a jointly grasped object. In this scheme, each arm independently carries out the motions required to realize the desired motion of a prescribed point on the manipulated object. The approach has been implemented and demonstrated on a laboratory system consisting of two industrial, computer-controller manipulators.

  5. Britain, America and arms control, 1921-37

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.

    1987-01-01

    Arms control diplomacy as a central factor in superpower relations is not a new phenomenon. In this book the author traces the rise and fall of a previous arms limitation effort, the naval treaties of the inter-war years, which successfully controlled competition in the strategic weapons of that era - battleships and other vessels of the British, American and other great power navies. He shows the problems and their solutions - many of relevance today - which made the treaties possible, and their major role in the peaceful transfer of leadership of the West from the British Empire to the United States.

  6. Compendium of Arms Control Verification Proposals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    ZONAL ON-SITE INSPECTION ............ 123 CHAPTER D - CONTROL POSTS ................................... 139 CHAPTER E - RECORDS MONITORING...de:cribi.nr in reneral the zirnifiemit features of the verification method concerned. I’ ’ ’vi.i Chapters A to D deal with verification by direct on...inspection (i.e. increasing as confidence develops), and chapter D with control or observation posts. Chapter E deals with verification by examination of

  7. Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aravind, M; Shivaprakash, G; Ramesh, G C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to illustrate treatment mechanics for torque control in lingual mechanotherapy using a lever arm and transpalatal arch (TPA) tab system during en masse retraction of anterior teeth. An 18-year-old female with bimaxillary dentoalveolar proclination with crowding was treated with a lever arm-TPA tab system. The retraction tabs bent into the TPA placed across the maxillary second molars were used as anchorage. The retraction force on the maxillary anterior teeth was applied using lever arm hooks soldered between the lateral incisors and canines on a lingual mushroom archwire. By applying a retraction force to the lever arm hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced greater palatal root movement as compared to the conventional retraction forces applied at the crown level. The tabs, placed high in the TPA, produced a distal tipping moment on the maxillary second molars, reinforcing their anchorage. The retraction force applied to the long lever arm hooks from the TPA tabs at the level of center of resistance (CRes) of anterior and posterior teeth is advantageous mainly in two aspects. First, it reinforces the anchorage, and second, it favors the palatal root movement of anterior teeth, thus obtaining better control over the torque during en masse retraction.

  8. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    PubMed

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-03

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling.

  9. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  10. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  11. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  12. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  13. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  14. A Short Guide to U.S. Arms Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Steps the United States is taking to lessen the danger of war while building international confidence and security are described. The commitment of the United States to arms control is based on the conviction that the United States and the Soviet Union have a common interest in the avoidance of nuclear war and the survival of the human race. A…

  15. The new 104th Congress: Arms control gridlock or consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A Republican Congress dedicated to reducing the deficit, taxes and the role of the federal government should welcome the opportunity to reduce both foreign threats and the military budget. The author examines the political and historical aspects of arms control and current outlook.

  16. Trends in International Persuasion: Persuasion in the Arms Control Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopmann, P. Terrence; Walcott, Charles

    An analysis of the bargaining process in international arms control negotiations is possible by developing a framework of interrelated hypotheses, by delineating and practicing interactions study called "Bargaining Process Analysis," and by formulating procedural steps that bridge the gap between laboratory studies and "real world" situations. In…

  17. The use of robots for arms control treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Michalowski, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Many aspects of the superpower relationship now present a new set of challenges and opportunities, including the vital area of arms control. This report addresses one such possibility: the use of robots for the verification of arms control treaties. The central idea of this report is far from commonly-accepted. In fact, it was only encountered once in bibliographic review phase of the project. Nonetheless, the incentive for using robots is simple and coincides with that of industrial applications: to replace or supplement human activity in the performance of tasks for which human participation is unnecessary, undesirable, impossible, too dangerous or too expensive. As in industry, robots should replace workers (in this case, arms control inspectors) only when questions of efficiency, reliability, safety, security and cost-effectiveness have been answered satisfactorily. In writing this report, it is not our purpose to strongly advocate the application of robots in verification. Rather, we wish to explore the significant aspects, pro and con, of applying experience from the field of flexible automation to the complex task of assuring arms control treaty compliance. We want to establish a framework for further discussion of this topic and to define criteria for evaluating future proposals. The authors' expertise is in robots, not arms control. His practical experience has been in developing systems for use in the rehabilitation of severely disabled persons (such as quadriplegics), who can use robots for assistance during activities of everyday living, as well as in vocational applications. This creates a special interest in implementations that, in some way, include a human operator in the control scheme of the robot. As we hope to show in this report, such as interactive systems offer the greatest promise of making a contribution to the challenging problems of treaty verification. 15 refs.

  18. Frequency modulated cutaneous orientation feedback from artificial arms. [dynamic control model of human arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomonow, M.; Freedy, A.; Lyman, J.

    1975-01-01

    A model of the human arm, emphasizing the neuromuscular mechanisms of feedback control, has been constructed. The various parameters and functions of physiological receptors in the feedback section have been classified into an automated category that can be incorporated in the prosthesis servo loop, and into a sensory category that should be communicated to the operator if control and dynamic performance are to be optimized. A scheme for simultaneous display of two such sensory parameters, i.e., fingertip pressure and elbow position, has been developed, implemented and evaluated. The neurophysiological mechanism of such displays, and the feasibility of sensory transformation, is discussed in this paper.

  19. Technology R&D for Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Uranium Uranium Pluto nium Plu toni um Plutonium Uranium Plutonium Uran ium Reprocessing Uranium mining Uranium processing Highly Enriched Uranium HEU...instance, can save mil- lions of taxpayer dollars if it ships its pluto - nium out in the near future, rather than waiting for the new facilities. That...Control • Spring 2001 Plutonium The simplest method for detecting pluto -nium non-invasively uses an energyspectrum of the gamma rays emitted by plutonium

  20. Current Inadequacy of Small Arms Training for All Military Occupational Specialties in the Conventional Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABSTRACT This thesis examines the current inadequacy of small arms training for all military occupational specialties ( MOSs ) in the...to facilitate advanced, short-range, CQC like marksmanship training that will allow soldiers of all MOSs to dominate their 100 meters. Introduce Small...Member Dennis L . Dolan, Ph.D. , Member LTC Tony D. Baker, M.S. Accepted this 17th day of June 2005 by: , Director

  1. Motor control of voluntary arm movements. Kinematic and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L; Gentilucci, M; Leo, T; Rizzolatti, G

    1992-01-01

    The motor control of pointing and reaching-to-grasp movements was investigated using two different approaches (kinematic and modelling) in order to establish whether the type of control varies according to modifications of arm kinematics. Kinematic analysis of arm movements was performed on subjects' hand trajectories directed to large and small stimuli located at two different distances. The subjects were required either to grasp and to point to each stimulus. The kinematics of the subsequent movement, during which subject's hand came back to the starting position, were also studied. For both movements, kinematic analysis was performed on hand linear trajectories as well as on joint angular trajectories of shoulder and elbow. The second approach consisted in the parametric identification of the black box (ARMAX) model of the controller driving the arm movement. Such controller is hypothesized to work for the correct execution of the motor act. The order of the controller ARMAX model was analyzed with respect to the different experimental conditions (distal task, stimulus size and distance). Results from kinematic analysis showed that target distance and size influenced kinematic parameters both of angular and linear displacements. Nevertheless, the structure of the motor program was found to remain constant with distance and distal task, while it varied with precision requirements due to stimulus size. The estimated model order of the controller confirmed the invariance of the control law with regard to movement amplitude, whereas it was sensitive to target size.

  2. Techniques for controlling a two-link flexible arm

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Eisler, G.R.; Segalman, D.J.; Robinett, R.D. III; Morimoto, A.K.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The long length and relatively small cross sectional area of the robotic arms envisioned for use inside of the underground nuclear waste storage tanks will require the control of flexible structures. This will become an important problem in the characterization and remediation of these tanks. We are developing control strategies to actively damp residual vibrations in flexible robotic arms caused by high speed motion and abrupt external forces. A planar, two-link flexible arm is currently being used to test these control strategies. In this paper, two methods of control are discussed. The first is a minimum-time control approach which utilizes a finite element model and and optimization program. These tools plan the motor torque profiles necessary for the tip of the arm to move along a straight line, in minimum time, within the motors' torque constraints, and end in a quiescent state. To account for modeling errors in the finite element model, errors in joint angles, velocities, and link curvatures are added to the optimal torque trajectory. Linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulatory design theory is used to determine the feedback gains. The second method of control is a teleoperated joystick controller which uses an input shaping technique to alter the commands of the joystick so as to reduce the residual vibration of the fundamental modes. Approximating the system as linear, the natural frequency and damping ratio are estimated on-line for the complete system, which includes the structure plus a lower level proportional derivative controller. An input shaping filter is determined from the estimated natural frequency, estimated damping ratio, and the desired transfer function of the system. 11 reps., 9 figs.

  3. Arms Control and Nonproliferation Activities: A Catalog of Recent Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-19

    explosive yield of underground nuclear explosions to 150 kilotons ( TNT equivalent ). Both were ratified in 1990. CTBT negotiations began in 1994 in the...warheads. Yield: The amount of energy released by a nuclear explosion. Generally measured in equivalent tons of TNT . CRS-94 Appendix D: Arms Control...control or ban anti-personnel landmines . The fourth section of this report focus on multilateral nonproliferation efforts, such as the Nuclear

  4. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  5. The arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.

  6. Modelling and control of robotic arms fabricated from orthotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Roy, S.

    1989-05-01

    A dynamic model for single-link robotic manipulators fabricated from orthotropic composite materials is presented. The equations of motion are derived using Hamilton's principle and include the coupling between the rigid body motion and elastic motion. An optimal controller is designed for rest-to-rest maneuvers without large starting or stopping transients and with minimum residual vibration. Results presented for aluminum, steel, graphite/epoxy, and boron/epoxy indicate that the motion induced vibration is significantly less for the composite robotic arms, and that substantial savings in energy are achieved. Furthermore, it was seen that the magnitude of the control spillover effects, an issue of great concern in designing control systems for flexible structures, was very small for the composite robotic arms.

  7. Learning and Control Model of the Arm for Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungsik; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu

    We propose a learning and control model of the arm for a loading task in which an object is loaded onto one hand with the other hand, in the sagittal plane. Postural control during object interactions provides important points to motor control theories in terms of how humans handle dynamics changes and use the information of prediction and sensory feedback. For the learning and control model, we coupled a feedback-error-learning scheme with an Actor-Critic method used as a feedback controller. To overcome sensory delays, a feedforward dynamics model (FDM) was used in the sensory feedback path. We tested the proposed model in simulation using a two-joint arm with six muscles, each with time delays in muscle force generation. By applying the proposed model to the loading task, we showed that motor commands started increasing, before an object was loaded on, to stabilize arm posture. We also found that the FDM contributes to the stabilization by predicting how the hand changes based on contexts of the object and efferent signals. For comparison with other computational models, we present the simulation results of a minimum-variance model.

  8. Adaptive and predictive control of a simulated robot arm.

    PubMed

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Garrido, Jesús A; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a basic cerebellar neural layer and a machine learning engine are embedded in a recurrent loop which avoids dealing with the motor error or distal error problem. The presented approach learns the motor control based on available sensor error estimates (position, velocity, and acceleration) without explicitly knowing the motor errors. The paper focuses on how to decompose the input into different components in order to facilitate the learning process using an automatic incremental learning model (locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) algorithm). LWPR incrementally learns the forward model of the robot arm and provides the cerebellar module with optimal pre-processed signals. We present a recurrent adaptive control architecture in which an adaptive feedback (AF) controller guarantees a precise, compliant, and stable control during the manipulation of objects. Therefore, this approach efficiently integrates a bio-inspired module (cerebellar circuitry) with a machine learning component (LWPR). The cerebellar-LWPR synergy makes the robot adaptable to changing conditions. We evaluate how this scheme scales for robot-arms of a high number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) using a simulated model of a robot arm of the new generation of light weight robots (LWRs).

  9. Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.

  10. Telepresence control of a dual-arm dexterous robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Larry; Cox, Brian; Shelton, Susan; Diftler, Myron

    1994-01-01

    Telepresence is an approach to teleoperation that provides egocentric, intuitive interactions between an operator and a remote environment. This approach takes advantage of the natural cognitive and sensory-motor skills of an on-orbit crew and effectively transfers them to a slave robot. A dual-arm dexterous robot operating under telepresence control has been developed and is being evaluated. Preliminary evaluation revealed several important observations that suggest the directions of future enhancement.

  11. Non-damaging, portable radiography: Applications in arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.; Butterfield, K.B.; Apt, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    The state-of-the-technology necessary to perform portable radiography in support of arms control verification is evaluated. Specific requirements, such as accurate measurements of the location of features in a treaty-limited object and the detection of deeply imbedded features, are defined in three scenarios. Sources, detectors, portability, mensuration, and safety are discussed in relation to the scenarios. Examples are given of typical radiographic systems that would be capable of addressing the inspection problems associated with the three scenarios.

  12. Arm exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McKeough, Zoe J; Bye, Peter T P; Alison, Jennifer A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of arm endurance training, arm strength training, a combination of arm endurance and strength training, and no arm training on endurance arm exercise capacity. A randomised controlled trial was undertaken with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects randomised into one of four groups to complete 8 weeks of training: (a) arm endurance training (endurance group) consisting of supported and unsupported arm exercises, (b) arm strength training (strength group) using weight machines, (c) a combination of arm endurance and arm strength training (combined group), or (d) no arm training (control group). The primary outcome measurement was endurance arm exercise capacity measured by an endurance arm crank test. Secondary outcomes included functional arm exercise capacity measured by the incremental unsupported arm exercise test and health-related quality of life. A total of 52 subjects were recruited and 38 (73%) completed the study. When comparing the arm endurance group to the control group, there was a significant increase in endurance time of 6 min (95% CI 2-10, p < 0.01) following the interventions. When comparing the combined group to each of the control, endurance and strength groups, there was a significantly greater reduction in dyspnoea and rate of perceived exertion at the end of the functional arm exercise test for the combined group following the interventions. The mode of training to be favoured to increase endurance arm exercise capacity is arm endurance training. However, combined arm endurance and strength training may also be very useful to reduce the symptoms during everyday arm tasks.

  13. Load balancing and closed chain multiple arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth; Lokshin, Anatole

    1988-01-01

    The authors give the general dynamical equations for several rigid link manipulators rigidly grasping a commonly held rigid object. It is shown that the number of arm-configuration degrees of freedom lost due to imposing the closed-loop kinematic constraints is the same as the number of degrees of freedom gained for controlling the internal forces of the closed-chain system. This number is equal to the dimension of the kernel of the Jacobian operator which transforms contact forces to the net forces acting on the held object, and it is shown that this kernel can be identified with the subspace of controllable internal forces of the closed-chain system. Control of these forces makes it possible to regulate the grasping forces imparted to the held object or to control the load taken by each arm. It is shown that the internal forces can be influenced without affecting the control of the configuration degrees of freedom. Control laws of the feedback linearization type are shown to be useful for controlling the location and attitude of a frame fixed with respect to the held object, while simultaneously controlling the internal forces of the closed-chain system. Force feedback can be used to linearize and control the system even when the held object has unknown mass properties. If saturation effects are ignored, an unconstrained quadratic optimization can be performed to distribute the load optimally among the joint actuators.

  14. Task driven feedback control of robot arms - A step toward intelligent control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Tarn, T. J.; Li, Z. F.

    1986-01-01

    The process of connecting task descriptions originating from machine intelligence planning programs to the mechanization of feedback control of robot arms is analyzed. It is shown in this paper that control theories and practices can be extended to a higher level where feedback control of robot arms directly can respond to work space task commands provided that the work space task as a command is given in the form of a closed function of time. A general mathematical procedure using tools from differential geometry is introduced for synthesizing task space motion planning so that the planned motion can be used as a direct input to the robot arm feedback control system to achieve desired robot hand motion. By definition, 'intelligent control' is being manifested through robot performance in the task space relative to task space commands. Thus, the capability of implementing feedback control of robot arms directly driven by appropriate task descriptions in the workspace as commands is a step toward intelligent control.

  15. Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Holloway, John H; Holloway, John H; Raichlen, David A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the control and function of arm swing in human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the lower body, rather than being actively driven by the shoulder muscles. We measured locomotor cost, deltoid muscle activity and kinematics in 10 healthy adult subjects while walking and running on a treadmill in three experimental conditions: control; no arms (arms folded across the chest); and arm weights (weights worn at the elbow). Decreasing and increasing the moment of inertia of the upper body in no arms and arm weights conditions, respectively, had corresponding effects on head yaw and on the phase differences between shoulder and pelvis rotation, consistent with the view of arms as mass dampers. Angular acceleration of the shoulders and arm increased with torsion of the trunk and shoulder, respectively, but angular acceleration of the shoulders was not inversely related to angular acceleration of the pelvis or arm. Restricting arm swing in no arms trials had no effect on locomotor cost. Anterior and posterior portions of the deltoid contracted simultaneously rather than firing alternately to drive the arm. These results support a passive arm swing hypothesis for upper body movement during human walking and running, in which the trunk and shoulders act primarily as elastic linkages between the pelvis, shoulder girdle and arms, the arms act as passive mass dampers which reduce torso and head rotation, and upper body movement is primarily powered by lower body movement.

  16. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  17. Security and Arms Control: The Search for a More Stable Peace. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Efforts of the United States since the end of World War II to advance the arms control process are discussed. There are five major sections. The first section recounts past arms control efforts--those that have worked and those that have not--and discusses the principles underlying U.S. arms control initiatives. The second section describes the…

  18. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

  19. U. S. views on naval arms control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, D.C.

    1990-08-28

    This paper addresses US thinking on naval arms control and maritime strategy. It discusses current thinking regarding the control of sea-based strategic nuclear systems, sea-launched cruise missiles and general purpose naval forces. For each it presents what the US and foreign counterparts have already agreed to in recent or ongoing negotiations and also lays out the US viewpoint on issues that have yet to be agreed upon in negotiating fora. The paper also summarizes recent developments in the US Navy's thinking about maritime strategy in a discussion of general purpose naval forces.

  20. A general dynamic model of flexible robot arms for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, X.; Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Hamilton's principle is used to derive the dynamic model for a large class of flexible robot arms. The resultant dynamic model consists of a system of partial differential-integral equations and the dynamic boundary conditions associated with it. Some properties of the model are observed, and its application to control is discussed. This model represents an infinite-dimensional nonlinear dynamic system and yet can be turned into a finite-dimensional system that could be obtained by modal expansion, if it is desired. This provides more flexibility for control purposes as well as for the analysis of the system.

  1. Test and validation for robot arm control dynamics simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yae, K. Harold; Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Seering, Warren; Sundaram, Kamala; Thompson, Bruce; Turner, James; Chun, Hon; Frisch, Harold P.; Schnurr, Richard

    1989-01-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program will require an ability to develop, in a cost effective manner, many simulation models for design, analysis, performance evaluation, and crew training. Computational speed and the degree of modeling fidelity associated with each simulation must be commensurate with problem objectives. To demonstrate evolving state-of-the-art general purpose multibody modeling capabilities, to validate these by laboratory testing, and to expose their modeling shortcomings, two focus problems at the opposite ends of the simulation spectrum are defined: (1) Coarse Acquisition Control Dynamics. Create a real time man-in-the-control-loop simulator. Provide animated graphical display of robot arm dynamics and tactile feedback sufficient for cueing the operator. Interface simulator software with human operated tactile feedback controller; i.e., the Kraft mini-master. (2) Fine, Precision Mode Control Dynamics. Create a high speed, high fidelity simulation model for the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of autonomous 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) trajectory control algorithms. This model must contain detail dynamic models for all significant dynamics elements within the robot arm, such as joint drive mechanisms.

  2. Tags and seals to strengthen arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-10-03

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags are intended as single-point markers, seals for two-point couplings, and nets for volume containment. Seals usually bind two separate components, such as a hatch or flange that provides access to a secure compartment or a valve that controls fluid flow. A tamper-revealing net might be comprised of a coupled fiberoptic bundle wrapped around an object. Sometimes the term ``seal`` is used to denote the tamper-revealing feature of a tag that is attached to a surface, but in this paper the tamper-indicating connection is considered to be part of the tag concept itself.

  3. Multilateral arms control: Can the CD break the impasse?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1997-11-01

    Implications of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) for significant arms control and disarmament are assessed in this article. Fissile material cutoff, test ban issues, anti-personnel landmines, and transparency are among the issues reviewed. Government policies of nuclear powers are reviewed with respect to various treaties, as well as their responses to the CD. Major barriers in the CD talks are identified and primarily ascribed to political and cultural differences. It is concluded that five-power talks between the declared nuclear weapon states offer the best chance of reducing nuclear threats and making progress on nuclear disarmament.

  4. Gamma-ray camera for arms control applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chevnov, M; Ignoytev, G; Morgan, J F; Seminov, D

    1999-06-01

    The Research Institute of Pulse Techniques, in collaboration with the Proliferation Prevention and Arms Control Program at LLNL, has constructed a gamma-ray camera for use in arms control agreements such as Mutual Reciprocal Inspections and Warhead Dismantlement Transparency. The camera is designed to have high efficiency (in order to reduce inspection times), moderate resolution (to decrease the intrusiveness of the measurements), and sturdy construction (to allow operation in the types of conditions that might be met during shipment and use at various forward weapons sites). The imaging element consists of a honeycomb or soda-straw lead collimator and a 312-mm-diameter NaI(Tl) scintillator viewed by an array of phototubes. Software was developed to display two- and three-dimensional views of the data and to analyze shape and peak areas.The first model was tuned for plutonium radiation in the 375- to 415-keV energy range. Images from various arrays of point sources were obtained and are presented.

  5. Origins of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ruth; Taylor, Allyn; Lariviere, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control originated in 1993 with a decision by Ruth Roemer and Allyn Taylor to apply to tobacco control Taylor’s idea that the WHO should utilize its constitutional authority to develop international conventions to advance global health. In 1995, Taylor and Ruth Roemer proposed various options to WHO, recommending the framework convention-protocol approach conceptualized by Taylor. Despite initial resistance by some WHO officials, this approach gained wide acceptance. In 1996, the World Health Assembly voted to proceed with its development. Negotiations by WHO member states led the World Health Assembly in May 2003 to adopt by consensus the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control—the first international treaty adopted under WHO auspices. The treaty formally entered into force for state parties on February 27, 2005. PMID:15914812

  6. Modeling, design, and control of flexible manipulator arms: Status and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for higher performance manipulators has lead to dynamic behavior in which the flexibility is an essential aspect. The mathematical representations commonly used in modeling flexible arms and arms with flexible drives are examined first. Then design considerations directly arising from the flexible nature of the arm are discussed. Finally, controls of joints for general and tip motion are discussed.

  7. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth`s atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART`s) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs.

  8. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth's atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART's) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs.

  9. Intelligent control system based on ARM for lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changlong; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Wang, Nan

    2014-08-01

    The control system of traditional lithography tool is based on PC and MCU. The PC handles the complex algorithm, human-computer interaction, and communicates with MCU via serial port; The MCU controls motors and electromagnetic valves, etc. This mode has shortcomings like big volume, high power consumption, and wasting of PC resource. In this paper, an embedded intelligent control system of lithography tool, based on ARM, is provided. The control system used S5PV210 as processor, completing the functions of PC in traditional lithography tool, and provided a good human-computer interaction by using LCD and capacitive touch screen. Using Android4.0.3 as operating system, the equipment provided a cool and easy UI which made the control more user-friendly, and implemented remote control and debug, pushing video information of product by network programming. As a result, it's convenient for equipment vendor to provide technical support for users. Finally, compared with traditional lithography tool, this design reduced the PC part, making the hardware resources efficiently used and reducing the cost and volume. Introducing embedded OS and the concepts in "The Internet of things" into the design of lithography tool can be a development trend.

  10. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  11. Method and apparatus for hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two or more robotic arms having end effectors rigidly attached to an object to be moved are disclosed. A hybrid position/force control system is provided for driving each of the robotic arms. The object to be moved is represented as having a total mass that consists of the actual mass of the object to be moved plus the mass of the moveable arms that are rigidly attached to the moveable object. The arms are driven in a positive way by the hybrid control system to assure that each arm shares in the position/force applied to the object. The burden of actuation is shared by each arm in a non-conflicting way as the arm independently control the position of, and force upon, a designated point on the object.

  12. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters worldwide provide significant benefits to global public health. PMID:24524501

  13. Nuclear arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism: impacts on public health.

    PubMed

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters worldwide provide significant benefits to global public health.

  14. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation and counter-terrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters world-wide provide significant benefits to global public health.

  15. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    DOE PAGES

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation and counter-terrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclearmore » technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters world-wide provide significant benefits to global public health.« less

  16. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  17. Control of arm movements for quick change of movement direction.

    PubMed

    Takatoku, Nozomi; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the control strategy for changing movement direction during arm movements by analyzing the changes in a triphasic electromyographic pattern. Subjects performed a 40° flexion (basic) and a 40° flexion-extension to return to the start position (return) under two conditions: performing a predetermined task (SF) and performing each task in response to a signal (ST). The results revealed the agonist burst for the return task under the ST condition resembled that of the basic task under the SF condition, and the antagonist burst increased after presenting the modification signal. In conclusion, the strategy for quick change of movement direction was to increase the antagonist burst by an additional command from the central nervous system without cancelling the planned movement.

  18. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  19. Redundant arm control in a supervisory and shared control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Long, Mark K.

    1992-01-01

    The Extended Task Space Control approach to robotic operations based on manipulator behaviors derived from task requirements is described. No differentiation between redundant and non-redundant robots is made at the task level. The manipulation task behaviors are combined into a single set of motion commands. The manipulator kinematics are used subsequently in mapping motion commands into actuator commands. Extended Task Space Control is applied to a Robotics Research K-1207 seven degree-of-freedom manipulator in a supervisory telerobot system as an example.

  20. Kinematic equations for resolved-rate control of an industrial robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    An operator can use kinematic, resolved-rate equations to dynamically control a robot arm by watching its response to commanded inputs. Known resolved-rate equations for the control of a particular six-degree-of-freedom industrial robot arm and proceeds to simplify the equations for faster computations are derived. Methods for controlling the robot arm in regions which normally cause mathematical singularities in the resolved-rate equations are discussed.

  1. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  2. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  3. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  4. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.T.

    2004-12-14

    ATK Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed a web-based data analysis and visualization tool, called NCVweb, that allows for easy viewing of ARM NetCDF files. NCVweb, along with our library of sharable Interactive Data Language procedures and functions, allows even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers.

  5. Voice control of a dual-arm telerobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlein, Robert Arthur

    This investigation explores voice control of a dual-arm telerobot. A literature review of voice control, voice technology and work measurements is conducted. This review includes a discussion of important voice technology topics, a survey of commercial voice equipment, and a study of industrial and vocational work measurement techniques. A voice control system is created for two Kraft GRIPS Master-Slave telerobotic manipulators. This system is based upon the concept of distributed computer control using inexpensive PC-AT computers that exchange information according to special communication and command protocols. The voice control system consists of four separate sub-systems; a Camera Sub-system that controls a motorized camera mount, a Teach Pendant Sub-system that emulates two standard Termiflex teach pendants, a Switch Sub-system that controls the Kraft Master switches, and a Voice Sub-system that accepts the operator's vocal commands and broadcasts digitally-recorded messages. The Voice Sub-system utilizes a Votan VPC-2100 recognition board and a TI-Speech synthesis board. The vocal commands are organized into a hierarchical structure based upon the fire-and-forget control scheme. A visual display of the vocal command status is also detailed. In order to measure the effect of the voice control system upon the work performance of the telerobot, a formal experimental plan is described using twenty-four untrained operators divided into a voice group and a control group. Each group performs an experimental taskset using modified peg-in-hole vocational rehabilitation assessment test equipment. The experimental taskset consists of eight separate subtasks that exercise each of the four voice control sub-systems. The times to complete the subtasks are recorded to score each group's work performance. A split-plot ANOVA of the performance scores reveals significant group improvements in both the mean performance and the performance variance for those tasks which involve

  6. Percutaneous Transthoracic Lung Biopsy: Comparison Between C-Arm Cone-Beam CT and Conventional CT Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Sheng-Heng; Cheng, Yuchi; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a comparatively novel modality for guiding percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies (PTLBs), and despite its potential advantages over conventional computed tomography (CCT), a head-to-head comparison of the two techniques has yet to be reported in the literature. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value and safety of CBCT-guided PTLB compared to CCT-guided biopsy, with cases performed in a single hospital. METHODS: A total of 104 PTLB patients were retrospectively analyzed in this study. 35 PTLBs were performed under CBCT guidance, and 69 PTLBs were performed under CCT guidance. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy as well as procedure time, radiation dose of patients, and complication rate in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Total procedure time was significantly lower in the CBCT group (32 ± 11 minutes) compared to the CCT group (38 ± 9.7 minutes; P = .009), especially among patients ≥ 70 years of age (CBCT: 33 ± 12 minutes, CCT: 42 ± 13, P = .022). For lesions in the lower lobes, the CBCT-guided group received significantly reduced effective radiation dose (2.9 ± 1.6 mSv) than CCT-guided patients (3.7 ± 0.80; P = .042). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy were comparable between the two groups, as were post-biopsy complication rates. CONCLUSION: CBCT guidance significantly reduces the procedure time and radiation exposure for PTLBs compared with CCT, and should be considered in clinical settings that may be difficult or time-consuming to perform under CCT. PMID:26310371

  7. Controlling flexible robot arms using a high speed dynamics process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor); Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Described here is a robot controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges, and flexible in plural deformation modes. It is operated by computing articulated body qualities for each of the bodies from the respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables. Computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each of the bodies, beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, and then, for each one of the bodies beginning with the innermost body, computing a modal body acceleration from a modal body acceleration of a previous body, computing a modal deformation acceleration and hinge acceleration from the resulting hinge acceleration and from the modal body acceleration.

  8. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

  9. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  10. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  11. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT, AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  12. Fuzzy and conventional control of high-frequency ventilation.

    PubMed

    Noshiro, M; Matsunami, T; Takakuda, K; Ryumae, S; Kagawa, T; Shimizu, M; Fujino, T

    1994-07-01

    A high-frequency ventilator was developed, consisting of a single-phase induction motor, an unbalanced mass and a mechanical vibration system. Intermittent positive pressure respiration was combined with high-frequency ventilation to measure end-tidal pCO2. Hysteresis was observed between the rotational frequency of the high-frequency ventilator and end-tidal pCO2. A fuzzy proportional plus integral control system, designed on the basis of the static characteristics of the controlled system and a knowledge of respiratory physiology, successfully regulated end-tidal pCO2. The characteristics of gas exchange under high-frequency ventilation was approximated by a first-order linear model. A conventional PI control system, designed on the basis of the approximated model, regulated end-tidal pCO2 with a performance similar to that of the fuzzy PI control system. The design of the fuzzy control system required less knowledge about the controlled system than that of the conventional control system.

  13. A look behind the arms control agenda at the US-Russian and Sino-US summits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    When President Bill Clinton met in New York with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on October 23 and Chinese President Jiang Zemin the following day, the leaders discussed a broad spectrum of arms control issues-including START II ratification, limits on Russian conventional weapons in the Caucasus, the nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear exports to Iran and NATO expansion. The crisis in Bosnia, however, dominated the administration`s pre- and post-summit briefings as well as the media`s coverage of the meetings. On October 20, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a news conference to highlight the key arms control issues involved in the two sets of talks. Because these vital national security issues were virtually ignored by the press, the ACA press briefing remains the most comprehensive coverage of the full range of issues that were, in fact, addressed at the mini-summits. Panel speakers included Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr., ACA president and executive director and former deputy director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Jack Mendelsohn, ACA deputy director and a former member of the US SALT II and START I delegations; Stanley Resor, ACA board chairman and former chief US delegate to the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction talks, former defense undersecretary for policy and former secretary of the Army; and William Dircks, director of the Atlantic Council`s Program on Nuclear Policy and former deputy director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Extended excerpts from their remarks follow.

  14. A comparison of the real-time controllability of pattern recognition to conventional myoelectric control for discrete and simultaneous movements.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Smith, Lauren H; Rouse, Elliott J; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-10

    Myoelectric control has been used for decades to control powered upper limb prostheses. Conventional, amplitude-based control has been employed to control a single prosthesis degree of freedom (DOF) such as closing and opening of the hand. Within the last decade, new and advanced arm and hand prostheses have been constructed that are capable of actuating numerous DOFs. Pattern recognition control has been proposed to control a greater number of DOFs than conventional control, but has traditionally been limited to sequentially controlling DOFs one at a time. However, able-bodied individuals use multiple DOFs simultaneously, and it may be beneficial to provide amputees the ability to perform simultaneous movements. In this study, four amputees who had undergone targeted motor reinnervation (TMR) surgery with previous training using myoelectric prostheses were configured to use three control strategies: 1) conventional amplitude-based myoelectric control, 2) sequential (one-DOF) pattern recognition control, 3) simultaneous pattern recognition control. Simultaneous pattern recognition was enabled by having amputees train each simultaneous movement as a separate motion class. For tasks that required control over just one DOF, sequential pattern recognition based control performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error. For tasks that required control over 2 DOFs, the simultaneous pattern recognition controller performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error compared to the other control strategies. In the two strategies in which users could employ simultaneous movements (conventional and simultaneous pattern recognition), amputees chose to use simultaneous movements 78% of the time with simultaneous pattern recognition and 64% of the time with conventional control for tasks that required two DOF motions to reach the target. These results suggest that when amputees are given the

  15. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  16. 75 FR 28848 - Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine...

  17. 76 FR 818 - Bureau of Nonproliferation; Determination Under the Arms Export Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Bureau of Nonproliferation; Determination Under the Arms Export Control Act AGENCY: Department of State... determination pursuant to Section 73 of the Arms Export Control Act and has concluded that publication of...

  18. 77 FR 31909 - Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine and certify to...

  19. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  20. ACDA’s (Arms Control and Disarmament Agency) Coordination of Federal Arms Control Research and Management of Its External Research Program Still Need Improvement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    MAGEMENT OF ITS EXTERNAL RESERCH PROGRAM ARE STYL INADEQPATE The Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) needs to improve the operation of its external...proliferation, conven- tional arms transfers, advanced technology weapons. and nuclear test limitations. In 1980 we reported on ACDA’s problems in ma...0 - Nuclear Test Limitations 719,163 492,509 171,777 - 0 - Non-Nuclear Weapons of Mass Destruc- tion and Advanced Technology Weapons 33,108 53,282

  1. Anthropometric considerations for a 4-axis side-arm flight controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debellis, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A data base on multiaxis side-arm flight controls was generated. The rapid advances in fly-by-light technology, automatic stability systems, and onboard computers have combined to create flexible flight control systems which could reduce the workload imposed on the operator by complex new equipment. This side-arm flight controller combines four controls into one unit and should simplify the pilot's task. However, the use of a multiaxis side-arm flight controller without complete cockpit integration may tend to increase the pilot's workload.

  2. Introduction and Testing of an Alternative Control Approach for a Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  3. Accuracy of Pedicle Screw Placement in Scoliosis Surgery: A Comparison between Conventional Computed Tomography-Based and O-Arm-Based Navigation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Akazawa, Tsutomu; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Koyama, Kayo; Nemoto, Tetsuharu; Nawata, Kento; Yamazaki, Atsuro; Minami, Shohei

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose We compared the accuracy of O-arm-based navigation with computed tomography (CT)-based navigation in scoliotic surgery. Overview of Literature No previous reports comparing the results of O-arm-based navigation with conventional CT-based navigation in scoliotic surgery have been published. Methods A total of 222 pedicle screws were implanted in 29 patients using CT-based navigation (group C) and 416 screws were implanted in 32 patients using O-arm-based navigation (group O). Postoperative CT was performed to assess the screw accuracy, using the established Neo classification (grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: perforation <2 mm, grade 2: perforation ≥2 and <4, and grade 3: perforation ≥4 mm). Results In group C, 188 (84.7%) of the 222 pedicle screw placements were categorized as grade 0, 23 (10.4%) were grade 1, 11 (5.0%) were grade 2, and 0 were grade 3. In group O, 351 (84.4%) of the 416 pedicle screw placements were categorized as grade 0, 52 (12.5%) were grade 1, 13 (3.1%) were grade 2, and 0 were grade 3. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the prevalence of grade 2.3 perforations between groups C and O. The time to position one screw, including registration, was 10.9±3.2 minutes in group C, but was significantly decreased to 5.4±1.1 minutes in group O. Conclusions O-arm-based navigation facilitates pedicle screw insertion as accurately as conventional CT-based navigation. The use of O-arm-based navigation successfully reduced the time, demonstrating advantages in the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement for scoliotic surgery. PMID:24967047

  4. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Hauck, Danielle K.; Thron, Jonathan L.

    2012-07-09

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  5. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-01-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    numerical coefficients or weights. Although the function development may require much computational time and many training cases, the resulting discrimination functions can run in realtime on modest computers. These results suggest that myoelectric signals might be a feasible teleoperation medium, allowing an operator to use his or her own hand and arm as a master to intuitively control an anthropomorphic robot in a remote location such as outer space.

  8. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation for Real-Time Myoelectric Control of Multifunction Artificial Arms

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd A.; Li, Guanglin; Lock, Blair A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Miller, Laura A.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Englehart, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Context Improving the function of prosthetic arms remains a challenge, as access to the neural control information for the arm is lost during amputation. We have developed a surgical technique called targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) which transfers residual arm nerves to alternative muscle sites. After reinnervation, these target muscles produce an electromyogram (EMG) on the surface of the skin that can be measured and used to control prosthetic arms. Objective Assess the performance of TMR upper-limb amputee patients using a pattern-recognition algorithm to decode EMG signals and control prosthetic arm motions. Design Surface EMG signals were recorded on participants and decoded using a pattern-recognition algorithm. The decoding program controlled the movement of a virtual prosthetic arm. Participants were instructed to perform various arm movements, and their abilities to control the virtual prosthetic arm were measured. In addition, TMR patients used the same control system to operate advanced arm prosthesis prototypes. Setting This study was conducted between January 2007 and January 2008 at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Participants This study included five patients with shoulder disarticulation or transhumeral amputations who received TMR surgery between February 2002 and October 2006. It also included five non-amputee (control) participants. Main Outcome Measure Performance metrics measured during virtual arm movements included motion-selection time, motion-completion time, and motion-completion (or `success') rate. Three of the TMR patients were also able to test advanced arm prostheses. Results TMR patients were able to repeatedly perform 10 different elbow, wrist and hand motions with the virtual prosthetic arm. For TMR patients, the average (standard deviation (SD)) motion-selection and motion-completion times for elbow and wrist movements were 0.22 s (0.06) and 1.29 s (0.15), respectively. These times were 0.06 s and 0.21 s longer than

  9. Welcome to the U. S. arms superstore

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, W.D. )

    1993-09-01

    After the 1991 Gulf War, the [open quotes]Big Five[close quotes]--the United States, France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China--initiated talks on limiting the flow of arms to the Middle East and the United Nations established an arms register as a way to promote a more open international dialogue concerning the problem of conventional arms proliferation. Two and a half years later, the promises about arms controls have been forgotten in favor of a policy to sell arms to any nation possessing sufficient cash to purchase them. The promises to curb the weapons trade may have been forgotten because of the new dynamics that are driving the arms trade in the post-Cold War era. This article seeks to define these dynamics and to suggest means of getting the arms control process back on track. The rationale behind the commercialization of arms and means of combatting the arms exportation problem are emphasized. 18 refs.

  10. Prospects for naval arms control: A bad idea whose time has come. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trout, B.T.

    1990-06-30

    This paper assesses the contemporary prospects for naval arms control based on two principal contentions. (1) The political framework of the present arms control environment makes consideration of naval issues virtually certain. The notion that there should be naval arms control is widespread and will probably prove politically compelling if the overall arms control regime continues to develop. (2) The substantive naval issues amenable to negotiation within the prevailing balance are few, but those few are important. Therefore, a position of continuing U.S. Navy resistance to consideration of the subject of naval arms control is not tenable, and may be counterproductive. The Navy has two options for a constructive approach to arms control. One option is to take the initiative on soft issues such as scheduling annual meetings of senior naval officials of the two sides to discuss issues without commitment to negotiate. A second option focuses on the limited range of hard naval arms control issues, sea-launched cruise missiles, tactical naval nuclear weapons, attack submarines and related force questions.

  11. The Swedish Armed Forces Operational Challenges for Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Language Workshop (Atelier 2010 sur le langage de gestion du champ de bataille pour les operations en coalition). RTO-MP-MSG-079 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT...NATO procedures Crises Response scenario (BOGALAND) including NATO- and EU-led operations HEADQUARTERS SWEDISH ARMED FORCES VIKING 11

  12. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection.

  13. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  14. Self-moved target eye tracking in control and deafferented subjects: roles of arm motor command and proprioception in arm-eye coordination.

    PubMed

    Vercher, J L; Gauthier, G M; Guédon, O; Blouin, J; Cole, J; Lamarre, Y

    1996-08-01

    1. When a visual target is moved by the subject's hand (self-moved target tracking), smooth pursuit (SP) characteristics differ from eye-alone tracking: SP latency is shorter and maximal eye velocity is higher in self-moved target tracking than in eye-alone tracking. The aim of this study was to determine which signals (motor command and/or proprioception) generated during arm motion are responsible for the decreased time interval between arm and eye motion onsets in self-moved target tracking. 2. Six control subjects tracked a visual target whose motion was generated by active or passive movements of the observer's arm in order to determine the role played by arm proprioception in the arm-eye coordination. In a second experiment, the participation of two subjects suffering complete loss of proprioception allowed us to assess the contribution of arm motor command signals. 3. In control subjects, passive movement of the arm led to eye latencies significantly longer (130 ms) than when the arm was actively self-moved (-5 ms:negative values meaning that the eyes actually started to move before the target) but slightly shorter than in eye-alone tracking (150 ms). These observations indicate that active movement of the arm is necessary to trigger short-latency SP of self-moved targets. 4. Despite the lack of proprioceptive information about arm motion, the two deafferented subjects produced early SP (-8 ms on average) when they actively moved their arms. In this respect they did not differ from control subjects. Active control of the arm is thus sufficient to trigger short-latency SP. However, in contrast with control subjects, in deafferented subjects SP gain declined with increasing target motion frequency more rapidly in self-moved target tracking than in eye-alone tracking. 5. The deafferented subjects also tracked a self-moved target while the relationship between arm and target motions was altered either by introducing a delay between arm motion and target motion

  15. An agent-vector-host-environment model for controlling small arms and light weapons.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Andrew D; Sharma, Malika; Muggah, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Armed violence is a significant public health problem. It results in fatal and non-fatal injuries and disrupts social and economic processes that are essential to the health of individuals and communities. We argue that an agent-vector-host-environment model can be helpful in understanding and describing the availability and misuse of small arms and light weapons. Moreover, such a model can assist in identifying potential control points and in developing mitigation strategies. These concepts have been developed from analogous vector control programs and are applied to controlling arms to reduce their misuse. So-called 'denormalization' and 'de-legitimization' campaigns that focus on the vector - including the industry producing these commodities - can be based on the experience of public health in controlling tobacco use and exposure. This model can assist health professionals, civil society and governments in developing comprehensive strategies to limit the production, distribution and misuse of small arms and light weapons.

  16. Modal analysis and control of flexible manipulator arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neto, O. M.

    1974-01-01

    The possibility of modeling and controlling flexible manipulator arms was examined. A modal approach was used for obtaining the mathematical model and control techniques. The arm model was represented mathematically by a state space description defined in terms of joint angles and mode amplitudes obtained from truncation on the distributed systems, and included the motion of a two link two joint arm. Three basic techniques were used for controlling the system: pole allocation with gains obtained from the rigid system with interjoint feedbacks, Simon-Mitter algorithm for pole allocation, and sensitivity analysis with respect to parameter variations. An improvement in arm bandwidth was obtained. Optimization of some geometric parameters was undertaken to maximize bandwidth for various payload sizes and programmed tasks. The controlled system is examined under constant gains and using the nonlinear model for simulations following a time varying state trajectory.

  17. Milestones in Strategic Arms Control, 1945 2000: United States Air Force Roles and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Importantly, under this and other mutual treaties, it is a ritual that also takes place frequently in Russia as American inspectors exercise the same...trial collapse; the myth of the self-defending daylight-bomber forma - tion and the inevitable turning to less efficient bombing by night; the... quiche —or do arms control.”43 Air Force arms-control policy was developed by a small group of analysts reporting to the chief of staff. The nexus of arms

  18. Hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1986-01-01

    This paper extends the theory of hybrid position/force control to the case of multi-arm cooperating robots. Cooperation between n robot arms is achieved by controlling each arm such that the burden of actuation is shared between the arms in a nonconflicting way as they control the position of and force on a designated point on an object. The object, which may or may not be in contact with a rigid environment, is assumed to be held rigidly by n robot end-effectors. Natural and artificial position and force constraints are defined for a point on the object and two selection matrices are obtained to control the arms. The position control loops are designed based on each manipulator's Cartesian space dynamic equations. In the position control subspace, a feature is provided which allows the robot arms to exert additional forces/torques to achieve compression, tension, or torsion in the object without affecting the execution of the motion trajectories. In the force control subspace, a method is introduced to minimize the total force/torque magnitude square while realizing the net desired force/torque on the environment.

  19. Continuous neuronal ensemble control of simulated arm reaching by a human with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, E. K.; Blana, D.; Simeral, J. D.; Lambrecht, J.; Kim, S. P.; Cornwell, A. S.; Taylor, D. M.; Hochberg, L. R.; Donoghue, J. P.; Kirsch, R. F.

    2011-06-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES), the coordinated electrical activation of multiple muscles, has been used to restore arm and hand function in people with paralysis. User interfaces for such systems typically derive commands from mechanically unrelated parts of the body with retained volitional control, and are unnatural and unable to simultaneously command the various joints of the arm. Neural interface systems, based on spiking intracortical signals recorded from the arm area of motor cortex, have shown the ability to control computer cursors, robotic arms and individual muscles in intact non-human primates. Such neural interface systems may thus offer a more natural source of commands for restoring dexterous movements via FES. However, the ability to use decoded neural signals to control the complex mechanical dynamics of a reanimated human limb, rather than the kinematics of a computer mouse, has not been demonstrated. This study demonstrates the ability of an individual with long-standing tetraplegia to use cortical neuron recordings to command the real-time movements of a simulated dynamic arm. This virtual arm replicates the dynamics associated with arm mass and muscle contractile properties, as well as those of an FES feedback controller that converts user commands into the required muscle activation patterns. An individual with long-standing tetraplegia was thus able to control a virtual, two-joint, dynamic arm in real time using commands derived from an existing human intracortical interface technology. These results show the feasibility of combining such an intracortical interface with existing FES systems to provide a high-performance, natural system for restoring arm and hand function in individuals with extensive paralysis. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting.

  20. Continuous neuronal ensemble control of simulated arm reaching by a human with tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Blana, D; Simeral, J D; Lambrecht, J; Kim, S P; Cornwell, A S; Taylor, D M; Hochberg, L R; Donoghue, J P; Kirsch, R F

    2011-06-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES), the coordinated electrical activation of multiple muscles, has been used to restore arm and hand function in people with paralysis. User interfaces for such systems typically derive commands from mechanically unrelated parts of the body with retained volitional control, and are unnatural and unable to simultaneously command the various joints of the arm. Neural interface systems, based on spiking intracortical signals recorded from the arm area of motor cortex, have shown the ability to control computer cursors, robotic arms and individual muscles in intact non-human primates. Such neural interface systems may thus offer a more natural source of commands for restoring dexterous movements via FES. However, the ability to use decoded neural signals to control the complex mechanical dynamics of a reanimated human limb, rather than the kinematics of a computer mouse, has not been demonstrated. This study demonstrates the ability of an individual with long-standing tetraplegia to use cortical neuron recordings to command the real-time movements of a simulated dynamic arm. This virtual arm replicates the dynamics associated with arm mass and muscle contractile properties, as well as those of an FES feedback controller that converts user commands into the required muscle activation patterns. An individual with long-standing tetraplegia was thus able to control a virtual, two-joint, dynamic arm in real time using commands derived from an existing human intracortical interface technology. These results show the feasibility of combining such an intracortical interface with existing FES systems to provide a high-performance, natural system for restoring arm and hand function in individuals with extensive paralysis.

  1. International Environmental Law and Naval War: The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    from “unjustified artificial radioactive contamination of the terrestrial, maritime and aerial environment.”321 Although the merits of these claims...interest, to intelligence activities, arms transfers etc. Addi- tional case-by-case or class exemptions may be added to this list by the Department of...1947), 957. 22. Hinsley, British Intelligence in the Second World War (1994), chapter 36 on the Allied oil offensive. 23. Kalshoven, in Dekker

  2. Solid modelling for the manipulative robot arm (power) and adaptive vision control for space station missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrand, V.; Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of a flexible arm derived from concatenation of the Stewart-Table-based links were studied. Solid modeling provides not only a realistic simulation, but is also essential for studying vision algorithms. These algorithms could be used for the adaptive control of the arm, using the well-known algorithms such as shape from shading, edge detection, orientation, etc. Details of solid modeling and its relation to vision based adaptive control are discussed.

  3. Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2010-06-01

    Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

  4. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design. (2

  5. 22 CFR 123.15 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act. 123.15 Section 123.15 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT AND TEMPORARY IMPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.15 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The...

  6. Anticipatory postural adjustments to arm movement reveal complex control of paraspinal muscles in the thorax.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda-Joy; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2009-02-01

    Anatomical and empirical data suggest that deep and superficial muscles may have different functions for thoracic spine control. This study investigated thoracic paraspinal muscle activity during anticipatory postural adjustments associated with arm movement. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from the right deep (multifidus/rotatores) and superficial (longissimus) muscles at T5, T8, and T11 levels using fine-wire electrodes. Ten healthy participants performed fast unilateral and bilateral flexion and extension arm movements in response to a light. EMG amplitude was measured during 25ms epochs for 150ms before and 400ms after deltoid EMG onset. During arm flexion movements, multifidus and longissimus had two bursts of activity, one burst prior to deltoid and a late burst. With arm extension both muscles were active in a single burst after deltoid onset. There was differential activity with respect to direction of trunk rotation induced by arm movement. Right longissimus was most active with left arm movements and right multifidus was most active with right arm movements. All levels of the thorax responded similarly. We suggest that although thoracic multifidus and longissimus function similarly to control sagittal plane perturbations, these muscles are differentially active with rotational forces on the trunk.

  7. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  8. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  9. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 176 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and on the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 163 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Strategic Defense and Arms Control. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Feedback control of vibrations in a moving flexible robot arm with rotary and prismatic joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Wei, Jin-Duo

    1987-01-01

    A robot with a long extendible flexible arm which can also undergo both vertical translation and rotary motion is considered. First, A distributed-parameter model for the robot arm dynamics is developed. It is found that the extending motion could enhance the arm vibrations. Then, a Galerkin-type approximation based on an appropriate time-dependent basis for the solution space is used to obtain an approximate finite-dimensional model for simulation studies. A feedback control for damping the motion-induced vibrations is derived by considering the time rate-of-change of the total vibrational energy of the flexible arm. The authors conclude with some simulation results for a special case with the proposed control law.

  15. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system.

  16. Human Arm-Like Robot Control Based on Human Multi-Joint Arm Viscoelastic Properties and A Modified Forward Gaze Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihui; Deng, Mingcong

    In this paper, a human arm-like robot control scheme is proposed based on time-varying viscoelastic properties which consist of multi-joint stiffness and multi-joint viscosity during human arm movements and a modified forward gaze model. In general, in human multi-joint arm movements, the multi-joint torque is assumed to be a function of multi-joint stiffness matrix, multi-joint viscosity matrix, and motor command descending from central nervous system (CNS). In order to make the present human arm-like robot move like a human multi-joint arm, a feedback controller and a modified forward gaze model are presented in the human arm-like robot control system. That is, the feedback controller is designed to obtain desired motion mechanism based on real measured data from viscoelastic properties of human multi-joint arm, and the forward gaze model in which steering gains are modified using a cost function is used to compensate the term related to the effect of CNS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by the simulation results based on experimental data.

  17. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  18. Design and Control of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Lightweight Flexible Arm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    8217 J OCT 111989 Visiting Professor, Dpto Ingenieria Electnca, Electronica y Control , UNED, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040, Spain. 2 Visiting...V) Design and Control of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Lightweight Flexible Arm Vicente Feliu’ , H. Benjamin Brown, Jr., and Kuldip S. Rattan’ CMU-RI-TR...Mechanical Issues 3 2.1. Kinematics 4 2.2. Rigid Arm Dynamics 5 2.3. Compliance 5 3. Control Issues 7 3.1. General Scheme 73.2. Motor Position Control Loops 8

  19. The oculomanual coordination control center takes into account the mechanical properties of the arm.

    PubMed

    Scarchilli, K; Vercher, J L

    1999-01-01

    When the eyes and arm are involved in a tracking task, the characteristics of each system differ from those observed when they act alone: smooth pursuit (SP) latency decreases from 130 ms in external target tracking tasks to 0 ms in self-moved target tracking tasks. Two models have been proposed to explain this coordination. The common command model suggests that the same command be addressed to the two sensorimotor systems, which are otherwise organized in parallel, while the coordination control model proposes that coordination is due to a mutual exchange of information between the motor systems. In both cases, the interaction should take into account the dynamic differences between the two systems. However, the nature of the adaptation depends on the model. During self-moved target tracking a perturbation was applied to the arm through the use of an electromagnetic brake. A randomized perturbation of the arm increased the arm motor reaction time without affecting SP. In contrast, a constant perturbation produced an adaptation of the coordination control characterized by a decrease in arm latency and an increase in SP latency relative to motor command. This brought the arm-to-SP latency back to 0 ms. These results support the coordination control model.

  20. Study of design and control of remote manipulators. Modeling manipulator arms with distributed flexibility for design and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The interactions of control system and distributed flexible structural dynamics is explored for mechanical arms. A modeling process using 4 x 4 transfer matrices is described which permits the closed loop response of many current arm configurations to be evaluated. Root locus, frequency response, modal shapes, and time impulse response have all been obtained from the digital computer implementation of this model, which is oriented to arm design and allows for easy variation of the arm configuration through data cards. The model corresponds with experimentally observed natural frequencies with an average error of less than 5% in the first three flexible modes in the seven cases considered. The model was used to explore the limits imposed by structural flexibility on a nondimensionalized two link arm with one and two joints for planar motion.

  1. Russia and the Current State of Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    to focus on the role of its entire nuclear arsenal in the absence of a program of modernization of conventional forces. Andrei Koko - shin, former...yield of 1.6 megatons, Koko - shin stated: “Systems and means of nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future will remain the keystone of our security

  2. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups. There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture. The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  3. Cortical control of erector spinae muscles during arm abduction in humans.

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Catley, Maria; King, Nicolas K K; Strutton, Paul H; Davey, Nick J; Ellaway, Peter H

    2008-04-01

    Abduction of one arm preferentially activates erector spinae muscles on the other side to stabilise the body. We hypothesise that the corticospinal drive to the arm abductors and the erector spinae may originate from the same hemisphere. In 18 subjects, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied using an angle double-cone coil placed symmetrically over the vertex. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) could not be evoked systematically seated at rest but could be evoked bilaterally in erector spinae muscles during unilateral arm abduction. TMS was applied at 110% and 120% motor threshold (MT) for the contralateral erector spinae muscle when an arm was abducted against resistance. The electromyographic (EMG) activity in the erector spinae at L4 vertebral level during contralateral arm abduction was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the ipsilateral erector spinae. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) latencies of MEPs in the contralateral muscle to TMS at 120%MT (left 16.0+/-0.8 ms; right 17.0+/-0.8 ms) were significantly (P<0.05) longer than in the ipsilateral erector spinae (13.9+/-1.0 ms; 16.6+/-0.4 ms). In two of six subjects from the same group, it was possible to elicit MEPs by TMS applied selectively to one hemisphere using a figure-of-eight coil. MEPs ipsilateral to the TMS had longer latencies than contralateral MEPs. The study revealed an unexpectedly longer rather than shorter latency of the MEP recorded from the lumbar erector spinae muscles when co-activated during abduction of the opposite arm. A speculative explanation is that TMS might activate back muscles contralateral to arm abduction via an uncrossed, ipsilateral corticospinal tract that is slower conducting than the conventional crossed corticospinal tract. The study has implications for the design of measures to promote recovery and rehabilitation of motor function in disorders such as stroke and spinal cord injury.

  4. Dynamic control of robot arms in tasks space using nonlinear feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Tarn, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Differential geometric system and control theory is used to develop a new dynamic system feedback technique for robot task space commands. The nonlinear robot arm system is feedback-linearized and simultaneously is output-decoupled by an appropriate nonlinear feedback and nonlinear coordinate transformation. On the joint space level, the scheme only commands drive forces or torques or their equivalent quantities addressed to the joint drives. An important property of the technique is that the planned and commanded task space trajectory together with its time derivatives directly drive the robot arm through a linear system model. A method for task space motion planning matching the requirements of the new scheme is briefly presented. The implications of the new technique for second and third order model robot arms with and without force feedback measuremnts and for two or more dynamically cooperating robot arms are discussed.

  5. A role for arms control and technology in peace-keeping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Indusi, J.; Allentuck, J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a potential role for arms control monitoring technology in peace-keeping operations. The basic idea is to utilize monitoring technology developed or suggested for treaty verification (primarily Conventional Forces Europe (CFE), but other treaties as well) to minimize the exposure of humans as part of ``peace-keeping`` forces in various trouble spots throughout the world. The impetus comes from the dangers and high costs of stationing peace-keeping of forces in areas such as Bosnia-Herzegovina. Aside from the costs associated with such efforts the loss of life has escalated recently from 743 peace keepers lost from 1948 to 1988, to 180 lives lost in 1993 alone. Some potential advantages to using technology for certain monitoring roles are discussed in the paper and include: minimizing exposure/risk to peace-keeping personnel from hostile fire, hostage taking, etc.; sharable technology will allow all parties to view results, assess violations or transgressions, etc.; can be applied to equipment, railways, roads, etc., to confirm human and other monitoring capabilities; and provides data to settle disputes on which side initiated hostilities.

  6. Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    AD-A214 057 Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region Paul K. Davis DTIG ELECTEfl NOVO TIM D A Report...USDP toCVED Toward A Conceptual Framework for Operational interim IIAArms Control in Europe’s Central Region PE. 0IORMING OJIG RIE UMUER 111"hI 7...CLAgOIIFCA11N OPP TWOS PA441WhOM 0... 4CR.,.aI 177 R-3704-USDP Toward a Conceptual Framework for Operational Arms Control in Europe’s Central Region Paul

  7. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Kuban, Daniel P.; Perkins, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  8. Modeling of prosthetic limb rotation control by sensing rotation of residual arm bone.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanglin; Kuiken, Todd A

    2008-09-01

    We proposed a new approach to improve the control of prosthetic arm rotation in amputees. Arm rotation is sensed by implanting a small permanent magnet into the distal end of the residual bone, which produces a magnetic field. The position of the bone rotation can be derived from magnetic field distribution detected with magnetic sensors on the arm surface, and then conveyed to the prosthesis controller to manipulate the rotation of the prosthesis. Proprioception remains intact for residual limb skeletal structures; thus, this control system should be natural and easy-to-use. In this study, simulations have been conducted in an upper arm model to assess the feasibility and performance of sensing the voluntary rotation of residual humerus with an implanted magnet. A sensitivity analysis of the magnet size and arm size was presented. The influence of relative position of the magnet to the magnetic sensors, orientation of the magnet relative to the limb axis, and displacement of the magnetic sensors on the magnetic field was evaluated. The performance of shielding external magnetostatic interference was also investigated. The simulation results suggest that the direction and angle of rotation of residual humerus could be obtained by decoding the magnetic field signals with magnetic sensors built into a prosthetic socket. This pilot study provides important guidelines for developing a practical interface between the residual bone rotation and the prosthesis for control of prosthetic rotation.

  9. Modeling of Prosthetic Limb Rotation Control by Sensing Rotation of Residual Arm Bone

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a new approach to improve the control of prosthetic arm rotation in amputees. Arm rotation is sensed by implanting a small permanent magnet into the distal end of the residual bone, which produces a magnetic field. The position of the bone rotation can be derived from magnetic field distribution detected with magnetic sensors on the arm surface, and then conveyed to the prosthesis controller to manipulate the rotation of the prosthesis. Proprioception remains intact for residual limb skeletal structures; thus, this control system should be natural and easy-to-use. In this study, simulations have been conducted in an upper arm model to assess the feasibility and performance of sensing the voluntary rotation of residual humerus with an implanted magnet. A sensitivity analysis of the magnet size and arm size was presented. The influence of relative position of the magnet to the magnetic sensors, orientation of the magnet relative to the limb axis, and displacement of the magnetic sensors on the magnetic field was evaluated. The performance of shielding external magnetostatic interference was also investigated. The simulation results suggest that the direction and angle of rotation of residual humerus could be obtained by decoding the magnetic field signals with magnetic sensors built into a prosthetic socket. This pilot study provides important guidelines for developing a practical interface between the residual bone rotation and the prosthesis for control of prosthetic rotation. PMID:18713682

  10. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the…

  11. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

    PubMed

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change

  12. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the “UCM reference feedback control.” To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque

  13. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  14. The Waterloo Vision and Mobility Study: postural control strategies in subjects with ARM.

    PubMed

    Elliott, D B; Patla, A E; Flanagan, J G; Spaulding, S; Rietdyk, S; Strong, G; Brown, S

    1995-11-01

    Binocular vision function and standing balance control was assessed in 16 subjects with age-related maculopathy (ARM) (mean age 73.9 +/- 7.4 years) and 19 controls (mean age 69.1 +/- 5.5 years). Balance control was assessed using the center of pressure signal from force plate data. It was quantified using the root mean square (RMS) error of the amplitude, sampled over a 1 min period. This was evaluated during normal standing, and while the input from the kinesthetic and/or visual systems were disrupted. The two subject groups showed significantly different RMS values across conditions (P < 0.005). The differences in RMS between ARM and control groups were only significant when the input to the kinesthetic sensory system was disrupted. Our results suggest that in the normal standing condition, the kinesthetic and vestibular systems compensated for the lack of useful information from the visual system in ARM subjects. When kinesthetic system input was disrupted, balance control of the ARM group was significantly poorer than the control. There was a weak correlation between postural control and contrast sensitivity. Various strategies for preventing falls in elderly patients with low vision are suggested.

  15. Filtering sensory information with XCSF: improving learning robustness and robot arm control performance.

    PubMed

    Kneissler, Jan; Stalph, Patrick O; Drugowitsch, Jan; Butz, Martin V

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the control of a robot arm can be efficiently learned using the XCSF learning classifier system, which is a nonlinear regression system based on evolutionary computation. So far, however, the predictive knowledge about how actual motor activity changes the state of the arm system has not been exploited. In this paper, we utilize the forward velocity kinematics knowledge of XCSF to alleviate the negative effect of noisy sensors for successful learning and control. We incorporate Kalman filtering for estimating successive arm positions, iteratively combining sensory readings with XCSF-based predictions of hand position changes over time. The filtered arm position is used to improve both trajectory planning and further learning of the forward velocity kinematics. We test the approach on a simulated kinematic robot arm model. The results show that the combination can improve learning and control performance significantly. However, it also shows that variance estimates of XCSF prediction may be underestimated, in which case self-delusional spiraling effects can hinder effective learning. Thus, we introduce a heuristic parameter, which can be motivated by theory, and which limits the influence of XCSF's predictions on its own further learning input. As a result, we obtain drastic improvements in noise tolerance, allowing the system to cope with more than 10 times higher noise levels.

  16. Research on the man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lifeng; Peng, Jinbao

    2017-03-01

    The Man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control research complex real-world environment, which requires the operator to continuously control and adjust the remote manipulator, as the background, completes the specific mission human in the loop entire system as the research object. This paper puts forward a kind of robot arm control system of Man in the loop based on gesture control, by robot arm control system based on gesture control and Virtual reality scene feedback to enhance immersion and integration of operator, to make operator really become a part of the whole control loop. This paper expounds how to construct a man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control. The system is a complex system of human computer cooperative control, but also people in the loop control problem areas. The new system solves the problems that the traditional method has no immersion feeling and the operation lever is unnatural, the adjustment time is long, and the data glove mode wears uncomfortable and the price is expensive.

  17. Cooperative Remote Monitoring, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Fourth quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M

    1995-01-01

    The DOE`s Cooperative Remote Monitoring programs integrate elements from research and development and implementation to achieve DOE`s objectives in arms control and nonproliferation. The contents of this issue are: cooperative remote monitoring--trends in arms control and nonproliferation; Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS); Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring Systems (ATMS); Tracking and Nuclear Materials by Wide-Area Nuclear Detection (WAND); Cooperative Monitoring Center; the International Remote Monitoring Project; international US and IAEA remote monitoring field trials; Project Dustcloud: monitoring the test stands in Iraq; bilateral remote monitoring: Kurchatov-Argonne-West Demonstration; INSENS Sensor System Project.

  18. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  19. Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Shuying; Bekyo, Angeliki; Olsoe, Jaron; Baxter, Bryan; He, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13 human subjects could willingly modulate brain activity to control a robotic arm with high accuracy for performing tasks requiring multiple degrees of freedom by combination of two sequential low dimensional controls. Subjects were able to effectively control reaching of the robotic arm through modulation of their brain rhythms within the span of only a few training sessions and maintained the ability to control the robotic arm over multiple months. Our results demonstrate the viability of human operation of prosthetic limbs using non-invasive BCI technology.

  20. Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Shuying; Bekyo, Angeliki; Olsoe, Jaron; Baxter, Bryan; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13 human subjects could willingly modulate brain activity to control a robotic arm with high accuracy for performing tasks requiring multiple degrees of freedom by combination of two sequential low dimensional controls. Subjects were able to effectively control reaching of the robotic arm through modulation of their brain rhythms within the span of only a few training sessions and maintained the ability to control the robotic arm over multiple months. Our results demonstrate the viability of human operation of prosthetic limbs using non-invasive BCI technology. PMID:27966546

  1. Whole Arm Grasping Control for Redundant Robot Manipulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Force Control and Contour Following,” Proc. of the Japan/USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2000. [10] P. Li and R. Horowitz...Theory and Practice, Marcel Dekker Publishing Co., New York, NY, 2003. [9] J. Li and P. Li, “Passive Velocity Field Control (PVFC) Approach to Robot

  2. 3D joystick for robotic arm control by individuals with high level spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Pendergast, Martin; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An innovative 3D joystick was developed to enable quadriplegics due to spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to more independently and efficiently operate a robotic arm as an assistive device. The 3D joystick was compared to two different manual input modalities, a keyboard control and a traditional joystick, in performing experimental robotic arm tasks by both subjects without disabilities and those with upper extremity mobility impairments. Fitts's Law targeting and practical pouring tests were conducted to compare the performance and accuracy of the proposed 3D joystick. The Fitts's law measurements showed that the 3D joystick had the best index of performance (IP), though it required an equivalent number of operations and errors as the standard robotic arm joystick. The pouring task demonstrated that the 3D joystick took significantly less task completion time and was more accurate than keyboard control. The 3D joystick also showed a decreased learning curve to the other modalities.

  3. Review of the provisions and effectiveness of selected arms control agreements, 1812-1939

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    RDA has conducted historical research on a number of arms control agreements, with particular emphasis on the verification and compliance provisions, for the period between the conclusion of the War of 1812 and the beginning of World War II. Particular emphasis was placed on the Treaty of Versailles for several reasons, among them the fact that it was the first agreement that contained quantitative arms reduction and disarmament provisions along with a formal mechanism for carrying them out, including unrestricted on-site inspections. Other arms control agreements and activities that are addressed include the Rush-Bagot Agreement, the Hague Conferences, League of Nations activities, and US initiatives after World War I that resulted in treaties that attempted to limit naval armaments.

  4. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  5. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N.; Lewis, L.C.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  6. Direct model reference adaptive control of robotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Howard; Swift, David C.; Cummings, Steven T.; Shankey, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    The results of controlling A PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator and the NASA shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) using a Command Generator Tracker (CGT) based Model Reference Adaptive Controller (DMRAC) are presented. Initially, the DMRAC algorithm was run in simulation using a detailed dynamic model of the PUMA 560. The algorithm was tuned on the simulation and then used to control the manipulator using minimum jerk trajectories as the desired reference inputs. The ability to track a trajectory in the presence of load changes was also investigated in the simulation. Satisfactory performance was achieved in both simulation and on the actual robot. The obtained responses showed that the algorithm was robust in the presence of sudden load changes. Because these results indicate that the DMRAC algorithm can indeed be successfully applied to the control of robotic manipulators, additional testing was performed to validate the applicability of DMRAC to simulated dynamics of the shuttle RMS.

  7. A distributed Petri Net controller for a dual arm testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjanes, Atle

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and functionality of a Distributed Petri Net Controller (DPNC). The controller runs under X Windows to provide a graphical interface. The DPNC allows users to distribute a Petri Net across several host computers linked together via a TCP/IP interface. A sub-net executes on each host, interacting with the other sub-nets by passing a token vector from host to host. One host has a command window which monitors and controls the distributed controller. The input to the DPNC is a net definition file generated by Great SPN. Thus, a net may be designed, analyzed and verified using this package before implementation. The net is distributed to the hosts by tagging transitions that are host-critical with the appropriate host number. The controller will then distribute the remaining places and transitions to the hosts by generating the local nets, the local marking vectors and the global marking vector. Each transition can have one or more preconditions which must be fulfilled before the transition can fire, as well as one or more post-processes to be executed after the transition fires. These implement the actual input/output to the environment (machines, signals, etc.). The DPNC may also be used to simulate a Great SPN net since stochastic and deterministic firing rates are implemented in the controller for timed transitions.

  8. An approach to simultaneous control of trajectory and interaction forces in dual-arm configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Xiaoping; Kumar, Vijay R.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to the control of constrained dynamic systems such as multiple arm systems, multifingered grippers, and walking vehicles is described. The basic philosophy is to utilize a minimal set of inputs to control the trajectory and the surplus input to control the constraint or interaction forces and moments in the closed chain. A dynamic control model for the closed chain is derived that is suitable for designing a controller in which the trajectory and the interaction forces and moments are explicitly controlled. Nonlinear feedback techniques derived from differential geometry are then applied to linearize and decouple the nonlinear model. These ideas are illustrated through a planar example in which two arms are used for cooperative manipulation. Results from a simulation are used to illustrate the efficacy of the method.

  9. Robust torque control of an elastic robotic arm based on invertibility and feedback stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.; Schy, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    An approach to the control of elastic robotic systems for space applications using inversion, servocompensation, and feedback stabilization is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. Using an inversion algorithm, a nonlinear decoupling control law, u sub d, is derived such that in the closed loop system, independent control of joint angles by the three joint torquers is accomplished. For the stabilization of elastic oscillations, a linear feedback torquer control law, u sub s, is obtained applying linear quadratic optimization to the linearized arm model augmented with a servocompensator about the terminal state. Simulation results show that, in spite of uncertainties in the payload and vehicle angular velocity, good joint angle control and damping of elastic oscillations are obtained with the torquer control law u = u sub d + u sub s.

  10. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    PubMed

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedures Guide A Appendix A to Part 631 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide A-1. Purpose. This guide prescribes procedures for...

  12. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  13. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  14. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Defense and Arms Control Studies Program, Abbual Report, 1989-1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    range of weapons-related technolo- gies. I am happy to report also that Professor Postol received the prestigious Leo Szilard Award this year from the...studydevelopmns in weapons technology of relevance to defense and arms control policy. In 1990 Dr. Postol received the Leo Szilard Award from the

  15. Defense and Arms Control Studies Program, Annual Report 1991-1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    career scientists to study developments in weapons technology of relevance to defense and arms control policy. In 1990 Dr. Postol was awarded the Leo ... Szilard Prize from the American Physical Society. MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 1 GEORGE W. RATHJENS became Professor in the Department of

  16. Arms control in space: workshop proceedings, Washington, DC, January 30-31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    In late 1982 and early 1983, the Subcommittee on Arms Control, Oceans, International Operations, and Environment of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations held hearings on space weapons and arms control. To explore these issues further in a discussion format not easily achieved in hearings, Sen. Larry Pressler, Chairman of the Subcommittee, asked OTA to conduct a workshop focusing on antisatellite (ASAT) weapons as one aspect of space arms control. The workshop held in Washington, DC on January 30 and 31, 1984, provided an opportunity for technical, diplomatic, military, and policy-analysis experts to interact, think out loud, and build each other's ideas. The workshop was organized into six sessions, although issues involving anti-satellite weapons and arms control are not easily compartmentalized into distinct subject areas. Each session was introduced by a 10- or 15-minute informal oral presentation which set the stage for further discussion. This workshop proceedings volume is organized along the same divisions as the sessions, with some rearrangement.

  17. Heterodyne holography with full control of both the signal and reference arms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michel

    2016-01-20

    Heterodyne holography is a variant of phase-shifting holography in which the reference and signal arms are controlled by acousto-optic modulators. In this review paper, we will briefly describe the method and its properties, and we will illustrate its advantages in experimental applications.

  18. Beyond the Illusion of Symmetry: How to Think about Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    accident " (53) and contribute instead to increased assurances during times of crisis. In the end, arms control should not create instability (62:4) as it...the illusion of symmetry!" 79 APPENDIX US AND SOVIET STRATEGIC NUCLEAR FORCE STATUS Sotiict-.Xmcrican Nucleair Balwtict: United States Sot wcl I fljtof

  19. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  3. Octopuses use a human-like strategy to control precise point-to-point arm movements.

    PubMed

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-04-18

    One of the key problems in motor control is mastering or reducing the number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) through coordination. This problem is especially prominent with hyper-redundant limbs such as the extremely flexible arm of the octopus. Several strategies for simplifying these control problems have been suggested for human point-to-point arm movements. Despite the evolutionary gap and morphological differences, humans and octopuses evolved similar strategies when fetching food to the mouth. To achieve this precise point-to-point-task, octopus arms generate a quasi-articulated structure based on three dynamic joints. A rotational movement around these joints brings the object to the mouth . Here, we describe a peripheral neural mechanism-two waves of muscle activation propagate toward each other, and their collision point sets the medial-joint location. This is a remarkably simple mechanism for adjusting the length of the segments according to where the object is grasped. Furthermore, similar to certain human arm movements, kinematic invariants were observed at the joint level rather than at the end-effector level, suggesting intrinsic control coordination. The evolutionary convergence to similar geometrical and kinematic features suggests that a kinematically constrained articulated limb controlled at the level of joint space is the optimal solution for precise point-to-point movements.

  4. Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Leigh R; Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y; Simeral, John D; Vogel, Joern; Haddadin, Sami; Liu, Jie; Cash, Sydney S; van der Smagt, Patrick; Donoghue, John P

    2012-05-16

    Paralysis following spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to perform volitional movements. A neural interface system could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with long-standing tetraplegia can use a neural interface system to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices. Able-bodied monkeys have used a neural interface system to control a robotic arm, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use neural interface system-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm and hand over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor 5 years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. Although robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after injury to the central nervous system, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals.

  5. Conventional Arms Control and American Policy in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF Institute...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION...AUTHOR: Jeffrey D. McCausland, Jr, PhD (Colonel, US Army, Retired), is a Visiting Professor of International Law and Diplomacy at the Penn State

  6. How to Think About Conventional Arms Control: A Framework. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    number of scholarly journals, including Strategic Review, Defense Analysis , and Comparative Strategy. DR. REGINA GAILLARD is a National Security...NATO’s CAC objectives are clear; the means to achieve them must be developed. - NATO military institutions should provide advice, analysis , and...century. 4 4 g. Of the several NATO objectives, the one most clearly the centerpiece for military planning and analysis is to eliminate the Pact

  7. On Disarmament: The Role of Conventional Arms Control in National Security Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    both have their stable and predetermined place." Furthermore, Hannah Arendt insists that "since authority always demands obedience, it is commonly...Its Critics, ed. by Robert 0. Keohane, New York: Columbia University Press, 1986, p. 137. 5. Hannah Arendt , "What Is Authority?" in Between Past and...Talks." Defense News, February 13,1989, p. A3. Allison, Graham. "Success is Within Reach." The New York Times, February 19,1989, p. E19. Arendt , Hannah

  8. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  9. Control and Calibration of a Staubli RX130 Robotic Arm for Construction of Surface Current Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmeter, Patrick; Crawford, Christopher; Guler, Emre; Fugal, Mario; Irvin, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Precision low energy neutron experiments require extremely uniform magnetic fields for manipulating the neutron spin. Such fields can be generated with surface current coils-precision 3-dimensional printed circuits. We are developing a facility to etch out these circuits on copper-plated curved forms using a high-speed spindle attached to the end-effector of a Staubli RX130 six-axis robotic arm. We describe our mathematical model of the robotic links and the software system we designed to control the motion of the arm and to prevent collisions during actuations. We developed a calibration procedure to achieve accuracy of 30 microns in the position of drill.

  10. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: Science Matters - Technical Dimensions of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Agreements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbie, James

    2017-01-01

    Agreements to reduce nuclear arms and prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons are technical as well as political documents. They must be both technically sound and politically acceptable. This presentation illustrates technical aspects of arms control and non-proliferation agreements, with examples from SALT I, INF, the HEU Agreement, START, and the Iran nuclear negotiations, drawing on 44 years of personal experience in the negotiation of these agreements. The lecture is designed to convey an appreciation of the role that individuals with technical training can play in diplomatic efforts to reduce nuclear forces and prevent nuclear proliferation.

  11. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-01-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  12. Workshop on arms control and security in the Middle East II summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Middle East peace process is now moving more rapidly than ever before. Many actors in the region have displayed a newfound willingness to adopt innovative approaches to resolving persistent conflicts. The end of the Cold War, the accord signed between Israel and the PLO in September 1993, and other recent hopeful developments in the bilateral and multilateral talks have opened the door to real progress in regional security and arms control. The door may quickly shut, however, if promising signs are not translated into concrete, practical, and verifiable agreements. To complement the ongoing negotiations and help sustain the momentum of the Middle East peace process, the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) and the Institute of International Relations, co-sponsored a Workshop on Arms Control and Security in the Middle East in Delphi, Greece, in January 1994. Participants in the Delphi workshop were current and former government officials, veteran arms control negotiators, military officers, and leading nongovernmental specialists on arms control and regional security issues from Arab states, Israel, the United States, Europe, and Russia. To facilitate frank discussions and the free exchange of ideas, the conference was held in a private, informal setting, and all discussions at the meeting were off the record. The workshop gave Arab and Israeli participants an opportunity to draw upon the expertise that American, European, and Russian experts have gained through research and development efforts and negotiations between and within governments on arms control issues. At the same time, Arab and Israeli experts voiced their ideas, perspectives, and concerns to each other and to the participants from outside the Middle East. This report summarizes the main points of agreement and the major areas of controversy that came to the fore at the Delphi conference.

  13. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations and

  14. Trial-to-trial adaptation in control of arm reaching and standing posture.

    PubMed

    Pienciak-Siewert, Alison; Horan, Dylan P; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-12-01

    Classical theories of motor learning hypothesize that adaptation is driven by sensorimotor error; this is supported by studies of arm and eye movements that have shown that trial-to-trial adaptation increases with error. Studies of postural control have shown that anticipatory postural adjustments increase with the magnitude of a perturbation. However, differences in adaptation have been observed between the two modalities, possibly due to either the inherent instability or sensory uncertainty in standing posture. Therefore, we hypothesized that trial-to-trial adaptation in posture should be driven by error, similar to what is observed in arm reaching, but the nature of the relationship between error and adaptation may differ. Here we investigated trial-to-trial adaptation of arm reaching and postural control concurrently; subjects made reaching movements in a novel dynamic environment of varying strengths, while standing and holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm. We found that error and adaptation increased with perturbation strength in both arm and posture. Furthermore, in both modalities, adaptation showed a significant correlation with error magnitude. Our results indicate that adaptation scales proportionally with error in the arm and near proportionally in posture. In posture only, adaptation was not sensitive to small error sizes, which were similar in size to errors experienced in unperturbed baseline movements due to inherent variability. This finding may be explained as an effect of uncertainty about the source of small errors. Our findings suggest that in rehabilitation, postural error size should be considered relative to the magnitude of inherent movement variability.

  15. Stepping Out of the Shade: Control of Neuronal Activity by the Scaffold Protein Kidins220/ARMS

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Cesca, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    The correct functioning of the nervous system depends on the exquisitely fine control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, which relies on an intricate network of protein-protein interactions and signaling that shapes neuronal homeostasis during development and in adulthood. In this complex scenario, Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (Kidins220/ARMS) acts as a multi-functional scaffold protein with preferential expression in the nervous system. Engaged in a plethora of interactions with membrane receptors, cytosolic signaling components and cytoskeletal proteins, Kidins220/ARMS is implicated in numerous cellular functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and maturation and neuronal activity, often in the context of neurotrophin (NT) signaling pathways. Recent studies have highlighted a number of cell- and context-specific roles for this protein in the control of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, which are at present far from being completely understood. In addition, some evidence has began to emerge, linking alterations of Kidins220 expression to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we present a concise summary of our fragmentary knowledge of Kidins220/ARMS biological functions, focusing on the mechanism(s) by which it controls various aspects of neuronal activity. We have tried, where possible, to discuss the available evidence in the wider context of NT-mediated regulation, and to outline emerging roles of Kidins220/ARMS in human pathologies. PMID:27013979

  16. Synchronized computational architecture for generalized bilateral control of robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A master six degree of freedom Force Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) is available at a master site where a received image displays, in essentially real time, a remote robotic manipulator which is being controlled in the corresponding six degree freedom by command signals which are transmitted to the remote site in accordance with the movement of the FRHC at the master site. Software is user-initiated at the master site in order to establish the basic system conditions, and then a physical movement of the FRHC in Cartesean space is reflected at the master site by six absolute numbers that are sensed, translated and computed as a difference signal relative to the earlier position. The change in position is then transmitted in that differential signal form over a high speed synchronized bilateral communication channel which simultaneously returns robot-sensed response information to the master site as forces applied to the FRHC so that the FRHC reflects the feel of what is taking place at the remote site. A system wide clock rate is selected at a sufficiently high rate that the operator at the master site experiences the Force Reflecting operation in real time.

  17. A new class of energy based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness enhancement and adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1988-01-01

    A class of joint-level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to the recently proposed energy Liapunov function approach except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. By using energy Liapunov functions with the modified potential energy, a much simpler analysis can be used to show closed-loop global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and model parameter errors are present, a sliding-mode-like modification of the control law is proposed to add a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is also addressed within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted, and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by replacing the model parameters in the nonadaptive control laws by their estimates.

  18. Trajectory and Force Control of a Direct Drive Arm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    101 td if? AW v1.0e -. M) see back DD FR, 1473 EDITION OF INOV 6 ISOUSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED S/N 0!02-OI4-6101 1 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE... SOLAR HYBRID CONTROL: SX, SYI . % * 2.0.1 SET POINT: (0.4 0.6) 0. 0.5JOINT I PRISMATIC 0. 0.0 A~~ 0aa 0 O𔃽A5 Oa 1 c .24 0.5 0.7 1.0 Figure 6.23...speed, power , and 144 almost ideal dynamic characteristics, they will continue to provide researchers with many new opportunities to study effectively

  19. AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont. Site Description - The ARM SGP Control site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots with identical towers, measurements at the US-ARc unburned plot are used as the experimental control. The second plot, US-Arb, was burned on 2005/03/08. Measurement comparisons between the control and burn plot are used to address questions regarding the effects of burning activities on carbon fluxes. The region evaded burning activities for at least 15 years. Current disturbances consist of only light grazing activities.

  20. The role of intrinsic factors in control of arm movement direction: implications from directional preferences.

    PubMed

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Goble, Jacob A; Wang, Wanyue

    2011-03-01

    The role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in control of arm movement direction remains under debate. We addressed this question by investigating preferences in selection of movement direction and whether factors causing these preferences have extrinsic or intrinsic nature. An unconstrained free-stroke drawing task was used during which participants produced straight strokes on a horizontal table, choosing the direction and the beginning and end of each stroke arbitrarily. The variation of the initial arm postures across strokes provided a possibility to distinguish between the extrinsic and intrinsic origins of directional biases. Although participants were encouraged to produce strokes equally in all directions, each participant demonstrated preferences for some directions over the others. However, the preferred directions were not consistent across participants, suggesting no directional preferences in extrinsic space. Consistent biases toward certain directions were revealed in intrinsic space representing initial arm postures. Factors contributing to the revealed preferences were analyzed within the optimal control framework. The major bias was explained by a tendency predicted by the leading joint hypothesis (LJH) to minimize active interference with interaction torque generated by shoulder motion at the elbow. Some minor biases may represent movements of minimal inertial resistance or maximal kinematic manipulability. These results support a crucial role of intrinsic factors in control of the movement direction of the arm. Based on the LJH interpretation of the major bias, we hypothesize that the dominant tendency was to minimize neural effort for control of arm intersegmental dynamics. Possible organization of neural processes underlying optimal selection of movement direction is discussed.

  1. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  2. Counterproliferation strategy: The influence of technology, budget, and arms control on theater missile defenses. Strategic research project

    SciTech Connect

    Parlier, G.H.

    1996-05-20

    This paper describes the historical evolution of the theater missile threat during World War II and the Persian Gulf War, and analyzes current technological challenges, budgetary pressures, and arms control restraints which constrain the development and deployment of effective theater missile defenses. The impact of these trends on strategic concepts as outlined in the National Military Strategy and their implications for attaining national policy objectives is assessed. A systems approach is used to described analyze, and evaluate the effectiveness of emerging counterproliferation strategy within the framework of an ends-ways-means strategy formulation paradigm. I conclude that current trends will lead to a self-deterring strategy: resources are inadequate to support the ways we intend to achieve our national objectives. Recommendations are made to eliminate unacceptable risk and enhance the concept of `extended conventional deterrence` consistent with U.S. national values and security interests for our role in a new world order.

  3. A Strategic Planning Framework for Predicting and Evaluating Soviet Interests in Arms Control. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Control Has Failed," Commentary, 65, 1 (Jan. 1978): 19-28; Henry Kissinger, "A New Approach to Arms Control," Tice, 21 March 1983, pp. 24-26; and, Colin...perhaps more often -- toan serving as harbingers of new Communist positions.’ This observation brings to mind a similar view expressed by Henry Kissinger...2, 1970). 7 Henry Kissinger, White House Years, (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), p. 811. - 73 - THE DEGREE AND SCOPE OF SOVIET INTERESTS frustration in

  4. A robust control scheme for flexible arms with friction in the joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattan, Kuldip S.; Feliu, Vicente; Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A general control scheme to control flexible arms with friction in the joints is proposed in this paper. This scheme presents the advantage of being robust in the sense that it minimizes the effects of the Coulomb friction existing in the motor and the effects of changes in the dynamic friction coefficient. A justification of the robustness properties of the scheme is given in terms of the sensitivity analysis.

  5. Reporting of analyses from randomized controlled trials with multiple arms: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple-arm randomized trials can be more complex in their design, data analysis, and result reporting than two-arm trials. We conducted a systematic review to assess the reporting of analyses in reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with multiple arms. Methods The literature in the MEDLINE database was searched for reports of RCTs with multiple arms published in 2009 in the core clinical journals. Two reviewers extracted data using a standardized extraction form. Results In total, 298 reports were identified. Descriptions of the baseline characteristics and outcomes per group were missing in 45 reports (15.1%) and 48 reports (16.1%), respectively. More than half of the articles (n = 171, 57.4%) reported that a planned global test comparison was used (that is, assessment of the global differences between all groups), but 67 (39.2%) of these 171 articles did not report details of the planned analysis. Of the 116 articles reporting a global comparison test, 12 (10.3%) did not report the analysis as planned. In all, 60% of publications (n = 180) described planned pairwise test comparisons (that is, assessment of the difference between two groups), but 20 of these 180 articles (11.1%) did not report the pairwise test comparisons. Of the 204 articles reporting pairwise test comparisons, the comparisons were not planned for 44 (21.6%) of them. Less than half the reports (n = 137; 46%) provided baseline and outcome data per arm and reported the analysis as planned. Conclusions Our findings highlight discrepancies between the planning and reporting of analyses in reports of multiple-arm trials. PMID:23531230

  6. Flight Control Development for the ARH-70 Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Kevin T.; Campbell, Kip G.; Griffith, Carl D.; Ivler, Christina M.; Tischler, Mark B.; Harding, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, Bell Helicopter won the U.S. Army's Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter competition to produce a replacement for the OH-58 Kiowa Warrior capable of performing the armed reconnaissance mission. To meet the U.S. Army requirement that the ARH-70A have Level 1 handling qualities for the scout rotorcraft mission task elements defined by ADS-33E-PRF, Bell equipped the aircraft with their generic automatic flight control system (AFCS). Under the constraints of the tight ARH-70A schedule, the development team used modem parameter identification and control law optimization techniques to optimize the AFCS gains to simultaneously meet multiple handling qualities design criteria. This paper will show how linear modeling, control law optimization, and simulation have been used to produce a Level 1 scout rotorcraft for the U.S. Army, while minimizing the amount of flight testing required for AFCS development and handling qualities evaluation of the ARH-70A.

  7. Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.

  8. Challenge inspections in Arms Control treaties: Any lessons for strengthening NPT verification?

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1992-09-01

    Recent revelations of an ongoing and sophisticated nuclear weapons development program in Iraq have lead to suggestions for strengthening International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Especially troubling was the realization that safeguards, as presently applied, could not possibly have detected such a program. It is clear that the inspections which have taken place in Iraq since the Gulf War could only have been imposed on a nation which had suffered a severe military defeat. It has, however, been argued that challenge or ``challenge like`` inspections already incorporated in or proposed for the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (the CFE Treaty) the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic offensive Arms (START) might serve as models for enhanced special inspections in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the NPT). The expectation that none of the challenge or challenge like inspections in the above treaties would provide a model for the NPT was confirmed although certain characteristics of these inspections do provide useful points of departure. Although the context of challenge inspections in CWC bears substantial similarity to the NPT, it is from the provisions for ``suspect-site`` and ``formerly declared site``, challenge like inspections in START that innovative ideas for strengthening special inspections in NPT may be derived.

  9. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy: conventional versus target controlled infusion techniques--a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Andrea; Agnoletti, Vanni; Berrettini, Stefano; Piraccini, Emanuele; Criscuolo, Armando; Corso, Ruggero; Campanini, Aldo; Gambale, Giorgio; Vicini, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the sites of pharyngeal collapse is mandatory for surgical treatment decision-making in obstructive sleep-apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) allows for the direct observation of the upper airway during sedative-induced sleep. In order to re-create snoring and apnea patterns related to a spontaneous sleep situation, the authors used a target-controlled infusion (TCI) sleep endoscopy (DISE-TCI), comparing this technique to conventional DISE, in which sedation was reached by a manual bolus injection. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, unicenter study. The apneic event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plans of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to June 2009, 40 OSAHS patients were included in the study and randomized allocated in two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the DISE-TCI group. We recorded the complete apnea event at the oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 4 patients of the conventional DISE group (20%) and in 17 patients of the DISE-TCI group (85%) (P < 0.0001). Two patients needed oxygen in the conventional DISE group because of severe desaturation that resulted from the first bolus of propofol (1 mg/kg) (P = 0.4872 ns). We recorded the instability of the sedation plan in 13 patients from the conventional DISE group (65%) and 1 patient from the DISE-TCI group (5%) (P = 0.0001). Our results suggest that the DISE-TCI technique should be the first choice in performing sleep endoscopy because of its increased accuracy, stability and safety.

  10. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Ryu, Jehkwang; Kim, Seonjin; Choi, MooYoung

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics. PMID:26536132

  11. Translational control of a graphically simulated robot arm by kinematic rate equations that overcome elbow joint singularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.; Carzoo, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    An operator commands a robot hand to move in a certain direction relative to its own axis system by specifying a velocity in that direction. This velocity command is then resolved into individual joint rotational velocities in the robot arm to effect the motion. However, the usual resolved-rate equations become singular when the robot arm is straightened. To overcome this elbow joint singularity, equations were developed which allow continued translational control of the robot hand even though the robot arm is (or is nearly) fully extended. A feature of the equations near full arm extension is that an operator simply extends and retracts the robot arm to reverse the direction of the elbow bend (difficult maneuver for the usual resolved-rate equations). Results show successful movement of a graphically simulated robot arm.

  12. Primary reaction control system/remote manipulator system interaction with loaded arm. Space shuttle engineering and operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E. C.; Davis, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the interaction between the orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) and the remote manipulator system (RMS) with a loaded arm is documented. This analysis was performed with the Payload Deployment and Retrieval Systems Simulation (PDRSS) program with the passive arm bending option. The passive-arm model simulates the arm as massless elastic links with locked joints. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was the evaluation of the response of the arm to step inputs (i.e. constant jet torques) about each of the orbiter body axes. The second part of the study was the evaluation of the response of the arm to minimum impulse primary RCS jet firings with both single pulse and pulse train inputs.

  13. Different equation: Naval issues and arms control after 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This study examines future directions and U.S. policy options in the general areas of naval and regional arms control. It reviews the Cold War history in both areas, the changes that have taken place in recent years, and the implications of the dissolution of the Soviet Union on the formulation and debate of naval and regional issues in the post 1991 decade. It examines the new Russian agenda for 'cooperative security at sea,' growing pressures to 'internationalize' naval operations and activities, the emergence and security significance of the growth of regional navies, and varying proposals for regional arms control and cooperation that might impact on naval operations. It concludes with an examination of the implications of these various developments for U.S. policy, and a review of the principal policy options.

  14. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  15. Toward a livable world: Leo Szilard and the crusade for nuclear arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, L.

    1987-01-01

    Covering the years 1947 through 1963, this volume chronicles the physicist's attempts to influence public policy on arms control and disarmament issues. The book describes Szilard's opposition to antiballistic missile systems, his proposal for a Washington-Moscow ''hot line,'' his work in the Pugwash conference, his role in creating the Council for a Liveable World, his advocacy of no-first-use and restricted retaliation nuclear policies, and his support of ''minimum deterence'' in place of an overwhelming counterforce capability.

  16. Russia and Arms Control: Are There Opportunities for the Obama Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite...bilateral consequences thereof. But those are by no means the only reasons for concern regarding the arms control agenda. Since the outbreak of the Russo...still the case that the bilateral strategic relationship is a factor of enormous consequence in international affairs beyond their own bilateral

  17. The Future Nuclear Arms Control Agenda and Its Potential Implications for the Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    US AIR FORCE INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL SECURITY STUDIES USAF ACADEMY, COLORADO INSS OCCASIONAL PAPER AUGUST 2015 70 Dr. Lewis A. Dunn The Future...Implications for the Air Force Dr. Lewis A. Dunn INSS Occasional Paper 70 August 2015 USAF Institute for National Security Studies USAF...roles, particularly with a next NPR in mind . Looking toward a post-2020 “revival” of the strategic arms control process, there are several areas

  18. Prospects for Indian and Pakistani Arms Control and Confidence-Building Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    section examines the strategic anxieties of India and Pakistan, re- spectively; the second section reviews the treaties and CBMs that have been attempted...environment amenable to pragmatic CBMs and limited arms-control measures. STRATEGIC ANXIETIES As previously suggested, the dynamics associated with the...perceptions must be factored into the overall security equation. India’s Strategic Anxieties In general, India believes that China is encircling the country

  19. Defense and Arms Control Studies Program, Annual Report 1992-1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    and George Rathjens, "Nuclear Weapons After the Cold War," in Joseph Rotblat , Jack Steinberger, and Bhalchandra Udgaonkar, editors, A Nuclear- Weapon...February 1993). DEFENSE AND ARMS CONTROL STUDIES PROGRAM12 Marvin Miller and Jack Ruina, "The Breakout Problem," in Joseph Rotblat , Jack Steinberger, and...Aftermath October 14- ROBERT ALVAREZ U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs Disarmament and the U.S. Nuclear Cleanup October 21 - JOSEPH

  20. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  <6°. An upper cervical SCI patient, empowered by the exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. Significance. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of

  1. Defense Logistics: Enhanced Policy and Procedures Needed to Improve Management of Sensitive Conventional Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Abbreviations AA &E Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives CAS Combat Ammunition System CIIC Controlled Inventory Item Code DOD Department of Defense DODI...DODM) 5100.76, Physical Security of Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives ( AA &E) (Apr. 17, 2012). 3SRC designation is based on the...Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives ( AA &E) sets forth DOD policy on the physical security of sensitive conventional AA &E. According to DODM

  2. Use of Social Media to Target Information-Driven Arms Control and Nonproliferation Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Williams, Laura S.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Whattam, Kevin M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Rose, Stuart J.; Bell, Eric B.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-07-19

    There has been considerable discussion within the national security community, including a recent workshop sponsored by the U.S. State Department, about the use of social media for extracting patterns of collective behavior and influencing public perception in areas relevant to arms control and nonproliferation. This paper seeks to explore if, and how, social media can be used to supplement nonproliferation and arms control inspection and monitoring activities on states and sites of greatest proliferation relevance. In this paper, we set the stage for how social media can be applied in this problem space and describe some of the foreseen challenges, including data validation, sources and attributes, verification, and security. Using information analytics and data visualization capabilities available at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), we provide graphical examples of some social media "signatures" of potential relevance for nonproliferation and arms control purposes. We conclude by describing a proposed case study and offering recommendations both for further research and next steps by the policy community.

  3. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  4. An Embedded Laser Marking Controller Based on ARM and FPGA Processors

    PubMed Central

    Dongyun, Wang; Xinpiao, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking. PMID:24772028

  5. An embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors.

    PubMed

    Dongyun, Wang; Xinpiao, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking.

  6. Intelligent control of robotic arm/hand systems for the NASA EVA retriever using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive/general learning algorithms using varying neural network models are considered for the intelligent control of robotic arm plus dextrous hand/manipulator systems. Results are summarized and discussed for the use of the Barto/Sutton/Anderson neuronlike, unsupervised learning controller as applied to the stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a cart system. Recommendations are made for the application of the controller and a kinematic analysis for trajectory planning to simple object retrieval (chase/approach and capture/grasp) scenarios in two dimensions.

  7. Machine-based, self-guided home therapy for individuals with severe arm impairment after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zondervan, DK; Augsburger, R; Bodenhoefer, B; Friedman, N; Reinkensmeyer, DJ; Cramer, SC

    2015-01-01

    Background Few therapeutic options exist for the millions of persons living with severe arm impairment after stroke to increase their dose of arm rehabilitation. This study compared self-guided, high-repetition home therapy with a mechanical device (the Resonating Arm Exerciser - RAE) to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke, and explored RAE use for patients with subacute stroke. Methods Sixteen participants with severe upper extremity impairment (mean Fugl-Meyer (FM) score = 21.4 ± 8.8 out of 66) > 6 months post stroke were randomized to three-weeks of exercise with RAE or conventional exercises. Primary outcome measure was FM score one month post-therapy. Secondary outcome measures included MAL, Visual Analog Pain scale, and Ashworth spasticity scale. After a one-month break, individuals in the conventional group also received a three-week course of RAE therapy. Results The change in FM score was significant in both the RAE and conventional groups after training (2.6 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 2.4, p = 0.008 and 0.016, respectively). These improvements were not significant at one-month. Exercise with RAE led to significantly greater improvements in distal FM score than conventional therapy at the one-month follow-up (p = 0.02). In a separate cohort of patients with subacute stroke, RAE was found feasible for exercise. Discussion In subjects with severe arm impairment after chronic stroke, home-based training with RAE was feasible and significantly reduced impairment without increasing pain or spasticity. Gains with RAE were comparable to those found with conventional training, and also included distal arm improvement. PMID:25273359

  8. Naval Arms Control: A Poor Choice of Words and an Idea Whose Time Has Yet to Come

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-23

    BT EWE COPY hNPS-56-90-012 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ’D STA TEs ?’G... R AcT DDA3 i 1SEP2 01990 NAVAL ARMS CONTROL: A POOR...NAVAL ARMS CONTROL: A POOR CHOICE OF WORDS AND AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS YET TO COME 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) James J. Tritten 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME...technical grounds. Author reviews the goals of arms control and finds none of these three areas in need of formal regulation. Author concludes with a number

  9. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  10. Adaptive Strategies for Controls of Flexible Arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Bau-San

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a modern manipulator has been designed based on asymptotical stability via the Lyapunov criterion with the output error between the system and a reference model used as the actuating control signal. Computer simulations were carried out to test the design. The combination of the adaptive controller and a system vibration and mode shape estimator show that the flexible arm should move along a pre-defined trajectory with high-speed motion and fast vibration setting time. An existing computer-controlled prototype two link manipulator, RALF (Robotic Arm, Large Flexible), with a parallel mechanism driven by hydraulic actuators was used to verify the mathematical analysis. The experimental results illustrate that assumed modes found from finite element techniques can be used to derive the equations of motion with acceptable accuracy. The robust adaptive (modal) control is implemented to compensate for unmodelled modes and nonlinearities and is compared with the joint feedback control in additional experiments. Preliminary results show promise for the experimental control algorithm.

  11. Recommendations on multiple testing adjustment in multi-arm trials with a shared control group.

    PubMed

    Howard, Dena R; Brown, Julia M; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M

    2016-09-19

    Multi-arm clinical trials assessing multiple experimental treatments against a shared control group can offer efficiency advantages over independent trials through assessing an increased number of hypotheses. Published opinion is divided on the requirement for multiple testing adjustment to control the family-wise type-I error rate (FWER). The probability of a false positive error in multi-arm trials compared to equivalent independent trials is affected by the correlation between comparisons due to sharing control data. We demonstrate that this correlation in fact leads to a reduction in the FWER, therefore FWER adjustment is not recommended solely due to sharing control data. In contrast, the correlation increases the probability of multiple false positive outcomes across the hypotheses, although standard FWER adjustment methods do not control for this. A stringent critical value adjustment is proposed to maintain equivalent evidence of superiority in two correlated comparisons to that obtained within independent trials. FWER adjustment is only required if there is an increased chance of making a single claim of effectiveness by testing multiple hypotheses, not due to sharing control data. For competing experimental therapies, the correlation between comparisons can be advantageous as it eliminates bias due to the experimental therapies being compared to different control populations.

  12. Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky: Physics, Science Policy, and Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera

    2010-10-13

    Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, professor at Stanford University and founding director of the Stanford Linear Accelerator, was a legendary figure in physics in the second half of the 20th century. He is respected for his contribution in three important areas: as a scientist who advanced particle physics and accelerator development, as the founder of SLAC, a research laboratory of international rank, and a long-time advisor to the US government on science policy, on national security, and on arms control. Over many years he was the outstanding leader of the US National Academy of Sciences efforts to advise the US government on the need for international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation and arms reduction. This presentation will high light the accomplishment of the gentleman who became a legendary and beloved figure to all who had a chance to meet and interact with him, and who called him simply Pief.

  13. Long-term efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA and conventional treatment of poststroke arm spasticity: a prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Dirk; Rychlik, Reinhard; Kreimendahl, Fabian; Schnur, Nicole; Lambert-Baumann, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA with conventional antispastic therapy for poststroke arm spasticity in routine clinical practice over a 1-year period. Design Prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study. Setting 47 centres in Germany. Participants Patients with poststroke arm spasticity; 108 receiving incobotulinumtoxinA, 110 conventional therapy. Intervention Conventional antispastic treatment including oral antispastic medications, physiotherapy and occupational therapy or 3-monthly incobotulinumtoxinA injections plus conventional therapy if required. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was changes in muscle tone (Ashworth Scale) over the 1-year treatment period. Changes in functional disability (Disability Assessment Scale) and quality of life (Short-Form-12 Health Survey) were additionally assessed. Ratings for therapy outcome (Goal Attainment Scale), and efficacy and tolerability of treatment (Global Clinical Impression Scale) were also obtained. Results Muscle tone improved for all spasticity patterns with the Ashworth Scale responder rates between 63% and 86% (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 16–27% (conventional therapy). Median improvement in functional disability was –1.0 (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 0.0 (conventional measures) for all domains. Treatment goals were attained by 93% of incobotulinumtoxinA patients and 30% of patients under conventional therapy. Most physicians (93%) and patients (90%) rated efficacy as good or very good under incobotulinumtoxinA; the proportions were much lower under conventional therapy (36% and 37%). Tolerability under incobotulinumtoxinA was considered good or very good by 99% of physicians and patients (76% and 66%, respectively, under conventional therapy). Quality of life under incobotulinumtoxinA improved by 8.0 (physical score) and 10.8 (mental score) and by 0.8 and 5.7, respectively, under conventional therapy. Conclusions IncobotulinumtoxinA combined

  14. Identifying, Visualizing, and Fusing Social Media Data to Support Nonproliferation and Arms Control Treaty Verification: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Whattam, Kevin M.

    2013-07-11

    While international nonproliferation and arms control verification capabilities have their foundations in physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, and on-site inspections, verification experts are beginning to consider the importance of open source data to complement and support traditional means of verification. One of those new, and increasingly expanding, sources of open source information is social media, which can be ingested and understood through social media analytics (SMA). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to further our ability to identify, visualize, and fuse social media data to support nonproliferation and arms control treaty verification efforts. This paper will describe our preliminary research to examine social media signatures of nonproliferation or arms control proxy events. We will describe the development of our preliminary nonproliferation and arms control proxy events, outline our initial findings, and propose ideas for future work.

  15. Stability analysis of position and force control problems for robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Murphy, Steve

    1990-01-01

    Stability issues involving the control of a robot arm under the influence of external forces are discussed. Several different scenarios are considered: position control with the external force as an unmodeled disturbance, compliant control for a bounded external force in some subspace, and compliant control for a force due to the interaction with an environment whose dynamical behavior can be modeled. In each of these cases, a stability analysis using the Lyapunov method is presented. An explanation of instability is put forth for the case in which the environment has flexibility and the gains are inappropriately chosen. When the environment is stiff in the force control subspace, robust stability can be achieved with the integral force feedback.

  16. Design of a telescope control system using an ARM microcontroller with embedded RTOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela Pico, Cristian R.; Atara Montañez, Fabian A.; Cuervo, Juan C.; Gonzalez-Llorente, Jesus

    2014-08-01

    This work presents the design of a wireless control system that allows driving all the necessary instruments to control the orientation of an equatorial mounting telescope through a real time operative system (RTOS) that runs over ARM microcontroller. The control system is commanded through a user-interface which works under Android platform giving the user the option to control the tracking mode, right ascension, and declination. The system was successfully deployed and tested during a one-hour observation of the Moon. The frequency measured by the oscilloscope is 66.67 Hz which equals the sidereal speed. The telescope control systems allows the user to have a better precision when locating a star but also to cover long-duration tracking processes

  17. Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan; Grossman, Paul; Schwarzer, Barbara; Jena, Susanne; Naumann, Johannes; Walach, Harald

    2011-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured 8-week group program teaching mindfulness meditation and mindful yoga exercises. MBSR aims to help participants develop nonjudgmental awareness of moment-to-moment experience. Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome with chronic pain, fatigue, and insomnia as major symptoms. Efficacy of MBSR for enhanced well-being of fibromyalgia patients was investigated in a 3-armed trial, which was a follow-up to an earlier quasi-randomized investigation. A total of 177 female patients were randomized to one of the following: (1) MBSR, (2) an active control procedure controlling for nonspecific effects of MBSR, or (3) a wait list. The major outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 2 months post-treatment. Secondary outcomes were disorder-specific quality of life, depression, pain, anxiety, somatic complaints, and a proposed index of mindfulness. Of the patients, 82% completed the study. There were no significant differences between groups on primary outcome, but patients overall improved in HRQoL at short-term follow-up (P=0.004). Post hoc analyses showed that only MBSR manifested a significant pre-to-post-intervention improvement in HRQoL (P=0.02). Furthermore, multivariate analysis of secondary measures indicated modest benefits for MBSR patients. MBSR yielded significant pre-to-post-intervention improvements in 6 of 8 secondary outcome variables, the active control in 3, and the wait list in 2. In conclusion, primary outcome analyses did not support the efficacy of MBSR in fibromyalgia, although patients in the MBSR arm appeared to benefit most. Effect sizes were small compared to the earlier, quasi-randomized investigation. Several methodological aspects are discussed, e.g., patient burden, treatment preference and motivation, that may provide explanations for differences. In a 3-armed randomized controlled trial in female patients suffering from fibromyalgia, patients benefited modestly from a mindfulness

  18. Strategy of arm movement control is determined by minimization of neural effort for joint coordination.

    PubMed

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Shimansky, Yury

    2016-06-01

    Optimality criteria underlying organization of arm movements are often validated by testing their ability to adequately predict hand trajectories. However, kinematic redundancy of the arm allows production of the same hand trajectory through different joint coordination patterns. We therefore consider movement optimality at the level of joint coordination patterns. A review of studies of multi-joint movement control suggests that a 'trailing' pattern of joint control is consistently observed during which a single ('leading') joint is rotated actively and interaction torque produced by this joint is the primary contributor to the motion of the other ('trailing') joints. A tendency to use the trailing pattern whenever the kinematic redundancy is sufficient and increased utilization of this pattern during skillful movements suggests optimality of the trailing pattern. The goal of this study is to determine the cost function minimization of which predicts the trailing pattern. We show that extensive experimental testing of many known cost functions cannot successfully explain optimality of the trailing pattern. We therefore propose a novel cost function that represents neural effort for joint coordination. That effort is quantified as the cost of neural information processing required for joint coordination. We show that a tendency to reduce this 'neurocomputational' cost predicts the trailing pattern and that the theoretically developed predictions fully agree with the experimental findings on control of multi-joint movements. Implications for future research of the suggested interpretation of the trailing joint control pattern and the theory of joint coordination underlying it are discussed.

  19. A neural model of cerebellar learning for arm movement control: cortico-spino-cerebellar dynamics.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vidal, J L; Grossberg, S; Bullock, D

    1997-01-01

    A neural network model of opponent cerebellar learning for arm movement control is proposed. The model illustrates how a central pattern generator in cortex and basal ganglia, a neuromuscular force controller in spinal cord, and an adaptive cerebellum cooperate to reduce motor variability during multijoint arm movements using mono- and bi-articular muscles. Cerebellar learning modifies velocity commands to produce phasic antagonist bursts at interpositus nucleus cells whose feed-forward action overcomes inherent limitations of spinal feedback control of tracking. Excitation of alpha motoneuron pools, combined with inhibition of their Renshaw cells by the cerebellum, facilitate movement initiation and optimal execution. Transcerebellar pathways are opened by learning through long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in response to conjunctive stimulation of parallel fibers and climbing fiber discharges that signal muscle stretch errors. The cerebellar circuitry also learns to control opponent muscles pairs, allowing cocontraction and reciprocal inhibition of muscles. Learning is stable, exhibits load compensation properties, and generalizes better across movement speeds if motoneuron pools obey the size principle. The intermittency of climbing fiber discharges maintains stable learning. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to uncorrelated parallel fiber signals enables previously weakened synapses to recover. Loss of climbing fibers, in the presence of LTP, can erode normal opponent signal processing. Simulated lesions of the cerebellar network reproduce symptoms of cerebellar disease, including sluggish movement onsets, poor execution of multijoint plans, and abnormally prolonged endpoint oscillations.

  20. Arms control movements and the media: From the Cold War to the nuclear freeze

    SciTech Connect

    Rojecki, A.

    1993-12-31

    The dissertation examines news coverage of the two most recent arms control movements: The test ban (1957-1963) and the nuclear freeze (1981-1984). Four questions guide the research: (1) To what extent do the news media maintain a space for oppositional politics that is independent of elite influence? (2) DOes the existence and characters of the space matter to policy outcomes? (3) Has the character of voices permitted into this space changed over time? (4) Are there differences between the more elite-oriented media and those aiming for mass audiences? The study begins by tracing the formation of arms control policy in the three presidential administrations that span the two movements. Finally, it examines the news frames used to depict movement messages and participants. The study found that space provided to movement politics varied both with administration policy formation and editorial policy. Because news coverage followed the contours of elite policy, the movements succeeded only in placing their issues on the policy agenda but not in achieving their desired goals. There were significant differences in the types of voiced permitted into the news across the two movements. Moral authority to participate in and influence arms control policy debates was virtually unquestioned during the cold war, but by the 1980s, the media were more likely to defer to expert opinion, despite its underlying partisan interest. The most significant difference in news treatment was between the elite press and television news: The simplicity of the television report was more likely to elicit core issues. But neither the press, the opposition party in Congress, nor the movement used these to challenge the rationale of administration policy or to explore the ethical implications of the influence of defense industry PACs on policy-making.

  1. Mars Surveyor '98 Landers MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Solutions are presented to some of the problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing resources. Problems addressed include 4-DOF forward and inverse kinematics, trajectory planning to minimize potential impact damage, joint drive train protection, Lander tilt prevention, hardware fault monitoring, and collision avoidance.

  2. SDI and the lawyers: Evolving interpretations of international arms control accords

    SciTech Connect

    Kaman, E.J.; Loprest, F.J. Jr.; Pisano, N.A.; Steiner, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This note surveys international agreements that SDI may violate and discusses the policies underlying these potential legal and diplomatic conflicts. Part I provides an overview of the ABM Treaty, with emphasis on the provisions involved in the present interpretation controversy. Part II considers five other international covenants containing provisions upon which SDI may ultimately encroach. Part III evaluates several policy proposals that would permit SDI to proceed consistently with American international diplomatic commitments. This part also examines how an outright abrogation of the ABM Treaty or other agreements might affect American credibility and the arms-control process.

  3. Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky: Scientist and Arms-Control Expert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüth, Vera G.

    2013-10-01

    Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky is remembered as the legendary founder and first director of SLAC, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. He devoted his life to teaching and research in accelerator and particle physics, to science policy, to his work as a science advisor to both the US and foreign governments, and to world peace as an expert on arms control and international security. He was admired by all who had a chance to meet and interact with him, and who simply called him Pief.

  4. Multi-objective optimization of an active constrained layer damping treatment for vibration control of a rotating flexible arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, L. C.; Fung, E. H. K.; Yau, D. T. W.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the use of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to solve an integrated optimization problem of a rotating flexible arm with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The arm is rotating in a horizontal plane with triangular velocity profiles. The ACLD patch is placed at the clamped end of the arm. The design objectives are to minimize the total treatment weight, the control voltage and the tip displacement of the arm, as well as to maximize the passive damping characteristic of the arm. Design variables include the control gains, the maximum angular velocity, the shear modulus of the viscoelastic layer, the thickness of the piezoelectric constraining and viscoelastic layers, and the length of the ACLD patch. In order to evaluate the effect of different combinations of design variables on the system, the finite element method, in conjunction with the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method, is employed to model the flexible arm with ACLD treatment to predict its dynamic behavior, in which the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to the rotation of flexible arm are taken into account. As a result of optimization, reasonable Pareto solutions are successfully obtained. It is shown that the MOGA is applicable to the present integrated optimization problem.

  5. Randomised controlled trial of doxorubicin-eluting beads vs conventional chemoembolisation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Golfieri, R; Giampalma, E; Renzulli, M; Cioni, R; Bargellini, I; Bartolozzi, C; Breatta, A D; Gandini, G; Nani, R; Gasparini, D; Cucchetti, A; Bolondi, L; Trevisani, F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is the treatment of choice for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Doxorubicin-loaded drug-eluting beads (DEB)-TACE is expected to improve the performance of conventional TACE (cTACE). The aim of this study was to compare DEB-TACE with cTACE in terms of time-to-tumour progression (TTP), adverse events (AEs), and 2-year survival. Methods: Patients were randomised one-to-one to undergo cTACE or DEB-TACE and followed-up for at least 2 years or until death. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation was repeated ‘on-demand'. Results: We enrolled 177 patients: 89 underwent DEB-TACE and 88 cTACE. The median number of procedures was 2 in each arm, and the in-hospital stay was 3 and 4 days, respectively (P=0.323). No differences were found in local and overall tumour response. The median TTP was 9 months in both arms. The AE incidence and severity did not differ between the arms, except for post-procedural pain, more frequent and severe after cTACE (P<0.001). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 86.2% and 56.8% after DEB-TACE and 83.5% and 55.4% after cTACE (P=0.949). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), serum albumin, and tumour number independently predicted survival (P<0.05). Conclusions: The DEB-TACE and the cTACE are equally effective and safe, with the only advantage of DEB-TACE being less post-procedural abdominal pain. PMID:24937669

  6. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenyu; Lilly, Michael B; Koziol, James A; Chen, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Yipeng; Skarecky, Douglas; Sutton, Manuel; Sawyers, Anne; Ruckle, Herbert; Carpenter, Philip M; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Pan, Cong; Zhu, Jian-Guo; McLaren, Christine E; Gurley, Michael J; Lee, Chung; McClelland, Michael; Ahlering, Thomas; Kattan, Michael W; Mercola, Dan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  7. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  8. Feedback attitude sliding mode regulation control of spacecraft using arm motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ye; Liang, Bin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu

    2013-09-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude regulation based on the reaction of arm motion has attracted extensive attentions from both engineering and academic fields. Most of the solutions of the manipulator’s motion tracking problem just achieve asymptotical stabilization performance, so that these controllers cannot realize precise attitude regulation because of the existence of non-holonomic constraints. Thus, sliding mode control algorithms are adopted to stabilize the tracking error with zero transient process. Due to the switching effects of the variable structure controller, once the tracking error reaches the designed hyper-plane, it will be restricted to this plane permanently even with the existence of external disturbances. Thus, precise attitude regulation can be achieved. Furthermore, taking the non-zero initial tracking errors and chattering phenomenon into consideration, saturation functions are used to replace sign functions to smooth the control torques. The relations between the upper bounds of tracking errors and the controller parameters are derived to reveal physical characteristic of the controller. Mathematical models of free-floating space manipulator are established and simulations are conducted in the end. The results show that the spacecraft’s attitude can be regulated to the position as desired by using the proposed algorithm, the steady state error is 0.000 2 rad. In addition, the joint tracking trajectory is smooth, the joint tracking errors converges to zero quickly with a satisfactory continuous joint control input. The proposed research provides a feasible solution for spacecraft attitude regulation by using arm motion, and improves the precision of the spacecraft attitude regulation.

  9. Improvement of helicopter attitude stability by active control of the conventional swash plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Norman D.

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report on improvement of helicopter attitude stability by active control of the conventional swash plate covering the period from Nov. 1986 to Dec. 1993 is presented. A paper on the history, principles, and applications of helicopter individual-blade-control is included.

  10. Adaptive use of interaction torque during arm reaching movement from the optimal control viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Van Hoan; Isableu, Brice; Berret, Bastien

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the extent to which the brain adaptively exploits or compensates interaction torque (IT) during movement control in various velocity and load conditions. Participants performed arm pointing movements toward a horizontal plane without a prescribed reach endpoint at slow, neutral and rapid speeds and with/without load attached to the forearm. Experimental results indicated that IT overall contributed to net torque (NT) to assist the movement, and that such contribution increased with limb inertia and instructed speed and led to hand trajectory variations. We interpreted these results within the (inverse) optimal control framework, assuming that the empirical arm trajectories derive from the minimization of a certain, possibly composite, cost function. Results indicated that mixing kinematic, energetic and dynamic costs was necessary to replicate the participants’ adaptive behavior at both kinematic and dynamic levels. Furthermore, the larger contribution of IT to NT was associated with an overall decrease of the kinematic cost contribution and an increase of its dynamic/energetic counterparts. Altogether, these results suggest that the adaptive use of IT might be tightly linked to the optimization of a composite cost which implicitly favors more the kinematic or kinetic aspects of movement depending on load and speed. PMID:27941920

  11. Production of stable bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange

    PubMed Central

    Gramer, Michael J; van den Bremer, Ewald TJ; van Kampen, Muriel D; Kundu, Amitava; Kopfmann, Peter; Etter, Eric; Stinehelfer, David; Long, Justin; Lannom, Tom; Noordergraaf, Esther H; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Labrijn, Aran F; Schuurman, Janine; van Berkel, Patrick HC; Parren, Paul WHI

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of bispecific antibodies can be challenging for a variety of reasons. For example, protein expression problems, stability issues, or the use of non-standard approaches for manufacturing can result in poor yield or poor facility fit. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of standard antibody platforms for large-scale manufacturing of bispecific IgG1 by controlled Fab-arm exchange. Two parental antibodies that each contain a single matched point mutation in the CH3 region were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and manufactured at 1000 L scale using a platform fed-batch and purification process that was designed for standard antibody production. The bispecific antibody was generated by mixing the two parental molecules under controlled reducing conditions, resulting in efficient Fab-arm exchange of >95% at kg scale. The reductant was removed via diafiltration, resulting in spontaneous reoxidation of interchain disulfide bonds. Aside from the bispecific nature of the molecule, extensive characterization demonstrated that the IgG1 structural integrity was maintained, including function and stability. These results demonstrate the suitability of this bispecific IgG1 format for commercial-scale manufacturing using standard antibody manufacturing techniques. PMID:23995617

  12. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

    2007-11-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

  13. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  14. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health. PMID:19333806

  15. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, H M; Glantz, S A

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies, including publication of a newsletter, shaming symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process, by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet, and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health.

  16. The timing of control signals underlying fast point-to-point arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, M; Feldman, A G

    2001-04-01

    It is known that proprioceptive feedback induces muscle activation when the facilitation of appropriate motoneurons exceeds their threshold. In the suprathreshold range, the muscle-reflex system produces torques depending on the position and velocity of the joint segment(s) that the muscle spans. The static component of the torque-position relationship is referred to as the invariant characteristic (IC). According to the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, control systems produce movements by changing the activation thresholds and thus shifting the IC of the appropriate muscles in joint space. This control process upsets the balance between muscle and external torques at the initial limb configuration and, to regain the balance, the limb is forced to establish a new configuration or, if the movement is prevented, a new level of static torques. Taken together, the joint angles and the muscle torques generated at an equilibrium configuration define a single variable called the EP. Thus by shifting the IC, control systems reset the EP. Muscle activation and movement emerge following the EP resetting because of the natural physical tendency of the system to reach equilibrium. Empirical and simulation studies support the notion that the control IC shifts and the resulting EP shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements are gradual rather than step-like. However, controversies exist about the duration of these shifts. Some studies suggest that the IC shifts cease with the movement offset. Other studies propose that the IC shifts end early in comparison to the movement duration (approximately, at peak velocity). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration of the IC shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements. Subjects made fast (hand peak velocity about 1.3 m/s) planar arm movements toward different targets while grasping a handle. Hand forces applied to the handle and shoulder/elbow torques were, respectively, measured from a force sensor placed

  17. Arms Control without Arms Control: The Failure of the Biological Weapons Convention Protocol and a New Paradigm for Fighting the Threat of Biological Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    and in 1990, soon-to-be-retired President F.W. de Klerk ordered all work halted on lethal agents.53 Arguably the most disconcerting and dangerous...anything that provides for a level of assurance exceeding 50 percent makes sense.” 93 Frederick Aandahl et al., eds., “Formulation of a United States

  18. FAT-based adaptive sliding control for flexible arms: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haung, An-Chyau; Liao, Kuo-Kai

    2006-11-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for flexible arms containing time-varying uncertainties with unknown bounds based on function approximation technique (FAT). The uncertainties are firstly represented by finite linear combinations of orthonormal basis with some unknown constant weighting vectors. Output error dynamics can thus be derived as a stable first-order filter driven by parameter error vectors. Appropriate update laws for the weighting vectors are selected using the Lyapunov method so that asymptotic convergence of the output error can be proved as long as a sufficient number of basis functions are used. Effects of the approximation error on system performance are also investigated in this paper. Both computer simulation and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed control strategy.

  19. Control of a flexible-link robotic arm manipulating an unknown dynamic payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alder, Lawrence John

    1993-12-01

    When light-weight space-based robots, such as the space shuttle's RMS (remote manipulator system), manipulate massive payloads such as satellites, significant structural bending is induced in the links of the robot. In addition, space-based robots will often manipulate payloads that are not rigid bodies: for example, satellites may contain fuel or have flexible appendages. This dissertation contributes new basic technology that will enable flexible-link manipulators to perform precise end-point control of payloads while simultaneously controlling the unknown internal dynamics of the payload. The approach taken here combines high-performance control with an innovative identification algorithm. In addition, to facilitate the development of controllers, a numerically efficient procedure to merge payload and arm dynamic models is presented. First, controllers incorporating end-point feedback with a known payload are made robust to high-frequency modelling errors, sensor noise, and sensor bias using frequency-weighted linear quadratic Gaussian design methods. Using end-point position measurements as the primary sensor, the robot is then capable of actively damping the internal payload dynamics an order of magnitude faster than the natural damping rate--if it knows the payload parameter. However, with this type of controller small parameter variations in the payload can lead to poor performance or instability. This research has therefore also developed an identification algorithm that updates the end-point controller parameters; this enables the system to achieve high performance when the payload dynamics are not known a priori. By using a nominal control law, the identification problem can be reduced to detecting and identifying eigenvalues of a closed system. To identify these eigenvalues, a generic algorithm capable of determining the eigenvalues of a system in real time has been developed: even the order of the system need not be known in advance. With this approach

  20. Evidence for Composite Cost Functions in Arm Movement Planning: An Inverse Optimal Control Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berret, Bastien; Chiovetto, Enrico; Nori, Francesco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    An important issue in motor control is understanding the basic principles underlying the accomplishment of natural movements. According to optimal control theory, the problem can be stated in these terms: what cost function do we optimize to coordinate the many more degrees of freedom than necessary to fulfill a specific motor goal? This question has not received a final answer yet, since what is optimized partly depends on the requirements of the task. Many cost functions were proposed in the past, and most of them were found to be in agreement with experimental data. Therefore, the actual principles on which the brain relies to achieve a certain motor behavior are still unclear. Existing results might suggest that movements are not the results of the minimization of single but rather of composite cost functions. In order to better clarify this last point, we consider an innovative experimental paradigm characterized by arm reaching with target redundancy. Within this framework, we make use of an inverse optimal control technique to automatically infer the (combination of) optimality criteria that best fit the experimental data. Results show that the subjects exhibited a consistent behavior during each experimental condition, even though the target point was not prescribed in advance. Inverse and direct optimal control together reveal that the average arm trajectories were best replicated when optimizing the combination of two cost functions, nominally a mix between the absolute work of torques and the integrated squared joint acceleration. Our results thus support the cost combination hypothesis and demonstrate that the recorded movements were closely linked to the combination of two complementary functions related to mechanical energy expenditure and joint-level smoothness. PMID:22022242

  1. Operation logic and functionality of automatic dose rate and image quality control of conventional fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul

    2009-05-15

    New generation of fluoroscopic imaging systems is equipped with spectral shaping filters complemented with sophisticated automatic dose rate and image quality control logic called ''fluoroscopy curve'' or ''trajectory''. Such fluoroscopy curves were implemented first on cardiovascular angiographic imaging systems and are now available on conventional fluoroscopy equipment. This study aims to investigate the control logic operations under the fluoroscopy mode and acquisition mode (equivalent to the legacy spot filming) of a conventional fluoroscopy system typically installed for upper-lower gastrointestinal examinations, interventional endoscopy laboratories, gastrointestinal laboratory, and pain clinics.

  2. Effects of Action Observational Training Plus Brain-Computer Interface-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation on Paretic Arm Motor Recovery in Patient with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, TaeHoon; Kim, SeongSik; Lee, ByoungHee

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether action observational training (AOT) plus brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation (BCI-FES) has a positive influence on motor recovery of paretic upper extremity in patients with stroke. This was a hospital-based, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Thirty patients with a first-time stroke were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The BCI-FES group administered to AOT plus BCI-FES on the paretic upper extremity five times per week during 4 weeks while both groups received conventional therapy. The primary outcomes were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity, Motor Activity Log (MAL), Modified Barthel Index and range of motion of paretic arm. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 4 weeks. All baseline outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. After 4 weeks, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity sub-items (total, shoulder and wrist), MAL (MAL-Activity of Use and Quality of Movement), Modified Barthel Index and wrist flexion range of motion were significantly higher in the BCI-FES group (p < 0.05). AOT plus BCI-based FES is effective in paretic arm rehabilitation by improving the upper extremity performance. The motor improvements suggest that AOT plus BCI-based FES can be used as a therapeutic tool for stroke rehabilitation. The limitations of the study are that subjects had a certain limited level of upper arm function, and the sample size was comparatively small; hence, it is recommended that future large-scale trials should consider stratified and lager populations according to upper arm function.

  3. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that the

  4. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

    PubMed

    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well.

  5. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.; Noriega-Hernández, M.; Salazar-Hueta, A.

    2015-01-01

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes.

  6. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Joshua M.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies—correlated muscle activations—to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption—when available—can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the

  7. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Joshua M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies--correlated muscle activations--to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption--when available--can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the mechanisms

  8. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a

  9. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  10. Disarmament and arms control in the nuclear age. Report from the Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book has been prepared to facilitate more informed public debate in Australia over the dangers of nuclear war and ways of reducing its likelihood in the future. It provides a summary of the basic facts and issues that underly the nuclear debate as well as provide an assessment of Australia's contribution to disarmament and arms control. The report has three basic aims: to provide a compendium or factual information on our current nuclear circumstances and our continuing search to control and eliminate nuclear arms; to describe and analyse Australia's contributions to disarmament and arms control and the maintenance of international peace and security; and to help prepare an agenda for informed debate over our future direction and policies for reducing the risk of nuclear war.

  11. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  12. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  13. Ground Truthing the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  14. SHIFTS IN VINEYARD WEED SEED BANK COMPOSITION IN REPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL WEED CONTROL PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this research was to compare the organic weed control practice, soil cultivation, to the conventional practice, applications of the herbicide, glyphosate, in terms of their effects on weed seed bank in a vineyard system. The experiment was conducted in a commercial winegrape vineyard in t...

  15. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  16. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP), compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC). Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only) usual and customary (UCC) therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary hypothesis is that the

  17. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  18. Historical controls for metastatic pancreatic cancer: benchmarks for planning and analyzing single-arm phase II trials.

    PubMed

    Philip, Philip A; Chansky, Kari; LeBlanc, Michael; Rubinstein, Lawrence; Seymour, Lesley; Ivy, S Percy; Alberts, Steven R; Catalano, Paul J; Crowley, John

    2014-08-15

    We compiled and analyzed a database of cooperative group trials in advanced pancreatic cancer to develop historical benchmarks for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Such benchmarks are essential for evaluating new therapies in a single-arm setting. The analysis included patients with untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer receiving regimens that included gemcitabine, between 1995 and 2005. Prognostic baseline factors were selected by their significance in Cox regression analysis. Outlier trial arms were identified by comparing individual 6-month OS and PFS rates against the entire group. The dataset selected for the generation of OS and PFS benchmarks was then tested for intertrial arm variability using a logistic-normal model with the selected baseline prognostic factors as fixed effects and the individual trial arm as a random effect. A total of 1,132 cases from eight trials qualified. Performance status and sex were independently significant for OS, and performance status was prognostic for PFS. Outcomes for one trial (NCCTG-034A) were significantly different from the other trial arms. When this trial was excluded, the remaining trial arms were homogeneous for OS and PFS outcomes after adjusting for performance status and sex. Benchmark values for 6-month OS and PFS are reported along with a method for using these values in future study design and analysis. The benchmark survival values were generated from a dataset that was homogeneous between trials. The benchmarks can be used to enable single-arm phase II trials using a gemcitabine platform, especially under certain circumstances. Such circumstances might be when a randomized control arm is not practically feasible, an early signal of activity of an experimental agent is being explored such as in expansion cohorts of phase I studies, and in patients who are not candidates for combination cytotoxic therapy.

  19. Comparison of intervention effects in split-mouth and parallel-arm randomized controlled trials: a meta-epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Split-mouth randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are popular in oral health research. Meta-analyses frequently include trials of both split-mouth and parallel-arm designs to derive combined intervention effects. However, carry-over effects may induce bias in split- mouth RCTs. We aimed to assess whether intervention effect estimates differ between split- mouth and parallel-arm RCTs investigating the same questions. Methods We performed a meta-epidemiological study. We systematically reviewed meta- analyses including both split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs with binary or continuous outcomes published up to February 2013. Two independent authors selected studies and extracted data. We used a two-step approach to quantify the differences between split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs: for each meta-analysis. First, we derived ratios of odds ratios (ROR) for dichotomous data and differences in standardized mean differences (∆SMD) for continuous data; second, we pooled RORs or ∆SMDs across meta-analyses by random-effects meta-analysis models. Results We selected 18 systematic reviews, for 15 meta-analyses with binary outcomes (28 split-mouth and 28 parallel-arm RCTs) and 19 meta-analyses with continuous outcomes (28 split-mouth and 28 parallel-arm RCTs). Effect estimates did not differ between split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs (mean ROR, 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.52–1.80; mean ∆SMD, 0.08, -0.14–0.30). Conclusions Our study did not provide sufficient evidence for a difference in intervention effect estimates derived from split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs. Authors should consider including split-mouth RCTs in their meta-analyses with suitable and appropriate analysis. PMID:24886043

  20. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  1. Control of Speed and Power in a Humanoid Robot Arm Using Pneumatic Actuators for Human-Robot Coexisting Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Kiyoshi

    A new type of humanoid robot arm which can coexist and be interactive with human beings are looked for. For the purpose of implementation of human smooth and fast movement to a pneumatic robot, the author used a humanoid robot arm with pneumatic agonist-antagonist actuators as endoskeletons which has control mechanism in the stiffness of each joint, and the controllability was experimentally discussed. Using Kitamori's method to experimentally decide the control gains and using I-PD controller, three joints of the humanoid robot arm were experimentally controlled. The damping control algorithm was also adopted to the wrist joint, to modify the speed in accordance with the power. The results showed that the controllability to step-wise input was less than one degree in error to follow the target angles, and the time constant was less than one second. The simultaneous input of command to three joints was brought about the overshoot of about ten percent increase in error. The humanoid robot arm can generate the calligraphic motions, moving quickly at some times but slowly at other times, or particularly softly on some occasions but stiffly on other occasions at high accuracy.

  2. Power considerations for trials of two experimental arms versus a standard active control or placebo.

    PubMed

    Hasselblad, Vic

    2016-10-01

    The power of the two-experimental arm trial depends on three choices: (1) when one arm is dropped (if at all); (2) the final testing procedure, assuming no dropping; and (3) the sampling ratio for the three arms. Multiple-arm designs require critical values which were calculated using Mathematica. Power calculations were exact based on probabilities from binomial distributions. The "drop the loser" strategy is optimal for the primary endpoint. The equal sized two treated arm trial gives reasonable power for the primary as well as good power to select the best treated arm. The best power was provided by the 3:3:4 sampling, but it was only marginally better.

  3. Novel Noxipoint Therapy versus Conventional Physical Therapy for Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Charles C.; Lin, Ray S.; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yen, Chen-Tung; Biswal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    As chronic pain affects 115 million people and costs $600B annually in the US alone, effective noninvasive nonpharmacological remedies are desirable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and the generalisability of Noxipoint therapy (NT), a novel electrotherapy characterised by site-specific stimulation, intensity-and-submodality-specific settings and a immobilization period, for chronic neck and shoulder pain. Ninety-seven heavily pretreated severe chronic neck/shoulder pain patients were recruited; 34 and 44 patients were randomly allocated to different treatment arms in two patient-and-assessor-blinded, randomised controlled studies. The participants received NT or conventional physical therapy including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PT-TENS) for three to six 90-minute sessions. In Study One, NT improved chronic pain (−89.6%, Brief Pain Inventory, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval), function (+77.4%, range of motion) and quality of life (+88.1%) at follow-up (from 4 weeks to 5 months), whereas PT-TENS resulted in no significant changes in these parameters. Study Two demonstrated similar advantages of NT over PT-TENS and the generalisability of NT. NT-like treatments in a randomised rat study showed a similar reduction in chronic hypersensitivity (−81%, p < 0.01) compared with sham treatments. NT substantially reduces chronic neck and shoulder pain, restores function, and improves quality of life in a sustained manner. PMID:26552835

  4. Pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) compared to conventional treatment in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; van de Meent, Henk; van Dongen, Robert T M; Klomp, Frank P; Groenewoud, Hans; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Staal, J Bart

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) with conventional treatment in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) in a randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Setting The study was conducted at a level 1 trauma centre in the Netherlands. Participants 56 adult patients with CRPS-1 participated. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Interventions Patients received either PEPT in a maximum of five treatment sessions, or conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Measurements Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6 and 9 months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure was the Impairment level Sum Score—Restricted Version (ISS-RV), consisting of visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire, active range of motion (AROM) and skin temperature. Secondary outcome measures included Pain Disability Index (PDI); muscle strength; Short Form 36 (SF-36); disability of arm, shoulder and hand; Lower Limb Tasks Questionnaire (LLTQ); 10 m walk test; timed up-and-go test (TUG) and EuroQol-5D. Results The intention-to-treat analysis showed a clinically relevant decrease in ISS-RV (6.7 points for PEPT and 6.2 points for conventional treatment), but the between-group difference was not significant (0.96, 95% CI −1.56 to 3.48). Participants allocated to PEPT experienced a greater improvement in AROM (between-group difference 0.51, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.94; p=0.02). The per protocol analysis showed larger and significant between-group effects on ISS-RV, VAS-pain, AROM, PDI, SF-36, LLTQ and TUG. Conclusions We cannot conclude that PEPT is superior to conventional treatment for patients with CRPS-1. Further high-quality research on the effects of PEPT is warranted given the potential effects as indicated by the per protocol analysis. Trial registration numbers NCT00817128 and NTR 2090. PMID:26628523

  5. Gaze Contingent Cartesian Control of a Robotic Arm for Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kenko; Salerno, Antonino; Sriskandarajah, Kumuthan; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Shetty, Kunal; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a gaze contingent controlled robotic arm for laparoscopic surgery, based on gaze gestures. The method offers a natural and seamless communication channel between the surgeon and the robotic laparoscope. It offers several advantages in terms of reducing on-screen clutter and efficiently conveying visual intention. The proposed hands-free system enables the surgeon to be part of the robot control feedback loop, allowing user-friendly camera panning and zooming. The proposed platform avoids the limitations of using dwell-time camera control in previous gaze contingent camera control methods. The system represents a true hands-free setup without the need of obtrusive sensors mounted on the surgeon or the use of a foot pedal. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were used for real-time gaze gesture recognition. This method was evaluated with a cohort of 11 subjects by using the proposed system to complete a modified upper gastrointestinal staging laparoscopy and biopsy task on a phantom box trainer, with results demonstrating the potential clinical value of the proposed system. PMID:24748999

  6. Brain-machine interface via real-time fMRI: preliminary study on thought-controlled robotic arm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Ryu, Jeongwon; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Cho, Zang-Hee; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2009-01-23

    Real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) has been used as a basis for brain-computer interface (BCI) due to its ability to characterize region-specific brain activity in real-time. As an extension of BCI, we present an rtfMRI-based brain-machine interface (BMI) whereby 2-dimensional movement of a robotic arm was controlled by the regulation (and concurrent detection) of regional cortical activations in the primary motor areas. To do so, the subjects were engaged in the right- and/or left-hand motor imagery tasks. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal originating from the corresponding hand motor areas was then translated into horizontal or vertical robotic arm movement. The movement was broadcasted visually back to the subject as a feedback. We demonstrated that real-time control of the robotic arm only through the subjects' thought processes was possible using the rtfMRI-based BMI trials.

  7. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  8. Comparison of conventional and integrated programs for control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Iwassaki, Larissa Akemi; Sato, Mário Eidi; Calegario, Fagoni Fayer; Poletti, Marcelo; Maia, Aline de Holanda Nunes

    2015-02-01

    The twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the main pests on strawberry crops in Brazil. TSSM can be difficult to control due to acaricide resistance. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of conventional and integrated strawberry production (ISP) systems on mite abundance and acaricide resistance. The control of TSSM in ISP was based on the release of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) or application of a selective acaricide (propargite), when TSSM monitoring indicated the timing for the release of predaceous mites (1-3 mites per leaflet on 30% leaflets) or chemical intervention (>10 mites per leaflet). Only acaricides (abamectin, fenpyroximate) were applied in the conventional system. Integrated control of TSSM were sufficient to maintain a significantly lower pest infestation level, resulting in a sixfold reduction in the frequency of acaricide applications, and consequently, a lower selection pressure for acaricide resistance. Strategies for the management of TSSM in strawberry fields are described and discussed.

  9. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  10. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  11. Ipsilesional trajectory control is related to contralesional arm paralysis after left hemisphere damage.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Kathleen Y; Schaefer, Sydney Y; Knight, Robert T; Adair, John; Magalhaes, Alvaro; Sadek, Joseph; Sainburg, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    We have recently shown ipsilateral dynamic deficits in trajectory control are present in left hemisphere damaged (LHD) patients with paresis, as evidenced by impaired modulation of torque amplitude as response amplitude increases. The purpose of the current study is to determine if these ipsilateral deficits are more common with contralateral hemiparesis and greater damage to the motor system, as evidenced by structural imaging. Three groups of right-handed subjects (healthy controls, LHD stroke patients with and without upper extremity paresis) performed single-joint elbow movements of varying amplitudes with their left arm in the left hemispace. Only the paretic group demonstrated dynamic deficits characterized by decreased modulation of peak torque (reflected by peak acceleration changes) as response amplitude increased. These results could not be attributed to lesion volume or peak velocity as neither variable differed across the groups. However, the paretic group had damage to a larger number of areas within the motor system than the non-paretic group suggesting that such damage increases the probability of ipsilesional deficits in dynamic control for modulating torque amplitude after left hemisphere damage.

  12. Feasibility of surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wartolowska, Karolina; Collins, Gary S; Hopewell, Sally; Judge, Andrew; Dean, Benjamin J F; Rombach, Ines; Beard, David J; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To find evidence, either corroborating or refuting, for many persisting beliefs regarding the feasibility of carrying out surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm, with emphasis on the challenges related to recruitment, funding, anaesthesia or blinding. Design Systematic review. Data sources and study selection The analysis involved studies published between 1959 and 2014 that were identified during an earlier systematic review of benefits and harms of placebo-controlled surgical trials published in 2014. Results 63 trials were included in the review. The main problem reported in many trials was a very slow recruitment rate, mainly due to the difficulty in finding eligible patients. Existing placebo trials were funded equally often from commercial and non-commercial sources. General anaesthesia or sedation was used in 41% of studies. Among the reviewed trials, 81% were double-blinded, and 19% were single-blinded. Across the reviewed trials, 96% (range 50–100%) of randomised patients completed the study. The withdrawal rate during the study was similar in the surgical and in the placebo groups. Conclusions This review demonstrated that placebo-controlled surgical trials are feasible, at least for procedures with a lower level of invasiveness, but also that recruitment is difficult. Many of the presumed challenges to undertaking such trials, for example, funding, anaesthesia or blinding of patients and assessors, were not reported as obstacles to completion in any of the reviewed trials. PMID:27008687

  13. Robust control of multi-jointed arm with a decentralized autonomous control mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Miyazaki, Ken; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    1994-01-01

    A decentralized autonomous control mechanism applied to the control of three dimensional manipulators and its robustness to partial damage was assessed by computer simulation. Decentralized control structures are believed to be quite robust to time delay between the operator and the target system. A 10-jointed manipulator based on our control mechanism was able to continue its positioning task in three-dimensional space without revision of the control program, even after some of its joints were damaged. These results suggest that this control mechanism can be effectively applied to space telerobots, which are associated with serious time delay between the operator and the target system, and which cannot be easily repaired after being partially damaged.

  14. Effect of conventional and controlled freezing method on the post thaw characteristics of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Baishya, S K; Biswas, R K; Kadirvel, G; Deka, B C; Kumar, Suresh; Sinha, S; Dutta, D J; Saikia, G K

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional, and controlled freezing method adopting three freezing rates 20°C, 40°C and 60°C/min for cryopreservation of boar semen. Sixty sperm-rich fractions of ejaculates from six boars were utilized for freezing of semen with different freezing methods in lactose-egg yolk glycerol extender using 0.5 ml straws. Semen samples were evaluated for sperm motility, live sperm, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) by carboxyfluorescein diacetate plus propidium iodide (PI) staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by combined JC-1 plus PI staining and lipid peroxidation (LPO) by BODIPY (581/591)-C11 probe after equilibration and after freezing. The results revealed that the post thaw sperm motility, live sperm, live intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were significantly (p<0.05) higher in all the three controlled freezing methods (20°C, 40°C and 60°C/min) as compared to that in conventional method. In addition, the controlled freezing methods yielded higher (p>0.05) mean values of live sperm with high MMP as compared to conventional freezing. However, the post thaw sperm LPO did not influence by difference in freezing methods. No significant difference on the post thaw sperm qualities was recorded among the three controlled freezing rates. All the sperm parameters assessed declined significantly (p<0.05) after freezing as compared to that after equilibration irrespective of freezing method employed. In conclusion, cryopreservation of boar semen with controlled freezing methods conferred better post thaw sperm quality as compared to conventional method, and the freezing rates of either 20, 40 or 60°C/min could provide better freezability of boar semen.

  15. Laser frequency stabilization by dual arm locking for LISA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Andrew; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2008-10-15

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first dedicated space based gravitational wave detector. LISA will consist of a triangular formation of spacecraft, forming an interferometer with 5x10{sup 6} km long arms. Annual length variations of the interferometer arms prevent exact laser frequency noise cancellation. Despite prestabilization to an optical cavity the expected frequency noise is many orders of magnitude larger than the required levels. Arm locking is a feedback control method that will further stabilize the laser frequency by referencing it to the 5x10{sup 6} km arms. Although the original arm locking scheme produced a substantial noise reduction, the technique suffered from slowly decaying start-up transients and excess noise at harmonic frequencies of the inverse round-trip time. Dual arm locking, presented here, improves on the original scheme by combining information from two interferometer arms for feedback control. Compared to conventional arm locking, dual arm locking exhibits significantly reduced start-up transients, no noise amplification at frequencies within the LISA signal band, and more than 50 fold improvement in noise suppression at low frequencies. In this article we present a detailed analysis of the dual arm locking control system and present simulation results showing a noise reduction of 10 000 at a frequency of 10 mHz.

  16. Ohio Arms Control Study Group: Workshop I, June 24-26, 1976, The Ohio State University. Summary of Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Mershon Center.

    The booklet summarizes proceedings of a conference coordinated by the Ohio Arms Control Study Group (OACSG) on the topic of United States-USSR relations and the influence of nuclear weapons upon international behavior and strategic thought. The OACSG is composed of faculty members from Ohio colleges and universities who have a vocational or…

  17. Motor imagery, P300 and error-related EEG-based robot arm movement control for rehabilitation purpose.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Konar, Amit; Tibarewala, D N

    2014-12-01

    The paper proposes a novel approach toward EEG-driven position control of a robot arm by utilizing motor imagery, P300 and error-related potentials (ErRP) to align the robot arm with desired target position. In the proposed scheme, the users generate motor imagery signals to control the motion of the robot arm. The P300 waveforms are detected when the user intends to stop the motion of the robot on reaching the goal position. The error potentials are employed as feedback response by the user. On detection of error the control system performs the necessary corrections on the robot arm. Here, an AdaBoost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used to decode the 4-class motor imagery and an SVM is used to decode the presence of P300 and ErRP waveforms. The average steady-state error, peak overshoot and settling time obtained for our proposed approach is 0.045, 2.8% and 44 s, respectively, and the average rate of reaching the target is 95%. The results obtained for the proposed control scheme make it suitable for designs of prosthetics in rehabilitative applications.

  18. Increasing speed to improve arm movement and standing postural control in Parkinson's disease patients when catching virtual moving balls.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuei-Jung; Hwang, Wen-Juh; Wu, Ching-yi; Fang, Jing-Jing; Leong, Iat-Fai; Ma, Hui-Ing

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that moving targets help Parkinson's disease (PD) patients improve their arm movement while sitting. We examined whether increasing the speed of a moving ball would also improve standing postural control in PD patients during a virtual reality (VR) ball-catching task. Twenty-one PD patients and 21 controls bilaterally reached to catch slow-moving and then fast-moving virtual balls while standing. A projection-based VR system connected to a motion-tracking system and a force platform was used. Dependent measures included the kinematics of arm movement (movement time, peak velocity), duration of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA), and center of pressure (COP) movement (movement time, maximum amplitude, and average velocity). When catching a fast ball, both PD and control groups made arm movements with shorter movement time and higher peak velocity, longer APA, as well as COP movements with shorter movement time and smaller amplitude than when catching a slow ball. The change in performance from slow- to fast-ball conditions was not different between the PD and control groups. The results suggest that raising the speed of virtual moving targets should increase the speed of arm and COP movements for PD patients. Therapists, however, should also be aware that a fast virtual moving target causes the patient to confine the COP excursion to a smaller amplitude. Future research should examine the effect of other task parameters (e.g., target distance, direction) on COP movement and examine the long-term effect of VR training.

  19. The distal portion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D short arm controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its complete developmental control is not known. We developed back-cross seven (BC7) near isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that possess or lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. This deletion was de...

  20. Nuclear Nonproliferation and Arms Control Primer Prepared for the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Laura S.

    2011-05-25

    To provide a brief overview of key arms control and nonproliferation arrangements for the layperson that may be relevant to the Commission's comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Primer would be published by the Commission and made publicly available, probably as an appendix to a larger Commission report.

  1. 77 FR 2341 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To Submit Reports Regarding the New START Treaty By virtue of the authority vested in me as Secretary of State, including Section 1 of...

  2. 78 FR 18664 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Delegation to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To Concur With the Secretary of Defense Authorization of Activities of the Office of Security Cooperation in Iraq By virtue of... International Security, to the extent authorized by law, the authority to concur with a Secretary of...

  3. Laparoscopic Surgical Treatment of Severe Obesity Combined with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized Two-Arm Controlled Clinical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ospanov, Oral B.; Orekeshova, Akzhunis M.; Fursov, Roman A.; Yelemesov, Aset A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are serious medical, social, and economic problems of modern society. A pilot randomized two-arm controlled clinical study was conducted to compare laparoscopic plication of the greater gastric curvature combined with Nissen fundoplication (LFN+LGP) versus only Nissen fundoplication (LFN). The…

  4. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  8. Tuning Curves for Arm Posture Control in Motor Cortex Are Consistent with Random Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, L. F.; Vaadia, Eilon

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal responses characterized by regular tuning curves are typically assumed to arise from structured synaptic connectivity. However, many responses exhibit both regular and irregular components. To address the relationship between tuning curve properties and underlying circuitry, we analyzed neuronal activity recorded from primary motor cortex (M1) of monkeys performing a 3D arm posture control task and compared the results with a neural network model. Posture control is well suited for examining M1 neuronal tuning because it avoids the dynamic complexity of time-varying movements. As a function of hand position, the neuronal responses have a linear component, as has previously been described, as well as heterogeneous and highly irregular nonlinearities. These nonlinear components involve high spatial frequencies and therefore do not support explicit encoding of movement parameters. Yet both the linear and nonlinear components contribute to the decoding of EMG of major muscles used in the task. Remarkably, despite the presence of a strong linear component, a feedforward neural network model with entirely random connectivity can replicate the data, including both the mean and distributions of the linear and nonlinear components as well as several other features of the neuronal responses. This result shows that smoothness provided by the regularity in the inputs to M1 can impose apparent structure on neural responses, in this case a strong linear (also known as cosine) tuning component, even in the absence of ordered synaptic connectivity. PMID:27224735

  9. A passivity based control methodology for flexible joint robots with application to a simplified shuttle RMS arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The main goal is to develop a general theory for the control of flexible robots, including flexible joint robots, flexible link robots, rigid bodies with flexible appendages, etc. As part of the validation, the theory is applied to the control law development for a test example which consists of a three-link arm modeled after the shoulder yaw joint of the space shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS). The performance of the closed loop control system is then compared with the performance of the existing RMS controller to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The theoretical foundation of this new approach to the control of flexible robots is presented and its efficacy is demonstrated through simulation results on the three-link test arm.

  10. High-Density Electromyography and Motor Skill Learning for Robust Long-Term Control of a 7-DoF Robot Arm.

    PubMed

    Ison, Mark; Vujaklija, Ivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Farina, Dario; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    Myoelectric control offers a direct interface between human intent and various robotic applications through recorded muscle activity. Traditional control schemes realize this interface through direct mapping or pattern recognition techniques. The former approach provides reliable control at the expense of functionality, while the latter increases functionality at the expense of long-term reliability. An alternative approach, using concepts of motor learning, provides session-independent simultaneous control, but previously relied on consistent electrode placement over biomechanically independent muscles. This paper extends the functionality and practicality of the motor learning-based approach, using high-density electrode grids and muscle synergy-inspired decomposition to generate control inputs with reduced constraints on electrode placement. The method is demonstrated via real-time simultaneous and proportional control of a 4-DoF myoelectric interface over multiple days. Subjects showed learning trends consistent with typical motor skill learning without requiring any retraining or recalibration between sessions. Moreover, they adjusted to physical constraints of a robot arm after learning the control in a constraint-free virtual interface, demonstrating robust control as they performed precision tasks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed man-machine interface as a viable alternative to conventional control schemes for myoelectric interfaces designed for long-term use.

  11. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    PubMed Central

    López, Natalia M; di Sciascio, Fernando; Soria, Carlos M; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2009-01-01

    Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB® environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Results Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. Conclusion The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present. PMID:19243627

  12. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  13. Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Mediated by Iterative Learning Control and Robotics to Improve Arm Movement for People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Patrica; Freeman, Chris; Coote, Susan; Demain, Sara; Feys, Peter; Meadmore, Katie; Hughes, Ann-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Few interventions address multiple sclerosis (MS) arm dysfunction but robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) appear promising. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining FES with passive robotic support during virtual reality (VR) training tasks to improve upper limb function in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The system assists patients in following a specified trajectory path, employing an advanced model-based paradigm termed iterative learning control (ILC) to adjust the FES to improve accuracy and maximise voluntary effort. Reaching tasks were repeated six times with ILC learning the optimum control action from previous attempts. A convenience sample of five pwMS was recruited from local MS societies, and the intervention comprised 18 one-hour training sessions over 10 weeks. The accuracy of tracking performance without FES and the amount of FES delivered during training were analyzed using regression analysis. Clinical functioning of the arm was documented before and after treatment with standard tests. Statistically significant results following training included: improved accuracy of tracking performance both when assisted and unassisted by FES; reduction in maximum amount of FES needed to assist tracking; and less impairment in the proximal arm that was trained. The system was well tolerated by all participants with no increase in muscle fatigue reported. This study confirms the feasibility of FES combined with passive robot assistance as a potentially effective intervention to improve arm movement and control in pwMS and provides the basis for a follow-up study.

  14. Soviet measurements of strategic balance and arms control. Sanitized. Technical report, 1 April 1984-30 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, J.K.; Battilega, J.; Bennett, S.; Summers, M.

    1986-04-21

    This sanitized report concludes that, although the requirements and concerns of the Soviet military are not the only factors that influence the positions that the Soviet arms control negotiators offer, it is unlikely that the Soviet Union will agree to arms control provisions that measurably reduce the ability of the military forces of the Soviet Union to fulfill the requirements for military capability that are formally levied through military doctrine. Topics include: Elements of the Soviet view of the strategic balance -- The Soviet framework for assessing military adequacy, Strategic missions of the Soviet armed forces, Measurements of the correlation of forces, and Assessment of mission adequacy; Some implications of the Soviet assessment methods for arms control -- Limiting the rate of change of the threat, Prevent introduction of new kinds of systems, Maintain freedom to determine mix of delivery systems, Strive to define the framework for the negotiations consistent with the Soviet planning framework, Try to get and increase in the warning of enemy actions, and Minimize the intrusiveness of verification methods; Some major changes in the threat that impact Soviet assessments -- The principal changes since 1982, Pershing II and GLCM deployments, Long-range ALCM, ICBM modernization, and The Militarization of Space.

  15. Proceedings of the Defense Nuclear Agency Conference on Arms Control and Verification Technology (ACT) Held in Williamsburg, Virginia on 1-4 June 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    H-1 Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Intelligence - A Potentially Beneficial Relationship S. Mullen; U.S. Department of Energy...General and Complete Disarmament. In 1967, Malta introduced a draft resolution in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly which dealt with...1 Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Intelligence - A Potentially Beneficial Partnership S. Mullen U.S. Department of Energy Prepared for

  16. Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control.

    PubMed

    Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A

    2002-04-01

    Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the

  17. Iyengar yoga for distressed women: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group.

  18. Evaluation of EMG, force and joystick as control interfaces for active arm supports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    findings we concluded that all the control interfaces considered in this study can be regarded as a candidate interface for the control of an active arm support. PMID:24746015

  19. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Smith, Morag K; Thron, Jonathan L; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  20. Wrist/Arm support to assist in fine motor control for essential tremor patients.

    PubMed

    Brauchie, Casey; Hurley, Kyle; Barrett, Graham; Morton, Scott; Barrett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Steady-state hand tremors tend to exhibit simple harmonic motion associated with frequencies of 2-11 Hz, and maximum amplitudes of 7.8 inches. Tremors often present difficulties in applications dependent on fine motor control. A wrist/arm constraint is being designed to minimize the difficulty of performing fine motor functions via amplitude and frequency reduction of the hand tremor. Tremor amplitude and frequency reduction can be achieved by utilizing mechanical dampers as well as viscoelastic materials to cradle the wrist and hand. The goal of this project is to design a mechanical, table-mounted wrist cradle with a damped natural frequency lower than the tremor frequency. This project is being designed for a specific person with tremor frequency of 5-6 Hz and peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.5 inches. These specifications will enable the user to touch a 1 inch by 1 inch icon on a touchscreen tablet device. The design team for this project consisted of senior Mechanical Engineering students from the University of Wyoming. Funding for this project is provided by NSF-BME-RAPD Grant 0962380.

  1. Evaluation of feedforward and feedback contributions to hand stiffness and variability in multijoint arm control.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Du, Yu-Fan; Lan, Ning

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate a neuromechanical model of the virtual arm (VA) by comparing emerging behaviors of the model to those of experimental observations. Hand stiffness of the VA model was obtained by either theoretical computation or simulated perturbations. Variability in hand position of the VA was generated by adding signal dependent noise (SDN) to the motoneuron pools of muscles. Reflex circuits of Ia, Ib and Renshaw cells were included to regulate the motoneuron pool outputs. Evaluation of hand stiffness and variability was conducted in simulations with and without afferent feedback under different patterns of muscle activations during postural maintenance. The simulated hand stiffness and variability ellipses captured the experimentally observed features in shape, magnitude and orientation. Steady state afferent feedback contributed significantly to the increase in hand stiffness by 35.75±16.99% in area, 18.37±7.80% and 16.15±7.15% in major and minor axes; and to the reduction of hand variability by 49.41±21.19% in area, 36.89±12.78% and 18.87±23.32% in major and minor axes. The VA model reproduced the neuromechanical behaviors that were consistent with experimental data, and it could be a useful tool for study of neural control of posture and movement, as well as for application to rehabilitation.

  2. The evolution of disarmament and arms control thought, 1945-1963

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The onset of the Cold War and the total failure of nuclear disarmament efforts at the United Nations were only the most obvious of several factors prompting a reexamination of the disarmament approach in the early 1950s. The end of the American nuclear monopoly, the development of the hydrogen bomb, the experience with limited war in Korea, and the rise of concerns about the possibility of nuclear surprise attack (exacerbated by Sputnik) all prompted the Eisenhower administration and the community of strategic thinkers to question the feasibility and even the desirability of nuclear disarmament. To replace disarmament, the strategic community developed the arms-control approach; this approach, the intellectual foundations of which were largely completed in 1961, has been the basis of American policy for the regulation of nuclear weapons since the Kennedy administration. Since its development, the new thinking has been challenged both by disarmers, who regard it as a conservative approach designed merely to perpetuate mutual nuclear deterrence, and traditionalists, who perceive many similarities to the disarmament approach and are skeptical of its faith in the ability of adversaries to act together to reduce the threat that weapons pose.

  3. Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

  4. Fire hazards analysis for the Center for National Security and Arms Control (CNSAC) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ross, S.B.

    1993-07-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis is sponsored by Plant Engineering and is prepared to support the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC Facility. This is a preliminary fire hazards analysis of a yet to be constructed facility and is based upon the current building design and the current understanding of the potential occupancy hazards. The governing occupancy for this building is personnel offices. The CNSAC facility will be dedicated primarily to two activities: (1) arms control and verification technology and (2) intelligence. This report supplements the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC facility and follows the guidance of DOE Memorandum EH-31.3 and meets the objectives of paragraph 4 of DOE Order 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection.`` This analysis demonstrates that under ``worst case`` assumptions a fire in the CNSAC facility will result in consequences which are below DOE offsite guidelines for accident conditions. This report is based upon preliminary design information and any major changes to the building design may require additional analyses.

  5. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  6. Measurements of human force control during a constrained arm motion using a force-actuated joystick.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, J; Gurfinkel, E V; Lipshits, M I; Droulez, J; Gurfinkel, V S

    1995-03-01

    1. When interacting with the environment, human arm movements may be prevented in certain directions (i.e., when sliding the hand along a surface) resulting in what is called a "constrained motion." In the directions that the movement is restricted, the subject is instead free to control the forces against the constraint. 2. Control strategies for constrained motion may be characterized by two extreme models. Under the active compliance model, an essentially feedback-based approach, measurements of contact force may be used in real time to modify the motor command and precisely control the forces generated against the constraint. Under the passive compliance model the motion would be executed in a feedforward manner, using an internal model of the constraint geometry. The feedforward model relies on the compliant behavior of the passive mechanical system to maintain contact while avoiding excessive contact forces. 3. Subjects performed a task in which they were required to slide the hand along a rigid surface. This task was performed in a virtual force environment in which contact forces were simulated by a two-dimensional force-actuated joystick. Unknown to the subject, the orientation of the surface constraint was varied from trial to trial, and contact force changes induced by these perturbations were measured. 4. Subjects showed variations in contact force correlated with the direction of the orientation perturbation. "Upward" tilts resulted in higher contact forces, whereas "downward" tilts resulted in lower contact forces. This result is consistent with a feedforward-based control of a passively compliant system. 5. Subject responses did not, however, correspond exactly to the predictions of a static analysis of a passive, feedforward-controlled system. A dynamic analysis reveals a much closer resemblance between a passive, feedforward model and the observed data. Numerical simulations demonstrate that a passive, dynamic system model of the movement captures

  7. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.22 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

  8. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.22 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

  9. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  10. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of... Petroleum Cargos § 442.32 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  11. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of... Petroleum Cargos § 442.32 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  12. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of... and Petroleum Cargos § 442.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  13. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of... and Petroleum Cargos § 442.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  14. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  15. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as...

  16. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as...

  17. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  18. Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance and Control in the Mediterranean region: report of the ARMed Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Borg, Michael A; Cookson, Barry D; Zarb, Peter; Scicluna, Elizabeth A

    2009-10-22

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a global threat to effective health care delivery. This is particularly the case within the Mediterranean region, where data from recent studies suggests the situation to be particularly acute. A better knowledge base, as well as a collaborative effort, is therefore required to address this ever increasing challenge to effective patient care. Over its four-year period, the Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance and Control in the Mediterranean Region (ARMed) project investigated the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance, as well as its contributory factors, in a number of countries in the southern and eastern Mediterranean region through the collection of comparable and validated data. The project culminated in a consensus conference held in Malta in November 2006. The conference provided a forum for expert delegates to agree on a number of priority strategic recommendations that would be relevant to resistance containment efforts in the region. There was general agreement on the need for surveillance and audit to underpin any intervention to tackle antimicrobial resistance, both to monitor changing epidemiological trends in critical pathogens as well as to identify antibiotic consumption practices and effectiveness of prevention and control of health care associated infections. In addition, the importance to convey these data to key users was also stressed in all workshops, as was better education and training of health care workers. The recommendations also made it clear that ownership of the problem needs to be improved throughout the region and that resources, both financial as well as human, must be allocated by the respective policy makers in order to combat it.

  19. Arms control and the rule of law: National measures for enforcement and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1997-04-19

    Much has been written about the deterrence strategies that justified the arms race. Walter Slocombe explained that {open_quotes}[t]he dominant problem of U.S. nuclear strategy is credibly using U.S. nuclear power to deter and if necessary resist nonnuclear as well as nuclear threats to America`s allies, forces, and interests overseas.{close_quotes} As a result, the {open_quotes}flexible response{close_quotes} doctrine was developed to declare {open_quotes}that the United States, in consultation with its allies, is prepared to use nuclear weapons should other means of protection from Soviet attack threaten to fail.{close_quotes} In contrast, Freeman Dyson pointed out the Soviet Union was committed to the concept of {open_quotes}counterforce,{close_quotes} which meant that {open_quotes}if the Soviet Union sees a nuclear attack coming or has reason to believe that an attack is about to be launched, the Soviet Union will strike first at the attacker`s weapons with all available forces, and will then do whatever is necessary in order to survive.{close_quotes} Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the `rule of law.`

  20. A Randomized Controlled Study to Compare Conventional and Evidence Based Treatment Protocols in Fresh Compound Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kanika; Singh, Girish Kumar; Kumar, Santosh; Avasthi, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A recent concept review in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS) outlines evidence to control peri-operative infections in compound fractures. However, evidence for impact of adopting a protocol combining measures that have some evidence is lacking in literature. The present method of treatment at King George’s Medical University (KGMU) is representative of the conventional practice of managing compound fractures in India and is an appropriate control for trial against the Experimental Evidence Based Protocol (EBP). Aim To study the additional impact of adopting Evidence Based Protocol on parameters defining infection rate and bone union. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled study was conducted at the orthopaedics department of KGMU. Two hundred and twenty six patients of compound fractures of both bone leg, age > 12y were randomized to two groups. One group received standard treatment and the experimental group received treatment as per JBJS review. Statistical Analysis Random allocation was tested by comparing baseline characteristics of the two groups. The two groups were compared for all the outcome variables in terms of time to a negative wound culture, time to wound healing, time to union at fracture site and time to achieve complete range of motion at knee joint. Results Random allocation was successful. EBP group reported significantly lesser time to a negative culture report from wound (mean in conventional=4.619, experimental=1.9146, p=0.0006), lesser time to bony union (mean in conventional=23.8427 weeks, experimental=22.8125 weeks, p=0.0027), lesser time to wound healing (mean in conventional=14.4425 weeks experimental=10.4513 weeks, p=0.0032), and a lesser duration of hospital stay (mean in conventional=6.5982 days, experimental=4.5000 days, p=0.0343). Conclusion EBP based on the guidelines suggested by Fletcher et al., significantly shorten the time taken for achieving a negative culture and hasten wound and fracture

  1. Threshold position control of arm movement with anticipatory increase in grip force.

    PubMed

    Pilon, Jean-François; De Serres, Sophie J; Feldman, Anatol G

    2007-07-01

    The grip force holding an object between fingers usually increases before or simultaneously with arm movement thus preventing the object from sliding. We experimentally analyzed and simulated this anticipatory behavior based on the following notions. (1) To move the arm to a new position, the nervous system shifts the threshold position at which arm muscles begin to be recruited. Deviated from their activation thresholds, arm muscles generate activity and forces that tend to minimize this deviation by bringing the arm to a new position. (2) To produce a grip force, with or without arm motion, the nervous system changes the threshold configuration of the hand. This process defines a threshold (referent) aperture (R(a)) of appropriate fingers. The actual aperture (Q(a)) is constrained by the size of the object held between the fingers whereas, in referent position R(a), the fingers virtually penetrate the object. Deviated by the object from their thresholds of activation, hand muscles generate activity and grip forces in proportion to the gap between the Q(a) and R(a). Thus, grip force emerges since the object prevents the fingers from reaching the referent position. (3) From previous experiences, the system knows that objects tend to slide off the fingers when arm movements are made and, to prevent sliding, it starts narrowing the referent aperture simultaneously with or somewhat before the onset of changes in the referent arm position. (4) The interaction between the fingers and the object is accomplished via the elastic pads on the tips of fingers. The pads are compressed not only due to the grip force but also due to the tangential inertial force ("load") acting from the object on the pads along the arm trajectory. Compressed by the load force, the pads move back and forth in the gap between the finger bones and object, thus inevitably changing the normal component of the grip force, in synchrony with and in proportion to the load force. Based on these notions

  2. Access and benefit sharing (ABS) under the convention on biological diversity (CBD): implications for microbial biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and implementers of biological control are confronted with a variety of scientific, regulatory and administrative challenges to their biological control programs. One developing challenge will arise from the implementation of provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) co...

  3. Comparison of model-based and conventional controllers on a pilot-scale heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Raul, Pramod R; Srinivasan, Haritha; Kulkarni, Sanket; Shokrian, Mazdak; Shrivastava, Glory; Russell Rhinehart, R

    2013-05-01

    This pilot-scale heat exchanger demonstration compares two relatively simple nonlinear model-based control strategies to conventional proportional-integral (PI) control. The two nonlinear controllers, generic model control (GMC) and process-model based control (PMBC), use a first-principles model thereby providing characterization of the nonlinear process throughout the operating range. There are two approaches to GMC, one uses a dynamic model, the other a steady-state model. This work uses the steady-state model; accordingly, will use the term GMC-SS, which can be classified as output characterization for a PI controller, making it relatively simple to implement. PMBC uses a dynamic model and adapts to represent the process. These two nonlinear controllers were selected for this application evaluation because of their simplicity (they can be implemented in-house within many commercial control systems), diversity (steady-state and dynamic models), and demonstrated utility for control of nonlinear single-input-single-output processes. The application and results are presented and discussed. Summarizing the results: Within a small temperature operating range PI provides good control, but over the full operating range, the nonlinear and variable delay of the process lead to poor control with PI. GMC can handle the nonlinear issues, but using the convenient steady-state model; it also, provides poor control because of the variable delay associated with flow rate. PMBC was able to provide good control throughout the entire operating range. PMBC has a further advantage of only having one tuning coefficient, while PI and GMC-SS have two.

  4. Challenge inspections in Arms Control treaties: Any lessons for strengthening NPT verification. [Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent revelations of an ongoing and sophisticated nuclear weapons development program in Iraq have lead to suggestions for strengthening International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Especially troubling was the realization that safeguards, as presently applied, could not possibly have detected such a program. It is clear that the inspections which have taken place in Iraq since the Gulf War could only have been imposed on a nation which had suffered a severe military defeat. It has, however, been argued that challenge or challenge like'' inspections already incorporated in or proposed for the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (the CFE Treaty) the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic offensive Arms (START) might serve as models for enhanced special inspections in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the NPT). The expectation that none of the challenge or challenge like inspections in the above treaties would provide a model for the NPT was confirmed although certain characteristics of these inspections do provide useful points of departure. Although the context of challenge inspections in CWC bears substantial similarity to the NPT, it is from the provisions for suspect-site'' and formerly declared site'', challenge like inspections in START that innovative ideas for strengthening special inspections in NPT may be derived.

  5. Conventional vs. Tablet Computer-Based Patient Education following Lung Transplantation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suhling, Hendrik; Rademacher, Jessica; Zinowsky, Imke; Fuge, Jan; Greer, Mark; Warnecke, Gregor; Smits, Jacqueline M.; Bertram, Anna; Haverich, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate immunosuppression is of critical importance in preventing rejection, while avoiding toxicity following lung transplantation. The mainstay immunosuppressants are calcineurin inhibitors, which require regular monitoring due to interactions with other medications and diet. Adherence to immunosuppression and patient knowledge is vital and can be improved through patient education. Education using tablet-computers was investigated. Objective To compare tablet-PC education and conventional education in improving immunosuppression trough levels in target range 6 months after a single education. Secondary parameters were ratio of immunosuppression level measurements divided by per protocol recommended measurements, time and patient satisfaction regarding education. Design Single-centre, open labelled randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients >6 months after lung-transplantation with <50% of calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in target range. Intervention Tablet-pc education versus personal, nurse-led education. Measurements Calcineurin inhibitor levels in target range 6 months after education, level variability, interval adherence, knowledge and adherence was studied. As outcome parameter, renal function was measured and adverse events registered. Results Sixty-four patients were 1:1 randomised for either intervention. Levels of immunosuppression 6 months after education were equal (tablet-PC 58% vs. conventional 48%, p = 0.27), both groups improved in achieving a CNI trough level within target range by either education method (delta tablet-PC 29% vs. conventional 20%). In all patients, level variability decreased (−20.4%), whereas interval adherence remained unchanged. Knowledge about immunosuppression improved by 7% and compliance tests demonstrated universal improvements with no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Education is a simple, effective tool in improving adherence to immunosuppression. Tablet-PC education was

  6. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  7. Use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence Imaging Plates and Reader for Arms Control Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven D.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.; Burghard, Brion J.; Traub, Richard J.

    2001-07-05

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology has been pioneered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for applications in personnel radiation dosimetry and commercially has become highly successful in replacing older technologies such as Thermoluminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) and film. OSL phosphors are used to measure radiation exposure by illuminating them with light after ionizing radiation exposure and measuring the amount of light emitted by the OSL phosphor. By using a two-dimensional plate of OSL material and raster scanning a light beam across the OSL plate a radiation pattern or image can be measured. The Arms Control community requires an electrons-free medium to measure the attributes of extent and symmetry on Pu pits in storage containers. OSL technology, used in the two-dimensional imaging mode, provides a means to measure these attributes with exposure times on the order of an hour. A special OSL reader has been built by PNNL to measure OSL imaging plates with a size of 20 cm by 30 cm. The reader uses 10 light emitting diode clusters with 10 corresponding photomultiplier tubes to measure an OSL imaging plate in less than 5 minutes. The resolution of each of the 10 measurement assemblies is 1 square-centimeter. A collimator assembly employing a Venetian-blind type collimator is used in conjunction with the OSL film to image the Pu pit within the storage container. The output of the OSL reader is a two dimensional array of intensities that will be used with the appropriate information barriers to measure extent and symmetry. This device also clearly distinguishes the difference between a point source and a distributed source. Details of the OSL technology, OSL reader system, collimator design, and system performance will be presented.

  8. An open-source and cross-platform framework for Brain Computer Interface-guided robotic arm control.

    PubMed

    Kubben, Pieter L; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have focused on several areas, of which motor substitution has received particular interest. Whereas open-source BCI software is available to facilitate cost-effective collaboration between research groups, it mainly focuses on communication and computer control. We developed an open-source and cross-platform framework, which works with cost-effective equipment that allows researchers to enter the field of BCI-based motor substitution without major investments upfront. It is based on the C++ programming language and the Qt framework, and offers a separate class for custom MATLAB/Simulink scripts. It has been tested using a 14-channel wireless electroencephalography (EEG) device and a low-cost robotic arm that offers 5° of freedom. The software contains four modules to control the robotic arm, one of which receives input from the EEG device. Strengths, current limitations, and future developments will be discussed.

  9. Optimal control strategies of eradicating invisible glioblastoma cells after conventional surgery

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes V, Aurelio A.; Jung, Eunok; Kim, Yangjin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer, has median survival time of 1 year after diagnosis. It is characterized by alternating modes of rapid proliferation and aggressive invasion in response to metabolic stress in the microenvironment. A particular microRNA, miR-451, and its downstream signalling molecules, AMPK complex, are known to be key determinants in switching cell fate. These components form a core control system determining a balance between cell growth and migration which is regulated by fluctuating glucose levels in the microenvironment. An important factor from the treatment point of view is that low levels of glucose affect metabolism and activate cell migration through the miR-451-AMPK control system, creating ‘invisible’ migratory cells and making them inaccessible by conventional surgery. In this work, we apply optimal control theory to deal with the problem of maintaining upregulated miR-451 levels that prevent cell infiltration to surrounding brain tissue and thus induce localization of these cancer cells at the surgical site. The model also considers the effect of a drug that blocks inhibitive pathways of miR-451 from AMPK complex. Glucose infusion control and drug infusion control are chosen to represent dose rates of glucose and drug intravenous administrations, respectively. The characteristics of optimal control lead us to investigate the structure of optimal intravenous infusion regimen under various circumstances and predict best clinical outcomes with minimum expense possible. PMID:25833239

  10. Motor Cortical Correlates of Arm Resting in the Context of a Reaching Task and Implications for Prosthetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Scott D.; Schwartz, Andrew B.; Whitford, Andrew S.; Sohn, Jeong-Woo; McMorland, Angus J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic devices are being developed to restore movement for motor-impaired individuals. A robotic arm can be controlled based on models that relate motor-cortical ensemble activity to kinematic parameters. The models are typically built and validated on data from structured trial periods during which a subject actively performs specific movements, but real-world prosthetic devices will need to operate correctly during rest periods as well. To develop a model of motor cortical modulation during rest, we trained monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to perform a reaching task with their own arm while recording motor-cortical single-unit activity. When a monkey spontaneously put its arm down to rest between trials, our traditional movement decoder produced a nonzero velocity prediction, which would cause undesired motion when applied to a prosthetic arm. During these rest periods, a marked shift was found in individual units' tuning functions. The activity pattern of the whole population during rest (Idle state) was highly distinct from that during reaching movements (Active state), allowing us to predict arm resting from instantaneous firing rates with 98% accuracy using a simple classifier. By cascading this state classifier and the movement decoder, we were able to predict zero velocity correctly, which would avoid undesired motion in a prosthetic application. Interestingly, firing rates during hold periods followed the Active pattern even though hold kinematics were similar to those during rest with near-zero velocity. These findings expand our concept of motor-cortical function by showing that population activity reflects behavioral context in addition to the direct parameters of the movement itself. PMID:24760860

  11. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  12. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Bendrick, Gregg A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. cones ) of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though all were within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight. The learning objectives include: 1) Know three

  13. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Naturalization Service. This section does not apply to individuals who may be traveling with a prisoner and armed... operator at least 24 hours before the scheduled departure, or, if that is not possible as far in advance as possible of the following— (i) The identity of the prisoner to be carried and the flight on which it...

  14. Postdeployment Battlemind Training for the U.K. Armed Forces: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Fear, Nicola T.; Jones, Norman; Alvarez, Helen; Hull, Lisa; Naumann, Ulrike; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Combat exposure can increase the risk of subsequent psychological ill-health in armed forces (AF) personnel. A U.S. postdeployment psycho-educational intervention, Battlemind, showed a beneficial effect on mental health in U.S. military personnel exposed to high combat levels. We evaluated the effectiveness of an anglicized version of…

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... members present, final action will be taken only on the business for which the meeting was called. c. A... addressing installation or command concerns or issues. (1) Federal, State, and local judicial, legislative... detrimental to the good order and discipline, health, morale, welfare, safety, and morals of Armed...

  16. 78 FR 43959 - Announcement of the 2013 Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...) announces the following challenge: What Information Technology Tools and Concepts Can Support Future Arms... era characterized by mobile devices and open information sharing. 2. Prize: The award(s) will be paid... proposed technology tool or concept. 3. Description of the concept's feasibility, achievability...

  17. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  18. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Materials and Methods: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Findings: Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Conclusions: Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions. PMID:23833621

  19. Data quality control methodologies for large, non-conventional DC resistivity datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael A.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2016-12-01

    With developments in instrumentation and computational resources, the collection of large, non-conventional DC resistivity datasets has become commonplace. While the increased data content of these large datasets can significantly improve the resolution of inverse models, these datasets also present challenges for standard data quality control (QC) methodologies. Standard QC methodologies for DC resistivity datasets typically rely on our ability to decompose the dataset into 2D lines and/or reciprocal measurements. Non-conventional electrode geometries and the cost of collecting a large number of reciprocal measurements can severely limit the applicability of standard DC resistivity QC methodologies. To address these limitations, we developed a more generalized data QC methodology which utilizes statistical analysis and classification tools. The merit of this methodology is illustrated using a field dataset collected in an underground potash mine and several synthetic examples. Results from these applications show that the methodology has the ability to identify and characterize highly noise-contaminated data from a number of different sources. The flexibility of the 4-stage methodology allows it be tailored to accommodate data from any type of DC resistivity survey and the use of statistical analysis and classification tools decreases the subjectivity of the process. Although this study focuses on the applicability of this methodology for DC resistivity data, it is potentially applicable to a variety of geophysical surveys.

  20. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  1. Global health, equity and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health demonstrates the renewed salience of health inequalities within the international health policy agenda. The tobacco pandemic is characterized by an escalating burden of death and disease that is increasingly being borne by developing countries. Efforts to promote global health equity must therefore prioritize reductions in tobacco consumption. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) offers a remarkable opportunity to address the health inequalities associated with tobacco use, and represents an important innovation within global governance. But the FCTC’s failure to adequately address the health impacts of trade liberalization highlights the difficulties of ensuring policy coherence across international health, development and economic policies. Recognition of such limitations is important both to inform the further development of the FCTC and to ensure that appropriate lessons are drawn for future initiatives. PMID:20595357

  2. Retracted: Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, D; Yilmaz, S; Dumani, A; Yoldas, O

    2016-08-01

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial' by D. Bilgili, S. Yilmaz, A. Dumani & O. Yoldas, published online on 29 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the corresponding author did not contact the first author who carried out the work before alterations to the article were made prior to submission. This damages the integrity of the work and there are additional concerns over the number of patients and the accuracy of the results and conclusions.

  3. Project Cerberus: Tobacco Industry Strategy to Create an Alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  4. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.

  5. 78 FR 64014 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Pharmacopeial Convention Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34 (a), this is notice that on July 31, 2013, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville,...

  6. Interpretation of the source-specific substantive control measures of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    PubMed

    You, Mingqing

    2015-02-01

    Being persistent, toxic, and bio-accumulative, Mercury (Hg) seriously affects the environment and human health. Due to Hg's attribute of long-range environmental transport across national borders, especially through atmospheric transport, no country can fully protect its environment and human health with its own efforts, without global cooperation. The Minamata Convention on Mercury, which was formally adopted and opened for signature in October 2013, is the only global environmental regime on the control of Hg pollution. Its main substantive control measures are source-specific: its phasing-out, phasing-down, and other main substantive requirements all direct to specific categories of pollution sources through the regulation of specific sectors of the economy and social life. This Convention does not take a national quota approach to quantify the Parties' nationwide total allowable consumption or discharge of Hg or Hg compounds, nor does it quantify their nationwide total reduction requirements. This paper attempts to find the underlying reasons for this source-specific approach and offers two interpretations. One possible interpretation is that Hg might be a non-threshold pollutant, i.e., a pollutant without a risk-free value of concentration. The existence of a reference dose (RfD), reference concentration (RfC), provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), minimal risk level (MRL) or other similar reference values of Hg does not necessarily mean that Hg cannot be regarded as non-threshold because such reference values have scientific uncertainties and may also involve policy considerations. Another interpretation is that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity. There is evidence that negotiators might have treated Hg as non-threshold, or at least accepted that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity: (1) The negotiators were informed about the serious situations of the current emissions, releases, and legacy deposition; (2

  7. Hingeless rotor theory and experiment on vibration reduction by periodic variation of conventional controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sissingh, G. J.; Donham, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the n per rev. pitch-, roll- and vertical vibrations of an n-bladed rotor by n per rev. sinusoidal variations of the collective and cyclic controls is investigated. The numerical results presented refer to a four-bladed, 7.5-foot model and are based on frequency response tests conducted under an Army-sponsored research program. The following subjects are treated: extraction of the rotor transfer functions (.073R hub flapping and model thrust versus servo valve command, amplitude and phase), calculation of servo commands (volts) required to compensate .073R hub flapping (3P and 5P) and model thrust (4P), evaluation of the effect of the vibratory control inputs on blade loads, and theoretical prediction of the root flapbending moments generated by 0 to 5P perturbations of the feathering angle and rotor angle of attack. Five operating conditions are investigated covering advance ratios from approximately 0.2 to 0.85. The feasibility of vibration reduction by periodic variation on conventional controls is evaluated.

  8. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.

  9. Viscoelastic model for redundancy resolution of the human arm via the swivel angle: applications for upper limb exoskeleton control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Roldan, Jay Ryan; Li, Zhi; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    One of the key research efforts associated with a redundant seven degree of freedom (7-DOF) upper limb exoskeleton robot that is mechanically coupled to the human body is to develop high and low level control algorithms that enable the system to become a natural extension of the human body. Improving the synergistic relationship between the exoskeleton and the operator is manifested in part by decreasing the force exchange between the two entities. Such a reduction is accomplished in part by developing criteria for resolving the human arm redundancy. The redundancy may be represented by a swivel angle which is defined as the angular rotation of the elbow around an axis that passes through the shoulder and wrist joints. The proposed criteria for defining the swivel angle takes into account the dynamics of the human arm along with a viscoelastic muscle-like model with variable damping. The swivel angle is estimated using the pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian with a secondary objective function that estimates the desired joint angles during human arm movement. The result is then fed to the muscle model to create a more realistic human motion. The estimated swivel angle is then compared with the actual swivel angle measured experimentally by a motion capture system. Results indicate that the average error between the estimated and measured swivel joint angle is 4.4 degrees (in the range [3.7-6] degrees), which are lower than the kinematically based redundant resolution criterion.

  10. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    PubMed Central

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel “freezing” analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19–32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (“freezing”) individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance. PMID:25191284

  11. Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-Ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1 mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8 mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018 × 0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0 mm, namely, at the level of 0.3 mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement.

  12. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  13. Automatic speed control of conventional beam pumping units in heavy oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Best, L.

    1995-12-31

    Problems inherent in the production of heavy oil are not found in the production of higher gravity crude. A great deal of time and resources has been expended researching various methods of both reservoir stimulation and production, with somewhat limited success. Modern Production Services, Inc. (MPS) of Fort Worth, Texas, has been heavily involved in research and development of technology in the production of heavy oil for nearly three years. The resultant ACCU DRIVE 4140 control system for conventional beam pumping units has shown dramatic results in increasing production while simultaneously reducing maintenance problems. By working closely with several oil companies, MPS has developed a completely automatic control system that varies the pumping rate within a stroke in such a manner as to optimize oil production. In addition, as well conditions change, the system changes pump rates to continue maximum production. Five wells are presently being produced by Maraven that had heretofore posed such problems as to be not economical. Other wells have shown marked increases in production and reductions in component stress. The reduction of problems commonly encountered and the increase of production by automatically varying pump rates within a stroke is the subject of this paper.

  14. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  15. Comparison between a novel and conventional artificial pancreas for perioperative glycemic control using a closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Hirano, Kenichi; Asano, Takuji; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    This clinical study aimed to compare a novel and conventional artificial pancreas (AP) used in surgical patients for perioperative glycemic control, with respect to usability, blood glucose measurements, and glycemic control characteristics. From July in 2010 to March in 2015, 177 patients underwent perioperative glycemic control using a novel AP. Among them, 166 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) targeting a blood glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL was implemented in 82 patients (49 %), and the remaining 84 patients (51 %) received a less-intensive regime of insulin therapy. Data were collected prospectively and were reviewed or analyzed retrospectively. A comparison study of 324 patients undergoing IIT for glycemic control using a novel (n = 82) or conventional AP (n = 242) was conducted retrospectively. All patients had no hypoglycemia. The comparison study revealed no significant differences in perioperative mean blood glucose level, achievement rates for target blood glucose range, and variability in blood glucose level achieved with IIT between the novel AP and conventional AP groups. The usability, performance with respect to blood glucose measurement, and glycemic control characteristics of IIT were comparable between novel and conventional AP systems. However, the novel AP was easier to manipulate than the conventional AP due to its smaller size, lower weight, and shorter time for preparation. In the near future, this novel AP system might be accepted worldwide as a safe and useful device for use in perioperative glycemic control.

  16. Strategic defense and arms control. January 1970-February 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms-control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems and initiatives, such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons; and strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons, and on space for military missions. (Contains 105 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  17. Mechanism utilizing a single rocker arm for controlling an internal combustion engine valve

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1988-02-09

    This patent describes in combination with an internal combustion engine having a rotatable camshaft, a cam on the camshaft, a combustion chamber and a reciprocable valve member for opening and closing a valve port in communication with the combustion chamber, a mechanism for operating the valve member comprising a rocker arm having first and second angularly disposed and integrally connected legs. The first leg having a cam follower suface thereon having a first section thereof extending in the same general direction that the valve member reciprocates and having a second section thereof curving toward the valve member and toward the direction in which the valve member reciprocates, means mounting the rocker arm for rocking movement about a first axis, and means for shifting the first axis relative to the camshaft in also the same general direction the valve member reciprocates so that various portions of the first and second sections of the cam follower surface on the first leg are relatively engageable with the cam, sufficient shifting of the first axis in the same general direction producing a desmodromic action, and the second leg including a single portion thereof engaging the valve member so that only the single portion acts on the valve member.

  18. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen L.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the HS-RHI SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  19. Ankaferd Blood Stopper for controlling gastrointestinal bleeding due to distinct benign lesions refractory to conventional antihemorrhagic measures

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Mevlut; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Akdogan, Meral; Kekilli, Murat; Arhan, Mehmet; Sayilir, Abdurrahim; Oztas, Erkin; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemostatic efficacy of the Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS, Ankaferd Health Products Ltd, Turkey) hemostatic agent for controlling gastrointestinal bleeding associated with various benign lesions refractory to conventional antihemorrhagic measures. METHODS: The records of all patients who underwent upper and lower endoscopy procedures at the Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Teaching and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) between April 2008 and June 2009 were reviewed. Patients in whom ABS was used as a primary or adjuvant hemostatic agent were included in the study. Rates of bleeding control and postprocedural complications were documented. RESULTS: Hemostasis with no immediate complications was achieved in all patients within seconds of endoscopic application of ABS. CONCLUSIONS: ABS may have a role as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to conventional modalities used to control gastrointestinal bleeding. Prospective controlled studies are needed to help establish its efficacy and, perhaps, offer a comparison with conventional hemostatic interventions. PMID:20559581

  20. How do octopuses use their arms?

    PubMed

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  1. Helminth ova control in wastewater and sludge for advanced and conventional sanitation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Maya, C; Galván, M

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, the most important reuse of wastewater, in volume, is agricultural irrigation. Therefore, there is a need to properly treat wastewater for such purpose, considering the removal of pathogens while leaving suitable amounts of nutrients and other compounds to increase productivity. Helminth ova are one of the main targeted pathogens in the new guidelines for water reuse in agriculture and aquaculture issued in 2006 by the World Health Organization. However, relatively little research has been done recently on how to remove and inactivate helminth ova from wastewater and sludge and recommendations given several decades ago are still used, but when put into practice, particularly in developing countries, produce unsatisfactory results. One problem is that these criteria were developed using inaccurate analytical techniques and the other is the large number and variety of helminth ova species found in wastewater and sludge from the developing world. In fact, the few technological options to remove and inactivate helminth ova come from research performed using wastewater and sludge with low helminth ova content, and refer almost only to Ascaris (one type of helminth). This paper summarises recent research work and results from practical experience concerning helminth ova control for advanced and conventional sanitation.

  2. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

  3. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 8: protection from exposure to tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Yamato, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ying; Ohta, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to implement 100% smoke-free environments in all indoor workplaces and indoor public places in order to protect people from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). Forty-four countries have already implemented comprehensive smoke-free legislations according to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Guidelines on protection from exposure to tobacco smoke. The Occupational Safety and Health Law (OSHL) was partially revised to strengthen the countermeasures against SHS in Japan in 2014. However, the revision was only minimal. Firstly, it is necessary to make efforts to implement countermeasures against SHS (their implementations are not obligatory, as required in Article 8). Secondly, the revised OSHL allowed the implementation of designated smoking rooms inside workplaces (Article 8 requires 100% smoke-free environments). Thirdly, revised OSHL does not effectively cover the small-scale entertainment industry so that workers in restaurants and pubs will not be protected from occupational SHS. We explain the importance of implementation of 100% smoke-free environments by law, using the data on leakage of smoke from designated smoking rooms, and occupational exposure to SHS among service industry workers. The decrease in the incidence of smoking-related diseases in people where a comprehensive smoke-free law is implemented is also introduced. These data and information should be widely disseminated to policy makers, media, owners of service industries, and Japanese people.

  4. Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2010-06-01

    China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction.

  5. Adaptive neural control for dual-arm coordination of humanoid robot with unknown nonlinearities in output mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Ci; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L P

    2015-03-01

    To achieve an excellent dual-arm coordination of the humanoid robot, it is essential to deal with the nonlinearities existing in the system dynamics. The literatures so far on the humanoid robot control have a common assumption that the problem of output hysteresis could be ignored. However, in the practical applications, the output hysteresis is widely spread; and its existing limits the motion/force performances of the robotic system. In this paper, an adaptive neural control scheme, which takes the unknown output hysteresis and computational efficiency into account, is presented and investigated. In the controller design, the prior knowledge of system dynamics is assumed to be unknown. The motion error is guaranteed to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by Lyapunov's stability theory. Simultaneously, the internal force is kept bounded and its error can be made arbitrarily small.

  6. Investment Incentives and the Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Evidence from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify providing investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organizations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to economic development policy in Zambia. Results We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: 1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, 2) economic benefits outweigh health costs, and 3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Conclusions Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia’s development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must understand and work within this context of economic development in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global analysis on the barriers and facilitators of FCTC implementation. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of other sectors and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonizing FCTC implementation across sectors. PMID:26135987

  7. Effects of neck flexion on contingent negative variation and anticipatory postural control during arm movement while standing.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tomita, Hidehito; Maeda, Kaoru; Kunita, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the effects of neck flexion on contingent negative variation (CNV) and anticipatory postural control using an arm flexion task in standing. CNV was adopted to evaluate the state of activation of brain areas related to anticipatory postural control. Subjects were required to flex the arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Two different intervals (2.0 and 3.5s) between these two stimuli were used in neck position in quiet standing (neck resting) and neck position at 80% angle of maximal neck flexion. The mean amplitude of CNV 100-ms before the response stimulus, recorded from a Cz electrode, was calculated. Onset timing of activation of the postural muscles (lumbar paraspinal, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius) with respect to the anterior deltoid was analyzed. Reaction time at the anterior deltoid was significantly shorter in the 2.0s period than in the 3.5s period, and in the neck flexion than in the neck resting in both periods. In the 2.0s, but not in the 3.5s period, neck flexion resulted in an increased CNV amplitude and an increased duration of preceding activation of the postural muscles, and the correlation between these increases was significant.

  8. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  9. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II. Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2013-10-04

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  10. Design of control system of combine harvester louver sieve angle based on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Cai, Yangyang; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Xuelei; Wang, Shuqing

    2017-01-01

    In view of the disadvantages of the traditional control methods of combine harvester louver sieve, an electronic control system of louver sieve is designed to replace the traditional mechanical regulation structure, and it changes the old way of manipulating louver sieve. In order to achieve the goal control effect more accurately and quickly, the fuzzy adaptive PID control method and the key control design method based on the finite state machine is proposed during the control process. The tests show that the control system can reach louver sieve electric control goals, and can obtain accurate and stable control effect.

  11. Breaking Free of Control: How Conventional T Cells Overcome Regulatory T Cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Mercadante, Emily R.; Lorenz, Ulrike M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional T (Tcon) cells are crucial in shaping the immune response, whether it is protection against a pathogen, a cytotoxic attack on tumor cells, or an unwanted response to self-antigens in the context of autoimmunity. In each of these immune settings, regulatory T cells (Tregs) can potentially exert control over the Tcon cell response, resulting in either suppression or activation of the Tcon cells. Under physiological conditions, Tcon cells are able to transiently overcome Treg-imposed restraints to mount a protective response against an infectious threat, achieving clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function. However, evidence has accumulated in recent years to suggest that Tcon cell resistance to Treg-mediated suppression centrally contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Tipping the balance too far in the other direction, cancerous tumors utilize Tregs to establish an overly suppressive microenvironment, preventing antitumor Tcon cell responses. Given the wide-ranging clinical importance of the Tcon/Treg interaction, this review aims to provide a better understanding of what determines whether a Tcon cell is susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression and how perturbations to this finely tuned balance play a role in pathological conditions. Here, we focus in detail on the complex array of factors that confer Tcon cells with resistance to Treg suppression, which we have divided into two categories: (1) extracellular factor-mediated signaling and (2) intracellular signaling molecules. Further, we explore the therapeutic implications of manipulating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which is proposed to be the convergence point of signaling pathways that mediate Tcon resistance to suppression. Finally, we address important unresolved questions on the timing and location of acquisition of resistance, and the stability of the “Treg-resistant” phenotype. PMID:27242798

  12. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition

  13. A new learning strategy for the two-time-scale neural controller with its application to the tracking control of rigid arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, W.; Wen, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A novel fast learning rule with fast weight identification is proposed for the two-time-scale neural controller, and a two-stage learning strategy is developed for the proposed neural controller. The results of the stability analysis show that both the tracking error and the fast weight error will be uniformly bounded and converge to a bounded region which depends only on the accuracy of the slow learning if the system is sufficiently excited. The efficiency of the two-stage learning is also demonstrated by a simulation of a two-link arm.

  14. Comparing smooth arm movements with the two-thirds power law and the related segmented-control hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Magnus J E; Flash, Tamar

    2002-09-15

    The movements of the human arm have been extensively studied for a variety of goal-directed experimental tasks. Analyses of the trajectory and velocity of the arm have led to many hypotheses for the planning strategies that the CNS might use. One family of control hypotheses, including minimum jerk, snap and their generalizations to higher orders, comprises those that favor smooth movements through the optimization of an integral cost function. The predictions of each order of this family are examined for two standard experimental tasks: point-to-point movements and the periodic tracing of figural forms, and compared both with experiment and the two-thirds power law. The aim of the analyses is to generalize previous numerical observations as well as to examine movement segmentation. It is first shown that contrary to recent statements in the literature, the only members of this family of control theories that match reaching movement experiments well are minimum jerk and snap. Then, for the case of periodic drawing, both the ellipse and cloverleaf are examined and the experimentally observed power law is derived from a first-principles approach. The results for the ellipse are particularly general, representing a unification of the two-thirds power law and smoothness hypotheses for ellipses of all reasonable eccentricities. For complex shapes it is shown that velocity profiles derived from the cost-function approach exhibit the same experimental features that were interpreted as segmented control by the CNS. Because the cost function contains no explicit segmented control, this result casts doubt on such an interpretation of the experimental data.

  15. Combining rTMS and Task-Oriented Training in the Rehabilitation of the Arm after Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haiqun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique for promoting rehabilitation of arm function after stroke. The feasibility and impact of rTMS as an adjunct to traditional task-oriented training to improve arm function have not yet been demonstrated. Objective. Evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial aimed at determining the efficacy of rTMS as an adjunct to task-oriented therapy in facilitating restoration of arm function after stroke. Methods. Stratified block-randomized controlled trial set in the general community. Eleven stroke persons with mild to severe arm deficits were recruited and randomized to receive 8 sessions of real-rTMS or sham-rTMS followed by ninety minutes of arm tasks designed to improve function. Results. Medium to large, statistically significant effect sizes (0.49 to 1.63) were observed in both groups on several measures of arm function at the postintervention evaluation. Three out of four subjects in the real-TMS condition showed increased levels of corticomotor excitability after the first stimulation session. Conclusions. Preliminary evidence suggests that an rTMS protocol potent enough to induce transient increases in cortical excitability of the lesioned hemisphere is feasible but did not show promising results as an adjunct to task-specific training. This trial is registration with Clinical Trials.gov NCT00850408. PMID:24363954

  16. Qualitative Considerations of Nuclear Forces at Lower Numbers and Implications for Future Arms Control Negotiations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    missile defenses and conventional long-range missiles).” 58 Allies are likely to oppose nuclear strikes in regions where radioactive fallout could harm...as a nuclear device hidden aboard a truck or ship) with a rapidly launched strike utilizing a low-yield weapon to limit fallout and civilian...large amounts of fallout . 6.6 Prevailing Over Regional Powers at Lower Numbers As numbers of nuclear forces moderately decline, the relative value of

  17. At the Precipice of Collapse: Strengthening the Nonproliferation Regime through Comprehensive Arms Control Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    Additionally, the allocation of dual-use nuclear forces to conventional strike missions supports future Prompt Global Strike missions.33 The operational...improvements have been made since 1999 in the establishment of a global nuclear testing verification regime. The assurance that the nuclear arsenal will...ratification are deposited. Conditions such as the continued conduct of the SSP, retention and modernization of nuclear complex capabilities and the

  18. Effects of neck flexion on discriminative and cognitive processing in anticipatory postural control during bilateral arm movement.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Yaguchi, Chie; Kunita, Kenji; Mammadova, Aida

    2012-06-19

    We investigated the effect of neck flexion on discriminative and cognitive processing in postural control during bilateral arm movement while standing, using event-related potential (ERP) and electromyogram. Fourteen healthy subjects flexed their arms to the target stimuli with a 20% probability in neck resting and flexion positions. Amplitude and latency of N2 and P3, anterior deltoid (AD) reaction time, onset time of postural muscles with respect to AD activation, and peak amplitude and latency of all muscles were measured. With neck flexion, N2 and P3 amplitudes increased, N2 and P3 latencies and AD reaction time shortened, and onset times of all postural muscles became earlier. No significant differences in peak amplitude and latency of each muscle were found between neck positions. Significant positive correlations were found in changes with neck flexion between P3 latency and AD reaction time, and between N2 latency and onset time of erector spinae. These suggest that with neck flexion, attention allocation to discriminative and cognitive processing increased, and the processing speed increased with shortening of reaction time in focal muscles. In addition, the onset time of postural muscles became earlier without changing the activation pattern, which was associated with the hastened discriminative processing.

  19. Dynamics and adaptive control of a dual-arm space robot with closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying-Hong; Hu, Quan; Xu, Shi-Jie

    2014-02-01

    A dynamics-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a planar dual-arm space robot in the presence of closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters of the payload. The controller is capable of controlling the position and attitude of both the satellite base and the payload grasped by the manipulator end effectors. The equations of motion in reduced-order form for the constrained system are derived by incorporating the constraint equations in terms of accelerations into Kane's equations of the unconstrained system. Model analysis shows that the resulting equations perfectly meet the requirement of adaptive controller design. Consequently, by using an indirect approach, an adaptive control scheme is proposed to accomplish position/attitude trajectory tracking control with the uncertain parameters being estimated on-line. The actuator redundancy due to the closed-loop constraints is utilized to minimize a weighted norm of the joint torques. Global asymptotic stability is proven by using Lyapunov's method, and simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Impact of Two Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Interventions on Risky Sexual Behavior: A Three-Arm Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Michael R.; van Zyl, Michiel A.; Antle, Becky F.; Langley, Cheri N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the efficacy of Reducing the Risk (RTR) and Love Notes (LN) on reducing risky sexual behavior among youths yet to experience or cause a pregnancy. Methods. The four dependent variables were ever had sex, condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners at 3- and 6-month follow-up in a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial of 1448 impoverished youths, aged 14 to 19 years, in 23 community-based organizations in Louisville, Kentucky, from September 2011 through March 2014. Results. At 3 and 6 months, compared with the control condition, youths in RTR reported fewer sexual partners and greater use of birth control. At 6 months, LN participants reported greater use of birth control and condoms, fewer sexual partners, and were less likely to have ever had sex compared with the control condition. Conclusions. We provided additional evidence for the continued efficacy of RTR and the first rigorous study of LN, which embeds sex education into a larger curriculum on healthy relationships and violence prevention. PMID:27689500