Science.gov

Sample records for conventional heating methods

  1. No major differences found between the effects of microwave-based and conventional heat treatment methods on two different liquid foods.

    PubMed

    Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho

    2013-01-01

    Extension of shelf life and preservation of products are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave heating is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave heating with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional heat transfer methods. In our study, the effects of heating of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave heating were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two heat treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave heating and the conventional heating methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave heat treatment can effectively replace conventional heat treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the product by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional heating method based on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between heat transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional heat treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-based food treatment can alter product properties in other ways as well.

  2. No Major Differences Found between the Effects of Microwave-Based and Conventional Heat Treatment Methods on Two Different Liquid Foods

    PubMed Central

    Géczi, Gábor; Horváth, Márk; Kaszab, Tímea; Alemany, Gonzalo Garnacho

    2013-01-01

    Extension of shelf life and preservation of products are both very important for the food industry. However, just as with other processes, speed and higher manufacturing performance are also beneficial. Although microwave heating is utilized in a number of industrial processes, there are many unanswered questions about its effects on foods. Here we analyze whether the effects of microwave heating with continuous flow are equivalent to those of traditional heat transfer methods. In our study, the effects of heating of liquid foods by conventional and continuous flow microwave heating were studied. Among other properties, we compared the stability of the liquid foods between the two heat treatments. Our goal was to determine whether the continuous flow microwave heating and the conventional heating methods have the same effects on the liquid foods, and, therefore, whether microwave heat treatment can effectively replace conventional heat treatments. We have compared the colour, separation phenomena of the samples treated by different methods. For milk, we also monitored the total viable cell count, for orange juice, vitamin C contents in addition to the taste of the product by sensory analysis. The majority of the results indicate that the circulating coil microwave method used here is equivalent to the conventional heating method based on thermal conduction and convection. However, some results in the analysis of the milk samples show clear differences between heat transfer methods. According to our results, the colour parameters (lightness, red-green and blue-yellow values) of the microwave treated samples differed not only from the untreated control, but also from the traditional heat treated samples. The differences are visually undetectable, however, they become evident through analytical measurement with spectrophotometer. This finding suggests that besides thermal effects, microwave-based food treatment can alter product properties in other ways as well. PMID

  3. Analytical models of Ohmic heating and conventional heating in food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serventi, A.; Bozzoli, F.; Rainieri, S.

    2017-11-01

    Ohmic heating is a food processing operation in which an electric current is passed through a food and the electrical resistance of the food causes the electric power to be transformed directly into heat. The heat is not delivered through a surface as in conventional heat exchangers but it is internally generated by Joule effect. Therefore, no temperature gradient is required and it origins quicker and more uniform heating within the food. On the other hand, it is associated with high energy costs and its use is limited to a particular range of food products with an appropriate electrical conductivity. Sterilization of foods by Ohmic heating has gained growing interest in the last few years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of Ohmic heating with respect to conventional heat exchangers under uniform wall temperature, a condition that is often present in industrial plants. This comparison is carried out by means of analytical models. The two different heating conditions are simulated under typical circumstances for the food industry. Particular attention is paid to the uniformity of the heat treatment and to the heating section length required in the two different conditions.

  4. Characterization of biomass waste torrefaction under conventional and microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Zhang, Congyu; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Shen, Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2018-05-13

    To evaluate the potential of microwave heating for biomass torrefaction, the torrefaction performances and energy utilization of coffee grounds and microalga residue, under conventional and microwave heating were investigated and compared with each other. For the two biomass samples, the dehydrogenation of the coffee grounds was more sensitive to torrefaction severity, whereas the microalga residue consumed more energy under the same torrefaction conditions. Microwave heating under lower torrefaction severity had a higher energy efficiency. As regard to the lower solid yields or higher torrefaction severity, the energy efficiency of microwave heating was close to that of conventional heating, irrespective of the feedstocks. This revealed the comparable energy consumption state between the two heating modes. Accordingly, it is concluded that microwave torrefaction is more efficient for biomass upgrading and densification than conventional torrefaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of ground-coupled solar-heat-pump systems to conventional systems for residential heating, cooling and water heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.; Hughes, P. J.

    1981-07-01

    An analysis is performed of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating is determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, DC; Fort Worth, Texas; and Madison, Wisconsin. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Fort Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51 percent of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Fort Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  6. Furfural Synthesis from d-Xylose in the Presence of Sodium Chloride: Microwave versus Conventional Heating.

    PubMed

    Xiouras, Christos; Radacsi, Norbert; Sturm, Guido; Stefanidis, Georgios D

    2016-08-23

    We investigate the existence of specific/nonthermal microwave effects for the dehydration reaction of xylose to furfural in the presence of NaCl. Such effects are reported for sugars dehydration reactions in several literature reports. To this end, we adopted three approaches that compare microwave-assisted experiments with a) conventional heating experiments from the literature; b) simulated conventional heating experiments using microwave-irradiated silicon carbide (SiC) vials; and at c) different power levels but the same temperature by using forced cooling. No significant differences in the reaction kinetics are observed using any of these methods. However, microwave heating still proves advantageous as it requires 30 % less forward power compared to conventional heating (SiC vial) to achieve the same furfural yield at a laboratory scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Rapid column heating method for subcritical water chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fogwill, Michael O; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2007-01-19

    A novel resistive heating method is presented for subcritical water chromatography (SWC) that provides higher column heating rates than those conventionally obtained from temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) convection ovens. Since the polarity of water reduces dramatically with increasing temperature, SWC employs column heating to achieve gradient elution. As such, the rate at which the mobile phase is heated directly impacts the magnitude of such gradients applied in SWC. Data from the current study demonstrate that the maximum column heating rate attainable in a typical SWC apparatus (i.e. using a GC convection oven) is around 10 degrees C/min, even at instrument oven settings of over three times this value. Conversely, by wrapping the separation column with ceramic insulation and a resistively heated wire, the column heating rates are increased five-fold. As a result, elution times can be greatly decreased in SWC employing gradients. Separations of standard alcohol test mixtures demonstrate that the retention time of the latest eluting component decreases by 35 to 50% using the prototype method. Additionally, solute retention times in this mode deviate by less than 1% RSD over several trials, which compares very well to those obtained using a conventional GC convection oven. Results suggest that the developed method can be a useful alternative heating technique in SWC.

  8. Intraosseous heat generation during sonic, ultrasonic and conventional osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Rashad, Ashkan; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan; Heiland, Max; Smeets, Ralf; Hanken, Henning; Gröbe, Alexander; Assaf, Alexandre T; Köhnke, Robert H; Mehryar, Pouyan; Riecke, Björn; Wikner, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    To assess heat generation in osteotomies during application of sonic and ultrasonic saws compared to conventional bur. Two glass-fiber isolated nickel-chromium thermocouples, connected to a recording device, were inserted into fresh bovine rib bone blocks and kept in 20 ± 0.5 °C water at determined depths of 1.5 mm (cortical layer) and 7 mm (cancellous layer) and 1.0 mm away from the planned osteotomy site. Handpieces, angulated 24-32°, were mounted in a vertical drill stand, and standardized weights were attached to their tops to exert loads of 5, 8, 15 and 20 N. Irrigation volumes of 20, 50 and 80 ml/min were used for each load. Ten repetitions were conducted using new tips each time for each test condition. The Mann-Whitney-U test was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Both ultrasonic and sonic osteotomies were associated with significantly lower heat generation than conventional osteotomy (p < 0.01). Sonic osteotomy showed non-significantly lower heat generation than ultrasonic osteotomy. Generated heat never exceeded the critical limit of 47 °C in any system. Variation of load had no effect on heat generation in both bone layers for all tested systems. An increased irrigation volume resulted in lower temperatures in both cortical and cancellous bone layers during all tested osteotomies. Although none of the systems under the conditions of the present study resulted in critical heat generation, the application of ultrasonic and sonic osteotomy systems was associated with lower heat generation compared to the conventional saw osteotomy. Copious irrigation seems to play a critical role in preventing heat generation in the osteotomy site. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integratedmore » piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression

  10. Enhanced MicroChannel Heat Transfer in Macro-Geometry using Conventional Fabrication Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, KT; Goh, AL

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents studies on passive, single-phase, enhanced microchannel heat transfer in conventionally sized geometry. The intention is to allow economical, simple and readily available conventional fabrication techniques to be used for fabricating macro-scale heat exchangers with microchannel heat transfer capability. A concentric annular gap between a 20 mm diameter channel and an 19.4 mm diameter insert forms a microchannel where heat transfer occurs. Results show that the heat transfer coefficient of more than 50 kW/m·K can be obtained for Re≈4,000, at hydraulic diameter of 0.6 mm. The pressure drop values of the system are kept below 3.3 bars. The present study re-confirms the feasibility of fabricating macro-heat exchangers with microchannel heat transfer capability.

  11. Pyrolysis of polystyrene waste in the presence of activated carbon in conventional and microwave heating using modified thermocouple.

    PubMed

    Prathiba, R; Shruthi, M; Miranda, Lima Rose

    2018-06-01

    Pyrolysis process was experimented using two types of heating source, namely conventional and microwave. Polystyrene (PS) plastic waste was used as feedstock in a batch reactor for both the conventional (slow pyrolysis) and microwave pyrolysis. The effect of activated carbon to polystyrene ratio on (i) yield of oil, gas and residues (ii) reaction temperature (iii) reaction time were studied. Quality of oil from pyrolysis of polystyrene were assessed for the possible applicability in fuel production. Microwave power of 450 W and polymer to activated carbon ratio of 10:1, resulted in the highest oil yield of 93.04 wt.% with a higher heating value of 45 MJ kg -1 and a kinematic viscosity of 2.7 cSt. Microwave heating when compared to conventional heating method, exhibits a reaction temperature and time of 330 °C in 5.5 min, whereas in conventional heating system it was 418 °C in 60 min. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of liquid oil from microwave pyrolysis predominantly yields alkenes of 8.44 wt.%, α-methyl styrene 0.96 wt.%, condensed ring aromatics 23.21 wt.% and benzene derivatives 26.77 wt.% when the polystyrene to activated carbon ratio was 10:1. Significant factor of using microwave heating is the amount of energy converted (kWh) is lesser than conventional heating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction hardening: Differences to a conventional heat treatment process and optimization of its parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, A.; Ressel, G.; Prevedel, P.; Raninger, P.; Panzenböck, M.; Marsoner, S.; Ebner, R.

    2016-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining similar mechanical properties with faster heating processes than the conventional ones has been of interest for several years. In the present study, investigations were performed in terms of the influences of such fast heat-treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the material. This investigation compares an inductive with a conventional furnace heat treating process of a 50CrMo4 steel, however only the austenitizing treatment was changed and subsequent quenching and tempering was done in the same way. To this end experiments with a middle frequency generator, using different heating rates and austenitizing temperatures, were conducted and followed by oil quenching of the workpieces. The resulting structures were characterized regarding their microstructures and mechanical properties in order to gather a better understanding of the differences between the inductive and the conventional heat treating process. As a main result it was found, that the fast austenitized samples exhibited worse ductility than the conventional treated material.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Conventional Ranges, Conventional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., set the clock time to 3:23 and use the average power approach described in Section 5, Paragraph 5.3.2... conventional ranges, conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, and microwave ovens at this time. However... finite period of time after the end of the heating function, where the end of the heating function is...

  14. Comparative evaluation of surface porosities in conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin cured by water bath and microwave energy with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunint; Palaskar, Jayant N.; Mittal, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional heat cure poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used denture base resin despite having some short comings. Lengthy polymerization time being one of them and in order to overcome this fact microwave curing method was recommended. Unavailability of specially designed microwavable acrylic resin made it unpopular. Therefore, in this study, conventional heat cure PMMA was polymerized by microwave energy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the surface porosities in PMMA cured by conventional water bath and microwave energy and compare it with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Materials and Methods: Wax samples were obtained by pouring molten wax into a metal mold of 25 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm dimensions. These samples were divided into three groups namely C, CM, and M. Group C denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by water bath method, CM denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by microwave energy, M denotes specially designed microwavable acrylic denture base resin cured by microwave energy. After polymerization, each sample was scanned in three pre-marked areas for surface porosities using the optical microscope. As per the literature available, this instrument is being used for the first time to measure the porosity in acrylic resin. It is a reliable method of measuring area of surface pores. Portion of the sample being scanned is displayed on the computer and with the help of software area of each pore was measured and data were analyzed. Results: Conventional heat cure PMMA samples cured by microwave energy showed maximum porosities than the samples cured by conventional water bath method and microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Higher percentage of porosities was statistically significant, but well within the range to be clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, conventional heat cure PMMA can be cured by microwave energy

  15. An Induction Heating Method with Traveling Magnetic Field for Long Structure Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Takamitsu; Tomita, Hideo; Obata, Shuji; Saito, Yukio

    A novel dismantlable adhesion method for recycling operation of interior materials is proposed. This method is applied a high frequency induction heating and a thermoplastic adhesive. For an adhesion of interior material to long steel stud, a conventional spiral coil as like IH cooking heater gives inadequateness for uniform heating to the stud. Therefore, we have proposed an induction heating method with traveling magnetic field for perfect long structures bonding. In this paper, we describe on the new adhesion method using the 20kHz, three-phase 200V inverter and linear induction coil. From induction heating characteristics to thin steel plates and long studs, the method is cleared the usefulness for uniform heating to long structures.

  16. Kinetic and Mechanism Study of Vanadium Acid Leaching from Black Shale Using Microwave Heating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-peng; Zhang, Yi-min; Huang, Jing; Liu, Tao

    2018-04-01

    The leaching kinetics of the vanadium leaching process were investigated by the comparison of microwave heating and conventional heating methods. Microwave heating with CaF2 had a synergistic effect and improved the vanadium leaching efficiency. In contrast to conventional heating leaching, microwave heating accelerated the vanadium leaching rate by approximately 1-3% and by approximately 15% when CaF2 was also used. The kinetics analysis showed that the calculated activation energy decreased in the microwave heating method in the presence and absence of CaF2. The control procedure of leaching also changed from a chemical reaction control step to a mixed chemical diffusion control step upon the addition of CaF2. Microwave heating was shown to be suitable for leaching systems with diffusion or mixed chemical diffusion control steps when the target mineral does not have a microwave absorbing ability.

  17. Kinetic and Mechanism Study of Vanadium Acid Leaching from Black Shale Using Microwave Heating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-peng; Zhang, Yi-min; Huang, Jing; Liu, Tao

    2018-06-01

    The leaching kinetics of the vanadium leaching process were investigated by the comparison of microwave heating and conventional heating methods. Microwave heating with CaF2 had a synergistic effect and improved the vanadium leaching efficiency. In contrast to conventional heating leaching, microwave heating accelerated the vanadium leaching rate by approximately 1-3% and by approximately 15% when CaF2 was also used. The kinetics analysis showed that the calculated activation energy decreased in the microwave heating method in the presence and absence of CaF2. The control procedure of leaching also changed from a chemical reaction control step to a mixed chemical diffusion control step upon the addition of CaF2. Microwave heating was shown to be suitable for leaching systems with diffusion or mixed chemical diffusion control steps when the target mineral does not have a microwave absorbing ability.

  18. Conventional physics can explain cold fusion excess heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, S. R.

    In 1989, when Fleischmann, Pons and Hawkins (FP), claimed they had created room temperature, nuclear fusion in a solid, a firestorm of controversy erupted. Beginning in 1991, the Office of Naval Research began a decade-long study of the FP excess heat effect. This effort documented the fact that the excess heat that FP observed is the result of a form of nuclear fusion that can occur in solids at reduced temperature, dynamically, through a deuteron (d)+d□4He reaction, without high-energy particles or □ rays. A key reason this fact has not been accepted is the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, justifying it. In the paper, this question is re-examined, based on a generalization of conventional energy band theory that applies to finite, periodic solids, in which d's are allowed to occupy wave-like, ion band states, similar to the kinds of states that electrons occupy in ordinary metals. Prior to being experimentally observed, the Ion Band State Theory (IBST) of cold fusion predicted a potential d+d□4He reaction, without high energy particles, would explain the excess heat, the 4He would be found in an unexpected place (outside heat-producing electrodes), and high-loading, x□1, in PdDx, would be required.

  19. Comparison of Microwave and Conventional Heating of a Wheat Starch-Gluten Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbach, Sharon Lynn

    The effects of conventional (CV) and microwave (MW) heating on a model wheat starch, vital wheat gluten system were studied. Three moisture contents (35%, 50%, and 65%) and up to five ratios of starch:gluten were studied. MW power was such that heating took place more quickly than during CV heating conditions. Temperature profiles during heating showed the importance of moisture content for curve shape and that all samples reached a high enough temperature for starch gelatinization and gluten denaturation to occur. Scanning electron microscopy supported temperature data in that physical changes for starch had taken place. Texture was evaluated as the force required to compress the sample. Differences were found for heating method, moisture content, and sample composition. Moisture content had the major effect and was inversely related to force. In general, CV heated samples required more force to compress than the MW heated samples. The high starch samples at 50% moisture showed the opposite affect. Self-diffusion coefficients determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that there was a redistribution of water between starch and gluten after heating for the faster more mobile water in the samples. Little difference was found between the two heating methods. The attenuation factor which has based on the dielectric constant and loss showed differences in the way the sample interacted with electromagnetic energy. The gluten was fractioned with dilute HCl to give six groups of protein. Starch appeared to have an effect on how the gluten denatured. When the fractions were characterized with SDS-PAGE it was found that each fraction contained a wide range of proteins with different molecular weights. Differences were found in the band patterns between the CV- and MW -heated samples. ^{13}C NMR also was used, which provided information on the protein and carbohydrate component of the fractions showed differences between the CV and MW heated samples, especially

  20. Residential heating costs: A comparison of geothermal solar and conventional resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomster, C. H.; Garrett-Price, B. A.; Fassbender, L. L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location, being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  1. Spray method for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Oh; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Selective agar is inadequate for supporting recovery of injured cells. During risk assessment of certain foods, both injured and noninjured cells must be enumerated. In this study, a new method (agar spray method) for recovering sublethally heat-injured microorganisms was developed and used for recovery of heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes. Molten selective agar was applied as an overlay to presolidified nonselective tryptic soy agar (TSA) by spray application. Heat-injured cells (55°C for 10 min in 0.1% peptone water or 55°C for 15 min in sterilized skim milk) were inoculated directly onto solidified TSA. After a 2-h incubation period for cell repair, selective agar was applied to the TSA surface with a sprayer, and the plates were incubated. The recovery rate for heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes with the spray method was compared with the corresponding rates associated with TSA alone, selective media alone, and the conventional overlay method (selective agar poured on top of resuscitated cells grown on TSA and incubated for 2 h). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pathogen recovery obtained with TSA, the overlay method, and the spray method. However, a lower recovery rate (P < 0.05) was obtained for isolation of injured cells on selective media. Overall, these results indicate that the agar spray method is an acceptable alternative to the conventional overlay method and is a simpler and more convenient approach to recovery and detection of injured cells.

  2. Cholesterol content of broiler breast fillets heated with and without the skin in convection and conventional ovens.

    PubMed

    Prusa, K J; Lonergan, M M

    1987-06-01

    Six treatment combinations for the heating of broiler breast fillets were investigated: three skin variables (heated and analyzed with skin, heated with and analyzed without skin, and heated and analyzed without skin) and two heating systems (convection broiling and conventional roasting). Matched broiler breast fillets were analyzed raw or breaded and heated to 82 C. Raw and cooked samples of meat, skin, and meat with skin were analyzed for moisture, fat, and cholesterol contents. In the raw state, samples of meat with skin contained greater moisture and fat contents, but similar cholesterol contents, when compared with samples of meat alone. Fillets heated by convection broiling had greater cooking losses but shorter heating times compared with conventionally roasted samples. Fillets with the skin removed before or after heating contained more moisture, less fat, and less cholesterol than samples cooked and analyzed with the skin present.

  3. Viability and antigenicity of anisakis simplex after conventional and microwave heating at fixed temperatures.

    PubMed

    Vidaček, Sanja; De Las Heras, Cristina; Solas, Maria Teresa; García, Maria Luisa; Mendizábal, Angel; Tejada, Margarita

    2011-12-01

    Inactivation of parasites in food by microwave treatment may vary due to differences in the characteristics of microwave ovens and food properties. Microwave treatment in standard domestic ovens results in hot and cold spots, and the microwaves do not penetrate all areas of the samples depending on the thickness, which makes it difficult to compare microwave with conventional heat treatments. The viability of Anisakis simplex (isolated larvae and infected fish muscle) heated in a microwave oven with precise temperature control was compared with that of larvae heated in a water bath to investigate any additional effect of the microwaves. At a given temperature, less time was required to kill the larvae by microwaves than by heated water. Microwave treatment killed A. simplex larvae faster than did conventional cooking when the microwaves fully penetrated the samples and resulted in fewer changes in the fish muscle. However, the heat-stable allergen Ani s 4 was detected by immunohistochemistry in the fish muscle after both heat treatments, even at 70°C, suggesting that Ani s 4 allergens were released from the larvae into the surrounding tissue and that the tissues retained their allergenicity even after the larvae were killed by both heat treatments. Thus, microwave cooking will not render fish safe for individuals already sensitized to A. simplex heat-resistant allergens.

  4. Comparison of performance of shell-and-tube heat exchangers with conventional segmental baffles and continuous helical baffle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Asif; Ferdous, Imam Ul.; Saha, Sumon

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers (STHXs) with conventional segmental baffles (STHXsSB) and continuous helical baffle (STHXsHB) is carried out and a comparative study is performed based on the simulation results. Both of the STHXs contain 37 tubes inside a 500 mm long and 200 mm diameter shell and mass flow rate of shell-side fluid is varied from 0.5 kg/s to 2 kg/s. At first, physical and mathematical models are developed and numerically simulated using finite element method (FEM). For the validation of the computational model, shell-side average nusselt number (Nus) is calculated from the simulation results and compared with the available experimental results. The comparative study shows that STHXsHB has 72-127% higher heat transfer coefficient per unit pressure drop compared to the conventional STHXsSB for the same shell-side mass flow rate. Moreover, STHXsHB has 59-63% lower shell-side pressure drop than STHXsSB.

  5. Theoretical simulation of the dual-heat-flux method in deep body temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    Deep body temperature reveals individual physiological states, and is important in patient monitoring and chronobiological studies. An innovative dual-heat-flux method has been shown experimentally to be competitive with the conventional zero-heat-flow method in its performance, in terms of measurement accuracy and step response to changes in the deep temperature. We have utilized a finite element method to model and simulate the dynamic process of a dual-heat-flux probe in deep body temperature measurements to validate the fundamental principles of the dual-heat-flux method theoretically, and to acquire a detailed quantitative description of the thermal profile of the dual-heat-flux probe. The simulation results show that the estimated deep body temperature is influenced by the ambient temperature (linearly, at a maximum rate of 0.03 °C/°C) and the blood perfusion rate. The corresponding depth of the estimated temperature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer is consistent when using the dual-heat-flux probe. Insights in improving the performance of the dual-heat-flux method were discussed for further studies of dual-heat-flux probes, taking into account structural and geometric considerations.

  6. Simulation and economic analysis of a liquid-based solar system with a direct-contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger, in comparison to a system with a conventional heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, P.; Karaki, S.

    Using a solar computer simulation package called TRNSYS, simulations of the direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) solar system and a system with conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger were developed, based in part on performance measurements of the actual systems. The two systems were simulated over a full year on an hour-by-hour basis at five locations; Boston, Massachusetts, Charleston, South Carolina, Dodge City, Kansas, Madison, Wisconsin, and Phoenix, Arizona. Typically the direct-contact system supplies slightly more heat for domestic hot water and space heating in all locations and about 5 percentage points more cooling as compared to the conventional system. Using a common set of economic parameters and the appropriate federal and state income tax credits, as well as property tax legislation for solar systems in the corresponding states, the results of the study indicate for heating-only systems, the DCLLHE system has a slight life-cycle cost disadvantage compared to the conventional system. For combined solar heating and cooling systems, the DCLLHE has a slight life-cycle cost advantage which varies with location and amounts to one to three percent difference from the conventional system.

  7. Estimation of Metabolism Characteristics for Heat-Injured Bacteria Using Dielectrophoretic Impedance Measurement Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amako, Eri; Enjoji, Takaharu; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    Constant monitoring and immediate control of fermentation processes have been required for advanced quality preservation in food industry. In the present work, simple estimation of metabolic states for heat-injured Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a micro-cell was investigated using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method. Temporal change in the conductance between micro-gap (ΔG) was measured for various heat treatment temperatures. In addition, the dependence of enzyme activity, growth capacity and membrane situation for E. coli on heat treatment temperature was also analyzed with conventional biological methods. Consequently, a correlation between ΔG and those biological properties was obtained quantitatively. This result suggests that DEPIM method will be available for an effective monitoring technique for complex change in various biological states of microorganisms.

  8. A comparison of piezosurgery and conventional surgery by heat shock protein 70 expression.

    PubMed

    Gülnahar, Y; Hüseyin Köşger, H; Tutar, Y

    2013-04-01

    The effects of mechanical instruments on the viability of cells are essential in terms of regeneration. There is considerable interest in cell repair following damage mediated by dental surgical procedures. Cells can tolerate stress by expressing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). During and after surgical tooth removal, oxidative stress can activate Hsp70 expression proportional to the intensity of the stress signal stimulus to cope with stress. This study examined the expression of Hsp70 as a potential biomarker of immediate postoperative stress in patients undergoing two different surgical procedures of different severity. Expression of Hsp70 both at mRNA and at protein level in the conventional group was two-fold higher than that of the piezo group. This suggests that tooth movement by the piezo method causes relatively lower stress in the alveolar bone. Piezosurgery provides relatively low stress to the patients and this may help cell repair after the surgical procedure. Patients undergoing more aggressive surgery using conventional methods showed a significant increase in Hsp70 in the immediate postoperative period. Therefore, Hsp70 induction can be a potential tool as a prognostic surgical marker. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  10. Conventional wallboard with latent heat storage for passive solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedl, R. J.

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin (melting point -- 73.5 F) is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten paraffin. Concentrations of paraffin in the combined product as high as 35 percent by weight were achieved. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to describe thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions where the PCM melts at a specific melting point. However, agreement between the model and an experimentally produced thermal transient involving impregnated wallboard was only good after the model was modified to allow the paraffin to melt over a temperature range. This was accomplished by replacing the heat of fusion with a triangular heat capacity relationship that mimics the triangular melt curve found through differential scanning calorimetry. When this change was made, agreement between the model and the experimental transient was very good.

  11. Experimental investigations and finite element simulation of cutting heat in vibrational and conventional drilling of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Meng; Zhao, Xiangrui; Zhu, Gang; McClean, Colin; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    Heat generated during bone drilling could cause irreversible thermal damage, which can lead to bone necrosis or even osteomyelitis. In this study, vibrational drilling was applied to fresh bovine bones to investigate the cutting heat in comparison with conventional drilling through experimental investigation and finite element analysis (FEA). The influence of vibrational frequency and amplitude on cutting heat generation and conduction were studied. The experimental results showed that, compared with the conventional drilling, vibrational drilling could significantly reduce the cutting temperature in drilling of cortical bone (P<0.05): the cutting temperature tended to decrease with increasing vibrational frequency and amplitude. The FEA results also showed that the vibrational amplitude holds a significant effect on the cutting heat conduction. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conventional wallboard with latent heat storage for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kedl, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin (Melting Point -- 73.5{degree}F) is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten paraffin. Concentrations of paraffin in the combined product as high as 35{percent} by weight were achieved. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to describe thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions where the PCM melts at a specific melting point. However, agreementmore » between the model and an experimentally produced thermal transient involving impregnated wallboard was only good after the model was modified to allow the paraffin to melt over a temperature range. This was accomplished by replacing the heat of fusion with a triangular heat capacity relationship that mimics the triangular melt curve found through differential scanning calorimetry. When this change was made, agreement between the model and the experimental transient was very good. 4 refs., 8 figs.« less

  13. The effect of microwave and conventional heating on a modified sol-gel derived biphasic calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herradi, S.; Bouhazma, S.; Khaldi, M.; El Hachadi, A.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M.

    2018-03-01

    A facile sol-gel method was used to synthesize either hydroxyapatite (HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the major phase. Herein, we report, on the one hand, the effect of a very low maturation temperature on the final powder composition after drying step, and on the other hand, we compare the effect of calcination of this powder by microwave or electric furnace. It was found that microwave heating has led to the formation of hydroxyapatite phase upon 180°C for 20 minutes, however, XRD patterns show that the powder becomes less crystallized upon 220°C and amorphous upon 230°C. In contrast, furnace heating at 600°C and 700°C converts the as-synthesized powder to β-TCP as the major phase together with HA as the minor phase. This work shows the possibility to obtain the as-prepared BCP at much lower maturation temperature; it also gives an insight into the role, of either microwave or conventional heating, in controlling the ratio between HA and β-TCP in the sintered powder.

  14. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Assisted Heating on Carbohydrate Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Postprandial Glycemic Response in Oat Meals

    PubMed Central

    Olędzki, Remigiusz

    2018-01-01

    Minimally processed cereal breakfast products from whole grain entered the market due to consumer demand of more nutritional food with more controlled sugar release. However, the subsequent processing of such products with different cooking methods in the consumer’s kitchen may lead to significant differentiation of their nutritional value. Therefore, the evaluation of the impact of frequently used cooking methods on a final quality of breakfast cereals meal is needed. The present study investigates how the two different methods of heating, conventional and microwave (MW) assisted, affect the carbohydrate content, profile and resulting glycemic index of so prepared food as well as the antioxidant activity of meals. Two products available on the market—oat bran and flakes—were used. The highest starch content in fluid phase of oatmeal was detected in samples heated for 3 min with microwaves, regardless the type. The lowest starch content was obtained for 5 min MW heated flakes sample. The total content of glucose was about 1.5 times lower in bran vs. flakes oatmeal. The highest β-glucan content in fluid fraction was also observed for bran meal but its release was independent of applied conditions. PMID:29443904

  15. Evaluation of the effect of salts on chemical, structural, textural, sensory and heating properties of cheese: Contribution of conventional methods and spectral ones.

    PubMed

    Loudiyi, M; Aït-Kaddour, A

    2018-03-21

    Chemical composition, sensory characteristics, textural and functional properties are among the most important characteristics, which directly relates to the global quality of cheese and to consumer acceptability. A number of factors including milk composition, processing conditions and salt content, influences these properties. The past decades many investigations were performed on the possibilities to reduce salt content of cheese due to its adverse health effects, the current lifestyle and the awareness of the consumers for nutrition quality products. Due to the multiple potential effects of reducing NaCl (simple reduction or substitution) on cheese attributes, it is of utmost importance to identify and understand those effects in order to control the global quality and safety of the final product. In the present review a collection of the different results and conclusions drawn after studying the effect of salts by conventional (e.g. wet chemistry) and instrumental (e.g. spectral) methods on chemical, structural, textural, sensory and heating properties of cheese are presented.

  16. The effects of heat treatment on selected properties of a conventional and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Rafeek, Reisha N

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of application of heat alone and heat & pressure on the compressive strength and modulus, the stress relaxation characteristics and the fluoride release of a conventional and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Cylindrical specimens were made from both materials and divided into 3 groups. One group was heat treated in an oven at 120 degrees C for 20 min, another group was subjected to heat & pressure at 120 degrees C for 20 min at 6-bar pressure. The third group acted as a control. The compressive strength and modulus, stress relaxation and fluoride release were tested over 56 days. The results of this investigation indicate that heat treatment had no significant effect on the conventional GIC used but significantly affected the resin modified GIC by increasing both the compressive strength and modulus and reducing the stress relaxation characteristics and the fluoride release. The use of GIC to produce inlay or onlay restorations that adhere to tooth tissue and release fluoride would be highly desirable. The results of this study indicate that it is possible to improve the strength of RMGIC with heat to a limited extent, but fluoride release may decrease.

  17. HEAT TRANSFER METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Gambill, W.R.; Greene, N.D.

    1960-08-30

    A method is given for increasing burn-out heat fluxes under nucleate boiling conditions in heat exchanger tubes without incurring an increase in pumping power requirements. This increase is achieved by utilizing a spinning flow having a rotational velocity sufficient to produce a centrifugal acceleration of at least 10,000 g at the tube wall. At this acceleration the heat-transfer rate at burn out is nearly twice the rate which can be achieved in a similar tube utilizing axial flow at the same pumping power. At higher accelerations the improvement over axial flow is greater, and heat fluxes in excess of 50 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr/sq ft can be achieved.

  18. Study of Hydrogen Production Method using Latent Heat of Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Masaru; Seki, Tatsuyoshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Motomu; Takatani, Yoshiaki

    In recent years, Fuel Cell Electrical Vehicle is expected to improve urban environment. Particularly a hydrogen fuel type FCEV expected for urban use, because its excellent characters such as short startup time, high responsibility and zero emission. On the other hand, as far as hydrogen production is concerned, large amount of CO2 is exhausted into the atmosphere by the process of LNG reforming. In our research, we studied the utilization of LNG latent heat for hydrogen gas production process as well as liquefied hydrogen process. Furthermore, CO2---Capturing as liquid state or solid state from hydrogen gas production process by LNG is also studied. Results of research shows that LNG latent heat is very effect to cool hydrogen gas for conventional hydrogen liquefied process. However, the LNG latent heat is not available for LNG reforming process. If we want to use LNG latent heat for this process, we have to develop new hydrogen gas produce process. In this new method, both hydrogen and CO2 is cooled by LNG directly, and CO2 is removed from the reforming gas. In order to make this method practical, we should develop a new type heat-exchanger to prevent solid CO2 from interfering the performance of it.

  19. Influence of System Operation Method on CO2 Emissions of PV/Solar Heat/Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Shinichiro; Kemmoku, Yoshishige; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki

    A PV/solar heat/cogeneration system is assumed to be installed in a hotel. The system is operated with various operation methods: CO2 minimum operation, fees minimum operation, seasonal operation, daytime operation and heat demand following operation. Of these five operations, the former two are virtual operations that are operated with the dynamic programming method, and the latter three are actual operations. Computer simulation is implemented using hourly data of solar radiation intensity, atmospheric temperature, electric, cooling, heating and hot water supply demands for one year, and the life-cycle CO2 emission and the total cost are calculated for every operations. The calculation results show that the virtual two and the actual three operations reduce the life-cycle CO2 emission by 21% and 13% compared with the conventional system, respectively. In regard to both the CO2 emission and the cost, there is no significant difference between the virtual two operation methods or among actual three operation methods.

  20. Heat exchanger and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2015-12-22

    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  1. High-performance heat pipes for heat recovery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Methods to improve the performance of reflux heat pipes for heat recovery applications were examined both analytically and experimentally. Various models for the estimation of reflux heat pipe transport capacity were surveyed in the literature and compared with experimental data. A high transport capacity reflux heat pipe was developed that provides up to a factor of 10 capacity improvement over conventional open tube designs; analytical models were developed for this device and incorporated into a computer program HPIPE. Good agreement of the model predictions with data for R-11 and benzene reflux heat pipes was obtained.

  2. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2015-03-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  3. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P [San Ramon, CA

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  4. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  5. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  6. Goat milk free fatty acid characterization during conventional and ohmic heating pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R N; Martins, R C; Vicente, A A

    2008-08-01

    The disruption of the milk fat globule membrane can lead to an excessive accumulation of free fatty acids in milk, which is frequently associated with the appearance of rancid flavors. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography techniques have been shown to be useful tools in the quantification of individual free fatty acids in dairy products providing enough sensitivity to detect levels of rancidity in milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the short-chain and medium-chain free fatty acid profile in i) raw untreated goat milk; ii) raw goat milk passing through pumps and heating units (plate-and-frame heat exchanger and ohmic heater); and iii) processed goat milk by conventional and ohmic pasteurization to determine the influence of each treatment in the final quality of the milk. Multivariate statistical analysis has shown that the treatments studied were not responsible for the variability found on free fatty acid contents. In particular, it was possible to conclude that ohmic pasteurization at 72 degrees C for 15 s did not promote an extended modification of free fatty acid contents in goat milk when compared with that of conventional pasteurization. Furthermore, principal component analysis showed that the capric acid can be used to discriminate goat's milk with different free fatty acid concentrations. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed evidence of the existence of correlations between contents of short and medium chain free fatty acids in goat milk.

  7. Various methods to improve heat transfer in exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Zitek; Vaclav, Valenta

    2015-05-01

    The University of West Bohemia in Pilsen (Department of Power System Engineering) is working on the selection of effective heat exchangers. Conventional shell and tube heat exchangers use simple segmental baffles. It can be replaced by helical baffles, which increase the heat transfer efficiency and reduce pressure losses. Their usage is demonstrated in the primary circuit of IV. generation MSR (Molten Salt Reactors). For high-temperature reactors we consider the use of compact desk heat exchangers, which are small, which allows the integral configuration of reactor. We design them from graphite composites, which allow up to 1000°C and are usable as exchangers: salt-salt or salt-acid (e.g. for the hydrogen production). In the paper there are shown thermo-physical properties of salts, material properties and principles of calculations.

  8. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-12-03

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  9. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.; Marsala, Joseph

    1994-11-29

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  10. Large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer by the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Tong-Miin; Wang, Chun-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Due to its advantage in parallel efficiency and wall treatment over conventional Navier-Stokes equation-based methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has emerged as an efficient tool in simulating turbulent heat and fluid flows. To properly simulate the rotating turbulent flow and heat transfer, which plays a pivotal role in tremendous engineering devices such as gas turbines, wind turbines, centrifugal compressors, and rotary machines, the lattice Boltzmann equations must be reformulated in a rotating coordinate. In this study, a single-rotating reference frame (SRF) formulation of the Boltzmann equations is newly proposed combined with a subgrid scale model for the large eddy simulation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer. The subgrid scale closure is modeled by a shear-improved Smagorinsky model. Since the strain rates are also locally determined by the non-equilibrium part of the distribution function, the calculation process is entirely local. The pressure-driven turbulent channel flow with spanwise rotation and heat transfer is used for validating the approach. The Reynolds number characterized by the friction velocity and channel half height is fixed at 194, whereas the rotation number in terms of the friction velocity and channel height ranges from 0 to 3.0. A working fluid of air is chosen, which corresponds to a Prandtl number of 0.71. Calculated results are demonstrated in terms of mean velocity, Reynolds stress, root mean square (RMS) velocity fluctuations, mean temperature, RMS temperature fluctuations, and turbulent heat flux. Good agreement is found between the present LBM predictions and previous direct numerical simulation data obtained by solving the conventional Navier-Stokes equations, which confirms the capability of the proposed SRF LBM and subgrid scale relaxation time formulation for the computation of rotating turbulent flows and heat transfer.

  11. Numerical methods in heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This third volume in the series in Numerical Methods in Engineering presents expanded versions of selected papers given at the Conference on Numerical Methods in Thermal Problems held in Venice in July 1981. In this reference work, contributors offer the current state of knowledge on the numerical solution of convective heat transfer problems and conduction heat transfer problems.

  12. Interim Feasibility Assessment Method for Solar Heating and Cooling of Army Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Solar Heating and Cooling System Diagram Conventional Flat-Plate Collector ...tank. The sunlight falling on the array warms a fluid (usually glycol and water), which is pumped through the solar collectors . The heat from this...the system an SYSTEM DIAGRAM auxiliary healer capable of supplying all or part of the heating or cooling demand. Solar Collectors The function

  13. Comparative catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by polyacrylamide-gold nanocomposite synthesized by hydrothermal autoclaving and conventional heating routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaheldin, Hosam I.

    2017-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in polymeric polyacrylamide (PAAm) matrix were synthesized using conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques. The synthesized Au/PAAm nanocomposite was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of the synthesized particles was approximately 6.37 nm and 8.19 nm with the conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques, respectively. Electron diffraction x-ray spectroscopy and the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy were used for the composition and elemental studies, which confirmed that the Au metallic atoms were synthesized and embedded within a PAAm matrix via a coordination bond between the carbonyl (-CONH2) group and the metallic NPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the fabricated AuNPs with face centered cubic of nanocrystals. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared Au/PAAm nanocomposite for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was studied in the presence of sodium borohydrate. The synthesized AuNPs had an effective catalytic activity; the smaller NPs synthesized NPs with the conventional heating technique had a higher reaction kinetic rate in comparation with those synthesized with the autoclaving technique. Therefore, the Au/PAAm nanocomposite can be widely used as an eco-friendly, non-toxic, a fast and cost-effective product to remove versatile organic pollutants such as aromatic nitro compounds.

  14. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

  15. The usefulness of mobile insulator sheets for the optimisation of deep heating area for regional hyperthermia using a capacitively coupled heating method: phantom, simulation and clinical prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Tomura, Kyosuke; Ohguri, Takayuki; Mulder, Hendrik Thijmen; Murakami, Motohiro; Nakahara, Sota; Yahara, Katsuya; Korogi, Yukunori

    2017-11-20

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of deep regional hyperthermia with the use of mobile insulator sheets in a capacitively coupled heating device. The heat was applied using an 8-MHz radiofrequency-capacitive device. The insulator sheet was inserted between the regular bolus and cooled overlay bolus in each of upper and lower side of the electrode. Several settings using the insulator sheets were investigated in an experimental study using an agar phantom to evaluate the temperature distributions. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions in several organs were also computed for the three-dimensional patient model. In a clinical prospective study, a total of five heating sessions were scheduled for the pelvic tumours, to assess the thermal parameters. The conventional setting was used during the first, third and fifth treatment sessions, and insulator sheets were used during the second and fourth treatment sessions. In the phantom study, the higher heating area improved towards the centre when the mobile insulator sheets were used. The subcutaneous fat/target ratios for the averaged SARs in the setting with the mobile insulator (median, 2.5) were significantly improved compared with those in the conventional setting (median, 3.4). In the clinical study, the thermal dose parameters of CEM43°CT90 in the sessions with the mobile insulator sheets (median, 1.9 min) were significantly better than those in the sessions using a conventional setting (median, 1.0 min). Our novel heating method using mobile insulator sheets was thus found to improve the thermal dose parameters. Further investigations are expected.

  16. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  17. Heat reclaiming method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jardine, Douglas M.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus to extract heat by transferring heat from hot compressed refrigerant to a coolant, such as water, without exceeding preselected temperatures in the coolant and avoiding boiling in a water system by removing the coolant from direct or indirect contact with the hot refrigerant.

  18. Chemical Analysis and Simulated Pyrolysis of Tobacco Heating System 2.2 Compared to Conventional Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyu; Luo, Yanbo; Jiang, Xingyi; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhu, Fengpeng; Hu, Shaodong; Hou, Hongwei; Hu, Qingyuan; Pang, Yongqiang

    2018-01-08

    Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2, marketed as iQOS), is a heat-not-burn (HNB) tobacco product that has been successfully introduced to global markets. Despite its expanding market, few independent and systematic researches into THS 2.2 have been carried out to date. We tested a comprehensive list of total particulate matter (TPM), water, tar, nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, aromatic amines, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, N-nitrosamines, phenol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon under both ISO and HCI regimes. We also simulated pyrolysis of THS 2.2 heating sticks and made comparisons with conventional cigarette tobacco fillers using comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC × GC-MS) to determine whether the specially designed ingredients help reduce harmful constituents. Other than some carbonyls, ammonia, and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), the delivered releases from THS 2.2 were at least 80% lower than those from 3R4F. Tar and nicotine remained almost the same as 3R4F. Interestingly, the normalized yield of THS 2.2 to 3R4F under the HCI regime was lower than under the ISO regime. THS 2.2 delivered fewer harmful constituents than the conventional cigarette 3R4F. Simulated pyrolysis results showed that the lower temperature instead of specially designed ingredients contributed to the distinct shift. In particular, if smoking machines are involved to evaluate the HNB products, smoking regimes of heat-not-burn tobacco products should be carefully chosen. To our knowledge, few independent studies of HNB products have been published. In this paper, a comprehensive list of chemical releases was tested systematically and compared to those from 3R4F. Although THS 2.2 generates lower levels of harmful constituents, the nicotine and tar levels were almost identical to 3R4F.The results should be discussed carefully in the future when assess the dual-use with other conventional cigarettes, nicotine dependence of HNB

  19. Inductance and resistance measurement method for vessel detection and coil powering in all-surface inductive heating systems composed of outer squircle coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Veli Tayfun; Unal, Emre; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we investigate a method proposed for vessel detection and coil powering in an all-surface inductive heating system composed of outer squircle coils. Besides conventional circular coils, coils with different shapes such as outer squircle coils are used for and enable efficient all-surface inductive heating. Validity of the method, which relies on measuring inductance and resistance values of a loaded coil at different frequencies, is experimentally demonstrated for a coil with shape different from conventional circular coil. Simple setup was constructed with a small coil to model an all-surface inductive heating system. Inductance and resistance maps were generated by measuring coil's inductance and resistance values at different frequencies loaded by a plate made of different materials and located at various positions. Results show that in an induction hob for various coil geometries it is possible to detect a vessel's presence, to identify its material type and to specify its position on the hob surface by considering inductance and resistance of the coil measured on at least two different frequencies. The studied method is important in terms of enabling safe, efficient and user flexible heating in an all-surface inductive heating system by automatically detecting the vessel's presence and powering on only the coils that are loaded by the vessel with predetermined current levels.

  20. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  1. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  2. Microwave Heating as an Alternative Quarantine Method for Disinfestation of Stored Food Grains

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Shah, Narendra G.

    2013-01-01

    Insects and pests constitute a major threat to food supplies all over the world. Some estimates put the loss of food grains because of infestation to about 40% of the world production. Contemporary disinfestation methods are chemical fumigation, ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, conventional hot air treatment, and dielectric heating, that is, radio frequency and microwave energy, and so forth. Though chemical fumigation is being used extensively in stored food grains, regulatory issues, insect resistance, and environmental concerns demand technically effective and environmentally sound quarantine methods. Recent studies have indicated that microwave treatment is a potential means of replacing other techniques because of selective heating, pollution free environment, equivalent or better quality retention, energy minimization, and so forth. The current paper reviews the recent advances in Microwave (MW) disinfestation of stored food products and its principle and experimental results from previous studies in order to establish the usefulness of this technology. PMID:26904615

  3. Applications guide for waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of commercially available organic Rankine cycle (ORC) hardware from a literature search and industry survey is assessed. Engineering criteria for applying ORC technology are established, and a set of nomograms to enable the rapid sizing of the equipment is presented. A comparison of an ORC system with conventional heat recovery techniques can be made with a nomogram developed for a recuperative heat exchanger. A graphical technique for evaluating the economic aspects of an ORC system and conventional heat recovery method is discussed: also included is a description of anticipated future trends in organic Rankine cycle R&D.

  4. Conventional Physics can Explain Excess Heat in the Fleischmann-Pons Cold Fusion Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2011-03-01

    In 1989, when Fleischmann and Pons (FP) claimed they had created room temperature, nuclear fusion in a solid, a firestorm of controversy erupted. Beginning in 1991, the Office of Naval Research began a decade-long study of the FP excess heat effect. This effort documented the fact that the excess heat that FP observed is the result of a form of nuclear fusion that can occur in solids at reduced temperature, dynamically, through a deuteron (d)+d?helium-4 reaction, without high-energy particles or ? rays. This fact has been confirmed at SRI and at a number of other laboratories (most notably in the laboratory of Y. Arata, located at Osaka University, Japan). A key reason this fact has not been accepted is the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, justifying it. In the paper, this question is re-examined, based on a generalization of conventional energy band theory that applies to finite, periodic solids, in which d's are allowed to occupy wave-like, ion band states, similar to the kinds of states that electrons occupy in ordinary metals. Prior to being experimentally observed, the Ion Band State Theory of cold fusion predicted a potential d+d?helium-4 reaction, without high energy particles, would explain the excess heat, the helium-4 would be found in an unexpected place (outside heat- producing electrodes), and high-loading, x?1, in PdDx, would be required.

  5. A novel method to determine air leakage in heat pump clothes dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Mohabir, Amar; Miller, William

    A heat pump clothes dryer offers the potential to save a significant amount of energy as compared with conventional vented electric dryers. Although heat pump clothes dryers (HPCD) offer higher energy efficiency; it has been observed that they are prone to air leakages, which inhibits the HPCD's gain in efficiency. This study serves to develop a novel method of quantifying leakage, and to determine specific leakage locations in the dryer drum and air circulation system. The basis of this method is the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E779 10, which is used to determine air leakage areamore » in a household ventilation system through fan pressurization. This ASTM method is adapted to the dryer system, and the leakage area is determined by an analysis of the leakage volumetric flow - pressure relationship. Easily accessible leakage points were quantified: the front and back crease (in the dryer drum), the leakage in the dryer duct, the air filter, and the remaining leakage in the drum. The procedure allows investigators to determine major components contributing to leakage in HPCDs, thus improving component design features that result in more efficient HPCD systems.« less

  6. A novel method to determine air leakage in heat pump clothes dryers

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Mohabir, Amar; Miller, William

    2016-01-06

    A heat pump clothes dryer offers the potential to save a significant amount of energy as compared with conventional vented electric dryers. Although heat pump clothes dryers (HPCD) offer higher energy efficiency; it has been observed that they are prone to air leakages, which inhibits the HPCD's gain in efficiency. This study serves to develop a novel method of quantifying leakage, and to determine specific leakage locations in the dryer drum and air circulation system. The basis of this method is the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E779 10, which is used to determine air leakage areamore » in a household ventilation system through fan pressurization. This ASTM method is adapted to the dryer system, and the leakage area is determined by an analysis of the leakage volumetric flow - pressure relationship. Easily accessible leakage points were quantified: the front and back crease (in the dryer drum), the leakage in the dryer duct, the air filter, and the remaining leakage in the drum. The procedure allows investigators to determine major components contributing to leakage in HPCDs, thus improving component design features that result in more efficient HPCD systems.« less

  7. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method.

  8. A New Method for Extubation: Comparison between Conventional and New Methods.

    PubMed

    Yousefshahi, Fardin; Barkhordari, Khosro; Movafegh, Ali; Tavakoli, Vida; Paknejad, Omalbanin; Bina, Payvand; Yousefshahi, Hadi; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood

    2012-08-01

    Extubation is associated with the risk of complications such as accumulated secretion above the endotracheal tube cuff, eventual atelectasia following a reduction in pulmonary volumes because of a lack of physiological positive end expiratory pressure, and intra-tracheal suction. In order to reduce these complications, and, based on basic physiological principles, a new practical extubation method is presented in this article. The study was designed as a six-month prospective cross-sectional clinical trial. Two hundred fifty-seven patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were divided into two groups based on their scheduled surgery time. The first group underwent the conventional extubation method, while the other group was extubated according to a new described method. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis results before and after extubation were compared between the two groups to find the effect of the extubation method on the ABG parameters and the oxygenation profile. In all time intervals, the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood / fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO(2)/FiO(2)) ratio in the new method group patients was improved compared to that in the conventional method; some differences, like PaO(2)/FiO(2) four hours after extubation, were statistically significant, however (p value=0.0063). The new extubation method improved some respiratory parameters and thus attenuated oxygenation complications and amplified oxygenation after extubation.

  9. Use of heat pipes in electronic hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A modular, multiple output power converter was developed in order to reduce costs of space hardware in future missions. The converter is of reduced size and weight, and utilizes advanced heat removal techniques, in the form of heat pipes which remove internally generated heat more effectively than conventional methods.

  10. Selection of biological indicator for validating microwave heating sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Mori, Y; Honda, W; Miyake, Y

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of selecting an appropriate biological indicator for evaluation of the effects of microwave heating sterilization, we examined aerobic bacterial spores to determine whether microwaves have non-thermal sterilization effects. After microwave irradiation on dry bacterial spores (three species), none of the bacterial spores were killed. The survival rate of the spores after microwave irradiation of spore suspensions (twelve species) was compared with that after heating by a conventional method. The order of heat resistance in the bacterial species was similar between the two heating methods. Bacillus stearothermophilus spores were the most heat-resistant. These results suggest that microwaves have no non-thermal sterilization effects on bacterial spores, the specific resistant spores to microwave heating, and microwave heating sterilization can be evaluated in the same way as for conventional heating sterilization. As a biological indicator for evaluation of overkill sterilization, B. stearothermophilus spores may be appropriate for microwave heating sterilization as well as steam sterilization.

  11. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  12. Strain gage measurement errors in the transient heating of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance

    1993-01-01

    Significant strain-gage errors may exist in measurements acquired in transient thermal environments if conventional correction methods are applied. Conventional correction theory was modified and a new experimental method was developed to correct indicated strain data for errors created in radiant heating environments ranging from 0.6 C/sec (1 F/sec) to over 56 C/sec (100 F/sec). In some cases the new and conventional methods differed by as much as 30 percent. Experimental and analytical results were compared to demonstrate the new technique. For heating conditions greater than 6 C/sec (10 F/sec), the indicated strain data corrected with the developed technique compared much better to analysis than the same data corrected with the conventional technique.

  13. Comparing the impact of homogenization and heat processing on the properties and in vitro digestion of milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds were compared. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole a...

  14. Comparison of thin-film resistance heat-transfer gages with thin-skin transient calorimeter gages in conventional hypersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III

    1981-01-01

    Thin film gages deposited at the stagnation region of small (8.1-mm-diameter) hemispheres and gages mounted flush with the surface of a sharp-leading-edge flat plate were tested in the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel and in the Langley hypersonic CF4 tunnel. Two substrate materials were tested, quartz and a machinable glass-ceramic. Small hemispheres were also tested utilizing the thin-skin transient calorimeter technique usually employed in conventional tunnels. One transient calorimeter model was a thin shell of stainless steel, and the other was a thin-skin insert of stainless steel mounted into a hemisphere fabricated from a machinable-glass-ceramic. Measured heat-transfer rates from the various hemispheres were compared with one another and with predicted rates. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of using-film resistance heat-transfer gages in conventional hypersonic wind tunnels over a wide range of conditions.

  15. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  16. TiO2-coated mesoporous carbon: conventional vs. microwave-annealing process.

    PubMed

    Coromelci-Pastravanu, Cristina; Ignat, Maria; Popovici, Evelini; Harabagiu, Valeria

    2014-08-15

    The study of coating mesoporous carbon materials with titanium oxide nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon materials in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other nanostructures to their surface. The combination of the distinctive properties of mesoporous carbon materials and titanium oxide is expected to be applied in field emission displays, nanoelectronic devices, novel catalysts, and polymer or ceramic reinforcement. But, their synthesis is still largely based on conventional techniques, such as wet impregnation followed by chemical reduction of the metal nanoparticle precursors, which takes time and money. The thermal heating based techniques are time consuming and often lack control of particle size and morphology. Hence, since there is a growing interest in microwave technology, an alternative way of power input into chemical reactions through dielectric heating is the use of microwaves. This work is focused on the advantages of microwave-assisted synthesis of TiO2-coated mesoporous carbon over conventional thermal heating method. The reviewed studies showed that the microwave-assisted synthesis of such composites allows processes to be completed within a shorter reaction time allowing the nanoparticles formation with superior properties than that obtained by conventional method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Issues in identifying germ tube positive yeasts by conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Atta; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Candida speciation is vital for epidemiology and management of candidiasis. Nonmolecular conventional methods often fail to identify closely related germ tube positive yeasts from clinical specimens. The present study was conducted to identify these yeasts and to highlight issues in conventional versus molecular methods of identification. A total of 98 germ tube positive yeasts from high vaginal swabs were studied over a 12-month period. Isolates were examined with various methods including growth at 42 °C and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), color development on CHROMagar Candida medium, chlamydospore production on corn meal agar at 25 °C, carbohydrate assimilation using ID 32C system, and polymerase chain reaction using a single pair of primers targeting the hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) gene. Of all the isolates studied, 97 were molecularly confirmed as C. albicans and one isolate was identified as C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was detected in this study. The molecular method used in our study was an accurate and useful tool for discriminating C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. The conventional methods, however, were less accurate and riddled with many issues that will be discussed in further details. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be accomplished...

  19. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be accomplished...

  20. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be accomplished...

  1. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be accomplished...

  2. 46 CFR 56.85-5 - Heating and cooling method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heating and cooling method. 56.85-5 Section 56.85-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Heat Treatment of Welds § 56.85-5 Heating and cooling method. Heat treatment may be accomplished...

  3. Simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bulk and thin film materials using frequency-dependent transient thermoreflectance method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhu, Jie; Tian, Miao; Gu, Xiaokun; Schmidt, Aaron; Yang, Ronggui

    2013-03-01

    The increasing interest in the extraordinary thermal properties of nanostructures has led to the development of various measurement techniques. Transient thermoreflectance method has emerged as a reliable measurement technique for thermal conductivity of thin films. In this method, the determination of thermal conductivity usually relies much on the accuracy of heat capacity input. For new nanoscale materials with unknown or less-understood thermal properties, it is either questionable to assume bulk heat capacity for nanostructures or difficult to obtain the bulk form of those materials for a conventional heat capacity measurement. In this paper, we describe a technique for simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity κ and volumetric heat capacity C of both bulk and thin film materials using frequency-dependent time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) signals. The heat transfer model is analyzed first to find how different combinations of κ and C determine the frequency-dependent TDTR signals. Simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity is then demonstrated with bulk Si and thin film SiO2 samples using frequency-dependent TDTR measurement. This method is further testified by measuring both thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of novel hybrid organic-inorganic thin films fabricated using the atomic∕molecular layer deposition. Simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity can significantly shorten the development∕discovery cycle of novel materials.

  4. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.

    2011-11-15

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate wasmore » more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.« less

  5. Methods for calculating conjugate problems of heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, E. K.; Dreitser, G. A.; Kostiuk, V. V.; Berlin, I. I.

    Methods are examined for calculating various conjugate problems of heat transfer in channels and closed vessels in cases of single-phase and two-phase flow in steady and unsteady conditions. The single-phase-flow studies involve the investigation of gaseous and liquid heat-carriers in pipes, annular and plane channels, and pipe bundles in cases of cooling and heating. General relationships are presented for heat transfer in cases of film, transition, and nucleate boiling, as well as for boiling crises. Attention is given to methods for analyzing the filling and cooling of conduits and tanks by cryogenic liquids; and ways to intensify heat transfer in these conditions are examined.

  6. Comparison of Different Recruitment Methods for Sexual and Reproductive Health Research: Social Media-Based Versus Conventional Methods.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Yoko; Miyagi, Etsuko; Taguri, Masataka; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takayuki; Wark, John Dennis; Garland, Suzanne Marie

    2017-03-10

    Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants. We conducted a survey to determine whether there was a difference in the sexual and reproductive health survey responses of young Japanese women based on recruitment methods: social media-based and conventional methods. From July 2012 to March 2013 (9 months), we invited women of ages 16-35 years in Kanagawa, Japan, to complete a Web-based questionnaire. They were recruited through either a social media-based (social networking site, SNS, group) or by conventional methods (conventional group). All participants enrolled were required to fill out and submit their responses through a Web-based questionnaire about their sexual and reproductive health for cervical cancer prevention. Of the 243 participants, 52.3% (127/243) were recruited by SNS, whereas 47.7% (116/243) were recruited by conventional methods. We found no differences between recruitment methods in responses to behaviors and attitudes to sexual and reproductive health survey, although more participants from the conventional group (15%, 14/95) chose not to answer the age of first intercourse compared with those from the SNS group (5.2%, 6/116; P=.03). No differences were found between recruitment methods in the responses of young Japanese women to a Web-based sexual and reproductive health survey. ©Yoko Motoki, Etsuko Miyagi, Masataka Taguri, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Takayuki Enomoto, John Dennis Wark, Suzanne Marie Garland. Originally

  7. Estimating heat tolerance of plants by ion leakage: a new method based on gradual heating.

    PubMed

    Ilík, Petr; Špundová, Martina; Šicner, Michal; Melkovičová, Helena; Kučerová, Zuzana; Krchňák, Pavel; Fürst, Tomáš; Večeřová, Kristýna; Panzarová, Klára; Benediktyová, Zuzana; Trtílek, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Heat tolerance of plants related to cell membrane thermostability is commonly estimated via the measurement of ion leakage from plant segments after defined heat treatment. To compare heat tolerance of various plants, it is crucial to select suitable heating conditions. This selection is time-consuming and optimizing the conditions for all investigated plants may even be impossible. Another problem of the method is its tendency to overestimate basal heat tolerance. Here we present an improved ion leakage method, which does not suffer from these drawbacks. It is based on gradual heating of plant segments in a water bath or algal suspensions from room temperature up to 70-75°C. The electrical conductivity of the bath/suspension, which is measured continuously during heating, abruptly increases at a certain temperature T COND (within 55-70°C). The T COND value can be taken as a measure of cell membrane thermostability, representing the heat tolerance of plants/organisms. Higher T COND corresponds to higher heat tolerance (basal or acquired) connected to higher thermostability of the cell membrane, as evidenced by the common ion leakage method. The new method also enables determination of the thermostability of photochemical reactions in photosynthetic samples via the simultaneous measurement of Chl fluorescence. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2001-04-17

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  9. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.

    1993-01-01

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  10. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  11. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOEpatents

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  12. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferredmore » across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.« less

  13. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  14. Microwave flow and conventional heating effects on the physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity of tomato puree.

    PubMed

    Arjmandi, Mitra; Otón, Mariano; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna

    2017-02-01

    Thermal processing causes a number of undesirable changes in physicochemical and bioactive properties of tomato products. Microwave (MW) technology is an emergent thermal industrial process that offers a rapid and uniform heating, high energy efficiency and high overall quality of the final product. The main quality changes of tomato puree after pasteurization at 96 ± 2 °C for 35 s, provided by a semi-industrial continuous microwave oven (MWP) under different doses (low power/long time to high power/short time) or by conventional method (CP) were studied. All heat treatments reduced colour quality, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C, with a greater reduction in CP than in MWP. On the other hand, use of an MWP, in particular high power/short time (1900 W/180 s, 2700 W/160 s and 3150 W/150 s) enhanced the viscosity and lycopene extraction and decreased the enzyme residual activity better than with CP samples. For tomato puree, polygalacturonase was the more thermo-resistant enzyme, and could be used as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency. MWP was an excellent pasteurization technique that provided tomato puree with improved nutritional quality, reducing process times compared to the standard pasteurization process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Efficacy of Conventional Laser Irradiation Versus a New Method for Gingival Depigmentation (Sieve Method): A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Houshmand, Behzad; Janbakhsh, Noushin; Khalilian, Fatemeh; Talebi Ardakani, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Diode laser irradiation has recently shown promising results for treatment of gingival pigmentation. This study sought to compare the efficacy of 2 diode laser irradiation protocols for treatment of gingival pigmentations, namely the conventional method and the sieve method. Methods: In this split-mouth clinical trial, 15 patients with gingival pigmentation were selected and their pigmentation intensity was determined using Dummett's oral pigmentation index (DOPI) in different dental regions. Diode laser (980 nm wavelength and 2 W power) was irradiated through a stipple pattern (sieve method) and conventionally in the other side of the mouth. Level of pain and satisfaction with the outcome (both patient and periodontist) were measured using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS) for both methods. Patients were followed up at 2 weeks, one month and 3 months. Pigmentation levels were compared using repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA). The difference in level of pain and satisfaction between the 2 groups was analyzed by sample t test and general estimate equation model. Results: No significant differences were found regarding the reduction of pigmentation scores and pain and scores between the 2 groups. The difference in satisfaction with the results at the three time points was significant in both conventional and sieve methods in patients ( P = 0.001) and periodontists ( P = 0.015). Conclusion: Diode laser irradiation in both methods successfully eliminated gingival pigmentations. The sieve method was comparable to conventional technique, offering no additional advantage.

  16. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.G.

    1993-11-09

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices. 11 figures.

  17. Cooking processes increase bioactive compounds in organic and conventional green beans.

    PubMed

    Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Costa, Sergio Marques; Monaco, Kamila de Almeida; Uliana, Maira Rodrigues; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Correa, Camila Renata; Vianello, Fabio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Minatel, Igor Otavio

    2017-12-01

    The influence of cooking methods on chlorophyl, carotenoids, polyamines, polyphenols contents and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in organic and conventional green beans. The initial raw material had a higher content of chlorophyl and total phenolics in conventional green beans, whereas organic cultive favored flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Polyamines and carotenoids were similar for the two crop systems. After the cooking process, carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) increased. Microwave heating favored the enhancement of some polar compounds, whereas pressure cooking favored carotenoids. When we used the estimation of the radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, a reduction of the DPPH radical signal in the presence of green bean extracts was observed, regardless of the mode of cultivation. The highest reduction of the ESR signal ocurred for microwave cooking in organic and conventional green beans, indicating a higher availability of antioxidants with this type of heat treatment.

  18. Modified Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion: Comparison with a Conventional Method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Kyu; Yang, Pil-Sung; Park, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-07-01

    The conventional trocar and cannula method in peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion has its limitation in clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare a modified method for percutaneous PD catheter insertion with the conventional method, and demonstrate advantages of the modified method. Patients at a single center who had percutaneous PD catheters inserted by nephrologists from January 2006 until September 2012, using either a modified method (group M) or the conventional trocar and cannula method (group C), were retrospectively analyzed, in terms of baseline characteristics, complications experienced up to 3 months after the procedure, and the suitability of the procedure for patients. Group M included 82 subjects, while group C included 66 cases. The overall early complication rate in group M (1.2%) was significantly lower than that in group C (19.7%) (p<0.001). The catheter revision rate during timeframe for early complications was significantly lower in group M (0%) than in group C (6.1%) (p=0.024). When comparing Procedure time (1 h 3 min±16 min vs. 1 h 36 min±19 min, p<0.01), immediate post-procedural pain (2.43±1.80 vs. 3.14±2.07, p<0.05), and post-procedure days until ambulation (3.95±1.13 days vs. 6.17±1.34 days, p<0.01), group M was significantly lower than group C. There was no significant difference in total hospitalization period (14.71±7.05 days vs. 13.86±3.7 days). Our modified PD catheter insertion method shows its advantages in early complication rate, early complications revision rate, and the patients' conveniences.

  19. Comparison of the lysis centrifugation method with the conventional blood culture method in cases of sepsis in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-07-01

    Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Two hundred nonduplicate blood cultures from cases of sepsis were analyzed using two blood culture methods concurrently for recovery of bacteria from patients diagnosed clinically with sepsis - the conventional blood culture method using trypticase soy broth and the lysis centrifugation method using saponin by centrifuging at 3000 g for 30 minutes. Overall bacteria recovered from 200 blood cultures were 17.5%. The conventional blood culture method had a higher yield of organisms, especially Gram positive cocci. The lysis centrifugation method was comparable with the former method with respect to Gram negative bacilli. The sensitivity of lysis centrifugation method in comparison to conventional blood culture method was 49.75% in this study, specificity was 98.21% and diagnostic accuracy was 89.5%. In almost every instance, the time required for detection of the growth was earlier by lysis centrifugation method, which was statistically significant. Contamination by lysis centrifugation was minimal, while that by conventional method was high. Time to growth by the lysis centrifugation method was highly significant (P value 0.000) as compared to time to growth by the conventional blood culture method. For the diagnosis of sepsis, combination of the lysis centrifugation method and the conventional blood culture method with trypticase soy broth or biphasic media is advocable, in order to achieve faster recovery and a better yield of microorganisms.

  20. Modified Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Insertion: Comparison with a Conventional Method

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Kyu; Yang, Pil-Sung; Park, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Kyu Hun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The conventional trocar and cannula method in peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion has its limitation in clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare a modified method for percutaneous PD catheter insertion with the conventional method, and demonstrate advantages of the modified method. Materials and Methods Patients at a single center who had percutaneous PD catheters inserted by nephrologists from January 2006 until September 2012, using either a modified method (group M) or the conventional trocar and cannula method (group C), were retrospectively analyzed, in terms of baseline characteristics, complications experienced up to 3 months after the procedure, and the suitability of the procedure for patients. Results Group M included 82 subjects, while group C included 66 cases. The overall early complication rate in group M (1.2%) was significantly lower than that in group C (19.7%) (p<0.001). The catheter revision rate during timeframe for early complications was significantly lower in group M (0%) than in group C (6.1%) (p=0.024). When comparing Procedure time (1 h 3 min±16 min vs. 1 h 36 min±19 min, p<0.01), immediate post-procedural pain (2.43±1.80 vs. 3.14±2.07, p<0.05), and post-procedure days until ambulation (3.95±1.13 days vs. 6.17±1.34 days, p<0.01), group M was significantly lower than group C. There was no significant difference in total hospitalization period (14.71±7.05 days vs. 13.86±3.7 days). Conclusion Our modified PD catheter insertion method shows its advantages in early complication rate, early complications revision rate, and the patients' conveniences. PMID:26069120

  1. Evaluation of a transfinite element numerical solution method for nonlinear heat transfer problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, J. A.; Scotti, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Laplace transform techniques have been widely used to solve linear, transient field problems. A transform-based algorithm enables calculation of the response at selected times of interest without the need for stepping in time as required by conventional time integration schemes. The elimination of time stepping can substantially reduce computer time when transform techniques are implemented in a numerical finite element program. The coupling of transform techniques with spatial discretization techniques such as the finite element method has resulted in what are known as transfinite element methods. Recently attempts have been made to extend the transfinite element method to solve nonlinear, transient field problems. This paper examines the theoretical basis and numerical implementation of one such algorithm, applied to nonlinear heat transfer problems. The problem is linearized and solved by requiring a numerical iteration at selected times of interest. While shown to be acceptable for weakly nonlinear problems, this algorithm is ineffective as a general nonlinear solution method.

  2. A two-concentric-loop iterative method in estimation of displacement height and roughness length for momentum and sensible heat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenguang; Qualls, Russell J; Berliner, Pedro R

    2008-11-01

    A two-concentric-loop iterative (TCLI) method is proposed to estimate the displacement height and roughness length for momentum and sensible heat by using the measurements of wind speed and air temperature at two heights, sensible heat flux above the crop canopy, and the surface temperature of the canopy. This method is deduced theoretically from existing formulae and equations. The main advantage of this method is that data measured not only under near neutral conditions, but also under unstable and slightly stable conditions can be used to calculate the scaling parameters. Based on the data measured above an Acacia Saligna agroforestry system, the displacement height (d0) calculated by the TCLI method and by a conventional method are compared. Under strict neutral conditions, the two methods give almost the same results. Under unstable conditions, d0 values calculated by the conventional method are systematically lower than those calculated by the TCLI method, with the latter exhibiting only slightly lower values than those seen under strictly neutral conditions. Computation of the average values of the scaling parameters for the agroforestry system showed that the displacement height and roughness length for momentum are 68% and 9.4% of the average height of the tree canopy, respectively, which are similar to percentages found in the literature. The calculated roughness length for sensible heat is 6.4% of the average height of the tree canopy, a little higher than the percentages documented in the literature. When wind direction was aligned within 5 degrees of the row direction of the trees, the average displacement height calculated was about 0.6 m lower than when the wind blew across the row direction. This difference was statistically significant at the 0.0005 probability level. This implies that when the wind blows parallel to the row direction, the logarithmic profile of wind speed is shifted lower to the ground, so that, at a given height, the wind speeds

  3. Research status and evaluation system of heat source evaluation method for central heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yutong; Qi, Junfeng; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The central heating boiler room is a regional heat source heating center. It is also a kind of the urban environment pollution, it is an important section of building energy efficiency. This article through to the evaluation method of central heating boiler room and overviews of the researches during domestic and overseas, summarized the main influence factors affecting energy consumption of industrial boiler under the condition of stable operation. According to the principle of establishing evaluation index system. We can find that is great significance in energy saving and environmental protection for the content of the evaluation index system of the centralized heating system.

  4. Computational inverse methods of heat source in fatigue damage problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aizhou; Li, Yuan; Yan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Fatigue dissipation energy is the research focus in field of fatigue damage at present. It is a new idea to solve the problem of calculating fatigue dissipation energy by introducing inverse method of heat source into parameter identification of fatigue dissipation energy model. This paper introduces the research advances on computational inverse method of heat source and regularization technique to solve inverse problem, as well as the existing heat source solution method in fatigue process, prospects inverse method of heat source applying in fatigue damage field, lays the foundation for further improving the effectiveness of fatigue dissipation energy rapid prediction.

  5. Methods for fabricating a micro heat barrier

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-01-06

    Methods for fabricating a highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  6. A new method of efficient heat transfer and storage at very high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, D.; Bruckner, A. P.; Hertzberg, A.

    1980-01-01

    A unique, high temperature (1000-2000 K) continuously operating capacitive heat exchanger system is described. The system transfers heat from a combustion or solar furnace to a working gas by means of a circulating high temperature molten refractory. A uniform aggregate of beads of a glass-like refractory is injected into the furnace volume. The aggregate is melted and piped to a heat exchanger where it is sprayed through a counter-flowing, high pressure working gas. The refractory droplets transfer their heat to the gas, undergoing a phase change into the solid bead state. The resulting high temperature gas is used to drive a suitable high efficiency heat engine. The solidified refractory beads are delivered back to the furnace and melted to continue the cycle. This approach avoids the important temperature limitations of conventional tube-type heat exchangers, giving rise to the potential of converting heat energy into useful work at considerably higher efficiencies than currently attainable and of storing energy at high thermodynamic potential.

  7. Heat tube device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

  8. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivative from Citronellal in Kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsito, W.; Noorhamdani, A. S.; Suratmo; Dwi Sapri, R.; Alkaroma, D.; Azhar, A. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Simple method has been used for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivative from citronellal in kaffir lime oil under microwave irradiation. These compounds were synthesized also by conventional heating for comparison. In addtion, microwave-assited synthesis was also compared between using to dichloromethane and methanol solvents with variation of reaction time for 30 to 70 minutes and 4 to 12 h for conventional heating. The 2-citronellyl benzimidazole compound synthesized were characterised by FT-IR, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Comparison between conventional and microwave-assisted synthesis was done by comparing between correlation of reaction time and percentage yield. The time optimum of microwave-assisted and conventional synthesis using dichloromethane solvent respectively at 60 minutes (yield 19.23%) and 8 hours (yield 11.54%). In addition, microwave-assited synthesis increasing 157.81 times compared by conventional heating. While using methanol solvent tends to increase linearly however the percentage of yield only 0.77 times of synthesis using dichloromethane solvent.

  9. High density Polyethylene plastic waste treatment with microwave heating pyrolysis method using coconut-shell activated carbon to produce alternative fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliastuti, S. R.; Hisbullah, M. I.; Abdillah, M.

    2018-03-01

    Pyrolysis is a technology that could crack polimer such as plastic waste into alternative fuels. This research uses microwave heating methode, which more efficient than conventional heating methode. The plastic waste used is 200 grams of HDPE, with feed to catalyst weight ratio are 1:1, 0.6:1, 0.4:1. Pyrolysis was run at temperatures of 250, 300, 350, & 400 °C for 15, 30 and 45 min. From the experimental result, the best variable of pyrolysis process with microwave method is at 45 minutes, at 400°C, and 1:1 feed to catalyst weight ratio. Result shows that yield of liquid and gas product is 99.22%; yield of residue is 0.78%; value of liquid product’s composition (cycloparaffin and n-paraffin) is 54.09% and concentration of methane gas is 10.2%.

  10. Eddy Covariance Method: Overview of General Guidelines and Conventional Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Anderson, D. J.; Amen, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric flux measurements are widely used to estimate water, heat, carbon dioxide and trace gas exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. The Eddy Covariance method is one of the most direct, defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the method is mathematically complex, and requires significant care to set up and process data. These reasons may be why the method is currently used predominantly by micrometeorologists. Modern instruments and software can potentially expand the use of this method beyond micrometeorology and prove valuable for plant physiology, hydrology, biology, ecology, entomology, and other non-micrometeorological areas of research. The main challenge of the method for a non-expert is the complexity of system design, implementation, and processing of the large volume of data. In the past several years, efforts of the flux networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, CarboEurope, Fluxnet-Canada, Asiaflux, etc.) have led to noticeable progress in unification of the terminology and general standardization of processing steps. The methodology itself, however, is difficult to unify, because various experimental sites and different purposes of studies dictate different treatments, and site-, measurement- and purpose-specific approaches. Here we present an overview of theory and typical workflow of the Eddy Covariance method in a format specifically designed to (i) familiarize a non-expert with general principles, requirements, applications, and processing steps of the conventional Eddy Covariance technique, (ii) to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as textbooks, network guidelines and journal papers, (iii) to help technicians, students and new researchers in the field deployment of the Eddy Covariance method, and (iv) to assist in its use beyond micrometeorology. The overview is based, to a large degree, on the frequently asked questions

  11. Hybrid microwave/conventionally heated calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binner, Jon G. P.; Price, Duncan M.; Reading, Mike; Vaidhyanathan, Bala

    2005-06-01

    The design and construction of a calorimeter in which the specimen may be heated by microwave radiation and/or hot air is described. The apparatus was used to examine the effect of microwave radiation on the melting of benzil (89°C) and the solid-state phase transition of silver iodide (147°C). Reproducibility of transition temperature determinations were within ±1°C. No changes were observed for benzil but silver iodide exhibited an apparent reduction in transition temperature to around 120°C in the presence of microwaves, which increased with the level of microwave irradiation.

  12. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dančová, P.; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  13. Method for producing heat-resistant semi-inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yajima, S.; Okamura, K.; Shishido, T.; Hasegawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The method for producing a heat resistant, semi-inorganic compound is discussed. Five examples in which various alcohols, phenols, and aromatic carbonic acids are used to test heat resistance and solubility are provided.

  14. A Comparison of the Flexural and Impact Strengths and Flexural Modulus of CAD/CAM and Conventional Heat-Cured Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA).

    PubMed

    Al-Dwairi, Ziad N; Tahboub, Kawkab Y; Baba, Nadim Z; Goodacre, Charles J

    2018-06-13

    The introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to the field of removable prosthodontics has recently made it possible to fabricate complete dentures of prepolymerized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blocks, which are claimed to be of better mechanical properties; however, no published reports that have evaluated mechanical properties of CAD/CAM PMMA. The purpose of this study was to compare flexural strength, impact strength, and flexural modulus of two brands of CAD/CAM PMMA and a conventional heat-cured PMMA. 45 rectangular specimens (65 mm × 10 mm × 3 mm) were fabricated (15 CAD/CAM AvaDent PMMA specimens from AvaDent, 15 CAD/CAM Tizian PMMA specimens from Shütz Dental, 15 conventional Meliodent PMMA specimens from Heraeus Kulzer) and stored in distilled water at (37  ± 1°C) for 7 days. Specimens (N = 15) in each group were subjected to the three-point bending test and impact strength test, employing the Charpy configuration on unnotched specimens. The morphology of the fractured specimens was studied under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey pairwise multiple comparisons with 95% confidence interval. The Schütz Dental specimens showed the highest mean flexural strength (130.67 MPa) and impact strength (29.56 kg/m 2 ). The highest mean flexural modulus was recorded in the AvaDent group (2519.6 MPa). The conventional heat-cured group showed the lowest mean flexural strength (93.33 MPa), impact strength (14.756 kg/m 2 ), and flexural modulus (2117.2 MPa). Differences in means of flexural properties between AvaDent and Schütz Dental specimens were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). As CAD/CAM PMMA specimens exhibited improved flexural strength, flexural modulus, and impact strength in comparison to the conventional heat-cured groups, CAD/CAM dentures are expected to be more durable. Different brands of CAD/CAM PMMA may have inherent

  15. Air gasification of rice husk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor with bed heating by conventional charcoal.

    PubMed

    Makwana, J P; Joshi, Asim Kumar; Athawale, Gaurav; Singh, Dharminder; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2015-02-01

    An experimental study of air gasification of rice husk was conducted in a bench-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) having 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. Heating of sand bed material was performed using conventional charcoal fuel. Different operating conditions like bed temperature, feeding rate and equivalence ratio (ER) varied in the range of 750-850 °C, 25-31.3 kg/h, and 0.3-0.38, respectively. Flow rate of air was kept constant (37 m(3)/h) during FBG experiments. The carbon conversion efficiencies (CCE), cold gas efficiency, and thermal efficiency were evaluated, where maximum CCE was found as 91%. By increasing ER, the carbon conversion efficiency was decreased. Drastic reduction in electric consumption for initial heating of gasifier bed with charcoal compared to ceramic heater was ∼45%. Hence rice husk is found as a potential candidate to use directly (without any processing) in FBG as an alternative renewable energy source from agricultural field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methods of Controlling the Loop Heat Pipe Operating Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2008-01-01

    The operating temperature of a loop heat pipe (LHP) is governed by the saturation temperature of its compensation chamber (CC); the latter is in turn determined by the balance among the heat leak from the evaporator to the CC, the amount of subcooling carried by the liquid returning to the CC, and the amount of heat exchanged between the CC and ambient. The LHP operating temperature can be controlled at a desired set point by actively controlling the CC temperature. The most common method is to cold bias the CC and use electric heater power to maintain the CC set point temperature. The required electric heater power can be large when the condenser sink is very cold. Several methods have been developed to reduce the control heater power, including coupling block, heat exchanger and separate subcooler, variable conductance heat pipe, by-pass valve with pressure regulator, secondary evaporator, and thermoelectric converter. The paper discusses the operating principles, advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  17. Innovative heating of large-size automotive Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Teng; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-02-01

    Automotive Li-ion cells are becoming much larger and thicker in order to reduce the cell count and increase battery reliability, posing a new challenge to battery heating from the cold ambient due to poor through-plane heat transfer across a cell's multiple layers of electrodes and separators. In this work, widely used heating methods, including internal heating using the cell's resistance and external heating by resistive heaters, are compared with the recently developed self-heating Li-ion battery (SHLB) with special attention to the heating speed and maximum local temperature critical to battery safety. Both conventional methods are found to be slow due to low heating power required to maintain battery safety. The heating power in the external heating method is limited by the risk of local over-heating, in particular for thick cells. As a result, the external heating method is restricted to ∼20 min slow heating for a 30 °C temperature rise. In contrast, the SHLB is demonstrated to reach a heating speed of 1-2 °C/sec, ∼40 times faster for large-size thick cells, with nearly 100% heating efficiency and spatially uniform heating free from safety concerns.

  18. Comparison of retention between maxillary milled and conventional denture bases: A clinical study.

    PubMed

    AlHelal, Abdulaziz; AlRumaih, Hamad S; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Baba, Nadim Z; Goodacre, Charles J

    2017-02-01

    Clinical studies comparing the retention values of milled denture bases with those of conventionally processed denture bases are lacking. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the retention values of conventional heat-polymerized denture bases with those of digitally milled maxillary denture bases. Twenty individuals with completely edentulous maxillary arches participated in this study. Definitive polyvinyl siloxane impressions were scanned (iSeries; Dental Wings), and the standard tessellation language files were sent to Global Dental Science for the fabrication of a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) milled denture base (group MB) (AvaDent). The impression was then poured to obtain a definitive cast that was used to fabricate a heat-polymerized acrylic resin denture base resin (group HB). A custom-designed testing device was used to measure denture retention (N). Each denture base was subjected to a vertical pulling force by using an advanced digital force gauge 3 times at 10-minute intervals. The average retention of the 2 fabrication methods was compared using repeated ANOVA (α=.05). Significantly increased retention was observed for the milled denture bases compared with that of the conventional heat-polymerized denture bases (P<.001). The retention offered by milled complete denture bases from prepolymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) resin was significantly higher than that offered by conventional heat- polymerized denture bases. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The reliability and reproducibility of cephalometric measurements: a comparison of conventional and digital methods

    PubMed Central

    AlBarakati, SF; Kula, KS; Ghoneima, AA

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and reproducibility of angular and linear measurements of conventional and digital cephalometric methods. Methods A total of 13 landmarks and 16 skeletal and dental parameters were defined and measured on pre-treatment cephalometric radiographs of 30 patients. The conventional and digital tracings and measurements were performed twice by the same examiner with a 6 week interval between measurements. The reliability within the method was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r2). The reproducibility between methods was calculated by paired t-test. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results All measurements for each method were above 0.90 r2 (strong correlation) except maxillary length, which had a correlation of 0.82 for conventional tracing. Significant differences between the two methods were observed in most angular and linear measurements except for ANB angle (p = 0.5), angle of convexity (p = 0.09), anterior cranial base (p = 0.3) and the lower anterior facial height (p = 0.6). Conclusion In general, both methods of conventional and digital cephalometric analysis are highly reliable. Although the reproducibility of the two methods showed some statistically significant differences, most differences were not clinically significant. PMID:22184624

  20. Methods to Estimate Acclimatization to Urban Heat Island Effects on Heat- and Cold-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Milojevic, Ai; Armstrong, Ben G.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia I.; Barratt, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Investigators have examined whether heat mortality risk is increased in neighborhoods subject to the urban heat island (UHI) effect but have not identified degrees of difference in susceptibility to heat and cold between cool and hot areas, which we call acclimatization to the UHI. Objectives: We developed methods to examine and quantify the degree of acclimatization to heat- and cold-related mortality in relation to UHI anomalies and applied these methods to London, UK. Methods: Case–crossover analyses were undertaken on 1993–2006 mortality data from London UHI decile groups defined by anomalies from the London average of modeled air temperature at a 1-km grid resolution. We estimated how UHI anomalies modified excess mortality on cold and hot days for London overall and displaced a fixed-shape temperature-mortality function (“shifted spline” model). We also compared the observed associations with those expected under no or full acclimatization to the UHI. Results: The relative risk of death on hot versus normal days differed very little across UHI decile groups. A 1°C UHI anomaly multiplied the risk of heat death by 1.004 (95% CI: 0.950, 1.061) (interaction rate ratio) compared with the expected value of 1.070 (1.057, 1.082) if there were no acclimatization. The corresponding UHI interaction for cold was 1.020 (0.979, 1.063) versus 1.030 (1.026, 1.034) (actual versus expected under no acclimatization, respectively). Fitted splines for heat shifted little across UHI decile groups, again suggesting acclimatization. For cold, the splines shifted somewhat in the direction of no acclimatization, but did not exclude acclimatization. Conclusions: We have proposed two analytical methods for estimating the degree of acclimatization to the heat- and cold-related mortality burdens associated with UHIs. The results for London suggest relatively complete acclimatization to the UHI effect on summer heat–related mortality, but less clear evidence for

  1. Conventionally cast and forged copper alloy for high-heat-flux thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Repas, George A.

    1987-01-01

    The combustion chamber liner of the space shuttle main engine is made of NARloy-Z, a copper-silver-zirconium alloy. This alloy was produced by vacuum melting and vacuum centrifugal casting; a production method that is currently now available. Using conventional melting, casting, and forging methods, NASA has produced an alloy of the same composition called NASA-Z. This report compares the composition, microstructure, tensile properties, low-cycle fatigue life, and hot-firing life of these two materials. The results show that the materials have similar characteristics.

  2. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOEpatents

    Ranasinghe, Jatila; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  3. Experimental and histological investigations of the bone using two different oscillating osteotomy techniques compared with conventional rotary osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Friedhelm; Hasan, Istabrak; Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Götz, Werner; Gedrange, Tomas; Spassov, Alexander; Schweppe, Janine; Gredes, Tomasz

    2012-03-20

    Over the past decade, coinciding with the appearance of a number of new ultrasonic surgical devices, there has been a marked increase in interest in the use of ultrasound in oral surgery and implantology as alternative osteotomy method. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effect of osteotomies performed using ultrasonic surgery (Piezosurgery(®)), sonic surgery SONICflex(®) and the conventional bur method on the heat generation within the bone underneath the osteotomy and light-microscopy observations of the bone at different cutting positions in porcine mandibular segments. It was found that the average heat generated by SONICflex(®) sonic device was close to that by conventional rotary bur (1.54-2.29°C), whereas Piezosurgery(®) showed a high generated heat up to 18.17°C. Histological investigations of the bone matrix adjacent to the defect radius showed intact osteocytes with all three instruments and similar wide damage diameter at the bottom region. SONICflex(®) showed smooth cutting surfaces with minimal damage in the upper defect zone. Finally, presented results showed that sonic surgery performed with SONICflex(®) is an alternative osteotomy method and can be used as an alternative to the conventional bur method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Method of Heating a Foam-Based Catalyst Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, Arthur J.; Williams, Brian E.; McNeal, Shawn R.

    2009-01-01

    A method of heating a foam-based catalyst bed has been developed using silicon carbide as the catalyst support due to its readily accessible, high surface area that is oxidation-resistant and is electrically conductive. The foam support may be resistively heated by passing an electric current through it. This allows the catalyst bed to be heated directly, requiring less power to reach the desired temperature more quickly. Designed for heterogeneous catalysis, the method can be used by the petrochemical, chemical processing, and power-generating industries, as well as automotive catalytic converters. Catalyst beds must be heated to a light-off temperature before they catalyze the desired reactions. This typically is done by heating the assembly that contains the catalyst bed, which results in much of the power being wasted and/or lost to the surrounding environment. The catalyst bed is heated indirectly, thus requiring excessive power. With the electrically heated catalyst bed, virtually all of the power is used to heat the support, and only a small fraction is lost to the surroundings. Although the light-off temperature of most catalysts is only a few hundred degrees Celsius, the electrically heated foam is able to achieve temperatures of 1,200 C. Lower temperatures are achievable by supplying less electrical power to the foam. Furthermore, because of the foam s open-cell structure, the catalyst can be applied either directly to the foam ligaments or in the form of a catalyst- containing washcoat. This innovation would be very useful for heterogeneous catalysis where elevated temperatures are needed to drive the reaction.

  6. Heat transfer unit and method for prefabricated vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tamburello, David A.; Kesterson, Matthew R; Hardy, Bruce J.

    Vessel assemblies, heat transfer units for prefabricated vessels, and methods for heat transfer prefabricated vessel are provided. A heat transfer unit includes a central rod, and a plurality of peripheral rods surrounding the central rod and connected to the central rod. The plurality of peripheral rods are movable between a first collapsed position and a second bowed position, wherein in the second bowed position a midpoint of each of the plurality of peripheral rods is spaced from the central rod relative to in the first position. The heat transfer unit further includes a heat transfer element connected to one ofmore » the plurality of peripheral rods.« less

  7. Comparative evaluation of the amount of the residual monomer in conventional and deep-frozen heat cure polymethylmethacrylate acrylic resin: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sonali S; Mahajan, Neerja; Sethuraman, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Heat cure acrylic resin material with reduced monomer content is generally recommended for clinical usage as it leads to improved mechanical, physical, and biocompatibility properties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the amount of the residual monomer in the conventional and three different groups of deep-frozen heat cure polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resin. Totally 40 Specimens of heat cure PMMA acrylic resin (DPI India) (10 conventional heat cure and 30 deep frozen) were made using two disc-shaped stainless steel molds and invested into type II dental stone using compression molding technique. Each group contained 10 specimens ( n = 10). Group 1: Control group of conventional polished PMMA specimen stored in water for 24 h at +37°C (10 specimens), Group 2: Deep frozen unpolished PMMA (10 specimens), Group 3: Deep frozen polished PMMA (10 specimens), and Group 4: Deep frozen polished PMMA specimen stored in water for 24 h at +37°C (10 specimens). Amount of the residual monomer content in all the specimens was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed using One-Way Analysis of Variance and multiple comparison Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Least residual monomer content was found in Group 4 (0.12 wt%) followed by Group 3 (0.19 wt%), Group 2 (0.23 wt%), and Group 1 (0.26 wt%). Statistically significant difference ( P < 0.05) was found in residual monomer content for all the four groups tested. Post hoc test for intergroup comparison also showed a significant difference between groups. The amount of the residual monomer was found to be least in deep-frozen polished PMMA specimen stored in water for 24 h at +37°C (Group 4). Thus, it can be concluded that deep freezing, polishing, and storing in water can reduce the residual monomer content.

  8. Methods to Estimate Acclimatization to Urban Heat Island Effects on Heat- and Cold-Related Mortality.

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Ai; Armstrong, Ben G; Gasparrini, Antonio; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia I; Barratt, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Investigators have examined whether heat mortality risk is increased in neighborhoods subject to the urban heat island (UHI) effect but have not identified degrees of difference in susceptibility to heat and cold between cool and hot areas, which we call acclimatization to the UHI. We developed methods to examine and quantify the degree of acclimatization to heat- and cold-related mortality in relation to UHI anomalies and applied these methods to London, UK. Case-crossover analyses were undertaken on 1993-2006 mortality data from London UHI decile groups defined by anomalies from the London average of modeled air temperature at a 1-km grid resolution. We estimated how UHI anomalies modified excess mortality on cold and hot days for London overall and displaced a fixed-shape temperature-mortality function ("shifted spline" model). We also compared the observed associations with those expected under no or full acclimatization to the UHI. The relative risk of death on hot versus normal days differed very little across UHI decile groups. A 1°C UHI anomaly multiplied the risk of heat death by 1.004 (95% CI: 0.950, 1.061) (interaction rate ratio) compared with the expected value of 1.070 (1.057, 1.082) if there were no acclimatization. The corresponding UHI interaction for cold was 1.020 (0.979, 1.063) versus 1.030 (1.026, 1.034) (actual versus expected under no acclimatization, respectively). Fitted splines for heat shifted little across UHI decile groups, again suggesting acclimatization. For cold, the splines shifted somewhat in the direction of no acclimatization, but did not exclude acclimatization. We have proposed two analytical methods for estimating the degree of acclimatization to the heat- and cold-related mortality burdens associated with UHIs. The results for London suggest relatively complete acclimatization to the UHI effect on summer heat-related mortality, but less clear evidence for cold-related mortality. Milojevic A, Armstrong BG, Gasparrini A

  9. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  10. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find information on the benefits of renewable heating and cooling technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  11. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1997-01-01

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  12. Turbulent heat transfer prediction method for application to scramjet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, S. Z.

    1974-01-01

    An integral method for predicting boundary layer development in turbulent flow regions on two-dimensional or axisymmetric bodies was developed. The method has the capability of approximating nonequilibrium velocity profiles as well as the local surface friction in the presence of a pressure gradient. An approach was developed for the problem of predicting the heat transfer in a turbulent boundary layer in the presence of a high pressure gradient. The solution was derived with particular emphasis on its applicability to supersonic combustion; thus, the effects of real gas flows were included. The resulting integrodifferential boundary layer method permits the estimation of cooling reguirements for scramjet engines. Theoretical heat transfer results are compared with experimental combustor and noncombustor heat transfer data. The heat transfer method was used in the development of engine design concepts which will produce an engine with reduced cooling requirements. The Langley scramjet engine module was designed by utilizing these design concepts and this engine design is discussed along with its corresponding cooling requirements. The heat transfer method was also used to develop a combustor cooling correlation for a combustor whose local properties are computed one dimensionally by assuming a linear area variation and a given heat release schedule.

  13. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  14. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  15. A comparison study on microwave-assisted extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides with conventional method: Molecule structure and antioxidant activities evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhao, Baotang; Wu, Yiqian; Yao, Jian

    2009-12-01

    The conventional extraction methods for polysaccharides were time-consuming, laborious and energy-consuming. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (ASP), which is a traditional Chinese food. The extracting parameters were optimized by Box-Behnken design. In microwave heating process, a decrease in molecular weight (M(w)) was detected in SEC-LLS measurement. A d(f) value of 2.85 indicated ASP using MAE exhibited as a sphere conformation of branched clusters in aqueous solution. Furthermore, it showed stronger antioxidant activities compared with hot water extraction. The data obtained showed that the molecular weights played a more important role in antioxidant activities.

  16. Body Segment Differences in Surface Area, Skin Temperature and 3D Displacement and the Estimation of Heat Balance during Locomotion in Hominins

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Alan; Collard, Mark; Nelson, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The conventional method of estimating heat balance during locomotion in humans and other hominins treats the body as an undifferentiated mass. This is problematic because the segments of the body differ with respect to several variables that can affect thermoregulation. Here, we report a study that investigated the impact on heat balance during locomotion of inter-segment differences in three of these variables: surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. The approach adopted in the study was to generate heat balance estimates with the conventional method and then compare them with heat balance estimates generated with a method that takes into account inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. We reasoned that, if the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement affect heat balance during locomotion is correct, the estimates yielded by the two methods should be statistically significantly different. Anthropometric data were collected on seven adult male volunteers. The volunteers then walked on a treadmill at 1.2 m/s while 3D motion capture cameras recorded their movements. Next, the conventional and segmented methods were used to estimate the volunteers' heat balance while walking in four ambient temperatures. Lastly, the estimates produced with the two methods were compared with the paired t-test. The estimates of heat balance during locomotion yielded by the two methods are significantly different. Those yielded by the segmented method are significantly lower than those produced by the conventional method. Accordingly, the study supports the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement impact heat balance during locomotion. This has important implications not only for current understanding of heat balance during locomotion in hominins but also for how future research on this topic should be approached. PMID

  17. Body segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and 3D displacement and the estimation of heat balance during locomotion in hominins.

    PubMed

    Cross, Alan; Collard, Mark; Nelson, Andrew

    2008-06-18

    The conventional method of estimating heat balance during locomotion in humans and other hominins treats the body as an undifferentiated mass. This is problematic because the segments of the body differ with respect to several variables that can affect thermoregulation. Here, we report a study that investigated the impact on heat balance during locomotion of inter-segment differences in three of these variables: surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. The approach adopted in the study was to generate heat balance estimates with the conventional method and then compare them with heat balance estimates generated with a method that takes into account inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. We reasoned that, if the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement affect heat balance during locomotion is correct, the estimates yielded by the two methods should be statistically significantly different. Anthropometric data were collected on seven adult male volunteers. The volunteers then walked on a treadmill at 1.2 m/s while 3D motion capture cameras recorded their movements. Next, the conventional and segmented methods were used to estimate the volunteers' heat balance while walking in four ambient temperatures. Lastly, the estimates produced with the two methods were compared with the paired t-test. The estimates of heat balance during locomotion yielded by the two methods are significantly different. Those yielded by the segmented method are significantly lower than those produced by the conventional method. Accordingly, the study supports the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement impact heat balance during locomotion. This has important implications not only for current understanding of heat balance during locomotion in hominins but also for how future research on this topic should be approached.

  18. Inverse problem and variation method to optimize cascade heat exchange network in central heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yin; Wei, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yinping; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    Urban heating in northern China accounts for 40% of total building energy usage. In central heating systems, heat is often transferred from heat source to users by the heat network where several heat exchangers are installed at heat source, substations and terminals respectively. For given overall heating capacity and heat source temperature, increasing the terminal fluid temperature is an effective way to improve the thermal performance of such cascade heat exchange network for energy saving. In this paper, the mathematical optimization model of the cascade heat exchange network with three-stage heat exchangers in series is established. Aim at maximizing the cold fluid temperature for given hot fluid temperature and overall heating capacity, the optimal heat exchange area distribution and the medium fluids' flow rates are determined through inverse problem and variation method. The preliminary results show that the heat exchange areas should be distributed equally for each heat exchanger. It also indicates that in order to improve the thermal performance of the whole system, more heat exchange areas should be allocated to the heat exchanger where flow rate difference between two fluids is relatively small. This work is important for guiding the optimization design of practical cascade heating systems.

  19. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1997-08-12

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration. 5 figs.

  20. Isothermic and fixed intensity heat acclimation methods induce similar heat adaptation following short and long-term timescales.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Oliver R; Mee, Jessica A; Tuttle, James A; Taylor, Lee; Watt, Peter W; Maxwell, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Heat acclimation requires the interaction between hot environments and exercise to elicit thermoregulatory adaptations. Optimal synergism between these parameters is unknown. Common practise involves utilising a fixed workload model where exercise prescription is controlled and core temperature is uncontrolled, or an isothermic model where core temperature is controlled and work rate is manipulated to control core temperature. Following a baseline heat stress test; 24 males performed a between groups experimental design performing short term heat acclimation (STHA; five 90 min sessions) and long term heat acclimation (LTHA; STHA plus further five 90 min sessions) utilising either fixed intensity (50% VO2peak), continuous isothermic (target rectal temperature 38.5 °C for STHA and LTHA), or progressive isothermic heat acclimation (target rectal temperature 38.5 °C for STHA, and 39.0 °C for LTHA). Identical heat stress tests followed STHA and LTHA to determine the magnitude of adaptation. All methods induced equal adaptation from baseline however isothermic methods induced adaptation and reduced exercise durations (STHA = -66% and LTHA = -72%) and mean session intensity (STHA = -13% VO2peak and LTHA = -9% VO2peak) in comparison to fixed (p < 0.05). STHA decreased exercising heart rate (-10 b min(-1)), core (-0.2 °C) and skin temperature (-0.51 °C), with sweat losses increasing (+0.36 Lh(-1)) (p<0.05). No difference between heat acclimation methods, and no further benefit of LTHA was observed (p > 0.05). Only thermal sensation improved from baseline to STHA (-0.2), and then between STHA and LTHA (-0.5) (p<0.05). Both the continuous and progressive isothermic methods elicited exercise duration, mean session intensity, and mean T(rec) analogous to more efficient administration for maximising adaptation. Short term isothermic methods are therefore optimal for individuals aiming to achieve heat adaptation most economically, i.e. when integrating heat acclimation into

  1. Combined Heat and Power Protocol for Uniform Methods Project | Advanced

    Science.gov Websites

    Manufacturing Research | NREL Combined Heat and Power Protocol for Uniform Methods Project Combined Heat and Power Protocol for Uniform Methods Project NREL developed a protocol that provides a ; is consistent with the scope and other protocols developed for the Uniform Methods Project (UMP

  2. Method for identifying anomalous terrestrial heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy Kerr

    1977-01-25

    A method for locating and mapping the magnitude and extent of terrestrial heat-flow anomalies from 5 to 50 times average with a tenfold improved sensitivity over orthodox applications of aerial temperature-sensing surveys as used for geothermal reconnaissance. The method remotely senses surface temperature anomalies such as occur from geothermal resources or oxidizing ore bodies by: measuring the spectral, spatial, statistical, thermal, and temporal features characterizing infrared radiation emitted by natural terrestrial surfaces; deriving from these measurements the true surface temperature with uncertainties as small as 0.05 to 0.5 K; removing effects related to natural temperature variations of topographic, hydrologic, or meteoric origin, the surface composition, detector noise, and atmospheric conditions; factoring out the ambient normal-surface temperature for non-thermally enhanced areas surveyed under otherwise identical environmental conditions; distinguishing significant residual temperature enhancements characteristic of anomalous heat flows and mapping the extent and magnitude of anomalous heat flows where they occur.

  3. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods of obtaining complete-arch dental impressions.

    PubMed

    Ender, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Digital impression systems have undergone significant development in recent years, but few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo, particularly compared with conventional impression techniques. The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the precision of conventional and digital methods for complete-arch impressions. Complete-arch impressions were obtained using 5 conventional (polyether, POE; vinylsiloxanether, VSE; direct scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES; digitized scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES-D; and irreversible hydrocolloid, ALG) and 7 digital (CEREC Bluecam, CER; CEREC Omnicam, OC; Cadent iTero, ITE; Lava COS, LAV; Lava True Definition Scanner, T-Def; 3Shape Trios, TRI; and 3Shape Trios Color, TRC) techniques. Impressions were made 3 times each in 5 participants (N=15). The impressions were then compared within and between the test groups. The cast surfaces were measured point-to-point using the signed nearest neighbor method. Precision was calculated from the (90%-10%)/2 percentile value. The precision ranged from 12.3 μm (VSE) to 167.2 μm (ALG), with the highest precision in the VSE and VSES groups. The deviation pattern varied distinctly according to the impression method. Conventional impressions showed the highest accuracy across the complete dental arch in all groups, except for the ALG group. Conventional and digital impression methods differ significantly in the complete-arch accuracy. Digital impression systems had higher local deviations within the complete arch cast; however, they achieve equal and higher precision than some conventional impression materials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergent surgical airway: comparison of the three-step method and conventional cricothyroidotomy utilizing high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Quick, Jacob A; MacIntyre, Allan D; Barnes, Stephen L

    2014-02-01

    Surgical airway creation has a high potential for disaster. Conventional methods can be cumbersome and require special instruments. A simple method utilizing three steps and readily available equipment exists, but has yet to be adequately tested. Our objective was to compare conventional cricothyroidotomy with the three-step method utilizing high-fidelity simulation. Utilizing a high-fidelity simulator, 12 experienced flight nurses and paramedics performed both methods after a didactic lecture, simulator briefing, and demonstration of each technique. Six participants performed the three-step method first, and the remaining 6 performed the conventional method first. Each participant was filmed and timed. We analyzed videos with respect to the number of hand repositions, number of airway instrumentations, and technical complications. Times to successful completion were measured from incision to balloon inflation. The three-step method was completed faster (52.1 s vs. 87.3 s; p = 0.007) as compared with conventional surgical cricothyroidotomy. The two methods did not differ statistically regarding number of hand movements (3.75 vs. 5.25; p = 0.12) or instrumentations of the airway (1.08 vs. 1.33; p = 0.07). The three-step method resulted in 100% successful airway placement on the first attempt, compared with 75% of the conventional method (p = 0.11). Technical complications occurred more with the conventional method (33% vs. 0%; p = 0.05). The three-step method, using an elastic bougie with an endotracheal tube, was shown to require fewer total hand movements, took less time to complete, resulted in more successful airway placement, and had fewer complications compared with traditional cricothyroidotomy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of organic and conventional cultivation methods on composition of eggplant fruits.

    PubMed

    Raigón, María D; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2010-06-09

    Organic food is associated by the general public with improved nutritional properties, and this has led to increasing demand for organic vegetables. The effects of organic and conventional cultivation methods on dry matter, protein, minerals, and total phenolic content has been studied for two successive years in two landraces and one commercial hybrid of eggplant. In the first year, organically produced eggplants had higher mean contents (expressed on a fresh weight basis) of K (196 vs 171 mg 100 g(-1)), Ca (11.1 vs 8.7 mg 100 g(-1)), Mg (6.0 vs 4.6 mg 100 g(-1)), and total phenolics (49.8 vs 38.2 mg 100 g(-1)) than conventionally grown eggplants. In the second year, in which matched plots having a history of organic management were cultivated following organic or conventional fertilization practices, organically produced eggplants still had higher contents of K (272 vs 249 mg 100 g(-1)) and Mg (8.8 vs 7.6), as well as of Cu (0.079 vs 0.065 mg 100 g(-1)), than conventionally fertilized eggplants. Conventionally cultivated eggplants had a higher polyphenol oxidase activity than organically cultivated ones (3.19 vs 2.17 enzyme activity units), although no differences in browning were observed. Important differences in mineral concentrations between years were detected, which resulted in many correlations among mineral contents being significant. The first component of the principal component analysis separates the eggplants according to year, whereas the second component separates them according to the cultivation method (organic or conventional). Overall, the results show that organic management and fertilization have a positive effect on the accumulation of certain beneficial minerals and phenolic compounds in eggplant and that organically and conventionally produced eggplants might be distinguished according to their composition profiles.

  6. Heat exchanger and method of making. [rocket lining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchange of increased effectiveness is disclosed. A porous metal matrix is disposed in a metal chamber or between walls through which a heat-transfer fluid is directed. The porous metal matrix has internal bonds and is bonded to the chamber in order to remove all thermal contact resistance within the composite structure. Utilization of the invention in a rocket chamber is disclosed as a specific use. Also disclosed is a method of constructing the heat exchanger.

  7. A work study of the CAD/CAM method and conventional manual method in the fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S; Cheng, J C Y; Wong, M W; So, S F

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to compare the CAD/CAM method with the conventional manual method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Ten subjects were recruited for this study. Efficiency analyses of the two methods were performed from cast filling/ digitization process to completion of cast/image rectification. The dimensional changes of the casts/ models rectified by the two cast rectification methods were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the CAD/CAM method was faster than the conventional manual method in the studied processes. The mean rectification time of the CAD/CAM method was shorter than that of the conventional manual method by 108.3 min (63.5%). This indicated that the CAD/CAM method took about 1/3 of the time of the conventional manual to finish cast rectification. In the comparison of cast/image dimensional differences between the conventional manual method and the CAD/CAM method, five major dimensions in each of the five rectified regions namely the axilla, thoracic, lumbar, abdominal and pelvic regions were involved. There were no significant dimensional differences (p < 0.05) in 19 out of the 25 studied dimensions. This study demonstrated that the CAD/CAM system could save the time in the rectification process and offer a relatively high resemblance in cast rectification as compared with the conventional manual method.

  8. Students’ mental model on heat convection concept and its relation with students conception on heat and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, R.; Sari, I. M.; Sinaga, P.

    2017-02-01

    This research depended by previous studies that only to find out the misconceptions of students without figuring out the mechanism of the misconceptions. The mechanism of misconceptions can be studied more deeply with mental models. The purpose of this study was to find students ‘mental models of heat convection and its relation with students conception on heat and temperature. The method used in this study is exploratory mixed method design that implemented in one of the high schools in Bandung. The results showed that 7 mental models of heat convection in Chiou’s study (2013), only first model (diffusion-based convention), third model (evenly distributed convection) and fifth model (warmness topped convection II) were found and model hybrid convection as a new mental model. In addition, no specific relationship between mental models and categories of students’ conceptions on heat and temperature.

  9. [Physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge cured by micro-wave heating].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K

    1989-09-01

    A heating method using micro-waves was utilized to obtain strong thermosetting resin for crown and bridge. The physical and mechanical properties of the thermosetting resin were examined. The resin was cured in a shorter time by the micro-waves heating method than by the conventional heat curing method and the working time was reduced markedly. The base resins of the thermosetting resin for crown and bridge for the micro-waves heating method were 2 PA and diluent 3 G. A compounding volume of 30 wt% for diluent 3 G was considered good the results of compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. Grams of 200-230 of the filler compounded to the base resins of 2 PA-3 G system provided optimal compressive strength, bending strength and diametral tensile strength. A filler gram of 230 provided optimal hardness and curing shrinkage rate, the coefficient of thermal expansion became smaller with the increase of the compounding volume of the filler. The trial thermosetting resin for crown and bridge formed by the micro-waves heating method was not inferior to the conventional resin by the heat curing method or the light curing method.

  10. Comparison of Radiofrequency and Electrocautery With Conventional Scalpel Incisions.

    PubMed

    Hasar, Zafer Burak; Ozmeric, Nurdan; Ozdemir, Burcu; Gökmenoğlu, Ceren; Baris, Emre; Altan, Gökçen; Kahraman, Sevil

    2016-11-01

    The disadvantages of conventional scalpels, including insufficient control of bleeding, prompted us to search for new alternative methods such as electrosurgery and radiosurgery. In this study, the conventional scalpel was compared with radiosurgery and electrosurgery for wound healing with assessment of lateral heat production, inflammation, and instrument performance. Incisions were made in the palatal mucosa of 42 Wistar rats using a scalpel, electrocautery instrument, or radiofrequency instrument. Postoperative hemostasis, tissue coagulation, and tissue sticking were measured, and pain evaluation through weight loss was recorded. Gingival biopsy specimens from the surgical area were obtained at the time of surgery and 2, 4, 7, and 14 days postoperatively and were evaluated immunohistochemically for inducible nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 70. Kruskal-Wallis, 1-way analysis of variance, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical evaluation. The rats in the electrosurgery and radiosurgery groups had aggressively greater weight loss when compared with the scalpel group in the first 7 days. Hemostasis was better in the electrocautery group, tissue coagulation was greater in the radiofrequency group (P < .001), and tissue sticking was lesser in the scalpel group (P < .001) compared with the other groups. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and heat shock protein 70 expression were similar in all 3 groups. Electrosurgery performed better regarding hemostasis, whereas a scalpel was superior in terms of tissue sticking and tissue coagulation. Radiosurgery was superior regarding hemostasis when compared with a conventional scalpel, but it was not as successful as electrosurgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Comparison of investigation methods of heat injury in grapevine (Vitis) and assessment to heat tolerance in different cultivars and species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guojie; Liu, Guotian; Yan, Bofang; Duan, Wei; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua

    2014-06-05

    In the context of global climate change, heat stress is becoming an increasingly important constraint on grapevine growth and berry quality. There is a need to breed new grape cultivars with heat tolerance and to design effective physiological defenses against heat stress. The investigation of heat injury to plants or tissues under high temperature is an important step in achieving these goals. At present, evaluation methods for heat injury include the gas exchange parameters of photosynthesis, membrane thermostability, chlorophyll content etc.; however, these methods have obvious disadvantages, such as insensitivity, inconvenience and delayed information. An effective and convenient method for investigating the heat injury of grapevine must be developed. In this study, an investigation protocol for a critical temperature (47°C) and heat treatment time (40 min) was developed in detached grape leaves. Based on the results, we found that the OJIP test was superior to measuring electrolyte leakage or photosynthetic O₂ evolution for investigating the heat injury of three cultivars of grapevine. Heat tolerance of 47 grape species and cultivars was evaluated through investigating heat injury using the OJIP test. Moreover, the electron transport chain (donor side, acceptor side and reaction center) of PSII in photosynthesis was further investigated. The OJIP test was a rapid, sensitive and convenient method for investigating heat injury in grapevine. An analysis of PSII function using this method indicated that the acceptor side was less sensitive to heat than was the donor side or the reaction center in grape leaves. Among the 47 taxa evaluated (cultivars, hybrids, and wild species), heat tolerance varied largely in each genotype group: most wild species and hybrids between V. labrusca and V. vinifera had relatively strong heat tolerance, but most cultivars from V. vinifera had relatively weak heat tolerance.

  12. Comparison of investigation methods of heat injury in grapevine (Vitis) and assessment to heat tolerance in different cultivars and species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of global climate change, heat stress is becoming an increasingly important constraint on grapevine growth and berry quality. There is a need to breed new grape cultivars with heat tolerance and to design effective physiological defenses against heat stress. The investigation of heat injury to plants or tissues under high temperature is an important step in achieving these goals. At present, evaluation methods for heat injury include the gas exchange parameters of photosynthesis, membrane thermostability, chlorophyll content etc.; however, these methods have obvious disadvantages, such as insensitivity, inconvenience and delayed information. An effective and convenient method for investigating the heat injury of grapevine must be developed. Results In this study, an investigation protocol for a critical temperature (47°C) and heat treatment time (40 min) was developed in detached grape leaves. Based on the results, we found that the OJIP test was superior to measuring electrolyte leakage or photosynthetic O2 evolution for investigating the heat injury of three cultivars of grapevine. Heat tolerance of 47 grape species and cultivars was evaluated through investigating heat injury using the OJIP test. Moreover, the electron transport chain (donor side, acceptor side and reaction center) of PSII in photosynthesis was further investigated. Conclusions The OJIP test was a rapid, sensitive and convenient method for investigating heat injury in grapevine. An analysis of PSII function using this method indicated that the acceptor side was less sensitive to heat than was the donor side or the reaction center in grape leaves. Among the 47 taxa evaluated (cultivars, hybrids, and wild species), heat tolerance varied largely in each genotype group: most wild species and hybrids between V. labrusca and V. vinifera had relatively strong heat tolerance, but most cultivars from V. vinifera had relatively weak heat tolerance. PMID:24898786

  13. Confocal laser induced fluorescence with comparable spatial localization to the conventional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Derek S.; Henriquez, Miguel F.; Scime, Earl E.; Good, Timothy N.

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of ion velocity distributions obtained by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) using a single viewport in an argon plasma. A patent pending design, which we refer to as the confocal fluorescence telescope, combines large objective lenses with a large central obscuration and a spatial filter to achieve high spatial localization along the laser injection direction. Models of the injection and collection optics of the two assemblies are used to provide a theoretical estimate of the spatial localization of the confocal arrangement, which is taken to be the full width at half maximum of the spatial optical response. The new design achieves approximately 1.4 mm localization at a focal length of 148.7 mm, improving on previously published designs by an order of magnitude and approaching the localization achieved by the conventional method. The confocal method, however, does so without requiring a pair of separated, perpendicular optical paths. The confocal technique therefore eases the two window access requirement of the conventional method, extending the application of LIF to experiments where conventional LIF measurements have been impossible or difficult, or where multiple viewports are scarce.

  14. Ultrasonic Method for Measuring Internal Temperature Profile in Heated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, I.; Takahashi, M.

    2008-02-01

    A new ultrasonic method for internal temperature measurement is presented. The principle of the method is based on temperature dependence of the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagating through the material. An inverse analysis to determine the temperature profile in a heated material is developed and an experiment is carried out to verify the validity of the developed method. A single side of a silicone rubber plate of 30 mm thickness is heated and ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements are then performed during heating. A change in transit time of ultrasonic wave in the heated rubber plate is monitored and used to determine the transient variation in internal temperature distribution of the rubber. The internal temperature distribution determined ultrasonically agrees well with both obtained using commercial thermocouples installed in the rubber and estimated theoretically.

  15. SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEM PHASED-MISSION PROBABILITY ANALYSIS USING CONVENTIONAL PRA METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen

    As part of a series of papers on the topic of advance probabilistic methods, a benchmark phased-mission problem has been suggested. This problem consists of modeling a space mission using an ion propulsion system, where the mission consists of seven mission phases. The mission requires that the propulsion operate for several phases, where the configuration changes as a function of phase. The ion propulsion system itself consists of five thruster assemblies and a single propellant supply, where each thruster assembly has one propulsion power unit and two ion engines. In this paper, we evaluate the probability of mission failure usingmore » the conventional methodology of event tree/fault tree analysis. The event tree and fault trees are developed and analyzed using Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE). While the benchmark problem is nominally a "dynamic" problem, in our analysis the mission phases are modeled in a single event tree to show the progression from one phase to the next. The propulsion system is modeled in fault trees to account for the operation; or in this case, the failure of the system. Specifically, the propulsion system is decomposed into each of the five thruster assemblies and fed into the appropriate N-out-of-M gate to evaluate mission failure. A separate fault tree for the propulsion system is developed to account for the different success criteria of each mission phase. Common-cause failure modeling is treated using traditional (i.e., parametrically) methods. As part of this paper, we discuss the overall results in addition to the positive and negative aspects of modeling dynamic situations with non-dynamic modeling techniques. One insight from the use of this conventional method for analyzing the benchmark problem is that it requires significant manual manipulation to the fault trees and how they are linked into the event tree. The conventional method also requires editing the resultant cut

  16. A review of the impacts of tobacco heating system on indoor air quality versus conventional pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Kaunelienė, Violeta; Meišutovič-Akhtarieva, Marija; Martuzevičius, Dainius

    2018-05-08

    With the introduction of novel and potentially less polluting nicotine containing products to the market, the impacts of their usage to indoor air quality as opposed to conventional pollution sources must be reviewed and considered. This review study aimed to comparatively analyse changes in indoor air quality as the consequence of tobacco heating system (THS) generated pollution against general indoor air quality in various micro-environments, especially with combustion-based pollution sources present. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, nicotine and PM 2.5 were reviewed and compared; concentrations of other harmful and potentially harmful substances (HPHCs) were discussed. Generally, the usage of THS has been associated with lower or comparable indoor air pollutant concentrations compared against other conventional indoor sources or environments, in most cases distinguishable above background, thus potentially being associated with health effects at prolonged exposures as any other artificial air pollution source. In the controlled environment the use of THS (as well as an electronic cigarette) resulted in the lowest concentrations of formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, PM 2.5, among majority researched pollution sources (conventional cigarettes, waterpipe, incense, mosquito coils). The exposure to significantly higher pollution levels of benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde occurred in public environments, especially transport micro-environments. Such low levels of conventionally-assessed indoor pollutants resulting from the use of new nicotine containing products raise challenges for epidemiological studies of second-hand exposure to THS aerosol in real-life environments. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. HEATED PURGE AND TRAP METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the research was to develop a heated purge and trap method that could be used in conjunction with SW-846 method 8240 for the analysis of volatile, water soluble Appendix VIII analytes. The developed method was validated according to a partial single laboratory method ...

  18. Validated green high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of coformulated pharmaceuticals: a comparison with reported conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Hegazy, Maha A; Saad, Samah S; Salem, Maissa Y; Abd El Fattah, Laila E

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of sustainable development concepts to analytical laboratories has recently gained interest, however, most conventional high-performance liquid chromatography methods do not consider either the effect of the used chemicals or the amount of produced waste on the environment. The aim of this work was to prove that conventional methods can be replaced by greener ones with the same analytical parameters. The suggested methods were designed so that they neither use nor produce harmful chemicals and produce minimum waste to be used in routine analysis without harming the environment. This was achieved by using green mobile phases and short run times. Four mixtures were chosen as models for this study; clidinium bromide/chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride, phenobarbitone/pipenzolate bromide, mebeverine hydrochloride/sulpiride, and chlorphenoxamine hydrochloride/caffeine/8-chlorotheophylline either in their bulk powder or in their dosage forms. The methods were validated with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, system suitability, and robustness. The developed methods were compared to the reported conventional high-performance liquid chromatography methods regarding their greenness profile. The suggested methods were found to be greener and more time- and solvent-saving than the reported ones; hence they can be used for routine analysis of the studied mixtures without harming the environment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A comparison of the clinical effectiveness of spinal orthoses manufactured using the conventional manual method and CAD/CAM method in the management of AIS.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S; Cheng, C Y; Ng, B K W; Lam, T P; Chiu, S W

    2006-01-01

    Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate AIS for prevention of further deterioration. In a conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to get patient's body contour and plaster cast is rectified manually. With the introduction of CAD/CAM system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. This project is to study the impact of CAD/CAM method as compared with the conventional method. In assessing the 147 recruited subjects fitted with spinal orthoses (43 subjects using conventional method and 104 subjects using CAD/CAM method), significant decreases (p<0.05) were found in the Cobb angles when comparing the pre-intervention data with that of the first year of intervention. Regarding the learning curve, Orthotists are getting more competent with the CAD/CAM technique in four years time. The mean productivity of the CAD/CAM method is 2.75 times higher than that of the conventional method. The CAD/CAM method could achieve similar clinical outcomes and with its high efficiency, could be considered as substitute for conventional methods in fabricating spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  20. A Comparison of Programed Instruction with Conventional Methods for Teaching Two Units of Eighth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshleman, Winston Hull

    Compared were programed materials and conventional methods for teaching two units of eighth grade science. Programed materials used were linear programed books requiring constructed responses. The conventional methods included textbook study, written exercises, lectures, discussions, demonstrations, experiments, chalkboard drawings, films,…

  1. [Application HTST-heating of the mash and its influence on the aroma composition during the production of apple brandy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schreier, P; Drawert, F; Steiger, G

    1978-08-18

    The influence of HTST-heating of the mash aroma composition during production of apply brandy has been investigated by means of gas chromatography and coupled gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. Starting from the apple aroma the changes in aroma components were studied quantitatively during the conventional production (without enzyme inhibition) as well as after HTST-heating (enzyme inactivation) of the mash. For this purpose 98 aroma compounds were determined in the course of mash production, fermentation and distillation. When employing HTST-heating the original aroma components of the apple particularly the fruit esters were present in appreciably higher concentrations in the mash as well as in the distillate than with the conventional production method. Simultaneously HTST-heating reduced the secondary aroma substances in mash and distillate which are formed with the conventional method by enzymatic-oxidative processes. In the unaged apple brandy obtained from HTST-treated mash lower amounts of lactates and higher concentrations of acetals were found compared with the conventionally produced distillate.

  2. Performance evaluation of cryogenic counter-flow heat exchangers with longitudinal conduction, heat in-leak and property variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Q. F.; Zhuang, M.; Zhu, Z. G.; Y Zhang, Q.; Sheng, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Counter-flow plate-fin heat exchangers are commonly utilized in cryogenic applications due to their high effectiveness and compact size. For cryogenic heat exchangers in helium liquefaction/refrigeration systems, conventional design theory is no longer applicable and they are usually sensitive to longitudinal heat conduction, heat in-leak from surroundings and variable fluid properties. Governing equations based on distributed parameter method are developed to evaluate performance deterioration caused by these effects. The numerical model could also be applied in many other recuperators with different structures and, hence, available experimental data are used to validate it. For a specific case of the multi-stream heat exchanger in the EAST helium refrigerator, quantitative effects of these heat losses are further discussed, in comparison with design results obtained by the common commercial software. The numerical model could be useful to evaluate and rate the heat exchanger performance under the actual cryogenic environment.

  3. Initial Assessment of a Rapid Method of Calculating CEV Environmental Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickney, John T.; Milliken, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative method for rapidly calculating spacecraft environmental absorbed heats in planetary orbit is described. The method employs reading a database of pre-calculated orbital absorbed heats and adjusting those heats for desired orbit parameters. The approach differs from traditional Monte Carlo methods that are orbit based with a planet centered coordinate system. The database is based on a spacecraft centered coordinated system where the range of all possible sun and planet look angles are evaluated. In an example case 37,044 orbit configurations were analyzed for average orbital heats on selected spacecraft surfaces. Calculation time was under 2 minutes while a comparable Monte Carlo evaluation would have taken an estimated 26 hours

  4. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  5. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  6. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker; Sitzman, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  7. Evaluation of the surface roughness of three heat-cured acrylic denture base resins with different conventional lathe polishing techniques: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Duggineni Chalapathi; Kalavathy, N; Mohammad, H S; Hariprasad, A; Kumar, C Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Surface roughness promotes adhesion and colonization of denture plaque. Therefore, it is important to know the effects of polishing and finishing on the surface roughness of various acrylic resin materials. To evaluate and compare the effects of different conventional lathe polishing techniques on heat cured acrylic resins in producing surface roughness. Three different commercially available heat-cured acrylic resin materials namely DPI, Meliodent and Trevalon Hi were selected. 30 Specimens of each acrylic material (30 x 3 = 90, 10 x 60 x 2mm) were prepared and divided into 5 groups, each group consisted of 6 Nos. of specimens per material(6x3=18) and were grouped as Group A(unfinished), Group B (finished), Group C (Polishing Paste), Group D (Polishing Cake) and Group E (Pumice and Gold rouge). The resulted surface roughness (μm) was measured using Perthometer and observed under Scanning Electron Microscope. The values obtained were subjected statistical analyses. Among the materials tested, better results were obtained with Trevalon Hi followed by Meliodent and DPI. Among the polishing methods used, superior results were obtained with universal polishing paste followed by polishing cake; Pumice and Gold rouge. Although Pumice and Gold rouge values produced greater roughness value, they were well within the threshold value of 0.2 mm.

  8. Precision chemical heating for diagnostic devices.

    PubMed

    Buser, J R; Diesburg, S; Singleton, J; Guelig, D; Bishop, J D; Zentner, C; Burton, R; LaBarre, P; Yager, P; Weigl, B H

    2015-12-07

    Decoupling nucleic acid amplification assays from infrastructure requirements such as grid electricity is critical for providing effective diagnosis and treatment at the point of care in low-resource settings. Here, we outline a complete strategy for the design of electricity-free precision heaters compatible with medical diagnostic applications requiring isothermal conditions, including nucleic acid amplification and lysis. Low-cost, highly energy dense components with better end-of-life disposal options than conventional batteries are proposed as an alternative to conventional heating methods to satisfy the unique needs of point of care use.

  9. Crosslinked crystalline polymer and methods for cooling and heating

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Botham, Ruth A.; Ball, III, George L.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to crystalline polyethylene pieces having optimum crosslinking for use in storage and recovery of heat, and it further relates to methods for storage and recovery of heat using crystalline polymer pieces having optimum crosslinking for these uses. Crystalline polymer pieces are described which retain at least 70% of the heat of fusion of the uncrosslinked crystalline polymer and yet are sufficiently crosslinked for the pieces not to stick together upon being cycled above and below the melting point of said polymer, preferably at least 80% of the heat of fusion with no substantial sticking together.

  10. Agar Underlay Method for Recovery of Sublethally Heat-Injured Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D. H.; Siragusa, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A method of recovering sublethally heat-injured bacteria was developed. The procedure (termed the agar underlay method) uses a nonselective agar underlaid with a selective medium. In a two-chambered petri dish, the Lutri plate (LP), a nonselective agar is inoculated with a population of sublethally heat-injured bacteria. After a 2-h repair incubation period, selective agar is added to the bottom chamber of the LP and incubated. By diffusing through the nonselective top agar, selective agents from the underlay medium impart selectivity to the system. By the agar underlay method, recovery rates of the heat-injured food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium were not different (P > 0.05) from recovery rates determined with nonselective media. Sublethally heat-injured cells (60°C for 1.5 min in buffer or 80°C for 30 s on meat surfaces) grew and produced a typical colony morphology and color reaction when the agar underlay procedure was used with the appropriate respective selective agars. Unlike agar overlay methods for injury repair, the agar underlay procedure allows the typical selective-medium colony morphology to develop and allows colonies to be more easily picked for further characterization. Higher recovery rates of heat-injured fecal enterococci from bovine fecal samples and total coliforms from animal waste lagoons were obtained by the agar underlay method with selective agars than by direct plating on the respective selective media. PMID:10583985

  11. A novel approach to evaluate soil heat flux calculation: An analytical review of nine methods: Soil Heat Flux Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhongming; Russell, Eric S.; Missik, Justine E. C.

    We evaluated nine methods of soil heat flux calculation using field observations. All nine methods underestimated the soil heat flux by at least 19%. This large underestimation is mainly caused by uncertainties in soil thermal properties.

  12. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  13. Multiscale solutions of radiative heat transfer by the discrete unified gas kinetic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Cun-Hai; Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2018-06-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has two asymptotic regimes characterized by the optical thickness, namely, optically thin and optically thick regimes. In the optically thin regime, a ballistic or kinetic transport is dominant. In the optically thick regime, energy transport is totally dominated by multiple collisions between photons; that is, the photons propagate by means of diffusion. To obtain convergent solutions to the RTE, conventional numerical schemes have a strong dependence on the number of spatial grids, which leads to a serious computational inefficiency in the regime where the diffusion is predominant. In this work, a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) is developed to predict radiative heat transfer in participating media. Numerical performances of the DUGKS are compared in detail with conventional methods through three cases including one-dimensional transient radiative heat transfer, two-dimensional steady radiative heat transfer, and three-dimensional multiscale radiative heat transfer. Due to the asymptotic preserving property, the present method with relatively coarse grids gives accurate and reliable numerical solutions for large, small, and in-between values of optical thickness, and, especially in the optically thick regime, the DUGKS demonstrates a pronounced computational efficiency advantage over the conventional numerical models. In addition, the DUGKS has a promising potential in the study of multiscale radiative heat transfer inside the participating medium with a transition from optically thin to optically thick regimes.

  14. Stabilization of Joule Heating in the Electropyroelectric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, R.; Hernández, M.; Marín, E.; Araujo, C.; Alaniz, D.; Araiza, M.; Martínez-Ordoñez, E. I.

    2012-11-01

    Recently the so-called electropyroelectric technique for thermal characterization of liquids has been proposed (Ivanov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43, 225501 (2010)). In this method a pyroelectric sensor, in good thermal contact with the investigated sample, is heated by passing an amplitude-modulated electrical current through the electrical contacts. As a result of the heat dissipated to the sample, the pyroelectric signal measured as a voltage drop across the electrical contacts changes in a periodical way. The amplitude and phase of this signal can be measured by lock-in detection as a function of the electrical current modulation frequency. Because the signal amplitude and phase depend on the thermal properties of the sample, these can be determined straightforwardly by fitting the experimental data to a theoretical model based on the solution of the heat diffusion equation with proper boundary conditions. In general, the experimental conditions are selected so that the thermal effusivity becomes the measured magnitude. The technique has the following handicap. As the result of heating and wear of the metal coating layers (previously etched to achieve a serpentine form) with time, their electrical resistance changes with time, so that the heat power dissipated by the Joule effect can vary, and thermal effusivity measurement can become inaccurate. To avoid this problem in this study, a method is proposed that allows maintaining stable the Joule dissipated power. An electronic circuit is designed whose stability and characteristics are investigated and discussed.

  15. Comparison of methods for identifying causative bacterial microorganisms in presumed acute endophthalmitis: conventional culture, blood culture, and PCR.

    PubMed

    Pongsachareonnont, Pear; Honglertnapakul, Worawalun; Chatsuwan, Tanittha

    2017-02-21

    Identification of bacterial pathogens in endophthalmitis is important to inform antibiotic selection and treatment decisions. Hemoculture bottles and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis have been proposed to offer good detection sensitivity. This study compared the sensitivity and accuracy of a blood culture system, a PCR approach, and conventional culture methods for identification of causative bacteria in cases of acute endophthalmitis. Twenty-nine patients with a diagnosis of presumed acute bacterial endophthalmitis who underwent vitreous specimen collection at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were enrolled in this study. Forty-one specimens were collected. Each specimen was divided into three parts, and each part was analyzed using one of three microbial identification techniques: conventional plate culture, blood culture, and polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results of the three methods were then compared. Bacteria were identified in 15 of the 41 specimens (36.5%). Five (12.2%) specimens were positive by conventional culture methods, 11 (26.8%) were positive by hemoculture, and 11 (26.8%) were positive by PCR. Cohen's kappa analysis revealed p-values for conventional methods vs. hemoculture, conventional methods vs. PCR, and hemoculture vs. PCR of 0.057, 0.33, and 0.009, respectively. Higher detection rates of Enterococcus faecalis were observed for hemoculture and PCR than for conventional methods. Blood culture bottles and PCR detection may facilitate bacterial identification in cases of presumed acute endophthalmitis. These techniques should be used in addition to conventional plate culture methods because they provide a greater degree of sensitivity than conventional plate culture alone for the detection of specific microorganisms such as E. faecalis. Thai Clinical Trial Register No. TCTR20110000024 .

  16. Evaluation of radio-frequency heating in controlling Salmonella enterica in raw shelled almonds.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Baik, Oon-Doo; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-08-02

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to reduce Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Senftenberg in raw shelled almonds compared to conventional convective heating, and the effect of RF heating on quality by measuring changes in the color and degree of lipid oxidation. Agar-grown cells of three pathogens were inoculated onto the surface or inside of raw shelled almonds using surface inoculation or the vacuum perfusion method, respectively, and subjected to RF or conventional heating. RF heating for 40s achieved 3.7-, 6.0-, and 5.6-log reductions in surface-inoculated S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Senftenberg, respectively, whereas the reduction of these pathogens following convective heating for 600s was 1.7, 2.5, and 3.7 log, respectively. RF heating reduced internally inoculated pathogens to below the detection limit (0.7 logCFU/g) after 30s. However, conventional convective heating did not attain comparable reductions even at the end of treatment (600s). Color values, peroxide values, and acid values of RF-treated (40-s treatment) almonds were not significantly (P>0.05) different from those of nontreated samples. These results suggest that RF heating can be applied to control internalized pathogens as well as surface-adhering pathogens in raw almonds without affecting product quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Osteoporosis risk prediction using machine learning and conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Kean; Yoo, Tae Keun; Oh, Ein; Kim, Deok Won

    2013-01-01

    A number of clinical decision tools for osteoporosis risk assessment have been developed to select postmenopausal women for the measurement of bone mineral density. We developed and validated machine learning models with the aim of more accurately identifying the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and compared with the ability of a conventional clinical decision tool, osteoporosis self-assessment tool (OST). We collected medical records from Korean postmenopausal women based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys (KNHANES V-1). The training data set was used to construct models based on popular machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVM), random forests (RF), artificial neural networks (ANN), and logistic regression (LR) based on various predictors associated with low bone density. The learning models were compared with OST. SVM had significantly better area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) than ANN, LR, and OST. Validation on the test set showed that SVM predicted osteoporosis risk with an AUC of 0.827, accuracy of 76.7%, sensitivity of 77.8%, and specificity of 76.0%. We were the first to perform comparisons of the performance of osteoporosis prediction between the machine learning and conventional methods using population-based epidemiological data. The machine learning methods may be effective tools for identifying postmenopausal women at high risk for osteoporosis.

  18. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles prepared by microfluidics and conventional methods. Modulated particle size and rheology.

    PubMed

    Perez, Aurora; Hernández, Rebeca; Velasco, Diego; Voicu, Dan; Mijangos, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidic techniques are expected to provide narrower particle size distribution than conventional methods for the preparation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Besides, it is hypothesized that the particle size distribution of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles influences the settling behavior and rheological properties of its aqueous dispersions. For the preparation of PLGA particles, two different methods, microfluidic and conventional oil-in-water emulsification methods were employed. The particle size and particle size distribution of PLGA particles prepared by microfluidics were studied as a function of the flow rate of the organic phase while particles prepared by conventional methods were studied as a function of stirring rate. In order to study the stability and structural organization of colloidal dispersions, settling experiments and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out on aqueous dispersions of PLGA particles with different particle size distributions. Microfluidics technique allowed the control of size and size distribution of the droplets formed in the process of emulsification. This resulted in a narrower particle size distribution for samples prepared by MF with respect to samples prepared by conventional methods. Polydisperse samples showed a larger tendency to aggregate, thus confirming the advantages of microfluidics over conventional methods, especially if biomedical applications are envisaged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of Video Demonstration over Conventional Methods in Teaching Osteology in Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Viswasom, Angela A; Jobby, Abraham

    2017-02-01

    Technology and its applications are the most happening things in the world. So, is it in the field of medical education. This study was an evaluation of whether the conventional methods can compete with the test of technology. A comparative study of traditional method of teaching osteology in human anatomy with an innovative visual aided method. The study was conducted on 94 students admitted to MBBS 2014 to 2015 batch of Travancore Medical College. The students were divided into two academically validated groups. They were taught using conventional and video demonstrational techniques in a systematic manner. Post evaluation tests were conducted. Analysis of the mark pattern revealed that the group taught using traditional method scored better when compared to the visual aided method. Feedback analysis showed that, the students were able to identify bony features better with clear visualisation and three dimensional view when taught using the video demonstration method. The students identified visual aided method as the more interesting one for learning which helped them in applying the knowledge gained. In most of the questions asked, the two methods of teaching were found to be comparable on the same scale. As the study ends, we discover that, no new technique can be substituted for time tested techniques of teaching and learning. The ideal method would be incorporating newer multimedia techniques into traditional classes.

  20. Heat transfer from high-temperature surfaces to fluids II : correlation of heat-transfer and friction data for air flowing in inconel tube with rounded entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowdermilk, Warren H; Grele, Milton D

    1949-01-01

    A heat transfer investigation, which was an extension of a previously reported NACA investigation, was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated inconel tube with a rounded entrance,an inside diameter of 0.402 inch, and a length of 24 inches over a range of conditions, which included Reynolds numbers up to 500,000, average surface temperatures up to 2050 degrees R, and heat-flux densities up to 150,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Conventional methods of correlating heat-transfer data wherein properties of the air were evaluated at the average bulk, film, and surface temperatures resulted in reductions of Nusselt number of about 38, 46, and 53 percent, respectively, for an increase in surface temperature from 605 degrees to 2050 degrees R at constant Reynolds number. A modified correlation method in which the properties of air were based on the surface temperature and the Reynolds number was modified by substituting the product of the density at the inside tube wall and the bulk velocity for the conventional mass flow per unit cross-sectional area, resulted in a satisfactory correlation of the data for the extended ranges of conditions investigated.

  1. Research on Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Heating Project Based on Analytic Hierarchy Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shenchao; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Yude; Zhang, Peng; Li, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    It is effective to reduce haze in winter by changing the distributed heat supply system. Thus, the studies on comprehensive index system and scientific evaluation method of distributed heat supply project are essential. Firstly, research the influence factors of heating modes, and an index system with multiple dimension including economic, environmental, risk and flexibility was built and all indexes were quantified. Secondly, a comprehensive evaluation method based on AHP was put forward to analyze the proposed multiple and comprehensive index system. Lastly, the case study suggested that supplying heat with electricity has great advantage and promotional value. The comprehensive index system of distributed heating supply project and evaluation method in this paper can evaluate distributed heat supply project effectively and provide scientific support for choosing the distributed heating project.

  2. A Numerical Method for Incompressible Flow with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sa, Jong-Youb; Kwak, Dochan

    1997-01-01

    A numerical method for the convective heat transfer problem is developed for low speed flow at mild temperatures. A simplified energy equation is added to the incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation by using Boussinesq approximation to account for the buoyancy force. A pseudocompressibility method is used to solve the resulting set of equations for steady-state solutions in conjunction with an approximate factorization scheme. A Neumann-type pressure boundary condition is devised to account for the interaction between pressure and temperature terms, especially near a heated or cooled solid boundary. It is shown that the present method is capable of predicting the temperature field in an incompressible flow.

  3. Method for localizing heating in tumor tissue

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1977-04-12

    A method for a localized tissue heating of tumors is disclosed. Localized radio frequency current fields are produced with specific electrode configurations. Several electrode configurations are disclosed, enabling variations in electrical and thermal properties of tissues to be exploited.

  4. Magnetic carbon nanostructures: microwave energy-assisted pyrolysis vs. conventional pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiahua; Pallavkar, Sameer; Chen, Minjiao; Yerra, Narendranath; Luo, Zhiping; Colorado, Henry A; Lin, Hongfei; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Khasanov, Airat; Ho, Thomas C; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-01-11

    Magnetic carbon nanostructures from microwave assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shells from conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including nanotubes, nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite phase from the conventional process.

  5. Geothermal Heat Pump Basics | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    a free source of hot water. Geothermal heat pumps use much less energy than conventional heating resources: Geothermal Heat Pumps U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Heat Pump Basics Geothermal Heat Pump Basics Geothermal heat pumps take advantage of the nearly

  6. Nanosize Fe x O y @SBA-3: A Comparative Study Between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Barik, Sunita; Badamali, Sushanta K; Sahoo, Sagarika; Behera, Nandakishor; Dapurkar, Sudhir E

    2018-01-01

    The present study is focussed on development of highly dispersed nanosize iron oxide (FexOy) particles within the uniform mesopore channels of SBA-3. Herein we report a comparative study between conventional incipient wetness and microwave assisted synthesis routes adopted to devise nanoparticles. The developed materials are characterised by following X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, proton induced X-ray emission, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mesoporous siliceous SBA-3 was prepared at room temperature to obtain samples with good crystallinity and ordered pore structure. Pore channels of SBA-3 were used as nanoreactor for developing iron oxide nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles developed under microwave activation showed uniform distribution within the SBA-3 structure along with retaining the orderness of the pore architecture. On the contrary, iron oxides developed under incipient wetness method followed by conventional heating resulted in agglomeration of nanoparticles along with significant loss in SBA-3 pore structure. Proton induced X-ray emission studies revealed the extremely high purity of the samples and almost thrice higher amount of iron oxide particles are encapsulated within the host by microwave assisted preparation as compared to incipient/conventional heating method.

  7. Improved conventional and microwave-assisted silylation protocols for simultaneous gas chromatographic determination of tocopherols and sterols: Method development and multi-response optimization.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Passamonti, Paolo

    2016-12-09

    This paper reports on improved conventional thermal silylation (CTS) and microwave-assisted silylation (MAS) methods for simultaneous determination of tocopherols and sterols by gas chromatography. Reaction parameters in each of the methods developed were systematically optimized using a full factorial design followed by a central composite design. Initially, experimental conditions for CTS were optimized using a block heater. Further, a rapid MAS was developed and optimized. To understand microwave heating mechanisms, MAS was optimized by two distinct modes of microwave heating: temperature-controlled MAS and power-controlled MAS, using dedicated instruments where reaction temperature and microwave power level were controlled and monitored online. Developed methods: were compared with routine overnight derivatization. On a comprehensive level, while both CTS and MAS were found to be efficient derivatization techniques, MAS significantly reduced the reaction time. The optimal derivatization temperature and time for CTS found to be 55°C and 54min, while it was 87°C and 1.2min for temperature-controlled MAS. Further, a microwave power of 300W and a derivatization time 0.5min found to be optimal for power-controlled MAS. The use of an appropriate derivatization solvent, such as pyridine, was found to be critical for the successful determination. Catalysts, like potassium acetate and 4-dimethylaminopyridine, enhanced the efficiency slightly. The developed methods showed excellent analytical performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A fast response, low heat generating activation method for LHe level sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Anup; Sahu, Santosh; Kanjilal, Dinakar

    2018-06-01

    A superconducting liquid helium (LHe) level sensor of length 300 mm has been fabricated based on the principle of differential heat transfer characteristic in helium gas compared to that in liquid. The sensor wire used has a diameter of 38 μm, and the wire was obtained from a pack of multifilament wires. A full thermo-electrical characterisation of the sensor was carried out in a dedicated setup. Its dynamic thermal response was also studied to understand its timing characteristics at different liquid levels and excitation currents. Based on the sensor characterisation, a new level measurement technique is evaluated which can reduce the heat load going to LHe during sensor activation without compromising on its sensitivity or accuracy. The timing response with this technique will make the level detection faster compared to the conventional techniques.

  9. A pre-heating method based on sinusoidal alternating current for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wentao; Sun, Fengchun; Guo, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a method of low temperature pre-heating of sinusoidal alternating current (SAC) is proposed. Generally, the lower the frequency of the AC current, the higher the heat generation rate. Yet at low frequency, there is a risk of lithium-ion deposition during the half cycle of charging. This study develops a temperature-adaptive, deposition-free AC pre-heating method. a equivalent electric circuit(EEC) model is established to predict the heat generation rate and temperature status, whose parameters are calibrated from the EIS impedance measurements. The effects of current frequency and amplitude on the heating effect are investigated respectively. A multistep temperature-adaptive amplitude strategy is proposed and the cell can be heated from -20°C to 5°C within 509s at 100Hz frequency with this method.

  10. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Hopper, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods.

  11. Magnetic method for stimulating transport in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2016-10-18

    A method for producing mass and heat transport in fluids, wherein the method does not rely on conventional convection, that is, it does not require gravity, a thermal gradient, or a magnetic field gradient. This method gives rise to a unique class of vigorous, field-controllable flow patterns termed advection lattices. The advection lattices can be used to transport heat and/or mass in any desired direction using only magnetic fields.

  12. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heatermore » (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.« less

  13. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  14. Generalized contact and improved frictional heating in the material point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, J. A.; Bardenhagen, S. G.; Smith, G. D.

    2017-09-01

    The material point method (MPM) has proved to be an effective particle method for computational mechanics modeling of problems involving contact, but all prior applications have been limited to Coulomb friction. This paper generalizes the MPM approach for contact to handle any friction law with examples given for friction with adhesion or with a velocity-dependent coefficient of friction. Accounting for adhesion requires an extra calculation to evaluate contact area. Implementation of velocity-dependent laws usually needs numerical methods to find contacting forces. The friction process involves work which can be converted into heat. This paper provides a new method for calculating frictional heating that accounts for interfacial acceleration during the time step. The acceleration terms is small for many problems, but temporal convergence of heating effects for problems involving vibrations and high contact forces is improved by the new method. Fortunately, the new method needs few extra calculations and therefore is recommended for all simulations.

  15. Generalized contact and improved frictional heating in the material point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, J. A.; Bardenhagen, S. G.; Smith, G. D.

    2018-07-01

    The material point method (MPM) has proved to be an effective particle method for computational mechanics modeling of problems involving contact, but all prior applications have been limited to Coulomb friction. This paper generalizes the MPM approach for contact to handle any friction law with examples given for friction with adhesion or with a velocity-dependent coefficient of friction. Accounting for adhesion requires an extra calculation to evaluate contact area. Implementation of velocity-dependent laws usually needs numerical methods to find contacting forces. The friction process involves work which can be converted into heat. This paper provides a new method for calculating frictional heating that accounts for interfacial acceleration during the time step. The acceleration terms is small for many problems, but temporal convergence of heating effects for problems involving vibrations and high contact forces is improved by the new method. Fortunately, the new method needs few extra calculations and therefore is recommended for all simulations.

  16. Remotely actuated localized pressure and heat apparatus and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merret, John B. (Inventor); Taylor, DeVor R. (Inventor); Wheeler, Mark M. (Inventor); Gale, Dan R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the use of a remotely actuated localized pressure and heat apparatus for the consolidation and curing of fiber elements in, structures. The apparatus includes members for clamping the desired portion of the fiber elements to be joined, pressure members and/or heat members. The method is directed to the application and use of the apparatus.

  17. Review of conventional and novel food processing methods on food allergens.

    PubMed

    Vanga, Sai Kranthi; Singh, Ashutosh; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-07-03

    With the turn of this century, novel food processing techniques have become commercially very important because of their profound advantages over the traditional methods. These novel processing methods tend to preserve the characteristic properties of food including their organoleptic and nutritional qualities better when compared with the conventional food processing methods. During the same period of time, there is a clear rise in the populations suffering from food allergies, especially infants and children. Though, this fact is widely attributed to the changing livelihood of population in both developed and developing nations and to the introduction of new food habits with advent of novel foods and new processing techniques, their complete role is still uncertain. Under the circumstance, it is very important to understand the structural changes in the protein as food is processed to comprehend whether the specific processing technique (conventional and novel) is increasing or mitigating the allergenicity. Various modern means are now being employed to understand the conformational changes in the protein which can affect the allergenicity. In this review, the processing effects on protein structure and allergenicity are discussed along with the insinuations of recent studies and techniques for establishing a platform to investigate future pathway to reduce or eliminate allergenicity in the population.

  18. Evaluation of Heating Methods for Thermal Structural Testing of Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Sikora, Joseph G.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate different heating methods for thermal structural testing of large scale structures at temperatures up to 350 F as part of the High Speed Research program. The heating techniques evaluated included: radiative/convective, forced convective, and conductive. The radiative/convective heaters included finned strip heaters, and clear and frosted quartz lamps. The forced convective heating was accomplished by closed loop circulation of heated air. The conductive heater consisted of heating blankets. The tests were conducted on an 1/8 inch thick stainless steel plate in a custom-built oven. The criteria used for comparing the different heating methods included test specimen temperature uniformity, heater response time, and consumed power. The parameters investigated included air circulation in the oven, reflectance of oven walls, and the orientation of the test specimen and heaters (vertical and horizontal). It was found that reflectance of oven walls was not an important parameter. Air circulation was necessary to obtain uniform temperatures only for the vertically oriented specimen. Heating blankets provided unacceptably high temperature non-uniformities. Quartz lamps with internal air circulation had the lowest power consumption levels. Using frosted quartz lamps with closed loop circulation of cool air, and closed loop circulation of heated air provided the fastest response time.

  19. Thermal Analysis Methods for Aerobraking Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Dec, John A.

    2005-01-01

    As NASA begins exploration of other planets, a method of non-propulsively slowing vehicles at the planet, aerobraking, may become a valuable technique for managing vehicle design mass and propellant. An example of this is Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which will launch in late 2005 and reach Mars in March of 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO will use aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft will dip into the atmosphere briefly on each orbit, and during the drag pass, the atmospheric drag on the spacecraft will slow it, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, and that most affected by the heat generated during the aerobraking process, is the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley, to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. Several interesting methods were used to make this analysis more rapid and robust. Two separate models were built for this analysis, one in Thermal Desktop for radiation and orbital heating analysis, and one in MSC.Patran for thermal analysis. The results from the radiation model were mapped in an automated fashion to the Patran thermal model that was used to analyze the thermal behavior during the drag pass. A high degree of automation in file manipulation as well as other methods for reducing run time were employed, since toward the end of the aerobraking period the orbit period is short, and in order to support flight operations the runs must be computed rapidly. All heating within the Patran Thermal model was combined in one section of logic, such that data mapped from the radiation model and aeroheating model, as well as skin temperature effects on the aeroheating and surface radiation, could be incorporated easily. This approach calculates the aeroheating at any given node, based on its position and temperature as well as the density and velocity at that trajectory point. Run times on

  20. Comparison of Maraging Steel Micro- and Nanostructure Produced Conventionally and by Laser Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Jägle, Eric A; Sheng, Zhendong; Kürnsteiner, Philipp; Ocylok, Sörn; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-12-24

    Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on the microstructure-in particular the content of retained and reversed austenite as well as the nanostructure, especially the precipitate density and chemistry, are not yet explored. Here, we study these features using microhardness measurements, Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) in the as-produced state and during ageing heat treatment. We find that due to microsegregation, retained austenite exists in the as-LMD- and as-SLM-produced states but not in the conventionally-produced material. The hardness in the as-LMD-produced state is higher than in the conventionally and SLM-produced materials, however, not in the uppermost layers. By APT, it is confirmed that this is due to early stages of precipitation induced by the cyclic re-heating upon further deposition-i.e., the intrinsic heat treatment associated with LMD. In the peak-aged state, which is reached after a similar time in all materials, the hardness of SLM- and LMD-produced material is slightly lower than in conventionally-produced material due to the presence of retained austenite and reversed austenite formed during ageing.

  1. Comparison of Maraging Steel Micro- and Nanostructure Produced Conventionally and by Laser Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Jägle, Eric A.; Sheng, Zhendong; Kürnsteiner, Philipp; Ocylok, Sörn; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on the microstructure—in particular the content of retained and reversed austenite as well as the nanostructure, especially the precipitate density and chemistry, are not yet explored. Here, we study these features using microhardness measurements, Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) in the as-produced state and during ageing heat treatment. We find that due to microsegregation, retained austenite exists in the as-LMD- and as-SLM-produced states but not in the conventionally-produced material. The hardness in the as-LMD-produced state is higher than in the conventionally and SLM-produced materials, however, not in the uppermost layers. By APT, it is confirmed that this is due to early stages of precipitation induced by the cyclic re-heating upon further deposition—i.e., the intrinsic heat treatment associated with LMD. In the peak-aged state, which is reached after a similar time in all materials, the hardness of SLM- and LMD-produced material is slightly lower than in conventionally-produced material due to the presence of retained austenite and reversed austenite formed during ageing. PMID:28772369

  2. A randomized controlled trial of the Arctic Sun Temperature Management System versus conventional methods for preventing hypothermia during off-pump cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Grocott, Hilary P; Mathew, Joseph P; Carver, Elizabeth H; Phillips-Bute, Barbara; Landolfo, Kevin P; Newman, Mark F

    2004-02-01

    In this trial we compared the hypothermia avoidance abilities of the Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (a servo-regulated system that circulates temperature-controlled water through unique energy transfer pads adherent to the patient's body) with conventional temperature control methods. Patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery were randomized to either the Arctic Sun System alone (AS group) or conventional methods (control group; increased room temperature, heated IV fluids, convective forced air warming system) for the prevention of hypothermia (defined by a temperature <36 degrees C). The AS group had nasopharyngeal temperature servo-regulated to a target of 36.8 degrees C. Temperature was recorded throughout the operative period and comparisons were made between groups for both the time and area under the curve (AUC) for a temperature <36 degrees C (AUC<36 degrees C). Twenty-nine patients (AS group = 14, control group = 15) were studied. The AS group had significantly less hypothermia than the control group, both for duration of time <36 degrees C (2.5 [0-22] min, median [interquartile range] AS group versus 118 [49-192] min, control group; P = 0.0008) as well as for AUC<36 degrees C (0.3 [0-2.2] degrees C x min, AS group versus 17.1 [3.6-173.4] degrees C x min, control group; P = 0.002). The Arctic Sun Temperature Management System significantly reduced intraoperative hypothermia during OPCAB surgery. Importantly, this was achieved in the absence of any other temperature modulating techniques, including the use of IV fluid warming or increases in the ambient operating room temperature. The Arctic Sun Temperature Management System was more effective than conventional methods in preventing hypothermia during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  3. Method for heating nongaseous carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lumpkin, Jr., Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Nongaseous carbonaceous material is heated by a method comprising introducing tangentially a first stream containing a nongaseous carbonaceous material and carbon monoxide into a reaction zone; simultaneously and separately introducing a second stream containing oxygen into the reaction zone such that the oxygen enters the reaction zone away from the wall thereof and reacts with the first stream thereby producing a gaseous product and heating the nongaseous carbonaceous material; forming an outer spiralling vortex within the reaction zone to cause substantial separation of gases, including the gaseous product, from the nongaseous carbonaceous material; removing a third stream from the reaction zone containing the gaseous product which is substantially free of the nongaseous carbonaceous material before a major portion of the gaseous product can react with the nongaseous carbonaceous material; and removing a fourth stream containing the nongaseous carbonaceous material from the reaction zone.

  4. Effect of ohmic heating of soymilk on urease inactivation and kinetic analysis in holding time.

    PubMed

    Li, Fa-De; Chen, Chen; Ren, Jie; Wang, Ranran; Wu, Peng

    2015-02-01

    To verify the effect of the ohmic heating on the urease activity in the soymilk, the ohmic heating methods with the different electrical field conditions (the frequency and the voltage ranging from 50 to 10 kHz and from 160 to 220 V, respectively) were employed. The results showed that if the value of the urease activity measured with the quantitative spectrophotometry method was lower than 16.8 IU, the urease activity measured with the qualitative method was negative. The urease activity of the sample ohmically heated was significantly lower than that of the sample conventionally heated (P < 0.01) at the same target temperature. It was concluded that the electrical field enhanced the urease inactivation. In addition, the inactivation kinetics of the urease in the soymilk could be described with a biphasic model during holding time at a target temperature. Thus, it was concluded that the urease in the soymilk would contain 2 isoenzymes, one is the thermolabile fraction, the other the thermostable fraction, and that the thermostable isoenzyme could not be completely inactivated when the holding time increased, whether the soymilk was cooked with the conventional method or with the ohmic heating method. Therefore, the electric field had no effect on the inactivation of the thermostable isoenzyme of the urease. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Method of preparing a high heating value fuel product

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a method of preparing a high heating value fuel product. The method comprising the steps of: blending a high heating value waste material with a cellulosic material; mixing an organic reagent to the blended mixture of the waste material and the cellulosic material, the organic reagent being a mixture having a 4-15 weight percent of a chemical selected from the group consisting of: triethylene, glycol, diethylene glycol, and glycerin propylene glycol; introducing a pozzolanic agent to the blended mixture for controlling the rate of solidification; and forming the blended mixture into a form suitable for handling. Alsomore » described is the same method with the mixture of the organic reagent further comprising: a 20-32 weight percent calcium chloride solution. Another method of preparing a fuel product is also described.« less

  6. Evaluating gull diets: A comparison of conventional methods and stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiser, Emily L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2011-01-01

    Samples such as regurgitated pellets and food remains have traditionally been used in studies of bird diets, but these can produce biased estimates depending on the digestibility of different foods. Stable isotope analysis has been developed as a method for assessing bird diets that is not biased by digestibility. These two methods may provide complementary or conflicting information on diets of birds, but are rarely compared directly. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of feathers of Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks from eight breeding colonies in northern Alaska, and used a Bayesian mixing model to generate a probability distribution for the contribution of each food group to diets. We compared these model results with probability distributions from conventional diet samples (pellets and food remains) from the same colonies and time periods. Relative to the stable isotope estimates, conventional analysis often overestimated the contributions of birds and small mammals to gull diets and often underestimated the contributions of fish and zooplankton. Both methods gave similar estimates for the contributions of scavenged caribou, miscellaneous marine foods, and garbage to diets. Pellets and food remains therefore may be useful for assessing the importance of garbage relative to certain other foods in diets of gulls and similar birds, but are clearly inappropriate for estimating the potential impact of gulls on birds, small mammals, or fish. However, conventional samples provide more species-level information than stable isotope analysis, so a combined approach would be most useful for diet analysis and assessing a predator's impact on particular prey groups.

  7. The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Vicente, Belén; López-Abán, Julio; Muro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%). Conclusions/Significance We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid-Heat

  8. Evaluation of the physicochemical properties and compaction behavior of melt granules produced in microwave-induced and conventional melt granulation in a single pot high shear processor.

    PubMed

    Loh, Z H; Sia, B Y; Heng, Paul W S; Lee, C C; Liew, Celine V

    2011-12-01

    Recently, microwave-induced melt granulation was shown to be a promising alternative to conventional melt granulation with improved process monitoring capabilities. This study aimed to compare the physicochemical and compaction properties of granules produced from microwave-induced and conventional melt granulation. Powder admixtures comprising equivalent proportions by weight of lactose 200 M and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate were granulated with polyethylene glycol 3350 under the influence of microwave-induced and conventional heating in a 10-L single pot high shear processor. The properties of the granules and compacts produced from the two processes were compared. Relative to conventional melt granulation, the rates at which the irradiated powders heated up in microwave-induced melt granulation were lower. Agglomerate growth proceeded at a slower rate, and this necessitated longer massing durations for growth induction. These factors prompted greater evaporative moisture losses from the melt granules. Additionally, nonuniform heating of the powders under the influence of microwaves led to increased inter-batch variations in the binder contents of resultant melt granules and a reliance of content homogeneity on massing duration. Agglomerate growth proceeded more rapidly under the influence of conventional heating due to the enhanced heating capabilities of the powders. Melt granules produced using the conventional method possessed higher moisture contents and improved content homogeneity. The compaction behavior of melt granules were affected by their mean sizes, porosities, flow properties, binder, and moisture contents. The last two factors were responsible for the disparities in compaction behavior of melt granules produced from microwave-induced and conventional melt granulation.

  9. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  10. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8–3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications. PMID:28079171

  11. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  12. An empirical method for computing leeside centerline heating on the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, V. T., III

    1981-01-01

    An empirical method is presented for computing top centerline heating on the Space Shuttle Orbiter at simulated reentry conditions. It is shown that the Shuttle's top centerline can be thought of as being under the influence of a swept cylinder flow field. The effective geometry of the flow field, as well as top centerline heating, are directly related to oil-flow patterns on the upper surface of the fuselage. An empirical turbulent swept cylinder heating method was developed based on these considerations. The method takes into account the effects of the vortex-dominated leeside flow field without actually having to compute the detailed properties of such a complex flow. The heating method closely predicts experimental heat-transfer values on the top centerline of a Shuttle model at Mach numbers of 6 and 10 over a wide range in Reynolds number and angle of attack.

  13. Aluminum transfer method for plating plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, W. D.; Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Electroless plating technique produces plate of uniform thickness. Hardness and abrasion resistance can be increased further by heat treatment. Method results in seamless coating over many materials, has low thermal conductivity, and is relatively inexpensive compared to conventional methods.

  14. DNA extraction on bio-chip: history and preeminence over conventional and solid-phase extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ayoib, Adilah; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Md Arshad, M K

    2017-11-01

    This review covers a developmental progression on early to modern taxonomy at cellular level following the advent of electron microscopy and the advancement in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction for expatiation of biological classification at DNA level. Here, we discuss the fundamental values of conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction using liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) followed by development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods, as well as recent advances in microfluidics device-based system for DNA extraction on-chip. We also discuss the importance of DNA extraction as well as the advantages over conventional chemical methods, and how Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) system plays a crucial role for the future achievements.

  15. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF GINGER OIL PREPARED ACCORDING TO IRANIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND CONVENTIONAL METHOD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Shirooye, Pantea; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak; Ara, Leila; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation (compared to the traditional method), ginger oil has been prepared according to both the traditional and conventional maceration methods and the volatile oil constituents have been compared. Ginger oil was obtained in sesame oil according to both the traditional way and the conventional (maceration) methods. The volatile oil of dried ginger and both oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Fifty five, fifty nine and fifty one components consisting 94 %, 94 % and 98 % of the total compounds were identified in the volatile oil of ginger, traditional and conventional oils, respectively. The most dominant compounds of the traditional and conventional oils were almost similar; however they were different from ginger essential oil which has also been to possess limited amounts of anti-inflammatory components. It was concluded that ginger oil could be prepared through maceration method and used for indications mentioned in ITM.

  16. Integral methods of solving boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and their comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.

  17. A Method for Determining the Rate of Heat Transfer from a Wing or Streamline Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, Charles W; Mccullough, George B

    1945-01-01

    A method for calculating the rate of heat transfer from the surface of an airfoil or streamline body is presented. A comparison with the results of an experimental investigation indicates that the accuracy of the method is good. This method may be used to calculate the heat supply necessary for heat de-icing or in ascertaining the heat loss from the fuselage of an aircraft operating at great altitude. To illustrate the method, the total rate of heat transfer from an airfoil is calculated and compared with the experimental results.

  18. Characterization and stability studies of a novel liposomal cyclosporin A prepared using the supercritical fluid method: comparison with the modified conventional Bangham method

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Hee-Jun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    A novel method to prepare cyclosporin A encapsulated liposomes was introduced using supercritical fluid of carbon dioxide (SCF-CO2) as an antisolvent. To investigate the strength of the newly developed SCF-CO2 method compared with the modified conventional Bangham method, particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index (PDI) of both liposomal formulations were characterized and compared. In addition, entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) characteristics were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly larger particle size and PDI were revealed from the conventional method, while EE (%) and DL (%) did not exhibit any significant differences. The SCF-CO2 liposomes were found to be relatively smaller, multilamellar, and spherical with a smoother surface as determined by transmission electron microscopy. SCF-CO2 liposomes showed no significant differences in their particle size and PDI after more than 3 months, whereas conventional liposomes exhibited significant changes in their particle size. The initial yield (%), EE (%), and DL (%) of SCF-CO2 liposomes and conventional liposomes were 90.98 ± 2.94, 92.20 ± 1.36, 20.99 ± 0.84 and 90.72 ± 2.83, 90.24 ± 1.37, 20.47 ± 0.94, respectively, which changed after 14 weeks to 86.65 ± 0.30, 87.63 ± 0.72, 18.98 ± 0.22 and 75.04 ± 8.80, 84.59 ± 5.13, 15.94 ± 2.80, respectively. Therefore, the newly developed SCF-CO2 method could be a better alternative compared with the conventional method and may provide a promising approach for large-scale production of liposomes. PMID:23378759

  19. Evaluation of the thin agar layer method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Lavieri, Nicolas A; Sebranek, Joseph G; Cordray, Joseph C; Dickson, James S; Jung, Stephanie; Manu, David K; Mendonça, Aubrey F; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F; Stock, Joseph; Stalder, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    A sublethally injured bacterial cell has been defined as a cell that survives a stress such as heating, freezing, acid treatment, or other antimicrobial intervention but can repair the cellular damage exerted by the stressor and later regain its original ability to grow. Consequently, sublethally injured cells are not likely to be included in conventional enumeration procedures, which could result in unrealistically low counts unless efforts are made to encourage recovery of the injured cells before enumeration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the thin agar layer (TAL) method for the recovery of pressure-injured and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in a tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract system. Pressure injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains with high hydrostatic pressure at 400 or 600 MPa for 1 s, 2 min, 4 min, or 6 min at a process temperature of 12±2 °C. Heat injury consisted of treatment of a culture of mixed L. monocytogenes strains at 60±1 °C for 3, 6, or 9 min. Growth media were tryptic soy agar (TSA) with 0.6% yeast extract, modified Oxford medium (MOX), and TAL, which consisted of a 7-ml layer of TSA overlaid onto solidified MOX. Counts of viable L. monocytogenes on TAL were higher than those on MOX in the heat-injury experiment but not in the pressure-injury experiment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the TAL method may be specific to the type of injury applied to the microorganism and should be investigated in a variety of cellular injury scenarios.

  20. Increasing the Efficiency of Maple Sap Evaporators with Heat Exchangers

    Treesearch

    Lawrence D. Garrett; Howard Duchacek; Mariafranca Morselli; Frederick M. Laing; Neil K. Huyler; James W. Marvin

    1977-01-01

    A study of the engineering and economic effects of heat exchangers in conventional maple syrup evaporators indicated that: (1) Efficiency was increased by 15 to 17 percent with heat exchangers; (2) Syrup produced in evaporators with heat exchangers was similar to syrup produced in conventional systems in flavor and in chemical and physical composition; and (3) Heat...

  1. Reversing the effects of formalin fixation with citraconic anhydride and heat: a universal antigen retrieval method.

    PubMed

    Namimatsu, Shigeki; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad; Sugisaki, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Formalin is a commonly used fixative for tissue preservation in pathology laboratories. A major adverse effect of this fixative is the concealing of tissue antigens by protein cross-linking. To achieve a universal antigen retrieval method for immunohistochemistry under a constant condition, we developed a new method in which the effects of formalin fixation were reversed with citraconic anhydride (a reversible protein cross-linking agent) plus heating. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from various organs were examined for immunohistochemical localization of a wide variety of antigens. Deparaffinized tissue sections were placed in an electric kitchen pot containing 0.05% citraconic anhydride solution, pH 7.4, and the pot was set at "keep warm" temperature mode of 98C for 45 min. This mode allowed heating the sections at a constant temperature. The sections were then washed in buffer solution and immunostained using a labeled streptavidin-biotin method using an automated stainer. In general, formalin-fixed tissues demonstrated specific immunostainings comparable to that in fresh frozen tissues and significantly more enhanced than after conventional antigen retrieval methods. In particular, even difficult-to-detect antigens such as CD4, cyclin D1, granzyme beta, bcl-6, CD25, and lambda chain revealed distinct immunostainings. Different classes of antigens such as cellular markers and receptors, as well as cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, consistently produced enhanced reactions. This method provides efficient antigen retrieval for successful immunostaining of a wide variety of antigens under an optimized condition. It also allows standardization of immunohistochemistry for formalin-fixed tissues in pathology laboratories, eliminating inter-laboratory discrepancies in results for accurate clinical and research studies.

  2. Intra-laboratory validation of microplate methods for total phenolic content and antioxidant activity on polyphenolic extracts, and comparison with conventional spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Bobo-García, Gloria; Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Arroqui, Cristina; Vírseda, Paloma; Marín-Arroyo, María R; Navarro, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) assays in microplates save resources and time, therefore they can be useful to overcome the fact that the conventional methods are time-consuming, labour intensive and use large amounts of reagents. An intra-laboratory validation of the Folin-Ciocalteu microplate method to measure TPC and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) microplate method to measure AA was performed and compared with conventional spectrophotometric methods. To compare the TPC methods, the confidence intervals of a linear regression were used. In the range of 10-70 mg L(-1) of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), both methods were equivalent. To compare the AA methodologies, the F-test and t-test were used in a range from 220 to 320 µmol L(-1) of Trolox equivalents. Both methods had homogeneous variances, and the means were not significantively different. The limits of detection and quantification for the TPC microplate method were 0.74 and 2.24 mg L(-1) GAE and for the DPPH 12.07 and 36.58 µmol L(-1) of Trolox equivalents. The relative standard deviation of the repeatability and reproducibility for both microplate methods were ≤ 6.1%. The accuracy ranged from 88% to 100%. The microplate and the conventional methods are equals in a 95% confidence level. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  4. Integral method for transient He II heat transfer in a semi-infinite domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudouy, B.

    2002-05-01

    Integral methods are suited to solve a non-linear system of differential equations where the non-linearity can be found either in the differential equations or in the boundary conditions. Though they are approximate methods, they have proven to give simple solutions with acceptable accuracy for transient heat transfer in He II. Taking in account the temperature dependence of thermal properties, direct solutions are found without the need of adjusting a parameter. Previously, we have presented a solution for the clamped heat flux and in the present study this method is used to accommodate the clamped-temperature problem. In the case of constant thermal properties, this method yields results that are within a few percent of the exact solution for the heat flux at the axis origin. We applied this solution to analyze recovery from burnout and find an agreement within 10% at low heat flux, whereas at high heat flux the model deviates from the experimental data suggesting the need for a more refined thermal model.

  5. Methods to Calculate the Heat Index as an Exposure Metric in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Peng, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental health research employs a variety of metrics to measure heat exposure, both to directly study the health effects of outdoor temperature and to control for temperature in studies of other environmental exposures, including air pollution. To measure heat exposure, environmental health studies often use heat index, which incorporates both air temperature and moisture. However, the method of calculating heat index varies across environmental studies, which could mean that studies using different algorithms to calculate heat index may not be comparable. Objective and Methods: We investigated 21 separate heat index algorithms found in the literature to determine a) whether different algorithms generate heat index values that are consistent with the theoretical concepts of apparent temperature and b) whether different algorithms generate similar heat index values. Results: Although environmental studies differ in how they calculate heat index values, most studies’ heat index algorithms generate values consistent with apparent temperature. Additionally, most different algorithms generate closely correlated heat index values. However, a few algorithms are potentially problematic, especially in certain weather conditions (e.g., very low relative humidity, cold weather). To aid environmental health researchers, we have created open-source software in R to calculate the heat index using the U.S. National Weather Service’s algorithm. Conclusion: We identified 21 separate heat index algorithms used in environmental research. Our analysis demonstrated that methods to calculate heat index are inconsistent across studies. Careful choice of a heat index algorithm can help ensure reproducible and consistent environmental health research. Citation: Anderson GB, Bell ML, Peng RD. 2013. Methods to calculate the heat index as an exposure metric in environmental health research. Environ Health Perspect 121:1111–1119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206273

  6. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, P.R.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Hopper, R.W.

    1997-11-11

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods. 3 figs.

  7. Combining conventional and thermal drilling in order to increase speed and reduce costs of drilling operations to access deep geothermal resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Edoardo; Kant, Michael A.; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-04-01

    The exploitation of deep geothermal resources for energy production relies on finding cost effective solutions to increase the drilling performance in hard rocks. Conventional rotary drilling techniques, based on mechanical rock exportation, result in high rates of drilling tool wearing, causing significant costs. Additionally, rotary drilling results in low drilling speeds in the typically hard crystalline basement rocks targeted for enhanced geothermal energy utilization technologies. Furthermore, even lower overall drilling rates result, when considering tripping times required to exchange worn drill tools. Therefore, alternative drilling techniques, such as hammering, thermal drilling, plasma drilling, and jetting processes are widely investigated in order to provide cost-effective alternatives to conventional drilling methods. A promising approach, that combines conventional rotary and thermal drilling techniques, is investigated in the present work. Here, the rock material is thermally weakened before being exported by conventional cutters. Heat is locally provided by a flame, which moves over the rock surface, heat-treating the material. Besides reducing the rock strength, an in-depth smoothening effect of the mechanical rock properties is observed due to the thermal treatment. This results in reduced rates of drill bit wearing and higher rates of penetration, which in turn decreases drilling costs significantly, particularly for deep-drilling projects. Due to the high heating rates, rock-hardening, commonly observed at moderate temperatures, can be avoided. The flame action can be modelled as a localized, high heat transfer coefficient flame treatment, which results in orders of magnitude higher heating rates than conventional oven treatments. Therefore, we analyse rock strength variations after different maximum temperatures, flame-based heating rates, and rock confinement pressures. The results show that flame treatments lead to a monotonous decrease of

  8. Comparing the effect of homogenization and heat processing on the properties and in vitro digestion of milk from organic and conventional dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Ren, D X; Tomasula, P M

    2017-08-01

    We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways. General composition was the same among the whole milk samples and among the nonfat milk samples. Protein profiles were similar, with intact caseins and whey proteins predominant and only minor amounts of peptides. Whole milk samples from grazing cows contained higher levels of α-linolenic (C18:3), vaccenic (C18:1 trans), and conjugated linoleic acids, and lower levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids than samples from nongrazing cows. Processing had no effect on conjugated linoleic acid and linolenic acid levels in milk, although homogenization resulted in higher levels of C8 to C14 saturated fatty acids. Of the 9 volatile compounds evaluated, milk from grazing cows contained lower levels of 2-butanone than milk from nongrazing cows, and milk from both farms showed spikes for heptanal in UHT samples and spikes for butanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, and N-decanoic acids in homogenized samples. At the start of in vitro digestion, nonfat raw and pasteurized milk samples formed the largest acid clots, and organic milk clots were larger than conventional milk clots; UHT whole milk formed the smallest clots. Milk digests from grazing cows had lower levels of free fatty acids than digests from nongrazing cows. In vitro proteolysis was similar in milk from both farms and resulted in 85 to 95% digestibility. Overall, milk from organic/grass-fed and conventional

  9. A simple method for predicting solar fractions of IPH and space heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, R.; Goodling, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, a method has been developed to evaluate the solar fractions of liquid based industrial process heat (IPH) and space heating systems, without the use of computer simulations. The new method is the result of joining two theories, Lunde's equation to determine monthly performance of solar heating systems and the utilizability correlations of Collares-Pereira and Rabl by making appropriate assumptions. The new method requires the input of the monthly averages of the utilizable radiation and the collector operating time. These quantities are determined conveniently by the method of Collares-Pereira and Rabl. A comparison of the results of themore » new method with the most acceptable design methods shows excellent agreement.« less

  10. Influence of collector heat capacity and internal conditions of heat exchanger on cool-down process of small gas liquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberimoghaddam, Ali; Bahri Rasht Abadi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Joule-Thomson cooling systems are commonly used in gas liquefaction. In small gas liquefiers, transient cool-down time is high. Selecting suitable conditions for cooling down process leads to decrease in time and cost. In the present work, transient thermal behavior of Joule-Thomson cooling system including counter current helically coiled tube in tube heat exchanger, expansion valve, and collector was studied using experimental tests and simulations. The experiments were performed using small gas liquefier and nitrogen gas as working fluid. The heat exchanger was thermally studied by experimental data obtained from a small gas liquefier. In addition, the simulations were performed using experimental data as variable boundary conditions. A comparison was done between presented and conventional methods. The effect of collector heat capacity and convection heat transfer coefficient inside the tubes on system performance was studied using temperature profiles along the heat exchanger.

  11. Effects of infrared radiation heating on peeling performance and quality attributes of clingstone peaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salinity and wastewater disposal problems associated with the conventional wet-lye method for peeling clingstone peaches result in considerable negative environment impacts. This study investigated the efficacy of using infrared (IR) heating as an alternative method for peach peel removal without us...

  12. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-04-03

    A method is described for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25 to 45% nickel, 10 to 16% chromium, 1.5 to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025 to 1075/sup 0/C for 2 to 5 minutes, cold-worked about 20 to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775/sup 0/C for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650 to 700/sup 0/C for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  13. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  14. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Merrick, Howard F.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a bimodal distribution of gamma prime phase within a network of dislocations, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25% to 45% nickel, 10% to 16% chromium, 1.5% to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025.degree. C. to 1075.degree. C. for 2-5 minutes, cold-worked about 20% to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775.degree. C. for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  15. Correction of the heat loss method for calculating clothing real evaporative resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Zhang, Chengjiao; Lu, Yehu

    2015-08-01

    In the so-called isothermal condition (i.e., Tair [air temperature]=Tmanikin [manikin temperature]=Tr [radiant temperature]), the actual energy used for moisture evaporation detected by most sweating manikins was underestimated due to the uncontrolled fabric 'skin' temperature Tsk,f (i.e., Tsk,fheat loss from the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system was proposed and experimentally validated on a 'Newton' sweating manikin. The real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the nude fabric 'skin' calculated by the corrected heat loss method was also reported and compared with that by the mass loss method. Results revealed that, depending on the types of tested clothing, different amounts of heat were drawn from the ambient environment. In general, a greater amount of heat was drawn from the ambient environment by the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system in lower thermal insulation clothing than that in higher insulation clothing. There were no significant differences between clothing real evaporative resistances calculated by the corrected heat loss method and those by the mass loss method. It was therefore concluded that the correction method proposed in this study has been successfully validated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  17. Accuracy assessment methods of tissue marker clip placement after 11-gauge vacuum-assisted stereotactic breast biopsy: comparison of measurements using direct and conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Yatake, Hidetoshi; Sawai, Yuka; Nishi, Toshio; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Nishimae, Ayaka; Katsuda, Toshizo; Yabunaka, Koichi; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Inaji, Hideo

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare direct measurement with a conventional method for evaluation of clip placement in stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (ST-VAB) and to evaluate the accuracy of clip placement using the direct method. Accuracy of clip placement was assessed by measuring the distance from a residual calcification of a targeted calcification clustered to a clip on a mammogram after ST-VAB. Distances in the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were measured in 28 subjects with mammograms recorded twice or more after ST-VAB. The difference in the distance between the first and second measurements was defined as the reproducibility and was compared with that from a conventional method using a mask system with overlap of transparent film on the mammogram. The 3D clip-to-calcification distance was measured using the direct method in 71 subjects. The reproducibility of the direct method was higher than that of the conventional method in CC and MLO views (P = 0.002, P < 0.001). The median 3D clip-to-calcification distance was 2.8 mm, with an interquartile range of 2.0-4.8 mm and a range of 1.1-36.3 mm. The direct method used in this study was more accurate than the conventional method, and gave a median 3D distance of 2.8 mm between the calcification and clip.

  18. Comparison between laser terahertz emission microscope and conventional methods for analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Hidetoshi, E-mail: nakanisi@screen.co.jp; Ito, Akira, E-mail: a.ito@screen.co.jp; Takayama, Kazuhisa, E-mail: takayama.k0123@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    A laser terahertz emission microscope (LTEM) can be used for noncontact inspection to detect the waveforms of photoinduced terahertz emissions from material devices. In this study, we experimentally compared the performance of LTEM with conventional analysis methods, e.g., electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL), and laser beam induced current (LBIC), as an inspection method for solar cells. The results showed that LTEM was more sensitive to the characteristics of the depletion layer of the polycrystalline solar cell compared with EL, PL, and LBIC and that it could be used as a complementary tool to the conventional analysis methods for a solar cell.

  19. Evaluation and Application of Satellite-Based Latent Heating Profile Estimation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Grecu, Mircea; Yang, Song; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, methods for estimating atmospheric latent heating vertical structure from both passive and active microwave remote sensing have matured to the point where quantitative evaluation of these methods is the next logical step. Two approaches for heating algorithm evaluation are proposed: First, application of heating algorithms to synthetic data, based upon cloud-resolving model simulations, can be used to test the internal consistency of heating estimates in the absence of systematic errors in physical assumptions. Second, comparisons of satellite-retrieved vertical heating structures to independent ground-based estimates, such as rawinsonde-derived analyses of heating, provide an additional test. The two approaches are complementary, since systematic errors in heating indicated by the second approach may be confirmed by the first. A passive microwave and combined passive/active microwave heating retrieval algorithm are evaluated using the described approaches. In general, the passive microwave algorithm heating profile estimates are subject to biases due to the limited vertical heating structure information contained in the passive microwave observations. These biases may be partly overcome by including more environment-specific a priori information into the algorithm s database of candidate solution profiles. The combined passive/active microwave algorithm utilizes the much higher-resolution vertical structure information provided by spaceborne radar data to produce less biased estimates; however, the global spatio-temporal sampling by spaceborne radar is limited. In the present study, the passive/active microwave algorithm is used to construct a more physically-consistent and environment-specific set of candidate solution profiles for the passive microwave algorithm and to help evaluate errors in the passive algorithm s heating estimates. Although satellite estimates of latent heating are based upon instantaneous, footprint- scale data, suppression

  20. Method of Heat Treating Aluminum-Lithium Alloy to Improve Formability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carolyn Kurgan (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method is provided for heat treating aluminum-lithium alloys to improve their formability. The alloy is heated to a first temperature, maintained at the first temperature for a first time period, heated at the conclusion of the first time period to a second temperature, maintained at the second temperature for a second time period, actively cooled at the conclusion of the second time period to a third temperature, maintained at the third temperature for a third time period, and then passively cooled at the conclusion of the third time period to room temperature.

  1. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Zelipsky, Steven A.; Rezmer, Ronald R.; Smelser, Peter

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  2. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1982-08-31

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance.

  3. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1985-05-14

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance. 9 figs.

  4. Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert; Wheatley, John C.

    1985-01-01

    A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance.

  5. Induction heating apparatus and methods of operation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, John G.

    2006-08-01

    Methods of operation of an induction melter include providing material within a cooled crucible proximate an inductor. A desired electromagnetic flux skin depth for heating the material within the crucible may be selected, and a frequency of an alternating current for energizing the inductor and for producing the desired skin depth may be selected. The alternating current frequency may be adjusted after energizing the inductor to maintain the desired electromagnetic flux skin depth. The desired skin depth may be substantially maintained as the temperature of the material varies. An induction heating apparatus includes a sensor configured to detect changes in at least one physical characteristic of a material to be heated in a crucible, and a controller configured for selectively varying a frequency of an alternating current for energizing an inductor at least partially in response to changes in the physical characteristic to be detected by the sensor.

  6. Western blotting of high and low molecular weight proteins using heat.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    A method for the electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins to nitrocellulose membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel is described here. The transfer was performed with heated (70-75 °C) normal transfer buffer from which methanol had been omitted. Complete transfer of high and low molecular weight antigens (molecular weight protein standards, a purified protein, and proteins from a human tissue extract) could be carried out in 10 min for a 7 % (0.75 mm) SDS polyacrylamide gel. For 10 and 12.5 % gels (0.75 mm) the corresponding time was 15 min. A complete transfer could be carried out in 20 min for 7, 10, and 12.5 % gels (1.5 mm gels). The permeability of the gel is increased by heat, such that the proteins trapped in the polyacrylamide gel matrix can be easily transferred to the membrane. The heat mediated transfer method was compared with a conventional transfer protocol, under similar conditions. The conventional method transferred minimal low molecular weight proteins while retaining most of the high molecular weight proteins in the gel. In summary, this procedure is particularly useful for the transfer of high molecular weight proteins, very rapid, and avoids the use of methanol.

  7. Heat release from wood wall assemblies using oxygen consumption method

    Treesearch

    Hao C. Tran; Robert E. White

    1990-01-01

    The concept of heat release rate is gaining acceptance in the evaluation of fire performance of materials and assemblies. However, this concept has not been incorporated into fire endurance testing such as the ASTM E-119 test method. Heat release rate of assemblies can be useful in determining the time at which the assemblies start to contribute to the controlled fire...

  8. Development of a new method for the noninvasive measurement of deep body temperature without a heater.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Zhu, Xin; Chen, Wenxi; Nemoto, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    The conventional zero-heat-flow thermometer, which measures the deep body temperature from the skin surface, is widely used at present. However, this thermometer requires considerable electricity to power the electric heater that compensates for heat loss from the probe; thus, AC power is indispensable for its use. Therefore, this conventional thermometer is inconvenient for unconstrained monitoring. We have developed a new dual-heat-flux method that can measure the deep body temperature from the skin surface without a heater. Our method is convenient for unconstrained and long-term measurement because the instrument is driven by a battery and its design promotes energy conservation. Its probe consists of dual-heat-flow channels with different thermal resistances, and each heat-flow-channel has a pair of IC sensors attached on its top and bottom. The average deep body temperature measurements taken using both the dual-heat-flux and then the zero-heat-flow thermometers from the foreheads of 17 healthy subjects were 37.08 degrees C and 37.02 degrees C, respectively. In addition, the correlation coefficient between the values obtained by the 2 methods was 0.970 (p<0.001). These results show that our method can be used for monitoring the deep body temperature as accurately as the conventional method, and it overcomes the disadvantage of the necessity of AC power supply. (c) 2009 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heat tracer methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    The flow of heat in the subsurface is closely linked to the movement of water (Ingebritsen et al., 2006). As such, heat has been used as a tracer in groundwater studies for more than 100 years (Anderson, 2005). As with chemical and isotopic tracers (Chapter 7), spatial or temporal trends in surface and subsurface temperatures can be used to infer rates of water movement. Temperature can be measured accurately, economically, at high frequencies, and without the need to obtain water samples, facts that make heat an attractive tracer. Temperature measurements made over space and time can be used to infer rates of recharge from a stream or other surface water body (Lapham, 1989; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003); measurements can also be used to estimate rates of steady drainage through depth intervals within thick unsaturated zones (Constantz et al., 2003; Shan and Bodvarsson, 2004). Several thorough reviews of heat as a tracer in hydrologic studies have recently been published (Constantz et al., 2003; Stonestrom and Constantz, 2003; Anderson, 2005; Blasch et al., 2007; Constantz et al., 2008). This chapter summarizes heat-tracer approaches that have been used to estimate recharge.Some clarification in terminology is presented here to avoid confusion in descriptions of the various approaches that follow. Diffuse recharge is that which occurs more or less uniformly across large areas in response to precipitation, infiltration, and drainage through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of diffuse recharge determined using measured temperatures in the unsaturated zone are referred to as potential recharge because it is possible that not all of the water moving through the unsaturated zone will recharge the aquifer; some may be lost to the atmosphere by evaporation or plant transpiration. Estimated fluxes across confining units in the saturated zone are referred to as interaquifer flow (Chapter 1). Focused recharge is that which occurs directly from a point or line source, such

  10. Determination of clothing evaporative resistance on a sweating thermal manikin in an isothermal condition: heat loss method or mass loss method?

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses selection between two calculation options, i.e heat loss option and mass loss option, for thermal manikin measurements on clothing evaporative resistance conducted in an isothermal condition (T(manikin) = T(a) = T(r)). Five vocational clothing ensembles with a thermal insulation range of 1.05-2.58 clo were selected and measured on a sweating thermal manikin 'Tore'. The reasons why the isothermal heat loss method generates a higher evaporative resistance than that of the mass loss method were thoroughly investigated. In addition, an indirect approach was applied to determine the amount of evaporative heat energy taken from the environment. It was found that clothing evaporative resistance values by the heat loss option were 11.2-37.1% greater than those based on the mass loss option. The percentage of evaporative heat loss taken from the environment (H(e,env)) for all test scenarios ranged from 10.9 to 23.8%. The real evaporative cooling efficiency ranged from 0.762 to 0.891, respectively. Furthermore, it is evident that the evaporative heat loss difference introduced by those two options was equal to the heat energy taken from the environment. In order to eliminate the combined effects of dry heat transfer, condensation, and heat pipe on clothing evaporative resistance, it is suggested that manikin measurements on the determination of clothing evaporative resistance should be performed in an isothermal condition. Moreover, the mass loss method should be applied to calculate clothing evaporative resistance. The isothermal heat loss method would appear to overestimate heat stress and thus should be corrected before use.

  11. A method to model latent heat for transient analysis using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A sample heat transfer analysis is demonstrated which includes the heat of fusion. The method can be used to analyze a system with nonconstant specific heat. The enthalpy is introduced as an independent degree of freedom at each node. The user input consists of a curve of temperature as a function of enthalpy, which may include a constant temperature phase change. The basic NASTRAN heat transfer capability is used to model the effects of latent heat with existing direct matrix output and nonlinear load data cards. Although some user care is required, the numerical stability of the integration is quite good when the given recommendations are followed. The theoretical equations used and the NASTRAN techniques are shown.

  12. Heat Exchangers for Utilization of the Heat of High-Temperature Geothermal Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The basic component of two-circuit geothermal systems is the heat exchanger. When used in geothermal power systems, conventional shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers cause problems related to the cleaning of the latter from salt-deposition and corrosion products. Their lifetime does not exceed, as a rule, 1 year. To utilize the heat of high-temperature geothermal brines, a heat exchanger of the "tube-in-tube" type is proposed. A heat exchanger of this design has been operated for several years in Ternair geothermal steam field; in this heat exchanger, the thermal potential of the saline thermal water is transferred to the fresh water of the secondary circuit of the heating system for apartment houses. The reduction in the weight and size characteristics of the heat exchangers is a topical problem that can be solved with the help of heat transfer enhancers. To enhance the heat transfer process in the heat exchanger, longitudinal ribbing of the heat exchange surface is proposed. The increase in the heat exchange surface from the heat carrier side by ribbing results in an increase in the amount of the heat transferred from the heating agent. The heat exchanger is easy to manufacture and is assembled out of components comprised of two concentrically positioned tubes of a definite length, 3-6 m, serially connected with each other. The method for calculation of the impact of the number and the size of the longitudinal ribs on the heat transfer in the well heat exchanger is presented and a criterion for the selection of the optimal number and design parameters of the ribs is formulated. To prevent the corrosion and salt deposition in the heat exchanger, the use of an effective OEDFK (oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid) agent is proposed. This agent has a long-lasting corrosion-inhibiting and antiscaling effect, which is explained by the formation of a strongly adhesive chelate layer difficult to wash off the surface. The passivating OEDFK layer is restored by periodical

  13. Energy and environmental evaluation of combined cooling heating and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaj, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The paper addresses issues involving problems of implementing combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system to industrial facility with well-defined demand profiles of cooling, heating and electricity. The application of CCHP system in this particular industrial facility is being evaluated by comparison with the reference system that consists of three conventional methods of energy supply: (a) electricity from external grid, (b) heat from gas-fired boilers and (c) cooling from vapour compression chillers run by electricity from the grid. The CCHP system scenario is based on the combined heat and power (CHP) plant with gas turbine-compressor arrangement and water/lithium bromide absorption chiller of a single-effect type. Those two scenarios are analysed in terms of annual primary energy usage as well as emissions of CO2. The results of the analysis show an extent of primary energy savings of the CCHP system in comparison with the reference system. Furthermore, the environmental impact of the CCHP usage, in the form of greenhouse gases emission reductions, compares quite favourably with the reference conventional option.

  14. Performance and economics of residential solar space heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehr, F. J.; Vineyard, T. A.; Barnes, R. W.; Oneal, D. L.

    1982-11-01

    The performance and economics of residential solar space heating were studied for various locations in the contiguous United States. Common types of active and passive solar heating systems were analyzed with respect to an average-size, single-family house designed to meet or exceed the thermal requirements of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Minimum Property Standards (HUD-MPS). The solar systems were evaluated in seventeen cities to provide a broad range of climatic conditions. Active systems evaluated consist of air and liquid flat plate collectors with single- and double-glazing: passive systems include Trombe wall, water wall, direct gain, and sunspace systems. The active system solar heating performance was computed using the University of Wisconsin's F-CHART computer program. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method was employed to compute solar heating performance for the passive systems. Heating costs were computed with gas, oil, and electricity as backups and as conventional heating system fuels.

  15. Improved Method for Determining the Heat Capacity of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Roger; Moran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    An improved procedure for laboratory determination of the heat capacities of metals is described. The temperature of cold water is continuously recorded with a computer-interfaced temperature probe and the room temperature metal is added. The method is more accurate and faster than previous methods. It allows students to get accurate measurements…

  16. Miniature Heat Transport System for Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochterbeck, Jay M.; Ku, Jentung (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHP) are efficient devices for heat transfer and use the basic principle of a closed evaporation-condensation cycle. The advantage of using a loop heat pipe over other conventional methods is that large quantities of heat can be transported through a small cross-sectional area over a considerable distance with no additional power input to the system. By using LHPs, it seems possible to meet the growing demand for high-power cooling devices. Although they are somewhat similar to conventional heat pipes, LHPs have a whole set of unique properties, such as low pressure drops and flexible lines between condenser and evaporator, that make them rather promising. LHPs are capable of providing a means of transporting heat over long distances with no input power other than the heat being transported because of the specially designed evaporator and the separation of liquid and vapor lines. For LHP design and fabrication, preliminary analysis on the basis of dimensionless criteria is necessary because of certain complicated phenomena that take place in the heat pipe. Modeling the performance of the LHP and miniaturizing its size are tasks and objectives of current research. In the course of h s work, the LHP and its components, including the evaporator (the most critical and complex part of the LHP), were modeled with the corresponding dimensionless groups also being investigated. Next, analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the LHP, selection of the most weighted criteria from known dimensionless groups (thermal-fluid sciences), heat transfer rate limits, (heat pipe theory), and experimental ratios which are unique to a given heat pipe class are discussed. In the third part of the report, two-phase flow heat and mass transfer performances inside the LHP condenser are analyzed and calculated for Earth-normal gravity and microgravity conditions. On the basis of recent models and experimental databanks, an analysis for condensing two-phase flow regimes

  17. Effect of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Learning Media on Cooperative, Individual and Conventional Method on Chemistry Learning Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latisma D, L.; Kurniawan, W.; Seprima, S.; Nirbayani, E. S.; Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to see which method are well used with the Chemistry Triangle-oriented learning media. This quasi experimental research involves first grade of senior high school students in six schools namely each two SMA N in Solok city, in Pasaman and two SMKN in Pariaman. The sampling technique was done by Cluster Random Sampling. Data were collected by test and analyzed by one-way anova and Kruskall Wallish test. The results showed that the high school students in Solok learning taught by cooperative method is better than the results of student learning taught by conventional and Individual methods, both for students who have high initial ability and low-ability. Research in SMK showed that the overall student learning outcomes taught by conventional method is better than the student learning outcomes taught by cooperative and individual methods. Student learning outcomes that have high initial ability taught by individual method is better than student learning outcomes that are taught by cooperative method and for students who have low initial ability, there is no difference in student learning outcomes taught by cooperative, individual and conventional methods. Learning in high school in Pasaman showed no significant difference in learning outcomes of the three methods undertaken.

  18. A comparative Thermal Analysis of conventional parabolic receiver tube and Cavity model tube in a Solar Parabolic Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, S.; Ramakrishna, P.; Sangavi, S.

    2018-02-01

    Improvements in heating technology with solar energy is gaining focus, especially solar parabolic collectors. Solar heating in conventional parabolic collectors is done with the help of radiation concentration on receiver tubes. Conventional receiver tubes are open to atmosphere and loose heat by ambient air currents. In order to reduce the convection losses and also to improve the aperture area, we designed a tube with cavity. This study is a comparative performance behaviour of conventional tube and cavity model tube. The performance formulae were derived for the cavity model based on conventional model. Reduction in overall heat loss coefficient was observed for cavity model, though collector heat removal factor and collector efficiency were nearly same for both models. Improvement in efficiency was also observed in the cavity model’s performance. The approach towards the design of a cavity model tube as the receiver tube in solar parabolic collectors gave improved results and proved as a good consideration.

  19. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Heats of transformation of eutectic alloys were measured for many binary and ternary systems by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis. Only the relatively cheap and plentiful elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Cu, Zn were considered. A method for measuring volume change during transformation was developed using x-ray absorption in a confined sample. Thermal expansion coefficients of both solid and liquid states of aluminum and of its eutectics with copper and with silicon also were determined. Preliminary evaluation of containment materials lead to the selection of silicon carbide as the initial material for study. Possible applications of alloy PCMs for heat storage in conventional and solar central power stations, small solar receivers and industrial furnace operations are under consideration.

  20. Economics of installation of solar heating plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, O. S.; Frid, S. Y.; Shpiltayn, E. E.

    1984-04-01

    An engineering-economic analysis of solar heating plants for determination of their cost effectiveness involves calculating the maximum economically feasibile extra capital investment on their installation and calculating the fraction of the total heat demand covered by such a plant which makes replacement of conventional heating plant maximally economical. The annual economic effect of solar heating is calculated in terms of normalized cost differential, as criterion for its competitiveness with conventional heating. Plant performance characteristics, namely dependence of both the percent demand coverage and the annual cost differential on the area of solar radiation collectors is then considered. Analysis of the cost equation, assuming that the extra fixed cost is proportional to the collector area, reveals the necessary and sufficient condition for decrease of annual operating cost.

  1. Two-wavelength Method Estimates Heat fluxes over Heterogeneous Surface in North-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Zheng, N.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Heat fluxes is a key process of hydrological and heat transfer of soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), and now it is becoming an important topic in meteorology, hydrology, ecology and other related research areas. Because the temporal and spatial variation of fluxes at regional scale is very complicated, it is still difficult to measure fluxes at the kilometer scale over a heterogeneous surface. A technique called "two-wavelength method" which combines optical scintillometer with microwave scintillometer is able to measure both sensible and latent heat fluxes over large spatial scales at the same time. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the fluxes over non-uniform terrain in North-China. Estimation of heat fluxes was carried out with the optical-microwave scintillometer and an eddy covariance (EC) system over heterogeneous surface in Tai Hang Mountains, China. EC method was set as a benchmark in the study. Structure parameters obtained from scintillometer showed that the typical measurement values of Cn2 are around 10-13 m-2/3 for microwave scintillometer, and values of Cn2 were around 10-15 m-2/3 for optical scintillometer. The correlation of heat fluxes (H) derived from scintillometer and EC system showed as a ratio of 1.05,and with R2=0.75, while the correlation of latent heat fluxes (LE) showed as 1.29 with R2=0.67. It was also found that heat fluxes derived from the two system showed good agreement (R2=0.9 for LE, R2=0.97 for H) when the Bowen ratio (β) was 1.03, while discrepancies showed significantly when β=0.75, and RMSD in H was 139.22 W/m2, 230.85 W/m2 in LE respectively.Experiment results in our research shows that, the two-wavelength method gives a larger heat fluxes over the study area, and a deeper study should be conduct. We expect that our investigate and analysis can be promoted the application of scintillometry method in regional evapotranspiration measurements and relevant disciplines.

  2. Memory alloy heat engine and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred Davis

    1977-01-01

    A heat engine and method of operation employing an alloy having a shape memory effect. A memory alloy element such as one or more wire loops are cyclically moved through a heat source, along a path toward a heat sink, through the heat sink and then along another path in counter-flow heat exchange relationship with the wire in the first path. The portion of the wire along the first path is caused to elongate to its trained length under minimum tension as it is cooled. The portion of the wire along the second path is caused to contract under maximum tension as it is heated. The resultant tension differential between the wires in the two paths is applied as a force through a distance to produce mechanical work. In one embodiment a first set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement between a pair of pulleys which are mounted for conjoint rotation within respective hot and cold reservoirs. Another set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement about another pair of pulleys which are mounted in the respective hot and cold reservoirs. The pulleys in the cold reservoir are of a larger diameter than those in the hot reservoir and the opposite reaches of the wires between the two sets of pulleys extend in closely spaced-apart relationship in counter-flow heat regenerator zones. The pulleys are turned to move the two sets of wires in opposite directions. The wires are stretched as they are cooled upon movement through the heat regenerator toward the cold reservoirs, and the wires contract as they are heated upon movement through the regenerator zones toward the hot reservoir. This contraction of wires exerts a larger torque on the greater diameter pulleys for turning the pulleys and supplying mechanical power. Means is provided for applying a variable tension to the wires. Phase change means is provided for controlling the angular phase of the pulleys of each set for purposes of start up procedure as well as for optimizing engine

  3. In-vitro evaluation of the accuracy of conventional and digital methods of obtaining full-arch dental impressions.

    PubMed

    Ender, Andreas; Mehl, Albert

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of conventional and digital impression methods used to obtain full-arch impressions by using an in-vitro reference model. Eight different conventional (polyether, POE; vinylsiloxanether, VSE; direct scannable vinylsiloxanether, VSES; and irreversible hydrocolloid, ALG) and digital (CEREC Bluecam, CER; CEREC Omnicam, OC; Cadent iTero, ITE; and Lava COS, LAV) full-arch impressions were obtained from a reference model with a known morphology, using a highly accurate reference scanner. The impressions obtained were then compared with the original geometry of the reference model and within each test group. A point-to-point measurement of the surface of the model using the signed nearest neighbour method resulted in a mean (10%-90%)/2 percentile value for the difference between the impression and original model (trueness) as well as the difference between impressions within a test group (precision). Trueness values ranged from 11.5 μm (VSE) to 60.2 μm (POE), and precision ranged from 12.3 μm (VSE) to 66.7 μm (POE). Among the test groups, VSE, VSES, and CER showed the highest trueness and precision. The deviation pattern varied with the impression method. Conventional impressions showed high accuracy across the full dental arch in all groups, except POE and ALG. Conventional and digital impression methods show differences regarding full-arch accuracy. Digital impression systems reveal higher local deviations of the full-arch model. Digital intraoral impression systems do not show superior accuracy compared to highly accurate conventional impression techniques. However, they provide excellent clinical results within their indications applying the correct scanning technique.

  4. HEATING ATTIC AIR USING SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY FOR SPACE HEATING AND DRYING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This unit is expected to replace the conventional forms of drying and will be able to supplement space heating. Replacement of these current forms of drying and space heating will result in the reduction of energy consumption from this sector which will also lead to cost savin...

  5. Conventional, Bayesian, and Modified Prony's methods for characterizing fast and slow waves in equine cancellous bone

    PubMed Central

    Groopman, Amber M.; Katz, Jonathan I.; Holland, Mark R.; Fujita, Fuminori; Matsukawa, Mami; Mizuno, Katsunori; Wear, Keith A.; Miller, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional, Bayesian, and the modified least-squares Prony's plus curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) methods were applied to data acquired using 1 MHz center frequency, broadband transducers on a single equine cancellous bone specimen that was systematically shortened from 11.8 mm down to 0.5 mm for a total of 24 sample thicknesses. Due to overlapping fast and slow waves, conventional analysis methods were restricted to data from sample thicknesses ranging from 11.8 mm to 6.0 mm. In contrast, Bayesian and MLSP + CF methods successfully separated fast and slow waves and provided reliable estimates of the ultrasonic properties of fast and slow waves for sample thicknesses ranging from 11.8 mm down to 3.5 mm. Comparisons of the three methods were carried out for phase velocity at the center frequency and the slope of the attenuation coefficient for the fast and slow waves. Good agreement among the three methods was also observed for average signal loss at the center frequency. The Bayesian and MLSP + CF approaches were able to separate the fast and slow waves and provide good estimates of the fast and slow wave properties even when the two wave modes overlapped in both time and frequency domains making conventional analysis methods unreliable. PMID:26328678

  6. Ergonomic evaluation of conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking with women workers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Sharma, D K

    2012-01-01

    Conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking were evaluated ergonomically on an experiment conducted for 20 minute with women workers. The working heart rate, energy expenditure rate, total cardiac cost of work and physiological cost of work with conventional tools varied from 93-102 beats.min-1, 6-7.5 kJ.min-1, 285-470 beats, 14 -23 beats.min-1 while with machine varied from 96-105 beats.min-1, 6.5-8 kJ.min-1 , 336-540 beats, 16-27 beats.min-1 respectively. OWAS score for conventional method was 2 indicating corrective measures in near future while with machine was 1 indicating no corrective measures. Result of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire revealed that subjects complaint of pain in back, neck, right shoulder and right hand due to unnatural body posture and repetitive movement with hand tool. Moreover pricking was carried out in improper lighting conditions (200-300 lux) resulting into finger injuries from sharp edges of hand tool, whereas with machine no such problems were observed. Output with machine increased thrice than hand pricking in a given time. Machine was found useful in terms of saving time, increased productivity, enhanced safety and comfort as involved improved posture, was easy to handle and operate, thus increasing efficiency of the worker leading to better quality of life.

  7. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  8. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  9. ATES/heat pump simulations performed with ATESSS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, L. W.

    1989-01-01

    Modifications to the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System Simulator (ATESSS) allow simulation of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES)/heat pump systems. The heat pump algorithm requires a coefficient of performance (COP) relationship of the form: COP = COP sub base + alpha (T sub ref minus T sub base). Initial applications of the modified ATES code to synthetic building load data for two sizes of buildings in two U.S. cities showed insignificant performance advantage of a series ATES heat pump system over a conventional groundwater heat pump system. The addition of algorithms for a cooling tower and solar array improved performance slightly. Small values of alpha in the COP relationship are the principal reason for the limited improvement in system performance. Future studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are planned to investigate methods to increase system performance using alternative system configurations and operations scenarios.

  10. High specific heat superconducting composite

    DOEpatents

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1979-01-01

    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the 5.degree. K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  11. Comparing 3D foot scanning with conventional measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Lin, Gloria; Wang, Mao-Jiun J

    2014-01-01

    Foot dimension information on different user groups is important for footwear design and clinical applications. Foot dimension data collected using different measurement methods presents accuracy problems. This study compared the precision and accuracy of the 3D foot scanning method with conventional foot dimension measurement methods including the digital caliper, ink footprint and digital footprint. Six commonly used foot dimensions, i.e. foot length, ball of foot length, outside ball of foot length, foot breadth diagonal, foot breadth horizontal and heel breadth were measured from 130 males and females using four foot measurement methods. Two-way ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sex and method effect on the measured foot dimensions. In addition, the mean absolute difference values and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used for precision and accuracy evaluation. The results were also compared with the ISO 20685 criteria. The participant's sex and the measurement method were found (p < 0.05) to exert significant effects on the measured six foot dimensions. The precision of the 3D scanning measurement method with mean absolute difference values between 0.73 to 1.50 mm showed the best performance among the four measurement methods. The 3D scanning measurements showed better measurement accuracy performance than the other methods (mean absolute difference was 0.6 to 4.3 mm), except for measuring outside ball of foot length and foot breadth horizontal. The ICCs for all six foot dimension measurements among the four measurement methods were within the 0.61 to 0.98 range. Overall, the 3D foot scanner is recommended for collecting foot anthropometric data because it has relatively higher precision, accuracy and robustness. This finding suggests that when comparing foot anthropometric data among different references, it is important to consider the differences caused by the different measurement methods.

  12. Step - wise transient method - Influence of heat source inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinarič, Svetozár; Dieška, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Step-wise transient (SWT) method is an experimental technique for measuring the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of materials. Theoretical models and experimental apparatus are presented and the influence of the heat source capacity are investigated using the experiment simulation. The specimens from low density polyethylene (LDPE) were measured yielding the thermal diffusivity 0.165 mm2/s and thermal conductivity 0.351 W/mK with the coefficient of variation less than 1.4 %. The heat source capacity caused the systematic error of the results smaller than 1 %.

  13. Ultrarapid electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins using heat.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    An ultrarapid method for the electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins to nitrocellulose membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel is described here. The transfer was performed with heated (70-75 degrees C) normal transfer buffer from which methanol had been omitted. Complete transfer of high and low molecular weight antigens (molecular weight protein standards, a purified protein, and proteins from a human tissue extract) could be carried out in 10 min for a 7% (0.75 mm) SDS polyacrylamide gel. For 10 and 12.5% gels (0.75 mm) the corresponding time was 15 min. A complete transfer could be carried out in 20 min for 7, 10, and 12.5% gels (1.5 mm gels). The permeability of the gel is increased by heat, such that the proteins trapped in the polyacrylamide gel matrix can be easily transferred to the membrane. The heat mediated transfer method was compared with a conventional transfer protocol, under similar conditions. The conventional method transferred minimal low molecular weight proteins while retaining most of the high molecular weight proteins in the gel. In summary, this procedure is particularly useful for the transfer of high molecular weight proteins, very rapid, and avoids the use of methanol.

  14. MHD boundary layer slip flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid along a stretching cylinder with prescribed heat flux.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Zafar Hayat; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Ali Shah, Inayat

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of ferrofluid along a stretching cylinder. The velocity slip and prescribed surface heat flux boundary conditions are employed on the cylinder surface. Water as conventional base fluid containing nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) is used. Comparison between magnetic (Fe3O4) and non-magnetic (Al2O3) nanoparticles is also made. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically using shooting method. Present results are compared with the available data in the limiting cases. The present results are found to be in an excellent agreement. It is observed that with an increase in the magnetic field strength, the percent difference in the heat transfer rate of magnetic nanoparticles with Al2O3 decreases. Surface shear stress and the heat transfer rate at the surface increase as the curvature parameter increases, i.e curvature helps to enhance the heat transfer.

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  17. Ground Source Heat Pumps vs. Conventional HVAC: A Comparison of Economic and Environmental Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    of systems are surface water heat pumps (SWHPs), ground water heat pumps (GWHPs), and ground coupled heat pumps ( GCHPs ) (Kavanaugh & Rafferty, 1997...Kavanaugh & Rafferty, 1997). Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (Closed-Loop Ground Source Heat Pumps) GCHPs , otherwise known as closed-loop GSHPs, are the...Significant confusion has arisen through the use of GCHP and closed-loop GSHP terminology. Closed-loop GSHP is the preferred nomenclature for this

  18. New method of processing heat treatment experiments with numerical simulation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kik, T.; Moravec, J.; Novakova, I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, benefits of combining modern software for numerical simulations of welding processes with laboratory research was described. Proposed new method of processing heat treatment experiments leading to obtaining relevant input data for numerical simulations of heat treatment of large parts was presented. It is now possible, by using experiments on small tested samples, to simulate cooling conditions comparable with cooling of bigger parts. Results from this method of testing makes current boundary conditions during real cooling process more accurate, but also can be used for improvement of software databases and optimization of a computational models. The point is to precise the computation of temperature fields for large scale hardening parts based on new method of temperature dependence determination of the heat transfer coefficient into hardening media for the particular material, defined maximal thickness of processed part and cooling conditions. In the paper we will also present an example of the comparison standard and modified (according to newly suggested methodology) heat transfer coefficient data’s and theirs influence on the simulation results. It shows how even the small changes influence mainly on distribution of temperature, metallurgical phases, hardness and stresses distribution. By this experiment it is also possible to obtain not only input data and data enabling optimization of computational model but at the same time also verification data. The greatest advantage of described method is independence of used cooling media type.

  19. A small-plane heat source method for measuring the thermal conductivities of anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liang; Yue, Kai; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-07-01

    A new small-plane heat source method was proposed in this study to simultaneously measure the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of anisotropic insulating materials. In this method the size of the heat source element is smaller than the sample size and the boundary condition is thermal insulation due to no heat flux at the edge of the sample during the experiment. A three-dimensional model in a rectangular coordinate system was established to exactly describe the heat transfer process of the measurement system. Using the Laplace transform, variable separation, and Laplace inverse transform methods, the analytical solution of the temperature rise of the sample was derived. The temperature rises calculated by the analytical solution agree well with the results of numerical calculation. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the sensitivity coefficients of the estimated thermal conductivities are high and uncorrelated to each other. At room temperature and in a high-temperature environment, experimental measurements of anisotropic silica aerogel were carried out using the traditional one-dimensional plane heat source method and the proposed method, respectively. The results demonstrate that the measurement method developed in this study is effective and feasible for simultaneously obtaining the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the anisotropic materials.

  20. Method for producing micro heat panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Peterson, George P. (Inventor); Rummler, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Flat or curved micro heat pipe panels are fabricated by arranging essentially parallel filaments in the shape of the desired panel. The configuration of the filaments corresponds to the desired configuration of the tubes that will constitute the heat pipes. A thermally conductive material is then deposited on and around the filaments to fill in the desired shape of the panel. The filaments are then removed, leaving tubular passageways of the desired configuration and surface texture in the material. The tubes are then filled with a working fluid and sealed. Composite micro heat pipe laminates are formed by layering individual micro heat pipe panels and bonding them to each other to form a single structure. The layering sequence of the micro heat pipe panels can be tailored to transport heat preferentially in specific directions as desired for a particular application.

  1. A New Method to Grow SiC: Solvent-Laser Heated Floating Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth, Andrew A.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Sayir, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The solvent-laser heated floating zone (solvent-LHFZ) growth method is being developed to grow long single crystal SiC fibers. The technique combines the single crystal fiber growth ability of laser heated floating zone with solvent based growth techniques (e.g. traveling solvent method) ability to grow SiC from the liquid phase. Initial investigations reported in this paper show that the solvent-LHFZ method readily grows single crystal SiC (retains polytype and orientation), but has a significant amount of inhomogeneous strain and solvent rich inclusions.

  2. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2015-11-06

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  3. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2013-01-08

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  4. The challenges of heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis solutions: is there an alternative?

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Conor T; Himmele, Rainer; Diaz-Buxo, Jose A

    2012-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions are currently sterilized in an autoclave using high-temperature saturated steam. Although thermal methods are an effective means of sterilization, the heating of PD solutions results in the formation of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs). Here, we review basic concepts in the sterilization of PD solutions and discuss possible alternatives to steam sterilization, including filtration, ohmic heat, ionizing radiation, and pulsed ultraviolet light. Although the latter methods have several advantages, many also have prohibitive limitations or have not been adequately studied for use on PD solutions. Thus, in the absence of suitable alternatives, conventional heat sterilization, in combination with low-GDP manufacturing practices, remains the best option at the present time.

  5. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  6. Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emission in Public Welfare Facilities Equipped with PV/Solar Heat/Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Shinichiro; Kemmoku, Yoshishige; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki

    The reduction effect of life cycle CO2 emission is examined in case of introducing a PV/solar heat/cogeneration system into public welfare facilities(hotel and hospital). Life cycle CO2 emission is calculated as the sum of that when operating and that when manufacturing equipments. The system is operated with the dynamic programming method, into which hourly data of electric and heat loads, solar insolation, and atmospheric temperature during a year are input. The proposed system is compared with a conventional system and a cogeneration system. The life cycle CO2 emission of the PV/solar heat/cogeneration system is lower than that of the conventional system by 20% in hotel and by 14% in hospital.

  7. A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.

    PubMed

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (V h ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Precision heat forming of tetrafluoroethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An invention that provides a method of altering the size of tetrafluoroethylene tubing which is only available in limited combination of wall thicknesses and diameter are discussed. The method includes the steps of sliding the tetrafluoroethylene tubing onto an aluminum mandrel and clamping the ends of the tubing to the mandrel by means of clamps. The tetrafluorethylene tubing and mandrel are then placed in a supporting coil which with the mandrel and tetrafluorethylene tubing are then positioned in a insulated steel pipe which is normally covered with a fiber glass insulator to smooth out temperature distribution therein. The entire structure is then placed in an event which heats the tetrafluorethylene tubing which is then shrunk by the heat to the outer dimension of the aluminum mandrel. After cooling the aluminum mandrel is removed from the newly sized tetrafluorethylene tubing by a conventional chemical milling process.

  9. A review of high-speed, convective, heat-transfer computation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide useful engineering formulations and to instill a modest degree of physical understanding of the phenomena governing convective aerodynamic heating at high flight speeds. Some physical insight is not only essential to the application of the information presented here, but also to the effective use of computer codes which may be available to the reader. A discussion is given of cold-wall, laminar boundary layer heating. A brief presentation of the complex boundary layer transition phenomenon follows. Next, cold-wall turbulent boundary layer heating is discussed. This topic is followed by a brief coverage of separated flow-region and shock-interaction heating. A review of heat protection methods follows, including the influence of mass addition on laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Also discussed are a discussion of finite-difference computer codes and a comparison of some results from these codes. An extensive list of references is also provided from sources such as the various AIAA journals and NASA reports which are available in the open literature.

  10. A review of high-speed, convective, heat-transfer computation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to provide useful engineering formulations and to instill a modest degree of physical understanding of the phenomena governing convective aerodynamic heating at high flight speeds. Some physical insight is not only essential to the application of the information presented here, but also to the effective use of computer codes which may be available to the reader. Given first is a discussion of cold-wall, laminar boundary layer heating. A brief presentation of the complex boundary layer transition phenomenon follows. Next, cold-wall turbulent boundary layer heating is discussed. This topic is followed by a brief coverage of separated flow-region and shock-interaction heating. A review of heat protection methods follows, including the influence of mass addition on laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Next is a discussion of finite-difference computer codes and a comparison of some results from these codes. An extensive list of references is also provided from sources such as the various AIAA journals and NASA reports which are available in the open literature.

  11. Development of approximate method to analyze the characteristics of latent heat thermal energy storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, Akira

    1999-07-01

    Third Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3) held in last December in Kyoto urged the industrialized nation to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 5.2 percent (on the average) below 1990 level until the period between 2008 and 2012 (Kyoto protocol). This implies that even for the most advanced countries like the US, Japan, and EU implementation of drastic policies and overcoming many barriers in market should be necessary. One idea which leads to a path of low carbon intensity is to adopt an energy storage concept. One of the reasons thatmore » the efficiency of the conventional energy systems has been relatively low is ascribed to lacking of energy storage subsystem. Most of the past energy systems, for example, air-conditioning system, do not have energy storage part and the system usually operates with low energy efficiency. Firstly, the effect of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions was also examined if the LHTES subsystems were incorporated in all the residential and building air-conditioning systems. Another field of application of the LHTES is of course transportation. Future vehicle will be electric or hybrid vehicle. However, these vehicles will need considerable energy for air-conditioning. The LHTES system will provide enough energy for this purpose by storing nighttime electricity or rejected heat from the radiator or motor. Melting and solidification of phase change material (PCM) in a capsule is of practical importance in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems which are considered to be very promising to reduce a peak demand of electricity in the summer season and also reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Two melting modes are involved in melting in capsules. One is close-contact melting between the solid bulk and the capsule wall, and another is natural convection melting in the liquid (melt) region. Close-contact melting processes for a single enclosure have been solved using

  12. A review of the application of propensity score methods yielded increasing use, advantages in specific settings, but not substantially different estimates compared with conventional multivariable methods

    PubMed Central

    Stürmer, Til; Joshi, Manisha; Glynn, Robert J.; Avorn, Jerry; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Objective Propensity score analyses attempt to control for confounding in non-experimental studies by adjusting for the likelihood that a given patient is exposed. Such analyses have been proposed to address confounding by indication, but there is little empirical evidence that they achieve better control than conventional multivariate outcome modeling. Study design and methods Using PubMed and Science Citation Index, we assessed the use of propensity scores over time and critically evaluated studies published through 2003. Results Use of propensity scores increased from a total of 8 papers before 1998 to 71 in 2003. Most of the 177 published studies abstracted assessed medications (N=60) or surgical interventions (N=51), mainly in cardiology and cardiac surgery (N=90). Whether PS methods or conventional outcome models were used to control for confounding had little effect on results in those studies in which such comparison was possible. Only 9 out of 69 studies (13%) had an effect estimate that differed by more than 20% from that obtained with a conventional outcome model in all PS analyses presented. Conclusions Publication of results based on propensity score methods has increased dramatically, but there is little evidence that these methods yield substantially different estimates compared with conventional multivariable methods. PMID:16632131

  13. Internally Heated Screw Pyrolysis Reactor (IHSPR) heat transfer performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, S. H.; Gan, H. L.; Alias, A.; Gan, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    1.5 billion end-of-life tyres (ELT) were discarded globally each year and pyrolysis is considered the best solution to convert the ELT into valuable high energy-density products. Among all pyrolysis technologies, screw reactor is favourable. However, conventional screw reactor risks plugging issue due to its lacklustre heat transfer performance. An internally heated screw pyrolysis reactor (IHSPR) was developed by local renewable energy industry, which serves as the research subject for heat transfer performance study of this particular paper. Zero-load heating test (ZLHT) was first carried out to obtain the operational parameters of the reactor, followed by the one dimensional steady-state heat transfer analysis carried out using SolidWorks Flow Simulation 2016. Experiments with feed rate manipulations and pyrolysis products analyses were conducted last to conclude the study.

  14. Conventional and fast pyrolysis of automobile shredder residues (ASR).

    PubMed

    Zolezzi, Marcello; Nicolella, Cristiano; Ferrara, Sebastiano; Iacobucci, Cesare; Rovatti, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at comparing performance and product yields in conventional pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis of automotive shredded residues. In both processes, carbon conversion to gaseous and liquid products was more than 80%. Gas production was maximised in conventional pyrolysis (about 35% by weight of the initial ASR weight), while fast pyrolysis led to an oil yield higher than 55%. Higher heating values (HHV) of both conventional pyrolysis gas and fast pyrolysis oil increased from 8.8 to 25.07 MJ/Nm3 and from 28.8 and 36.27 MJ/kg with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An investigation into the effects of conventional heat treatments on mechanical characteristics of new hot working tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, M. L.; Athmani, M.; Khelfaoui, Y.; Khettache, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of conventional heat treatments, i.e. quenching and tempering, on the mechanical characteristics of non standard hot work tool steel, close to either AISI-H11/H13 are investigated. The major elemental composition differences are in carbon, silicon and vanadium. The objective of the carried heat treatments is to obtain an efficient tool performance in terms of hardness, wear resistance and mechanical strength. Experimental results allow an explanation of the surface properties depending mainly on both chemical composition and optimised preheating parameters. After austenitizing at 1050 °C for 15 min, the as-quenched steel in oil bath exhibited the fully martensitic structure (without bainite) connected to a small fraction of retained austenite and complex carbides mainly of M23C6 type. Twice tempering at 500 °C and 600 °C resulted in initiating the precipitation processes and the secondary hardness effect. As a result, carbide content amounted to 3% while the retained austenite content decreased to 0%. Accordingly, the required mechanical properties in terms of hardness and wear are fulfilled and are adequately favourable in handling both shocks and pressures for the expected tool life. Induced microstructures are revealed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Phase compositions are assessed by means of X-ray diffraction technique while mechanical characteristics are investigated based on hardness and abrasive wear standard tests.

  16. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, Douglas L.; Hatfield, Kent E

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internallymore » by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.« less

  17. Conventional forceps or hot biopsy: comparative study of two methods in diagnosis of endobronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Hamidreza; Fakhri, Mohammad; Lotfaliani, Mojtaba; Kiani, Arda

    2013-01-01

    It is suggested that hot electrocoagulation-enabled forceps (hot biopsy) may reduce hemorrhage risk after the biopsy in endobronchial tumors. The main concern in this method is possible reduction of the specimen's quality. To compare the procedure related hemorrhage with hot biopsy and conventional forceps biopsy and the diagnostic quality of the obtained specimens with either technique. In this prospective study, assessment of the biopsy samples and quantity of hemorrhage were done in a blind fashion. At first, for each patient a definite clinical diagnosis was made based on pathologic examination of all available samples, clinical data, and imaging findings. Then, second pathologist reviewed all samples to evaluate the quality of the samples. A total of 36 patients with endobronchial lesions were included in this study. Definite diagnosis was made in 83% of the patients. Diagnostic yield of the two methods were not statistically different, while the mean hemorrhage grades of all hot biopsy protocols were significantly lower as compared to that of conventional biopsy (p=0.003, p<0.001 and p<0.001 for 10,20and40 voltages respectively). No significant difference was detected between the qualities of specimens obtained by hot biopsy methods in comparison with conventional biopsy (p>0.05 for all three voltages). Hot biopsy can be a valuable alternative to forceps biopsy in evaluating endobronchial lesions.

  18. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    DOE PAGES

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; ...

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  19. Comparison of Tooth Color Change After Bleaching With Conventional and Different Light-Activated Methods.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Sima; Assadian, Hadi; Mahmoudi Nahavandi, Alireza; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The demand for esthetic dental treatments is increasing in recent years mainly due to improved oral hygiene and better maintenance of oral health and teeth in older individuals. Bleaching of discolored anterior teeth is the most popular among esthetic dental treatments. Even individuals with sound teeth and adequate esthetics seek to have whiter teeth in the anterior region. The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth color changes following conventional in-office bleaching techniques compared to light-activated methods using different light sources. Methods: Seventy sound anterior teeth (devoided of caries and/or fracture), extracted for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were selected and allocated to 7 groups: (A) control, (B) conventional bleaching (C) LED-activated bleaching, (D) KTP laser-activated bleaching, (E) diode laser-activated bleaching, (F) Nd:YAG laser-activated bleaching and (G) CO2 laser-activated bleaching. Colorimetric evaluation was carried out before and after treatment using a spectrophotoradiometer. Data were analyzed by one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as multiple comparison methods. Results: The results showed that all bleaching procedures were effective in reducing the yellowness index. However, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more effective than the other techniques in 95% confidence level. It was also seen that CO2 laser activated method has outperformed groups E, F and G and the conventional bleaching without light activation was not effective at all and represented similar results with the control group. Furthermore, the groups E and G had almost the same results in decreasing the yellowness index. Conclusion: The results showed that all bleaching techniques were effective however, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more efficient, closely followed by the CO2 laser-activated bleaching technique.

  20. Methods for heat transfer and temperature field analysis of the insulated diesel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, T.; Blumberg, P. N.; Fort, E. F.; Keribar, R.

    1984-01-01

    Work done during phase 1 of a three-year program aimed at developing a comprehensive heat transfer and thermal analysis methodology oriented specifically to the design requirements of insulated diesel engines is reported. The technology developed in this program makes possible a quantitative analysis of the low heat rejection concept. The program is comprehensive in that it addresses all the heat transfer issues that are critical to the successful development of the low heat rejection diesel engine: (1) in-cylinder convective and radiative heat transfer; (2) cyclic transient heat transfer in thin solid layers at component surfaces adjacent to the combustion chamber; and (3) steady-state heat conduction in the overall engine structure. The Integral Technologies, Inc. (ITI) program is comprised of a set of integrated analytical and experimental tasks. A detailed review of the ITI program approach is provided, including the technical issues which underlie it and a summay of the methods that were developed.

  1. [Study on friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramics processed by microwave and conventional sintering methods].

    PubMed

    Guoxin, Hu; Ying, Yang; Yuemei, Jiang; Wenjing, Xia

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the wear of an antagonist and friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramic that was subjected to microwave and conventional sintering methods. Ten specimens were fabricated from Lava brand zirconia and randomly assigned to microwave and conventional sintering groups. A profile tester for surface roughness was used to measure roughness of the specimens. Wear test was performed, and steatite ceramic was used as antagonist. Friction coefficient curves were recorded, and wear volume were calculated. Finally, optical microscope was used to observe the surface morphology of zirconia and steatite ceramics. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure of zirconia. Wear volumes of microwave and conventionally sintered zirconia were (6.940±1.382)×10⁻², (7.952±1.815) ×10⁻² mm³, respectively. Moreover, wear volumes of antagonist after sintering by the considered methods were (14.189±4.745)×10⁻², (15.813±3.481)×10⁻² mm³, correspondingly. Statistically significant difference was not observed in the wear resistance of zirconia and wear volume of steatite ceramic upon exposure to two kinds of sintering methods. Optical microscopy showed that ploughed surfaces were apparent in zirconia. The wear surface of steatite ceramic against had craze, accompanied by plough. Scanning electron microscopy showed that zirconia was sintered compactly when subjected to both conventional sintering and microwave methods, whereas grains of zirconia sintered by microwave alone were smaller and more uniform. Two kinds of sintering methods are successfully used to produce dental zirconia ceramics with similar friction and wear properties.
.

  2. Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida Species: A Comparison of Vitek-2 System with Conventional and Molecular Methods.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Dhakad, Megh Singh; Goyal, Ritu; Haque, Absarul; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2016-01-01

    Candida infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients; an accurate and early identification is a prerequisite need to be taken as an effective measure for the management of patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the conventional identification of Candida species with identification by Vitek-2 system and the antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) by broth microdilution method with Vitek-2 AST system. A total of 172 Candida isolates were subjected for identification by the conventional methods, Vitek-2 system, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. AST was carried out as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 document and by Vitek-2 system. Candida albicans (82.51%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (6.29%), Candida krusei (4.89%), Candida parapsilosis (3.49%), and Candida glabrata (2.79%). With Vitek-2 system, of the 172 isolates, 155 Candida isolates were correctly identified, 13 were misidentified, and four were with low discrimination. Whereas with conventional methods, 171 Candida isolates were correctly identified and only a single isolate of C. albicans was misidentified as C. tropicalis . The average measurement of agreement between the Vitek-2 system and conventional methods was >94%. Most of the isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (88.95%) and amphotericin B (97.67%). The measurement of agreement between the methods of AST was >94% for fluconazole and >99% for amphotericin B, which was statistically significant ( P < 0.01). The study confirmed the importance and reliability of conventional and molecular methods, and the acceptable agreements suggest Vitek-2 system an alternative method for speciation and sensitivity testing of Candida species infections.

  3. The measurement of heats of solution of high melting metallic systems in an electromagnetic levitation field. Ph.D. Thesis - Tech. Univ. Berlin - 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frohberg, M. G.; Betz, G.

    1982-01-01

    A method was tested for measuring the enthalpies of mixing of liquid metallic alloying systems, involving the combination of two samples in the electromagnetic field of an induction coil. The heat of solution is calculated from the pyrometrically measured temperature effect, the heat capacity of the alloy, and the heat content of the added sample. The usefulness of the method was tested experimentally with iron-copper and niobium-silicon systems. This method should be especially applicable to high-melting alloys, for which conventional measurements have failed.

  4. Genetic improvement of olive (Olea europaea L.) by conventional and in vitro biotechnology methods.

    PubMed

    Rugini, E; Cristofori, V; Silvestri, C

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.) traditional methods of genetic improvement have up to now produced limited results. Intensification of olive growing requires appropriate new cultivars for fully mechanized groves, but among the large number of the traditional varieties very few are suitable. High-density and super high-density hedge row orchards require genotypes with reduced size, reduced apical dominance, a semi-erect growth habit, easy to propagate, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, with reliably high productivity and quality of both fruits and oil. Innovative strategies supported by molecular and biotechnological techniques are required to speed up novel hybridisation methods. Among traditional approaches the Gene Pool Method seems a reasonable option, but it requires availability of widely diverse germplasm from both cultivated and wild genotypes, supported by a detailed knowledge of their genetic relationships. The practice of "gene therapy" for the most important existing cultivars, combined with conventional methods, could accelerate achievement of the main goals, but efforts to overcome some technical and ideological obstacles are needed. The present review describes the benefits that olive and its products may obtain from genetic improvement using state of the art of conventional and unconventional methods, and includes progress made in the field of in vitro techniques. The uses of both traditional and modern technologies are discussed with recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal Analysis Methods and Basic Heat-Transfer Data for a Turbulent Heating Flight Experiment at Mach 20 (Reentry F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Floyd G.

    1971-01-01

    A heat-transfer experiment was flight conducted on a 5 deg half-angle cone, 396.2 cm (13 ft) in length, as it entered the sensible atmosphere under laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary-layer conditions at a free-stream Mach number of about 20. Accurate turbulent-heat-transfer data with natural transition were obtained for correlation with theories in regions of simultaneous high Mach number, Reynolds number, enthalpy, and total-to-wall temperature ratio. Temperatures were measured at four depths through the 15.24-mm-thick (0.600-in.) beryllium wall. Experimental heating rates at 20 stations on the cone were determined independently from the outermost temperature measurement and from the temperature measurement at the second depth by a single-thermocouple inverse method and also from the temperature histories at all four depths by an integral method. The thermal data analysis procedure, associated problems, and results are presented herein.

  6. Numerical method of carbon-based material ablation effects on aero-heating for half-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang-Feng; Li, Jia-Wei; Zhao, Fa-Ming; Fan, Xiao-Feng

    2018-05-01

    A numerical method of aerodynamic heating with material thermal ablation effects for hypersonic half-sphere is presented. A surface material ablation model is provided to analyze the ablation effects on aero-thermal properties and structural heat conduction for thermal protection system (TPS) of hypersonic vehicles. To demonstrate its capability, applications for thermal analysis of hypersonic vehicles using carbonaceous ceramic ablators are performed and discussed. The numerical results show the high efficiency and validation of the method developed in thermal characteristics analysis of hypersonic aerodynamic heating.

  7. Impact of heating method on the flocculation process using thermosensitive polymer.

    PubMed

    Lemanowicz, Marcin; Kuźnik, Wojciech; Gibas, Mirosław; Dzido, Grzegorz; Gierczycki, Andrzej

    2012-09-01

    The impact of suspension heating method on the flocculation process using thermosensitive polymer is reported in this paper. In experiments a model suspension of chalk in RO water (purified by Reverse Osmosis) was destabilized using a copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and cationic diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC). The measurements were made using a laboratory setup consisting of a mixing tank with four baffles, Rushton turbine, laser particle sizer Analysette 22 by Fritsch and a system of pump and thermostating devices. Two different modes of heating were used. In the first case the temperature of the system was gently raised above the Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST) using an electrical heater placed inside the tank, while in the second case the system temperature was rapidly raised by an injection of hot water directly into the tank. It was proven that heating method as well as the polymer concentration was crucial to the shape and size of created flocs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  9. A comparison of the finite difference and finite element methods for heat transfer calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, A. F.; Mortazavi, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The finite difference method and finite element method for heat transfer calculations are compared by describing their bases and their application to some common heat transfer problems. In general it is noted that neither method is clearly superior, and in many instances, the choice is quite arbitrary and depends more upon the codes available and upon the personal preference of the analyst than upon any well defined advantages of one method. Classes of problems for which one method or the other is better suited are defined.

  10. Hierarchical equations of motion method applied to nonequilibrium heat transport in model molecular junctions: Transient heat current and high-order moments of the current operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical approach to study nonequilibrium quantum heat transport in molecular junctions described by a spin-boson type model. Based on the Feynman-Vernon path integral influence functional formalism, expressions for the average value and high-order moments of the heat current operators are derived, which are further obtained directly from the auxiliary density operators (ADOs) in the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) method. Distribution of the heat current is then derived from the high-order moments. As the HEOM method is nonperturbative and capable of treating non-Markovian system-environment interactions, the method can be applied to various problems of nonequilibrium quantum heat transport beyond the weak coupling regime.

  11. Isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption on MOFs: comparison between adsorption calorimetry, sorption isosteric method, and analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloutse, A. F.; Zacharia, R.; Cossement, D.; Chahine, R.; Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R.; Oh, H.; Streppel, B.; Schlichtenmayer, M.; Hirscher, M.

    2015-12-01

    Isosteric heat of adsorption is an important parameter required to describe the thermal performance of adsorptive storage systems. It is most frequently calculated from adsorption isotherms measured over wide ranges of pressure and temperature, using the so-called adsorption isosteric method. Direct quantitative estimation of isosteric heats on the other hand is possible using the coupled calorimetric-volumetric method, which involves simultaneous measurement of heat and adsorption. In this work, we compare the isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption on microporous materials measured by both methods. Furthermore, the experimental data are compared with the isosteric heats obtained using the modified Dubinin-Astakhov, Tóth, and Unilan adsorption analytical models to establish the reliability and limitations of simpler methods and assumptions. To this end, we measure the hydrogen isosteric heats on five prototypical metal-organic frameworks: MOF-5, Cu-BTC, Fe-BTC, MIL-53, and MOF-177 using both experimental methods. For all MOFs, we find a very good agreement between the isosteric heats measured using the calorimetric and isosteric methods throughout the range of loading studied. Models' prediction on the other hand deviates from both experiments depending on the MOF studied and the range of loading. Under low-loadings of less than 5 mol kg-1, the isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption decreases in the order Cu-BTC > MIL-53 > MOF-5 > Fe-BTC > MOF-177. The order of isosteric heats is coherent with the strength of hydrogen interaction revealed from previous thermal desorption spectroscopy measurements.

  12. Aerodynamic laser-heated contactless furnace for neutron scattering experiments at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landron, Claude; Hennet, Louis; Coutures, Jean-Pierre; Jenkins, Tudor; Alétru, Chantal; Greaves, Neville; Soper, Alan; Derbyshire, Gareth

    2000-04-01

    Conventional radiative furnaces require sample containment that encourages contamination at elevated temperatures and generally need windows which restrict the entrance and exit solid angles required for diffraction and scattering measurements. We describe a contactless windowless furnace based on aerodynamic levitation and laser heating which has been designed for high temperature neutron scattering experiments. Data from initial experiments are reported for crystalline and amorphous oxides at temperatures up to 1900 °C, using the spallation neutron source ISIS together with our laser-heated aerodynamic levitator. Accurate reproduction of thermal expansion coefficients and radial distribution functions have been obtained, demonstrating the utility of aerodynamic levitation methods for neutron scattering methods.

  13. Design criterion for the heat-transfer coefficient in opposing flow, mixed convention heat transfer in a vertical tube

    SciTech Connect

    Joye, D.D.

    1996-07-01

    Mixed convection heat transfer in a vertical tube with opposing flow (downflow heating) was studied experimentally for Reynolds numbers ranging from about 1,000 to 30,000 at constant Grashof numbers ranging about 1{1/2} orders of magnitude under constant wall temperature (CWT) conditions. Three correlations developed for opposing mixed convection flows in vertical conduits predicted the data reasonably well, except near and into the asymptote region for which these equations were not designed. A critical Reynolds number is developed here, above which these equations can be used for design purposes regardless of the boundary condition. Below Re{sub crit}, the correlations, the asymptotemore » equation should be used for the CWT boundary condition, which is more prevalent in process situations than the uniform heat flux (UHF) boundary condition.« less

  14. Development of a heat-processing method for koji to enhance its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Kayu; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Takamine, Kazunori; Tamaki, Hisanori; Ito, Kiyoshi; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2012-03-01

    We developed a heat-processing method to enhance the antioxidant activity of koji. The superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of heat-processed koji (HP-koji) at 55 °C for 7 days were 4.9 times and 4.2 times, respectively, those of unheated koji. These results showed that heat processing effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of koji. Analysis of the antioxidant activities of koji subjected to a range of temperatures (45-75 °C) revealed that the SOSA is enhanced by heating at higher temperatures, which might be catalyzed by Maillard reaction, whereas the ORAC was enhanced by heating at lower temperatures, which might be catalyzed by an enzymatic reaction. Assuming these enhancements in antioxidant activities are contributed by both Maillard and enzyme reactions, we hypothesized that the antioxidant activity of HP-koji could be more effectively amplified by heating at a higher temperature after the progression of the enzymatic reaction at a moderate temperature. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of heating of koji in a stepwise manner, first at 55 °C for 2 days and then at 75 °C for 5days. The antioxidant activities of stepwise-heated HP-koji were higher than those of koji heated at either 55 °C or 75 °C. The SOSA and ORAC of stepwise-heated HP-koji were 94 times and 6 times, respectively, those of unheated koji. This result suggests that enzymatic reaction followed by Maillard reaction can effectively enhance the antioxidant activity of HP-koji. Thus, we developed a novel heat-processing method to enhance the antioxidant activity of koji. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

  16. Application of the Hilbert space average method on heat conduction models.

    PubMed

    Michel, Mathias; Gemmer, Jochen; Mahler, Günter

    2006-01-01

    We analyze closed one-dimensional chains of weakly coupled many level systems, by means of the so-called Hilbert space average method (HAM). Subject to some concrete conditions on the Hamiltonian of the system, our theory predicts energy diffusion with respect to a coarse-grained description for almost all initial states. Close to the respective equilibrium, we investigate this behavior in terms of heat transport and derive the heat conduction coefficient. Thus, we are able to show that both heat (energy) diffusive behavior as well as Fourier's law follows from and is compatible with a reversible Schrödinger dynamics on the complete level of description.

  17. Analysis and modeling of localized heat generation by tumor-targeted nanoparticles (Monte Carlo methods)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanattalab, Ehsan; SalmanOgli, Ahmad; Piskin, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the tumor-targeted nanoparticles that influence heat generation. We suppose that all nanoparticles are fully functionalized and can find the target using active targeting methods. Unlike the commonly used methods, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the treatment procedure proposed in this study is purely noninvasive, which is considered to be a significant merit. It is found that the localized heat generation due to targeted nanoparticles is significantly higher than other areas. By engineering the optical properties of nanoparticles, including scattering, absorption coefficients, and asymmetry factor (cosine scattering angle), the heat generated in the tumor's area reaches to such critical state that can burn the targeted tumor. The amount of heat generated by inserting smart agents, due to the surface Plasmon resonance, will be remarkably high. The light-matter interactions and trajectory of incident photon upon targeted tissues are simulated by MIE theory and Monte Carlo method, respectively. Monte Carlo method is a statistical one by which we can accurately probe the photon trajectories into a simulation area.

  18. Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for heating and cooling in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimera, Nikoletta

    This report presents the results of a theoretical study about the feasibility of closed loop Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) for heating and cooling in Greece in terms of their impact on the capital and running costs of the building services systems of the buildings. The main aim of carrying out this study was to investigate if the heating and cooling potential of the ground could be utilized cost efficiently to serve the buildings energy demand in the Greek region. At first, an existing implementation of a closed loop GSHP system in Greece is presented and its efficiency is discussed. The aim of doing so was to understand the way of sizing such systems and the efficiency of this technology in Greek climatic and ground conditions. In a separate part of this report, the impact of different user behaviour and of various ways of sizing a GSHP system is investigated in terms of the cost impact of the examined different options as well as of their effect on the internal health and comfort conditions. After the building simulation under different scenarios, it was concluded that the user behavior - the operation of windows mostly - can result in great savings on the annual energy bills. The conclusions of this first part of the report about the user behaviour and the way of sizing GSHP systems were utilized in the next part of it, where a GSHP system is proposed for a building currently under construction in central Greece. A simple 30-year cost analysis was used in order to estimate the performance of the proposed GSHP system in economic terms and to compare it with the conventional HVAC system commonly used in Greece. According to the results of the analysis, the capital cost of installing a GSHP system for heating and cooling in buildings in Greece appears higher than the cost of conventional HVAC systems. More specifically, the capital cost of an installation for heating including gas boilers and a cooling system based on air conditioning split units is about the

  19. An experimental investigation on heat transfer enhancement in the laminar flow of water/TiO2 nanofluid through a tube heat exchanger fitted with modified butterfly inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkitaraj, K. P.; Suresh, S.; Alwin Mathew, T.; Bibin, B. S.; Abraham, Jisa

    2018-03-01

    Nanofluids are advanced heat transfer fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluids such as water, oil etc. This paper reports the experimental study on convective heat transfer characteristics of water based titanium dioxide nanofluids in fully developed flow through a uniformly heated pipe heat exchanger fitted with modified butterfly inserts. Nanofluids are prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles of average particle size 29 nm in deionized water. The heat transfer experiments are performed in laminar regime using nanofluids prepared with 0.1% and 0.3% volume fractions of TiO2 nanoparticles. The thermal performance characteristics of conventional butterfly inserts and modified butterfly inserts are also compared using TiO2 nanofluid. The inserts with different pitches 6 cm, 9 cm and 12 cm are tested to determine the effect of pitch distance of inserts in the heat transfer and friction. The experimental results showed that the modification made in the butterfly inserts were able to produce higher heat transfer than conventional butterfly inserts.

  20. A hybrid microfluidic-vacuum device for direct interfacing with conventional cell culture methods

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bong Geun; Park, Jeong Won; Hu, Jia Sheng; Huang, Carlos; Monuki, Edwin S; Jeon, Noo Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Microfluidics is an enabling technology with a number of advantages over traditional tissue culture methods when precise control of cellular microenvironment is required. However, there are a number of practical and technical limitations that impede wider implementation in routine biomedical research. Specialized equipment and protocols required for fabrication and setting up microfluidic experiments present hurdles for routine use by most biology laboratories. Results We have developed and validated a novel microfluidic device that can directly interface with conventional tissue culture methods to generate and maintain controlled soluble environments in a Petri dish. It incorporates separate sets of fluidic channels and vacuum networks on a single device that allows reversible application of microfluidic gradients onto wet cell culture surfaces. Stable, precise concentration gradients of soluble factors were generated using simple microfluidic channels that were attached to a perfusion system. We successfully demonstrated real-time optical live/dead cell imaging of neural stem cells exposed to a hydrogen peroxide gradient and chemotaxis of metastatic breast cancer cells in a growth factor gradient. Conclusion This paper describes the design and application of a versatile microfluidic device that can directly interface with conventional cell culture methods. This platform provides a simple yet versatile tool for incorporating the advantages of a microfluidic approach to biological assays without changing established tissue culture protocols. PMID:17883868

  1. Counter-extrapolation method for conjugate interfaces in computational heat and mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Le, Guigao; Oulaid, Othmane; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a conjugate interface method is developed by performing extrapolations along the normal direction. Compared to other existing conjugate models, our method has several technical advantages, including the simple and straightforward algorithm, accurate representation of the interface geometry, applicability to any interface-lattice relative orientation, and availability of the normal gradient. The model is validated by simulating the steady and unsteady convection-diffusion system with a flat interface and the steady diffusion system with a circular interface, and good agreement is observed when comparing the lattice Boltzmann results with respective analytical solutions. A more general system with unsteady convection-diffusion process and a curved interface, i.e., the cooling process of a hot cylinder in a cold flow, is also simulated as an example to illustrate the practical usefulness of our model, and the effects of the cylinder heat capacity and thermal diffusivity on the cooling process are examined. Results show that the cylinder with a larger heat capacity can release more heat energy into the fluid and the cylinder temperature cools down slower, while the enhanced heat conduction inside the cylinder can facilitate the cooling process of the system. Although these findings appear obvious from physical principles, the confirming results demonstrates the application potential of our method in more complex systems. In addition, the basic idea and algorithm of the counter-extrapolation procedure presented here can be readily extended to other lattice Boltzmann models and even other computational technologies for heat and mass transfer systems.

  2. Heat rejection efficiency research of new energy automobile radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W. S.; Shen, W. X.; Zhang, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    The driving system of new energy vehicle has larger heat load than conventional engine. How to ensure the heat dissipation performance of the cooling system is the focus of the design of new energy vehicle thermal management system. In this paper, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the hybrid electric vehicle is taken as the research object, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the new energy vehicle is studied through the multi-working-condition enthalpy difference test. In this paper, the test method in the current standard QC/T 468-2010 “automobile radiator” is taken, but not limited to the test conditions specified in the standard, 5 types of automobile radiator are chosen, each of them is tested 20 times in simulated condition of different wind speed and engine inlet temperature. Finally, regression analysis is carried out for the test results, and regression equation describing the relationship of radiator heat dissipation heat dissipation efficiency air side flow rate cooling medium velocity and inlet air temperature is obtained, and the influence rule is systematically discussed.

  3. Effect of Heat Generation of Ultrasound Transducer on Ultrasonic Power Measured by Calorimetric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Takeyoshi; Kikuchi, Tsuneo

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonic power is one of the key quantities closely related to the safety of medical ultrasonic equipment. An ultrasonic power standard is required for establishment of safety. Generally, an ultrasonic power standard below approximately 20 W is established by the radiation force balance (RFB) method as the most accurate measurement method. However, RFB is not suitable for high ultrasonic power because of thermal damage to the absorbing target. Consequently, an alternative method to RFB is required. We have been developing a measurement technique for high ultrasonic power by the calorimetric method. In this study, we examined the effect of heat generation of an ultrasound transducer on ultrasonic power measured by the calorimetric method. As a result, an excessively high ultrasonic power was measured owing to the effect of heat generation from internal loss in the transducer. A reference ultrasound transducer with low heat generation is required for a high ultrasonic power standard established by the calorimetric method.

  4. Flexible heating head for induction heating apparatus and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coultrip, Robert H.; Copeland, Carl E.; Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D., Jr.; Phillips, W. Morris; Buckley, John D.

    1991-10-01

    An induction heating head includes: a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil; a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit; and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively heated.

  5. Flexible heating head for induction heating apparatus and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1991-10-01

    An induction heating head includes a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil, a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit, and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively heated.

  6. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  7. Effects of different CMV-heat-inactivation-methods on growth factors in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Goelz, Rangmar; Hihn, Eva; Hamprecht, Klaus; Dietz, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard; Poets, Christian; Elmlinger, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers' raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically. Insulin-like-growth-factor-1-, IGF-2-, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-, and IGFBP-3-concentrations were measured, before and after heating, in 51 breast-milk-samples from 28 mothers, and epidermal-growth-factor-concentrations in a subgroup of 35 samples from 22 mothers. Two heating methods were applied: Short-term (5 s) pasteurisation at 62, 65, and 72 degrees C, and long-term Holder-Pasteurisation (30 min) at 63 degrees C. IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured by RIA, and EGF by ELISA. Heating for 30 min decreased significantly IGF-1 by 39.4%, IGF-2 by 9.9%, IGFBP-2 by 19.1%, and IGFBP-3 by 7.0%. In contrast, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were not altered significantly when using a short heating duration of 5 s, irrespective of the level of temperature, except for IGF-2 at 62 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.041) and IGFBP-2 at 72 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.025). Neither long- nor short-time heating methods changed the concentration of EGF. Only short heating methods (5 s, 62-72 degrees C) can preserve, almost completely, the concentrations of IGFs in human milk, whereas Holder-Pasteurization does not.

  8. Optimal design approach for heating irregular-shaped objects in three-dimensional radiant furnaces using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishvand, Leila; Kamkari, Babak; Kowsary, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a new hybrid method based on the combination of the genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to optimize the design of three-dimensional (3-D) radiant furnaces. A 3-D irregular shape design body (DB) heated inside a 3-D radiant furnace is considered as a case study. The uniform thermal conditions on the DB surfaces are obtained by minimizing an objective function. An ANN is developed to predict the objective function value which is trained through the data produced by applying the Monte Carlo method. The trained ANN is used in conjunction with the GA to find the optimal design variables. The results show that the computational time using the GA-ANN approach is significantly less than that of the conventional method. It is concluded that the integration of the ANN with GA is an efficient technique for optimization of the radiant furnaces.

  9. Computational Evaluation of a Latent Heat Energy Storage System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    alternative to conventional photovoltaic panels paired with electrochemical batteries , has at the core of its design a latent heat based energy...The proposed system, an alternative to conventional photovoltaic panels paired with electrochemical batteries , has at the core of its design a latent...somewhat for certain niches in which material cost is less of a concern. Current latent heat storage systems typically use paraffin compounds or salt

  10. Modified Laser Flash Method for Thermal Properties Measurements and the Influence of Heat Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Zhu, Shen; Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the effect of natural convection in applying the modified laser flash method to measure thermal properties of semiconductor melts. Common laser flash method uses a laser pulse to heat one side of a thin circular sample and measures the temperature response of the other side. Thermal diffusivity can be calculations based on a heat conduction analysis. For semiconductor melt, the sample is contained in a specially designed quartz cell with optical windows on both sides. When laser heats the vertical melt surface, the resulting natural convection can introduce errors in calculation based on heat conduction model alone. The effect of natural convection was studied by CFD simulations with experimental verification by temperature measurement. The CFD results indicated that natural convection would decrease the time needed for the rear side to reach its peak temperature, and also decrease the peak temperature slightly in our experimental configuration. Using the experimental data, the calculation using only heat conduction model resulted in a thermal diffusivity value is about 7.7% lower than that from the model with natural convection. Specific heat capacity was about the same, and the difference is within 1.6%, regardless of heat transfer models.

  11. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, R.C.; Zelipsky, S.A.; Rezmer, R.R.; Smelser, P.

    1980-10-29

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  12. Solar heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, R. D.; Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar energy has been used for space heating and water heating for many years. A less common application, although technically feasible, is solar cooling. This paper describes the techniques employed in the heating and cooling of buildings, and in water heating. The potential for solar energy to displace conventional energy sources is discussed. Water heating for new apartments appears to have some features which could make it a place to begin the resurgence of solar energy applications in the United States. A project to investigate apartment solar water heating, currently in the pilot plant construction phase, is described.

  13. A Method for Calculating Transient Surface Temperatures and Surface Heating Rates for High-Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Robert D.; Gong, Leslie

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a method that can calculate transient aerodynamic heating and transient surface temperatures at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. This method can rapidly calculate temperature and heating rate time-histories for complete flight trajectories. Semi-empirical theories are used to calculate laminar and turbulent heat transfer coefficients and a procedure for estimating boundary-layer transition is included. Results from this method are compared with flight data from the X-15 research vehicle, YF-12 airplane, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. These comparisons show that the calculated values are in good agreement with the measured flight data.

  14. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods for obtaining quadrant dental impressions.

    PubMed

    Ender, Andreas; Zimmermann, Moritz; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Quadrant impressions are commonly used as alternative to full-arch impressions. Digital impression systems provide the ability to take these impressions very quickly; however, few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo. The aim of this study is to assess the precision of digital quadrant impressions in vivo in comparison to conventional impression techniques. Impressions were obtained via two conventional (metal full-arch tray, CI, and triple tray, T-Tray) and seven digital impression systems (Lava True Definition Scanner, T-Def; Lava Chairside Oral Scanner, COS; Cadent iTero, ITE; 3Shape Trios, TRI; 3Shape Trios Color, TRC; CEREC Bluecam, Software 4.0, BC4.0; CEREC Bluecam, Software 4.2, BC4.2; and CEREC Omnicam, OC). Impressions were taken three times for each of five subjects (n = 15). The impressions were then superimposed within the test groups. Differences from model surfaces were measured using a normal surface distance method. Precision was calculated using the Perc90_10 value. The values for all test groups were statistically compared. The precision ranged from 18.8 (CI) to 58.5 μm (T-Tray), with the highest precision in the CI, T-Def, BC4.0, TRC, and TRI groups. The deviation pattern varied distinctly depending on the impression method. Impression systems with single-shot capture exhibited greater deviations at the tooth surface whereas high-frame rate impression systems differed more in gingival areas. Triple tray impressions displayed higher local deviation at the occlusal contact areas of upper and lower jaw. Digital quadrant impression methods achieve a level of precision, comparable to conventional impression techniques. However, there are significant differences in terms of absolute values and deviation pattern. With all tested digital impression systems, time efficient capturing of quadrant impressions is possible. The clinical precision of digital quadrant impression models is sufficient to cover a broad variety of

  15. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reactionmore » wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5« less

  17. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  18. Characterization of HEM silicon for solar cells. [Heat Exchanger Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A.; Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1981-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) is a promising low-cost ingot casting process for material used for solar cells. This is the only method that is capable of casting single crystal ingots with a square cross section using a directional solidification technique. This paper describes the chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the HEM silicon material as a function of position within the ingot.

  19. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model tomore » simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.« less

  20. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  1. A quantification method for heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers and its application on 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigast, Maria; Mutzel, Anke; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2017-03-01

    Methylglyoxal forms oligomeric compounds in the atmospheric aqueous particle phase, which could establish a significant contribution to the formation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). Thus far, no suitable method for the quantification of methylglyoxal oligomers is available despite the great effort spent for structure elucidation. In the present study a simplified method was developed to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers as a sum parameter. The method is based on the thermal decomposition of oligomers into methylglyoxal monomers. Formed methylglyoxal monomers were detected using PFBHA (o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride) derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The method development was focused on the heating time (varied between 15 and 48 h), pH during the heating process (pH = 1-7), and heating temperature (50, 100 °C). The optimised values of these method parameters are presented. The developed method was applied to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers formed during the OH-radical oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) in the Leipzig aerosol chamber (LEipziger AerosolKammer, LEAK). Oligomer formation was investigated as a function of seed particle acidity and relative humidity. A fraction of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers of up to 8 % in the produced organic particle mass was found, highlighting the importance of those oligomers formed solely by methylglyoxal for SOA formation. Overall, the present study provides a new and suitable method for quantification of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers in the aqueous particle phase.

  2. GPU accelerated study of heat transfer and fluid flow by lattice Boltzmann method on CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qinlong

    Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been developed as a powerful numerical approach to simulate the complex fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena during the past two decades. As a mesoscale method based on the kinetic theory, LBM has several advantages compared with traditional numerical methods such as physical representation of microscopic interactions, dealing with complex geometries and highly parallel nature. Lattice Boltzmann method has been applied to solve various fluid behaviors and heat transfer process like conjugate heat transfer, magnetic and electric field, diffusion and mixing process, chemical reactions, multiphase flow, phase change process, non-isothermal flow in porous medium, microfluidics, fluid-structure interactions in biological system and so on. In addition, as a non-body-conformal grid method, the immersed boundary method (IBM) could be applied to handle the complex or moving geometries in the domain. The immersed boundary method could be coupled with lattice Boltzmann method to study the heat transfer and fluid flow problems. Heat transfer and fluid flow are solved on Euler nodes by LBM while the complex solid geometries are captured by Lagrangian nodes using immersed boundary method. Parallel computing has been a popular topic for many decades to accelerate the computational speed in engineering and scientific fields. Today, almost all the laptop and desktop have central processing units (CPUs) with multiple cores which could be used for parallel computing. However, the cost of CPUs with hundreds of cores is still high which limits its capability of high performance computing on personal computer. Graphic processing units (GPU) is originally used for the computer video cards have been emerged as the most powerful high-performance workstation in recent years. Unlike the CPUs, the cost of GPU with thousands of cores is cheap. For example, the GPU (GeForce GTX TITAN) which is used in the current work has 2688 cores and the price is only 1

  3. Sensory perception of meat from entire male pigs processed by different heating methods.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Irene; Garrido, Ma Dolores; Egea, Macarena; Díaz, Pedro; Álvarez, Daniel; Oliver, Ma Angeles; Linares, Ma Belén

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of androstenone in pork from entire male pigs with different androstenone levels (High≥2mgkg -1 ; Medium 0.5-0.7mgkg -1 ) applying four different heating methods (vacuum, grill, oven and frying). Androstenone (AND) perception was analysed during and after cooking by a trained panel. During cooking, the highest score for AND odour (greatest perception) was obtained with the grill and vacuum, while frying was the best option for reducing its perception, which was judged to be imperceptible for androstenone medium level (P<0.05). In cooked samples, there were level, heating method and its interaction effects for AND odour and flavour, meat flavour, juiciness and hardness (P<0.05). The samples treated by vacuum and frying had a proper texture profile. However the frying method provided the lowest score in AND perception, making it the best option for reducing both AND odour and flavour. In short, the use of different heating methods strongly affected AND perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A practical solar energy heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, M. J.; Mcdanal, A. J.; Sims, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Recent study has concluded that solar-powered residential heating and cooling system is non technically and economically feasible. Proposed system provides space heating, air conditioning, and hot water. Installation costs will be greater than for conventional heating systems, but this difference will eventually be defrayed by very low operating costs.

  5. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  6. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrois, R. T.; Mathur, A. K.

    1980-04-01

    Five tasks to select, design, fabricate, test and evaluate candidate active heat exchanger modules for future applications to solar and conventional utility power plants were discussed. Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion phase change materials (PCMs) in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C. Twenty-six heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were selected for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell heat exchanger and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over 50 candidate inorganic salt mixtures. Based on a salt screening process, eight major component salts were selected initially for further evaluation. The most attractive major components in the temperature range of 250 to 350 C appeared to be NaNO3, NaNO2, and NaOH. Sketches of the two active heat exchange concepts selected for test are given.

  7. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  8. Combined Natural Gas and Solar Technologies for Heating and Cooling in the City of NIS in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanović, Velimir P.; Bojić, Milorad Lj.

    2010-06-01

    The use of conventional systems for heat and electricity production in Niš and Serbia means a constant waste of energy, and money. This problem is present in both industrial and public sector. Using conventional systems, means not only low-energy efficient systems, and technologies, but also using very "dirty" technologies, which cause heavy environment pollution. The lack of electricity in our country, and region is also present. The gas pipeline in Niš was finished not long ago, and second gas pipeline is about to be made in the next couple of years. This opens a door for implementing new technologies and the use of new methods for production of heat and electricity, while preserving our environment. This paper reports discussion of this technology with management of public institutions, which use both heat and electricity.

  9. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    DOEpatents

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  10. Estimation of the effective heating systems radius as a method of the reliability improving and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetova, I. G.; Chichirova, N. D.

    2017-11-01

    When conducting an energy survey of heat supply enterprise operating several boilers located not far from each other, it is advisable to assess the degree of heat supply efficiency from individual boiler, the possibility of energy consumption reducing in the whole enterprise by switching consumers to a more efficient source, to close in effective boilers. It is necessary to consider the temporal dynamics of perspective load connection, conditions in the market changes. To solve this problem the radius calculation of the effective heat supply from the thermal energy source can be used. The disadvantage of existing methods is the high complexity, the need to collect large amounts of source data and conduct a significant amount of computational efforts. When conducting an energy survey of heat supply enterprise operating a large number of thermal energy sources, rapid assessment of the magnitude of the effective heating radius requires. Taking into account the specifics of conduct and objectives of the energy survey method of calculation of effective heating systems radius, to use while conducting the energy audit should be based on data available heat supply organization in open access, minimize efforts, but the result should be to match the results obtained by other methods. To determine the efficiency radius of Kazan heat supply system were determined share of cost for generation and transmission of thermal energy, capital investment to connect new consumers. The result were compared with the values obtained with the previously known methods. The suggested Express-method allows to determine the effective radius of the centralized heat supply from heat sources, in conducting energy audits with the effort minimum and the required accuracy.

  11. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology.

    PubMed

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, Br

    2012-01-01

    The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol-formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the 'z test' was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ(2)test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method.

  12. [Translucency of dental zirconia ceramics sintered in conventional and microwave ovens].

    PubMed

    Yuemei, Jiang; Ying, Yang; Wenhui, Zhan; Guoxin, Hu; Qiuxia, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of microwave sintering on the translucency of zirconia and to compare these effect with those of conventional sintering. The relationship between the microstructure of specimens and translucency was investigated. A total of 10 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from 2 commercial brands of zirconia, namely, Zenostar and Lava. Each group included 5 discs. Conventional sintering was performed according to the manufacturers' specifications. The maximum temperature for Zenostar was 1,490 °C, whereas that for Lava was 1,500 °C. The dwelling time was 2 h. The sintering temperature for microwave sintering was 1,420 °C, heating rate was 15 °C · min⁻¹, and dwelling time was 30 min. After sintering, the translucency parameter (TP) of the specimens were measured with ShadeEye NCC. The sintered density of the specimens was determined by Archimedes' method. The grain size and microstructure of the specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Density and translucency slightly increased by microwave sintering, but no significant difference was found between microwave and conventional sintering (P > 0.05). Small and uniform microstructure were obtained from microwave sintering. The mean TP of Lava was significantly higher than that of Zenostar (P < 0.001). The translucency of zirconia sintered by microwave sintering is similar to that of the zirconia sintered by conventional sintering.

  13. High heat flux loop heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Mark T.; Sarraf, David B.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Maidanik, Yuri F.; Vershinin, Sergey

    1997-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) can transport very large thermal power loads, over long distances, through flexible, small diameter tubes and against high gravitational heads. While recent LHPs have transported as much as 1500 W, the peak heat flux through a LHP's evaporator has been limited to about 0.07 MW/m2. This limitation is due to the arrangement of vapor passages next to the heat load which is one of the conditions necessary to ensure self priming of the device. This paper describes work aimed at raising this limit by threefold to tenfold. Two approaches were pursued. One optimized the vapor passage geometry for the high heat flux conditions. The geometry improved the heat flow into the wick and working fluid. This approach also employed a finer pored wick to support higher vapor flow losses. The second approach used a bidisperse wick material within the circumferential vapor passages. The bidisperse material increased the thermal conductivity and the evaporative surface area in the region of highest heat flux, while providing a flow path for the vapor. Proof-of-concept devices were fabricated and tested for each approach. Both devices operated as designed and both demonstrated operation at a heat flux of 0.70 MW/m2. This performance exceeded the known state of the art by a factor of more than six for both conventional heat pipes and for loop heat pipes using ammonia. In addition, the bidisperse-wick device demonstrated boiling heat transfer coefficients up to 100,000 W/m2.K, and the fine pored device demonstrated an orientation independence with its performance essentially unaffected by whether its evaporator was positioned above, below or level with the condenser.

  14. Study on ABO and RhD blood grouping: Comparison between conventional tile method and a new solid phase method (InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit).

    PubMed

    Yousuf, R; Abdul Ghani, S A; Abdul Khalid, N; Leong, C F

    2018-04-01

    'InTec Blood Grouping Test kit' using solid-phase technology is a new method which may be used at outdoor blood donation site or at bed side as an alternative to the conventional tile method in view of its stability at room temperature and fulfilled the criteria as point of care test. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of this solid phase method (InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit) with the conventional tile method in determining the ABO and RhD blood group of healthy donors. A total of 760 voluntary donors who attended the Blood Bank, Penang Hospital or offsite blood donation campaigns from April to May 2014 were recruited. The ABO and RhD blood groups were determined by the conventional tile method and the solid phase method, in which the tube method was used as the gold standard. For ABO blood grouping, the tile method has shown 100% concordance results with the gold standard tube method, whereas the solid-phase method only showed concordance result for 754/760 samples (99.2%). Therefore, for ABO grouping, tile method has 100% sensitivity and specificity while the solid phase method has slightly lower sensitivity of 97.7% but both with good specificity of 100%. For RhD grouping, both the tile and solid phase methods have grouped one RhD positive specimen as negative each, thus giving the sensitivity and specificity of 99.9% and 100% for both methods respectively. The 'InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit' is suitable for offsite usage because of its simplicity and user friendliness. However, further improvement in adding the internal quality control may increase the test sensitivity and validity of the test results.

  15. Studying the effect of microwave heating on the digestion process and identification of proteins.

    PubMed

    Devi, Shobha; Wu, Bo-Hung; Chu, Pei-Yu; Liu, Yue-Pei; Wu, Hsin-Lin; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2017-02-01

    The impact of microwave irradiation on the in-solution digestion processes and the detection limit of proteins are systematically studied. Kinetic processes of many peptides produced through the trypsin digestion of various proteins under microwave heating at 50°C were investigated with MALDI-MS. This study also examines the detection limits and digestion completeness of individual proteins under microwave heating at 50°C and at different time intervals (1, 5 and 30 min) using LC-MS. We conclude that if the peptides without missed cleavage dictate the detection limit, conventional digestion will lead to a better detection limit. The detection limit may not differ between the microwave and conventional heating if the peptides with missed cleavage sites and strong intensity are formed at the very early stage (i.e., less than 1 min) and are not further digested throughout the entire digestion process. The digestion of Escherichia coli lysate was compared under conventional and short time (microwave) conditions. The number of proteins identified under conventional heating exceeded that obtained from microwave heating over heating periods less than 5 min. The overall results show that the microwave-assisted digestion is not complete. Although the sequence coverage might be better, the detection limit might be worse than that under conventional heating. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Teaching Dental Students to Understand the Temporomandibular Joint Using MRI: Comparison of Conventional and Digital Learning Methods.

    PubMed

    Arús, Nádia A; da Silva, Átila M; Duarte, Rogério; da Silveira, Priscila F; Vizzotto, Mariana B; da Silveira, Heraldo L D; da Silveira, Heloisa E D

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the performance of dental students in interpreting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using two learning methods (conventional and digital interactive learning) and to examine the usability of the digital learning object (DLO). The DLO consisted of tutorials about MRI and anatomic and functional aspects of the TMJ. In 2014, dental students in their final year of study who were enrolled in the elective "MRI Interpretation of the TMJ" course comprised the study sample. After exclusions for nonattendance and other reasons, 29 of the initial 37 students participated in the study, for a participation rate of 78%. The participants were divided into two groups: a digital interactive learning group (n=14) and a conventional learning group (n=15). Both methods were assessed by an objective test applied before and after training and classes. Aspects such as support and training requirements, complexity, and consistency of the DLO were also evaluated using the System Usability Scale (SUS). A significant between-group difference in the posttest results was found, with the conventional learning group scoring better than the DLO group, indicated by mean scores of 9.20 and 8.11, respectively, out of 10. However, when the pretest and posttest results were compared, both groups showed significantly improved performance. The SUS score was 89, which represented a high acceptance of the DLO by the users. The students who used the conventional method of learning showed superior performance in interpreting the TMJ using MRI compared to the group that used digital interactive learning.

  17. Ground-water heat pumps: An examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use. Volume 1: Main text, appendices A, B, and C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, D. M.; Bacon, D. J.; Massey-Norton, J. T.; Miller, J. M.

    1980-11-01

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low temperature energy source in residential space conditioning applications. When used in conjunction with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source and a heat sink. Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life expectancy of the water side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and federal levels. Computer simulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  18. Clinical effect of individualized parenteral nutrition vs conventional method in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli-Ardakani, M; Neman, B; Mehdizadeh, M; Hajifathali, A; Salamzadeh, J; Tabarraee, M

    2013-07-01

    Malnutrition in patients undergoing hematopoietic SCT is known as a risk factor for adverse effects and is directly or indirectly responsible for excess mortality and morbidity. We designed the present study to evaluate the effects of individualized parenteral nutrition (PN) and compare the present method to the conventional PN. Individualized PN based on the Harris-Benedict equation was administered to 30 patients after hematopoietic SCT and was compared with an age, gender and disease matched group of patients who underwent hematopoietic SCT with conventional PN. These two groups were compared on clinical, hematological, nutritional outcomes. Comparing duration of hospital stay (P value<0.0001), infection (P value = 0.01), time to platelet engraftment (P value = 0.02), units of packed cell transfusion (P value = 0.006) and decrease in body weight (P value = 0.004) showed significant differences between the two groups. In conclusion, the use of individualized PN seems more beneficial than conventional PN.

  19. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  20. Extension of a coarse grained particle method to simulate heat transfer in fluidized beds

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Liqiang; Morris, Aaron; Li, Tingwen; ...

    2017-04-18

    The heat transfer in a gas-solids fluidized bed is simulated with computational fluid dynamic-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) and coarse grained particle method (CGPM). In CGPM fewer numerical particles and their collisions are tracked by lumping several real particles into a computational parcel. Here, the assumption is that the real particles inside a coarse grained particle (CGP) are made from same species and share identical physical properties including density, diameter and temperature. The parcel-fluid convection term in CGPM is calculated using the same method as in DEM. For all other heat transfer mechanisms, we derive in this study mathematical expressions thatmore » relate the new heat transfer terms for CGPM to those traditionally derived in DEM. This newly derived CGPM model is verified and validated by comparing the results with CFD-DEM simulation results and experiment data. The numerical results compare well with experimental data for both hydrodynamics and temperature profiles. Finally, the proposed CGPM model can be used for fast and accurate simulations of heat transfer in large scale gas-solids fluidized beds.« less

  1. Extension of a coarse grained particle method to simulate heat transfer in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Liqiang; Morris, Aaron; Li, Tingwen

    The heat transfer in a gas-solids fluidized bed is simulated with computational fluid dynamic-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) and coarse grained particle method (CGPM). In CGPM fewer numerical particles and their collisions are tracked by lumping several real particles into a computational parcel. Here, the assumption is that the real particles inside a coarse grained particle (CGP) are made from same species and share identical physical properties including density, diameter and temperature. The parcel-fluid convection term in CGPM is calculated using the same method as in DEM. For all other heat transfer mechanisms, we derive in this study mathematical expressions thatmore » relate the new heat transfer terms for CGPM to those traditionally derived in DEM. This newly derived CGPM model is verified and validated by comparing the results with CFD-DEM simulation results and experiment data. The numerical results compare well with experimental data for both hydrodynamics and temperature profiles. Finally, the proposed CGPM model can be used for fast and accurate simulations of heat transfer in large scale gas-solids fluidized beds.« less

  2. The Improvement of Utilization Ratio of Metal Organic Sources for the Low Cost Preparation of MOCVD-synthesized YBCO Films based on a Self-heating Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruipeng; Liu, Qing; Xia, Yudong; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong

    2017-12-01

    We have successfully applied metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to synthesize biaxially textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) superconducting films on the templates of LaMnO3/epitaxial MgO/IBAD-MgO/solution deposition planarization (SDP) Y2O3/Hastelloy tape. The YBCO films have obtained dense and smooth surface with good structure and performance. A new self-heating method, which replaced the conventional heating-wire radiation heating method, has been used to heat the Hastelloy metal tapes by us. Compared with the heating-wire radiation heating method, the self-heating method shows higher energy efficiency and lower power consumption, which has good advantage to simplify the structure of the MOCVD system. Meanwhile, the utilization ratio of metal organic sources can be increased from 6% to 20% through adopting the new self-heating method. Then the preparation cost of the YBCO films can be also greatly reduced.

  3. Tensile and shear bond strength of hard and soft denture relining materials to the conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin: An In-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mayank; Amarnath, G S; Muddugangadhar, B C; Swetha, M U; Das, Kopal Anshuraj Ashok Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The condition of the denture bearing tissues may be adversely affected by high stress concentration during function. Chairside Denture (Hard and Soft) reliners are used to distribute forces applied to soft tissues during function. Tensile and shear bond strength has been shown to be dependent on their chemical composition. A weak bond could harbor bacteria, promote staining and delamination of the lining material. To investigate tensile and shear bond strength of 4 different commercially available denture relining materials to conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin. 4 mm sections in the middle of 160 Acrylic cylindrical specimens (20 mm x 8 mm) were removed, packed with test materials (Mollosil, G C Reline Soft, G C Reline Hard (Kooliner) and Ufi Gel Hard and polymerized. Specimens were divided into 8 groups of 20 each. Tensile and shear bond strength to the conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin were examined by Instron Universal Tensile Testing Machine using the equation F=N/A (F-maximum force exerted on the specimen (Newton) and A-bonding area= 50.24 mm2). One-way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Bonferroni Test and Hsu's MCB for multiple pairwise comparisons to asses any significant differences between the groups. The highest mean Tensile bond strength value was obtained for Ufi Gel Hard (6.49+0.08 MPa) and lowest for G C Reline Soft (0.52+0.01 MPa). The highest mean Shear bond strength value was obtained for Ufi Gel Hard (16.19+0.1 MPa) and lowest for Mollosil (0.59+0.05 MPa). The Benferroni test showed a significant difference in the mean tensile bond strength and the mean shear bond strength when the two denture soft liners were compared as well as when the two denture hard liners were compared. Hsu's MCB implied that Ufi gel hard is better than its other closest competitors. The Tensile and Shear bond strength values of denture soft reliners were significantly lower than denture hard reliners. How to cite the

  4. Robotic Assistance Enables Inexperienced Surgeons to Perform Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasties on Dry Bone Models with Accuracy Superior to Conventional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Masjedi, Milad; Andrews, Barry; Cobb, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Robotic systems have been shown to improve unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) component placement accuracy compared to conventional methods when used by experienced surgeons. We aimed to determine whether inexperienced UKA surgeons can position components accurately using robotic assistance when compared to conventional methods and to demonstrate the effect repetition has on accuracy. Sixteen surgeons were randomised to an active constraint robot or conventional group performing three UKAs over three weeks. Implanted component positions and orientations were compared to planned component positions in six degrees of freedom for both femoral and tibial components. Mean procedure time decreased for both robot (37.5 mins to 25.7 mins) (P = 0.002) and conventional (33.8 mins to 21.0 mins) (P = 0.002) groups by attempt three indicating the presence of a learning curve; however, neither group demonstrated changes in accuracy. Mean compound rotational and translational errors were lower in the robot group compared to the conventional group for both components at all attempts for which rotational error differences were significant at every attempt. The conventional group's positioning remained inaccurate even with repeated attempts although procedure time improved. In comparison, by limiting inaccuracies inherent in conventional equipment, robotic assistance enabled surgeons to achieve precision and accuracy when positioning UKA components irrespective of their experience. PMID:23862069

  5. Finite-element reentry heat-transfer analysis of space shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Quinn, Robert D.; Gong, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite-element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat-transfer analysis of the space shuttle orbiter subjected to reentry aerodynamic heating. Three wing cross sections and one midfuselage cross section were selected for the thermal analysis. The predicted thermal protection system temperatures were found to agree well with flight-measured temperatures. The calculated aluminum structural temperatures also agreed reasonably well with the flight data from reentry to touchdown. The effects of internal radiation and of internal convection were found to be significant. The SPAR finite-element solutions agreed reasonably well with those obtained from the conventional finite-difference method.

  6. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  7. Radiofrequency Electric Field Heating of Conductive Media: Understanding Aqueous and Nanoparticle Heating Mechanisms and a Method for Heating Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Nadia Chantal

    Use of radiofrequency (RF) electric fields coupled with nanoparticles to enhance non-invasive hyperthermia in cancer cells and tumors sparked debate over the RF heating mechanisms of nanoparticles and the role of salts in heating. Under RF field exposure at 13.56 MHz, aqueous systems including electrolyte solutions, buffers, and blood, were shown to heat according to bulk material properties, regardless of composition. This universal aqueous heating behavior extended to suspensions of nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles, full-length and ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes, and water-soluble fullerene derivatives. These suspensions displayed the same RF heating properties as saline solutions of the same conductivity, indicating that these nanoparticles themselves do not contribute to RF heating by any unique mechanism; rather, they modulate bulk conductivity, which in turn affects bulk RF heating. At 13.56 MHz, peak heating for an aqueous system occurs at a conductivity of 0.06 S/m, beyond which increases in conductivity result in reduced heating rates. Biologically relevant materials, such as blood, intra- and extracellular fluids, and most human tissues, exceed this peak heating conductivity, precluding the use of conductive materials for RF heating rate enhancement. Instead, kosmotropic or water-structuring materials, including sugars, glycols, zwitterionic molecules, and a water-soluble fullerene derivative, when added to blood or phosphate buffered saline reduced the bulk conductivity of these materials and enhanced their heating rates accordingly. A dielectric heating rate model taking into account the geometry of the sample under RF exposure was used to explain the experimental RF heating behavior of aqueous solutions and semi-aqueous materials, which generated distinct RF heating curves due to differences in bulk dielectric and physical properties.

  8. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, BR

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol–formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ‘z test’ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ2test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method. PMID:22438610

  9. Effect of radiant heat on conventional glass ionomer cements during setting by using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm).

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of radiant heat on surface hardness of three conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) by using a blue diode laser system (445 nm) and a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. Additionally, the safety of the laser treatment was evaluated. Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared of each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: group 1 was the control group of the study; in group 2, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit; and in group 3, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments, with both laser and LED devices, increased surface hardness (p < 0.05) but in different extent. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment. There were no alterations in surface morphology or chemical composition after laser treatment. The tested radiant heat treatment with a blue diode laser may be advantageous for the longevity of GIC restorations. The safety of the use of blue diode laser for this application was confirmed.

  10. Invisibility problem in acoustics, electromagnetism and heat transfer. Inverse design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, G.; Tokhtina, A.; Soboleva, O.

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches (direct design and inverse design methods) for solving problems of designing devices providing invisibility of material bodies of detection using different physical fields - electromagnetic, acoustic and static are discussed. The second method is applied for solving problems of designing cloaking devices for the 3D stationary thermal scattering model. Based on this method the design problems under study are reduced to respective control problems. The material parameters (radial and tangential heat conductivities) of the inhomogeneous anisotropic medium filling the thermal cloak and the density of auxiliary heat sources play the role of controls. A unique solvability of direct thermal scattering problem in the Sobolev space is proved and the new estimates of solutions are established. Using these results, the solvability of control problem is proved and the optimality system is derived. Based on analysis of optimality system, the stability estimates of optimal solutions are established and numerical algorithms for solving particular thermal cloaking problem are proposed.

  11. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOEpatents

    Garrison, Melton E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  12. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOEpatents

    Garrison, M.E.

    1982-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  13. Reinforcing the role of the conventional C-arm - a novel method for simplified distal interlocking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The common practice for insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails is a freehand technique under fluoroscopic control. The process is technically demanding, time-consuming and afflicted to considerable radiation exposure of the patient and the surgical personnel. A new concept is introduced utilizing information from within conventional radiographic images to help accurately guide the surgeon to place the interlocking bolt into the interlocking hole. The newly developed technique was compared to conventional freehand in an operating room (OR) like setting on human cadaveric lower legs in terms of operating time and radiation exposure. Methods The proposed concept (guided freehand), generally based on the freehand gold standard, additionally guides the surgeon by means of visible landmarks projected into the C-arm image. A computer program plans the correct drilling trajectory by processing the lens-shaped hole projections of the interlocking holes from a single image. Holes can be drilled by visually aligning the drill to the planned trajectory. Besides a conventional C-arm, no additional tracking or navigation equipment is required. Ten fresh frozen human below-knee specimens were instrumented with an Expert Tibial Nail (Synthes GmbH, Switzerland). The implants were distally locked by performing the newly proposed technique as well as the conventional freehand technique on each specimen. An orthopedic resident surgeon inserted four distal screws per procedure. Operating time, number of images and radiation time were recorded and statistically compared between interlocking techniques using non-parametric tests. Results A 58% reduction in number of taken images per screw was found for the guided freehand technique (7.4 ± 3.4) (mean ± SD) compared to the freehand technique (17.6 ± 10.3) (p < 0.001). Total radiation time (all 4 screws) was 55% lower for the guided freehand technique compared to conventional freehand (p = 0.001). Operating

  14. Evaluation of the eigenvalue method in the solution of transient heat conduction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The eigenvalue method is evaluated to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the method as compared to fully explicit, fully implicit, and Crank-Nicolson methods. Time comparisons and accuracy comparisons are made in an effort to rank the eigenvalue method in relation to the comparison schemes. The eigenvalue method is used to solve the parabolic heat equation in multidimensions with transient temperatures. Extensions into three dimensions are made to determine the method's feasibility in handling large geometry problems requiring great numbers of internal mesh points. The eigenvalue method proves to be slightly better in accuracy than the comparison routines because of an exact treatment, as opposed to a numerical approximation, of the time derivative in the heat equation. It has the potential of being a very powerful routine in solving long transient type problems. The method is not well suited to finely meshed grid arrays or large regions because of the time and memory requirements necessary for calculating large sets of eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  15. A generalized analysis of solar space heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. A.

    A life-cycle model is developed for solar space heating within the United States. The model consists of an analytical relationship among five dimensionless parameters that include all pertinent technical, climatological, solar, operating and economic factors that influence the performance of a solar space heating system. An important optimum condition presented is the break-even metered cost of conventional fuel at which the cost of the solar system is equal to that of a conventional heating system. The effect of Federal (1980) and State (1979) income tax credits on these costs is determined. A parameter that includes both solar availability and solar system utilization is derived and plotted on a map of the U.S. This parameter shows the most favorable present locations for solar space heating application to be in the Central and Mountain States. The data employed are related to the rehabilitated solar data recently made available by the National Climatic Center.

  16. Effect of surface hydroxyl groups on heat capacity of mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszewski, Michal; Butts, Danielle; Lan, Esther; Yan, Yan; King, Sophia C.; McNeil, Patricia E.; Galy, Tiphaine; Dunn, Bruce; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Hu, Yongjie; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-05-01

    This paper quantifies the effect of surface hydroxyl groups on the effective specific and volumetric heat capacities of mesoporous silica. To achieve a wide range of structural diversity, mesoporous silica samples were synthesized by various methods, including (i) polymer-templated nanoparticle-based powders, (ii) polymer-templated sol-gel powders, and (iii) ambigel silica samples dried by solvent exchange at room temperature. Their effective specific heat capacity, specific surface area, and porosity were measured using differential scanning calorimetry and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The experimentally measured specific heat capacity was larger than the conventional weight-fraction-weighted specific heat capacity of the air and silica constituents. The difference was attributed to the presence of OH groups in the large internal surface area. A thermodynamic model was developed based on surface energy considerations to account for the effect of surface OH groups on the specific and volumetric heat capacity. The model predictions fell within the experimental uncertainty.

  17. Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Alternating Magnetic Fields and Particle Laden Fluid Applied to the Microscale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-11

    convective heat transfer , researchers have been drawn to the high heat flux potentials of microfluidic devices. Microchannel flows, with hydraulic...novel heat transfer enhancement technique proven on the conventional scale to the mini and microchannel scales. 1.3 Background: Conventional...S.G., 2004, “Single-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques in Microchannel and Minichannel Flows,” International Conference on Microchannels

  18. Microwaves in chemistry: Another way of heating reaction mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlan, J.

    1995-04-01

    The question of a possible "microwave activation" of chemical reaction is discussed. In fact two cases should be distinguished: homogeneous or heterogeneous reaction mixtures. In homogeneous mixtures there are no (or very low) rate enhancements compared to a conventional heating, but some influence on chemioselectivity has been observed. These effects derive from fast and mass heating of microwaves, and probably, especially under reflux, from different boiling rates and/or overheating. With heterogeneous mixtures non conventional effects probably derive from mass heating and selective overheating. This is illustrated with several reactions: Diels-Alder, naphthalene sulphonation, preparation of cyanuric acid, hydrolysis of nitriles, transposition reaction on solid support.

  19. Graphene-Carbon-Metal Composite Film for a Flexible Heat Sink.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunjin; Rho, Hokyun; Kim, Jun Hee; Chae, Su-Hyeong; Pham, Thang Viet; Seo, Tae Hoon; Kim, Hak Yong; Ha, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hwan Chul; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Myung Jong

    2017-11-22

    The heat generated from electronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), batteries, and highly integrated transistors is one of the major causes obstructing the improvement of their performance and reliability. Herein, we report a comprehensive method to dissipate the generated heat to a vast area by using the new type of graphene-carbon-metal composite film as a heat sink. The unique porous graphene-carbon-metal composite film that consists of an electrospun carbon nanofiber with arc-graphene (Arc-G) fillers and an electrochemically deposited copper (Cu) layer showed not only high electrical and thermal conductivity but also high mechanical stability. Accordingly, superior thermal management of LED devices to that of conventional Cu plates and excellent resistance stability during the repeated 10 000 bending cycles has been achieved. The heat dissipation of LEDs has been enhanced by the high heat conduction in the composite film, heat convection in the air flow, and thermal radiation at low temperature in the porous carbon structure. This result reveals that the graphene-carbon-metal composite film is one of the most promising materials for a heat sink of electronic devices in modern electronics.

  20. [Methods of cholesterol determination: conventional procedure or "dry chemistry"?].

    PubMed

    Riesen, W; Keller, H

    1990-06-01

    The search for the cardiovascular risk factor cholesterol should essentially be done in the physicians' laboratory. The majority of such analyses is performed by 'dry' chemistry tests. This review compares this technique with conventional methods for the determination of cholesterol. The reagents and the reaction mechanisms are principally the same for both techniques, i.e. fully enzymatic methods are used. In 'dry' chemistry the reagents are fixed on a solid carrier. The reactive state is provided by the liquid of the specimen. Two principles are employed: the technique of strips which is already utilised in urinary analysis and the system of multiple film layers as it is common in color-film technique. Three already introduced systems are discussed: the Seralyzer (Ames), the Ektachem (Kodak), and the Reflotron (Boehringer, Mannheim), and one system which is still in evaluation (the Clinistat, Ames). All the systems give a good agreement provided that they are operated by well-trained operators. Problems arise with quality control, since matrix effects are particularly important. The exactitude of the results depends on the calibration. Both, the Reflotron and the Clinistat are calibrated by the manufactories himself, the employer has no influence and is entirely dependent on the reliability of the producer. Although clinical chemistry analyses are facilitated by 'dry' chemistry it is by no means devoid of risks because the errors are more difficult to recognize.

  1. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  2. Study on Improving Partial Load by Connecting Geo-thermal Heat Pump System to Fuel Cell Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    Hydrogen piping, the electric power line, and exhaust heat recovery piping of the distributed fuel cells are connected with network, and operational planning is carried out. Reduction of the efficiency in partial load is improved by operation of the geo-thermal heat pump linked to the fuel cell network. The energy demand pattern of the individual houses in Sapporo was introduced. And the analysis method aiming at minimization of the fuel rate by the genetic algorithm was described. The fuel cell network system of an analysis example assumed connecting the fuel cell co-generation of five houses. When geo-thermal heat pump was introduced into fuel cell network system stated in this paper, fuel consumption was reduced 6% rather than the conventional method

  3. Method for calculating internal radiation and ventilation with the ADINAT heat-flow code

    SciTech Connect

    Butkovich, T.R.; Montan, D.N.

    1980-04-01

    One objective of the spent fuel test in Climax Stock granite (SFTC) is to correctly model the thermal transport, and the changes in the stress field and accompanying displacements from the application of the thermal loads. We have chosen the ADINA and ADINAT finite element codes to do these calculations. ADINAT is a heat transfer code compatible to the ADINA displacement and stress analysis code. The heat flow problem encountered at SFTC requires a code with conduction, radiation, and ventilation capabilities, which the present version of ADINAT does not have. We have devised a method for calculating internal radiation andmore » ventilation with the ADINAT code. This method effectively reproduces the results from the TRUMP multi-dimensional finite difference code, which correctly models radiative heat transport between drift surfaces, conductive and convective thermal transport to and through air in the drifts, and mass flow of air in the drifts. The temperature histories for each node in the finite element mesh calculated with ADINAT using this method can be used directly in the ADINA thermal-mechanical calculation.« less

  4. Operating and maintaining your heat recovery ventilator (HRV) -- Revised edition. Home heating and cooling series, Number 8

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) differ from other mechanical ventilation devices by their ability to exchange heat between supply and exhaust air streams, which reduces the cost of heating or cooling fresh air. This booklet discusses the need for mechanical ventilation in conventional and energy-efficient homes, an explains the components of a HRV system, how to operate and maintain the system, and how to solve operating problems. A maintenance chart and schedule and a HRV troubleshooting guide are included.

  5. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  6. Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are placed together, insulated and then microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by a diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  7. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  8. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  9. Monte Carlo method for photon heating using temperature-dependent optical properties.

    PubMed

    Slade, Adam Broadbent; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2015-02-01

    The Monte Carlo method for photon transport is often used to predict the volumetric heating that an optical source will induce inside a tissue or material. This method relies on constant (with respect to temperature) optical properties, specifically the coefficients of scattering and absorption. In reality, optical coefficients are typically temperature-dependent, leading to error in simulation results. The purpose of this study is to develop a method that can incorporate variable properties and accurately simulate systems where the temperature will greatly vary, such as in the case of laser-thawing of frozen tissues. A numerical simulation was developed that utilizes the Monte Carlo method for photon transport to simulate the thermal response of a system that allows temperature-dependent optical and thermal properties. This was done by combining traditional Monte Carlo photon transport with a heat transfer simulation to provide a feedback loop that selects local properties based on current temperatures, for each moment in time. Additionally, photon steps are segmented to accurately obtain path lengths within a homogenous (but not isothermal) material. Validation of the simulation was done using comparisons to established Monte Carlo simulations using constant properties, and a comparison to the Beer-Lambert law for temperature-variable properties. The simulation is able to accurately predict the thermal response of a system whose properties can vary with temperature. The difference in results between variable-property and constant property methods for the representative system of laser-heated silicon can become larger than 100K. This simulation will return more accurate results of optical irradiation absorption in a material which undergoes a large change in temperature. This increased accuracy in simulated results leads to better thermal predictions in living tissues and can provide enhanced planning and improved experimental and procedural outcomes. Copyright

  10. An improved local radial point interpolation method for transient heat conduction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Lin, Gao; Zheng, Bao-Jing; Hu, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    The smoothing thin plate spline (STPS) interpolation using the penalty function method according to the optimization theory is presented to deal with transient heat conduction problems. The smooth conditions of the shape functions and derivatives can be satisfied so that the distortions hardly occur. Local weak forms are developed using the weighted residual method locally from the partial differential equations of the transient heat conduction. Here the Heaviside step function is used as the test function in each sub-domain to avoid the need for a domain integral. Essential boundary conditions can be implemented like the finite element method (FEM) as the shape functions possess the Kronecker delta property. The traditional two-point difference method is selected for the time discretization scheme. Three selected numerical examples are presented in this paper to demonstrate the availability and accuracy of the present approach comparing with the traditional thin plate spline (TPS) radial basis functions.

  11. A method for calculating aerodynamic heating on sounding rocket tangent ogive noses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the aerodynamic heating and shear stresses at the wall for tangent ogive noses that are slender enough to maintain an attached nose shock through that portion of flight during which heat transfer from the boundary layer to the wall is significant. The lower entropy of the attached nose shock combined with the inclusion of the streamwise pressure gradient yields a reasonable estimate of the actual flow conditions. Both laminar and turbulent boundary layers are examined and an approximation of the effects of (up to) moderate angles-of-attack is included in the analysis. The analytical method has been programmed in FORTRAN IV for an IBM 360/91 computer.

  12. A method for calculating aerodynamic heating on sounding rocket tangent ogive noses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the aerodynamic heating and shear stresses at the wall for tangent ogive noses that are slender enough to maintain an attached nose shock through that portion of flight during which heat transfer from the boundary layer to the wall is significant. The lower entropy of the attached nose shock combined with the inclusion of the streamwise pressure gradient yields a reasonable estimate of the actual flow conditions. Both laminar and turbulent boundary layers are examined and an approximation of the effects of (up to) moderate angles-of-attack is included in the analysis. The analytical method has been programmed in FORTRAN 4 for an IBM 360/91 computer.

  13. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar-heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, B. E.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar heat pump systems, stand alone solar and stand alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating for the U.S. using FCHART 4.0 is presented. Results show that the parallel solar heat pump system yields the greatest energy savings in the south. Very low cost collectors (50-150 dollars/sq m) are required for a series solar heat pump system in order for it to compete economically with the better of the parallel or solar systems. Conventional oil or gas furnaces need to have a seasonal efficiency of at least 70-85% in order to save as much primary energy as the best primary system in the northeast. In addition, the implications of these results for current or proposed federal tax credit measures are discussed.

  14. Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: implications for nutrition.

    PubMed

    Payling, Laura M; Juniper, Darren T; Drake, Chris; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-01

    Milk is the largest source of iodine in UK diets and an earlier study showed that organic summer milk had significantly lower iodine concentration than conventional milk. There are no comparable studies with winter milk or the effect of milk fat class or heat processing method. Two retail studies with winter milk are reported. Study 1 showed no effect of fat class but organic milk was 32.2% lower in iodine than conventional milk (404 vs. 595 μg/L; P<0.001). Study 2 found no difference between conventional and Channel Island milk but organic milk contained 35.5% less iodine than conventional milk (474 vs. 306 μg/L; P<0.001). UHT and branded organic milk also had lower iodine concentrations than conventional milk (331 μg/L; P<0.001 and 268 μg/L: P<0.0001 respectively). The results indicate that replacement of conventional milk by organic or UHT milk will increase the risk of sub-optimal iodine status especially for pregnant/lactating women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  16. Various methods of heat supply for a building which is operated periodically during the year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małetka, Marek; Laska, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Stand-alone buildings operated periodically require heat supply for hot water and heating purposes to be carefully analyzed in terms of the technical capabilities, the energy and financial outlays. The paper presents the analysis of heat supply for hot water purposes and central heating in the stand-alone cloakroom building located in Poland. The analysis is undertaken for different variants of heat delivery for a building from electric heaters, gas boiler and district heating solutions to renewable sources applications, namely solar panels and heat pumps. For each solution, usage of usable, final and primary energy was calculated. Also the financial analysis for investments and energy costs were carried out. This analysis has been done in according to SPBT and NPV method for different levels of building use.

  17. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  18. Heat exchanger and method of making. [bonding rocket chambers with a porous metal matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger of increased effectiveness is disclosed. A porous metal matrix is disposed in a metal chamber or between walls through which a heat-transfer fluid is directed. The porous metal matrix has internal bonds and is bonded to the chamber in order to remove all thermal contact resistance within the composite structure. Utilization of the invention in a rocket chamber is disclosed as a specific use. Also disclosed is a method of constructing the heat exchanger.

  19. Flow drag and heat transfer characteristics of drag-reducing nanofluids with CuO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2017-02-01

    A new kind of aqueous CuO nanofluid with drag-reducing performance was developed. The new working fluid was an aqueous CTAC (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) solution with CuO nanoparticles added and has both special effects of drag-reducing and heat transfer enhancement. An experiment was carried out to investigate the forced convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of conventional drag reducing fluid (aqueous CTAC solution) and the new drag-reducing nanofluid in a test tube with an inner diameter of 25.6 mm. Results indicated that there were no obvious differences of the drag-reducing characteristics between conventional drag reducing fluid and new drag-reducing nanofluid. However, their heat transfer characteristics were obvious different. The heat transfer characteristics of the new drag-reducing nanofluid significantly depend on the liquid temperature, the nanoparticle concentration and the CTAC concentration. The heat transfer enhancement technology of nanofluid could be applied to solve the problem of heat transfer deterioration for conventional drag-reducing fluids.

  20. Heat pipes in solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairamov, R.; Toiliev, K.

    The diode property of heat pipes is evaluated for use in solar collectors. Model experiments show that the effect of heat pipes in solar collectors is most pronounced during the nighttime, when solar radiation is zero, due to a significant reduction in the heat loss from the transparent cover surface of the collector compared to that for conventional collectors. For a solar collector with a glass cover area of one square meter during the summer season when the maximum water temperature is 60 C and the discharge is 85 l/sq m/day, the water temperature in the accumulator tank of the solar collector with a heat pipe is 10-11 C higher than in the solar collector lacking a heat pipe. In addition, the design of a solar house with passive systems in which heat pipes serve as the heat eliminating mechanism is discussed

  1. Case report: severe heat stroke with multiple organ dysfunction – a novel intravascular treatment approach

    PubMed Central

    Broessner, Gregor; Beer, Ronny; Franz, Gerhard; Lackner, Peter; Engelhardt, Klaus; Brenneis, Christian; Pfausler, Bettina; Schmutzhard, Erich

    2005-01-01

    Introduction We report the case of a patient who developed a severe post-exertional heat stroke with consecutive multiple organ dysfunction resistant to conventional antipyretic treatment, necessitating the use of a novel endovascular device to combat hyperthermia and maintain normothermia. Methods A 38-year-old male suffering from severe heat stroke with predominant signs and symptoms of encephalopathy requiring acute admission to an intensive care unit, was admitted to a ten-bed neurological intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. The patient developed consecutive multiple organ dysfunction with rhabdomyolysis, and hepatic and respiratory failure. Temperature elevation was resistant to conventional treatment measures. Aggressive intensive care treatment included forced diuresis and endovascular cooling to combat hyperthermia and maintain normothermia. Results Analyses of serum revealed elevation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, IL-6), cytokines (IL-2R), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4) and chemokines (IL-8) as well as signs of rhabdomyolysis and hepatic failure. Aggressive intensive care treatment as forced diuresis and endovascular cooling (CoolGard® and CoolLine®) to combat hyperthermia and maintain normothermia were used successfully to treat this severe heat stroke. Conclusion In this case of severe heat stroke, presenting with multiple organ dysfunction and elevation of cytokines and chemokines, which was resistant to conventional cooling therapies, endovascular cooling may have contributed significantly to the reduction of body temperature and, possibly, avoided a fatal result. PMID:16285034

  2. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  3. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives are to simulate an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  4. Study on heat pipe assisted thermoelectric power generation system from exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Ri-Guang; Park, Jong-Chan; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most fuel consumed by vehicles is released to the environment as thermal energy through the exhaust pipe. Environmentally friendly vehicle technology needs new methods to increase the recycling efficiency of waste exhaust thermal energy. The present study investigated how to improve the maximum power output of a TEG (Thermoelectric generator) system assisted with a heat pipe. Conventionally, the driving energy efficiency of an internal combustion engine is approximately less than 35%. TEG with Seebeck elements is a new idea for recycling waste exhaust heat energy. The TEG system can efficiently utilize low temperature waste heat, such as industrial waste heat and solar energy. In addition, the heat pipe can transfer heat from the automobile's exhaust gas to a TEG. To improve the efficiency of the thermal power generation system with a heat pipe, effects of various parameters, such as inclination angle, charged amount of the heat pipe, condenser temperature, and size of the TEM (thermoelectric element), were investigated. Experimental studies, CFD simulation, and the theoretical approach to thermoelectric modules were carried out, and the TEG system with heat pipe (15-20% charged, 20°-30° inclined configuration) showed the best performance.

  5. Review of magnetic refrigeration system as alternative to conventional refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezaal, N. A.; Osintsev, K. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The refrigeration system is one of the most important systems in industry. Developers are constantly seeking for how to avoid the damage to the environment. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). In the case of ferromagnetic materials, MCE warms as the magnetic moments of the atom are aligned by the application of a magnetic field. There are two types of magnetic phase changes that may occur at the Curie point: first order magnetic transition (FOMT) and second order magnetic transition (SOMT). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle), where the magnetic material matrix works both as a refrigerating medium and as a heat regenerating medium, while the fluid flowing in the porous matrix works as a heat transfer medium. Regeneration can be accomplished by blowing a heat transfer fluid in a reciprocating fashion through the regenerator made of magnetocaloric material that is alternately magnetized and demagnetized. Many magnetic refrigeration prototypes with different designs and software models have been built in different parts of the world. In this paper, the authors try to shed light on the magnetic refrigeration and show its effectiveness compared with conventional refrigeration methods.

  6. Full-time response of starch subjected to microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daming; Wang, Liyun; Zhang, Nana; Xiong, Lei; Huang, Luelue; Zhao, Jianxin; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao

    2017-06-21

    The effect of non-ionizing microwave radiation on starch is due to a gelatinization temperature range that changes starch structure and properties. However, the changes in starch upon microwave heating are observable throughout the heating process. We compared the effects on starch heating by microwaves to the effects by rapid and regular conventional heating. Our results show that microwave heating promotes the rapid rearrangement of starch molecules at low temperatures; starch showed a stable dielectric response and a high dielectric constant. Microwave heating changed the Cole-Cole curve and the polarization of starch suspension at low temperatures. A marked transition at 2.45 GHz resulted in a double-polarization phenomenon. At temperatures below gelatinization, microwave-induced dielectric rearrangement and changes in the polarization characteristics of starch suspensions reduced the absorption properties; at temperatures above gelatinization, these characteristics became consistent with conventional heating. Throughout the heating process, microwaves change the electrical response and polarization characteristics of the starch at low temperatures, but on the macro level, there is no enhancement of the material's microwave absorption properties. In contrast, with the warming process, the starch exhibited a "blocking effect", and the absorption properties of the starch quickly returned to the level observed in conductive heating after gelatinization.

  7. Arrhenius parameter determination as a function of heating method and cellular microenvironment based on spatial cell viability analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Jon; Carswell, William; Rylander, Nichole

    2013-06-01

    Predictions of injury in response to photothermal therapy in vivo are frequently made using Arrhenius parameters obtained from cell monolayers exposed to laser or water bath heating. However, the impact of different heating methods and cellular microenvironments on Arrhenius predictions has not been thoroughly investigated. This study determined the influence of heating method (water bath and laser irradiation) and cellular microenvironment (cell monolayers and tissue phantoms) on Arrhenius parameters and spatial viability. MDA-MB-231 cells seeded in monolayers and sodium alginate phantoms were heated with a water bath for 3-20 min at 46, 50, and 54 °C or laser irradiated (wavelength of 1064 nm and fluences of 40 W/cm(2) or 3.8 W/cm(2) for 0-4 min) in combination with photoabsorptive carbon nanohorns. Spatial viability was measured using digital image analysis of cells stained with calcein AM and propidium iodide and used to determine Arrhenius parameters. The influence of microenvironment and heating method on Arrhenius parameters and capability of parameters derived from more simplistic experimental conditions (e.g. water bath heating of monolayers) to predict more physiologically relevant systems (e.g. laser heating of phantoms) were assessed. Arrhenius predictions of the treated area (<1% viable) under-predicted the measured areas in photothermally treated phantoms by 23 mm(2) using water bath treated cell monolayer parameters, 26 mm(2) using water bath treated phantom parameters, 27 mm(2) using photothermally treated monolayer parameters, and 0.7 mm(2) using photothermally treated phantom parameters. Heating method and cellular microenvironment influenced Arrhenius parameters, with heating method having the greater impact.

  8. The heat transfer coefficient determination with the use of the Beck-Trefftz method in flow boiling in a minichannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strąk, Kinga; Maciejewska, Beata; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the solution of the two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem with the use of the Beck method coupled with the Trefftz method is proposed. This method was applied for solving an inverse heat conduction problem. The aim of the calculation was to determine the boiling heat transfer coefficient on the basis of temperature measurements taken by infrared thermography. The experimental data of flow boiling heat transfer in a single vertical minichannel of 1.7 mm depth, heated asymmetrically, were used in calculations. The heating element for two refrigerants (FC-72 and HFE-7100, 3M) flowing in the minichannel was the plate enhanced on the side contacting with the fluid. The analysis of the results was performed on the basis of experimental series obtained for the same heat flux and two different mass flow velocities. The results were presented as infrared thermographs, heated wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the minichannel inlet. The results was discussed for the subcooled and saturated boiling regions separately.

  9. Conventional and improved cytotoxicity test methods of newly developed biodegradable magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Kim, Young-Yul

    2015-11-01

    Unique biodegradable property of magnesium has spawned countless studies to develop ideal biodegradable orthopedic implant materials in the last decade. However, due to the rapid pH change and extensive amount of hydrogen gas generated during biocorrosion, it is extremely difficult to determine the accurate cytotoxicity of newly developed magnesium alloys using the existing methods. Herein, we report a new method to accurately determine the cytotoxicity of magnesium alloys with varying corrosion rate while taking in-vivo condition into the consideration. For conventional method, extract quantities of each metal ion were determined using ICP-MS and the result showed that the cytotoxicity due to pH change caused by corrosion affected the cell viability rather than the intrinsic cytotoxicity of magnesium alloy. In physiological environment, pH is regulated and adjusted within normal pH (˜7.4) range by homeostasis. Two new methods using pH buffered extracts were proposed and performed to show that environmental buffering effect of pH, dilution of the extract, and the regulation of eluate surface area must be taken into consideration for accurate cytotoxicity measurement of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  10. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  15. Heat Pump Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Principles and Potentials for Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fayose, Folasayo; Huan, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been used for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning in domestic and industrial sectors in most developed countries of the world including South Africa. However, heat pump drying (HPD) of fruits and vegetables has been largely unexploited in South Africa and by extension to the sub-Saharan African region. Although studies on heat pump drying started in South Africa several years ago, not much progress has been recorded to date. Many potential users view heat pump drying technology as fragile, slow, and high capital intensive when compared with conventional dryer. This paper tried to divulge the principles and potentials of heat pump drying technology and the conditions for its optimum use. Also, various methods of quantifying performances during heat pump drying as well as the quality of the dried products are highlighted. Necessary factors for maximizing the capacity and efficiency of a heat pump dryer were identified. Finally, the erroneous view that heat pump drying is not feasible economically in sub-Saharan Africa was clarified. PMID:26904668

  16. Design and Development of a Residential Gas-Fired Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Mahderekal, Dr. Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment consumes 43% of the total primary energy consumption in U.S. households. Presently, conventional gas furnaces have maximum heating efficiencies of 98%. Electric air conditioners used in association with the furnace for cooling have a minimum seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 14.0. A residential gas-fired heat pump (RGHP) was developed and tested under standard rating conditions, resulting in a significant increase in heating efficiency of over 40% versus conventional natural gas furnaces. The associated efficiency of the RGHP in cooling mode is comparable in efficiency to an electric air conditioner (14.0 SEER) when compared onmore » a primary energy basis. The RGHP is similar in nature to a conventional heat pump but with two main differences. First, the primary energy savings are higher, based on a site versus source comparison, as the result of using natural gas to supply shaft power to the compressor rather than an electric motor. Second, waste heat is recovered from the engine to supplement space heating and reduce the energy input. It can also be used to provide supplemental water heating. The system utilizes a programmable logic controller that allows variable-speed operation to achieve improved control to meet building loads. RGHPs significantly reduce peak electric use during periods of high demand, especially peak summer loads, as well as peak winter loads in regions with widespread use of electric heating. This contributes to leveling year-round gas loads, with the potential to increase annual gas demand in some regions. The widespread adoption of RGHPs will contribute to significant reductions in primary energy consumption and carbon emissions through improved efficiencies.« less

  17. Microwave heating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Andrew J.; Petersen, Robert D.; Swanson, Stephen D.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for heating and melting materials using microwave energy, and for permitting them to solidify. The apparatus includes a microwave energy source, a resonant cavity having an opening in its floor, a microwave energy choke encompassing the opening in the floor of the cavity, a metal container to hold the materials to be heated and melted, a turntable, and a lift-table. During operation, the combined action of the turntable and the lift-table position the metal container so that the top of the container is level with the floor of the cavity, is in substantial registration with the floor opening, and is encompassed by the microwave energy choke; thus, during operation, the interior of the container defines part of the resonant cavity. Additionally, a screw feeder, extending into the cavity and sheltered from microwave energy by a conveyor choke, may convey the materials to be heated to the container. Also, preferably, the floor of the resonant cavity may include perforatins, so that the offgases and dust generated in the apparatus may be removed from the resonant cavity by pulling outside air between the container choke and the exterior wall of the container into the resonant cavity and out from the cavity through the perforations.

  18. Product formulation for ohmic heating: blanching as a pretreatment method to improve uniformity in heating of solid-liquid food mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sarang, S; Sastry, S K; Gaines, J; Yang, T C S; Dunne, P

    2007-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of food components is critical to ohmic heating. Food components of different electrical conductivities heat at different rates. While equal electrical conductivities of all phases are desirable, real food products may behave differently. In the present study involving chicken chow mein consisting of a sauce and different solid components, celery, water chestnuts, mushrooms, bean sprouts, and chicken, it was observed that the sauce was more conductive than all solid components over the measured temperature range. To improve heating uniformity, a blanching method was developed to increase the ionic content of the solid components. By blanching different solid components in a highly conductive sauce at 100 degrees C for different lengths of time, it was possible to adjust their conductivity to that of the sauce. Chicken chow mein samples containing blanched particulates were compared with untreated samples with respect to ohmic heating uniformity at 60 Hz up to 140 degrees C. All components of the treated product containing blanched solids heated more uniformly than untreated product. In sensory tests, 3 different formulations of the blanched product showed good quality attributes and overall acceptability, demonstrating the practical feasibility of the blanching protocol.

  19. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  20. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  1. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of heat pumps for energy recovery in industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdaneta-B, A. H.; Schmidt, P. S.

    1980-09-01

    A computer code has been developed for analyzing the thermodynamic performance, cost and economic return for heat pump applications in industrial heat recovery. Starting with basic defining characteristics of the waste heat stream and the desired heat sink, the algorithm first evaluates the potential for conventional heat recovery with heat exchangers, and if applicable, sizes the exchanger. A heat pump system is then designed to process the residual heating and cooling requirements of the streams. In configuring the heat pump, the program searches a number of parameters, including condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, and condenser and evaporator approaches. All system components are sized for each set of parameters, and economic return is estimated and compared with system economics for conventional processing of the heated and cooled streams (i.e., with process heaters and coolers). Two case studies are evaluated, one in a food processing application and the other in an oil refinery unit.

  2. Comparing the shear strength of grouted fractures: conventional methods vs biomineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mountassir, G.; Tobler, D. J.; Moir, H.; Lunn, R. J.; Phoenix, V. R.

    2011-12-01

    For many engineering applications, such as geological disposal of nuclear waste, underground railways etc., it is necessary to limit fluid flow through fractures. The particle size of conventional cementitious grouts limits the size of fractures into which they can penetrate. To address this issue increasingly microfine and ultrafine cement grouts are becoming commercially available. Despite this the radius of penetration remains dependent on the grout viscosity alongside injection pressure, pumping rate, grout setting time and grout cohesion. As such lower viscosity aqueous solutions may have a greater radius of penetration potentially requiring fewer injection points. In addition cementitious grouts typically undergo volumetric shrinkage during setting. In many applications this change in volume may not be of particular importance but in others where a very low hydraulic conductivity is a critical design criterion, as in nuclear waste repositories, this reduction in volume may be highly significant. This study investigates the use of microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MCP) as a technique for grouting fine aperture rock fractures. Artificial fractures were created in granite cores and were subjected to conventional cementitious grouting methods and MCP. Following treatment the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the grouted fractures were investigated. The mechanical properties of grouts after setting is not usually considered to be a significant issue, but in applications which consider much longer timescales (100,000 years) grouts which result in fractures with improved strength and lower hydraulic conductivity are likely to be preferred.

  3. Heat dissipation investigation of the internal heat sink geometry of a commercial available LED lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, S. L.; Ong, N. R.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Alcain, J. B.; Sauli, Z.; Thangsi, K.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal issue is still the bottleneck of the LED to sustain their operational performance. LED lamp is vastly commercialized and has become the next generation of lighting source to substitute the conventional incandescent lamp. Thus, thermal management issue on LED lamp is important to maintain the device reliability. This study focuses on the modification of internal heat sink of the LED lamp which was considered and the thermal performance was investigated. Open source software, Salome and Elmer were used for this study. The result shows that larger surface area of heat sink has better heat dissipation performance.

  4. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in themore » cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.« less

  6. Real-time PCR method combined with immunomagnetic separation for detecting healthy and heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium on raw duck wings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Xu, Wang; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-09-01

    Conventional culture detection methods are time consuming and labor-intensive. For this reason, an alternative rapid method combining real-time PCR and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was investigated in this study to detect both healthy and heat-injured Salmonella Typhimurium on raw duck wings. Firstly, the IMS method was optimized by determining the capture efficiency of Dynabeads(®) on Salmonella cells on raw duck wings with different bead incubation (10, 30 and 60 min) and magnetic separation (3, 10 and 30 min) times. Secondly, three Taqman primer sets, Sal, invA and ttr, were evaluated to optimize the real-time PCR protocol by comparing five parameters: inclusivity, exclusivity, PCR efficiency, detection probability and limit of detection (LOD). Thirdly, the optimized real-time PCR, in combination with IMS (PCR-IMS) assay, was compared with a standard ISO and a real-time PCR (PCR) method by analyzing artificially inoculated raw duck wings with healthy and heat-injured Salmonella cells at 10(1) and 10(0) CFU/25 g. Finally, the optimized PCR-IMS assay was validated for Salmonella detection in naturally contaminated raw duck wing samples. Under optimal IMS conditions (30 min bead incubation and 3 min magnetic separation times), approximately 85 and 64% of S. Typhimurium cells were captured by Dynabeads® from pure culture and inoculated raw duck wings, respectively. Although Sal and ttr primers exhibited 100% inclusivity and exclusivity for 16 Salmonella spp. and 36 non-Salmonella strains, the Sal primer showed lower LOD (10(3) CFU/ml) and higher PCR efficiency (94.1%) than the invA and ttr primers. Moreover, for Sal and invA primers, 100% detection probability on raw duck wings suspension was observed at 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/ml with and without IMS, respectively. Thus, the Sal primer was chosen for further experiments. The optimized PCR-IMS method was significantly (P=0.0011) better at detecting healthy Salmonella cells after 7-h enrichment than traditional PCR

  7. Extracting land use information from the earth resources technology satellite data by conventional interpretation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vegas, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure for obtaining land use data from satellite imagery by the use of conventional interpretation methods is presented. The satellite is described briefly, and the advantages of various scales and multispectral scanner bands are discussed. Methods for obtaining satellite imagery and the sources of this imagery are given. Equipment used in the study is described, and samples of land use maps derived from satellite imagery are included together with the land use classification system used. Accuracy percentages are cited and are compared to those of a previous experiment using small scale aerial photography.

  8. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisham, Azie Farhani Badrol; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional. Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks. However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model. Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives.

  9. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    PubMed

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time.

  10. Vapor compression heat pump system field tests at the TECH complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, V. D.

    1985-07-01

    The Tennessee Energy Conservation In Housing (TECH) complex has been utilized since 1977 as a field test site for several novel and conventional heat pump systems for space conditioning and water heating. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar assisted heat pumps (SAHP) both parallel and series, two conventional air-to-air heat pumps, an air-to-air heat pump with desuperheater water heater, and horizontal coil and multiple shallow vertical coil ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP). A direct comparison of the measured annual performance of the test systems was not possible. However, a cursory examination revealed that the ACES had the best performance. However, its high cost makes it unlikely that it will achieve widespread use. Costs for the SAHP systems are similar to those of the ACES but their performance is not as good. Integration of water heating and space conditioning functions with a desuperheater yielded significant efficiency improvement at modest cost. The GCHP systems performed much better for heating than for cooling and may well be the most efficient alternative for residences in cold climates.

  11. Vapor compression heat pump system field tests at the tech complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Van D.

    1985-11-01

    The Tennessee Energy Conservation In Housing (TECH) complex has been utilized since 1977 as a field test site for several novel and conventional heat pump systems for space conditioning and water heating. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar assisted heat pumps (SAHP) both parallel and series, two conventional air-to-air heat pumps, an air-to-air heat pump with desuperheater water heater, and horizontal coil and multiple shallow vertical coil ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP). A direct comparison of the measured annual performance of the test systems was not possible. However, a cursory examination revealed that the ACES had the best performance, however, its high cost makes it unlikely that it will achieve wide-spread use. Costs for the SAHP systems are similar to those of the ACES but their performance is not as good. Integration of water heating and space conditioning functions with a desuperheater yielded significant efficiency improvement at modest cost. The GCHP systems performed much better for heating than for cooling and may well be the most efficient alternative for residences in cold climates.

  12. [Comparison between conventional methods, ChromAgar Candida® and PCR method for the identification of Candida species in clinical isolates].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Barraza, Deyanira; Dávalos Martínez, Arturo; Flores-Padilla, Luis; Mendoza-De Elias, Roberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the incidence of yeast species causing fungemia in susceptible immunocompromised patients in the last two decades and the low sensitivity of conventional blood culture has led to the need to develop alternative approaches for the early detection and identification of causative species. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of molecular testing by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional methods to identify clinical isolates of different species, using the ID32C ATB system (bioMérieux, France), chromogenic culture Chromagar Candida® (CHROMagar, France) and morphogenesis in corn meal agar. We studied 79 isolates, in which the most prevalent species using the system ID32C and PCR was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C .krusei. PCR patterns obtained for the identification of clinical isolates were stable and consistent in the various independent studies and showed good reproducibility, concluding that PCR with species-specific primers that amplify genes ITS1 and ITS2 for rRNA or topoisomerase II primers is a very specific and sensitive method for the identification of C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. albicans, and with less specificity for C. tropicalis. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefrois, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion Phase Change Materials (PCM's) in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C for solar and conventional power plant applications. Over 24 heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were chosen for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell that exchanger, and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over fifty inorganic salt mixtures investigated. Preliminary experiments with various tube coatings indicated that a nickel or chrome plating of Teflon or Ryton coating had promise of being successful. An electroless nickel plating was selected for further testing. A series of tests with nickel-plated heat transfer tubes showed that the solidifying sodium nitrate adhered to the tubes and the experiment failed to meet the required discharge heat transfer rate of 10 kW(t). Testing of the reflux boiler is under way.

  14. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrois, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Alternative mechanizations of active heat exchange concepts were analyzed for use with heat of fusion Phase Change Materials (PCM's) in the temperature range of 250 C to 350 C for solar and conventional power plant applications. Over 24 heat exchange concepts were reviewed, and eight were selected for detailed assessment. Two candidates were chosen for small-scale experimentation: a coated tube and shell that exchanger, and a direct contact reflux boiler. A dilute eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide was selected as the PCM from over fifty inorganic salt mixtures investigated. Preliminary experiments with various tube coatings indicated that a nickel or chrome plating of Teflon or Ryton coating had promise of being successful. An electroless nickel plating was selected for further testing. A series of tests with nickel-plated heat transfer tubes showed that the solidifying sodium nitrate adhered to the tubes and the experiment failed to meet the required discharge heat transfer rate of 10 kW(t). Testing of the reflux boiler is under way.

  15. Methods of Conserving Heating Energy Utilized in Thirty-One Public School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathy Eggers

    The Memphis City School System was notified by Memphis Light, Gas, and Water that it was necessary to reduce its consumption of natural gas during the winter of 1975-76. A survey was developed and sent to 44 large public school systems to determine which methods of heating energy conservation were used most frequently and which methods were most…

  16. 10 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Conventional Ranges, Conventional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... standby mode, set the clock time to 3:23 and use the average power approach described in Section 5... ranges, conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, and microwave ovens at this time. However, any... mode may persist for an indefinite time. An indicator that only shows the user that the product is in...

  17. Thermal and economic assessment of ground-coupled storage for residential solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    This study performed an analysis of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating were determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, D.C., Fort Worth, Tex., and Madison, Wis. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Forth Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51% of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Forth Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  18. A new method for the estimation of high temperature radiant heat emittance by means of aero-acoustic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greffrath, Fabian; Prieler, Robert; Telle, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    A new method for the experimental estimation of radiant heat emittance at high temperatures has been developed which involves aero-acoustic levitation of samples, laser heating and contactless temperature measurement. Radiant heat emittance values are determined from the time dependent development of the sample temperature which requires analysis of both the radiant and convective heat transfer towards the surroundings by means of fluid dynamics calculations. First results for the emittance of a corundum sample obtained with this method are presented in this article and found in good agreement with literature values.

  19. Solid fossil-fuel recovery by electrical induction heating in situ - A proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, S.

    1980-04-01

    A technique, termed electrical induction heating, is proposed for in situ processes of energy production from solid fossil fuels, such as bitumen production from underground distillation of oil sand; oil by underground distillation of oil shale; petroleum from heavy oil by underground mobilization of heavy oil, from either residues of conventional liquid petroleum deposits or new deposits of viscous oil; methane and coal tar from lignite and coal deposits by underground distillation of coal; and generation of electricity by surface combustion of low calorific-value gas from underground coke gasification by combustion of the organic residue left from the underground distillation of coal by induction heating. A method of surface distillation of mined coking coal by induction heating to produce coke, methane, and coal tar is also proposed.

  20. MULTI-SCALE MODELING AND APPROXIMATION ASSISTED OPTIMIZATION OF BARE TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bacellar, Daniel; Ling, Jiazhen; Aute, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers are very common in air-conditioning, heat pump and refrigeration applications. In these heat exchangers, there is a great benefit in terms of size, weight, refrigerant charge and heat transfer coefficient, by moving from conventional channel sizes (~ 9mm) to smaller channel sizes (< 5mm). This work investigates new designs for air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers with tube outer diameter ranging from 0.5 to 2.0mm. The goal of this research is to develop and optimize the design of these heat exchangers and compare their performance with existing state of the art designs. The air-side performance of various tube bundle configurationsmore » are analyzed using a Parallel Parameterized CFD (PPCFD) technique. PPCFD allows for fast-parametric CFD analyses of various geometries with topology change. Approximation techniques drastically reduce the number of CFD evaluations required during optimization. Maximum Entropy Design method is used for sampling and Kriging method is used for metamodeling. Metamodels are developed for the air-side heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop as a function of tube-bundle dimensions and air velocity. The metamodels are then integrated with an air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger design code. This integration allows a multi-scale analysis of air-side performance heat exchangers including air-to-refrigerant heat transfer and phase change. Overall optimization is carried out using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The optimal designs found can exhibit 50 percent size reduction, 75 percent decrease in air side pressure drop and doubled air heat transfer coefficients compared to a high performance compact micro channel heat exchanger with same capacity and flow rates.« less

  1. Synthesis of PZT powder by conventional method at various conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necira, Z.; Boutarfaia, A.; Abba, M.; Abdessalem, N.

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the formation of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 solid solutions with composition near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) using the conventional ceramic method have been studied by changing the thermal conditions such as temperature ramp rate and isothermal times during the calcination treatment performed between 700 and 900 °C. The perovskite phase formation and morphology of undoped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (abbreviated PZT) and doped new material Pb0.98Gd0.02[(Zr0.52Ti0.48)0.98 (Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.01 (Ni1/3Sb2/3)0.01]O3 (abbreviated PZT-PGMNNS) specimens have been examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) while the thermal evolution of the initial precursor was followed by TG-DTA. So the results of these studies have been discussed.

  2. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  3. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of water and glycol-water mixture in multi-port serpentine microchannel slab heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md Mesbah-ul Ghani

    Microchannels have several advantages over traditional large tubes. Heat transfer using microchannels recently have attracted significant research and industrial design interests. Open literatures leave with question on the applicability of classical macroscale theory in microchannels. Better understanding of heat transfer in various microchannel geometries and building experimental database are continuously urged. The purpose of this study is to contribute the findings and data to this emerging area through carefully designed and well controlled experimental works. The commercially important glycol-water mixture heat transfer fluid and multiport slab serpentine heat exchangers are encountered in heating and cooling areas, e.g. in automotive, aircraft, and HVAC industries. For a given heat duty, the large diameter tubes experience turbulent flow whereas the narrow channels face laminar flow and often developing flow. Study of low Reynolds number developing glycol-water mixture laminar flow in serpentine microchannel heat exchanger with parallel multi-port slab is not available in the open literature. Current research therefore experimentally investigates glycol-water mixture and water in simultaneously developing laminar flows. Three multiport microchannel heat exchangers; straight and serpentine slabs, are used for each fluid. Friction factors of glycol-water mixture and water flows in straight slabs are higher than conventional fully developed laminar flow. If a comprehensive pressure balance is introduced, the results are well compared with conventional Poiseuille theory. Similar results are found in serpentine slab. The pressure drop for the straight core is the highest, manifolds are the intermediate, and serpentine is the least; which are beneficial for heat exchangers. The heat transfer results in serpentine slab for glycol-water mixture and water are higher and could not be compared with conventional fully developed and developing flow correlations. New

  4. Molecular dynamics study of solid-liquid heat transfer and passive liquid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesudasan Daisy, Sumith

    High heat flux removal is a challenging problem in boilers, electronics cooling, concentrated photovoltaic and other power conversion devices. Heat transfer by phase change is one of the most efficient mechanisms for removing heat from a solid surface. Futuristic electronic devices are expected to generate more than 1000 W/cm2 of heat. Despite the advancements in microscale and nanoscale manufacturing, the maximum passive heat flux removal has been 300 W/cm2 in pool boiling. Such limitations can be overcome by developing nanoscale thin-film evaporation based devices, which however require a better understanding of surface interactions and liquid vapor phase change process. Evaporation based passive flow is an inspiration from the transpiration process that happens in trees. If we can mimic this process and develop heat removal devices, then we can develop efficient cooling devices. The existing passive flow based cooling devices still needs improvement to meet the future demands. To improve the efficiency and capacity of these devices, we need to explore and quantify the passive flow happening at nanoscales. Experimental techniques have not advanced enough to study these fundamental phenomena at the nanoscale, an alternative method is to perform theoretical study at nanoscales. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a widely accepted powerful tool for studying a range of fundamental and engineering problems. MD simulations can be utilized to study the passive flow mechanism and heat transfer due to it. To study passive flow using MD, apart from the conventional methods available in MD, we need to have methods to simulate the heat transfer between solid and liquid, local pressure, surface tension, density, temperature calculation methods, realistic boundary conditions, etc. Heat transfer between solid and fluids has been a challenging area in MD simulations, and has only been minimally explored (especially for a practical fluid like water). Conventionally, an

  5. Heat flow and geothermal potential of the East Mesa KGRA, Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The East Mesa KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) is located in the southeast part of the Imperial Valley, California, and is roughly 150 kilometers square in areal extent. A new heat flow technique which utilizes temperature gradient measurements across best clays is presented and shown to be as accurate as conventional methods for the present study area. Utilizing the best clay gradient technique, over 70 heat flow determinations have been completed within and around the East Mesa KGRA. Background heat flow values range from 1.4 to 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = .000001 cal. per square centimeter-second) and are typical of those throughout the Basin and Range province. Heat flow values for the northwest lobe of the KGRA (Mesa anomaly) are as high as 7.9 hfu, with the highest values located near gravity and seismic noise maxima and electrical resistivity minima. An excellent correlation exists between heat flow contours and faults defined by remote sensing and microearthquake monitoring.

  6. The Measurement of the Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice: Two Improved Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, S. Y.; Chun, C. K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two methods for measuring the specific latent heat of ice fusion for high school physics laboratories. The first method is an ice calorimeter which is made from simple materials. The second method improves the thermal contact and allows for a more accurate measurement. Lists instructions for both methods. (Author/YDS)

  7. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M

    2010-12-08

    Foodborne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods containing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). To study the heat stability of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, we needed to measure and compare the activity of botulinum neurotoxins, serotypes A and B, under various pasteurization conditions. Currently, the only accepted assay to detect active C. botulinum neurotoxin is an in vivo mouse bioassay, which raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. In this study, noninvasive methods were used to simultaneously detect and distinguish between active BoNT serotypes A and B in one reaction and sample. We developed an enzymatic activity assay employing internally quenched fluorogenic peptides corresponding to SNAP-25, for BoNT-A, and VAMP2, for BoNT-B, as an alternative method to the mouse bioassay. Because each peptide is labeled with different fluorophores, we were able to distinguish between these two toxins. We used this method to analyze the heat stability of BoNT-A and BoNT-B. This study reports that conventional milk pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) inactivated BoNT serotype A; however, serotype B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization. Using this activity assay, we also showed that the commonly used food processes such as acidity and pasteurization, which are known to inhibit C. botulinum growth and toxin production, are more effective in inactivating BoNT serotype A than serotype B when conventional pasteurization (63 °C, 30 min) is used.

  8. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOEpatents

    Poppendiek, Heinz F.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  9. Improved spatial resolution for spot sampling in thermal desorption atomic force microscopy – mass spectrometry via rapid heating functions

    SciTech Connect

    Somnath, Suhas; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    The key to advancing materials is to understand and control their structure and chemistry. However, thorough chemical characterization is challenging since existing techniques characterize only a few properties of the specimen, thereby necessitating multiple measurement platforms to acquire the necessary information. The multimodal combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry (MS) transcends existing analytical capabilities for nanometer scale spatially resolved correlation of the chemical and physical properties of a sample surface. One such hybrid system employs heated AFM cantilevers for thermal desorption (TD) sampling of molecules from a surface and subsequent gas phase ionization and detection of themore » liberated species by MS. Here in this paper, we report on the use of voltage pulse trains to tailor cantilever heating such that spot sampling size was reduced and mass spectral signal was improved compared to constant voltage, static heating of the cantilever. Desorption efficiency (DE), defined as the quotient of the mass spectral signal intensity and the volume of the desorption crater, was used to judge the effectiveness of a particular tailored heating function. To guide the development and optimization of the heating functions and aid in interpreting experimental results, a 1D finite element model was developed that predicted the cantilever response to different heating functions. Three tailored heating functions that used different combinations, magnitudes, and durations of rectangular voltage pulses, were used for surface spot sampling. The resultant sampling spot size and DE were compared to the same metrics obtained with the conventional method that uses a single voltage pulse. Using a model system composed of a thin film of ink containing pigment yellow 74 as a model system, desorption craters shrunk from 2 μm, using the conventional approach, to 310 nm using the optimum tailored heating function. This same pulsed heating

  10. Improved spatial resolution for spot sampling in thermal desorption atomic force microscopy – mass spectrometry via rapid heating functions

    DOE PAGES

    Somnath, Suhas; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J.; ...

    2017-04-17

    The key to advancing materials is to understand and control their structure and chemistry. However, thorough chemical characterization is challenging since existing techniques characterize only a few properties of the specimen, thereby necessitating multiple measurement platforms to acquire the necessary information. The multimodal combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry (MS) transcends existing analytical capabilities for nanometer scale spatially resolved correlation of the chemical and physical properties of a sample surface. One such hybrid system employs heated AFM cantilevers for thermal desorption (TD) sampling of molecules from a surface and subsequent gas phase ionization and detection of themore » liberated species by MS. Here in this paper, we report on the use of voltage pulse trains to tailor cantilever heating such that spot sampling size was reduced and mass spectral signal was improved compared to constant voltage, static heating of the cantilever. Desorption efficiency (DE), defined as the quotient of the mass spectral signal intensity and the volume of the desorption crater, was used to judge the effectiveness of a particular tailored heating function. To guide the development and optimization of the heating functions and aid in interpreting experimental results, a 1D finite element model was developed that predicted the cantilever response to different heating functions. Three tailored heating functions that used different combinations, magnitudes, and durations of rectangular voltage pulses, were used for surface spot sampling. The resultant sampling spot size and DE were compared to the same metrics obtained with the conventional method that uses a single voltage pulse. Using a model system composed of a thin film of ink containing pigment yellow 74 as a model system, desorption craters shrunk from 2 μm, using the conventional approach, to 310 nm using the optimum tailored heating function. This same pulsed heating

  11. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2018-05-01

    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used thatmore » were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.« less

  13. Research methods of plasma stream interaction with heat-resistant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Sargsyan, M. A.; Chinnov, V. F.; Demirov, N. A.; Kavyrshin, D. I.; Ageev, A. G.; Khromov, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    An experimental automated system was designed and constructed for studying the parameters and characteristics of non-stationary interacting system high-enthalpy-plasma stream-investigated sample: enthalpy of plasma in the incident stream; speed and temperature of plasma stream; temperature of electrons and heavy particles, ionic composition and their spatial distribution; heat flux incident on the sample (kW/cm2); surface temperature of the sample; ablation of the sample material, and others. Measurements of achievable plasma heat flux levels are carried out by calorimetry of plasma streams incident on the surface of multisection copper calorimeter. Determination of acceleration characteristics for profiled plasma torch nozzle, as well as the gas flow rate is produced by measuring the total pressure using the Pitot tube. Video visualization of interacting system is carried out using synchronized high-speed cameras. Micropyrometry of the selected zone on the sample surface is carried out by high-speed, three-wavelength pyrometer. To measure the rate of mass loss of the sample, in addition to the weighing method of evaluation the methods of laser knife and two-position stereoscopy are used. Plasma and sample emission characteristics are performed with two separate spectrometers.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Three Methods for Microwave Heating of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2012-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization will be Ground Breaking technology for sustained exploration of space. Volatiles are present in planetary regolith, but water by far has the most potential for effective utilization. The presence of water at the lunar poles and Mars opens the possibility of using the hydrogen for propellant on missions beyond Earth orbit. Likewise, the oxygen could be used for in-space propulsion for lunar ascent/descent and for space tugs from low lunar orbit to low Earth orbit. Water is also an effective radiation shielding material as well as a valuable expendable (water and oxygen) required for habitation in space. Because of the strong function of water vapor pressure with temperature, heating regolith effectively liberates water vapor by sublimation. Microwave energy will penetrate soil and heat from within, much more efficiently than heating from the surface with radiant heat. This is especially true under vacuum conditions since the heat transfer rate is very low. The depth of microwave penetration is a strong function of the microwave frequency and to a lesser extent on regolith dielectric properties. New methods for delivery of microwaves into lunar and planetary surfaces is being prototyped with laboratory experiments and modeled with COMSOL MultiPhysics. Recent results are discussed.

  15. Fluid dynamics and convective heat transfer in impinging jets through implementation of a high resolution liquid crystal technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.; Wiedner, B.; Camci, C.

    1993-01-01

    A combined convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics investigation in a turbulent round jet impinging on a flat surface is presented. The experimental study uses a high resolution liquid crystal technique for the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficients on the impingement plate. The heat transfer experiments are performed using a transient heat transfer method. The mean flow and the character of turbulent flow in the free jet is presented through five hole probe and hot wire measurements, respectively. The flow field character of the region near the impingement plate plays an important role in the amount of convective heat transfer. Detailed surveys obtained from five hole probe and hot wire measurements are provided. An extensive validation of the liquid crystal based heat transfer method against a conventional technique is also presented. After a complete documentation of the mean and turbulent flow field, the convective heat transfer coefficient distributions on the impingement plate are presented. The near wall of the impingement plate and the free jet region is treated separately. The current heat transfer distributions are compared to other studies available from the literature. The present paper contains complete sets of information on the three dimensional mean flow, turbulent velocity fluctuations, and convective heat transfer to the plate. The experiments also prove that the present nonintrusive heat transfer method is highly effective in obtaining high resolution heat transfer maps with a heat transfer coefficient uncertainty of 5.7 percent.

  16. Heat damage-free laser-microjet cutting achieves highest die fracture strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Housh, Roy; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Manley, John

    2005-04-01

    Unlike conventional laser-based technologies, the water jet guided laser does not generate heat damage and contamination is also very low. The negligible heat-affected zone is one reason why die fracture strength is higher than with sawing. This paper first presents the water jet guided laser technology and then explains how it differs from conventional dry laser cutting. Finally, it presents the results obtained by three recent studies conducted to determine die fracture strength after Laser-Microjet cutting.

  17. The effect of UV exposure and heat treatment on crystallization behavior of photosensitive glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıbrıslı, Orhan; Ersundu, Ali Erçin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, photosensitive glasses in the Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with photosensitizing agents (cerium, silver, tin, antimony) and halogenides (NaF and KBr) were synthesized through a conventional melt-quenching technique. The crystallization mechanism was investigated for solely heat-treated and UV-exposed + heat-treated samples using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques to understand the effect of UV exposure on crystallization behavior of photosensitive glasses. Accordingly, non-isothermal DTA measurements were performed at different heating rates to determine crystallization peak, T p, and onset, T c, temperatures. For solely heat-treated samples, the kinetic parameters such as the Avrami constant, n, and morphology index, m, were calculated as 1 from the Ozawa method indicating surface crystallization and the value of crystallization activation energy was calculated as 944 kJ/mol using modified Kissinger method. On the contrary, bulk crystallization was found to be predominant for UV exposed + heat-treated samples revealing that UV exposure is the primary cause of bulk crystallization in photosensitive glasses.

  18. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  19. Assessment of NASA Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment Method for Multiple Forging Batch Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Technical Monitor); Lemsky, Joe

    2004-01-01

    NASA dual microstructure heat treatment technology previously demonstrated on single forging heat treat batches of a generic disk shape was successfully demonstrated on a multiple disk batch of a production shape component. A group of four Rolls-Royce Corporation 3rd Stage AE2100 forgings produced from alloy ME209 were successfully dual microstructure heat treated as a single heat treat batch. The forgings responded uniformly as evidenced by part-to-part consistent thermocouple recordings and resultant macrostructures, and from ultrasonic examination. Multiple disk DMHT processing offers a low cost alternative to other published dual microstructure processing techniques.

  20. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  1. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  2. VapeCons: E-cigarette user conventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarette ‘vaping conventions’ provide a venue for user social networking, parties, and ‘try before you buy’ access to a wide range of e-cigarette products. This study identifies and describes vaping conventions, raising awareness of this potentially problematic practice. Methods Conventions were identified via Google searches in April and May 2014 and August 2015. Details captured included location, sponsors, admission cost, event features, and promotions. Results 41 distinct organizations have planned 90 vaping conventions in 37 different locations since 2010. Conventions promoted access to a wide range of product vendors, seminars, social interactions with other users, parties, gifts, vaping contests, and other events. E-cigarette use at conventions was encouraged. Conclusions Vaping conventions promote e-cigarette use and social norms without public health having a voice to educate attendees about negative consequences of use. Future research should focus on the effects of attending these conventions on attendees and on indoor air quality in vapor-filled convention rooms. PMID:26424201

  3. Reducing heat stress under thermal insulation in protective clothing: microclimate cooling by a 'physiological' method.

    PubMed

    Glitz, K J; Seibel, U; Rohde, U; Gorges, W; Witzki, A; Piekarski, C; Leyk, D

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress caused by protective clothing limits work time. Performance improvement of a microclimate cooling method that enhances evaporative and to a minor extent convective heat loss was tested. Ten male volunteers in protective overalls completed a work-rest schedule (130 min; treadmill: 3 × 30 min, 3 km/h, 5% incline) with or without an additional air-diffusing garment (climatic chamber: 25°C, 50% RH, 0.2 m/s wind). Heat loss was supported by ventilating the garment with dry air (600 l/min, ≪5% RH, 25°C). Ventilation leads (M ± SD, n = 10, ventilated vs. non-ventilated) to substantial strain reduction (max. HR: 123 ± 12 b/min vs. 149 ± 24 b/min) by thermal relief (max. core temperature: 37.8 ± 0.3°C vs. 38.4 ± 0.4°C, max. mean skin temperature: 34.7 ± 0.8°C vs. 37.1 ± 0.3°C) and offers essential extensions in performance and work time under thermal insulation. Heat stress caused by protective clothing limits work time. Performance can be improved by a microclimate cooling method that supports evaporative and to a minor extent convective heat loss. Sweat evaporation is the most effective thermoregulatory mechanism for heat dissipation and can be enhanced by insufflating dry air into clothing.

  4. Two-dimensional numerical modeling and solution of convection heat transfer in turbulent He II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Burt X.; Karr, Gerald R.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical schemes are employed to investigate heat transfer in the turbulent flow of He II. FEM is used to solve a set of equations governing the heat transfer and hydrodynamics of He II in the turbulent regime. Numerical results are compared with available experimental data and interpreted in terms of conventional heat transfer parameters such as the Prandtl number, the Peclet number, and the Nusselt number. Within the prescribed Reynolds number domain, the Gorter-Mellink thermal counterflow mechanism becomes less significant, and He II acts like an ordinary fluid. The convection heat transfer characteristics of He II in the highly turbulent regime can be successfully described by using the conventional turbulence and heat transfer theories.

  5. Analysis of Heat Transfers inside Counterflow Plate Heat Exchanger Augmented by an Auxiliary Fluid Flow

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, A.-R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost. PMID:24719572

  6. Analysis of heat transfers inside counterflow plate heat exchanger augmented by an auxiliary fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Khaled, A-R A

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost.

  7. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  8. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOEpatents

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

  9. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOEpatents

    Stovall, Therese K.; Tomlinson, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

  10. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material ismore » preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.« less

  11. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Clemenzi, Rick; Liu, Su

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce themore » cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.« less

  12. MICRO- AND NANOSCALE MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR PHASE CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ON PLANAR AND STRUCTURED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Buongiorno, J; Cahill, DG; Hidrovo, CH

    2014-07-23

    In this opinion piece, we discuss recent advances in experimental methods for characterizing phase change heat transfer. We begin with a survey of techniques for high-resolution measurements of temperature and heat flux at the solid surface and in the working fluid. Next, we focus on diagnostic tools for boiling heat transfer and describe techniques for visualizing the temperature and velocity fields, as well as measurements at the single bubble level. Finally, we discuss techniques to probe the kinetics of vapor formation within a few molecular layers of the interface. We conclude with our outlook for future progress in experimental methodsmore » for phase change heat transfer.« less

  13. Method and apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Drost, Kevin; Vishwanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2004-06-08

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. In another aspect, the apparatus or methods utilize heat exchange channels of varying lengths that have volumes controlled to provide equal heat fluxes. Methods of fuel cell startup are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  14. Study of Using Solar Thermal Power for the Margarine Melting Heat Process.

    PubMed

    Sharaf Eldean, Mohamed A; Soliman, A M

    2015-04-01

    The heating process of melting margarine requires a vast amount of thermal energy due to its high melting point and the size of the reservoir it is contained in. Existing methods to heat margarine have a high hourly cost of production and use fossil fuels which have been shown to have a negative impact on the environment. Thus, we perform an analytical feasibility study of using solar thermal power as an alternative energy source for the margarine melting process. In this study, the efficiency and cost effectiveness of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) solar field are compared with that of a steam boiler. Different working fluids (water vapor and Therminol-VP1 heat transfer oil (HTO)) through the solar field are also investigated. The results reveal the total hourly cost ($/h) by the conventional configuration is much greater than the solar applications regardless of the type of working fluid. Moreover, the conventional configuration causes a negative impact to the environment by increasing the amount of CO 2 , CO, and NO 2 by 117.4 kg/day, 184 kg/day, and 74.7 kg/day, respectively. Optimized period of melt and tank volume parameters at temperature differences not exceeding 25 °C are found to be 8-10 h and 100 m 3 , respectively. The solar PTC operated with water and steam as the working fluid is recommended as a vital alternative for the margarine melting heating process.

  15. Embedded and conventional ultrasonic sensors for monitoring acoustic emission during thermal fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Blaine; Zagrai, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic emission is widely used for monitoring pressure vessels, pipes, critical infrastructure, as well as land, sea and air vehicles. It is one of dominant approaches to explore material degradation under fatigue and events leading to material fracture. Addressing a recent interest in structural health monitoring of space vehicles, a need has emerged to evaluate material deterioration due to thermal fatigue during spacecraft atmospheric reentry. Thermal fatigue experiments were conducted, in which aluminum plates were subjected to localized heating and acoustic emission was monitoring by embedded and conventional acoustic emission sensors positioned at various distances from a heat source. At the same time, surface temperature of aluminum plates was monitored using an IR camera. Acoustic emission counts collected by embedded sensors were compared to counts measured with conventional acoustic emission sensors. Both types of sensors show noticeable increase of acoustic emission activity as localized heating source was applied to aluminum plates. Experimental data demonstrate correlation between temperature increase on the surface of the plates and increase in measured acoustic emission activity. It is concluded that under particular conditions, embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors can be used for acoustic emission monitoring of thermally-induced structural degradation.

  16. A global optimization method synthesizing heat transfer and thermodynamics for the power generation system with Brayton cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rong-Huan; Zhang, Xing

    2016-09-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide operated in a Brayton cycle offers a numerous of potential advantages for a power generation system, and a lot of thermodynamics analyses have been conducted to increase its efficiency. Because there are a lot of heat-absorbing and heat-lossing subprocesses in a practical thermodynamic cycle and they are implemented by heat exchangers, it will increase the gross efficiency of the whole power generation system to optimize the system combining thermodynamics and heat transfer theory. This paper analyzes the influence of the performance of heat exchangers on the actual efficiency of an ideal Brayton cycle with a simple configuration, and proposes a new method to optimize the power generation system, which aims at the minimum energy consumption. Although the method is operated only for the ideal working fluid in this paper, its merits compared to that only with thermodynamic analysis are fully shown.

  17. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  18. Evaluation of 2 Heat-Mitigation Methods in Army Trainees.

    PubMed

    Sefton, JoEllen M; McAdam, J S; Pascoe, David D; Lohse, K R; Banda, Robert L; Henault, Corbin B; Cherrington, Andrew R; Adams, N E

    2016-11-01

    Heat injury is a significant threat to military trainees. Different methods of heat mitigation are in use across military units. Mist fans are 1 of several methods used in the hot and humid climate of Fort Benning, Georgia.  To determine if (1) the mist fan or the cooling towel effectively lowered participant core temperature in the humid environment found at Fort Benning and (2) the mist fan or the cooling towel presented additional physiologic or safety benefits or detriments when used in this environment.  Randomized controlled clinical trial.  Laboratory environmental chamber.  Thirty-five physically active men aged 19 to 35 years.  (1) Mist fan, (2) commercial cooling towel, (3) passive-cooling (no intervention) control. All treatments lasted 20 minutes. Participants ran on a treadmill at 60% V̇o 2 max.  Rectal core temperature, heart rate, thermal comfort, perceived temperature, perceived wetness, and blood pressure.  Average core temperature increased during 20 minutes of cooling (F 1,28 = 64.76, P < .001, η p 2 = 0.70), regardless of group (F 1,28 = 3.41, P = .08, η p 2 = 0.11) or condition (F 1,28 < 1.0). Core temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure did not differ among the 3 conditions. Perceived temperature during 20 minutes of cooling decreased (F 1,30 = 141.19, P < .001, η p 2 = 0.83) regardless of group or condition. Perceived temperature was lower with the mist-fan treatment than with the control treatment (F 1,15 = 7.38, P = .02, η p 2 = 0.32). The mist-fan group perceived themselves to be cooler even at elevated core temperatures.  The mist fan and cooling towel were both ineffective at lowering core temperature. Core temperature continued to increase after exercise in all groups. The mist fan produced feelings of coolness while the core temperature remained elevated, possibly increasing the risk of heat illness.

  19. Evaluation of 2 Heat-Mitigation Methods in Army Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Sefton, JoEllen M.; McAdam, J. S.; Pascoe, David D.; Lohse, K. R.; Banda, Robert L.; Henault, Corbin B.; Cherrington, Andrew R.; Adams, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Heat injury is a significant threat to military trainees. Different methods of heat mitigation are in use across military units. Mist fans are 1 of several methods used in the hot and humid climate of Fort Benning, Georgia. Objectives: To determine if (1) the mist fan or the cooling towel effectively lowered participant core temperature in the humid environment found at Fort Benning and (2) the mist fan or the cooling towel presented additional physiologic or safety benefits or detriments when used in this environment. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory environmental chamber. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-five physically active men aged 19 to 35 years. Intervention(s): (1) Mist fan, (2) commercial cooling towel, (3) passive-cooling (no intervention) control. All treatments lasted 20 minutes. Participants ran on a treadmill at 60% V̇o2max. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rectal core temperature, heart rate, thermal comfort, perceived temperature, perceived wetness, and blood pressure. Results: Average core temperature increased during 20 minutes of cooling (F1,28 = 64.76, P < .001, ηp2 = 0.70), regardless of group (F1,28 = 3.41, P = .08, ηp2 = 0.11) or condition (F1,28 < 1.0). Core temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure did not differ among the 3 conditions. Perceived temperature during 20 minutes of cooling decreased (F1,30 = 141.19, P < .001, ηp2 = 0.83) regardless of group or condition. Perceived temperature was lower with the mist-fan treatment than with the control treatment (F1,15 = 7.38, P = .02, ηp2 = 0.32). The mist-fan group perceived themselves to be cooler even at elevated core temperatures. Conclusions: The mist fan and cooling towel were both ineffective at lowering core temperature. Core temperature continued to increase after exercise in all groups. The mist fan produced feelings of coolness while the core temperature remained elevated, possibly increasing the risk of heat illness. PMID:27710091

  20. Control system for, and a method of, heating an operator station of a work machine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Thomas M.; Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-04-05

    There are situations in which an operator remains in an operator station of a work machine when an engine of the work machine is inactive. The present invention includes a control system for, and a method of, heating the operator station when the engine is inactive. A heating system of the work machine includes an electrically-powered coolant pump, a power source, and at least one piece of warmed machinery. An operator heat controller is moveable between a first and a second position, and is operable to connect the electrically-powered coolant pump to the power source when the engine is inactive and the operator heat controller is in the first position. Thus, by deactivating the engine and then moving the operator heat controller to the first position, the operator may supply electrical energy to the electrically-powered coolant pump, which is operably coupled to heat the operator station.

  1. Comparative Study of Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles by High-Frequency Heat Dissipation and Conventional Magnetometry

    DOE PAGES

    Malik, V.; Goodwill, J.; Mallapragada, S.; ...

    2014-11-13

    The rate of heating of a water-based colloid of uniformly sized 15 nm magnetic nanoparticles by high-amplitude and high-frequency ac magnetic field induced by the resonating LC circuit (nanoTherics Magnetherm) was measured. The results are analyzed in terms of specific energy absorption rate (SAR). Fitting field amplitude and frequency dependences of SAR to the linear response theory, magnetic moment per particles was extracted. The value of magnetic moment was independently evaluated from dc magnetization measurements (Quantum Design MPMS) of a frozen colloid by fitting field-dependent magnetization to Langevin function. The two methods produced similar results, which are compared to themore » theoretical expectation for this particle size. Additionally, analysis of SAR curves yielded effective relaxation time.« less

  2. Comparison of chemical and heating methods to enhance latent fingerprint deposits on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Bond, John W

    2014-03-01

    A comparison is made of proprietary methods to develop latent fingerprint deposits on the inked side of thermal paper using either chemical treatment (Thermanin) or the application of heat to the paper (Hot Print System). Results with a trial of five donors show that the application of heat produces statistically significantly more fingerprint ridge detail than the chemical treatment for both fingerprint deposits aged up to 4 weeks and for a nine sequence depletion series. Subjecting the thermal paper to heat treatment with the Hot Print System did not inhibit subsequent ninhydrin chemical development of fingerprint deposits on the noninked side of the paper. A further benefit of the application of heat is the rapid development of fingerprint deposits (less than a minute) compared with up to 12 h for the Thermanin chemical treatment.

  3. Comparison of Implicit Collocation Methods for the Heat Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouatchou, Jules; Jezequel, Fabienne; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We combine a high-order compact finite difference scheme to approximate spatial derivatives arid collocation techniques for the time component to numerically solve the two dimensional heat equation. We use two approaches to implement the collocation methods. The first one is based on an explicit computation of the coefficients of polynomials and the second one relies on differential quadrature. We compare them by studying their merits and analyzing their numerical performance. All our computations, based on parallel algorithms, are carried out on the CRAY SV1.

  4. Method and apparatus for cartilage reshaping by radiofrequency heating

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Brian J.; Milner, Thomas E.; Sobol, Emil N.; Keefe, Michael W.

    2003-07-08

    A method and apparatus for reshaping cartilage using radiofrequency heating. The cartilage temperature is raised sufficiently for stress relaxation to occur in the cartilage, but low enough so that significant denaturation of the cartilage does not occur. The RF electrodes may be designed to also function as molds, preses, clamps, or mandrills to deform the cartilage tissue. Changes in various properties of the cartilage associated with stress relaxation in the cartilage may be measured in order to provide the control signal to provide effective reshaping without denaturation.

  5. SOF Integration with Conventional Forces: A Doctrine Gap?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    close tolerances, friction in an engine can be reduced considerably. However, there will always be energy lost in the system as heat. The goal is to...armed peshmerga. The combat power analysis favored the Iraqis on the ground. JSOTF planners only recourse was to rely on air power to close this gap . A...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited SOF Integration with Conventional Forces: A Doctrine Gap ? A Monograph by MAJ Gregory M

  6. Transient modeling/analysis of hyperbolic heat conduction problems employing mixed implicit-explicit alpha method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; D'Costa, Joseph F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of mixed implicit-explicit finite element formulations for hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects. In particular, mixed implicit-explicit formulations employing the alpha method proposed by Hughes et al. (1987, 1990) are described for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models, which involves time-dependent relaxation effects. Existing analytical approaches for modeling/analysis of such models involve complex mathematical formulations for obtaining closed-form solutions, while in certain numerical formulations the difficulties include severe oscillatory solution behavior (which often disguises the true response) in the vicinity of the thermal disturbances, which propagate with finite velocities. In view of these factors, the alpha method is evaluated to assess the control of the amount of numerical dissipation for predicting the transient propagating thermal disturbances. Numerical test models are presented, and pertinent conclusions are drawn for the mixed-time integration simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects.

  7. Comparing ambient, air-convection, and fluid-convection heating techniques in treating hypothermic burn patients, a clinical RCT

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypothermia in burns is common and increases morbidity and mortality. Several methods are available to reach and maintain normal core body temperature, but have not yet been evaluated in critical care for burned patients. Our unit's ordinary technique for controlling body temperature (Bair Hugger®+ radiator ceiling + bed warmer + Hotline®) has many drawbacks e.g.; slow and the working environment is hampered. The aim of this study was to compare our ordinary heating technique with newly-developed methods: the Allon™2001 Thermowrap (a temperature regulating water-mattress), and Warmcloud (a temperature regulating air-mattress). Methods Ten consecutive burned patients (> 20% total burned surface area and a core temperature < 36.0°C) were included in this prospective, randomised, comparative study. Patients were randomly exposed to 3 heating methods. Each treatment/measuring-cycle lasted for 6 hours. Each heating method was assessed for 2 hours according to a randomised timetable. Core temperature was measured using an indwelling (bladder) thermistor. Paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of differences between the treatments within the patients. ANOVA was used to assess the differences in temperature from the first to the last measurement among all treatments. Three-way ANOVA with the Tukey HSD post hoc test and a repeated measures ANOVA was used in the same manner, but included information about patients and treatment/measuring-cycles to control for potential confounding. Data are presented as mean (SD) and (range). Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. Results The mean increase, 1.4 (SD 0.6°C; range 0.6-2.6°C) in core temperature/treatment/measuring-cycle highly significantly favoured the Allon™2001 Thermowrap in contrast to the conventional method 0.2 (0.6)°C (range -1.2 to 1.5°C) and the Warmcloud 0.3 (0.4)°C (range -0.4 to 0.9°C). The procedures for using the Allon™2001 Thermowrap were experienced

  8. Consumer acceptance and aroma characterization of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powders prepared by extrusion and conventional processing methods.

    PubMed

    Szczygiel, Edward J; Harte, Janice B; Strasburg, Gale M; Cho, Sungeun

    2017-09-01

    Food products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds. Consumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P < 0.001). GC-O data showed that the commercial powder produced through conventional processing had much greater contents of several aliphatic aldehydes commonly formed via lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, octanal and nonanal with descriptors of 'grassy', 'nutty', 'fruity', 'dusty', and 'cleaner', compared to the extruded powder. Extrusion processed navy bean powders were preferred over commercial powders for certain navy bean powder applications. This is best explained by substantial differences in aroma profiles of the two powders that may have been caused by lipid oxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. [Reserved] 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF....107 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters...

  10. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. [Reserved] 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF....107 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters...

  11. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. [Reserved] 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF....107 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters...

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Microstructural Features of 28 wt.% Cr Cast Iron Fabricated by Pulsed Plasma Deposition and Conventional Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabak, Yu. G.; Efremenko, V. G.; Shimizu, K.; Lekatou, A.; Pastukhova, T. V.; Azarkhov, A. Yu.; Zurnadzhy, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of pulsed plasma deposition (by an electrothermal axial plasma accelerator) followed by post-heat treatment on the structure and microhardness of a 28 wt.% Cr white cast iron is analyzed and discussed with respect to the microstructure of the conventionally cast monolithic counterpart. The cast iron (as deposited on a 14 wt.% Cr cast iron substrate) had a microhardness of 630-750 HV0.05; it had layered light contrast/dark contrast structure where dark contrast layers contain fine carbide network. Pulsed plasma deposition followed by heat treatment resulted in a substantial refinement of the microstructure: eutectic M7C3 coarse acicular plates in the conventional cast iron were replaced by fine M7C3, M3C2, M3C particles (Cr depleted in favor of Fe), while the initial carbide particle of 2-3 μm was reduced to 0.6 μm. Secondary dendrite arm spacing decreased from 15 to 1.3 μm, accordingly. The carbide volume fraction in the post-heat-treated coating remarkably increased with respect to the conventional counterpart resulting in a substantial increase in the coating hardness (1300-1750 HV0.05). The heat-treated coating displayed higher resistance to three-body abrasion than the as-deposited coating and similar resistance with that of the conventionally cast iron.

  13. Parallel Implementation of a High Order Implicit Collocation Method for the Heat Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouatchou, Jules; Halem, Milton (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We combine a high order compact finite difference approximation and collocation techniques to numerically solve the two dimensional heat equation. The resulting method is implicit arid can be parallelized with a strategy that allows parallelization across both time and space. We compare the parallel implementation of the new method with a classical implicit method, namely the Crank-Nicolson method, where the parallelization is done across space only. Numerical experiments are carried out on the SGI Origin 2000.

  14. Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jorge; Echeverria, Julian; Silva, Andrea; Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Mella, Karla; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Modern life has created a high demand for functional food, and in this context, emerging technologies such as vacuum impregnation and ohmic heating have been applied to generate functional foods. The aim of this research was to enrich the content of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine in apple cubes using vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, and ohmic heating. Additionally, combined vacuum impregnation/conventional heating and vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatments were evaluated. The above treatments were applied at 30, 40 and 50  ℃ and combined with air-drying at 40 ℃ in order to obtain an apple snack rich in L-arginine. Both the impregnation kinetics of L-arginine and sample color were evaluated. The impregnated samples created using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating at 50 ℃ presented a high content of L-arginine, an effect attributed primarily to electropermeabilization. Overall, vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatment at 50 ℃, followed by drying at 40 ℃, was the best process for obtaining an apple snack rich in L-arginine.

  15. Method to reduce non-specific tissue heating of small animals in solenoid coils

    PubMed Central

    KUMAR, ANANDA; ATTALURI, ANILCHANDRA; MALLIPUDI, RAJIV; CORNEJO, CHRISTINE; BORDELON, DAVID; ARMOUR, MICHAEL; MORUA, KATHERINE; DEWEESE, THEODORE L.; IVKOV, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Solenoid coils that generate time-varying or alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) are used in biomedical devices for research, imaging and therapy. Interactions of AMF and tissue produce eddy currents that deposit power within tissue, thus limiting effectiveness and safety. We aim to develop methods that minimise excess heating of mice exposed to AMFs for cancer therapy experiments. Materials and methods Numerical and experimental data were obtained to characterise thermal management properties of water using a continuous, custom water jacket in a four-turn simple solenoid. Theoretical data were obtained with method-of-moments (MoM) numerical field calculations and finite element method (FEM) thermal simulations. Experimental data were obtained from gel phantoms and mice exposed to AMFs having amplitude >50kA/m and frequency of 160 kHz. Results Water has a high specific heat and thermal conductivity, is diamagnetic, polar, and nearly transparent to magnetic fields. We report at least a two-fold reduction of temperature increase from gel phantom and animal models when a continuous layer of circulating water was placed between the sample and solenoid, compared with no water. Thermal simulations indicate the superior efficiency in thermal management by the developed continuous single chamber cooling system over a double chamber non-continuous system. Further reductions of heating were obtained by regulating water temperature and flow for active cooling. Conclusions These results demonstrate the potential value of a contiguous layer of circulating water to permit sustained exposure to high intensity alternating magnetic fields at this frequency for research using small animal models exposed to AMFs. PMID:23402327

  16. Heat Treatment Devices and Method of Operation Thereof to Produce Dual Microstructure Superalloys Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Kantzos, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A heat treatment assembly and heat treatment methods are disclosed for producing different microstructures in the bore and rim portions of nickel-based superalloy disks, particu- larly suited for gas turbine applications. The heat treatment assembly is capable of being removed from the furnace and disassembled to allow rapid fan or oil quenching of the disk. For solutioning heat treatments of the disk, temperatures higher than that of this solvus temperature of the disk are used to produce coarse grains in the rim of each disk so as to give maximum creep and dwell crack resistance at the rim service temperature. At the same time, solution temperature lower than the solvus temperature of the disk are provided to produce fine grain in the bore of the disk so as to give maximum strength and low cycle fatigue resistance.

  17. Study of a high performance evaporative heat transfer surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hamasaki, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaporative surface is described for heat pipes and other two-phase heat transfer applications that consists of a hybrid composition of V-grooves and capillary wicking. Characteristics of the surface include both a high heat transfer coefficient and high heat flux capability relative to conventional open-faced screw thread surfaces. With a groove density of 12.6 cm/1 and ammonia working fluid, heat transfer coefficients in the range of 1 to 2 W/sq cm have been measured along with maximum heat flux densities in excess of 20 W/sq cm. A peak heat transfer coefficient in excess of 2.3 W/sq cm was measured with a 37.8 cm/1 hybrid surface.

  18. Adherence of Candida to complete denture surfaces in vitro: A comparison of conventional and CAD/CAM complete dentures

    PubMed Central

    Al-mejrad, Lamya A.; Albarrag, Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The goal of this study was to compare the adhesion of Candida albicans to the surfaces of CAD/CAM and conventionally fabricated complete denture bases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty discs of acrylic resin poly (methyl methacrylate) were fabricated with CAD/CAM and conventional procedures (heat-polymerized acrylic resin). The specimens were divided into two groups: 10 discs were fabricated using the CAD/CAM procedure (Wieland Digital Denture Ivoclar Vivadent), and 10 discs were fabricated using a conventional flasking and pressure-pack technique. Candida colonization was performed on all the specimens using four Candida albicans isolates. The difference in Candida albicans adhesion on the discs was evaluated. The number of adherent yeast cells was calculated by the colony-forming units (CFU) and by Fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS There was a significant difference in the adhesion of Candida albicans to the complete denture bases created with CAD/CAM and the adhesion to those created with the conventional procedure. The CAD/CAM denture bases exhibited less adhesion of Candida albicans than did the denture bases created with the conventional procedure (P<.05). CONCLUSION The CAD/CAM procedure for fabricating complete dentures showed promising potential for reducing the adherence of Candida to the denture base surface. Clinical Implications. Complete dentures made with the CAD/CAM procedure might decrease the incidence of denture stomatitis compared with conventional dentures. PMID:29142649

  19. Quality comparison of continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing versus conventional canning of whole and sliced mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Walker, P N

    2011-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate segmented-flow aseptic processing of particle foods. A pilot-scale continuous steam sterilization unit capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed whole and sliced mushrooms was developed. The system utilized pressurized steam as the heating medium to achieve high temperature-short time processing conditions with high and uniform heat transfer that will enable static temperature penetration studies for process development. Segmented-flow technology produced a narrower residence time distribution than pipe-flow aseptic processing; thus, whole and sliced mushrooms were processed only as long as needed to achieve the target F₀  = 7.0 min and were not overcooked. Continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing produced shelf stable aseptically processed mushrooms of superior quality to conventionally canned mushrooms. When compared to conventionally canned mushrooms, aseptically processed yield (weight basis) increased 6.1% (SD = 2.9%) and 6.6% (SD = 2.2%), whiteness (L) improved 3.1% (SD = 1.9%) and 4.7% (SD = 0.7%), color difference (ΔE) improved 6.0% (SD = 1.3%) and 8.5% (SD = 1.5%), and texture improved 3.9% (SD = 1.7%) and 4.6% (SD = 4.2%), for whole and sliced mushrooms, respectively. Segmented-flow aseptic processing eliminated a separate blanching step, eliminated the unnecessary packaging of water and promoted the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. Segmented-flow aseptic processing is capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed particle foods of superior quality to a conventionally canned product. This unique continuous steam sterilization process eliminates the need for a separate blanching step, reduces or eliminates the need for a liquid carrier, and promotes the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Maxillary incisors changes during space closure with conventional and skeletal anchorage methods: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes) and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration) were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. More RCT's that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.