Brune, Iris B.; Schönleben, K.; Omran, S.
The growing popularity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has made extensive series comparing laparoscopic and conventional cholecystectomy in a prospective, randomized way nearly impossible. To evaluate LC we compared retrospectively 800 laparoscopic with 748 conventional cholecystectomies (CC). Of the 800 LC, 10 (1.2%) were converted to laparotomy. 6 conversions were related to aberrant anatomical features or features making dissection very difficult, 4 conversions were due to complications. There were 5 (0, 6%) intraoperative complications during LC and 4 (0.5%) during CC. Postoperative morbidity was 2.1% (n = 17) after LC and 3.7% (n = 28) after CC. Particularly the incidence of wound problems was only 0.5% (n = 4) after LC while it was 1.3% (n = 10) after CC. Overall morbidity was 2.7% (n = 22) for LC and 4.2% (n = 32) for CC. Mortality rate after CC was 0.4% (n = 3), there were no deaths after LC. Common bile duct-injury rate was 0.2% (n = 2) for both groups. Complication rates after LC have been rapidly decreasing with growing experience. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can safely be performed by appropriately trained surgeons in more than 90% of patients suffering from gallbladder disease. The low morbidity and mortality together with the significant advantages to patient recovery makes laparoscopic cholecystectomy the treatment of choice for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. PMID:7993860
Lezana Pérez, María Ángeles; Carreño Villarreal, Guillermo; Lora Cumplido, Paola; Alvarez Obregón, Raúl
To analyse the effectiveness and quality of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLCMA) versus management of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with conventional hospital stay (CLEST). A retrospective study was conducted on all patients ASA I-II, who had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over a period of 6 years. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group CLCMA (n = 141 patients) and group CLEST (n = 286 patients). The effectiveness was analysed by evaluating morbidity, further surgery, re-admission and hospital stay. The quality analysis was performed using CLCMA group satisfaction surveys and subsequent assessment by indicators of satisfaction. There was no significant differences between groups (CLEST vs. CLCMA) in morbidity (5.24 vs 4.26), further surgery (2.45 vs. 1.42) or re-admissions (1.40 vs. 3.55). There was no postoperative mortality. In the CLCMA group 82% of patients were discharged on the same day of surgery, with a mean stay of 1.16 days, while in the CLEST group the mean hospital stay was 2.94 days (P=.003).The overall satisfaction rate was 82%, and the level of satisfaction of care received was 81%, both above the previously set standard. CLCMA is just as effective and safe as hospital based CLEST, with a good level of perceived quality. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Glaser, F; Sannwald, G A; Buhr, H J; Kuntz, C; Mayer, H; Klee, F; Herfarth, C
OBJECTIVE: In many retrospective and prospective observational studies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) compares favorably with conventional cholecystectomy (CC), with respect to length of hospital stay, postoperative pain, and pulmonary function, indicating a diminished operative trauma. Comparison of laboratory findings (stress hormones, blood glucose, interleukins) are a possibility to objectify stress and tissue trauma of laparoscopic and conventional cholecystectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major body injury, surgical or accidental, evokes reproducible hormonal and immunologic responses. The magnitude of many of these changes essentially is proportional to the extent of the injury. METHODS: In a prospective study, biochemical stress parameters were measured in the blood of patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy because of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Patients with acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, or malignant disease were excluded. Values from 40 patients after LC and from 18 patients after CC were compared. Both groups had similar patient characteristics, baseline values, and perioperative care, except for deeper anesthesia during CC. RESULTS: On postoperative day 1, epinephrine (p = 0,05), norepinephrine (p = 0.02), and glucose (p = 0.02) responses were higher after CC. Two days postoperatively, norepinephrine remained higher after CC (p < 0.01). Interleukin-1 beta responses were higher during (p < 0.01) and 6 hours after CC (p = 0.03). Interleukin-6 responses were higher 6 hours (p = 0.03), 1 day (p = 0.02), and 2 days (p < 0.01) after CC. CONCLUSIONS: The results show significant lower values of intraoperatively and postoperatively measured epinephrine, norepinephrine, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, indicating a minor stress response and tissue trauma in this group of patients. The results correspond to the favorable results of most other trials evaluating clinical
Prof Dr Med Erich Mühe of Böblingen, Germany, performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy on September 12, 1985. The German Surgical Society rejected Mühe in 1986 after he reported that he had performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy, yet in 1992 he received their highest award, the German Surgical Society Anniversary Award. In 1990 in Atlanta, at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Surgeons (SAGES) Convention, Perissat, Berci, Cuschieri, Dubois, and Mouret were recognized by SAGES for performing early laparoscopic cholecystectomies, but Mühe was not. However, in 1999 he was recognized by SAGES for having performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy-SAGES invited Mühe to present the Storz Lecture. In Mühe's presentation, titled "The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy," which he gave in March 1999 in San Antonio, Texas, he described the first procedure. Finally, Mühe had received the worldwide acclaim that he deserved for his pioneering work. One purpose of this article is to trace the development of the basic instruments used in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The other purpose is to give Mühe the recognition he deserves for being the developer of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure.
Chekan, Edward; Moore, Matthew; Hunter, Tina D; Gunnarsson, Candace
This study compares hospital costs and clinical outcomes for conventional laparoscopic, single-port, and mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy from US hospitals. Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years and undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with records in the Premier Hospital Database from 2009 through the second quarter of 2010. Patients were categorized into 3 groups-conventional laparoscopic, single port, or mini-laparoscopic-based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology codes and hospital charge descriptions for surgical tools used. A procedure was considered mini-laparoscopic if no single-port surgery products were identified in the charge master descriptions and the patient record showed that at least 1 product measuring 5 mm was used, not more than 1 product measuring <5 mm was used, and the measurements of the other products identified equaled >5 mm. Summary statistics were generated for all 3 groups. Multivariable analyses were performed on hospital costs and clinical outcomes. Models were adjusted for demographics, patient severity, comorbid conditions, and hospital characteristics. In the outpatient setting, for single-port surgery, hospital costs were approximately $834 more than those for mini-laparoscopic surgery and $964 more than those for conventional laparoscopic surgery (P < .0001). Adverse events were significantly higher (P < .0001) for single-port surgery compared with mini-laparoscopic surgery (95% confidence interval for odds ratio, 1.38-2.68) and single-port surgery versus conventional surgery (95% confidence interval for odds ratio, 1.37-2.35). Mini-laparoscopic surgery hospital costs were significantly (P < .0001) lower than the costs for conventional surgery by $211, and there were no significant differences in adverse events. These findings should inform practice patterns, treatment guidelines, and payor policy in managing cholecystectomy patients.
Yousef, Gamal T.; Lasheen, Ahmed E.
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy became the standard surgery for gallstone disease because of causing less postoperative pain, respiratory compromise and early ambulation. Objective: This study was designed to compare spinal anesthesia, (segmental thoracic or conventional lumbar) vs the gold standard general anesthesia as three anesthetic techniques for healthy patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, evaluating intraoperative parameters, postoperative recovery and analgesia, complications as well as patient and surgeon satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, between January 2010 and May 2011, were randomized into three equal groups to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum under segmental thoracic (TSA group) or conventional lumbar (LSA group) spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia (GA group). To achieve a T3 sensory level we used (hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg, and fentanyl 25 mg at L2/L3) for LSAgroup, and (hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg, and fentanyl 25 mg at T10/T11) for TSAgroup. Propofol, fentanyl, atracurium, sevoflurane, and tracheal intubation were used for GA group. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative recovery and analgesia, complications as well as patient and surgeon satisfaction were compared between the three groups. Results: All procedures were completed laparoscopically by the allocated method of anesthesia with no anesthetic conversions. The time for the blockade to reach T3 level, intraoperative hypotensive and bradycardic events and vasopressor use were significantly lower in (TSA group) than in (LSA group). Postoperative pain scores as assessed throughout any time, postoperative right shoulder pain and hospital stay was lower for both (TSA group) and (LSA group) compared with (GA group). The higher degree of patients satisfaction scores were recorded in patients under segmental TSA. Conclusion: The present
Hajong, Debobratta; Natung, Tanie; Anand, Madhur; Sharma, Girish
Introduction Cholelithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the digestive tract encountered by general surgeons worldwide. Conventional or open cholecystectomy was the mainstay of treatment for a long time for this disease. In the 1980s laparoscopic surgery revolutionized the management of biliary tract diseases. It brought about a revolutionary change in the basic concepts of surgical principles and minimal access surgery gradually started to be acknowledged as a safe means of carrying out surgeries. Aim To investigate the technical feasibility, safety and benefit of Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC) versus Conventional Four Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (C4PLC). Materials and Methods This prospective randomized control trial was conducted to compare the advantages if any between the SILC and C4PLC. Thirty two patients underwent SILC procedure and C4PLC, each. The age of the patients ranged from 16-60years. Other demographic data and indications for cholecystectomy were comparable in both the groups. Simple comparative statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. Results on continuous variables are shown in Mean ± SD; whereas results on categorical variables are shown in percentage (%) by keeping the level of significance at 5%. Intergroup analysis of the various study parameters was done by using Fisher exact test. SPSS version 22 was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean operating time was higher in the SILC group (69 ± 4.00 mins vs. 38.53 ± 4.00 mins) which was of statistical significance (p=<0.05). Furthermore, the patients of the SILC group had less post-operative pain, with lesser analgesic requirements (p=<0.05), shorter hospital stay and earlier return to normal activity. Conclusion SILC is feasible and safe in trained hands. It did not compromise the procedural safety, or lead to any complication. The operating time was longer otherwise it has almost similar clinical outcomes to those of C4PLC. PMID
Christensen, Anders Mark; Christensen, Mads Mark
Single-insicion laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represent the latest development in minimally invasive surgery and are used in a wide variety of operations, e.g. cholecystectomies. The proposed benefits are less surgical trauma, reduced post-operative pain, smaller risk of infection and hence a shortened hospital stay compared with conventional laparoscopy. So far, no randomised study has uniformly shown clear advantages of SILS or NOTES that could justify an implementation of these techniques as acceptable alternatives to conventional laparoscopy.
Borges, Marisa de Carvalho; Takeuti, Tharsus Dias; Terra, Guilherme Azevedo; Ribeiro, Betânia Maria; Rodrigues-Júnior, Virmondes; Crema, Eduardo
Surgical trauma triggers an important postoperative stress response characterized by significantly elevated levels of cytokines, an event that can favor the emergence of immune disorders which lead to disturbances in the patient's body defense. The magnitude of postoperative stress is related to the degree of surgical trauma. To evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokines in patients submitted to conventional and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy before and 24 h after surgery. Forty women with symptomatic cholelithiasis, ranging in age from 18 to 70 years, participated in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: 21 submitted to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 19 to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Evaluation of the immune response showed no significant difference in IFN-γ and IL-1β levels between the groups or time points analyzed. With respect to TNF-α and IL-4, serum levels below the detection limit (10 pg/ml) were observed in the two groups and at the time points analyzed. Significantly higher postoperative expression of IL-17A was detected in patients submitted to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to preoperative levels (p=0.0094). Significant postoperative expression of IL-17 was observed in the group submitted to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to preoperative levels, indicating that surgical stress in this group was higher compared to the conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. O trauma cirúrgico induz resposta de estresse pós-operatório significativo, evidenciado pelos níveis elevados de citocinas, podendo favorecer o surgimento de distúrbios imunológicos. A magnitude de estresse está relacionada ao grau do trauma cirúrgico. Avaliar a expressão das citocinas pró-inflamatórias (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-17) e da anti-inflamatória (IL-4) no pré e pós-operatório de pacientes
Xu, Jian; Xu, Liang; Li, Lintao; Zha, Siluo; Hu, Zhiqian
Transvaginal laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TVC) is becoming an attractive alternative to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). We conducted a meta-analysis study to compare the outcome and side effects between TVC and CLC. Clinical studies on TVC with CLC as control were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE (from 2007 to December 2013). Nine studies were identified for meta-analysis. Our results showed that TVC required much longer operative time [MD, 30.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 13.00-48.65; P=0.0007] and had significantly lower pain score on postoperative day 1 as compared with CLC (MD, -1.77; 95% CI, -2.91 to -0.63; P=0.002). No statistical difference in days of hospital stay (MD, -1.60; 95% CI, -4.73 to 1.54; P=0.32) and number of complications was found between the 2 groups (risk ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.25-1.10; P=0.09). Safety of TVC is similar as CLC. In conclusion, TVC patients have significantly less postoperative pain but need much longer operative time.
Prospective Observational Study of Single-Site Multiport Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endosurgery versus Conventional Multiport Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Critical Appraisal of a Unique Umbilical Approach
Jategaonkar, Priyadarshan Anand; Yadav, Sudeep Pradeep
Purpose. This prospective observational study compares an innovative approach of Single-Site Multi-Port Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endo-surgery (SSMPPLE) cholecystectomy with the gold standard—Conventional Multi-port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (CMLC)—to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the former. Methods. In all, 646 patients were studied. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy utilized three ports inserted through three independent mini-incisions at the umbilicus. Only the day-to-day rigid laparoscopic instruments were used in all cases. The SSMPPLE cholecystectomy group had 320 patients and the CMLC group had 326 patients. The outcomes were statistically compared. Results. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy had average operative time of 43.8 min and blood loss of 9.4 mL. Their duration of hospitalization was 1.3 days (range, 1–5). Six patients (1.9%) of this group were converted to CMLC. Eleven patients had controlled gallbladder perforations at dissection. The Visual Analogue Scores for pain on postoperative days 0 and 7, the operative time, and the scar grades were significantly better for SSMPPLE than CMLC. However, umbilical sepsis and seroma outcomes were similar. We had no bile-duct injuries or port-site hernias in this study. Conclusion. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy approach complies with the principles of laparoscopic triangulation; it seems feasible and safe method of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Overall, it has a potential to emerge as an economically viable alternative to single-port surgery. PMID:24876955
Palanisamy, Senthilnathan; Patel, Nikunj; Sabnis, Sandeep; Palanisamy, Nalankilli; Vijay, Anand; Palanivelu, Praveenraj; Parthasarthi, R; Chinnusamy, Palanivelu
Gall bladder cancer (GBC) is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract with extremely poor prognosis. Radical resection remains the only potential curative treatment for operable lesions. Although laparoscopic approach is now considered as standard of care for many gastrointestinal malignancies, surgical community is still reluctant to use this approach for GBC probably because of fear of tumor dissemination, inadequate lymphadenectomy and overall nihilistic approach. Aim of this study was to share our initial experience of laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy (LRC) for suspected early GBC. From 2008 to 2013, 91 patients were evaluated for suspected GBC, of which, 14 patients had early disease and underwent LRC. Mean age of the cohort was 61.14 ± 4.20 years with male/female ratio of 1:1.33. Mean operating time was 212.9 ± 26.73 min with mean blood loss of 196.4 ± 63.44 ml. Mean hospital stay was 5.14 ± 0.86 days without any 30-day mortality. Bile leak occurred in two patients. Out of 14 patients, 12 had adenocarcinoma, one had xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and another had adenomyomatosis of gall bladder as final pathology. Resected margins were free in all (>1 cm). Median number of lymph nodes resected was 8 (4-14). Pathological stage of disease was pT2N0 in eight, pT2N1 in three and pT3N0 in one patient. Median follow-up was 51 (14-70) months with 5-year survival 68.75 %. Laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy with lymphadenectomy can be a viable alternative for management of early GBC in terms of technical feasibility and oncological clearance along with offering the conventional advantages of minimal access approach.
Hauters, Philippe; Auvray, Sylvain; Cardin, Jean Luc; Papillon, Marc; Delaby, Jean; Dabrowski, André; Framery, Dominique; Valverde, Alain; Rubay, Raphaël; Siriser, Frank; Malvaux, Philippe; Landenne, Jacques
The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). Patients' inclusion criteria were uncomplicated gallstones, BMI ≤30, ASA score ≤2, and no past surgery in the upper abdomen. Five surgeons performed only SILC and seven only CLC. Data analyzed included operative time, morbidity, quality of life (QOL), cosmetic result, and global patient satisfaction. The last three parameters were evaluated 3 months after surgery. QOL was assessed with the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) questionnaire. Cosmetic result and patient satisfaction were rated using a 5-grade Likert scale. This study included 104 patients operated on between April and June 2010. A SILC was performed in 35 patients and a CLC in 69. The preoperative characteristics of the two groups were similar. Median operative time for SILC was higher than that for CLC: 55 versus 40 min (p < 0.001). Postoperative complications (0 vs. 2) and postoperative GIQLI scores (123 ± 13 vs. 121 ± 18) were not significantly different between groups. Cosmetic result and patient satisfaction were better for SILC than for CLC. The percentages of results rated as excellent were 68 versus 37 % (p < 0.006) and 80 versus 57 % (p < 0.039), respectively. For the whole group, multivariate statistical analysis revealed that postoperative GIQLI score and cosmetic result were independent predictive factors of patient satisfaction. The percentages of satisfaction rated as excellent were greater in patients who had a postoperative GIQLI score ≥130 (92 vs. 49 %, odds ratio [OR] = 4, p < 0.001) and in patients who had an excellent cosmetic result (82 vs. 47 %, OR = 7, p < 0.001). Compared to CLC, SILC is associated with a longer operative time, an equivalent morbidity and QOL, and a better cosmetic result. The improved aesthetic result also leads to a better global patient satisfaction.
Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Ali, Syed Asad; Munir, Ambreen; Shaikh, Aijaz Ali
To find out safety and feasibility of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLIC) using conventional instruments. This study was conducted at surgical department of LUMHS Jamshoro Pakistan from Jan: 2014 to Dec: 2015. All cases of symptomatic cholelithiasis that consented for laparoscopic surgery were included. The exclusion criteria were acute cholecystitis, acute gall stone pancreatitis, common bile duct stones and patients with co-morbid. A midline 3cm incision made supraumbilically and 10mm port placed. Two 5mm ports placed on either side of umbilicus slightly superior and laterally in or-der to triangulate. A 2/0 prolene suture placed through the infundibulum of the gall bladder to achieve retraction. The rest of the procedure is like standard 4 ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Total no of cases were 50. The age ranged from 30-59 years (mean 35.20 years ±4.886.) There were 43(86%) females and 07(14%) males. The mean operating time was 80 minutes (range 50-120 ±16.020). Four (8%) cases were converted to standard four ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to bleeding and difficult dissection in Calot's triangle. Minimal blood loss was observed during the procedure with no postoperative complications. The range of hospital stay was 1-2 days (mean 1.08 ±0.274). SILC is a safe and feasible procedure with conventional laparoscopic instruments without additional cost of single port and articulated instruments. The cosmetic results are excellent with minimal increase in the operating time.
Li, Yu-Pei; Wang, Shen-Nien; Lee, King-Teh
Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) is currently the standard of surgical procedure for gallstone disease. Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive surgery; it is safe and ergonomic, but expensive. The aim of this study is to compare the medical resource utilization and clinical outcomes between the two procedures. This study was conducted retrospectively by assessing data of the clinical outcomes and medical resource of 78 patients receiving RC and 367 patients receiving CLC. We reviewed the data of operation times, length of hospital stay, hospital charges, outpatient department visits, outpatient department service charges, and postoperative complications, which were retrieved from the health information system (HIS) database in this hospital. Patients in both groups had similar demographic and clinical features. The RC group had longer length of hospital stay (p=0.056), significantly longer operation time (p=0.035), and much more hospital charges (p=0.001). The RC group, however, experienced less postoperative complication rates (average 3.8% vs. 20.4%, p=0.001). Conversion rate was 1.9% in the CLC group versus 0% in the RC group (p=0.611). Most complications were mild, and following the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were two cases (2.5%) Grade I for the RC group; 50 cases (13.6%) Grade I and 14 cases (3.81%) Grade II for the CLC group (p<0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Procedure-related complications of Grade IIIa status were encountered in nine patients (2.45%) in the CLC group and none in the RC group (p=0.002).The RC group consumed more medical resources in the index hospitalization; however, they experienced significantly less postoperative complications.
ABAID, Rafael Antoniazzi; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has traditionally been performed with four incisions to insert four trocars, in a simple, efficient and safe way. Aim To describe a simplified technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions, using basic conventional instrumental. Technique In one incision in the umbilicus are applied two trocars and in epigastrium one more. The use of two trocars on the same incision, working in "x" does not hinder the procedure and does not require special instruments. Conclusion Simplified laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions is feasible and easy to perform, allowing to operate with ergonomy and safety, with good cosmetic result. PMID:25004296
Nowzaradan, Y; Westmoreland, J C
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed on 65 unselected and consecutive patients, regardless of age, weight, history of abdominal surgery or presence of acute cholecystitis. All procedures were completed successfully, with only two patients converted to an open cholecystectomy. There were no intra-abdominal intraoperative complications; n o intraoperative transfusions were required. There were no intra-abdominal injuries, and no patient required repeat surgery for postoperative complications. Hospital stays averaged 30 hours, and the average time until patients resumed normal activities was 6 days.
Neufeld, D; Sivak, G; Jessel, J; Freund, U
We performed 417 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, including 58 for acute cholecystitis, between September 1991 and April 1995,. All operations were successful, with no mortality or complications. In about 10%, the laparoscopic approach failed and we converted to open cholecystectomy. Average post-operative hospitalization was 24 hours. We also performed primary open cholecystectomies in 55 patients with acute cholecystitis, because of limitations of operating room and staff availability for unscheduled laparoscopic surgery. In these patients, hospital stay was longer and rate of complications higher. In our opinion laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and the preferred approach in acute cholecystitis.
Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Ali, Syed Asad; Munir, Ambreen; Shaikh, Aijaz Ali
Objective: To find out safety and feasibility of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLIC) using conventional instruments. Methods: This study was conducted at surgical department of LUMHS Jamshoro Pakistan from Jan: 2014 to Dec: 2015. All cases of symptomatic cholelithiasis that consented for laparoscopic surgery were included. The exclusion criteria were acute cholecystitis, acute gall stone pancreatitis, common bile duct stones and patients with co-morbid. A midline 3cm incision made supraumbilically and 10mm port placed. Two 5mm ports placed on either side of umbilicus slightly superior and laterally in or-der to triangulate. A 2/0 prolene suture placed through the infundibulum of the gall bladder to achieve retraction. The rest of the procedure is like standard 4 ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: Total no of cases were 50. The age ranged from 30-59 years (mean 35.20 years ±4.886.) There were 43(86%) females and 07(14%) males. The mean operating time was 80 minutes (range 50-120 ±16.020). Four (8%) cases were converted to standard four ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to bleeding and difficult dissection in Calot’s triangle. Minimal blood loss was observed during the procedure with no postoperative complications. The range of hospital stay was 1-2 days (mean 1.08 ±0.274). Conclusion: SILC is a safe and feasible procedure with conventional laparoscopic instruments without additional cost of single port and articulated instruments. The cosmetic results are excellent with minimal increase in the operating time. PMID:28811789
Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Bayraktar, Baris; Bayraktar, Onur; Tosun, Salih; Bilgic, Cagri; Demiral, Gokhan; Ozturk, Erman; Yigitbasi, Rafet; Alimoglu, Orhan
Introduction Conventional laparoscopic procedures have been used for splenic diseases and concomitant gallbladder stones, frequently in patients with hereditary spherocytosis since 1990’s. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of single-site surgery with conventional instruments in combined procedures. Presentation of case series Six consecutive patients who scheduled for combined cholecystectomy and splenectomy because of hereditary spherocytosis or autoimmune hemolytic anemia were included this study. Both procedures were performed via trans-umbilical single-site multiport approach using conventional instruments. All procedures completed successfully without conversion to open surgery or conventional laparoscopic surgery. An additional trocar was required for only one patient. The mean operation time was 190 min (150–275 min). The mean blood loss was 185 ml (70–300 ml). Median postoperative hospital stay was two days. No perioperative mortality or major complications occurred in our series. Recurrent anemia, hernia formation or wound infection was not observed during the follow-up period. Discussion Nowadays, publications are arising about laparoscopic or single site surgery for combined diseases. Surgery for combined diseases has some difficulties owing to the placement of organs and position of the patient during laparoscopic surgery. Single site laparoscopic surgery has been proposed to have better cosmetic outcome, less postoperative pain, greater patient satisfaction and faster recovery compared to standard laparoscopy. Conclusion We consider that single-site multiport laparoscopic approach for combined splenectomy and cholecystectomy is a safe and feasible technique, after gaining enough experience on single site surgery. PMID:26708949
Sinha, Rajeev; Yadav, Albel S
INTRODUCTION: The feasibility of the single incision, multiport transumbilical approach(SILC) for the treatment of symptomatic gallbladder calculus disease has been established. AIMS: The study examines both short and long term morbidity of the SILC approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the 1338 patients were operated by the same surgeon through a transversely placed umbilical incision in the upper third of the umbilicus. Three conventional ports,10,5 and 5 mm were introduced through the same skin incision but through separate transfascial punctures. The instruments were those used for standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy(SLC).Patients with acute cholecystitis and calculous pancreatitis were included,while those with choledocholithiasis were excluded. Results were compared with those of SLC. RESULTS: Forty patients had difficult gall bladders, 214 had acute cholecystitis, and 16 had calculous pancreatitis. The mean operating time was 24.7 mins as compared to 18.4 mins in SLC. Intracorporeal knotting was required in four patients. Conversion to SLC was required in 12 patients. Morrisons pouch drain was left in 3 patients. Injectable analgesics were required in 85% vs 90% (SILC vs SLC) on day 1 and 25% vs 45% on day 2 and infection was seen in 6(0. 45%) patients. Port site hernia was seen in 2 patients. The data was compared with that of SLC and significance calculated by the student ‘t’ test. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. CONCLUSIONS: Trans umbilical SILC gives comparable results to SLC, and is a superior alternative when cosmesis and postoperative pain are considered, but the operative time is significantly more. PMID:25336816
Machado, Norman Oneil
Due to the concern of risk of intra- and postoperative complications and associated morbidity, cirrhosis of the liver is often considered a contraindication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This article intends to review the literature and underline the various approaches to dealing with this technically challenging procedure. A Medline search of major articles in the English literature on LC in cirrhotic patients over a 16-y period from 1994 to 2011 was reviewed and the findings analyzed. A total of 1310 cases were identified. Most the patients who underwent LC were in Child-Pugh class A, followed by Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively. The overall conversion rate was 4.58%, and morbidity was 17% and mortality 0.45%. Among the patients who died, most were in Child-Pugh class C, with a small number in classes B and A. The cause of death included, postoperative bleeding, liver failure, sepsis, duodenal perforation, and myocardial infarction. A meta-analysis of 400 patients in the literature, comparing outcomes of patients undergoing LC with and without cirrhosis, revealed higher conversion rate, longer operative time, higher bleeding complications, and overall increased morbidity in patients with cirrhosis. Safe LC was facilitated by measures that included the use of ultrasonic shears and other hemostatic measures and using subtotal cholecystectomy in patients with difficult hilum and gallbladder bed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely performed in cirrhotic patients, within Child-Pugh classes A and B, with acceptable morbidity and conversion rate.
Chousleb Mizrahi, Elias; Chousleb Kalach, Alberto; Shuchleib Chaba, Samuel
Since the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1988, the management of gall-bladder disease has changed importantly. This technique was rapidly popularized in the U.S. as well as in Europe. Multiple studies have proved its feasibility, safeness and great advantages. Analyze usefulness and recent advances of endoscopic surgery in the management of gallbladder disease. We did a review of the recent medical literature to determine the actual status of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed in the digestive tract. During the year 2001, 1,100,000 cholecystectomies were done in the U.S., 85% were done laparoscopically. In Mexico cholecystectomy in government hospitals is done laparoscopically in 50% of the cases, while in private hospitals it reaches 90%. There are multiple prospective controlled studies showing superiority of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in times of recovery, costs, return to normal activity, pain, morbidity, esthetics among other advantages. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the treatment of the great majority of cases of gallbladder disease, nevertheless in developing countries open cholecystectomy is still done frequently.
Tai, Yu-Pin; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Lai, Yu-Yung
Anesthesiologists currently view laparoscopic cholecystectomy resemblant to other laparoscopic procedures with respect to the necessity of inducing a pneumoperitoneum via abdominal insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2). The present case report describes a healthy 63-year-old man who while undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, developed hypoxemia in the course in consequence of pneumothorax. This complication, although rare, can be catastrophic if prompt diagnosis and rapid intervention and management do not come in the nick of time.
Steinemann, Daniel C; Raptis, Dimitri A; Lurje, Georg; Oberkofler, Christian E; Wyss, Roland; Zehnder, Adrian; Lesurtel, Mickael; Vonlanthen, René; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Breitenstein, Stefan
Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC). Many retrospective case series propose excellent cosmesis and reduced pain in SPLC. As the latter has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial, patient's satisfaction on cosmesis is still controversially debated. The SPOCC trial is a prospective, multi-center, double blinded, randomized controlled study comparing SPLC with 4-port conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4PLC) in elective surgery. The hypothesis and primary objective is that patients undergoing SPLC will have a better outcome in cosmesis and body image 12 weeks after surgery. This primary endpoint is assessed using a validated 8-item multiple choice type questionnaire on cosmesis and body image. The secondary endpoint has three entities: the quality of life 12 weeks after surgery assessed by the validated Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, postoperative pain assessed by a visual analogue scale and the use of analgesics. Operative time, surgeon's experience with SPLC and 4PLC, use of additional ports, conversion to 4PLC or open cholecystectomy, length of stay, costs, time of work as well as intra- and postoperative complications are further aspects of the secondary endpoint. Patients are randomly assigned either to SPLC or to 4PLC. Patients as well as treating physicians, nurses and assessors are blinded until the 7th postoperative day. Sample size calculation performed by estimating a difference of cosmesis of 20% (alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90, drop out rate of 10%) resulted in a number of 55 randomized patients per arm. The SPOCC-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study to assess cosmesis and body image after SPLC. (clinicaltrial.gov): NCT 01278472.
Kabul Gürbulak, Esin; Özşahin, Hamdi; Düzköylü, Yiğit; Akgün, Ismail Ethem; Battal, Muharrem; Gürbulak, Bünyamin
Duplication of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly of the gallbladder, with an estimated prevalence of 1–3 per 3800 individuals. Unless properly diagnosed preoperatively, it can lead to biliary tract injuries and postoperative complications which may require reoperative surgeries. While previously reported cases have been treated with conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), treatment with single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has not been reported yet. We herein present the case of a 58-year-old female with gallbladder duplication who was successfully treated with SILS cholecystectomy. PMID:26266074
Papasavas, Pavlos K; Caushaj, Philip F; Gagné, Daniel J
Spilled gallstones have emerged as a new issue in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We treated a 77-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Subsequently, a right flank abscess developed. During the cholecystectomy, the gallbladder was perforated and stones were spilled. After a failed attempt to drain the abscess percutaneously, the patient required open drainage, which revealed retained gallstones in the right flank. The abscess resolved, although the patient continued to have intermittent drainage without evidence of sepsis. Review of the literature revealed 127 cases of spilled gallstones, of which 44.1% presented with intraperitoneal abscess, 18.1% with abdominal wall abscess, 11.8% with thoracic abscess, 10.2% with retroperitoneal abscess, and the rest with various clinical pictures. In case of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, every effort should be made to locate and retrieve the stones.
Yvergneaux, J P; Kint, M; Kuppens, E
On the basis of literature and of 475 laparoscopic cholecystectomies of the authors, some pitfalls are reviewed. The circumstances, the mechanism and the prevention of injuries were detailed together with the connected problem of postoperative bile leakage. Among the cholangiographic pitfalls the importance of detection of congenital and acquired anomalies of the biliary tree by means of preoperative ERCP or intraoperative trans-cystic cholangiograms was emphasized. A particular study was made of 3 pictures: Mirizzi syndrome; stone impaction in Vater's papilla; no retrograde flow of the common hepatic duct on intraoperative cholangiograms. Biliodigestive fistulas were briefly commented. The problems with cystic duct stones, particularly the treatment of stones in a long, low inserted cystic duct with retroduodenal course and the closing of thick-walled or wide cystic stumps, were explained. In patients with intraoperative residual common bile duct stones and with failed preoperative catheterization of the papilla, the authors advocate their double approach technique. This combined intraoperative laparoscopic and postoperative endoscopic procedure is carried out via the same transcystic polythene catheters as used for cholangiography and external biliary drainage of the common bile duct.
Meador, J H; Nowzaradan, Y; Matzelle, W
In our initial experience with 82 patients, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has shown numerous advantages over open cholecystectomy. Both intraoperative blood loss and postoperative need for pain medication have been minimal. Most patients were discharged within 24 to 36 hours and resumed normal activities within 3 to 5 days. The aesthetic aspect is also an obvious advantage, since the laparoscopic procedure avoids disfiguring abdominal scars. Previous abdominal surgery is not a contraindication to attempting this procedure. Based on our experience, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be done safely on most patients who are candidates for open cholecystectomy, including the elderly, the obese, and those with acute gangrenous cholecystitis.
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Davidson, Brian R
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared to pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using the Review Manager (RevMan) software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 130 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in five trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 53) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 52). One trial which included 25 people did not state the number of participants in each group. All five trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the participants in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (two trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per person) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per person); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Samraj, Kumarakrishnan; Davidson, Brian R
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared with pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until January 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 156 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in six trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 65) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 66). One trial which included 25 patients did not state the number of patients in each group. All six trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the patients in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (2 trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per patient) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per patient); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 5.77). None of the
Davidoff, A M; Branum, G D; Murray, E A; Chong, W K; Ware, R E; Kinney, T R; Pappas, T N; Meyers, W C
Twelve children underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis during a 10-month period in one institution. The operative technique that has been described for adults was modified because of the smaller dimensions of pediatric patients. These modifications are discussed in this report, as are new alternatives for evaluating the common duct. No operative complications or conversions to open cholecystectomy occurred, and no complications after surgery were seen during an average follow-up period of 4.5 months. The benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy include decreased pain and ileus after surgery, shortened hospitalization, and improved cosmesis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and efficacious in children, and it compares favorably with traditional cholecystectomy in the pediatric age group. Images FIG. 3. PMID:1532120
Legorreta, A P; Silber, J H; Costantino, G N; Kobylinski, R W; Zatz, S L
To examine if overall cost savings may fail to result from laparoscopic ("closed") cholecystectomy if it also results in an increased total rate of cholecystectomies or generates additional costs unassociated with the open procedure. Inpatient and outpatient expenditures, incidence rates, and length of inpatient stay data for 6909 health maintenance organization enrollees with gallbladder complaints were analyzed from 1988 through 1992 using claims data from a large, private practice-based health maintenance organization. The incidence of cholecystectomy and total health maintenance organization expenditures on gallbladder disease have increased since the introduction of laparoscopic closed cholecystectomy. The rate of cholecystectomy procedures per 1000 enrollees increased from 1.35 in 1988 to 2.15 in 1992 (P < .001). Total annual medical expenditures on gallbladder disease per 1000 enrollees (in 1992 dollars) rose 11.4% during the study period (P < .001), despite a concurrent 25.1% decline in the unit cost (physician and hospital cost) for cholecystectomy procedures (P < .001). During the same study period, no significant change was noted in the rate of appendectomy per 1000 enrollees (0.76 in 1988 to 0.73 in 1992), which is a measure of nonelective surgical care, or in the inguinal hernia repair rate (2.01 in 1988 to 2.19 in 1992), which has a physician and patient discretionary component similar to that of cholecystectomy. The introduction of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery resulted in rising rates of cholecystectomy for a population of patients in a private, independent practice-based health maintenance organization. Such a rise was not seen for hernia repair surgery or appendectomy. It seems that the use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a new technology touted as reducing health care costs, may result in an increased consumption of health care resources due to changes in the indications for gallbladder surgery.
Gandolfi, P; Nesi, L; Zago, A; Zardini, C
The Authors analyze the single steps of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and describe the technique usually preferred. On the basis of the experience acquired, advantages and disadvantages of each manoeuver and instrument available are pointed out.
Ivanov, I; Beuran, M; Venter, M D; Iftimie-Nastase, I; Smarandache, R; Popescu, B; Boştină, R
Gallstone ileus represents a rare complication (0,3-0,5%) of a serious, but common disease-gallstones, which affect around 10% of the population in the USA and Western Europe. Associated diseases (usually severe), elderly patients, delayed diagnosis and therapy due to late presentation to the hospital, account for the morbidity and mortality rates described in literature. We present the case of a patient with partial colon obstruction due to a large gallstone that was "lost" during an emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The calculus eroded the intestinal wall, partially occluding the lumen, triggering recurrent Kerwsky-like, subocclusive episodes. The intraperitoneal abscess has spontaneously drained through the subhepatic drain and once the tube has been removed, a persistent intermittent fistula became obvious.
Simon, E; Kelemen, O; Knausz, J; Bodnár, S; Bátorfi, J
Cholecystectomies and hernioplasties are the two most frequently performed surgical interventions. The laparoscopic technique can be offered for the simultaneous treatment with both operating indications. The synchronical operation can give all the advantages of the minimally invasive technique. Authors had performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with laparoscopic hernioplasty in five cases. Two inguinal and three postoperative hernias were reconstructed. The cholecystectomy was performed with a "three punction method", and the hernioplasty by using the same approach, completed by inserting a fourth assisting trocar as required. The hernial ring was covered with an intraperitoneally placed mesh, which was fixed by staplers (the so-called "IPOM-method": intraperitoneal on-lay mesh). There was no intra-, nor postoperative complication. The hernioplasty combined with laparoscopic cholecystectomy did not have effect on postoperative pain and nursing time. The return to the normal physical activity was short, similar to laparoscopic hernioplasty (in 1-2 weeks). Authors conclude that the simultaneous, synchronous laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hernioplasty is recommended and should be the method of choice because it is more advantageous for patients.
Mehraj, Adnan; Naqvi, Muhammad Ali; Feroz, Shizan Hamid; ur Rasheed, Haroon
The Gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallstone disease is laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) since 1990. LC can be performed safely as a day case procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in symptomatic gall stones disease in terms of length of hospital stay, complications, morbidity and mortality. This retrospective descriptive study was carried out in Department of General & Laparoscopic Surgery, AK CMH, Muzaffarabad. Notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the department over a 26 month period were reviewed from department register. Demographics as well as details of cases, conversion to open operation and complications of surgery and anaesthesia were reviewed from clinical notes and departmental register and noted on a designed Performa. Data were analysed using SPSS-18 and results compared with international studies. Out of 500 patients, 443 (88.6%) were females and 57 (11.4%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 42.47 +/- 11.43 years. Mean operative time was 40.09 +/- 11.16 minutes. Seven (1.4%) patients developed port site wound infection. Sixteen (3.2%) cases were converted to open surgery in face of obscured anatomy of Calot's triangle. Two (0.4%) cases has cystic duct stoma leak secondary to missed Common duct stones and were dealt with ERCP and stone extraction. There was no case of bile duct injury, major haemorrhage or bowel injury. There was no mortality associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our series. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective management of gall stone disease. Better training, careful case selection, meticulous technique and high standard equipment are of paramount importance for ensuring good results in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Zelić, M; Kunisek, L; Mendrila, D; Gudelj, M; Abram, M; Uravić, M
Clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall is rare, and it is usually associated with organ perforation, immunosuppression or gastrointestinal malignancies. In this paper we present a case of fulminant, endogenous gas gangrene in a 58-year old diabetic female with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis, following uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She developed gas gangrene of the abdominal wall 12-hours after cholecystectomy and died 24-hours after the onset of the first symptoms, in spite of treatment.
Browne, Ikennah L.; Dixon, Elijah
Bowel perforation is a rare complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which if left undiagnosed can have fatal consequences. In addition, isolated small bowel perforation is extremely rare and should be considered in patients presenting with sudden onset abdominal pain in the postoperative period. A 57-year-old male with symptomatic gallstones underwent urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was discharged home on postoperative day (POD) 1 without complications. He presented to the emergency department on POD 11 complaining of sudden onset abdominal pain. A CT scan did not confirm a diagnosis and he was admitted for observation. On post admission day 2, he became significantly peritonitic and laparotomy revealed jejunal perforation. Bowel resection with hand-sewn anastomosis was completed and he was discharged on POD 10. Follow-up at 6 weeks revealed no further issues. We review the literature on small bowel perforation post laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:26908534
Borle, Firoz R; Mehra, Bhupendra K; Jain, Sheelchand
Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is considered to be less invasive and have less morbidity than conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). However, there is a relative paucity of data regarding postoperative pain scores in rural Indian populations following SILC. Also, data pertaining to the applicability of SILC in rural Indian population are scant. In the present randomized control trial, pain scores after SILC and CLC were evaluated. Sixty patients with gallstone disease were randomly assigned to one of two groups with 30 patients each: the CLC group and the SILC group. Postoperative pain scores were recorded on the visual analog scale at 8 hours, 24 hours and 7 days after surgery. The patients were comparable with respect to age, sex and BMI. Operative time was longer for the SILC group (47.73 ± 5.57 min vs 69.53 ± 8.96 min; P < 0.0001).The pain scores were similar in both groups at 8 hours (3.61 ± 0.41 vs 3.50 ± 0.51; P = 0.36) and 24 hours (3.30 ± 0.59 vs 3.20 ± 0.40; P = 0.44) postoperatively. On day 7, the SILC group had lower pain scores than the CLC group (2.56 ± 0.56 vs 1.16 ± 0.37; P < 0.01). There was no distinct advantage to SILC with regard to immediate postoperative pain. Pain was significantly less (P < 0.01) in the SILC group on postoperative day 7. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
de Castro, Steve M M; Reekers, Jim A; Dwars, Boudewijn J
Intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a rare complication and is potentially life threatening. When radiologic studies confirm the presence of the hematoma, the decision to follow a conservative treatment should involve clinical monitoring. If there are signs of infection, the collection can safely be drained percutaneously. If there are signs of active bleeding, a selective embolization should be attempted first. If unsuccessful, subsequent surgical evacuation should be performed. We report the case of a patient with an intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which occurred 6 weeks after surgery, and review the literature concerning the management of these bleedings.
Tate, J. J. T.; Davidson, B. R.; Hobbs, K. E. F.
Of 61 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 4 (6.25%) developed abdominal wall haematomas. This complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy may occur more commonly than existing literature suggests, and manifests in the post-operative period (days 2 to 6) by visible bruising, excessive pain or an asymptomatic drop in haematocrit. It is readily confirmed by ultrasonography. While no specific treatment is necessary apart from replacement of significant blood loss, the patient requires reassurance that this apparently alarming complication will rapidly resolve. PMID:8204548
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been considered as a safe and effective procedure without randomised prospective trial. Two physician insurers associations (in France and in USA) have shown an important increase of the lawsuits after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially concerning common bile duct injuries. An exhaustive study of the literature demonstrates that in the rare prospective studies collecting all of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies realised in one country or one state, the percentage of biliary tract injuries is form twice to five times as big as with open surgery, and bigger in case of acute cholecystitis. It seems that diffusion of the monopolar current can explain a good number of them. These injuries are difficult for repairing because of their high localisation and the associated tissular burn. Their long term morbidity is important and their cost is huge. Three recent prospective studies comparing laparoscopic versus minilaparotomy approach demonstrate that the advantages of laparoscopic approach according to the cost and the recovery's speed are, except for the obese patients, less evident than one could believe.
Miscusi, G; Masoni, L; de Anna, L; Brescia, A; Gasparrini, M; Taglienti, D; Micheletti, A; Marsano, N; Montori, A
Today largely diffused is the concept that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) represents the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. Nonetheless some questions have been raised on the real safety of this new method in terms of procedure-related complications. On the basis of our experience with traditional open cholecystectomy, we have recently performed a prograde LC in those cases with difficulties in identifying the anatomical structures of the so called Calot's triangle. This alternative route can be easily performed laparoscopically and has been useful in reducing the time of the intervention in the most difficult setting and to increase the safety of the procedure. The technical details and the results are compared with those of the laparoscopic retrograde route.
Cianci, Pasquale; Di Lascia, Alessandra; Fersini, Alberto; Ambrosi, Antonio; Neri, Vincenzo
Abstract Retrograde approach (“fundus first”) is often used in open surgery, while in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is less frequent. LC, with antegrade access, is done by putting in traction the infundibulum and going up to the fundus before to clip the cystic. Our study analyzes a number of surgical procedures performed by experienced surgeons in laparoscopy. From 2002 to 2015, 1740 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our Institution. The operative procedure performed since 2002 consists of the incision of the visceral peritoneum from the infundibulum away from Calot’s triangle along the gallbladder bed up to the fundus. Then it continues from the fundus up to the infundibulum. Results: There were no bile duct injuries. Average operative time was 40 min. 22 conversions to an open procedure (1.3%) occurred, in cases of acute cholecystitis and cirrhotic patient. Postoperative stay was mean 2 days with no delayed sequelae on follow up. Conclusions: gallbladder antegrade dissection for laparoscopic cholecystectomy can reduce the time of surgery and is an easier technique to perform. Therefore, it can be proposed as the standard procedure and not only be used for difficult cholecystectomies. PMID:28352832
Wilton, P B; Andy, O J; Peters, J J; Thomas, C F; Patel, V S; Scott-Conner, C E
Stones are sometimes spilled at the time of cholecystectomy. Retrieval may be difficult, especially during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Little is known about the natural history of missed stones which are left behind in the peritoneal cavity. We present a case in which a patient developed an intraabdominal abscess around such a stone. The abscess recurred after drainage and removal of the stone was needed for resolution. This case suggests that care should be taken to avoid stone spillage, and that stones which are spilled into the abdomen should be retrieved.
Rattner, D W; Ferguson, C; Warshaw, A L
OBJECTIVE: This article determined which preoperative data correlated with successful completion of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the procedure of choice in chronic cholecystitis, its use in acute cholecystitis may be associated with higher costs and complication rates. It is not known which patients with acute cholecystitis are likely to require conversion to open cholecystectomy based on preoperative data or if a cooling-off period with medical therapy can diminish inflammation and increase the chance of successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: All laparoscopic cholecystectomies done by the authors between 10/90 and 2/92 were reviewed. Data on cases of acute cholecystitis were prospectively collected on standardized data forms. RESULTS: Twenty of 281 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were done for acute cholecystitis; 7/20 patients with acute cholecystitis required conversion to open cholecystectomy compared with 6/281 patients undergoing elective operation for chronic cholecystitis. In patients with acute cholecystitis the interval from admission to cholecystectomy in the successful cases was 0.6 days vs. 5 days in the cases requiring conversion to open cholecystectomy (p = .01). Cases requiring conversion to open cholecystectomy also had higher WBC (14.0 vs. 9.0, p < .05), alkaline phosphatase (206 vs. 81, p < .02, and APACHE II scores (10.6 vs. 5.1, p < .05). Ultrasonographic findings such as gallbladder distention, wall thickness, and pericholecystic fluid did not correlate with the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients converted from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy required more operating room time (120 min vs. 87 min, p < .01) and more postop hospital days (6 vs. 2, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis should be done immediately after the diagnosis is established because delaying surgery
Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B
Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease.
Simutis, Gintaras; Bubnys, A.; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a minimally invasive method of removing the diseased gallbladder. It was introduced into Lithuania in December 1992 and has gained wide acceptance. While LC offers many advantages over the conventional laparotomy procedure one of its drawbacks is delayed biliary complications. Those complications may be avoided with appropriate precautions. The aim of this research is to maximize the safety of LC. The potential way to solve this problem is to minimize the possible heat damage and electrical injury remote from the site of surgery during dissection of the cystic duct, cystic artery, and the gallbladder. Neodymium:YAG laser applications with endoscopic fiber have been investigated. The possibilities to use it as a scalpel and as coagulator to release the gallbladder from all its peritoneal attachments during LC have been investigated. The controversy over optimal sources for thermal dissection of the gallbladder has been performed. The potential benefits of Nd:YAG laser in surgery -- precise cutting, limited collateral tissue damage, and improved capillary and arteriole hemostasis -- have been found.
Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Kładny, Józef
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was introduced to the arsenal of surgical procedures in the middle of the 1980s, is a common alternative for conventional cholecystectomy. Its primary advantage is less invasive character which entails shorter hospitalization and faster recovery. Nevertheless, the complications of both procedures are comparable and encompass multiple organs and tissues. The paper presents ultrasound presentation of the surgical bed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and of complications associated with this procedure. In the first week following the surgery, the presence of up to 60 ml of fluid in the removed gallbladder bed should be considered normal in certain patients. The fluid will gradually absorb. In single cases, slight amounts of fluid are detected in the peritoneal cavity, which also should not be alarming. Carbon dioxide absorbs from the peritoneal cavity within two days. Ultrasound assessment of the surgical bed after cholecystectomy is inhibited by hemostatic material left during the surgery. Its presentation may mimic an abscess. In such cases, the decisive examination is magnetic resonance imaging but not computed tomography. On the other hand, rapidly accumulating fluid around the liver is an alarming symptom, particularly when there is inadequate blood supply or when peritoneum irritation symptoms develop. Depending on the suspected cause of the patient's deteriorating condition, it is essential to perform urgent computed tomography angiography, celiac angiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The character of the fluid collection may be determined by its ultrasound-guided puncture. This procedure allows for aspiration of fluid and placement of a drain. Moreover, transabdominal ultrasound examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy may contribute to the identification of: dropped stones in the right hypochondriac region, residual fragment of the gallbladder
Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Kładny, Józef
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was introduced to the arsenal of surgical procedures in the middle of the 1980s, is a common alternative for conventional cholecystectomy. Its primary advantage is less invasive character which entails shorter hospitalization and faster recovery. Nevertheless, the complications of both procedures are comparable and encompass multiple organs and tissues. The paper presents ultrasound presentation of the surgical bed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and of complications associated with this procedure. In the first week following the surgery, the presence of up to 60 ml of fluid in the removed gallbladder bed should be considered normal in certain patients. The fluid will gradually absorb. In single cases, slight amounts of fluid are detected in the peritoneal cavity, which also should not be alarming. Carbon dioxide absorbs from the peritoneal cavity within two days. Ultrasound assessment of the surgical bed after cholecystectomy is inhibited by hemostatic material left during the surgery. Its presentation may mimic an abscess. In such cases, the decisive examination is magnetic resonance imaging but not computed tomography. On the other hand, rapidly accumulating fluid around the liver is an alarming symptom, particularly when there is inadequate blood supply or when peritoneum irritation symptoms develop. Depending on the suspected cause of the patient's deteriorating condition, it is essential to perform urgent computed tomography angiography, celiac angiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The character of the fluid collection may be determined by its ultrasound-guided puncture. This procedure allows for aspiration of fluid and placement of a drain. Moreover, transabdominal ultrasound examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy may contribute to the identification of: dropped stones in the right hypochondriac region, residual fragment of the gallbladder
Schmelzer, C; Stone, N L
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard procedure for the surgical management of cholelithiasis. Compared with open cholecystectomy, this procedure offers shorter hospital stays, shorter recovery time, better cosmetic results, and an overall reduction in health care cost for the patient. As the number of cardiac patients having elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy increases, it is important for the postanesthesia nurse to understand the postoperative assessment and nursing interventions these patients require. Congestive heart failure and acute pulmonary edema are two potential complications resulting from insufflation of the abdomen and intraoperative fluids. This case study of a cardiac patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy demonstrates important postanesthesia assessment parameters.
Freund, U; Mayo, A; Schwartz, I; Neufeld, D; Paran, H
The first 1,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in our department were reviewed. There was no operative mortality; conversion to open cholecystectomy was necessary in 2%. In the last 600 cases the rate of conversion had decreased to 0.5%. There was common bile duct injury in 0.3%, with the injuries identified during primary surgery. This clinical experience is consistent with previous studies, which proved that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and should replace open operation as the procedure of choice.
Frazee, R C; Roberts, J W; Okeson, G C; Symmonds, R E; Snyder, S K; Hendricks, J C; Smith, R W
Upper abdominal surgery is associated with characteristic changes in pulmonary function which increase the risk of lower lobe atelectasis. Sixteen patients undergoing open cholecystectomy and 20 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively evaluated by pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume [FEV-1], and forced expiratory flow [FEF] 25% to 75%) before operation and on the morning after surgery to determine if the laparoscopic technique lessens the pulmonary risk. Fraction of the baseline pulmonary function was calculated by dividing the postoperative pulmonary function by the preoperative pulmonary function and multiplying by 100%. Postoperative FVC measured 52% of preoperative function for open cholecystectomy and 73% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.002). Postoperative FEV-1 measured 53% of baseline function for open cholecystectomy and 72% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.006). Postoperative FEF 25% to 75% measured 53% for open cholecystectomy and 81% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.07). It is concluded that laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers improved pulmonary function compared to the open technique. PMID:1828139
Frazee, R C; Roberts, J W; Okeson, G C; Symmonds, R E; Snyder, S K; Hendricks, J C; Smith, R W
Upper abdominal surgery is associated with characteristic changes in pulmonary function which increase the risk of lower lobe atelectasis. Sixteen patients undergoing open cholecystectomy and 20 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively evaluated by pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume [FEV-1], and forced expiratory flow [FEF] 25% to 75%) before operation and on the morning after surgery to determine if the laparoscopic technique lessens the pulmonary risk. Fraction of the baseline pulmonary function was calculated by dividing the postoperative pulmonary function by the preoperative pulmonary function and multiplying by 100%. Postoperative FVC measured 52% of preoperative function for open cholecystectomy and 73% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.002). Postoperative FEV-1 measured 53% of baseline function for open cholecystectomy and 72% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.006). Postoperative FEF 25% to 75% measured 53% for open cholecystectomy and 81% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.07). It is concluded that laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers improved pulmonary function compared to the open technique.
FORTUNATO, André Augusto; GENTILE, João Kleber de Almeida; CAETANO, Diogo Peral; GOMES, Marcus Aurélio Zaia; BASSI, Marco Antônio
Background Iatrogenic injury to the bile ducts is the most feared complication of cholecystectomy and several are the possibilities to occur. Aim To compare the cases of iatrogenic lesions of the biliary tract occurring in conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, assessing the likely causal factors, complications and postoperative follow-up. Methods Retrospective cohort study with analysis of records of patients undergoing conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All the patients were analyzed in two years. The only criterion for inclusion was to be operative bile duct injury, regardless of location or time of diagnosis. There were no exclusion criteria. Epidemiological data of patients, time of diagnosis of the lesion and its location were analyzed. Results Total of 515 patients with gallstones was operated, 320 (62.1 %) by laparotomy cholecystectomy and 195 by laparoscopic approach. The age of patients with bile duct injury ranged from 29-70 years. Among those who underwent laparotomy cholecystectomy, four cases were diagnosed (1.25 %) with lesions, corresponding to 0.77 % of the total patients. No patient had iatrogenic interventions with laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion Laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to laparotomy, had a lower rate of bile duct injury. PMID:25626937
Haribhakti, Sanjiv P; Mistry, Jitendra H
There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques.
S, Mahesh Shetty; BB, Sunil Kumar
Situs inversus totalis is a rare condition where the organs in the body is placed in the opposite side. When such patient presents with the diseases of the intra abdominal organs the diagnosis is challenging and the operative procedure to be performed will be difficult. This may require the anticipation of variations in anatomy, ergonomic changes required during surgery and mastery over the operative skills in reversed anatomy. Cholelithiasis in situs inversus totalis is one such situation. Herein we report a case of situs inversus totalis who underwent successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder calculi. PMID:25177601
Oleynikov, D; Rentschler, M; Hadzialic, A; Dumpert, J; Platt, S R; Farritor, S
Laparoscopy reduces patient trauma but eliminates the surgeon's ability to directly view and touch the surgical environment. Although current robot-assisted laparoscopy improves the surgeon's ability to manipulate and visualize the target organs, the instruments and cameras remain constrained by the entry incision. This limits tool tip orientation and optimal camera placement. This article focuses on developing miniature in vivo robots to assist surgeons during laparoscopic surgery by providing an enhanced field of view from multiple angles and dexterous manipulators not constrained by the abdominal wall fulcrum effect. Miniature camera robots were inserted through a small incision into the insufflated abdominal cavity of an anesthetized pig. Trocar insertion and other laparoscopic tool placements were then viewed with these robotic cameras. The miniature robots provided additional camera angles that improved surgical visualization during a cholecystectomy. These successful prototype trials have demonstrated that miniature in vivo robots can provide surgeons with additional visual information that can increase procedural safety.
Neufeld, D; Jessel, J; Freund, U
Intraoperative cholangiography (IC) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a controversial issue. According to traditional teaching, the purpose of cholangiography in gallbladder surgery is to discover previously undiscovered common bile duct stones. This examination was extremely important in the era before ERCP. IC enabled surgeons to find stones and remove them at the same operation. With progress in ERCP, the importance of intraoperative cholangiography has diminished. A stone missed during surgery can most often be dealt with by the less invasive ERCP and papillotomy. There has been a difference of opinion in the literature as to whether to perform cholangiography routinely during gallbladder operations or only in cases in which there is a specific indication, such as an enlarged common bile duct, a history of pancreatitis, or elevated enzymes. Routine operative cholangiography prolongs operative time and carries its own inherent risks, such as injury to the bile ducts. The likelihood of stones is not high and over-diagnosis of stones would result in unwarranted common bile duct exploration and the danger of complications from the procedure. The tendency today is towards a more selective approach. In this era of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery, the controversy has come to the fore again, and there is now an additional aspect. In laparoscopic gallbladder surgery there is greater significance to the "road map" provided by X-rays. We rely mainly on the visual sense and have forgone the tactile sense. Therefore, any added visual input in this operation helps avoid the danger of injuring the main bile ducts. It is our contention that the indications for operative cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy should again be broadened.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia is the present gold standard in treatment of symptomatic gall bladder disease. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia which could be more cost effective. A prospective study was conducted was over a fourteen month period at a teaching hospital to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia(SA). Patients meeting inclusion criteria were taken up for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia by standardized techniques. They underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were the secondary outcomes measured. All patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy without any major complications. None had to be converted to general anaesthesia in this series. The operation had to be converted to open incision in 3 patients. Commonest complaint was pain in right shoulder and anxiety at the beginning of operation/pneumoperitoneum. All patients were highly or well satisfied during follow up. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. In this study spinal anaesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was found to be safe even in patients with respiratory problems, cost-effective, with minimal postoperative pain and smooth recovery; the disadvantage being occasional right shoulder pain following pneumo-peritoneum (40%). Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups where cost is a major factor; provided proper backup is present.
Tranchart, Hadrien; Ketoff, Serge; Lainas, Panagiotis; Pourcher, Guillaume; Di Giuro, Giuseppe; Tzanis, Dimitrios; Ferretti, Stefano; Dautruche, Antoine; Devaquet, Niaz; Dagher, Ibrahim
A single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) was developed to improve outcomes as compared with the four-port classic laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). Any potential benefits associated with a SILC have been suggested by previous studies reporting few patients with different surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to describe the experience with a standardized SILC as compared with CLC. From June 2010 to January 2012, 40 patients underwent a SILC [median age: 47.5 years (25-92)] and operative and peri-operative data were prospectively collected. Over the same period, 37 patients underwent a CLC. A 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for qualitative data. The costs of SILC and CLC were also compared. For those patients undergoing a SILC the median operating time was 70 min (24-110). There were no conversions. An additional trocar was necessary in 16 patients. Four patients developed post-operative complications. The median immediate post-operative pain score was 5 (0-10). The median quality of life and cosmetic satisfaction at the initial post-operative visit were 10 (6-10) and 10 (5-10), respectively (VAS). Although the surgical results of both groups were similar, post-operative complications were exclusively reported in the SILC group (two incisional hernias). Standardization of SILC is possible but associated with an important rate of additional trocar placement and a disturbing rate of incisional hernias. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
Acar, Turan; Kamer, Erdinç; Acar, Nihan; Atahan, Kemal; Bağ, Halis; Hacıyanlı, Mehmet; Akgül, Özgün
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones. The common opinion about treatment of acute cholecystitis is initially conservative treatment due to preventing complications of inflamation and following laparoscopic cholecystectomy after 6- 8 weeks. However with the increase of laparoscopic experience in recent years, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become more common. We aimed to compare the outcomes of the patients to whom we applied early or late cholecystectomy after hospitalization from the emergency department with the diagnosis of AC between March 2012-2015. We retrospectively reviewed the files of totally 66 patients in whom we performed early cholecystectomy (within the first 24 hours) (n: 33) and to whom we firstly administered conservative therapy and performed late cholecystectomy (after 6 to 8 weeks) (n: 33) after hospitalization from the emergency department with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The groups were made up of patients who had similar clinical and demographic characteristics. While there were no statistically significant differences between the durations of operation, the durations of hospitalization were longer in those who underwent early cholecystectomy. Moreover, more complications were seen in the patients who underwent early cholecystectomy although the difference was not statistically significant. Early cholecystectomy is known to significantly reduce the costs in patients with acute cholecystitis. However, switching to open surgery as well as increase of complications in patients who admitted with severe inflammation attack and who have high comorbidity, caution should be exercised when selecting patients for early operation.
Panda, Nilanjan; Narasimhan, Mohan; Gunaraj, Alwin; Ardhanari, Ramesh
Vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy can occur similar to biliary injuries and mostly represented by intraoperative bleeding. Hepatic artery system pseudoaneurysm are rare. It occurs in the early or late postoperative course. Patients present with pallor, signs of haemobillia and altered liver function. We report a case of right posterior sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm detected 2 weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and successfully repaired laparoscopically. We also describe how laparoscopic pringle clamping saved the conversion. The actively bleeding right posterior sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed by CT angiogram. Embolisation, usually the treatment of choice, would have risked liver insufficiency as hepatic artery proper was at risk because the origin the bleeding artery was just after its bifurcation. Isolated right hepatic artery embolisation can also cause hepatic insufficiency. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of laparoscopic repair of post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bleeding sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm. PMID:24501508
Vagenas, Konstantinos; Karamanakos, Stavros N; Spyropoulos, Charalambos; Panagiotopoulos, Spyros; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Stavropoulos, Michalis
AIM: To review and evaluate our experience in laparo-scopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected during a 13-year period (1992-2005) from 1220 patients who underwent laparoscopic cho-lecystectomy. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 0%. The overall morbidity rate was 5.08% (n = 62), with the most serious complications arising from injuries to the biliary tree and the cystic artery. In 23 (1.88%) cases, cholecystectomy could not be completed laparoscopically and the operation was converted to an open procedure. Though the patients were scheduled as day-surgery cases, the average duration of hospital stay was 2.29 d, as the complicated cases with prolonged hospital stay were included in the calculation. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe, minimally invasive technique with favorable results for the patient. PMID:16804976
Hong, Tao; Xu, Xie-Qun; He, Xiao-Dong; Qu, Qiang; Li, Bing-Lu; Zheng, Chao-Ji
The wide use of surgical endoclips in laparoscopic surgery has led to a variety of complications. Post-cholecystectomy endoclips migrating into the common bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is rare. A migrated endoclip can cause obstruction, serve as a nidus for stone formation, and cause cholangitis. While the exact pathogenesis is still unknown, it is probably related to improper clip application, subclinical bile leak, inflammation, and subsequent necrosis, allowing the clips to erode directly into the common bile duct. We present a case of endoclip migrating into the common bile duct and duodenum, resulting in choledochoduodenal fistula after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and a successful reconstruction of the biliary tract by a hepaticojejunostomy with a Roux-en-Y procedure. This case shows that surgical endoclips can penetrate into the intact bile duct wall through serial maceration, and it is believed that careful application of clips may be the only way to prevent their migration after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24782639
Vallina, V L; Velasco, J M; McCulloch, C S
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to prospectively define the impact of laparoscopy on the management of patients with a presumed diagnosis of appendicitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: While the role of laparoscopy in the management of cholelithiasis is well established, its impact on the management of acute appendicitis needs to be objectively defined and compared to that of conventional management. Several authors have predicted that laparoscopic appendectomy will become the preferred treatment for appendicitis. METHODS: Two groups of consecutive patients with similar clinical characteristics of acute appendicitis were compared. Data on the laparoscopic group were compiled prospectively on standardized forms; data on the conventional group were collected retrospectively. Operative time, hospital stay, analgesia, cost, and return to normal activities were noted. RESULTS: Seventeen consecutive patients who underwent appendectomy were compared to 18 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopy (16 of these 18 had laparoscopic appendectomy). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of clinical characteristics and appendiceal histopathology. The mean operative times were 61 +/- 4.1 minutes and 46 +/- 2.9 minutes for the laparoscopy and conventional groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic appendectomy group, with 81% of patients being discharged on their first postoperative day (p < 0.001). The laparoscopic appendectomy patients required significantly less narcotic analgesia (p < 0.02). Return to normal activity was not significantly different between the two groups. The average total cost of laparoscopic appendectomy was 30% greater than that of conventional appendectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy is a useful adjunct to the management of patients with a presumed clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:8239785
Haribhakti, Sanjiv P.; Mistry, Jitendra H.
There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques. PMID:25883450
Orlando, G; Bellini, P; Borioni, R; Pace, A
We report the case of a patient who experienced hemobilia a few weeks after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This condition was due to the rupture of a pseudo-aneurysm of the right hepatic artery in the common bile duct, probably caused by a clip erroneously fired during LC on the lateral right wall of the vessel. It also caused the formation of multiple liver abscesses and the onset of sepsis. This life-threatening complication led to melena, fever, epigastric pain, pancreatitis, liver dysfunction, and severe anemia, requiring urgent hospitalization and operation. In the operating theater, the fistula was closed, the liver abscesses drained, and a Kehr tube inserted. Thereafter, the patient's general condition improved, and she is now well. LC is often considered to be the gold standard for the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, recent data have undermined that opinion. The apparent advantages offered by LC in the short term (less pain, speedier recovery, shorter hospital stay, and lower costs) have been overwhelmed by the complications that occur during long-term follow-up. When the late downward trend in the bile duct and the vascular injury rate are taken into consideration, the learning curve is prolonged. Therefore, LC should be regarded as the surgical equivalent of a modern Peter Pan-i.e., it is like a young adult who should make definitive steps toward becoming an adult but does not succeed in doing so. We report the case of a patient who experienced hemobilia a few weeks after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Based on the facts in this case, we argue that the endoscopic procedure still needs to be perfected and cannot yet be considered the gold standard for selected cases of gallstone disease.
Rampa, M; Boati, P; Battaglia, L; Leo, E; Vannelli, A
Laparoscopic technique in elective cholecystectomy is the last step in an evolutive time to minimize the abdominal access. From 1st January 2004 to 31th December 2006 we analyzed 5515 cholecystectomy procedures: 4877 laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 635 open cholecystectomy. Complications and supplementary diagnosis have been identified in SDO Lombardia's country database. Morbidity occurred in 82 patients (12.9%) with open technique and 109 patients (2.23%) with laparoscopic technique; mortality occurred in 11 patients (1.73%) with open technique and 1 patient (0.02%) with laparoscopic technique. Mean hospital stay are 14.40 days with open technique and 4.75 with laparoscopic technique. Morbidity in open technique is 6 fold more than laparoscopia technique. The difference between the two technique is present in literature and it's the result of non invasive technique compared with the incision of the laparoscopia technique. This is the critical point in the difference of hospital stay between the two technique all to the good of laparoscopy. The high mortality ratio is due to the selective criteria in laparoscopic technique. First remark is the high quality of our hospital care, compared with hospital teaching in the word. In this hospital the laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard in cholelitiasis treatment. The second remark is the limit of the open technique in severe cholelitiasis with evidence in high ratio of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality.
Shekarriz, Hodjat; Upadhyay, Jyoti; Comman, Andreas; Markert, Uwe; Bürk, Conny G.; Kujath, Peter; Bruch, Hans-Peter
Background and Objectives: Hydro-Jet technology has long been used for cutting various materials like metal and wood in the industrial field. In the medical field, this technology has been applied successfully for selective cutting of the parenchyma of the liver. However, to our knowledge, no data exist on the use of the Hydro-Jet technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new dissection technique using a high-pressure water stream (Hydro-Jet) and a new dissection probe for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Thirty pigs underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pigs were randomized to receive either the conventional or Hydro-Jet assisted dissection technique. The feasibility of this technique and the features of surgical dissection were evaluated and compared between the 2 groups. Results: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was successful in all animals with no need for conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time was 28 and 36 minutes for Hydro-Jet versus conventional dissection, respectively. Complications using the Hydro-Jet and conventional techniques included 6% and 20% gallbladder perforation and 6.5% and 13% liver laceration, respectively. The use of the Hydro-Jet for cholecystectomy had clear technical advantages over conventional dissection. The Hydro-Jet resulted in a selective dissection of fibrous and connective tissue preserving blood vessels for later ligation. Therefore, the dissection was performed in a relatively bloodless field. The ease of dissection using the new bent tipped dissector represents another advantage. Finally, the continuous water flow allowed a clear view for the operator. Conclusions: This study shows that Hydro-jet dissection represents an excellent alternative to the conventional technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The improved anatomical dissection combined with an almost bloodless operating field secondary to continuous water flow may decrease dissection
Macano, Caw; Griffiths, E A; Vohra, R S
INTRODUCTION Current guidelines do not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite this, there is wide variation in antibiotic prophylaxis during cholecystectomy in population-based studies. The aim of this survey was to establish the current rationale for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS A short questionnaire was designed and disseminated across collaborators for a population-based study investigating outcomes following cholecystectomy and via the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, Researchgate and Surginet membership. RESULTS Responses were received from 234 people; 50.9% had no written policy for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in elective cholecystectomy; 5.6% never used antibiotics, while 30.8% always did and 63.7% selectively used antibiotics. Contamination with bile, stones and pus were scenarios in which antibiotics were most commonly used in selective practices to reduce infective complications. Interestingly, 87% of respondents would be happy to participate in a trial investigating the effectiveness of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. CONCLUSIONS The disparity between current practice and guidelines appears to arise because of a lack of evidence to show that antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. This question needs to addressed before practice will change.
Planells Roig, Manuel; Arnal Bertomeu, Consuelo; Garcia Espinosa, Rafael; Cervera Delgado, Maria; Carrau Giner, Miguel
Difference analysis of ambulatorization rate, pain, analgesic requirements and daily activities recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with standard multiport access (CLMP) versus a minilaparoscopic, 3mm size, technique. Prospective randomized trial of 40 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Comparison criteria included predictive ultrasound factors of difficult cholecystectomy, previous history of complicated biliary disease and demographics. Results are analyzed in terms of ambulatorization rate, pain, analgesic requirements, postoperative recovery, technical difficulty, hemorrhage intensity, overnight stay, readmission rate and total or partial conversion. Both procedures were similar in surgery time, technical score and hemorrhage score. MLC was associated with similar ambulatorization rate, 85%, and over-night stay 15%, with only 15% partial conversion rate. MLC showed less postoperative pain (P=.026), less analgesic consumption (P=.006) and similar DAR (P=.879). MLC is similar to CLMP in terms of ambulatorization with less postoperative pain and analgesic requirements without differences in postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Coskun, I; Hatipoglu, A R; Topaloglu, A; Yoruk, Y; Yalcinkaya, S; Caglar, T
Operations often cause impairment in respiration due to pain. This study was designed to compare the changes in pulmonary function tests after open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Two groups of 35 patients were randomly set up. Each patient had 3 pulmonary function tests performed and 2 postero-anterior grid chest roentgenograms taken. All of these data were evaluated by the same group of investigators. After taking into consideration the difference between pulmonary function tests, values were not significant (P < or = 0.05). All pulmonary function test values decreased significantly on the 1st postoperative day (P < or = 0.05). When postero-anterior chest roentgenograms were compared no clinically evident atelectasis except 3 lineary was seen in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group, whereas 5 lineary, 7 focal, and 3 segmentary atelectasia were encountered in the open cholecystectomy group (P < or = 0.05). We believe that laparoscopic cholecystectomy has more advantages when speaking of postoperative pulmonary function tests and atelectasia.
Tanoue, K; Yasunaga, T; Kobayashi, E; Miyamoto, S; Sakuma, I; Dohi, T; Konishi, K; Yamaguchi, S; Kinjo, N; Takenaka, K; Maehara, Y; Hashizume, M
Laparoscopic surgery has continued to gain popularity in almost all fields of abdominal surgery, and robotic systems have been introduced in general surgery. Naviot is a new remote-controlled laparoscope manipulator system controlled by the operator's hand. This study assessed its introduction into clinical practice. A group of 10 consecutive patients with cholelithiasis underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy assisted by the Naviot system (Naviot group). Another group of 41 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a conventional human camera holder (human camera group) were selected for a comparison of their operative results with those of the Naviot group. The operative time of 89.3 +/- 27.1 min for the Naviot group was significantly longer than that of 74.8 +/- 28.1 min for the human camera group (p < 0.05). However, when the setup time for the Naviot system was excluded, the operative time was not significantly different from that for the human camera group. Other operative results showed no significant difference between the two groups. The authors believe that the new Naviot system is feasible for clinical use, and that it enables surgeons to perform solo gastrointestinal surgery.
Ye, Guanxiong; Qin, Yong; Xu, Shengqian; Wu, Chengjun; Wang, Shi; Pan, Debiao; Wang, Xinmei
This work aims to compare the curative effect of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TUSPLC) and four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (FPLC). 200 patients with cholecystolithiasis were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into TUSPLC group and FPLC group, 100 cases in each group, and the TUSPLC and FPLC was performed, respectively. The surgical time, intraoperative complication, conversions rate, postoperative pain, postoperative analgesic drug use, incision infection, postoperative hospitalization time and postoperative cosmetic results in two groups were compared. The total conversion rate, conversion rate with Nassar grade II, and conversion rate with Nassar grade III in TUSPLC group were significantly higher than FPLC group (P < 0.01), and the incision cosmetic result after 1 month in TUSPLC group was obviously better than FPLC group (P < 0.01), but the surgical time in TUSPLC group was significantly longer than FPLC group (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference of incision infection, intraoperative complication, and postoperative hospitalization time, incision pain in postoperative first and second day, postoperative use of analgesia drug and incision cosmetic result on discharge day between two groups (P > 0.05). TUSPLC has obvious advantage in treatment of Nassar grade I patients with cholecystolithiasis. It can be used as a supplement for standard laparoscopic gallbladder surgery. It is safe and feasible, without abdominal scar, thus achieving to excellent cosmetic result and high satisfaction in patients. PMID:26221325
Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Benzin, Mehmet Fatih; Cakir, Tugrul; Sozen, Isa; Sabuncuoglu, Aylin
Purpose: Advances in laparoscopic techniques have enabled complicated intra-abdominal surgical procedures to be made with less trauma and a better cosmetic appearance. The techniques have been developed by decreasing the number of incisions in conventional laparoscopic procedures in order to increase patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to compare the results of cholecystectomies made with 3, 2 or a single incision. Method: A total of 95 cholecystectomy patients from Elbistan State Hospital and Suleyman Demirel University Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The patients were separated into 3 groups as triple incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TILC), double incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DILC) and single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC). Patients were evaluated in respect of demographic characteristics, operation time, success rate, analgesia requirement, length of hospital stay and patient satisfaction. Results: Successful procedures were completed in 40 TILC, 40 DILC and 15 SILC cases. Transfer to open cholecystectomy was not required in any case. The mean duration of operation was 71 mins (range, 55-120 mins) for SILC cases, 45 mins (range, 32-125 mins) for DILC cases and 42 mins (range, 29-96 mins) for TILC cases. The mean time for the SILC cases was statistically significantly longer than the other two groups (p < 0.000). Conclusions: At a comparable level with DILC and TILC, single incision laparosccopic cholecystectomy is a method which can be used without incurring any extra costs or requiring additional instrumentation or training and which has good cosmetic results and a low requirement for analgesia. PMID:25419372
Sharma, Munish; Vindal, Anubhav; Lal, Pawanindra
The precise steps for the removal of gall bladder from the gall bladder bed are not well standardised. The dissection becomes more difficult near the fundus where the assistant's grasper holding the fundus creates a 'tug of war' like situation. This is a description of a simple technique that aids in accurate dissection of the gallbladder from liver bed. As the gallbladder dissection approaches fundus and more than two-third of gallbladder is dissected from liver bed, the medial and lateral peritoneal folds of gall bladder are further incised. The assistant is asked to leave the traction from the gallbladder fundus, while the surgeon holds the dissected surface of gall bladder around 2-3 cm away from its attachment with liver and flip it above the liver. Further dissection is carried out using a hook or a dissector till it is disconnected completely from the liver bed. We have employed 'Flip technique' in around 645 consecutive cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy operated in the past 3 years. Only one case of liver bed bleeding and two cases of injury to gall bladder wall were noted during this part of dissection in this study. Ease of dissection by surgeons was rated as 9.6 on a scale of 1-10. Gallbladder 'Flip technique' is a simple and easily reproducible technique employed for dissection of gall bladder from liver bed that reduces complications and makes dissection easier.
Legorreta, A P; Brooks, R J; Staroscik, R N; Xuan, Y; Costantino, G N; Zatz, S L
Over the past 5 years there has been a remarkable change in the manner in which symptomatic gallstones are surgically managed. In this study we reviewed the experience of a large HMO to determine the relationship between the rate of increase of ERCP and that of cholecystectomy. All individuals enrolled in US Healthcare's HMO-PA, in the region of southeastern Pennsylvania from 1988 through 1993, were included in the analysis. Using the HMO claims database, patients who underwent an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the study period were identified. We then identified those patients who had a pre- or post- operative ERCP. Over the study period, there has been a substantial increase in cholecystectomies per 1000 members-from 1.37 in 1988 to 2.16 (p < 0.0001) in 1993. In our study population there were 1261 ERCPs performed in 979 patients with an average of 1.3 ERCPs per patient during the study period. The ERCP rate per 1000 members has increased from 0.16 to 0.56 (p < 0.0001) from 1988 to 1993, at the same time that the cholecystectomy rate was substantially increasing. The correlation for the ERCP and cholecystectomy rates from 1988 to 1993 was 0.994 (p < 0.0001). Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1989-1990, many more ERCPs are now being performed. It is necessary to determine the implications related to the rapid diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, including the effect that this technology has had on other older and stable technologies such as ERCP. Our results describe the dramatic effect that laparoscopic cholecystectomy has had on the utilization of ERCPs.
Bhandarkar, Deepraj; Mittal, Gaurav; Shah, Rasik; Katara, Avinash; Udwadia, Tehemton E
Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a relatively new technique that is being increasingly used by surgeons around the world. Unlike the multi-port cholecystectomy, a standardised technique and detailed description of the operative steps of SILC is lacking in the literature. This article provides a stepwise account of the technique of SILC aimed at surgeons wishing to learn the procedure. A brief review of the current literature on SILC follows. PMID:21197237
Yueh, Tuan-Pin; Chen, Fong-Ying; Lin, Tsyr-En; Chuang, Mao-Te
Diarrhea is part of the postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy syndrome, but is not well defined. Published reports have ignored possible associated factors such as the preoperative excretion pattern, gastrointestinal disorders, personality disorders, the effect of drugs, unsanitary food, and high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to define the associated factors and predictors of postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy diarrhea (PLCD) at different time intervals after the operation and to identify the possible associated factors and predictors of PLCD. We also aimed to determine the effectiveness of a low-fat diet in these patients and to educate the patients about their diet after the operation. Data were obtained from clinical records and preoperative interviews with patients, who were also interviewed or contacted by telephone 1 week after the operation, and then surveyed by telephone 3 months later using standardized questionnaires. A total of 125 consecutive patients who were adequately informed and who had assented to accepting a prescription of a low-fat diet after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy participated in this prospective study. Thirty-eight patients (25.2%) had diarrhea 1 week after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and seven patients (5.7%) had diarrhea 3 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The important predictors of PLCD at 1 week were a low-fat diet (B = -0.177, p = 0.000) and a high score on a preoperative diarrhea scale (B = 0.311, p = 0.031). There was no predictor for PLCD 3 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We advise patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy to follow a low-fat diet for at least 1 week to reduce the possibility of diarrhea, especially when they are ≤45 years of age, of male sex, and had a high preoperative tendency for diarrhea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Preciado, A; Matthews, B D; Scarborough, T K; Marti, J L; Reardon, P R; Weinstein, G S; Bennett, M
Spillage of gallstones into the peritoneal cavity is a frequent problem during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (as much as 30%) and is frequently dismissed as a benign occurrence. However, several complications associated with spillage of gallstones have been reported recently. Most of these complications presented late after the original procedure, many with clinical pictures not related to biliary etiology, confounding and delaying adequate management. For patients presenting with intraabdominal or thoracic abscesses of unknown etiology, if there is a history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, regardless of the time interval, certain evaluations should be considered. A sonogram and a CT scan are advisable to detect retained extraluminal gallstones, as most patients will require, not only drainage of fluid collections, but also removal of the stones. A case is described of a patient who presented with a right empyema and transdiaphragmatic abscess 18 months after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Treatment included decortication, enbloc resection of the abscess, repair of the diaphragm, and drainage.
Rivitz, S. Mitchell; Waltman, Arthur C.; Kelsey, Peter B.
Vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy can occur in an analogous fashion to biliary injuries, with potential laceration, transection, and occlusion of blood vessels. A patient presented with symptomatic hemobilia 1 month following laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was found to have a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm which communicated with the common bile duct. This was successfully embolized with several embolic agents, resulting in rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms. The patient has been free of symptoms during a follow-up period of 1 year. A brief discussion of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms is presented.
Ionescu, D; Vlad, L; Iancu, C; Puia, C; Al Hajjar, N; Munteanu, D; Bălă, O; Pop, F
The goal of the "Prospect" programme (sponsored by Pfizer) is to create possible evidence-based protocols related to the management of postoperative pain after certain type of surgical intervention (e.g. hernia repairs, hysterectomies, etc.). This article is introducing the protocol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy for both day-case and longer hospital admission cases. The protocol is designed for preoperative, intra and postoperative period, choosing only those measures which were effective for postoperative pain, published in the literature. We are also presenting an analyze of our 13,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, from "Prospect" protocol point of view, and what we should do to improve the management of postoperative pain.
Reynolds, I; Bolger, J; Al-Hilli, Z; Hill, A D K
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a common procedure performed in both emergency and elective settings. Our aim was to analyse the trends in laparoscopic surgery in Ireland in the public and private healthcare systems. In particular we studied the trend in day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy. National HIPE data for the years 2010-2012 was obtained. Similar datasets were obtained from the three main health insurers. 19,214 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were carried out in Ireland over the 3-year period. More procedures were performed in the public system than the private system from 2010-2012. There was a steady increase in surgeries performed in the public sector, while the private sector remained static. Although the ALOS was significantly higher in the public sector, there was an increase in the rate of day case procedures from 416 (13%) to 762 (21.9%). The day case rates in private hospitals increased only slightly from 29 (5.1%) in 2010 to 40 (5.9%) in 2012. Day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been shown to be a safe procedure, however significant barriers remain in place to the implementation of successful day case units nationwide.
Gómez Tagle-Morales, Enrique David
Background: three-port and 25 mm total incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy has shown benefits compared to conventional laparoscopy. The aim was to examine the safety and feasibility of this technique. Methods: a three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy trial was conducted through Cinvestav metasearcher, Seriunam and Rencis. The eligibility criteria were: three port laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 25 mm total incision, and score = 17 on Data Review System. Trials which employed instruments smaller than 5 mm in diameter were excluded. The comparative variables were documented and results obtained in the selected trials were described. Results: four trials were selected, comprising 1767 cases (1329 females and 438 males), average age was 44.3 years. Chronic cholecystitis was documented in 84.3 %, and acute cholecystitis in 14.7 %. Average surgical time was 54.5 minutes. An additional port was required in 4.8 % and 1.4 % was converted to open technique. Bile duct injury was presented in 0.11 %. The success rate was 94.9 %. Conclusions: three port and 25 mm total incision in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and feasible.
Joong Choi, Chan; Kim, Min Chan; Choi, Hong Jo; Kim, Young Hoon; Jung, Ghap Joong
Background and Objectives: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) was introduced to improve patients' postoperative quality of life and cosmesis over the conventional approach (CLC). The purpose of this case–control study was to compare the outcome of SPLC with that of CLC in a specific disease: gall bladder (GB) polyps. Methods: Eligible for the study were all patients with GB polyps who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. The 112 patients studied (56 each for SPLC and CLC) were matched by using a propensity score that included gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, history of previous abdominal operation, and pathology outcome. To avoid selection bias caused by the surgeon's choice (often dependent on the degree of inflammation) and to investigate the efficacy of SPLC for a single disease, GB polyps, we excluded patients with acute or chronic cholecystitis. Results: Characteristics of the patients matched by a propensity score between SPLC and CLC showed no significant difference. Incidentally detected malignancy was in postoperative pathology in cases in both groups. Although operative time was shorter for SPLC, there was no significant difference in time between the 2 groups. There were 3 open conversions in the CLC group, and an additional port was used in the SPLC group. There was no difference between the groups in hospital stay and postoperative complications. Conclusion: In the management of GB polyps, the operative results of SPLC are comparable to those of CLC. We conclude that SPLC is as safe as CLC and has the potential for greater cosmetic satisfaction for patients than CLC. Further trials for objective appraisal of cosmetic outcomes are needed. PMID:26229419
Aggarwal, R; Crochet, P; Dias, A; Misra, A; Ziprin, P; Darzi, A
Training within a proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) curriculum may reduce errors during real surgical procedures. This study used a scientific methodology for development of a VR training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Inexperienced (had performed fewer than ten laparoscopic cholecystectomies), intermediate (20-50) and experienced (more than 100) surgeons were recruited. Construct validity was defined as the ability to differentiate between the three levels of experience, based on simulator-derived metrics for nine basic skills, four procedural tasks and full laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a high-fidelity VR simulator. Inexperienced subjects performed ten repetitions for learning curve analysis. Proficiency measures were based on the performance of experienced surgeons. Thirty inexperienced, 11 intermediate and 16 experienced operators were recruited. Eight of nine basic skills and three of four procedural tasks were found to be construct valid. The full procedure revealed significant intergroup differences for time (1541, 673 and 816 s; P = 0.002), movements (1021, 595 and 638; P = 0.006) and path length (2038, 1235 and 1303 cm; P = 0.033). Learning curves plateaued between the second and ninth sessions. This study shows that it is possible to define and develop a whole-procedure VR training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy using structured scientific methodology. (c) 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Neufeld, D; Jessel, J; Freund, U
We describe a complication in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The routine introduction of a midclavicular secondary trocar resulted in a large hematoma of the rectus sheath. The patient developed atelectasis and pneumonia and required extended hospitalization. This previously described complication is detailed with recommendations to prevent its occurrence.
Tiwari, Sangeeta; Chauhan, Ashutosh; Chaterjee, Pallab; Alam, Mohammed T
CONTEXT: Spinal anaesthesia has been reported as an alternative to general anaesthesia for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). AIMS: Study aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia (SA) in comparison to general anaesthesia(GA) SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomised study conducted over a two year period at an urban, non teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients meeting inclusion criteria e randomised into two groups. Group A and Group B received general and spinal anaesthesia by standardised techniques. Both groups underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were secondary outcome measure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The Student t test, Pearson′s chi-square test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Out of 235 cases enrolled in the study, 114 cases in Group A and 110 in Group B analysed. Mean anaesthesia time appeared to be more in the GA group (49.45 vs. 40.64, P = 0.02) while pneumoperitoneum time and corresponding the total surgery time was slightly longer in the SA group. 27/117 cases who received SA experienced intraoperative events, four significant enough to convert to GA. No postoperative complications noted in either group. Pain relief significantly more in SA group in immediate post operative period (06 and 12 hours) but same as GA group at time of discharge (24 hours). No late postoperative complication or readmission noted in either group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups in developing countries where cost factor is a major factor. PMID:23741111
Sucandy, Iswanto; Nadzam, Geoffrey; Duffy, Andrew J; Roberts, Kurt E
The concept of reducing the number of transabdominal access ports has been criticized for violating basic tenets of traditional multiport laparoscopy. Potential benefits of reduced port surgery may include decreased pain, improved cosmesis, less hernia formation, and fewer wound complications. However, technical challenges associated with these access methods have not been adequately addressed by advancement in instrumentations. We describe our initial experience with the NovaTract™ Laparoscopic Dynamic Retractor. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent two-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy between 2013 and 2014 using the NovaTract retractor was performed. The patients were equally divided into three groups (Group A, B, C) based on the order of case performed. Eighteen consecutive patients underwent successful two-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Mean age was 39.9 years and mean body mass index was 28.1 kg/m(2) (range 21-39.4). Overall mean operative time was 65 minutes (range 42-105), with Group A of 70 minutes, Group B of 65 minutes, and Group C of 58 minutes (P = .58). All cases were completed laparoscopically using the retraction system, without a need for additional ports or open conversion. No intra- or postoperative complications were seen. All patients were discharged on the same day of surgery. No mortality found in this series. The NovaTract laparoscopic dynamic retractor is safe and easy to use, which is reflected by acceptable operative time for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy using only two ports. The system allows surgical approach to mimic the conventional laparoscopic techniques, while eliminating or reducing the number of retraction ports.
Segal, Michael S.; Huynh, Richard H.; Wright, George O.
Patient: Male, 56 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure. In certain situations visualization of the Callot triangle can become difficult due to inflammation, adhesions, and sclerosing of the anatomy. Without being able to obtain the “critical view of safety” (CVS), there is increased risk of damage to vital structures. An alternative approach to the conventional conversion to an open cholecystectomy (OC) would be a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC). Case Report: We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with acute cholecystitis with a “difficult gallbladder” managed with LSC. Due to poor visualization of the Callot triangle due to adhesions, safe dissection was not feasible. In an effort to avoid injury to the common bile duct (CBD), dissection began at the dome of the gallbladder allowing an alternative view while ensuring safety of critical structures. Conclusions: We discuss the potential benefits and risks of LSC versus conversion to OC. Our discussion incorporates the pathophysiology that allows LSC in this particular circumstance to be successful, and the considerations a surgeon faces in making a decision in management. PMID:28220035
Nicholson, Tony; Travis, Simon; Ettles, Duncan; Dyet, John; Sedman, Peter; Wedgewood, Kevin; Royston, Christopher
Purpose: The effectiveness of angiography and embolization in diagnosis and treatment were assessed in a cohort of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Over a 6-year period 1513 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were carried out in our region. Nine of these patients (0.6%) developed significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 5-43 days after surgery. All underwent emergency celiac and selective right hepatic artery angiography. All were treated by coil embolization of the right hepatic artery proximal and distal to the bleeding point. Results: Pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery adjacent to cholecystectomy clips were demonstrated in all nine patients at selective right hepatic angiography. In three patients celiac axis angiography alone failed to demonstrate the pseudoaneurysm. Embolization controlled hemorrhage in all patients with no further bleeding and no further intervention. One patient developed a candidal liver abscess in the post-procedure period. All patients are alive and well at follow-up. Conclusion: Selective right hepatic angiography is vital in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Embolization offers the advantage of minimally invasive treatment in unstable patients, does not disrupt recent biliary reconstruction, allows distal as well as proximal control of the hepatic artery, and is an effective treatment for this potentially life-threatening complication.
Timmons, Suzanne; Majeed, Aamir; Twomey, Aongus; Aftab, Fuad
Objective: To analyze the preoperative factors contributing to the decision to convert laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy. Methods: Retrospective identification of 324 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with univariate and multivariate analysis of the following parameters: age, gender, obesity, previous abdominal surgery, presentation with acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis or obstructive jaundice, gallbladder wall thickening, gallbladder or common bile duct stones. Results: Thirty-nine patients (12%) underwent conversion to open cholecystectomy. Patients aged over 65 years were four times more likely to require conversion than patients under 50 years of age. Under 50 years of age, males had equal conversion rates to females, and above this age there was a non-significant increased conversion rate in males. Obese patients had higher conversion rates than non-obese patients (23% versus 9%, P < 0.003). Thirty-eight percent of patients with choledocholithiasis required conversion. Age, acute cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis independently predicted conversion. A patient aged less than fifty years with neither acute cholecystitis nor choledocholithiasis had a conversion rate of just 2%, while almost 60% of those over 65 years of age with acute cholecystitis or choledocholithiasis required conversion. Conclusion: The parameters of age, acute cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis must be considered in the clinical decision making process when planning laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:20202401
Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc
As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between groups at retention testing. The virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lanzafame, Raymond J.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. Although electrosurgery devices are used by a majority of surgeons, laser technology is a valued addition to the armamentarium of the skilled laser laparoscopist. A variety of fiberoptic capable wavelengths have been applied successfully during this procedure. Use of the CO2 laser for this purpose has lagged due to difficulties encountered with free-beam and rigid waveguide dissections via the laparoscope. Recent developments in flexible waveguide technology have the potential to expand the role of the CO2 laser for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and other procedures. Twelve laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed using Luxar (Bothell, WA) flexible microwaveguides of various configurations. In each case, dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed was accomplished with acceptable speed and hemostasis. There were no complications. Shortcomings include coupling and positioning with an articulated arm and occasional clogging of some waveguide tips with debris. Modifications of this technology are suggested. Flexible waveguides make the CO2 laser a practical alternative for surgical laparoscopy.
Troncoso-Bacelis, Alicia; Soto-Amaro, Jaime; Ramírez-Velázquez, Carlos
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective treatment and remains the gold standard in patients with benign disease. However it presents difficulties such as: the limited movement range of the instruments, the loss of depth perception, haptic feedback and the fulcrum effect. Previous training can optimize surgical performance in patients to master basic skills. Assess the effectiveness of surgeons warming up with an endotrainer before performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Single-blind controlled clinical trial with 16 surgeons who performed 2 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, the first according to standard practice and the second with warm-up comprising 5 MISTELS system exercises. Patient and surgeon demographics were recorded, in addition to findings and complications during and after surgery for each procedured. We found a decrease in surgical time of 76.88 (±18.87) minutes in the group that did not warm up to prior to surgery compared with 72.81 (±35.5) minutes in the group with warm-up (p=0.0196). In addition, increased bleeding occurred in the procedures performed with warm-up 31.25 (±30.85) ml compared with the group that had no warm-up 23.94 (±15.9) (p=0.0146). Performing warm up on a MISTELS system endotrainer before performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduces the operating time of surgery for all surgeons. Surgery bleeding increases in operations performed by surgeons with less experience in laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Shibuya, Kentaro; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Mushiake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masato; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now a standard procedure for cholecystolithiasis because of its minimally invasive nature compared to the conventional method. However, severe complications that have never been seen for open surgery have also been reported. Here, we report the case of a 28-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and then developed a ruptured subcapsular hematoma. On postoperative day 1, she developed shock, and postoperative bleeding was suspected. During re-operation, a ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the whole right lobe of the liver with active bleeding was found, and hemostasis was achieved. In this case, it was assumed that the rupture of the subcapsular hematoma was due to compression of the liver by the clamp for retrieving the spilled gallstones during the first operation and perioperative administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo
patients. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed successfully under spinal anesthesia with low-pressure pneumoperitoneum of CO2. The use of thoracic puncture and low doses of hyperbaric bupivacaine provided better hemodynamic stability, less hypotension, and shorter duration of sensory and motor blockade than lumbar spinal anesthesia with conventional doses. PMID:25422604
Brown, Victoria; Martin, Jennifer; Magee, Damian
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. As with all surgical procedures, it carries risk, with the most commonly reported complications including infection, bile leak and bleeding. One unusual complication is subcapsular liver haematoma, the diagnosis presented here. This is a rare occurrence; only a small number of cases have been reported in the literature and as yet no conclusive cause or management plan has been found. Iatrogenic liver trauma, the use of oral and intravenous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and anticoagulants have all been named as possible contributing factors. Particularly, the use of ketorolac has been associated with four reported cases of subcapsular haematoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The case reported here refutes that hypothesis, as neither NSAIDs nor anticoagulants were used during the treatment of this patient.
Bozkurt, Suleyman; Coskun, Halil; Atak, Tuba; Kadioglu, Huseyin
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare genetic anomaly characterized by arrangement of the abdominal and thoracic organs in a perfect mirror image reversal of the normal positioning. Transposition of the organs causes difficulty in diagnosis and treatment of the diseases related to abdomen and thorax. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a new technique and it is increasingly used with better cosmetic results. In this paper, a single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) performed in a patient with SIT is presented. SILC can be performed safely in the patients with SIT with better cosmetic results. PMID:23741594
Bozkurt, Suleyman; Coskun, Halil; Atak, Tuba; Kadioglu, Huseyin
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare genetic anomaly characterized by arrangement of the abdominal and thoracic organs in a perfect mirror image reversal of the normal positioning. Transposition of the organs causes difficulty in diagnosis and treatment of the diseases related to abdomen and thorax. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a new technique and it is increasingly used with better cosmetic results. In this paper, a single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) performed in a patient with SIT is presented. SILC can be performed safely in the patients with SIT with better cosmetic results.
Guadagno, P; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Conzo, G; Santini, L
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is became the elective operation in the treatment of symptomatic lithiasis of gallbladder, and it represent the surgical choice in 96% of cases. The authors on the base of their first years experience analyzes the results of literature with particular reference to the complications, like lesion of principal biliary tract and of other organs or vessels, underlining how the right selection of patients can be reduce morbidity. In this direction the subdivision of contraindication, in relative and absolute, already described in literature, represent an obliged chose to respect the mini-invasive principle which laparoscopic technique mean.
Lubna, H; Masoom, M R
This Quasi-experimental study was done to assess the effectiveness of hydro-dissection in difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies in Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from April 2012 to March 2014. All consecutive patients who presented with cholelithiasis and planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Per-operatively the degree of difficulty of the operation was assessed by Cuschieri's scale after grading; Grade II, III and IV cholecystectomies were included in this study. Hydro dissection with saline jet through 5mm simple irrigation and suction probe was used, Operative findings and the total number of patients, in whom anatomy of calot's triangle was clearly displayed with hydro-dissection, was recorded. A total 55 patients were included in the study after assessing the degree of difficulty per operatively by Cuschieri Scale. Thirty one (31) patients were in Group II, 22 in Group III and 02 were included in group IV of Cuschieri scale in which hydro-dissection was used. This method cleared the obscure anatomy in all patients in Group II but in 3 patients of Group III, dense adhesions required sharp dissection to clear the operative field. Two patients, in whom conversion was required, were grouped in Cuschieri's scale IV. Methods of dissection in difficult cholecystectomies are of paramount importance to avoid iatrogenic injuries. Hydro-dissection using suction irrigation probe is a safe and effective technique to clear the difficult anatomy.
Georganas, Marios; Delaporta, Eirini; Karallas, Emmanouil; Koutsopoulos, Konstantinos
The development of an intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) is an infrequent complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). These bilomas develop in the subhepatic space most often secondary to iatrogenic injury of the extrahepatic ducts. We present a case of hepatic subcapsular biloma following LC and we discuss its etiology and management. Early diagnosis is crucial and percutaneous drainage under CT guidance should be employed to resolve this complication. PMID:25177507
Stathopoulos, Vassilios; Georganas, Marios; Stratakis, Konstantinos; Delaporta, Eirini; Karallas, Emmanouil; Koutsopoulos, Konstantinos
The development of an intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) is an infrequent complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). These bilomas develop in the subhepatic space most often secondary to iatrogenic injury of the extrahepatic ducts. We present a case of hepatic subcapsular biloma following LC and we discuss its etiology and management. Early diagnosis is crucial and percutaneous drainage under CT guidance should be employed to resolve this complication.
Dellon, A Lee
Chest wall or abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is perceived as residual gastrointestinal problems. Some patients will have tenderness at the laparoscopic portal site(s), representing injury to one or more intercostal nerves. The author describes this patient population for the first time, outlining a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. Inclusion criteria included (1) right chest wall or abdominal pain persisting more than 1 year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, (2) relief of that pain with intercostal nerve block, (3) resection of intercostal nerves identified by nerve block, and (4) at least a 6-month postoperative follow-up by telephone. Review from 2009 through 2011 identified one man and seven women meeting these criteria. Mean age was 44 years (range, 18 to 74 years). Mean interval between cholecystectomy and intercostal neurectomy was 44.3 months (range, 13 to 72 months). Two intercostal nerves were resected in two patients, three in four patients, four in one patient, and five in one patient, most commonly intercostal nerves T6, T7, and T8. Proximal nerves were implanted into the serratus or latissimus dorsi. At a mean period of 18.3 months after surgery, the preoperative mean visual analogue score of 8.9 (range, 7 to 10) decreased to 3.6 (range, 0 to 6) (p < 0.01). Overall results were excellent in five (63 percent) and good in two (25 percent), with one failure (12 percent). Pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy may represent intercostal nerve injury. Diagnostic blocks are essential to confirm diagnosis. Nerve resection and implantation of the proximal ends into muscle can give good to excellent results in most patients. Therapeutic, IV.
Atak, Ibrahim; Ozbagriacik, Mustafa; Akinci, Omer Faruk; Bildik, Nejdet; Subasi, Ismail Ege; Ozdemir, Mehtap; Ayta, Nejla Inan
To investigate to what effect active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration reduces pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 104 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly placed into 2 groups. Group I included active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration (n=52) while group II included simple evacuation (n=52) without any additional procedures. Postoperative analgesic requirements were recorded and the level of postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain was assessed using a numeric scale after 24 postoperative hours. Data were analyzed using the χ test for nonparametric data and Student t test for parametric data. Age, volume of CO2 used during surgery, and operation duration were similar in the 2 groups. The simple evacuation group (group II) experienced more shoulder and abdominal pain postoperatively when compared with the active subdiaphragmatic aspiration group (group I) and had a higher use of analgesics during the postoperative period. Active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a simple procedure that can effectively reduce postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain and as a result the need for analgesics.
Liguori, G; Bortul, M; Castiglia, D
The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and to analyse the problems related to patients' selection and surgical timing. The authors report their personal experience of 45 laparoscopic cholecystectomies for acute cholecystitis. The diagnosis was based on clinical, blood test and US scan analyse findings. Technical surgical details were decompression of the gallbladder, use of endobag and abdominal dranage. We didn't perform and intraoperative cholangiography in absence of predictive factor for common bile duct stones. The mean time required for surgery was 120 minutes, conversion rate was 15% in early operations and 23.8% in operations delaied more than 72 h. Dissection difficulty is the main cause of conversion. Four patients underwent postoperative complications: one subphrenic abscess, one bile leakage (both recovered with nonsurgical therapy and two wound infections). In conclusion laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective as early treatment of acute cholecystitis in the first 72 hours due to easier dissection of the inflammed and oedematous tissue. This approach allows a reduction of the operative risk and the conversion rate with medical and economic advantages. Presence of bile duct stones is still now indication to conversion in open surgery.
Ueno, Daisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Higashida, Masaharu; Yoshida, Koji; Hino, Keisuke; Irei, Isao; Moriya, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Masafumi
To compare the safety of emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) with surgery for acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC). We retrospectively reviewed the perioperative records of 111 patients who underwent emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis under the care of the Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, between January 2010 and April 2014. Patients were divided into the AAC group (27 patients) and the ACC group (84 patients), and their perioperative outcomes were compared. Patients in the AAC group had significantly higher disease severity and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores (p = 0.001 and 0.037, respectively), lower blood hemoglobin and albumin concentrations (p = 0.0005 and 0.017, respectively), and lower hematocrit and platelet count (p < 0.0001 and 0.040, respectively) than those in the ACC group. When we compared perioperative outcomes, we also found that patients in the AAC group were more likely to have received a blood transfusion (p = 0.002) and to have required conversion to open surgery (p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in morbidity, mortality or length of hospital stay. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe in acute acalculous as well as acute calculous cholecystitis.
Abe, Nobutsugu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Ueki, Hisayo; Yanagida, Osamu; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori; Atomi, Yutaka
The intentional puncture of the normal viscera is likely the most important issue limiting the widespread use of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). We developed a new procedure for cholecystectomy using a flexible endoscope via a single port placed in the abdominal wall without visceral puncture (single-port endoscopic cholecystectomy; SPEC) as a bridge between laparoscopic surgery and NOTES. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of SPEC. Five pigs were subjected to SPEC. An endoscope was inserted through a 12-mm port placed in the right upper abdomen. After grasping and retracting the gallbladder using a 2-mm retractor that was directly introduced into the peritoneal cavity, gallbladder excision with ligation of the cystic artery and duct using endoclips was carried out. A complete gallbladder excision was carried out easily and safely in all cases. No major adverse events occurred. The mean operating time was 67 min (range 52-84 min). SPEC is a technically feasible procedure. It is simpler, easier, and safer than NOTES cholecystectomy. SPEC could be a less invasive alternative to the conventional four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Lim, Swee Ho; Salleh, Ibrahim; Poh, Beow Kiong; Tay, Khoon Hean
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed procedure in general surgical practice but it also has an inherently steep learning curve. The training of surgeons in this procedure presents a challenge to teaching hospitals, which essentially have to strike a balance between effective training and safety of the patient. The present study aims first to assess the safety of the structured training programme for this procedure at the Department of Surgery, Changi General Hospital, Singapore. Secondly, it seeks to audit the conversion and bile duct injury rates among the laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by the department, and the factors which influence these. Notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the department over an 18-month period were reviewed retrospectively and the relevant data prospectively collected. Demographics, as well as details of cases of conversion to open operation and of bile duct injury were identified and the reasons for each recorded. A total of 443 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 18-month period. The most common indication for surgery was biliary colic/dyspepsia (61.4%), followed by cholecystitis, cholangitis, pancreatitis and common bile duct stone. The overall conversion rate was 11.5%. Three hundred and fifty-five patients were operated on by consultant surgeons, while 88 were by registrars who had been through the structured training programme. There was no statistically significant difference found in the conversion rates between these two groups (P = 0.284). Twenty-two of the 268 female (8.2%) patients had conversion to open operation, while 29 of the 175 male patients (16.6%) underwent conversion (P = 0.007). Amongst cases of cholecystitis and cholangitis, the conversion rate for patients operated on within 7 days of onset of symptoms was 35%, while those operated on 8 or more days later had a conversion rate of 29.7% (P = 0.639). There was a solitary case of bile duct
Feinberg, Elyssa J; Agaba, Emmanuel; Feinberg, Michelle L; Camacho, Diego; Vemulapalli, Pratibha
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is laparoscopic surgery done by one incision through the umbilicus. Cholecystectomy lends itself well to a SILS approach. As these procedures have become more widely adapted, it is important to determine the approximate learning curve to decrease two surgical endpoints: (1) time to completion of the procedure; and (2) decreased incidence of conversion. We prospectively reviewed our series of 50 cholecystectomies done using the SILS approach between May 2008 to September 2008. All cases were performed by two advanced laparoscopic surgeons at a single institution. Data was collected immediately after the case and entered into an Excel database. Cases were performed by insufflating the abdomen with a Veress needle through the umbilicus followed by placement of 5-mm ports at the umbilicus. Patient ages ranged between 21 and 82 years with a median age of 45 years. Body mass index (BMI) range was 21 to 42 kg/m with a mean of 30 kg/m. Average length of time for cases was 1 hour 9 minutes with a range between 55 minutes and 120 minutes. The average length of time for the first 25 cases was 80 minutes. When compared with cases 26 to 50 the average length of time was 60 minutes (P<0.05). The conversion rate to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 10%. Conversion was accomplished through the addition of a 5-mm port elsewhere on the abdominal cavity. After the tenth case, the incidence of conversion went down to zero. When conversions were further stratified, they occurred within each individual surgeon's first ten cases. The learning curve for successful consistent completion of SILS cholecystectomy cases appears to be after 25 cases. In addition, conversion rates drop dramatically after the first ten cases.
Filho, Euler de Medeiros Ázaro; Galvão, Thales Delmondes; Ettinger, João Eduardo Marques de Menezes; Silva Reis, Jadson Murilo; Lima, Marcos; Fahel, Edvaldo
Background: Acute cholecystitis is the major complication of biliary lithiasis, for which laparoscopic treatment has been established as the standard therapy. With longer life expectancy, acute cholecystitis has often been seen in elderly patients (>65 years old) and is often accompanied by comorbity and severe complications. We sought to compare the outcome of laparoscopic treatment for acute cholecystitis with special focus on comparison between elderly and nonelderly patients. Method: This study was a prospective analysis of 190 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis or chronic acute cholecystitis, comparing elderly and nonelderly patients. Results: Of 190 patients, 39 (21%) were elderly (>65 years old) and 151 (79%) were not elderly (≤65 years), with conversion rates of 10.3% and 6.6% (P=0.49), respectively. The incidence of postoperative complications in elderly and nonelderly patients were the following, respectively: atelectasis 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27); respiratory infection 5.1% and 2.7% (P=0.6); bile leakage 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27), and intraabdominal abscess 1 case (0.7%) and no incidence (P=1). Conclusion: According to our data, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in patients older than 65 years of age. PMID:17575761
Vasireddy, A; Nehra, D
Introduction Laparoscopic surgeons in Great Britain and Ireland were surveyed to assess their use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This followed a Cochrane review that found no evidence to support the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in routine cases. Methods Data were collected on routine use of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and how that was influenced by factors such as bile spillage, patient co-morbidities and surgeons’ experience. An online questionnaire was sent to 450 laparoscopic surgeons in December 2011. Results Data were received from 111 surgeons (87 consultants) representing over 7,000 cases per year. In routine cases without bile spillage, 64% of respondents gave no antibiotics and 36% gave a single dose. In cases with bile spillage, 11% gave no antibiotics. However, 80% gave one dose and 7% gave three doses. Co-amoxiclav was used by 75% of surgeons. Surgeons are more likely to give antibiotics when patients have risk factors for infective endocarditis. Conclusions This study suggests over 20,000 doses of antibiotics and over £100,000 could be saved annually if surgeons modified their practice to follow current guidelines. PMID:24992423
Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is very commonly performed surgical intervention. Acute or chronic cholecystitis, adhesions due to previous upper abdomen surgeries, Mirrizi’s syndrome and obesity are common clinical conditions that can be associated with difficult cholecystectomy. In this study, we evaluated and scored the patients with difficult surgical exploration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Method: All patients who underwent LC from 2010 to 2015 were retrospectively rewieved. According to intraoperative findings DLC cases were described and classified. Class I difficulty: Adhesion of omentum majus, transverse colon, duodenum to the fundus of the gallbladder. Class II difficulty: Adhesions in Calot’s triangle and difficulty in dissection of cystic artery and cystic duct Class III difficulty: Difficulty in dissection of gallbladder bed (scleroathrophic gallbladder, hemorrhage from liver during dissection of gallbladder, chirotic liver). Class IV difficulty: Difficulty in exploration of gallbladder due to intraabdominal adhesions including technical problems. Results: A total of 146 patients were operated with DLC. The most common difficulty type was Class I difficulty (88 patients/60.2%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was converted to laparotomy in 98 patients. Operation time was found to be related with conversion to open surgery (P<0.05). Wound infection rate was also statistically higher in conversion group (P<0.05). The opertion time was found to be longest with Class II difficulty. Conversion rate to open surgery was also highest with Class II difficulty group. Conclusion: Class II difficulty characterized by severe adhesions in calot’s triangle is most serious problem among all DLC cases. They have longer operation time and higher conversion rate. PMID:26629124
Gurusamy, K S; Junnarkar, S; Farouk, M; Davidson, B R
Although day-case elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy can save bed costs, its safety remains to be established. To assess the safety and benefits of day-case surgery compared to overnight stay in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2007 for identifying randomised trials using search strategies. Only randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, comparing day-case and overnight stay in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. We collected the data on the characteristics of the trial, methodological quality of the trials, morbidity, prolonged hospitalisation, re-admissions, pain and quality of life from each trial. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the relative risk, weighted mean difference, or standardised mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on available case-analysis. Five trials with 429 patients randomised to the day-case group (215) and overnight stay group (214) were included in the review. Four of the five trials were of low risk of bias regarding randomisation and follow up, but all lacked blinding. The trials recruited 49% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The selection criteria varied, but most included only patients without other diseases. The patients were living in easy reach of the hospital and with a responsible adult to take care of them. On the day of surgery, 81% of day-case patients were discharged. The drop-out rate after randomisation varied from 6.5% to 12.7%. There was no significant difference between day-case and overnight stay group as regards to morbidity, prolongation of hospital stay, re
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Junnarkar, Sameer; Farouk, Marwan; Davidson, Brian R
Although day-case elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy can save bed costs, its safety remains to be established. To assess the safety and benefits of day-case surgery compared to overnight stay in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until April 2008 for identifying randomised trials using search strategies. Only randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, comparing day-case and overnight stay in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. We collected the data on the characteristics of the trial, methodological quality of the trials, morbidity, prolonged hospitalisation, re-admissions, pain and quality of life from each trial. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the risk ratio, weighted mean difference, or standardised mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on available case-analysis. Five trials with 429 patients randomised to the day-case group (215) and overnight stay group (214) were included in the review. All the trials were of high risk of bias. The trials recruited 49% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The selection criteria varied, but most included only patients without other diseases. The patients were living in easy reach of the hospital and with a responsible adult to take care of them. On the day of surgery, 81% of day-case patients were discharged. The drop-out rate after randomisation varied from 6.5% to 12.7%. There was no significant difference between day-case and overnight stay group as regards to morbidity, prolongation of hospital stay, re-admission rates, pain, quality of life, patient satisfaction and return to normal
Gul, Rouf; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Sheikh, Riyaz Ahmad; Salroo, Nazir Ahmad; Matoo, Adnan Rashid; Wani, Sabiya Hamid
Background: Cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones is mainly performed after the acute cholecystitis episode settles because of the fear of higher morbidity and conversion from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy during acute cholecystitis. Aims: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and to compare the results with delayed cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective and randomized study. For patients assigned to early group, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed as soon as possible within 72 hours of admission. Patients in the delayed group were treated conservatively and discharged as soon as the acute attack subsided. They were subsequently readmitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy 6-12 weeks later. Results: There was no significant difference in the conversion rates, postoperative analgesia requirements, or postoperative complications. However, the early group had significantly more blood loss, more operating time, and shorter hospital stay. Conclusion: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 hours of onset of symptoms has both medical as well as socioeconomic benefits and should be the preferred approach for patients managed by surgeons with adequate experience in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24020050
Fujioka, Shuichi; Fuke, Azusa; Funamizu, Naotake; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko
Right hepatic artery (RHA) injury is a complication that occurs during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which can sometimes cause hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm or ischemic hepatic necrosis. Therefore, RHA should be managed carefully. Herein, we report a case of intraoperative RHA injury that was successfully repaired during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Bleeding was controlled prior to the cholecystectomy with vascular clamp forceps that had been inserted through an additional trocar, and repair of the RHA injury was then performed laparoscopically. The postoperative course was uneventful, and patency of the RHA and its sectional arteries were confirmed by CT arteriography. Laparoscopic repair of minor RHA injuries can be managed safely if bleeding is adequately controlled.
Shea, J A; Healey, M J; Berlin, J A; Clarke, J R; Malet, P F; Staroscik, R N; Schwartz, J S; Williams, S V
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of large laparoscopic cholecystectomy case-series and compare results concerning complications, particularly bile duct injury, to those reported in open cholecystectomy case-series. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the United States, hundreds of reports about the technique have been published, many including statements about the advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with those of open cholecystectomy. There is an unevenness in scope and quality of the studies. Nevertheless, enough data have accumulated from large series to permit analyses of data regarding some of the most important issues. METHODS: Articles identified via a MEDLINE (the National Library of Medicine's computerized database) search were evaluated according to standard criteria. Data regarding the patient sample, study methods, and outcomes of cholecystectomy were abstracted and summarized across studies. RESULTS: Outcomes of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are examined for 78,747 patients reported on in 98 studies and compared with outcomes of open cholecystectomy for 12,973 patients reported on in 28 studies. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy appears to have a higher common bile duct injury rate and a lower mortality rate. Estimated rates of other types of complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy generally were low. Most conversions followed operative discoveries (e.g., dense adhesions) and were not the result of injury. CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variability in the amount and type of data reported within any single study, and patient populations may not be comparable across studies. Except for a higher common bile duct injury rate, laparoscopic cholecystectomy appears to be at least as safe a procedure as that of open cholecystectomy. PMID:8916876
Park, Woo Young; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Myeong Hoon; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Choi, Jong Bum
Background Laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery can cause spontaneous respiration due to diaphragmatic stimulation and intra-abdominal CO2 inflation. Therefore, sufficient muscle relaxation is necessary for a safe surgical environment. Methods We investigated if the combination of rocuronium and cisatracurium can counteract the delayed onset of cisatracurium’s action and delayed recovery of muscle relaxation and whether the dosage of rocuronium, which is metabolized hepatically, can be reduced. A total of 75 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I-II, in the age range of 20–60 years, and with a 20–30 kg/m2 body mass index were included in the study. Results The patients were divided into the following groups: combination group (Group RC, rocuronium 0.3 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.05 mg/kg), rocuronium group (Group R, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg), and cisatracurium group (Group C, cisatracurium 0.1 mg/kg), and the onset, 25% duration, recovery index, and addition/time ratio were measured. Patients in Group RC exhibited a significantly different addition/time ratio compared with patients in the other two groups (p = 0.003). Conclusion During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the 95% effective dose of rocuronium in combination with cisatracurium is expected to provide a sufficient muscle relaxant effect. PMID:28261559
Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A
The unexpected detection of stones in common bile duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a concern for laparoscopic surgeons. Immediate laparoscopic removal may not always be feasible due to inadequate operating facilities, surgeons, and assistants. Attempts have been made to identify clinical and biochemical predictor of common bile duct stones, the results of which have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to define patients with risk for common bile duct stones based on history, abdominal ultrasound, and biochemical derangements, as well as to evaluate the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) for diagnosis and duct clearance if necessary. This is a prospective cross sectional analysis of 82 patients (66 females and 16 males) with gallstones on whom were performed clinical examination, laboratory test, and abdominal ultrasound to identify predictors of common bile duct stones. Preoperative ERCP was carried out and patients underwent ES for stone retrieval. Clinical evidence of jaundice or pancreatitis, elevated serum amylase, and ultrasonographic evidence of biliary tree dilation or common bile duct stone were considered risk factors. In 45 patients, common bile duct stones were identified at preoperative ERCP patients underwent ES, and stones were removed with 100% success. All patients were scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy 24 h later. There was no mortality in this series. Clinical evidence of jaundice or pancreatitis, elevation of serum amylase and dilated common bile duct or presence of common bile duct stones were considered risk factors for choledocholithiasis. Use of such a model rather than individual criteria would improve selection of patients for preoperative ERCP, optimizing its role in the laparoscopic era.
Thompson, Jonathan R; Leonard, Anthony C; Doarn, Charles R; Roesch, Matt J; Broderick, Timothy J
Haptics is an expensive addition to virtual reality (VR) simulators, and the added value to training has not been proven. This study evaluated the benefit of haptics in VR laparoscopic surgery training for novices. The Simbionix LapMentor II haptic VR simulator was used in the study. Randomly, 33 laparoscopic novice students were placed in one of three groups: control, haptics-trained, or nonhaptics-trained group. The control group performed nine basic laparoscopy tasks and four cholecystectomy procedural tasks one time with haptics engaged at the default setting. The haptics group was trained to proficiency in the basic tasks and then performed each of the procedural tasks one time with haptics engaged. The nonhaptics group used the same training protocol except that haptics was disengaged. The proficiency values used were previously published expert values. Each group was assessed in the performance of 10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (alternating with and without haptics). Performance was measured via automatically collected simulator data. The three groups exhibited no differences in terms of sex, education level, hand dominance, video game experience, surgical experience, and nonsurgical simulator experience. The number of attempts required to reach proficiency did not differ between the haptics- and nonhaptics-training groups. The haptics and nonhaptics groups exhibited no difference in performance. Both training groups outperformed the control group in number of movements as well as path length of the left instrument. In addition, the nonhaptics group outperformed the control group in total time. Haptics does not improve the efficiency or effectiveness of LapMentor II VR laparoscopic surgery training. The limited benefit and the significant cost of haptics suggest that haptics should not be included routinely in VR laparoscopic surgery training.
Wauben, Linda S G L; Goossens, Richard H M; van Eijk, Daan J; Lange, Johan F
Iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a current complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One uniform and standardized protocol, based on the "critical view of safety" concept of Strasberg, should reduce the incidence of this complication. Furthermore, owing to the rapid development of minimally invasive surgery, technicians are becoming more frequently involved. To improve communication between the operating team and technicians, standardized actions should also be defined. The aim of this study was to compare existing protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy from various Dutch hospitals. Fifteen Dutch hospitals were contacted for evaluation of their protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All evaluated protocols were divided into six steps and were compared accordingly. In total, 13 hospitals responded--5 academic hospitals, 5 teaching hospitals, 3 community hospitals--of which 10 protocols were usable for comparison. Concerning the trocar positions, only minor differences were found. The concept of "critical view of safety" was represented in just one protocol. Furthermore, the order of clipping and cutting the cystic artery and duct differed. Descriptions of instruments and apparatus were also inconsistent. Present protocols differ too much to define a universal procedure among surgeons in The Netherlands. The authors propose one (inter)national standardized protocol, including standardized actions. This uniform standardized protocol has to be officially released and recommended by national scientific associations (e.g., the Dutch Society of Surgery) or international societies (e.g., European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons). The aim is to improve patient safety and professional communication, which are necessary for new developments.
Peng, Cheng; Ling, Yan; Ma, Chi; Ma, Xiaochun; Fan, Wei; Niu, Weibo
Objective: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an endoscopic technique whereby surgical interventions can be performed with a flexible endoscope passed through a natural orifice (mouth, vulva, urethra, anus) then through a transluminal opening of the stomach, vagina, bladder, or colon. Although in the early stage of research and development, NOTES has been clinically applied across the globe, above all the transvaginal cholecystectomy is among the most frequently performed procedures. In the existing 2 types of transvaginal routes, the hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy (NC) is more likely to be accepted. However, there has been controversy regarding the safety outcomes of hybrid NC in comparison with classical laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The primary objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the characteristics between NC and classical LC. Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of eligible studies comparing NC with classical LC was performed to evaluate the safety outcomes including wound complications, other postoperative complications and intraoperative conversion between the 2 groups. Results: Pooling 3 randomized controlled trials (n=157) and 7 nonrandomized trial (n=593) demonstrated that the rates of wound complications and other postoperative complications in NC group did not significantly differ from those of classical LC group [wound complications: ratio difference (RD)=−0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.04to 0.01, P=0.23; other postoperative complication: RD=−0.01; 95% CI, −0.03 to 0.02; P=0.6]. The intraoperative conversion rate in NC groups was higher than that of LC groups (RD=0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.06; P=0.02). Conclusions: There is no significate difference between the safety of NC and laparoscope cholecystectomy. NC is associated with a higher rate of intraoperative conversion when compared with LC. It is worthy of further promotion and validation in clinical settings. PMID:27557339
Gomatos, Ilias P; Alevizos, Leonidas; Kalathaki, Olga; Kantsos, Harilaos; Kataki, Agapi; Leandros, Emmanuel; Zografos, George; Konstantoulakis, Manousos
Laparoscopic surgery results in decreased immune and metabolic stress response compared to open surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the suspension of host immune defense in terms of apoptosis, necrosis, and survival of peripheral T-lymphocytes in patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy. Apoptosis, necrosis and viability of peripheral T-lymphocytes were measured preoperatively and postoperatively by means of flow cytometry in 27 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 25 undergoing open cholecystectomy. White cell count, CRP, and serum glucose levels were also measured. Viable peripheral T-lymphocytes were significantly decreased in open cholecystectomy (P = 0.02), while their late apoptotic as well as the overall necrotic rate were significantly increased (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Open cholecystectomy was also associated with lower levels of surviving circulating T-lymphocytes (P = 0.01) and higher percentage of necrotic T lymphocytes (P = 0.03) 24 hours postoperatively compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Serum CRP was increased 24 hours after open cholecystectomy (P = 0.04). All differences failed to sustain more than 48 hours postoperatively. Increased viability and decreased necrosis of circulating T-lymphocytes were observed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Necrosis (and not apoptosis) seems to be the predominant pathway of T-lymphocyte death in open cholecystectomy, in a process reaching its peak at 24 hours and further attenuating 48 hours postoperatively.
Minaya Bravo, Ana María; González González, Enrique; Ortíz Aguilar, Manuel; Larrañaga Barrera, Eduardo
The appearance of subcapsular liver hematoma after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an infrequent complication and seldom studied. Some cases have been connected to ketorolac given during surgery and after surgery. Other described causes are : hemangiomas or small iatrogenic lesions that could be aggravated by administration of ketorolac. Coagulation dysfunction like circulating heparin as seen in hemathological diseases is cause of bleeding after aggressive procedures. We describe two cases of subcapsular liver hematoma after LC, both of them have been given intravenous ketorolac and one of them had multiple myeloma. We discuss the causes and treatment of it.
Bhaskar, Bala S; Rao, GV; Joshi, Sanjeev B; Arun, SK; Ajay, SK
Bartter’s syndrome is a rare inherited anamoly with defect in the thick segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, with reduced reabsorption of potassium. Growth is affected with worsening renal function, hypokalaemia, hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, increased levels of aldosterone, renin and angiotensin without hypertension and lack of responses to vasopressors. Treatment consists of potassium supplementation along with other medications. We present the case report, probably the first, of a child suffering from Bartter’s syndrome with gall stones posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The pre-operative correction of hypokalemia and successful anaesthetic and fluid and electrolyte management of the patient are discussed. PMID:20882176
Leow, V M; Faizah, M S; Mohd Sharifudin, S; Letchumanan, V P; Yang, K F; Manisekar, K S
Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) involves the use of four ports, but the number of ports has gradually been reduced to one for cosmetic reasons. however, single-incision LC is technically demanding, and there is a substantial learning curve associated with its successful application. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a less demanding alternative LC technique with a faster learning curve. This prospective descriptive study was performed from September 2009 to February 2011 at Sultanah Bahiyah hospital in Kedah, Malaysia. A total of 58 patients underwent two-incision threeport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TILC), which was performed by the senior consultant hepato-pancreato-biliary surgeon and two hepato-pancreato-biliary trainees. Study end points included operative time, postoperative pain, length of hospital stay and early postoperative complications. The follow-up period was 4 weeks. The overall operative time taken was 44 ± 18 minutes. none of the patients had major complication or incisional hernia postoperatively. All but one of the patients were discharged within 24 h. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the main postoperative analgesic used. TILC is feasible and safe cholecystectomy technique.
Galashev, V I; Zotikov, S D; Gliantsev, S P
The results of cholecystectomy from mini-approach (CEMA) in 111 elderly and old patients with acute and chronic cholecystitis living in European North of Russia were analyzed, and also 84 patients were operated by traditional approach (TCE). Duration of CEMA was less than TCE (75 +/- 3.2 and 95.2 +/- 4.6 min respectively; p < 0.05). Sutures after CEMA were removed on day 8.4 +/- 1.2 (after TCE--on day 13.8 +/- 2.4, p < 0.05). Postoperative period after CEMA was 11.4 +/- 2.1 days vs. 18.8 +/- 3.5 days after TCE (p < 0.05). Complications after CEMA were seen in 1.8% patients, after TCE--in 5.0%. Lethality was 0.9% after CEMA and 3.5% after TCE. The main advantages of CEMA are: reduction of surgery time, early activation of patients, decrease of postoperative complications number and reduction of postoperative treatment time (11.4 +/- 2.1 days after CEMA and 18.8 +/- 3.5 days after TCE, p < 0.05).
Nagai, K; Matsumoto, S; Kanemaki, T; Ooshima, T; Mori, K; Funabiki, T
Intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been considered to be a necessary examination because incidental injury to the common bile duct must be avoided. We performed 93 intraoperative drip infusion cholangiographies among 103 laparoscopic cholecystectomized patients as simple examinations by using iotroxic acid. The best drip infusion time was determined to be 20 min and good pictures were obtained from 10 to 60 min after the end of the drip. Nine patients with liver dysfunction and a poor radiograph had poor cholangiograms. Clear cholangiograms were obtained in 79 patients: four had a long remnant cystic duct and, in one case, a common bile duct stenosis was found by endoclip. The findings in these five cases helped us to correct failures during operation.
Ikonen, T S; Antikainen, T; Silvennoinen, M; Isojärvi, J; Mäkinen, E; Scheinin, T M
Simulators are widely used in occupations where practice in authentic environments would involve high human or economic risks. Surgical procedures can be simulated by increasingly complex and expensive techniques. This review gives an update on computer-based virtual reality (VR) simulators in training for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. From leading databases (Medline, Cochrane, Embase), randomised or controlled trials and the latest systematic reviews were systematically searched and reviewed. Twelve randomised trials involving simulators were identified and analysed, as well as four controlled studies. Furthermore, seven studies comparing black boxes and simulators were included. The results indicated any kind of simulator training (black box, VR) to be beneficial at novice level. After VR training, novice surgeons seemed to be able to perform their first live cholecystectomies with fewer errors, and in one trial the positive effect remained during the first ten cholecystectomies. No clinical follow-up data were found. Optimal learning requires skills training to be conducted as part of a systematic training program. No data on the cost-benefit of simulators were found, the price of a VR simulator begins at EUR 60 000. Theoretical background to learning and limited research data support the use of simulators in the early phases of surgical training. The cost of buying and using simulators is justified if the risk of injuries and complications to patients can be reduced. Developing surgical skills requires repeated training. In order to achieve optimal learning a validated training program is needed.
Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus; Licht, Peter B; Toft, Palle
Chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is related to postoperative pain during the first postoperative week, but it is unknown which components of the early pain response is important. In this prospective study, 100 consecutive patients were examined preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively, and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively for pain, psychological factors, and signs of hypersensitivity. Overall pain, incisional pain (somatic pain component), deep abdominal pain (visceral pain component), and shoulder pain (referred pain component) were registered on a 100-mm visual analogue scale during the first postoperative week. Nine patients developed chronic unexplained pain 12 months postoperatively. In a multivariate analysis model, cumulated visceral pain during the first week and number of preoperative biliary pain attacks were identified as independent risk factors for unexplained chronic pain 12 months postoperatively. There were no consistent signs of hypersensitivity in the referred pain area either pre- or postoperatively. There were no significant associations to any other variables examined. The risk of chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is relatively low, but significantly related to the visceral pain response during the first postoperative week. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Graves, Claire; Ely, Sora; Idowu, Olajire; Newton, Christopher; Kim, Sunghoon
Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability. Before dissection, the gallbladder was punctured with a cholangiogram catheter or a pigtail catheter to aspirate the bile within the gallbladder. The aspirated bile is mixed with ICG solution, which is reinjected into the gallbladder to fluoresce the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct structures. Eleven patients underwent direct gallbladder ICG injection for fluorescence cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Direct gallbladder ICG injection clearly defined the extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, by fluorescence. In addition, the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver is highlighted with the gallbladder ICG fluorescence. Direct gallbladder ICG injection provides immediate visualization of extrahepatic biliary structures and clarifies the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver bed.
Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Nagata, Rihito; Kaneko, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Taku; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro
Despite increasing popularity of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC), indication criteria assuring safety of SILC has yet to be established. In the present study, the subjects consisted of 146 consecutive patients undergoing conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) or SILC. SILC was indicated after excluding patients who met following criteria: age > 75 years, obesity, operative scar, cardiopulmonary diseases, acute cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis and abnormal bile duct anatomy. Thirty-four patients were excluded from the SILC candidates (moderate/high-risk CLC group). Among the 112 potential candidates, SILC was indicated for 23 patients (21%, SILC group) and the remaining 89 patients (79%) underwent CLC (low-risk CLC group). In the SILC group, operation time was longer than in the low-risk CLC group (171 [113-286] vs. 126 [72-240] min, p < 0.01), but the periods requiring painkiller was shorter. That led to reduced length of hospital stay compared to low-risk CLC group (2 [2-4] vs. 4 [2-12] days, p < 0.01). Between the low-risk CLC and moderate/high-risk CLC group, operation time was significantly longer and amount of blood loss was larger in the latter group. No complications were encountered in the SILC group. SILC can be indicated safely as far as appropriate criteria is adopted for excluding patients in whom complicated laparoscopic procedures are needed.
Sato, Norihiro; Yabuki, Kei; Shibao, Kazunori; Mori, Yasuhisa; Tamura, Toshihisa; Higure, Aiichiro; Yamaguchi, Koji
Background: A prolonged operative time is associated with adverse post-operative outcomes in laparoscopic surgery. Although a single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) requires a longer operative time as compared with a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy, risk factors for a prolonged operative time in SILC remain unknown. Methods: A total of 20 clinical variables were retrospectively reviewed to identify factors for a prolonged operative time (longer than 3 h) in a total of 220 consecutive patients undergoing SILC. Results: The median operative time was 145 min (range, 55–435) and a prolonged operative time was required in 62 patients (28%). Independent factors that predict a prolonged operative time as identified through multivariate analysis were body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.009), acute cholecystitis (P < 0.001) and operator (resident or staff surgeon) (P < 0.001). Furthermore, a prolonged operative time was significantly associated with an increased amount of intra-operative blood loss (P < 0.001) and a prolonged stay after surgery (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These findings suggest that a higher BMI, acute cholecystitis and a resident as an operator significantly increase the duration of SILC procedures. PMID:23557447
Arain, Nabeel A; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Hogg, Deborah C; Bergs, Richard; Fernandez, Raul; Scott, Daniel J
This study evaluated operative outcomes and workload during single-site laparoscopy (SSL) using a magnetically anchored cautery dissector (MAGS) compared with a conventional laparoscopic hook cautery (LAP). Each cautery was used to perform six SSL porcine cholecystectomies. For MAGS, the cautery device was inserted through the umbilical incision, magnetically coupled, and deployed; two graspers and a laparoscope were used. For LAP, two percutaneous retraction sutures, one grasper, a hook cautery dissector, and a laparoscope were used. Operative outcomes, surgeon ratings (scale, 1-5; 1 = superior), and workload (scale, 1-10; 1 = superior) were evaluated. No significant differences were detected for operative outcomes and surgeon ratings, however, trends were detected favoring MAGS. Surgeon workload ratings were significantly better for MAGS (2.6 ± 0.2) vs. LAP (5.6 ± 1.1; p < 0.05). For MAGS, depth perception and triangulation were excellent and the safe handling protocol was followed with no complications. For LAP, the parallelism of instruments and lack of triangulation hindered depth perception, caused instrument conflicts, and resulted in two minor complications (one superficial liver laceration and one inadvertent burn to the diaphragm). These data suggest that using the MAGS device for SSL cholecystectomy results in equivalent (or better) operative outcomes and less workload compared with LAP.
Aziz, Abdul; Desai, Sapan S.; McMaster, Jason
Introduction. The aim of this study was to characterize national trends in adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and determine differences in outcome based on type of surgery and patient age. Methods. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Trends in open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy by age group and year were analyzed. Differences in outcomes including in-hospital mortality, complications, discharge disposition, length of stay (LOS), and cost are examined. Results. Between 1999 and 2006, 358,091 patients underwent cholecystectomy. In 1999, patients aged ≥80 years had the lowest rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed by those aged 65–79, 64–50, and 49–18 years (59.7%, 65.3%, 73.2%, and 83.5%, resp., P < 0.05). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with improved clinical and economic outcomes across all age groups. Over the study period, there was a gradual increase in laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed among all age groups during each year, though elderly patients continued to lag significantly behind their younger counterparts in rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Conclusion. This is the largest study to report trends in adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the US in patients stratified by age. Elderly patients are more likely to undergo open cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24790759
Lima, Geraldo José DE Souza; Leite, Rodrigo Fabiano Guedes; Abras, Gustavo Munayer; Pires, Livio José Suretti; Castro, Eduardo Godoy
The role of laparoscopy in the modern surgery era is well established. With the prospect of being able to improve the already privileged current situation, new alternatives have been proposed, such as natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES), the method for single transumbilical access (LESS - Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery) and minilaparoscopy (MINI). The technique proposed by the authors uses a laparoscope with an operative channel like the flexible endoscope used in NOTES. All operative times are carried out through the umbilical trocar as in LESS, and assisted by a minilaparoscopy grasper. This new technic combines, and results from, the rationalization of technical particularities and synergy of these three approaches, seeking to join their advantages and minimize their disadvantages. RESUMO O papel da videolaparoscopia na era moderna da cirurgia encontra-se bem estabelecido. Com a perspectiva de ser possível melhorar a já privilegiada situação atual, novas alternativas têm sido propostas, como a cirurgia por orifícios naturais (NOTES), o método por acesso único transumbilical (LESS - Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery) e a minilaparoscopia (MINI). A técnica proposta pelos autores utiliza-se de óptica com canal de trabalho como o endoscópio flexível do NOTES, executa-se todos os tempos operatórios pelo trocarte umbilical, como no LESS, e é assistido por pinça de minilaparoscopia. Esta nova técnica combina e resulta da racionalização de particularidades técnicas e do sinergismo destas três abordagens, buscando agregar suas vantagens e minimizar as suas desvantagens.
Singh, Kuldip; Singh, Ranbir; Kaur, Manjot
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has many advantages as compared to open cholecystectomy. However, vasculobiliary injuries still continue to be a matter of concern despite advances in laparoscopic techniques. Misidentification and misperception of vasculobiliary structures is considered to be a pivotal factor leading to injuries. Although many studies since time immemorial have stressed on the importance of anatomy, an insight into laparoscopic anatomy is what essentially constitutes the need of the hour. To assess the frequency and the relevance of anatomical variations of extrahepatic biliary system in patients undergoing LC. The present study is an observational study performed for a period of 2 years from August 2014 to August 2016. It included all diagnosed patients of cholelithiasis undergoing routine LC performed by a single surgeon by achieving a critical view of safety. During dissection, vascular and ductal anomalies were noted and assessed for their relevance in LC. Seven hundred forty cases of cholelithiasis, irrespective of pathology, comprising 280 (37.83%) men and 460 (62.16%) females with a mean age of 39.85 ± 18.82 years were included in the study. Photodocumentation and operative recordings were available in 93% of cases. Operative findings revealed 197 (26.62%) vascular anomalies and 90 (12.16%) ductal anomalies. A single cystic artery was seen in 340 cases, and a normal cystic duct was seen in 650 cases. Variations in ductal anatomy were fewer than variations in vascular anatomy. Extra-biliary anatomy relevant to LC is unpredictable and varies from patient to patient. Vascular anomalies are more frequent than the ductal anomalies, and surgeon should be alert regarding their presence.
Laliotis, A; Gould, SWT
Spillage of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy occurs in up to 30% of cases but complications due to stone retention are less frequent. We report the first case of a hepatocolonic fistula as a consequence of a retained gallstone. PMID:24165331
Stevens, J L; Laliotis, A; Gould, S W T
Spillage of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy occurs in up to 30% of cases but complications due to stone retention are less frequent. We report the first case of a hepatocolonic fistula as a consequence of a retained gallstone.
Vaughan, Jessica; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Davidson, Brian R
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is used to manage symptomatic gallstones. There is considerable controversy regarding whether it should be done as day-surgery or as an overnight stay surgery with regards to patient safety. To assess the impact of day-surgery versus overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy on patient-oriented outcomes such as mortality, severe adverse events, and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and mRCT until September 2012. We included randomised clinical trials comparing day-surgery versus overnight stay surgery for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, irrespective of language or publication status. Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and independently extracted the data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat or available case analysis. We identified a total of six trials at high risk of bias involving 492 participants undergoing day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 239) versus overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 253) for symptomatic gallstones. The number of participants in each trial ranged from 28 to 150. The proportion of women in the trials varied between 74% and 84%. The mean or median age in the trials varied between 40 and 47 years.With regards to primary outcomes, only one trial reported short-term mortality. However, the trial stated that there were no deaths in either of the groups. We inferred from the other outcomes that there was no short-term mortality in the remaining trials. Long-term mortality was not reported in any of the trials. There was no significant difference in the
Abbasoğlu, Osman; Tekant, Yaman; Alper, Aydın; Aydın, Ünal; Balık, Ahmet; Bostancı, Birol; Coker, Ahmet; Doğanay, Mutlu; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Hamaloğlu, Erhan; Kapan, Metin; Karademir, Sedat; Karayalçın, Kaan; Kılıçturgay, Sadık; Şare, Mustafa; Tümer, Ali Rıza; Yağcı, Gökhan
Gallstone disease is very common and laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures all over the world. Parallel to the increase in the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, bile duct injuries also increased. The reported incidence of bile duct injuries ranges from 0.3% to 1.4%. Many of the bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy are not due to inexperience, but are the result of basic technical failures and misinterpretations. A working group of expert hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons, an endoscopist, and a specialist of forensic medicine study searched and analyzed the publications on safe cholecystectomy and biliary injuries complicating laparoscopic cholecystectomy under the organization of Turkish Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery Association. After a series of e-mail communications and two conferences, the expert panel developed consensus statements for safe cholecystectomy, management of biliary injuries and medicolegal issues. The panel concluded that iatrogenic biliary injury is an overwhelming complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and an important issue in malpractice claims. Misidentification of the biliary system is the major cause of biliary injuries. To avoid this, the “critical view of safety” technique should be employed in all the cases. If biliary injury is identified intraoperatively, reconstruction should only be performed by experienced hepatobiliary surgeons. In the postoperative period, any deviation from the expected clinical course of recovery should alert the surgeon about the possibility of biliary injury. PMID:28149133
Harmsen, Annelieke M K; van Tol, Erik; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; de Brauw, L Maurits
Clostridial gas gangrene is a rare, yet severe, complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case report of a 48-year-old man with obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes, who developed clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the diagnosis was missed initially, successful radical surgical debridement was performed and the patient survived. Pathogenesis, symptoms, prognostic factors, and the best treatment are discussed.
Radunovic, Miodrag; Lazovic, Ranko; Popovic, Natasa; Magdelinic, Milorad; Bulajic, Milutin; Radunovic, Lenka; Vukovic, Marko; Radunovic, Miroslav
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well as the frequency of conversions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 740 patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed retrospectively. We evaluated patients for the presence of potential risk factors that could predict the development of complications such as age, gender, body mass index, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP), gallbladder ultrasonographic findings, and pathohistological analysis of removed gallbladders. The correlation between these risk factors was also analysed. RESULTS: There were 97 (13.1%) intraoperative complications (IOC). Iatrogenic perforations of a gallbladder were the most common complication - 39 patients (5.27%). Among the postoperative complications (POC), the most common ones were bleeding from abdominal cavity 27 (3.64%), biliary duct leaks 14 (1.89%), and infection of the surgical wound 7 patients (0.94%). There were 29 conversions (3.91%). The presence of more than one complication was more common in males (OR = 2.95, CI 95%, 1.42-4.23, p < 0.001). An especially high incidence of complications was noted in patients with elevated white blood cell count (OR = 3.98, CI 95% 1.68-16.92, p < 0.01), and CRP (OR = 2.42, CI 95% 1.23-12.54, p < 0.01). The increased incidence of complications was noted in patients with ultrasonographic finding of gallbladder empyema and increased thickness of the gallbladder wall > 3 mm (OR = 4.63, CI 95% 1.56-17.33, p < 0.001), as well as in patients with acute cholecystitis that was confirmed by pathohistological analysis (OR = 1.75, CI 95% 2.39-16.46, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adopting laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technique for treatment of cholelithiasis, introduced a new spectrum of complications. Major biliary and vascular complications are life threatening, while minor complications cause patient discomfort and prolongation of
Strosberg, David S; Nguyen, Michelle C; Muscarella, Peter; Narula, Vimal K
Robotic-assisted surgery is gaining popularity in general surgery. Our objective was to evaluate and compare operative outcomes and total costs for robotic cholecystectomy (RC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent single-procedure RC and LC from January 2011 to July 2015 by a single surgeon at a large academic medical center. Demographics, diagnosis, perioperative variables, postoperative complications, 30-day readmissions, and operative and hospital costs were collected and analyzed between those patient groups. A total of 237 patients underwent RC or LC, and comprised the study population. Ninety-seven patients (40.9 %) underwent LC, and 140 patients (50.1 %) underwent RC. Patients who underwent RC had a higher body mass index (p = 0.03), lower rates of coronary artery disease (p < 0.01), and higher rates of chronic cholecystitis (p < 0.01). There were lower rates of intraoperative cholangiography (p < 0.01) and conversion to an open procedure (p < 0.01), however longer operative times (p < 0.01) for patients in the RC group. There were no bile duct injuries in either group, no difference in bile leak rates (p = 0.65), or need for reoperation (p = 1.000). Cost analysis of outpatient-only procedures, excluding cases with conversion to open or use of intraoperative cholangiography, demonstrated higher total charges (p < 0.01) and cost (p < 0.01) and lower revenue (p < 0.01) for RC compared to LC, with no difference in total payments (p = 0.34). Robotic cholecystectomy appears to be safe although costlier in comparison with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Further studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of robotic technology, the cost to the health care system, and its role in minimally invasive surgery.
Aprea, Giovanni; Rocca, Aldo; Salzano, Andrea; Sivero, Luigi; Scarpaleggia, Mauro; Ocelli, Prisida; Amato, Maurizio; Bianco, Tommaso; Serra, Raffaele; Amato, Bruno
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold-standard surgical method used to treat gallbladder diseases. Recently Laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) has gained greater interest and diffusion for the surgical treatment of several pathologies. In elderly patients, just few randomized controlled trials are present in the literature that confirm the clinical advantages of LESS compared with the classic laparoscopic procedures. We present in this paper the preliminary results of this randomized prospective study regarding the feasibility and safety of LESS cholecystectomy versus classic laparoscopic technique. We demonstrated that LESS technique compared with traditional technique show some advantages like: acceptable operative times, lower post-operative discomfort and sometimes reduction added complications. In addition we also demonstrate that fewer incisions and less scarring which mean less pain, and fewer parietal complications are related to this surgical procedure. In conclusion in the elderly LESS cholecystectomy technique is to be considered a suitable alternative to traditional three-port cholecystectomy.
Gutiérrez Rodríguez, L; Grau Cobos, L M; Rojas Magaña, A; Avalos Cortés, R; Alcaraz Hernández, G
We present our experience in 60 patients operated of Laparoscopy cholecistectomy, in the last 10 months of activity (we started in June 1990), 25 patients were operated on in the General Hospital No. 8 IMSS, 18 patients in General Hospital "Dr Fdo Quiroz" of ISSSTE and another 17 patients in different places. All of them had gallstones, 51 of the patients were women and 9 were men, the age of the patients was 42.2 years old. The surgery average time was 1.24 hrs with time between 0.32 and 2.25 hours. We operated on 4 patients with acute cholecystitis, three patients were operated on with conventional surgery, and other patient were operated on 10 days later for an Gallbladder Bed Abscess. We have no mortality, all the patients stay at the hospital just for 48 hours and they were ready to work in the next 4 or 8 days.
Jang, Eun Jeong; Roh, Young Hoon; Choi, Chan Joong; Kim, Min Chan; Kim, Kwan Woo; Choi, Hong Jo
Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy may contribute to a paradigm shift in the field of laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery by providing patients with benefits beyond those observed after other surgical procedures. This study was designed to evaluate clinically meaningful differences in operative outcomes between obese and nonobese patients after single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Data were collected retrospectively from 172 patients who had undergone single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by the same surgeon at a single medical center between January and December 2011. For the outcome analysis, patients were divided into nonobese and obese patient groups according to their body mass index (<25 kg/m2 vs ≥25 kg/m2). Demographic and clinical data did not differ significantly between obese patients (n=65) and nonobese patients (n=107). In addition, statistically significant differences pertaining to most measured surgical outcomes including postoperative hospital stay, bile spillage, additional port use, and open conversion were not detected between the groups. However, the two groups differed significantly regarding operative time such that nonobese patients had shorter operative times than obese patients (P<.05). The results of this study showed that operative time for single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy was the only difference between obese and nonobese patients. Given this result, body mass index may not be as relevant a factor in patient selection for single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy as previously thought.
Chen, A Y; Daley, J; Pappas, T N; Henderson, W G; Khuri, S F
OBJECTIVE: To study the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to the 43 tertiary-care university-affiliated Veterans Administration medical centers (VAMCs) participating in the National Veterans Affairs Surgical Risk Study from October 1991 through December 1993. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies in the private sector have documented growth in the number of cholecystectomies and falling clinical thresholds for cholecystectomy with the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: The following were analyzed for changes over time: measures of patient preoperative risk, complexity of surgery, severity of biliary disease, numbers of procedures, postoperative length of stay, and 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates. RESULTS: The number of cholecystectomies performed laparoscopically increased, but the total number of cholecystectomies performed remained stable over time. The proportion of patients with acute cholecystitis, emergent cholecystectomies, and technically complex cholecystectomies did not change or increased slightly over time. Adjusted odds for postoperative general complications were lower for laparoscopic than for open cholecystectomy, but 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates for all cholecystectomies remained constant over time. Postoperative length of stay for all cholecystectomies fell significantly. Implementation rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied widely between hospitals. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was adopted more slowly and used in a lower percentage of cholecystectomies than in non-VA settings. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to non-VA studies showing increases in overall cholecystectomy volume since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, these VAMCs implemented laparoscopic cholecystectomy without growth in cholecystectomies or a change in the clinical threshold for cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with better outcomes, but its
Głuszek, Stanisław; Kot, Marta; Krawczyk, Marek
Cholecystectomy is a common procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cholecystitis. A rare complication is the occurrence of subcapsular haematoma of the liver. In the literature, there are only a few case reports of this type. A 25-year-old woman was admitted to the Surgical Department for surgical treatment of cholecystitis. No complications were observed intra-operatively. On the first day after surgery, the patient manifested symptoms of hypovolaemic shock. The patient was qualified for surgical treatment in the mode of emergency surgery – a giant subcapsular haematoma was found. She was referred to the Clinic of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery of the Medical University of Warsaw for further treatment. This case shows the importance of monitoring the life parameters of patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgery due to symptomatic cholecystitis during the first day after surgery. PMID:26240636
Głuszek, Stanisław; Kot, Marta; Nawacki, Łukasz; Krawczyk, Marek
Cholecystectomy is a common procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cholecystitis. A rare complication is the occurrence of subcapsular haematoma of the liver. In the literature, there are only a few case reports of this type. A 25-year-old woman was admitted to the Surgical Department for surgical treatment of cholecystitis. No complications were observed intra-operatively. On the first day after surgery, the patient manifested symptoms of hypovolaemic shock. The patient was qualified for surgical treatment in the mode of emergency surgery - a giant subcapsular haematoma was found. She was referred to the Clinic of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery of the Medical University of Warsaw for further treatment. This case shows the importance of monitoring the life parameters of patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgery due to symptomatic cholecystitis during the first day after surgery.
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R
Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of
Soria, Víctor; Pellicer, Enrique; Flores, Benito; Carrasco, Milagros; Candel Maria, Fe; Aguayo, Jose Luis
Clinical pathways are comprehensive systematized patient care plans for specific procedures. The clinical pathway for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was implemented in our department in March 2002. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical pathway for this procedure 1 year after implementation. A study was conducted on all the patients included in the clinical pathway since its implementation. The assessment criteria include degree of compliance, indicators of clinical care effectiveness, financial impact, and survey-based indicators of satisfaction. The results are compared to a series of patients undergoing surgery the year prior to implementation of the clinical pathway. As our hospital has a system of cost management, we analyzed the mean cost per procedure before and after clinical pathway implementation. Evaluation was made of a series of 160 consecutive patients who underwent surgery during the period 1 year prior to development of the clinical pathway and met the accepted inclusion criteria. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.27 days, and the mean cost per procedure before pathway implementation was 2149 (+/-768) euros. One year after implementation of the pathway, 140 patients were included (i.e., an inclusion rate of 100%). The mean length of hospital stay of the patients included in the clinical pathway was 2.2 days. The degree of compliance with stays was 66.7 per cent. The most frequent reasons for noncompliance were staff-dependent, followed by patient-dependent causes (oral intolerance, pain, etc.). The mean cost in the series of patients included in the clinical pathway was 1845 (+/-618) euros. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an ideal procedure for commencing the systemization of clinical pathways. Results show that it has significantly reduced the length of hospital stay and mean cost per procedure with no increased morbidity and with a high degree of patient satisfaction.
Jayaweera, Jayaweera Muhandiramge Uthpala; De Zoysa, Merrenna Ishan Malith
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of information available on the internet to patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The sources of information were obtained the keyword 'laparoscopic cholecystectomy', from internet searches using Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Ask and AOL search engines with default settings. The first 50 web links were evaluated for their accessibility, usability and reliability using the LIDA tool (validation instrument for healthcare websites by Minervation).The readability of the websites was assessed by using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) and the Gunning Fog Index (GFI). Of the 250 links, 90 were new links. Others were repetitions, restricted access sites or inactive links. The websites had an average accessibility score of 52/63 (83.2%; range 40-62), a usability score of 39/54 (73.1%; range 23-49) and a reliability score of 14/27 (51.6%; range 5-24). Average FRES was 41.07 (4.3-86.4) and average GFI was 11.2 (0.6-86.4). Today, most people use the internet as a convenient source of information. With regard to health issues, the information available on the internet varies greatly in accessibility, usability and reliability. Websites appearing at the top of the search results page may not be the most appropriate sites for the target audience. Generally, the websites scored low on reliability with low scores on content production and conflict-of-interest declaration. Therefore, previously evaluated references on the World Wide Web should be given to patients and caregivers to prevent them from being exposed to commercially motivated or inaccurate information.
Serban, D; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; Purcărea, AP; El-Khatib, A; Balasescu, SA; Nica, A; Dascalu, AM; Vancea, G; Oprescu, SM; Tudor, C
Aim. To analyze the efficiency of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the population aged 60 years and over admitted with acute cholecystitis, the clinical features and associated pathology presented by these patients and the impact of these factors on the choice of surgical technique. Materials and method. A retrospective study was carried out between February 2010 and February 2015, on patients aged 60 years and over, operated in emergency for acute cholecystitis in our clinic. All data were extracted from the registered medical documents and operatory protocols. Results. A total of 497 surgeries were performed for acute cholecystitis, of which 149 were patients aged 60 years and over (30%). Open surgery is much better represented in the population aged over 60 years (61.75% vs. 29.98%). One major cause is the associated pathology that increases the anesthetic risk and hampers a laparoscopic procedure. The conversion rate in the study group presented a higher percentage, but not more exaggerated than in the general population (6.71% vs. 4.63 %).Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery had a faster recovery and required lower doses and shorter term pain medication, in contrast to conventional surgery (1,8 days vs. 5.7 days). Bile leak has been of reduced quantity, short-term and stopped spontaneously. Only one case needed reintervention, in which aberrant bile ducts that were clipped were found in the gallbladder bed, was operated by laparoscopy. Wound infections and swelling were also encountered more frequently in patients that underwent classic surgery (3.24%). Conclusions. Performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, when possible, has produced very good results, reducing the average length of stay of patients and even decreasing the number of postoperative complications, thus allowing a faster reintegration of patients into society. The main concern was related to the associated pathology that increased the anesthetic risk. PMID:27928438
Bablekos, George D; Michaelides, Stylianos A; Analitis, Antonis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos A
AIM: To present and integrate findings of studies investigating the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on various aspects of lung function. METHODS: We extensively reviewed literature of the past 24 years concerning the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison to the open procedure on many aspects of lung function including spirometric values, arterial blood gases, respiratory muscle performance and aspects of breathing control, by critically analyzing physiopathologic interpretations and clinically important conclusions. A total of thirty-four articles were used to extract information for the meta-analysis concerning the impact of the laparoscopic procedure on lung function and respiratory physiopathology. The quality of the literature reviewed was evaluated by the number of their citations and the total impact factor of the corresponding journals. A fixed and random effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference of studied parameters for laparoscopic (LC) and open (OC) procedures. A crude comparison of the two methods using all available information was performed testing the postoperative values expressed as percentages of the preoperative ones using the Mann-Whitney two-sample test. RESULTS: Most of the relevant studies have investigated and compared changes in spirometric parameters.The median percentage and interquartile range (IQR) of preoperative values in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow (FEF) at 25%-75% of FVC (FEF25%-75%) expressed as percentage of their preoperative values 24 h after LC and OC were respectively as follows: [77.6 (73.0, 80.0) L vs 55.4 (50.0, 64.0) L, P < 0.001; 76.0 (72.3, 81.0) L vs 52.5 (50.0, 56.7) L, P < 0.001; and 78.8 (68.8, 80.9) L/s vs 60.0 (36.1, 66.1) L/s, P = 0.005]. Concerning arterial blood gases, partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2 (kPa)] at 24 or 48 h after surgical treatment showed reductions that were significantly
ZANGHÌ, G.; LEANZA, V.; VECCHIO, R.; MALAGUARNERA, M.; ROMANO, G.; RINZIVILLO, N.M.A.; CATANIA, V.; BASILE, F.
Aim After the revolution in the surgery of gallbladder stones represented by the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we tried a new technique that further maximize the aesthetic results and that at the same time is of easy learning for young surgeons. Patients and methods From January 2011 to December 2012 we performed at our department 320 cholecystectomy: 27 in laparotomy and 293 in laparoscopy. Of these, 88 underwent to Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS), namely the Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC), in recruited patients aged between 19–65 years; 56 patients were females and 32 were males. Results The laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the SILS methodology is a safe technique. Respect to multi-port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC), we have cosmetic advances. The pain is less in extra-umbilical sites, and the major umbilical pain can be prevented by local anaesthesia. The times are slightly longer, especially at the beginning of training, but after a few of operations it is reduced to about one hour. We didn’t found any other difference in vantage and advantage between the two technics, only a case of postoperative umbilical hernia in SILS. Conclusion We found the SILS a safe and effective technique for the cholecystectomy. PMID:26888698
Cavallaro, Andrea; Piccolo, Gaetano; Panebianco, Vincenzo; Menzo, Emanuele Lo; Berretta, Massimiliano; Zanghì, Antonio; Vita, Maria Di; Cappellani, Alessandro
AIM: To evaluate the impact of incidental gallbladder cancer on surgical experience. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008 all cases of cholecystectomy at two divisions of general surgery, one university based and one at a public hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Gallbladder pathology was diagnosed by history, physical examination, and laboratory and imaging studies [ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT)]. Patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) were further analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoint was the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) were found to have GBC. The male to female ratio was 1:1.4 and the mean age was 68 years (range: 45-82 years). Preoperative diagnosis was made in 10 cases, and eight were diagnosed postoperatively. One was suspected intraoperatively and confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 9/19. The tumor node metastasis stage was: pTis (1), pT1a (2), pT1b (4), pT2 (6), pT3 (4), pT4 (2); five cases with stage Ia (T1 a-b); two with stage Ib (T2 N0); one with stage IIa (T3 N0); six with stage IIb (T1-T3 N1); two with stage III (T4 Nx Nx); and one with stage IV (Tx Nx Mx). Eighty-eight percent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤ II). Preoperative diagnosis of the 19 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases), gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case), porcelain gallbladder (one case), gallbladder adenoma (one case), and
Justo-Janeiro, Jaime Manuel; Vincent, Gustavo Theurel; Vázquez de Lara, Fernando; de la Rosa Paredes, René; Orozco, Eduardo Prado; Vázquez de Lara, Luis G.
Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been compared with 3- or 4-port LC. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the 3-, 2-, and 1-port techniques. Patients were randomized into 3 groups: LC 1-port using SILS, LC 2-port using a laparoscope with a working channel, and LC 3-port using the standard ports. Pain was evaluated at recovery, 4 hours, 24 hours, day 5, and day 8, using an analog visual scale. Homogenous groups in their demographic characteristics; all confirmed gallbladder lithiasis. At recovery, there was less pain in group 1 (P = 0.002); at 4 hours pain was similar in all groups (P = 0.899); at 24 hours there was less pain in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.031); and at days 5 and 8 there was marginal (P = 0.053) and significant (P = 0.003) relevance. In terms of pain perception, LC performed through 1 port does not offer advantages when compared with 2 or 3 ports. More clinical trials are needed to confirm these data. PMID:25437581
Lanzafame, Raymond J.
Interest in lasers has increased exponentially due to the meteoric growth of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This paper reviews the laser technologies available for laparoscopic use. The relative merits and liabilities for each wavelength and delivery system are discussed. Considerations for future developments of these technologies are provided.
Tyagi, Shantanu; Sinha, Rajeev; Tyagi, Aarti
CONTEXT AND AIMS: Our study aims to evaluate the post-operative pain and cosmesis of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) in comparison with the standard, 3-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) with respect to the length of incision, cosmetic scores, post-operative pain scores and duration of hospital stay. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This comparative randomised study was conducted in a tertiary care centre teaching hospital between September 2012 and 2014. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients, who qualified as per inclusion criteria, were included in the study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients were included in the SLC arm and 75 in the SILC arm. SILC procedure was carried out as transumbilical multiport technique and SLC as 3-port technique utilizing - 5, 5, 10 mm ports. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The data for the primary observations (post-operative pain scores, cosmetic score and incision length) and secondary observation (post-operative hospital stay) were noted. Weighted mean difference was used for calculation of quantitative variables, and odds ratios were used for pooling qualitative variables. RESULTS: Pain scores at 4 and 24 h were significantly better for SILC arm than SLC arm (at 4 h - 4.84 ± 0.95 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98, P < 0.05 and at 24 h - 3.84 ± 0.96 vs. 5.17 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Length of incision was significantly smaller (SILC - 2.631 ± 0.44 cm vs. SLC - 5.11 ± 0.44 cm), P < 0.05 and cosmetic score was significantly better in SILC arm (6.25 ± 1.24) than SLC arm (4.71 ± 1.04), P < 0.05. Difference between the hospital stay is insignificant for two arms SILC (2.12 ± 0.34) and SLC (2.13 ± 0.35), P > 0.05. DISCUSSION: Significant difference was found in duration and intensity of pain between two procedures at 4 and 24 h. Cosmesis was significantly better in SILC than SLC group, the sample size in our study was small to arrive at a definite conclusion. The procedure can be selectively and judiciously performed by surgeons
Kamiński, Mateusz; Nowicki, Michał
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the golden standard, considering treatment of cholelithiasis. During the laparoscopic procedure one may often observe damage to the gall-bladder wall, as well as presence of gall-stones in the peritoneal cavity, as compared to classical surgery. These gall-stones may be associated with the occurrence of various complications following surgery. The study presented a rare case of a retroperitoneal abscess, as a consequence of retained gall-stones, in a female patient who was subject to laparoscopic cholecystectomy two years earlier.
Lengyel, Balazs I; Panizales, Maria T; Steinberg, Jill; Ashley, Stanley W; Tavakkoli, Ali
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard procedure for gallbladder removal. Conversion to an open procedure is sometimes deemed necessary, especially in complex cases in which a prolonged laparoscopic operative time is anticipated. A prolonged LC case is thought to be associated with increased complications and cost and therefore generally discouraged. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption, and compare outcomes and cost of converted and prolonged LC cases. By using institutional National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and financial databases, we retrospectively reviewed and compared prolonged laparoscopic cases (Long-LC) with converted (CONV) procedures. Surgical times, length of stay (LOS), 30-day complications, operative room, and total hospital charges were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 101 Long-LC and 66 CONV cases met our inclusion criteria. Long-LC cases were 19 minutes longer than CONV cases (123 vs 104 min; P < .01). No differences in postoperative complications were found between the 2 groups (P > .05). When Poisson regression was used, we found that LOS was significantly shorter in the Long-LC compared with CONV group (1 day vs 4 days; P < .01). Long-LC cases had greater operative charges ($15,278 vs $13,128; P < .01). However, hospital charges for Long-LC cases were 26% less than for CONV cases ($23,946 vs $32,446; P < .01). Conversion is associated with a 3-day increase in LOS. Long-LC cases have greater operative room charges, but overall hospital charges were 26% less than CONV cases. Our data suggest that decision making regarding conversion should focus on safety and not time considerations. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lengyel, Balazs I.; Panizales, Maria T.; Steinberg, Jill; Ashley, Stanley W.; Tavakkoli, Ali
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard procedure for gallbladder removal. Conversion to an open procedure is sometimes deemed necessary, especially in complex cases in which a prolonged laparoscopic operative time is anticipated. A prolonged LC case is thought to be associated with increased complications and cost and therefore generally discouraged. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption, and compare outcomes and cost of converted and prolonged LC cases. Methods By using institutional National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and financial databases, we retrospectively reviewed and compared prolonged laparoscopic cases (Long-LC) with converted (CONV) procedures. Surgical times, length of stay (LOS), 30-day complications, operative room, and total hospital charges were compared between the 2 groups. Results A total of 101 Long-LC and 66 CONV cases met our inclusion criteria. Long-LC cases were 19 minutes longer than CONV cases (123 vs 104 min; P <.01). No differences in postoperative complications were found between the 2 groups (P > .05). When Poisson regression was used, we found that LOS was significantly shorter in the Long-LC compared with CONV group (1 day vs 4 days; P < .01). Long-LC cases had greater operative charges ($15,278 vs $13,128; P < .01). However, hospital charges for Long-LC cases were 26% less than for CONV cases ($23,946 vs $32,446; P < .01). Conclusion Conversion is associated with a 3-day increase in LOS. Long-LC cases have greater operative room charges, but overall hospital charges were 26% less than CONV cases. Our data suggest that decision making regarding conversion should focus on safety and not time considerations. PMID:22503324
Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia A.; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette M.; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Linke, Georg R.; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P.
Abstract This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost-blended learning (BL) in a structured training program. Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks. Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in 2 groups stratified for sex. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trained basic skills and LC on the LAP Mentor II (Simbionix, Cleveland, OH). Each group trained 3 × 4 hours followed by a knowledge test concerning LC. Blinded raters assessed the operative performance of cadaveric porcine LC using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The LC was discontinued when it was not completed within 80 min. Students evaluated their training modality with questionnaires. The VR group completed the LC significantly faster and more often within 80 min than BL (45% v 21%, P = .02). The BL group scored higher than the VR group in the knowledge test (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 11.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). Both groups showed equal operative performance of LC in the OSATS score (49.4 ± 10.5 vs 49.7 ± 12.0, P = 0.90). Students generally liked training and felt well prepared for assisting in laparoscopic surgery. The efficiency of the training was judged higher by the VR group than by the BL group. VR and BL can both be applied for training the basics of LC. Multimodality training programs should be developed that combine the advantages of both approaches. PMID:25997044
Chong, Vincent; Ram, Rishi
We present a case on abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy and describe laparoscopic drainage as our choice of management. Mr M is a 75-year-old male who presented on multiple occasions to the hospital with right upper quadrant pain and fever post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He also required multiple courses of antibiotics. Subsequent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed a number of retained stone with signs of chronic inflammation. Hence, 6 months after his initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy, he proceeded to an exploratory laparoscopy. We found an abscess cavity measuring 3 × 4 cm over the anterior abdominal wall. The cavity was de-roofed, drained and washed out. The tissue culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Laparoscopic approach is optimal as the abscess cavity can be clearly identified, stones visualized and removed under direct vision. Patient does not require a laparotomy. PMID:26183574
Harilingam, Mohan Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Kiran; Basu, Sanjoy
AIM: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is considered the ‘gold standard’ intervention for gall bladder (GB) diseases. However, to avoid serious biliovascular injury, conversion is advocated for distorted anatomy at the Calot's triangle. The aim is to find out whether our technique of laparoscopic modified subtotal cholecystectomy (LMSC) is suitable, with an acceptable morbidity and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 993 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy was done at a large District General Hospital (DGH) between August 2007 and January 2015. The data are as follows: Patient's demographics, operative details including intra- and postoperative complications, postoperative stay including follow-up that was recorded and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 993 patients (263 males and 730 female) were included. The median age was 52*(18-89) years. Out of the 993 patients, 979 (98.5%) and 14 (1.5%) were listed for laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy, respectively. Of the 979 patients, 902 (92%) and 64 (6.5%) patients underwent LC ± on-table cholangiography (OTC) and LMSC ± OTC, respectively, with a median stay of 1* (0-15) days. Of the 64 patients, 55 (86%) had dense adhesions, 22 (34%) had acute inflammation, 19 (30%) had severe contraction, 12 (19%) had empyema, 7 (11%) had Mirizzi's syndrome and 2 (3%) had gangrenous GB. The mean operative time was 120 × (50-180) min [Table 1]. Six (12%) patients required endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) postoperatively, and there were four (6%) readmissions in a follow-up of 30 × (8-76) months. The remaining 13 (1.3%) patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy converted to an open cholecystectomy. The median stay for open/laparoscopic cholecystectomy converted to open cholecystectomy was 5 × (1-12) days. CONCLUSION: Our technique of LMSC avoided conversion in 6.5% patients and believe that it is feasible and safe for difficult GBs
Choi, Gibok Eun, Choong Ki; Choi, HyunWook
Bile leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not uncommon, and it mainly occurs from the cystic duct stump and can be easily treated by endoscopic techniques. However, treatment for leakage from an isolated bile duct can be troublesome. We report a successful case of acetic acid sclerotherapy for bile leak from an isolated bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Afuwape, O O; Akute, O O; Adebanjo, A T
Presently many centers have facilities for laparoscopic surgery in Nigeria, but the practice is just evolving in most of these centers. This article presents the preliminary experience of the endoscopic surgery unit (general surgery) at the University College Hospital Ibadan Nigeria. The University College Hospital is the premier Nigerian teaching hospital and is located in the south-western part of the country. All the patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the University College Hospital between June 2009 and January 2011 were included in this study. The patients' demographic data, diagnosis, results of investigations and intra-operative findings were obtained from the records. Additional information extracted from the records was the duration of surgery, complications, outcome and discharge periods. There were thirteen patients over the twenty month period consisting of twelve females and one male. The age range was twenty six to sixty seven years with a mean of 44.6 years. The duration of surgery ranged from 90 to 189 minutes with a mean of 124 minutes. There were two complications. These were adhesive bowel obstruction and common bile duct injury. The duration of admission ranged from four to thirty two days with a mean of 7.53SD ± 8.5 days. There was one conversion to open surgery due to intra-operative gallbladder perforation with consequent dispersal of multiple gall stones within the peritoneal cavity. The common bile duct injury was diagnosed four days following surgery for which a choledochojejunostomy was done after initial conservative treatment. There was no mortality. Laparoscopic surgery is feasible in Nigeria and is likely to show increasing popularity among patients and surgeons. A careful patient selection protocol is necessary for an acceptable success rate with minimal complications. Our protocol of patient selection eliminated the need for intra-operative common bile duct exploration which requires expensive instruments. However, to
Tang, Huairong; Dong, Aihua; Yan, Lunan
Laparoscopic cholecystectomies are being increasingly performed as a day surgery procedure. To systematically assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a day surgery procedure compared to overnight stay. Randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials involving day surgery laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the safety and feasibility of day surgery compared to overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twelve studies were selected for our meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups on morbidity (P=0.65). The mean in-hospital admission and readmission rates were 13.1% and 2.4% in the day surgery group, respectively. The two groups had similar prolonged hospitalization (P=0.27), readmission rate (P=0.58) and consultation rate (P=0.73). In addition, there was no significant difference in the visual analogue scale score, postoperative nausea and vomiting scale, time to return to activity and work between the two groups (P>0.05). Currently available evidence demonstrates that laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely in selected patients as a day surgery procedure, though further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diez, J.; Delbene, R.; Ferreres, A.
A retrospective study was carried in 1500 patients submitted to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to ascertain its feasibility in patients with previous abdominal surgery. In 411 patients (27.4%) previous infraumbilical intraperitoneal surgery had been performed, and 106 of them (7.06%) had 2 or more operations. Twenty five patients (1.66%) had previous supraumbilical intraperitoneal operations (colonic resection, hydatid liver cysts, gastrectomies, etc.) One of them had been operated 3 times. In this group of 25 patients the first trocar and pneumoperitoneum were performed by open laparoscopy. In 2 patients a Marlex mesh was present from previous surgery for supraumbilical hernias. Previous infraumbilical intraperitoneal surgery did not interfere with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, even in patients with several operations. There was no morbidity from Verres needle or trocars. In the 25 patients with supraumbilical intraperitoneal operations, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was completed in 22. In 3, adhesions prevented the visualization of the gallbladder and these patients were converted to an open procedure. In the 2 patients Marlex mesh prevented laparoscopic cholecystectomy because of adhesions to abdominal organs. We conclude that in most instances previous abdominal operations are no contraindication to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9515231
Bergman, J J; van den Brink, G R; Rauws, E A; de Wit, L; Obertop, H; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N; Gouma, D J
From January 1990 to June 1994, 53 patients who sustained bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were treated at the Amsterdam Academic Medical Centre. There were 16 men and 37 women with a mean age of 47 years. Follow up was established in all patients for a median of 17 months. Four types of ductal injury were identified. Type A (18 patients) had leakage from cystic ducts or peripheral hepatic radicles, type B (11 patients) had major bile duct leakage, type C (nine patients) had an isolated ductal stricture, and type D (15 patients) had complete transection of the bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) established the diagnosis in all type A, B, and C lesions. In type D lesions percutaneous cholangiography was required to delineate the proximal extent of the injury. Initial treatment (until resolution of symptoms and discharge from hospital) comprised endoscopy in 36 patients and surgery in 26 patients. Endoscopic treatment was possible and successful in 16 of 18 of type A lesions, five of seven of type B lesions, and three of nine of type C lesions. Most failures resulted from inability to pass strictures or leaks at the initial endoscopy. During initial treatment additional surgery was required in seven patients. Fourteen patients underwent percutaneous or surgical drainage of bile collections, or both. After endoscopic treatment early complications occurred in three patients, with a fatal outcome in two (not related to the endoscopic therapy). During follow up six patients developed late complications. All 15 patients with complete transection and four patients with major bile duct leakage were initially treated surgically. During initial treatment additional endoscopy was required in two patients. Early complications occurred in eight patients. During follow up seven patients developed stenosis of the anastomosis or bile duct. Reconstructive surgery in the early postoperative phase was associated with more
Jayaweera, Jayaweera Muhandiramge Uthpala; De Zoysa, Merrenna Ishan Malith
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of information available on the internet to patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sources of information were obtained the keyword ‘laparoscopic cholecystectomy’, from internet searches using Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Ask and AOL search engines with default settings. The first 50 web links were evaluated for their accessibility, usability and reliability using the LIDA tool (validation instrument for healthcare websites by Minervation). The readability of the websites was assessed by using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) and the Gunning Fog Index (GFI). RESULTS: Of the 250 links, 90 were new links. Others were repetitions, restricted access sites or inactive links. The websites had an average accessibility score of 52/63 (83.2%; range 40-62), a usability score of 39/54 (73.1%; range 23-49) and a reliability score of 14/27 (51.6%; range 5-24). Average FRES was 41.07 (4.3-86.4) and average GFI was 11.2 (0.6-86.4). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Today, most people use the internet as a convenient source of information. With regard to health issues, the information available on the internet varies greatly in accessibility, usability and reliability. Websites appearing at the top of the search results page may not be the most appropriate sites for the target audience. Generally, the websites scored low on reliability with low scores on content production and conflict-of-interest declaration. Therefore, previously evaluated references on the World Wide Web should be given to patients and caregivers to prevent them from being exposed to commercially motivated or inaccurate information. PMID:27609327
Dunn, D.; Nair, R.; Fowler, S.; McCloy, R.
The results of an audit of open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy conducted by the Comparative Audit Service of The Royal College of Surgeons of England are presented. Data were submitted by 124 consultant surgeons on 3319 attempted laparoscopic and by 227 consultant surgeons on 8035 open cholecystectomies performed in England and Wales during the 2 years 1990 and 1991. These were contrasted with 9322 attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomies reported in 21 series reported in the world literature between 1991 and 1992, and with five other nations' audit studies. Among attempted laparoscopic cases, conversion to an open procedure was necessary in 175/3319 (5.2%) of cases and overall mortality was 0.15% (5/3319). Major complications were reported in 2.1% and minor complications in 5.9% of cases. Bile duct injury was reported to be significantly more common after attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomy (11/3319, 0.33%) than after open cholecystectomy (4/8035, 0.06%) (95% confidence intervals -0.48 to 0.08), but it was not significantly different from that reported for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the combined world literature (28/9322, 0.3%) (95% confidence intervals -0.19 to 0.25). Most systemic complications were significantly more common after open cholecystectomy. For open cholecystectomy, the mortality was 55/8035 (0.76%), with major complications reported in 3.2% and minor complications in 9.8% of patients. Adoption of the laparoscopic approach was associated with a four-fifths reduction in the mortality of cholecystectomy, and a 40% reduction in the overall complication rate when compared with the open operation. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy has an impressively low mortality and morbidity profile during the first 2 years of its introduction into the UK, prevention of bile duct injury is the most important issue to be addressed in all laparoscopic cholecystectomy training programmes. PMID:8074391
Krajinovic, Katica; Pelz, Joerg; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Georg Kerscher, Alexander
Virtually any port system for single-port laparoscopic surgery is for single usage only. The aim of this study was to trial the novel and completely reusable port X-Cone in order to perform a cholecystectomy by one infraumbilical incision. Single access cholecystectomies were performed in 9 anesthetized domestic pigs in nonsurvival studies. Only one infraumbilical incision was performed for placing the reusable, multichannel steel port system. A newly developed angulated forceps was used besides regularly used instruments in laparoscopic surgery. The gallbladder was successfully removed in 9 pigs. At postmortem examination, the clips placed on the cystic duct and the cystic artery. No bile leakage was found at the operative field. Single-port cholecystectomy with the reusable X-Cone single-port system is safe and feasible. No additional incisions were needed. The system is ergonomically designed, easy to handle, and the learning curve for cholecystectomy is steep.
Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej; Czerny, Bogusław; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Juzyszyn, Zygmunt
Not all pregnant women with gall bladder stones can be treated conservatively--some of them require surgery. The main indications for cholecystectomy are the following: repeated episodes of biliary colic and acute cholecystitis. There is no data indicating which moment during the pregnancy may be the safest to perform the operation. Nowadays, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more often performed than the traditional procedure. Initial reports about unfavorable results of laparoscopic procedures during pregnancy were not confirmed later on. In most medical centers the preparation of pregnant women for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well as operating technique and postoperative management, do not differ significantly from the management of other patients. There is a general agreement that laparoscopic surgery in case of pregnant patients requires not only a close cooperation between the surgeon and the obstetrician, but also a lot of experience in the laparoscopic technique itself. Further research and publications are needed on this topic, as they might prove the clinical value of this kind of management by showing a significant number of observations regarding laparoscopic cholecystectomies in pregnant women. It is true not only of surgeons but also of the obstetricians.
... performed laparoscopically, including gallbladder removal (laparoscopic cholecystectomy), esophageal surgery (laparoscopic fundoplication), colon surgery (laparoscopic colectomy), and surgery on ...
Hori, Tomohide; Oike, Fumitaka; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Sasaki, Maho; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Naito, Masato; Nakauchi, Masaya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Nakamura, Kiyokuni; Sato, Kiyoko; Mizuno, Masahiro; Iida, Taku; Yagi, Shintaro; Uemoto, Shinji; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) does not require advanced techniques, and its performance has therefore rapidly spread worldwide. However, the rate of biliary injuries has not decreased. The concept of the critical view of safety (CVS) was first documented two decades ago. Unexpected injuries are principally due to misidentification of human factors. The surgeon's assumption is a major cause of misidentification, and a high level of experience alone is not sufficient for successful LC. We herein describe tips and pitfalls of LC in detail and discuss various technical considerations. Finally, based on a review of important papers and our own experience, we summarize the following mandatory protocol for safe LC: (1) consideration that a high level of experience alone is not enough; (2) recognition of the plateau involving the common hepatic duct and hepatic hilum; (3) blunt dissection until CVS exposure; (4) Calot's triangle clearance in the overhead view; (5) Calot's triangle clearance in the view from underneath; (6) dissection of the posterior right side of Calot's triangle; (7) removal of the gallbladder body; and (8) positive CVS exposure. We believe that adherence to this protocol will ensure successful and beneficial LC worldwide, even in patients with inflammatory changes and rare anatomies.
Hori, Tomohide; Oike, Fumitaka; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Sasaki, Maho; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Naito, Masato; Nakauchi, Masaya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Nakamura, Kiyokuni; Sato, Kiyoko; Mizuno, Masahiro; Iida, Taku; Yagi, Shintaro; Uemoto, Shinji; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) does not require advanced techniques, and its performance has therefore rapidly spread worldwide. However, the rate of biliary injuries has not decreased. The concept of the critical view of safety (CVS) was first documented two decades ago. Unexpected injuries are principally due to misidentification of human factors. The surgeon’s assumption is a major cause of misidentification, and a high level of experience alone is not sufficient for successful LC. We herein describe tips and pitfalls of LC in detail and discuss various technical considerations. Finally, based on a review of important papers and our own experience, we summarize the following mandatory protocol for safe LC: (1) consideration that a high level of experience alone is not enough; (2) recognition of the plateau involving the common hepatic duct and hepatic hilum; (3) blunt dissection until CVS exposure; (4) Calot’s triangle clearance in the overhead view; (5) Calot’s triangle clearance in the view from underneath; (6) dissection of the posterior right side of Calot’s triangle; (7) removal of the gallbladder body; and (8) positive CVS exposure. We believe that adherence to this protocol will ensure successful and beneficial LC worldwide, even in patients with inflammatory changes and rare anatomies. PMID:28058010
Wang, Na; Wang, Lei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Honglan
Objective: To assess whether preoperative pentazocine can reduce intraoperative hemodynamic changes and postoperative pain. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups. Group P received intravenous 0.5 mg/kg pentazocine 10 min before surgery, and Group C received normal saline as a placebo. A standardized general anesthesia was conducted in all patients. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at various time points were recorded. The tramadol consumption during the study period was recorded. Results: Group P had lower VAS scores at two, four, and eight hours postoperatively compared with Group C. MBP and HR rose significantly because of pneumoperitoneum within Group C, and no significant changes were detected in MBP and HR within Group P. Tramadol doses given were statistically fewer in Group P. Conclusion: Preoperative intravenous pentazocine can decrease intraoperative hemodynamic changes and postoperative pain. PMID:28168126
Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B
Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children <9 years old, analyses were limited to those 9-17 (n = 1611, 43% obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P < .01) and contaminated or dirty/infected wounds (15.1% versus 9.4%, P < .01). Complication rates were low. The most frequent indications for surgery were cholelithiasis/biliary colic (34.3%), chronic cholecystitis (26.9%), and biliary dyskinesia (18.2%). On multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.
Gramatica, L; Brasesco, O E; Mercado Luna, A; Martinessi, V; Panebianco, G; Labaque, F; Rosin, D; Rosenthal, R J; Gramatica, L
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been successfully performed using epidural anesthesia. We evaluated our experience with this surgical approach in high-risk patients. We present the results of 29 patients with gallstones who, between 1998 and 1999, underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia. All but 1 patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All 29 surgeries were successfully completed via laparoscopy and with the patients under epidural anesthesia. No patient required endotracheal intubation during surgery or pain medication afterward. Postoperatively, 1 patient developed a wound infection and 3 patients developed urinary retention. At last follow-up (12 months postop), all patients were in good health. In this series, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was feasible under epidural anesthesia and it eliminated the need for postoperative analgesia. We believe that this approach should be considered for patients who require biliary surgery but who are not good candidates for general anesthesia due to cardiorespiratory problems.
Sumer, Fatih; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Otan, Emrah; Kocaaslan, Huseyin
This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patient presenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the umbilical trocar site had been neglected during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative day five, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomy resolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with a more complicated clinical picture with an intestinal obstruction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilical trocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCP had strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergency surgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed an ischemic small bowel segment which was treated with resection and anastomosis. This report demonstrates that negligence of trocar site closure can result in very early herniation, particularly if an endoscopic intervention is required in the early postoperative period. PMID:25400872
Sumer, Fatih; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Otan, Emrah; Kocaaslan, Huseyin
This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patient presenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the umbilical trocar site had been neglected during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative day five, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomy resolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with a more complicated clinical picture with an intestinal obstruction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilical trocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCP had strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergency surgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed an ischemic small bowel segment which was treated with resection and anastomosis. This report demonstrates that negligence of trocar site closure can result in very early herniation, particularly if an endoscopic intervention is required in the early postoperative period.
Ono, Kazumi; Idani, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Hidekuni; Kusudo, Kazuhito; Koyama, Yusuke; Taguchi, Shinya
No consensus exists whether to continue or withdraw aspirin therapy perioperatively in patients undergoing major laparoscopic abdominal surgery. To investigate whether preoperative continuation of aspirin therapy increases blood loss and associated morbidity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer resection, we compared duration of surgical procedures, amount of intraoperative blood loss, rate of blood transfusion, length of postoperative stay, rate of conversion to open surgery, and reoperation within 48 hours between patients with and without aspirin therapy preoperatively. Twenty-nine of 270 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 23 of 218 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection, respectively, were on aspirin therapy. We found no significant difference in the investigated outcome between groups with the exception of longer surgical duration of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in aspirin-treated patients. Although underpowered, above findings may suggest that aspirin continuation is unlikely to increase blood loss or postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy or colorectal cancer resection.
Kang, Chang Moo; Chi, Hoon Sang; Hyeung, Woo Jin; Kim, Kyung Sik; Choi, Jin Sub; Kim, Byong Ro
With the advancement of laparoscopic instruments and computer sciences, complex surgical procedures are expected to be safely performed by robot assisted telemanipulative laparoscopic surgery. The da Vinci system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA, USA) became available at the many surgical fields. The wrist like movements of the instrument's tip, as well as 3-dimensional vision, could be expected to facilitate more complex laparoscopic procedure. Here, we present the first Korean experience of da Vinci robotic assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and discuss the introduction and perspectives of this robotic system. PMID:17594166
Zhou, Han-Xin; Guo, Yue-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Bao, Shi-Yun; Liu, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Yue; Ren, Yong-Gong; Zheng, Qun
To summarize the performing essentials and analyze the characteristics of remote Zeus robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 40 patients between May 2004 and July 2005. The operating procedures and a variety of clinical parameters were recorded and analyzed. Forty laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedures were successfully completed with Zeus robotic system. And there were no post-operative complications. Total operating time, system setup time and performing time were 100.3 +/- 18.5 min, 27.7 +/- 8.8 min and 65.6 +/- 18.3 min, respectively. The blood loss and post-operative hospital stay were 30.6 +/- 10.2 mL and 2.8 +/- 0.8 d, respectively. Camera clearing times and time used for operative field adjustment were 1.1+/- 1.0 min and 2.0 +/- 0.8 min, respectively. The operative error was 7.5%. Robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy following the principles of laparoscopic operation has specific performing essentials. It preserves the benefits of minimally invasive surgery and offers enhanced ability of controlling operation field, precise and stable operative manipulations.
Ambe, Peter C; Köhler, Lothar
This paper was designed to investigate the gender dependent risk of complication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard procedure for benign gallbladder disorders. The role of gender as an independent risk factor for complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains unclear. A retrospective single-center analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis over a 5-year period in a community hospital was performed. Within the period of examination, 1884 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed. The diagnosis was acute cholecystitis in 779 cases (462 female, 317 male). The male group was significantly older (P = 0.001). Surgery lasted significantly longer in the male group (P = 0.008). Conversion was done in 35 cases (4.5%). There was no significant difference in the rate of conversion between both groups. However the rate of conversion was significantly higher in male patients > 65 years (P = 0.006). The length of postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer in the male group (P = 0.007), in the group > 65 years (P = 0.001) and following conversion to open surgery (P = 0.001). The male gender was identified as an independent risk factor for prolonged laparoscopic cholecystectomy on multivariate analysis. The male gender could be an independent risk factor for complicated or challenging surgery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.
Romero, Rey Jesús; Arad, Jonathan Kirsch; Kosanovic, Radomir; Lamoureux, Julie
Background and Objectives: Minimally invasive surgery fellowship programs have been created in response to advancements in technology and patient's demands. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a technique that has been shown to be safe and feasible, but this appears to be the case only for experienced surgeons. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of minimally invasive surgery fellow participation during SILC. Methods: We reviewed data from our experience with SILC during 3 years. The cases were divided in two groups: group 1 comprised procedures performed by the main attending without the presence of the fellow, and group 2 comprised procedures performed with the fellow present during the operation. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, indication for surgery, total surgical time, hospital length of stay, and complications were evaluated. Results: The cohort included 229 patients: 142 (62%) were included in group 1 and 87 (38%) in group 2. No differences were found in demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and indication for surgery between groups. The total surgical time was 34.4 ± 11.4 minutes for group 1 and 46.8 ± 16.0 minutes for group 2 (P < .001). The hospital length of stay was 0.89 ± 0.32 days for group 1 and 1.01 ± 0.40 days for group 2 (P = .027). No intraoperative complications were seen in either group. There were 3 postoperative complications (2.1%) in group 1 and none in group 2 (P = .172). Conclusion: Adoption of SILC during an established fellowship program is safe and feasible. A longer surgical time is expected during the teaching process. PMID:24809141
Perini, Rafael F.; Uflacker, Renan Cunningham, John T.; Selby, J. Bayne; Adams, David
Purpose. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones. There is an increased incidence of bile duct injuries in LC compared with the open technique. Isolated right segmental hepatic duct injury (IRSHDI) represents a challenge not only for management but also for diagnosis. We present our experience in the management of IRSHDI, with long-term follow-up after treatment by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods. Twelve consecutive patients (9 women, mean age 48 years) were identified as having IRSHDI. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were collected for analysis. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range 2-90 months). Results. Three patients had the LC immediately converted to open surgery without repair of the biliary injury before referral. Treatments before referral included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage and surgery, isolated or in combination. The median interval from LC to referral was 32 days. Eleven patients presented with biliary leak and biloma, one with obstruction of an isolated right hepatic segment. Post-referral management of the biliary lesion used a combination of ERCP stenting, percutaneous drainage and stent placement and surgery. In 6 of 12 patients ERCP was the first procedure, and in only one case was IRSHDI identified. In 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed first and an isolated right hepatic segment was demonstrated in all. The final treatment modality was endoscopic management and/or percutaneous drainage and stenting in 6 patients, and surgery in 6. The mean follow-up was 44 months. No mortality or significant morbidity was observed. Conclusion. Successful management of IRSHDI after LC requires adequate identification of the lesion, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary. Half of the patients can be treated successfully by nonsurgical procedures.
Shimizu, Tetsuya; Arima, Yasuo; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Tsutomu; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Aimoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Uchida, Eiji; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi
With the increasingly widespread acceptance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), the number of cases of incidental gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) has increased; however, management of incidental GBC is a difficult issue in the absence of established guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the treatment of patients with incidental GBC diagnosed with LC. We performed a 14-year review of 10 patients with GBC discovered with LC. From April 1991 through March 2004, we performed LC for 1,195 patients at Nippon Medical School Main Hospital. Of these patients, 10 (0.83%) were found to have GBC. Seven patients were women and 3 were men, with a mean age of 61.4 years. Four patients had mucosal tumors (pT1a), 5 had subserosal tumors (pT2), and 1 had a serosal lesion (pT3). Eight of the 10 patients underwent radical surgery. Two patients with pT1a tumors underwent no additional surgery. All 4 patients with pT1a tumors are alive without recurrence. One patient with a pT2 tumor with metastases to the liver and pericholedochal lymph nodes found with additional resection died of recurrence of metastasis to the liver and lung 70 months after LC. One patient with a pT2 tumor died of primary lung cancer 35 months after LC. The remaining 3 patients with pT2 tumors are alive without recurrence 51 to 128 months after surgery. One patient with a pT3 tumor is alive with no recurrence for 9 months. For stage Tis or T1a tumors, LC is sufficient. Patients with T1b tumors should undergo liver-bed resection and lymphadenectomy, and patients with >pT2 tumors should undergo systematic liver resection with lymphadenectomy. Even when incidental GBC diagnosed with LC is advanced, adequate additional surgery may improve the prognosis.
Zhang, Min; Zhou, Shu-Yang; Xing, Mei-Yuan; Xu, Jian; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Zheng, Shu-Sen
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most frequent abdominal surgical procedures. The present meta-analysis aimed to estimate the clinical effects of implementing a clinical pathway for LC compared with standard medical care by evaluating the length of hospital stay, costs, and the outcomes of patients undergoing LC. Data were extracted from the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Medical Citation Index (CMCI), Chinese Medical Current Contents (CMCC), and China BioMedical Literature Database (CBM). We also searched the reference lists of the relevant articles and conference articles. Only randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials published from 1980 to 2013 were included. We did not set restrictions on language and country of publications. All of the data were evaluated and analyzed by two reviewers independently with RevMan software (version 5.0). A total of 7 trials with 1187 patients were included. The patients who underwent LC with clinical pathway had shorter hospital stay [weighted mean difference=-1.90, 95% CI: -2.65 to -1.16, P<0.00001], lower cost [standard mean difference=-0.69, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.56, P<0.00001], and better questionnaires based satisfaction with the medical services. The applications of the clinical pathway for LC effectively reduced hospital stay and total costs. However, there was insufficient evidence for proving the differences in postoperative complications. Future research should focus on patient outcomes and identify the mechanisms underlying the effect of the clinical pathway.
Fisher, Mikhail; Spilias, Dean C; Tong, Lien K
Data on the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) on bowel function are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of postcholecystectomy diarrhoea (PCD) and to identify patient characteristics that can be used as predictors in daily practice. In 100 consecutive patients who underwent LC, data were obtained from clinical records and telephone survey 6-12 months postoperatively using standardized questionnaire. Postoperatively, 19 patients had diarrhoea, including 17 with new onset. Two patients with preoperative and postoperative diarrhoea were excluded from further analysis. Of 98 patients (mean age 58.1 +/- 19.4 years; 62 women) 34 were younger than 50 years, 33 were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/cm(2)) and 29 were obese (BMI >30 kg/cm(2)). PCD was significantly associated with younger age (odds ratio (OR) 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-9.96; P = 0.026), higher BMI (OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.01-1.18; P = 0.019) and food intolerance postoperatively (OR 3.4; 95%CI 1.18-10.08; P = 0.025). PCD was most common with combination of two or three of the following factors: age <50 years, male sex, BMI >25 kg/cm(2). The highest risk of developing PCD was observed in obese men younger than 50 (OR 26.1), and the lowest in persons aged >50 years with BMI <25 kg/cm(2) (OR = 0.8). After LC, 17% of patients reported troublesome new-onset diarrhoea. PCD was independently associated with younger age, especially <50, and postoperative food intolerance. Coexistence of age <50 with high BMI and male sex was predictive for PCD.
Lau, Richard; Vair, Brock A.; Porter, Geoffrey A.
Introduction Health Canada states that waiting list information and management systems in Canada are woefully inadequate, especially for elective surgical procedures. Understanding the reasons for waiting is paramount to achieving fairness and equity. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of demographic and clinical factors and surgeon volume on waiting times for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods We comprehensively applied a wait-list database for all surgical procedures across a division of general surgery and performed a chart review of all patients undergoing LC in 2002 to collect additional demographic and clinical data. We excluded patients undergoing LC on an emergent basis or as a secondary procedure. For each patient, we calculated 2 time intervals: time from the receipt of consult to the surgical consult (interval A) and time from the surgical consult to the LC (interval B). Surgeons were categorized a priori into low-and high-volume groups, based on the median number of procedures they had performed. All analyses examining waiting times were performed with nonparametric methods. Results The study cohort included 294 patients; most (94.6%) underwent LC for biliary colic. The median waiting times for interval A and interval B were 22 days and 50 days, respectively. No associations were identified between any of the examined waiting times, sex, diagnosis or Charlston Comorbidity Index. High surgeon volume was associated with longer waiting times for interval A (median 26 v. 19 d; p = 0.04) and interval B (median 58 v. 35 d; p = 0.003) and was also associated with a greater number of episodes of biliary colic (2.7 v. 2.0; p = 0.03). Conclusion There is significant variability in specific waiting times for LC, which appears to be associated with surgeon volume. Better prioritization of patients undergoing nonemergent LC is required to improve patient care. PMID:17391614
Wherry, D C; Rob, C G; Marohn, M R; Rich, N M
OBJECTIVE: This study provided an objective survey by an outside auditing group of a large, complete patient population undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies, determined the frequency of complications, especially bile duct injuries, and presented a system for classifying and comparing the severity of bile duct injuries. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: This is the first study of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to encompass a large and complete patient population and to be based on objectively collected data rather than self-reported data. The Civilian External Peer Review Program (CEPRP) of the Department of Defense health care system conducted a retrospective study of 5642 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at 89 military medical treatment facilities from July 1990 through May 1992. METHODS: The study sample consisted of the complete records of 5607 (99.38%) of the 5642 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. RESULTS: Of the sample, 6.87% of patients experienced complications within 30 days of surgery, 0.57% sustained bile duct injuries, and 0.5% sustained bowel injuries. Among 5154 patients whose procedures were completed laparoscopically, 5.47% experienced complications. Laparoscopic procedures were converted to open cholecystectomies in 8.08% of cases. Intraoperative cholangiograms were attempted in 46.5% of cases and completed in 80.59% of those attempts. There were no intraoperative deaths; 0.04% of the patients died within 30 days of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of complications found in this study is comparable to the frequency of complications reported in recent large civilian studies and earlier, smaller studies. The authors present a system for classifying bile duct injuries, which is designed to standardize references to such injuries and allow for accurate comparison of bile duct injuries in the future. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:7979610
Abelson, Jonathan S; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Rich, Barrie S; Dakin, Gregory; Zarnegar, Rasa; Fahey, Thomas J; Pomp, Alfons
Acute biliary pathology is a risk factor for conversion to open surgery and increased surgical morbidity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of an advanced laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon on risks of conversion, surgical morbidity, and postoperative complications in this patient population. Of 1382 patients who underwent an LC from January 2008 to August 2011, 592 patients were diagnosed with an acute biliary process and were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; those operated on by an advanced laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon (N=237), and those operated on by a non-laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon (N=355). The primary end-points were conversion rates and surgical morbidity. The secondary end-point was operative time. Fellowship-trained surgeons were more likely to perform IOC (57%) versus non-fellowship trained surgeons (20%) (p<0.0001). The conversion rate for the fellowship-trained group was significantly lower than for the non-fellowship trained group (1.7% vs 8.5%, p=0.0004). The intraoperative and postoperative complication rates for the fellowship-trained group were not significantly different. The operative time was slightly longer in the non-fellowship trained group compared to the fellowship-trained group (104 min vs 111 min, p=0.04). Our data demonstrate that advanced laparoscopic fellowship training decreases conversion rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute biliary pathology. Moreover, given the lower conversion rates, patients may have experienced shorter hospitalizations. Formal advanced laparoscopic fellowship training may decrease length of stay among patients presenting with acute biliary pathology who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pellegrini, Pablo; Campana, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, Agustín; Goransky, Jeremías; Glinka, Juan; Giunta, Diego; Barcan, Laura; Alvarez, Fernando; Mazza, Oscar; Sánchez Claria, Rodrigo; Palavecino, Martin; Arbues, Guillermo; Ardiles, Victoria; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Pekolj, Juan; de Santibañes, Martin
Introduction Acute calculous cholecystitis represents one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment in mild and moderate forms, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery remains undefined. The aim of the randomised controlled Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial (CHART) is therefore to assess if there are benefits in the use of postoperative antibiotics in patients with mild or moderate acute cholecystitis in whom a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed. Methods and analysis A single-centre, double-blind, randomised trial. After screening for eligibility and informed consent, 300 patients admitted for acute calculus cholecystitis will be randomised into two groups of treatment, either receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or placebo for 5 consecutive days. Postoperative evaluation will take place during the first 30 days. Postoperative infectious complications are the primary end point. Secondary end points are length of hospital stay, readmissions, need of reintervention (percutaneous or surgical reinterventions) and overall mortality. The results of this trial will provide strong evidence to either support or abandon the use of antibiotics after surgery, impacting directly in the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics, the emergence of bacterial resistance and treatment costs. Ethics and dissemination This study and informed consent sheets have been approved by the Research Projects Evaluating Committee (CEPI) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (protocol N° 2111). Results The results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number NCT02057679. PMID:26582405
Xu, Duo; Zhu, Xuejiao; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Liqing
Objective Routine fasting (12 h) is always applied before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but prolonged preoperative fasting causes thirst, hunger, and irritability as well as dehydration, low blood glucose, insulin resistance and other adverse reactions. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a shortened preoperative fasting period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to 20 November 2015 and selected controlled trials with a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We assessed the results by performing a meta-analysis using a variety of outcome measures and investigated the heterogeneity by subgroup analysis. Results Eleven trials were included. Forest plots showed that a shortened fasting time reduced the operative risk and patient discomfort. A shortened fasting time also reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting as well as operative vomiting. With respect to glucose metabolism, a shortened fasting time significantly reduced abnormalities in the ratio of insulin sensitivity. The C-reactive protein concentration was also reduced by a shortened fasting time. Conclusions A shortened preoperative fasting time increases patients' postoperative comfort, improves insulin resistance, and reduces stress responses. This evidence supports the clinical application of a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Zheng, Jun; Han, Wen; Han, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Pengbo
This study aims to evaluate the effect of naloxone on intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia.A total of 90 patients, who underwent intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, were included into this study. All patients were randomly divided into 3 groups (each group, n=30): naloxone group (naloxone+fentanyl), tropisetron group (tropisetron+fentanyl), and fentanyl group (fentanyl). Patients in each group were given a corresponding dose of naloxone. Postoperative analgesia effect and the incidence of side effects such as nausea and vomiting were observed.Small doses of naloxone or tropisetron combined with fentanyl used for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia can significantly reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Six hours after surgery, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were significantly lower in patients that underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl compared with patients who received fentanyl alone; however, the postoperative analgesic effect of tropisetron was not observed. Compared with the combination of tropisetron and fentanyl, low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl can obviously reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and enhance the analgesic effect of fentanyl 6 hours after surgery.Low-dose naloxone can reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, and exhibits a certain synergic analgesic effect.
Klima, S; Schyra, B
The laparoscopic technique for cholecystectomy is associated with a increased rate of bile duct injuries. A conscientious preparation, the excessive application of electrocoagulation, anatomical variants and renunciation of cholangiography are reasons for injuries. The technique of operative treatment depends on type, range and location of injury.
Sandison, Andrew J. P.; Edmondson, Robert A.; Panayiotopoulos, Yiannis; Reidy, John F.; McColl, Ian; Taylor, Peter R.
Intraarterial thrombolysis is usually contraindicated after abdominal surgery because of the risk of bleeding. However, it is a highly effective treatment for embolic acute limb ischemia, particularly for clearing the distal vessels. We report a case in which intraarterial thrombolysis was safely used 4 days after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with an acutely ischemic leg due to embolus.
Sánchez-Beorlegui, Jesús; Soriano, Pablo; Monsalve, Eduardo; Moreno, Nuria; Cabezali, Roger; Navarro, Ana
In the current article, we analyse the results and complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in octogenarian patients. Retrospective study in patients older than 80 years, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January 2002 and August 2007. Variables analysed were presentation, physical condition, anaesthetic risk, conversion rate, morbidity and hospital stay. A comparison was made with patients aged between 70 and 79 years old. The chi(2) and Student's t tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was defined as a p value less than 0.05. A total of 64 patients were operated on, of which 39 (63%) were women and 25 men, with a mean age 83.7 years. Surgery was scheduled in 40 (62.5%) cases and urgent in 24 cases. The conversion rate to open cholecystectomy was 10.9% and the average hospital stay was 3.9 days. Two patients required re-intervention and two patients died. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for symptomatic cholelithiasis in octogenarians. The laparoscopic approach should be considered for the management of acute cholecystitis in the very old (except where contraindicated) before the development of complications.
Sathesh-Kumar, T; Saklani, A P; Vinayagam, R; Blackett, R L
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with spillage of gall stones in 5%-40% of procedures, but complications occur very rarely. There are, however, isolated case reports describing a range of complications occurring both at a distance from and near to the subhepatic area. This review looks into the various modes of presentation, ways to minimise spillage, treating the complications, and the legal implications.
Zheng, Jun; Han, Wen; Han, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Pengbo
Abstract This study aims to evaluate the effect of naloxone on intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia. A total of 90 patients, who underwent intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, were included into this study. All patients were randomly divided into 3 groups (each group, n=30): naloxone group (naloxone+fentanyl), tropisetron group (tropisetron+fentanyl), and fentanyl group (fentanyl). Patients in each group were given a corresponding dose of naloxone. Postoperative analgesia effect and the incidence of side effects such as nausea and vomiting were observed. Small doses of naloxone or tropisetron combined with fentanyl used for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia can significantly reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Six hours after surgery, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were significantly lower in patients that underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl compared with patients who received fentanyl alone; however, the postoperative analgesic effect of tropisetron was not observed. Compared with the combination of tropisetron and fentanyl, low-dose naloxone combined with fentanyl can obviously reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and enhance the analgesic effect of fentanyl 6 hours after surgery. Low-dose naloxone can reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia, and exhibits a certain synergic analgesic effect. PMID:27902584
Nickkholgh, A; Soltaniyekta, S; Kalbasi, H
Routine use of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a matter of debate. Data from 2,130 consecutive LCs and patients' follow-up during 9 years were collected and analyzed. During the first 4 years of the study, 800 patients underwent LC, and IOC was performed selectively (SIOC). Thereafter, 1,330 patients underwent LC, and IOC was routinely attempted (RIOC) for all. In the IOC group, 159 patients met the criteria for SIOC, which was completed successfully in 141 cases (success rate, 88.6%). Bile duct calculi were found in nine patients. All other patients with no criteria or failed SIOC were followed, and in nine patients retained stones were documented. Thus, the incidence of ductal stones was 1.1% and sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) for the detection of ductal stones were 50, 100, 98.6, and 100%, respectively. In the RIOC group, IOC was routinely attempted in 1,330 patients and was successful in 1,133 (success rate, 90.9%; p = 0.015). Bile duct stones were detected in 37 patients (including 14 asymptomatic stones). In two cases, IOC failed to reveal ductal stones (false negative). There was no false-positive IOC. Therefore, with RIOC policy, the incidence of ductal stones, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV were 3.3, 97.4, 100, 99.8, and 100%, respectively (significantly higher for success rate, incidence, sensitivity, and NPV; p < 0.05). Abnormal IOC findings were also significantly higher in the RIOC group. Common bile duct injury occurred only in the SIOC group [two cases of all 2,130 LCs (0.09%)]. RIOC during LC is a safe, accurate, quick, and cost-effective method for the detection of bile duct anatomy and stones. A highly disciplined performance of RIOC can minimize potentially debilitating and hazardous complications of bile duct injury.
CASTRO, Paula Marcela Vilela; AKERMAN, Denise; MUNHOZ, Carolina Brito; do SACRAMENTO, Iara; MAZZURANA, Mônica; ALVAREZ, Guines Antunes
Introduction A introdução da técnica laparoscópica em 1985 foi um fator importante na colecistectomia por representar técnica menos invasiva, resultado estético melhor e menor risco cirúrgico comparado ao procedimento laparotômico. Aim To compare laparoscopic and minilaparotomy cholecystectomy in the treatment of cholelithiasis. Methods A systematic review of randomized clinical trials, which included studies from four databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs) was performed. The keywords used were "Cholecystectomy", "Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic" and "Laparotomy". The methodological quality of primary studies was assessed by the Grade system. Results Ten randomized controlled trials were included, totaling 2043 patients, 1020 in Laparoscopy group and 1023 in Minilaparotomy group. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy dispensed shorter length of hospital stay (p<0.00001) and return to work activities (p<0.00001) compared to minilaparotomy, and the minilaparotomy shorter operative time (p<0.00001) compared to laparoscopy. Laparoscopy decrease the risk of postoperative pain (NNT=7) and infectious complications (NNT=50). There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding conversion (p=0,06) and surgical reinterventions (p=0,27), gall bladder's perforation (p=0,98), incidence of common bile duct injury (p=1.00), surgical site infection (p=0,52) and paralytic ileus (p=0,22). Conclusion In cholelithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a lower incidence of postoperative pain and infectious complications, as well as shorter length of hospital stay and time to return to work activities compared to minilaparotomy cholecystectomy. PMID:25004295
Arroyo, Juan Pablo; Martín-del-Campo, Luis A.; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo
The current standard-of-care for treatment of cholecystectomy is the four port laparoscopic approach. The development of single incision/laparoendoscopic single site surgery (SILC/LESS) has now led to the development of new techniques for removal of the gallbladder. The use of SILC/LESS is now currently being evaluated as the next step in treatment of cholecystectomy. This review is an attempt to consolidate the current knowledge and analyze the feasibility of world-wide implementation of SILC/LESS. PMID:22649722
Zhang, Yang; Peng, Jian; Li, Xiaoli; Liao, Mingmei
The study aimed to compare the application values of endoscopic-laparoscopic cholecystolithotomy (ELC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for patients with cholecystolithiasis. It did a retrospective analysis of 107 patients with cholecystolithiasis who underwent ELC and 144 patients with cholecystolithiasis who underwent LC. There is no significant difference in operating time and expenses when comparing ELC with LC (P>0.05). ELC showed significantly less blood loss during operation compared with LC (P<0.01). Shortened exhaust time (P<0.05) and hospital stay (P<0.01) were present in patients who underwent ELC. Moreover, ELC showed decreased occurrence rate of dyspepsia and diarrhea in comparison with LC (P<0.01). The stone recurrence rate of ELC was 16.67%. ELC decreased the recurrence of stone in common bile duct in comparison with LC. The contractile function of gallbladder was close to normal (P<0.05), and the thickness of gallbladder wall significantly decreased (P<0.001). Patients who underwent ELC showed less digestive symptom, good recovery, and low stone recurrence compared with those who underwent LC.
Zhang, Yang; Peng, Jian; Li, Xiaoli
The study aimed to compare the application values of endoscopic-laparoscopic cholecystolithotomy (ELC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for patients with cholecystolithiasis. It did a retrospective analysis of 107 patients with cholecystolithiasis who underwent ELC and 144 patients with cholecystolithiasis who underwent LC. There is no significant difference in operating time and expenses when comparing ELC with LC (P>0.05). ELC showed significantly less blood loss during operation compared with LC (P<0.01). Shortened exhaust time (P<0.05) and hospital stay (P<0.01) were present in patients who underwent ELC. Moreover, ELC showed decreased occurrence rate of dyspepsia and diarrhea in comparison with LC (P<0.01). The stone recurrence rate of ELC was 16.67%. ELC decreased the recurrence of stone in common bile duct in comparison with LC. The contractile function of gallbladder was close to normal (P<0.05), and the thickness of gallbladder wall significantly decreased (P<0.001). Patients who underwent ELC showed less digestive symptom, good recovery, and low stone recurrence compared with those who underwent LC. PMID:27579981
Chen, Po-Nien; Lu, I-Cheng; Chen, Hui-Ming; Cheng, Kuang-I; Tseng, Kuang-Yi; Lee, King-Teh
Whether low-concentration desflurane reinforces propofol-based intravenous anesthesia on maintenance of anesthesia for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether propofol-based anesthesia adding low-concentration desflurane is feasible for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fifty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Induction of anesthesia was achieved in all patients with fentanyl 2 μg/kg, lidocaine 1 mg/kg, propofol 2 mg/kg, and rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg to facilitate tracheal intubation and to initiate propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) to effect site concentration (Ce: 4 μg/mL with infusion rate 400 mL/h). The patients were then allocated into either propofol TCI based (group P) or propofol TCI adding low-concentration desflurane (group PD) for maintenance of anesthesia. The peri-anesthesia hemodynamic responses to stimuli were measured. The perioperative psychomotor test included p-deletion test, minus calculation, orientation, and alert/sedation scales. Group PD showed stable hemodynamic responses at CO2 inflation, initial 15 minutes of operation, and recovery from general anesthesia as compared with group P. There is no significant difference between the groups in operation time and anesthesia time, perioperative psychomotor functional tests, postoperative vomiting, and pain score. Based on our findings, the anesthetic technique combination propofol and desflurane for the maintenance of general anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy provided more stable hemodynamic responses than propofol alone. The combined regimen is recommended for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Madani, Amin; Watanabe, Yusuke; Feldman, Liane S; Vassiliou, Melina C; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Fried, Gerald M; Aggarwal, Rajesh
Bile duct injuries from laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain a significant source of morbidity and are often the result of intraoperative errors in perception, judgment, and decision-making. This qualitative study aimed to define and characterize higher-order cognitive competencies required to safely perform a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hierarchical and cognitive task analyses for establishing a critical view of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were performed using qualitative methods to map the thoughts and practices that characterize expert performance. Experts with more than 5 years of experience, and who have performed at least 100 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, participated in semi-structured interviews and field observations. Verbal data were transcribed verbatim, supplemented with content from published literature, coded, thematically analyzed using grounded-theory by 2 independent reviewers, and synthesized into a list of items. A conceptual framework was created based on 10 interviews with experts, 9 procedures, and 18 literary sources. Experts included 6 minimally invasive surgeons, 2 hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgeons, and 2 acute care general surgeons (median years in practice, 11 [range 8 to 14]). One hundred eight cognitive elements (35 [32%] related to situation awareness, 47 [44%] involving decision-making, and 26 [24%] action-oriented subtasks) and 75 potential errors were identified and categorized into 6 general themes and 14 procedural tasks. Of the 75 potential errors, root causes were mapped to errors in situation awareness (24 [32%]), decision-making (49 [65%]), or either one (61 [81%]). This study defines the competencies that are essential to establishing a critical view of safety and avoiding bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This framework may serve as the basis for instructional design, assessment tools, and quality-control metrics to prevent injuries and promote a culture of patient safety. Copyright
Collins, Chris; Maguire, Donal; Ireland, Adrian; Fitzgerald, Edward; O’Sullivan, Gerald C.
Objective: To define the incidence of problematic common bile duct calculi in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Summary Background Data: In patients selected for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the true incidence of potentially problematic common bile duct calculi and their natural history has not been determined. We evaluated the incidence and early natural history of common bile duct calculi in all patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative and delayed postoperative cholangiography. Methods: Operative cholangiography was attempted in all patients. In those patients in whom a filling defect was noted in the bile duct, the fine bore cholangiogram catheter was left securely clipped in the cystic duct for repeated cholangiography at 48 hours and at approximately 6 weeks postoperatively. Results: Operative cholangiography was attempted in 997 consecutive patients and was accomplished in 962 patients (96%). Forty-six patients (4.6%) had at least one filling defect. Twelve of these had a normal cholangiogram at 48 hours (26% possible false-positive operative cholangiogram) and a further 12 at 6 weeks (26% spontaneous passage of calculi). Spontaneous passage was not determined by either the number or size of calculi or by the diameter of the bile duct. Only 22 patients (2.2% of total population) had persistent common bile duct calculi at 6 weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and retrieved by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Conclusions: Choledocholithiasis occurs in 3.4% of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy but more than one third of these pass the calculi spontaneously within 6 weeks of operation and may be spared endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Treatment decisions based on assessment by operative cholangiography alone would result in unnecessary interventions in 50% of patients who had either false positive studies or subsequently passed the calculi. These data support a short
Dominguez, Guillermo; Durand, Luis; De Rosa, Julián; Danguise, Eduardo; Arozamena, Carlos; Ferraina, Pedro A
There have been attempts to minimize the invasiveness of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by reducing the size and/or the number of the operating ports and instruments. These attempts create technical challenges related principally to retraction and triangulation necessary to expose the surgical field for a safe surgery. A new technique based on retraction and triangulation with magnetic instruments for single port laparoscopic surgery is presented. Between March 2007 and December 2008, 40 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed with single-port laparoscopic surgery with the assistance of magnetic forceps (IMANLAP project). The surgical technique is described, and the intraoperative and postoperative course of the patients is assessed. There were no intraoperative complications, no need to convert to open surgery, and no need to add a second port. Depending on the patient's anatomy, a 1-mm needle was added in some cases. There were no interactions observed between the magnetic devices and the anesthetic monitoring and the rest of the devices of the operation room. This new procedure is feasible and safe. The main goal is control of the magnetic field, allowing enough controlled strength for retraction and sufficient triangulation for adequate exposure of the surgical field. This allows for the use of a single port through which an optic device with a working channel can perform the operation with safety. Finally, the procedure can be performed in a manner similar to the traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and it also appears to be simple to learn.
Colon, Modesto J; LeMasters, Patrick; Newell, Phillipa; Divino, Celia; Weber, Kaare J.
Background and Objectives: We present a case of Laparoendoscopic Single Site Surgery (LESS) left adrenalectomy performed with a conventional laparoscope and instruments. Methods: A 45-year-old male was diagnosed with hyperaldosteronism. Computed tomography detected a left adrenal nodule. Bilateral adrenal vein sampling was consistent with a left-sided source for hyperaldosteronism. Results: Total operative time for LESS left adrenalectomy was 120 minutes. The surgery was performed with conventional instruments, a standard 5-mm laparoscope, and a SILS port, with no additional incisions or trocars needed. No complications occurred, and the patient reported an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: LESS adrenalectomy is a feasible procedure. Although articulating instruments and laparoscopes may offer advantages, LESS adrenalectomy can be done without these. PMID:21902983
Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia A; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette M; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes G; Linke, Georg R; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P
This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost-blended learning (BL) in a structured training program.Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks.Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in 2 groups stratified for sex. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trained basic skills and LC on the LAP Mentor II (Simbionix, Cleveland, OH). Each group trained 3 × 4 hours followed by a knowledge test concerning LC. Blinded raters assessed the operative performance of cadaveric porcine LC using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The LC was discontinued when it was not completed within 80 min. Students evaluated their training modality with questionnaires.The VR group completed the LC significantly faster and more often within 80 min than BL (45% v 21%, P = .02). The BL group scored higher than the VR group in the knowledge test (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 11.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). Both groups showed equal operative performance of LC in the OSATS score (49.4 ± 10.5 vs 49.7 ± 12.0, P = 0.90). Students generally liked training and felt well prepared for assisting in laparoscopic surgery. The efficiency of the training was judged higher by the VR group than by the BL group.VR and BL can both be applied for training the basics of LC. Multimodality training programs should be developed that combine the advantages of both approaches.
Calvo-Soto, P; Martínez-Contreras, A; -Hernández, B Trujillo; And, Fj Peraza-Garay; Vásquez, C
A randomized clinical study to compare the stress response to laparoscopic cholecystectomy during spinal-general anaesthesia and epidural- general anaesthesia. Women undergoing elective laparoscopic chole cystectomy were assigned to receive either spinal anaesthesia (SA group; n = 12) or epidural anaesthesia (EA group; n = 12), in addition to general anaesthesia. Plasma concentrations of cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), noradrenaline, adrenaline and total catecholamines were measured pre- and intraoperatively. Intraoperative cortisol, noradrenaline and total catecholamine levels were significantly lower in the SA group compared with the EA group. When pre- and intraoperative values were compared, the SA group showed a decrease in adrenaline, noradrenaline and total catecholamine levels, and the EA group showed an increase in ACTH and noradrenaline levels. The type of regional anaesthesia significantly affected the stress response: spinal anaesthesia produced a more favourable endocrine response than epidural anaesthesia. Spinal-general anaesthesia may reduce postoperative morbidity in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Neychev, Vladimir; Saldinger, Pierre F
Imprecise dissection due to poor visualization of anatomic structures is among the major causes of biliary injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Developing new illustrational and rendering techniques represents an important part in decreasing visual deception and subsequent bile duct injuries. We use the model of one of the most well-known pieces of art, Rodin's The Thinker, to visualize the gallbladder and cystic pedicle structures. This minimizes visual deception before dissection, especially in cases with obscured structures. Our method, raising The Thinker, is based on the remarkable similarity between the sculpture and the topographic anatomy of the gallbladder. The method can be used not only for better orientation and visualization during laparoscopic cholecystectomy but also as a tool to complement the teaching of laparoscopic biliary anatomy to surgical residents and medical students.
Song, Guo-Min; Bian, Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Luo, Yong-Qiang; Tian, Xu
Abstract The laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an important approach of treating acute cholecystitis and the timing of performing this given treatment is associated with clinical outcomes. Although several meta-analyses have been done to investigate the optimal timing of implementing this treatment, the conflicting findings from these meta-analyses still confuse decision-making. And thus, we performed this systematic review to assess discordant meta-analyses and generate conclusive findings to facilitate informed decision-making in clinical context eventually. We electronically searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE to include meta-analysis comparing early (within 7 days of the onset of symptoms) with delayed LC (at least 1 week after initial conservative treatment) for acute cholecystitis through August 2015. Two independent investigators completed all tasks including scanning and appraising eligibility, abstracting essential information using prespecified extraction form, assessing methodological quality using Oxford Levels of Evidence and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool, and assessing the reporting quality using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), as well as implementing Jadad algorithm in each step for the whole process. A heterogeneity degree of ≤50% is accepted. Seven eligible meta-analyses were included eventually. Only one was Level I of evidence and remaining studies were Level II of evidence. The AMSTAR scores varied from 8 to 11 with a median of 9. The PRISMA scores varied from 19 to 26. The most heterogeneity level fell into the desired criteria. After implementing Jadad algorithm, 2 meta-analyses with more eligible RCTs were selected based on search strategies and implication of selection. The best available evidence indicated a nonsignificant difference in mortality, bile duct injury, bile leakage, overall complications, and conversion to open surgery, but a significant
Tebala, Giovanni Domenico; Belvedere, Angela; Keane, Sean; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Osman, Abdelsalam
Despite a number of studies have already demonstrated that majority of patients can be safely discharged early after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, this approach did not gain widespread diffusion yet. The present study was set up to assess safety and feasibility of 24 h or same-day discharge after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to identify the prognostic factors. Perioperative variables of 229 patients undergoing cholecystectomy have been analyzed. Primary endpoints were: postoperative length of stay, rate of patients discharged within 24 h, and rate of those discharged on the same day. Secondary endpoints were rate of 30-day readmission and rate of 30-day postoperative complications. Two-hundred twenty-three cases have been started by laparoscopy. Conversion rate was 3.1%. Overall mean postoperative stay was 1.8 ± 3.5 days (median 1 day). Seventy-eight percent of patients have been discharged within 24 h, and 22.3% have been discharged on the same day. Postoperative morbidity was 2.2%. Readmission rate was 3.9%. At univariate analysis, factors related to early discharge were age (more or less than 65), diagnosis (simple symptomatic gallstones vs complicated gallstones), ASA score, timing of operation (elective vs emergency), history of CBD stones, laparoscopic operation, and use of drain. No single factor was significantly related to readmission rate, but the use of drains in laparoscopic cases. At multivariate analysis, only elective operation, simple symptomatic gallstones, no history of CBD stones, laparoscopic approach, and no abdominal drain resulted independently associated with discharge within 24 h from the operation. The predictive models are all fit and significant. Early postoperative discharge within 24 h should be considered in all patients with simple symptomatic gallstones who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Same-day discharge should be considered if no drain was left at the end of the operation.
Ding, Guo-Qian; Cai, Wang; Qin, Ming-Fang
To determine the efficacy and safety benefits of performing intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) to treat symptomatic cholelithiasis. Patients admitted to the Minimally Invasive Surgery Center of Tianjin Nankai Hospital between January 2012 and January 2014 for management of symptomatic cholelithiasis were recruited for this prospective randomized trial. Study enrollment was offered to patients with clinical presentation of biliary colic symptoms, radiological findings suggestive of gallstones, and normal serum biochemistry results. Study participants were randomized to receive either routine LC treatment or LC+IOC treatment. The routine LC procedure was carried out using the standard four-port technique; the LC+IOC procedure was carried out with the addition of meglumine diatrizoate (1:1 dilution with normal saline) injection via a catheter introduced through a small incision in the cystic duct made by laparoscopic scissors. Operative data and postoperative outcomes, including operative time, retained common bile duct (CBD) stones, CBD injury, other complications and length of hospital stay, were recorded for comparative analysis. Inter-group differences were statistically assessed by the χ2 test (categorical variables) and Fisher's exact test (binary variables), with the threshold for statistical significance set at P<0.05. A total of 371 patients were enrolled in the trial (late-adolescent to adult, age range: 16-70 years), with 185 assigned to the routine LC group and 186 to the LC+IOC group. The two treatment groups were similar in age, sex, body mass index, duration of symptomology, number and size of gallstones, and clinical symptoms. The two treatment groups also showed no significant differences in the rates of successful LC (98.38% vs 97.85%), CBD stone retainment (0.54% vs 0.00%), CBD injury (0.54% vs 0.53%) and other complications (2.16% vs 2.15%), as well as in duration of hospital stay (5.10±1.41 d vs 4.99±1
Machado, Norman Oneil
To study the etiopathogenesis, management and outcome of duodenal injury post laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A Medline search was carried out for all articles in English, on duodenal injury post LC, using the search word duodenal injury and LC. The cross references in these articles were further searched, for potential articles on duodenal injury, which when found was studied. Inclusion criteria included, case reports, case series, and reviews. Articles even with lack of details with some of the parameters studied, were also analyzed. The study period included all the cases published till January 2015. The data extracted were demographic details, the nature and day of presentation, potential cause for duodenal injury, site of duodenal injury, investigations, management and outcome. The model (fixed or random effect) for meta analyses was selected, based on Q and I (2) statistics. STATA software was used to draw the forest plot and to compute the overall estimate and the 95%CI for the time of detection of injury and its outcome on mortality. The association between time of detection of injury and mortality was estimated using χ (2) test with Yate's correction. Based on Kaplan Meier survival curve concept, the cumulative survival probabilities at various days of injury was estimated. Literature review detected 74 cases of duodenal injury, post LC. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (23-80 years) with 46% of them being males. The cause of injury was due to cautery (46%), dissection (39%) and due to retraction (14%). The injury was noted on table in 46% of the cases. The common site of injury was to the 2(nd) part of the duodenum with 46% above the papilla and 15% below papilla and in 31% to the 1(st) part of duodenum. Duodenorapphy (primary closure) was the predominant surgical intervention in 63% with 21% of these being carried out laparoscopically. Other procedures included, percutaneous drainage, tube duodenostomy, gastric resection, Whipple resection
Machado, Norman Oneil
AIM: To study the etiopathogenesis, management and outcome of duodenal injury post laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: A Medline search was carried out for all articles in English, on duodenal injury post LC, using the search word duodenal injury and LC. The cross references in these articles were further searched, for potential articles on duodenal injury, which when found was studied. Inclusion criteria included, case reports, case series, and reviews. Articles even with lack of details with some of the parameters studied, were also analyzed. The study period included all the cases published till January 2015. The data extracted were demographic details, the nature and day of presentation, potential cause for duodenal injury, site of duodenal injury, investigations, management and outcome. The model (fixed or random effect) for meta analyses was selected, based on Q and I2 statistics. STATA software was used to draw the forest plot and to compute the overall estimate and the 95%CI for the time of detection of injury and its outcome on mortality. The association between time of detection of injury and mortality was estimated using χ2 test with Yate’s correction. Based on Kaplan Meier survival curve concept, the cumulative survival probabilities at various days of injury was estimated. RESULTS: Literature review detected 74 cases of duodenal injury, post LC. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (23-80 years) with 46% of them being males. The cause of injury was due to cautery (46%), dissection (39%) and due to retraction (14%). The injury was noted on table in 46% of the cases. The common site of injury was to the 2nd part of the duodenum with 46% above the papilla and 15% below papilla and in 31% to the 1st part of duodenum. Duodenorapphy (primary closure) was the predominant surgical intervention in 63% with 21% of these being carried out laparoscopically. Other procedures included, percutaneous drainage, tube duodenostomy, gastric resection
Hokkam, Emad N.
Introduction. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually associated with reduced hospital stay, sick leave, and health care expenditures. Early diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis reduce both mortality and morbidity and the accurate diagnosis requires specific diagnostic criteria of clinical data and imaging studies. Objectives. To compare early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy regarding the operative outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients and Methods. Patients with acute cholecystitis were divided into two groups, early (A) and delayed (B) cholecystectomy. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was confirmed by clinical examination, laboratory data, and ultrasound study. The primary end point was operative and postoperative outcome and the secondary was patient's satisfaction. Results. The number of readmissions in delayed treatment group B was three times in 10% of patients, twice in 23.3%, and once in 66.7% while the number of readmissions was once only in patients in group A and the mean total hospital stays were higher in group B than in group A. The overall patient's satisfaction was 92.66 ± 6.8 in group A compared with 75.34 ± 12.85 in group B. Conclusion. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in significant reduction in length of hospital stay and accepted rate of operative complications and conversion rates when compared with delayed techniques. PMID:25197568
Sidiropoulou, Irine; Tsaousi, Georgia G; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Logotheti, Helen; Tsantilas, Dimitrios; Vasilakos, Dimitrios G
The aim of this randomized, double-blind clinical trial was to elucidate the impact of general anesthesia alone (GA) or supplemented with epidural anesthesia (EpiGA) on surgical stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, using stress hormones, glucose, and C-reactive protein (CRP), as potential markers. Sixty-two patients scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either GA or EpiGA. Stress hormones [cortisol (COR), human growth hormone (hGH), prolactine (PRL)], glucose, and CRP were determined 1 day before surgery, intraoperatively, and upon first postoperative day (POD1). Plasma COR, hGH, PRL, and glucose levels were maximized intraoperatively in GA and EpiGA groups and reverted almost to baseline on POD1. Significant between-group differences were detected for COR and glucose either intraoperatively or postoperatively, but this was not the case for hGH. PRL was elevated in GA group only intraoperatively. Although, CRP was minimally affected intraoperatively, a notable augmentation on POD1, comparable in both groups, was recorded. These results indicate that hormonal and metabolic stress response is slightly modulated by the use of epidural block supplemented by general anesthesia, in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy cholecystectomy. Nevertheless, inflammatory reaction as assessed by CRP seems to be unaffected by the anesthesia regimen.
Ozturk, Bahadir; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Yormaz, Serdar; Şahin, Mustafa
Purpose Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has become a more frequently performed method for benign gallbladder diseases all over the world. The effects of SILC technique on oxidative stress have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques on systemic oxidative stress by using ischemia modified albumin (IMA). Methods In total, 70 patients who had been diagnosed with benign gallbladder pathology were enrolled for this prospective study. Twenty-one patients underwent SILC and 49 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). All operations were performed under a standard anesthesia protocol. Serum IMA levels were analysed before operation, 45 minutes and 24 hours after operation. Results Demographics and preoperative characteristics of the patients were similiar in each group. The mean duration of operation was 37.5 ± 12.5 and 44.6 ± 14.3 minutes in LC and SILC group, respectively. In both groups, there was no statistically significant difference in hospital stay, operative time, or conversion to open surgery. Operative technique did not effect the 45th minute and 24th hour IMA levels. However, prolonged operative time (>30 minutes) caused an early increase in the level of IMA. Twenty-fourth hour IMA levels were not different. Conclusion SILC is an effective and safe surgical prosedure for benign gallbladder diseases. Independent of the surgical technique for cholecystectomy, the prolonged operative time could increase the tissue ischemia. PMID:28382289
Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Davidson, Brian R
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Drains are used after laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent abdominal collections. However, drain use may increase infective complications and delay discharge. The aim is to assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage in uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing drainage versus no drainage after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy irrespective of language and publication status. We used standard methodological procedures defined by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 1831 participants were randomised to drain (915 participants) versus 'no drain' (916 participants) in 12 trials included in this review. Only two trials including 199 participants were of low risk of bias. Nine trials included patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy exclusively. One trial included patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis exclusively. One trial included patients undergoing elective and emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and one trial did not provide this information. The average age of participants in the trials ranged between 48 years and 63 years in the 10 trials that provided this information. The proportion of females ranged between 55.0% and 79.0% in the 11 trials that provided this information. There was no significant difference between the drain group (1/840) (adjusted proportion: 0.1%) and the 'no drain' group (2/841) (0.2%) (RR 0.41; 95% CI 0.04 to 4.37) in short-term mortality in the ten trials with 1681 participants reporting on this outcome. There was no significant difference between the drain group (7/567) (adjusted proportion: 1.1%) and the 'no drain' group (3/576) (0.5%) in the
Breazu, Caius Mihai; Ciobanu, Lidia; Hadade, Adina; Bartos, Adrian; Mitre, Călin; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Ionescu, Daniela
bupivacaine 0.25% can provide effective analgesia up to 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy when combined with conventional multimodal analgesia regimen. PMID:28913472
Reibetanz, Joachim; Ickrath, Pascal; Hain, Johannes; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Krajinovic, Katica
To study the postoperative quality of life and body image of patients who underwent either single-port cholecystectomy (SPC) or standard multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SMLC) in a long-term assessment. Fifty patients who underwent SPC using the reusable X-Cone™ Laparoscopic Device were compared with a matched group (age, sex, body mass index) of 50 patients after SMLC. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and body image at 17 months postoperatively (median, range 9-23) was analysed by means of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey and the Body Image Questionnaire, respectively. Both patient groups had comparable baseline characteristics, clinical courses, and postoperative complication rates. SPC patients were significantly more satisfied with the cosmetic result of their scar at 17 months postoperatively, in comparison to SMLC patients (cosmetic scale: 22.6 ± 2.8 vs. 19.5 ± 3.7, p < 0.001). However, the HRQOL did not differ between the SPC and SMLC patients (physical component scale: 50.0 ± 8.9 vs. 48.8 ± 9.4, p = 0.48; mental component scale: 53.8 ± 6.5 vs. 51.3 ± 8.5, p = 0.10). Although the overall postoperative HRQOL was comparable, this study suggests that the cosmetic result of SPC after complete wound healing is superior to the standard multiport laparoscopic procedure.
Siada, Sammy S; Schaetzel, Shaina S; Chen, Allen K; Hoang, Huy D; Wilder, Fatima G; Dirks, Rachel C; Kaups, Krista L; Davis, James W
Recent studies have suggested higher complication and conversion to open rates for nighttime laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and recommend against the practice. We hypothesize that patients undergoing night LC for acute cholecystitis have decreased hospital length of stay and cost with no difference in complication and conversion rates. A retrospective review of patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent LC from October 2011 through June 2015 was performed. Complication rates, length of stay, and cost of hospitalization were compared between patients undergoing day cholecystectomy and night cholecystectomy. Complication rates and costs did not differ between the day and night groups. Length of stay was shorter in the night group (2.4 vs 2.8 days, p = 0.002). Performing LC for acute cholecystitis during night-time hours does not increase risk of complications and decreases length of stay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Muroni, Mirko; Loi, Valeria; Lionnet, François; Girot, Robert; Houry, Sidney
Prophylactic laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains controversial and has been discussed for selected subgroups of patients with asymptomatic cholelithiasis who are at high risk of developing complications such as chronic haemolytic conditions. Cholelithiasis is a frequent condition for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Complications from cholelithiasis may dramatically increase morbidity for these patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic cholecystectomy in SCD patients with asymptomatic gallbladder stones. From January 2000 to June 2014, we performed 103 laparoscopic cholecystectomies on SCD patients. Fifty-two patients had asymptomatic cholelithiasis. The asymptomatic patients were prospectively enrolled in this study, and all underwent a prophylactic cholecystectomy with an intraoperative cholangiography. The symptomatic patients were retrospectively studied. Upon admission, all patients were administered specific perioperative management including intravenous hydration, antibiotic prophylaxis, oxygenation, and intravenous painkillers, as well as the subcutaneous administration of low-molecular-weight heparin. During the same period, 51 patients with SCD underwent a cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. We compared these 2 groups in terms of postoperative mortality, morbidity, and hospital stay. There were no postoperative deaths or injuries to the bile ducts in either group. In the asymptomatic group, we observed 6 postoperative complications (11.5%), and in the symptomatic group, there were 13 (25.5%) postoperative complications. Regarding the SCD complications, we observed 1 case (2%) of acute chest syndrome in an asymptomatic cholelithiasis patient, while there were 3 cases (6%) in the symptomatic group. Vaso-occlusive crisis was observed in 1 patient (2%) with asymptomatic cholelithiasis, and in 4 patients (8%) in the other group. The mean hospital stay averaged 5.8 (4-17) days for prophylactic cholecystectomy
Isayev, H; Hachverdiyev, B
The aim of the research was to investigate the remote results of surgical treatment of 75 patients with cholelithiasis combined with chronic duodenal obstruction. Control group was composed of 40 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Compensated stage of cholelithiasis with chronic duodenal obstruction was detected in 16 (21.3%) patients, subcompensated in 37 (49.3%) and decompensated stage in 17 (22.7%) patients. In 14 patients (18.7%) with cholelithiasis combined with chronic duodenal obstruction laparoscopic cholecystectomy was conducted due to the positive results of preoperative conservative treatment. In the long-term quality of life after surgery in the main group of patients were average 35.4% higher than in the control group; in the main group postcholecystectomical syndrome was diagnosed in one case (2,1%) and in 13 (32,2%) cases in the control group.
Kim, Nam Seok; Jin, Hyeong Yong; Kim, Eun Young
Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) is an emerging technique for easy intraoperative recognition of biliary anatomy. We present a case of cystic duct variation detected by NIRFC which had a potential risk for biliary injury if not detected. A 32-year-old female was admitted to the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital for surgery for an incidental gallbladder polyp. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with NIRFC. In fluorescence mode, a long cystic duct and an accessory short hepatic duct joining to the cystic duct were found and the operation was completed safely. The patient recovered successfully. NIRFC is expected to be a promising procedure that will help minimize biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:28090506
Robertson, G S; Wemyss-Holden, S A; Maddern, G J
Gallbladder disease due to stones is well recognised as falling into two categories, presenting with either chronic symptoms or developing acute cholecystitis or other complications. We describe an intermediate group of 14 patients (11 women, three men, median age 31 years) presenting with 4-14 days of at least daily attacks of resolving biliary colic, who underwent early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours of presentation. None had any evidence of acute inflammation, either at laparoscopy or on histology. Their surgery was straightforward with operating times ranging from 35-80 minutes and no complications. Patients with 'crescendo biliary colic' are often young women who can rarely afford invalidity. Rather than the current practice of analgesia for each attack and elective surgery weeks later, they are optimally managed by urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preventing the development of complications and minimising the need for further medical involvement.
Robertson, G. S.; Wemyss-Holden, S. A.; Maddern, G. J.
Gallbladder disease due to stones is well recognised as falling into two categories, presenting with either chronic symptoms or developing acute cholecystitis or other complications. We describe an intermediate group of 14 patients (11 women, three men, median age 31 years) presenting with 4-14 days of at least daily attacks of resolving biliary colic, who underwent early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours of presentation. None had any evidence of acute inflammation, either at laparoscopy or on histology. Their surgery was straightforward with operating times ranging from 35-80 minutes and no complications. Patients with 'crescendo biliary colic' are often young women who can rarely afford invalidity. Rather than the current practice of analgesia for each attack and elective surgery weeks later, they are optimally managed by urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preventing the development of complications and minimising the need for further medical involvement. PMID:10197218
Introduction Gangrenous cholecystitis is a severe complication of acute cholecystitis. We present an unusual case of gangrenous cholecystitis which was totally asymptomatic, with normal pre-operative parameters, and was discovered incidentally during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We have not found any similar cases in the published literature. Case presentation A 79-year-old British Caucasian man presented initially with acute cholecystitis which responded to conservative management. After six weeks he was asymptomatic and had normal blood parameters. An elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and our patient was found to have a totally gangrenous gall bladder. Conclusion It is important to keep a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis in order to avoid potentially serious complications. PMID:21600009
Dalri, Cristina Camargo; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida; Dalri, Maria Célia Barcellos
The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the nursing diagnoses for patients in the immediate postoperative period of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We elaborated and validated an instrument for data collection and registration. Fifteen 15 adult patients were evaluated in the immediate postoperative period of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, four men and 11 women, with average age of 45 years. Identified nursing diagnoses were: Impaired Skin Integrity (100%), Risk for Infection (100%), Sensory/Perceptual Alterations (100%), Risk for aspiration (100%), Risk for Ineffective Breathing Pattern (80%), Hypothermia (60%), Risk for Altered Body Temperature (40%), Altered nutrition: more than body requirements (33,3%) and Acute pain (26,7%). All patients were admitted in ambulatory regimen and were discharged from Post anesthesia Care Unit, still presenting the nursing diagnoses of Impaired Skin Integrity and Risk for infection.
Lyons, Hernando; Hagglund, Karen H; Smadi, Yamen
Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of biliary dyskinesia (BD) as an indication for cholecystectomy in children and to identify presenting clinical findings and optimal ejection fraction (EF) associated with the resolution of symptoms after surgery. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 212 pediatric patients who underwent cholecystectomy from August, 1998 to November, 2006. Patients who met criteria for BD had their short-term outcomes examined by record review and their long-term postoperative outcomes recorded by questionnaire. To compare EF and clinical presentation to symptom resolution or outcome, χ tests were used. Logistic regression was used to evaluate possible predictors of symptom resolution. BD was the indication for cholecystectomy in 20% of patients (44 of 212). Short-term outcome was not predicted by any of the collected variables. An EF ≤11% predicted higher rate of symptom resolution (P=0.02). Although patients with specific right upper quadrant pain had higher rates of long-term improvement than those with nonspecific abdominal pain (57.9% vs. 18.2%), this did not reach significance (P=0.057). The only predictor emerging from the logistic regression was EF cutoff at 11% (odds ratio=17.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.756-174.418). In this series, symptoms of BD were more likely to be resolved by cholecystectomy in children with EF ≤11%.
Atak, Ibrahim; Ozdil, Kamil; Yücel, Metin; Caliskan, Mujgan; Kilic, Ali; Erdem, Hasan; Alimoglu, Orhan
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of cholecystectomy on alkaline reflux, histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa and H. pylori colonization. Eighty five patients who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this trial (20 males; 65 females; 44.97 ± 11.22 years). All the patients had an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy before and 6 months after the surgery and biopsies in the antrum and corpus were taken to investigate the mucosal changes and assay for the presence of H. pylori. At 6 months post-surgery, the presence of bile in the fasting gastric fluid and an increase in the endoscopic gastritis findings were detected. While none of the patients had chemical gastritis prior to surgery, 7 patients were diagnosed with this condition after surgery. Intestinal metaplasia was detected in 6 patients prior to surgery and 20 patients after surgery. H. pylori was observed in 64 patients before surgery and 52 patients after surgery. An increase in duodenogastric reflux, alkaline reflux gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, and a reduction in H. pylori colonization were observed to occur post-cholecystectomy.
Hall, J C; Tarala, R A; Hall, J L
Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) are common after upper abdominal surgery. The objective of this case-control study was to compare the incidence of PPC after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and open cholecystectomy (OC) within a tertiary care center. Patients were accrued from two sequential clinical trials that evaluated the role of incentive spirometry in the prevention of PPC after abdominal surgery. Included for study were patients with gallstones undergoing elective surgery who had an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification < 3. All patients included in the study were encouraged to use an incentive spirometer at least 10 times each hour while awake. Patients with chronic bronchitis were excluded from study, as were patients who received other forms of physical therapy. OC was performed through either a transverse or an oblique incision. There was an equitable dispersion of putative risk factors for PPC between the groups at baseline. PPC were defined as clinical features consistent with collapse/consolidation, an otherwise unexplained temperature above 38 degrees C, plus either confirmatory chest radiology or positive sputum microbiology. The incidence of PPC was 2.7% (1/37) after LC and 17.2% (10/58) after OC (p < 0.05). It is concluded that PPC are less common after laparoscopic cholecystectomy than after open cholecystectomy.
Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Jiefeng
Clonidine might be beneficial to the patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This meta-analysis focused on the influence of clonidine on hemodynamic responses in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched several databases including PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases. This meta-analysis included randomized controlled trials regarding the influence of clonidine versus placebo on laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The primary outcomes were mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) at pneumoperitoneum. The random-effect model was applied for this study. Compared with control intervention, clonidine intervention was found to significantly reduce the MAP at pneumoperitoneum [standard mean difference=-2.58; 95% confidence interval (CI),-4.63 to -0.53; P=0.01), HR at pneumoperitoneum (standard mean difference=-3.67; 95% CI, -6.57 to -0.76; P=0.01), MAP at intubation (standard mean difference=-2.40; 95% CI, -4.75 to -0.06; P=0.04), HR at intubation (standard mean difference=-3.39; 95% CI, -5.75 to -1.02; P=0.005), propofol requirement (standard mean difference=-2.25; 95% CI, -4.01 to -0.48; P=0.01), as well as postoperative nausea and vomiting (risk ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.63; P=0.0005). Compared with control intervention, clonidine intervention was found to significantly reduce MAP and HR at pneumoperitoneum and intubation, propofol requirement, as well as postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Yılmazlar, Firdevs; Karabayırlı, Safinaz; Gözdemir, Muhammet; Usta, Burhanettin; Peker, Murat; Namuslu, Mehmet; Erdamar, Hüsamettin
Objectives: To investigate effects of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application of 10 cm H2O on the plasma levels of cytokines during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 40 patients who presented to the Department of General Surgery, Medical Faculty, Turgut Özal University, Ankara, Turkey scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy operation during a 10 month period from September 2012 to June 2013. Forty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy operation were randomly divided into 2 groups; ventilation through zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) (0 cm H2O PEEP) (n=20), and PEEP (10 cm H2O PEEP) (n=20). All patients were ventilated with 8 ml/kg TV. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL 10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were measured in the pre- and post-operatively collected samples. Results: Blood samples of 30 patients’ were analyzed for plasma cytokine levels, and 10 were excluded from the study due to hemolysis. Post-operative plasma IL-6 levels were observed to be significantly higher than the pre-operative patients (p=0.035). Post-operative plasma TGF-β1 levels in the PEEP group was found significantly higher compared with the pre-operative group levels (p=0.033). However, there were no significant differences in the pre- and post-operative plasma cytokine levels between the 2 groups. Conclusion: The application of PEEP of 10 cm H2O, which has known beneficial effect on respiratory mechanics, does not have any effect on systemic inflammatory response undergoing pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. PMID:26593173
Kumar, Abhishek; Sheikh, Ahmed; Partyka, Luke; Contractor, Sohail
A 45-year-old woman status post laparoscopic cholecystectomy 3years ago presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy revealed hemobilia. Computed tomographic abdomen demonstrated a 2-cm aneurysm in the gall bladder fossa, consistent with a pseudoaneurysm. Initially, transcatheter coil embolization was attempted but recanalization of the aneurysm with recurrent bleeding in 2 days ensued. The aneurysm was then accessed percutaneously under ultrasound guidance and thrombin was injected into the aneurysm with subsequent complete thrombosis of the aneurysm and cessation of bleeding.
Balaban, Fatih; Yağar, Seyhan; Özgök, Ayşegül; Koç, Mihrican; Güllapoğlu, Hayriye
To determine the efficacy of two different doses (150 mg and 300 mg) of preoperative pregabalin on pain relief and total opioid consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Training and research hospital. 90 adult, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups to receive orally one hour before surgery, a placebo (Group 1), pregabalin 150 mg (Group 2), or pregabalin 300 mg (Group 3). Patients were observed for pregabalin side effects, somnolence via Ramsay Sedation Scale, dizziness, confusion, and ataxia. In the operating room, heart rate and noninvasive systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. Visual analog scale (VAS), Ramsay Sedation Scale, and Aldrete scores were also recorded on arrival at the Postanesthesia Care Unit (time 0), 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes and 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours after surgery. Additional doses of drugs (fentanyl and/or metoclopramide) were also recorded. Preemptive pregabalin decreased pain scores and postoperative fentanyl consumption in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a dose-dependent manner. There were no differences between the groups in side effects. Preoperative pregabalin may be a useful analgesic for patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as it lowers pain intensity and opiod consumption, and does not increase the frequency of side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dey, Ashish; Malik, Vinod K
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low-pressure pneumoperitoneum and duration of surgery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy on postoperative shoulder tip pain. A total of 100 patients were assigned into two groups depending on the intraperitoneal pressure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group A included patients in whom the intraperitoneal pressure was 13-15 mm of Hg and group B included patients who underwent surgery at 10-12 mmHg. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups depending on the duration of surgery. In the first subgroup, the duration of surgery was less than 1 h and the next subgroup included patients who took more than 1 h. Presence or absence of shoulder tip pain was recorded within 4 h, at 24 h, and at 48 h. Total number of patients having shoulder tip pain in the lower pneumoperitoneal group was more than the higher pneumoperitoneal group in both subgroups, P values >0.05. More patients in the <1 h subgroup had shoulder tip pain as compared to the >1 h group at both pneumoperitoneal groups, P values >0.05. Shoulder tip pain was most at 24 h and gradually decreased thereafter. In our study, intra-abdominal pressures and shorter duration of surgery were factors unrelated to incidence of shoulder tip pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Introduction Gallbladder perforation is common and occurs in 6 to 40% of laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedures. In up to a third of these cases, stones are not retrieved and complications can arise many years post-operatively. Diagnosis can be difficult and patients may present to many specialties within medicine and surgery. We seek to present our case and review the literature on prevention and management of "lost" stones. Case presentation Our patient is a 77-year-old woman who presented to the urology clinic with a loin abscess that developed five years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Radiological studies showed retained abdominal gallstones and an associated abscess formation. These were drained under ultrasound guidance on several occasions and the patient now suffers from chronic sinusitis. Due to her age and comorbidities, she has declined definitive surgical intervention to remove the stones. Conclusion Gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a reasonably common problem and may result in spilled and lost gallstones. Though uncommon, these stones may lead to early or late complications, which can be a diagnostic challenge and cause significant morbidity to the patient. Clear documentation and patient awareness of lost gallstones is of utmost importance, as this may enable prompt recognition and treatment of any complications. PMID:19830235
Jones, Alexander D; Waterland, Peter W; Powell-Brett, Sarah; Super, Paul; Richardson, Martin; Bowley, Douglas
This study investigates the effectiveness of preoperative very low-calorie diet (VLCD) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was undertaken. At the preoperative visit, all patients were advised to adhere to VLCD for 2 weeks before surgery (<800 kcal/d). Patients were judged to have complied with the VLCD if weight loss >2 kg. Technical difficulty was assessed using questionnaires. A total of 38 patients met the inclusion criteria. Difficulty of visualization and dissection of Calot's triangle in obese patients was twice that of nonobese patients (P=0.01). In 62% of procedures involving obese VLCD noncompliant patients, the surgeon experienced ≥1 area of technical difficulty, compared with 0% of procedures on obese, compliant patients (P=0.018). Difficulty of dissection of the gallbladder bed was 3 times higher in obese, noncompliant patients, compared with obese, compliant patients (P=0.07). Adherence to a 2-week preoperative VLCD may reduce technical difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in obese patients.
Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Kim, Dong Rim
AIM: To systematically evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal local anesthetic on pain characteristics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trials in English that compared the effect of intraperitoneal administration of local anesthetics on pain with that of placebo or nothing after elective LC under general anesthesia were included. The primary outcome variables analyzed were the combined scores of abdominal, visceral, parietal, and shoulder pain after LC at multiple time points. We also extracted pain scores at resting and dynamic states. RESULTS: We included 39 studies of 3045 patients in total. The administration of intraperitoneal local anesthetic reduced pain intensity in a resting state after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: abdominal [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.741; 95%CI: -1.001 to -0.48, P < 0.001]; visceral (SMD = -0.249; 95%CI: -0.493 to -0.006, P = 0.774); and shoulder (SMD = -0.273; 95%CI: -0.464 to -0.082, P = 0.097). Application of intraperitoneal local anesthetic significantly reduced the incidence of shoulder pain (RR = 0.437; 95%CI: 0.299 to 0.639, P < 0.001). There was no favorable effect on resting parietal or dynamic abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal local anesthetic as an analgesic adjuvant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy exhibited beneficial effects on postoperative abdominal, visceral, and shoulder pain in a resting state. PMID:26715824
Montagnini, A L; Jukemura, J; Gianini, P T; Machado, M A; Abdo, E E; Penteado, S; Machado, M C; da Cunha, J E; Bacchella, T; Pinotti, H W
The experience with open cholecystectomy in an university affiliated hospital is documented in this report. We studied retrospectively 221 patients operated between 1987 and 1992, type of surgery, morbidity and mortality were analyzed. There were 171 (77.3%) cholecystectomy alone and 50 (22.7%) cholecystectomy with other biliary surgery (BS). Pulmonary, urinary and wound complications were the most common. Overall incidence of complications was 7.2%. For patients with cholecystectomy alone morbidity was 3.5% and for patients with BS morbidity was 20% (p < 0.002). There were no mortality in this group of patients.
Spira, Ram M; Nissan, Aviran; Zamir, Oded; Cohen, Tzeela; Fields, Scott I; Freund, Herbert R
The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%. Open cholecystostomy performed under local anesthesia was considered to be the procedure of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients. In recent years, ultrasound- or computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTHC) replaced open cholecystostomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of a 5-year protocol using PTHC followed by delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. We reviewed the charts of 55 patients who underwent PTHC at the Hadassah University Hospital Mount Scopus during the years 1994 to 1999. The main indications for PTHC among this group of severely sick and high-risk patients was biliary sepsis and septic shock in 23 patients (42%); and severe comorbidities in 32 patients (58%). The median age was 74 (32 to 98) years, 33 were female and 22 male. Successful biliary drainage by PTHC was achieved in 54 of 55 (98%) of the patients. The majority of the patients (31 of 55) were drained transhepaticlly under CT guidance. The rest, (24 of 55) were drained using ultrasound guidance followed by cholecystography for verification. Complications included hepatic bleeding that required surgical intervention in 1 patient and dislodgment of the catheter in 9 patients that was reinserted in 2 patients. Three patients died of multisystem organ failure 12 to 50 days following the procedure. The remaining 52 patients recovered well with a mean hospital stay of 15.5 plus minus 11.4 days. Thirty-one patients were able to undergo delayed surgery: 28 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy of whom 4 (14%) were converted to open cholecystectomy. This was compared with a 1.9% conversion rate in 1
Ruangsin, Sakchai; Laohawiriyakamol, Supparerk; Sunpaweravong, Somkiat; Mahattanobon, Somrit
A prophylactic antibiotic is recommended in open cholecystectomy surgeries, but in laparoscopic cholecystectomies such prophylaxis is controversial. Recent reviews have not found conclusive evidence that routine prophylaxis, especially in low risk patients, is effective. This clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of cefazolin in reducing surgical site infection SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomies in a sample not screened for high or low risk patients. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in a single university hospital. Scheduled cholecystectomy patients without selection for patient risk factors were randomized into two groups. Pre-operatively, group A patients received a placebo of 10 ml isotonic sodium chloride, and group B patients received 1 g of cefazolin as a prophylactic antibiotic. All patients underwent a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and were followed up for at least 30 days. Two hundred ninety-nine patients were randomized (149 in group A and 150 in group B). SSI occurred in seven patients (2.34 %), five (1.67 %) in the placebo group, and two (0.67 %) in the prophylactic antibiotic group. The difference was not statistically significant (p value = 0.512), and no specific risk factors for post-operative infection were identified. A single dose of preoperative prophylactic cefazolin has no significant benefit in reducing the incidence of SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Whether or not to use a prophylactic depends on the individual patient, and the consideration of the attending surgeon.
Spinoglio, Giuseppe; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Maglione, Valeria; Lucido, Francesco Saverio; Priora, Fabio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Grosso, Federica; Quarati, Raul
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an emerging procedure developed to decrease parietal trauma and improve cosmetic results. However, many technical constraints, such as lack of triangulation, instrument collisions, and cross-handing, hamper this approach. Using a robotic platform may overcome these problems and enable more precise surgical actions by increasing freedom of movement and by restoring intuitive instrument control. We retrospectively collected, under institutional review board approval, data on the first 25 patients who underwent single-site robotic cholecystectomies (SSRC) at our center. Patients enrolled in this study underwent SSRC for symptomatic biliary gallstones or polyposis. Exclusion criteria were: BMI > 33; acute cholecystitis; previous upper abdominal surgery; ASA > II; and age >80 and <18 years. All procedures were performed with the da Vinci Si Surgical System and a dedicated SSRC kit (Intuitive). After discharge, patients were followed for 2 months. These SSRC cases were compared to our first 25 single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomies (SILC) and with the literature. There were no differences in patient characteristics between groups (gender, P = 0.4404; age, P = 0.7423; BMI, P = 0.5699), and there were no conversions or major complications in either cohort. Operative time was significantly longer for the SILC group compared with SSRC (83.2 vs. 62.7 min, P = 0.0006), and SSRC operative times did not change significantly along the series. The majority of patients in each group were discharged within 24 h, with an average length of hospital stay of 1.2 days for the SILC group and 1.1 days for the SSRC group (P = 0.2854). No wound complications (infection, incisional hernia) were observed in the SSRC group and in the SILC. Our preliminary experience shows that SSRC is safe, can easily be learned, and performed in a reproducible manner and is faster than SILC.
Kamei, Hideki; Ishibashi, Nobuya; Nakayama, Gouichi; Hamada, Nobuya; Ogata, Yutaka; Akagi, Yoshito
Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is increasingly applied for cholecystectomy and has been reported as safe and feasible, with short-term operative outcomes equivalent to four-port cholecystectomy. Although many investigators in randomized studies have noted the cosmetic advantages of SILC, the benefit of decreased pain in SILC remains controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of the rectus sheath block in SILC with respect to subjective pain. From April 2010 to March 2012, 75 patients with symptomatic gallstone or gallbladder polyps were assigned to one of three groups: (i) four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 29); (ii) SILC (n = 15); and (iii) rectus sheath block in SILC (n = 30). We evaluated the operative details, length of hospital stay, and the need and usage of analgesia. Postoperative pain was recorded at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery based on a visual analog scale. There was no difference with regard to age, ASA score, BMI, duration of operation, or length of hospital stay among the three groups. A significantly lower pain score was observed in the rectus sheath block in SILC group than in the SILC group at 2 and 6 h after operation. The pain score and need for analgesia were similar between the SILC group and the four-port cholecystectomy group. SILC using an ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block significantly reduces postoperative pain. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Talakoub, Reihanak; Abbasi, Saeed; Maghami, Elham; Zavareh, Sayyed Morteza Heidari Tabaei
Background: Cholecystectomy is considered as the most important and relatively common postoperative pain control often begins in recovery room by using systemic narcotics that may have some side effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of premedication with oral tizanidine on pain relief after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 70 adults of American Society of Anesthesiologist physiologic state 1 and 2 scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were studied and randomly divided in two study and control groups. Ninety minutes before the induction of anesthesia, patients received either 4 mg tizanidine (study group) orally in 50cc or the same volume of plain water as a placebo (control group). Then, the vital signs, pain intensity, duration of stay in recovery, and the analgesic consumption were measured and then compared in both groups during 24 h postoperatively. Results: There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, with respect to age, weight, gender, and duration of anesthesia and surgery between the groups (P > 0.05). The pain intensity, need for analgesic drugs (34.57 ± 8.88 mg vs. 101.86 ± 5.08 mg), and the duration of stay in recovery room (67.43 ± 1.59 min vs. 79.57 ± 5.48 min) were significantly lower in tizanidine group than that of the control group. Conclusion: Oral administration of 4 mg tizanidine before laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduces postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and consequence of the duration of stay in recovery room without any complication. PMID:26962521
Johansson, M; Thune, A; Nelvin, L; Lundell, L
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been performed as a day-care procedure for many years. Few studies have been conducted with primary focus on patient acceptance and preferences in terms of quality of life for this practice compared with overnight stay. Data from 100 patients with symptomatic gallstones randomized to laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed either as a day-care procedure or with overnight stay were analysed. Complications, admissions and readmissions, quality of life and health economic aspects were assessed. Two instruments were used to assess quality of life, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). Forty-eight (92 per cent) of 52 patients in day-care group were discharged 4-8 h after the operation. Forty-two (88 per cent) of 48 in the overnight group went home on the first day after surgery. The overall conversion rate was 2 per cent. Two patients had complications after surgery, both in the day-care group. No patient in either group was readmitted. There was no significant difference in total quality of life score between the two groups. The mean direct medical cost per patient in the day-care group (3085 Euros) was lower than that in the overnight group (3394 Euros). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed as a day-case procedure with a low rate of complications and admissions/readmissions. Patient acceptance in terms of quality of life variables is similar to that for cholecystectomy with an overnight stay. The day-care strategy is associated with a reduction in cost. Copyright 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; Mj, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim
Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases.
Grifson, Johnrose John; Perungo, Thirumaraichelvan; Sengamalai, Durairaj; Duraisamy, Bennet; Anbalagan, Amudhan; Raju, Prabhakaran; Kannan, Devy Gounder
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a simple but dangerous operation. The complex anatomy and frequent anomalies of the hepatic arterial and biliary system are often a shocking surprise to the laparoscopic surgeon. When these vital structures cannot be identified correctly, potentially crippling serious vascular and biliary injury can occur. A very rare case of middle hepatic artery encountered in the Calot's coursing over the gall bladder and travelling extraparenchymal into segment IV is reported. Identification and preservation of the middle hepatic artery is essential to prevent the possibility of hepatic artery thrombosis and to avoid ischemic cholangiopathy of segment IV duct. A comprehensive understanding of the hepatic arterial and biliary anatomy of the liver will empower laparoscopic surgeons to avoid crippling vascular and biliary injury. PMID:27251829
Mattei, Peter; Tyler, Donald C
Carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of laparoscopic surgery. The most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein or solid organ during initial peritoneal insufflation. We describe a case of carbon dioxide embolism in a 13-year-old boy during an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, caused by injection of carbon dioxide into a large paraumbilical vein. The clinical manifestations of carbon dioxide embolism were hypotension, bradycardia, and an abrupt drop in end-tidal CO2. He subsequently did well and had no sequelae. Carbon dioxide embolism is a recognized complication of laparoscopic surgery, although the risk to the patient may be minimized by the surgical team's awareness of the problem, continuous intraoperative monitoring of end-tidal CO2, and using an open technique for initial access to the peritoneum.
Bucciero, Mario; Ingelmo, Pablo M; Fumagalli, Roberto; Noll, Eric; Garbagnati, Andrea; Somaini, Marta; Joshi, Girish P; Vitale, Giovanni; Giardini, Vittorio; Diemunsch, Pierre
Studies evaluating intraperitoneal local anesthetic instillation for pain relief after laparoscopic procedures have reported conflicting results. In this randomized, double-blind study we assessed the effects of intraperitoneal local anesthetic nebulization on pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive either instillation of ropivacaine 0.5%, 20 mL after induction of the pneumoperitoneum, or nebulization of ropivacaine 1%, 3 mL before and after surgery. Anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Degree of pain at rest and on deep breathing, incidence of shoulder pain, morphine consumption, unassisted walking time, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were evaluated at 6, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Of the 60 patients included, 3 exclusions occurred for conversion to open surgery. There were no differences between groups in pain scores or in morphine consumption. No patients in the nebulization group presented significant shoulder pain in comparison with 83% of patients in the instillation group (absolute risk reduction -83, 95% CI -97 to -70, P<0.001). Nineteen (70%) patients receiving nebulization walked without assistance within 12 hours after surgery in comparison with 14 (47%) patients receiving instillation (absolute risk reduction -24, 95% CI -48 to 1, P=0.04). One (3%) patient in the instillation group vomited in comparison with 6 (22%) patients in the nebulization group (absolute risk reduction -19%, 95% CI -36 to -2, P=0.03). Intraperitoneal ropivacaine nebulization was associated with reduced shoulder pain and unassisted walking time but with an increased incidence of postoperative vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Singh, Mohinder; Prasad, Neeraj
INTRODUCTION: Although Rouviere's sulcus is being increasingly mentioned as the first landmark to be seen so as to begin dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent bile duct injuries, the anatomy of the sulcus has not been described in clear and simple terms. OBJECTIVES: To define the detailed anatomy of Rouviere sulcus as seen during laparoscopic surgery in simple terms for the surgeons to refer to and begin their dissection from this, always staying above this sulcus in order to eliminate bile duct injury. METHODS: 100 recordings of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed to define the anatomy of the Rouviere's sulcus. RESULTS: Majority of the sulci (71) were seen as a deep sulcus and were labelled as simply the ‘sulcus’. This was further seen to be of two types – open (60) or closed (11). Some of the sulci (23) were small and so narrow and shallow as to be labelled as a ‘slit’. Rarely, the sulcus was found to be fused and represented by a white fusion line (6 cases), and this was simply labelled as a ‘scar’. CONCLUSIONS: The Rouviere's sulcus can now be defined in three simple terms – a deep sulcus, or a slit or a scar. We recommend that as a first step in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon must look for this reference point (whether it is in the form of a scar, or a slit or a real sulcus) which will be the plane of the main bile duct, and thus avoid any dissection below this point in order to eliminate any danger to the bile duct during surgery. PMID:28281470
Improvement in the quality of life following cholecystectomy: a randomized multicenter study of health status (RAND-36) in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus minilaparotomy cholecystectomy.
Aspinen, Samuli; Kärkkäinen, Jari; Harju, Jukka; Juvonen, Petri; Kokki, Hannu; Eskelinen, Matti
The assessment of the quality of life (QoL) in minilaparotomy cholecystectomy (MC) versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the ultrasonic dissection in both groups has not been addressed earlier. Initially, 109 patients with non-complicated symptomatic gallstone disease were randomized to undergo either MC (n = 59) or LC (n = 50). RAND-36 survey was conducted preoperatively and at 4 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The end point of our study was to determine differences in health status in MC versus LC groups. QoL improved significantly in both groups, and the recovery was similar in the two groups, except from the higher score in 'health change' subscale at 4 weeks in MC group [MC score 75.0 (25.0) vs. LC score 56.5 (23.2), p = 0.008]. The MC and LC groups combined, RAND-36 scores increased significantly in 'physical functioning' [combined mean (SD) preoperative score 80.5 (23.9) vs. 6-month postoperative score 86.5 (21.7), p = 0.015], 'vitality' [64.5 (19.2) vs. 73.5 (18.3), p = 0.001], 'health change' [43.0 (21.6) vs. 74.6 (25.4), p = 0.0001] and 'bodily pain' scores [57.7 (26.3) vs. 75.5 (25.5), p = 0.001], respectively. Four RAND-36 domains indicated statistically significant health status differences in comparing the preoperative and postoperative RAND-36 scores in LC and MC groups combined. Four RAND-36 domains indicated a significant positive change in QoL after cholecystectomy.
Sagiroglu, Julide; Tombalak, Ercument; Yilmaz, Sarenur Basaran; Balyemez, Fikret; Eren, Tunc; Alimoglu, Orhan
The importance of the complete absence of a hemidiaphragm or unilateral diaphragmatic agenesis in adulthood in relation to performing laparoscopic procedures has not been well documented. This article reports for the first time in literature a case of successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an adult with previously undiagnosed unilateral diaphragmatic agenesis. A 36-year-old female complaining of stubborn right upper abdominal pain radiating to her upper back was diagnosed as having cholelithiasis and was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were also bilateral upper extremity malformations to a certain level. Routine diagnostic tests demonstrated that her entire liver and some bowel loops were in the right hemithorax, suggesting right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Laparoscopic procedure was performed with the insertion of four trocars. Exploration of abdomen revealed total absence of the right hemidiaphragm. Cholecystectomy was completed laparoscopically in about 45 minutes without need for additional trocars. Patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the second postoperative day without any complaint. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in adults with diaphragmatic agenesis and intrathoracic abdominal viscera can be performed successfully. Nevertheless, any bile duct aberrations must be documented prior to surgery, and the surgeon should be able to convert to open procedure if necessary. PMID:28058404
Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Halder, Shyamal Kumar; Rai, Himanshu; Ray, Rajendra Pd
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of symptomatic gallstone disease since its introduction more than 20 years ago. It has gained widespread acceptance and is presently the gold standard for its management. This large study spanned over last 10 years and includes prospective data on 950 elective cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy since 2002. All cases were operated personally by the author in different teaching hospitals of West Bengal. The following were looked into: profiles of the patients including major comorbidities requiring special precautions, the frequency of "difficult cholecystectomies," conversion rate, and operative and postoperative complications. The results showed that 75 % of the patients were females. The mean age of the female patients was 35 years (range15-75), while that of the male patients was 42 (range 18-68). Thirty-two patients had major comorbidities which required special precautions in the perioperative period. Twenty-six percent of the cases were categorized as "difficult," and 6 % of the cases had to be converted to open procedure. Major complications occurred in 11 patients of which five had to be converted. Fifty-five patients had port-site infection due to atypical mycobacteria species of which majority occurred in the last 1 year of the study. All of them responded to second-line antitubercular medications.
Figueroa-Balderas, Lorena; Franco-López, Francisco; Flores-Álvarez, Efrén; López-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Vázquez-García, José Antonio; Barba-Valadez, Claudia Teresa
Laparoscopy cholecystectomy for the surgical treatment of cholelithiasis has been considered the gold standard. The referred pain to the shoulder (omalgia) may be present to 63% of the patients and limits outpatient management. The study was to evaluate the usefulness of acetazolamide associated with ketorolac for reduction of the omalgia to minimally invasive treatment. We performed a clinical trial, randomized, double blind in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to assess the reduction of post-operative omalgia comparing ketorolac and ketorolaco+acetazolamida. 31 patients in each group were studied. The study group: 250 mg of acetazolamide before anesthetic induction and 30 mg of ketorolac in the immediate postoperative period. one tablet of placebo prior to the anesthetic induction and 30 mg of ketorolac in the immediate postoperative. The presence of omalgia was assessed using the analog visual scale. The variables recorded included: age, sex, flow of carbon dioxide intra-abdominal pressure, surgical time, urgent or elective surgery, omalgia, severity of pain evaluated by analog visual scale, addition analgesia. Both groups were homogeneous and statistical analysis showed no differences in the variables studied. The omalgia in the study group was presented at 9.67% and in the group control was the 58.06% (p < 0.001). 250 mg oral acetazolamide associated 30 mg of ketorolac reduces significantly the development of omalgia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Tiwari, Charu; Makhija, Om Prakash; Makhija, Deepa; Jayaswal, Shalika
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, though an uncommon surgical procedure in paediatric age group is still associated with a higher risk of post-operative bile duct injuries when compared with the open procedure. Small leaks from extra hepatic biliary apparatus usually lead to the formation of a localized sub-hepatic bile collection, also known as biloma. Such leaks are rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially in paediatric age group. Minor bile leaks can usually be managed non-surgically by percutaneous drainage combined with endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). However, surgical exploration is required in cases not responding to non-operative management. If not managed on time, such injuries can lead to severe hepatic damage. We describe a case of an eight-year-old girl who presented with biloma formation after laparoscopic cholecystectomy who was managed by ERCP. PMID:28090474
Bartnicka, Joanna; Zietkiewicz, Agnieszka A; Kowalski, Grzegorz J
A comparison of 1-port, 2-port, 3-port, and 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques from the point of view of workflow criteria was made to both identify specific workflow components that can cause surgical disturbances and indicate good and bad practices. As a case study, laparoscopic cholecystectomies, including manual tasks and interactions within teamwork members, were video-recorded and analyzed on the basis of specially encoded workflow information. The parameters for comparison were defined as follows: surgery time, tool and hand activeness, operator's passive work, collisions, and operator interventions. It was found that 1-port cholecystectomy is the worst technique because of nonergonomic body position, technical complexity, organizational anomalies, and operational dynamism. The differences between laparoscopic techniques are closely linked to the costs of the medical procedures. Hence, knowledge about the surgical workflow can be used for both planning surgical procedures and balancing the expenses associated with surgery.
Tankel, James A.; Gurjar, Shashank V.; Holford, Nicholas C.; Williams, Sian
Actinomycosis is a rare bacterial infection with a broad clinical presentation that is seldom reported after elective cholecystectomy. We present an as-of-yet unreported case of actinomycosis in an 81-year-old gentleman who was found to have right-sided peritonitis and small bowel obstruction 11 months after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A complex loculated lesion was found on laparotomy with a protracted course of antibiotics being needed for treatment. The rarity of this condition will mean it remains a surprise diagnosis to many clinicians. However, it is important that clinicians maintain some index of suspicion to prevent unnecessary surgery and are aware of the protracted course of antibiotics that is needed for successful treatment. PMID:25988074
Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Tsaparas, Peter; Kykalos, Stylianos; Machairas, Nikolaos; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Paul, Andreas
Bile duct injuries (BDI) tend to be more complex in laparoscopic than in open cholecystectomy procedures, and frequently involve young adults with benign pathologies. The ultimate consequence may be a liver transplantation (LT), making this situation one of the most rare transplant indications. Fatal post-transplant outcome is extreme infrequently reported. Aim of this study is to report on our single-case experience and to review the literature concerning lethal outcome after LT for major BDI following cholecystectomy. A 36-year old obese caucasian woman underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis at an outside institution. Intraoperatively, she sustained an E4 BDI in conjunction with total transection of the right hepatic artery. The surgeon converted to an open laparotomy, examined the site, placed two drains, and immediately transferred the patient to our center for further evaluation and treatment. At relaparotomy, a dearterialized right liver as well as 7 bile duct orifices was found; a right hemihepatectomy and a Roux-en-Y drainage of 4 left-sided bile ducts were performed. The postoperative course was complicated by bile leaks requiring re-operation and relapsing episodes of cholangitis and intrahepatic bilomas, requiring re-submissions of the patient and conservative treatment with intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage procedures, respectively. She subsequently developed severe endocarditis leading to cardiac mitral and aortic valves insufficiency (grade III and II, respectively) demanding mechanical replacement of them. The patient developed secondary biliary cirrhosis, was listed to Eurotransplant with a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 39, and underwent LT 19 months after the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Histology of the explanted liver showed 50% parenchymal necrosis, chronic cholestasis and cirrhosis. On post-transplant day 5, she developed cardiogenic shock associated with pericardial tamponade
Tarhan, Omer Ridvan; Barut, Ibrahim; Ozogul, Candan; Bozkurt, Serkan; Baykara, Basak; Bulbul, Mahmut
In previous studies, changes in the surface of the peritoneum during laparoscopic surgery are well defined. Nevertheless, almost all of these studies were performed on rodents via scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, structural alterations of the mesothelial cells of peritoneum were examined during laparoscopic cholecystectomy using transmission electron microscopy. Twenty patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were included in the study. Peritoneal biopsy was performed immediately after CO2 pneumoperitoneum creation and at the end of surgery just before gallbladder removal. Biopsies were taken from the right upper quadrant, i.e., apart from operative manipulation. Peritoneal sample cross-sections were compared using transmission electron microscopy. The carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy caused deteriorations of the peritoneal mesothelium. Apoptosis were developed in mesothelial cells. Bulging of mesothelial cells, irregular cell junctions, focal intercellular clefts, apical cell membrane degeneration, deep nuclear invaginations, and lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the mesothelial cells were other remarkable findings. Mesothelial edema also was determined. As seen in previous studies, basement membrane nudity appeared after carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum could be attributable to mesothelial cell apoptosis, deterioration of the cell structure, and cell organelles.
Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Masayuki; Okada, Tsuyoshi; Shirota, Shigeru; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Watabe, Suguru; Lee, Yoshifumi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kamano, Toshiki; Tsurumaru, Masahiko; Takazawa, Kenji
A laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was successfully performed on a 61-year-old man who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA). He complained of right hypochondralgia 20 days after CABG. Gallstones were diagnosed and a cholecystectomy was performed 9 months after CABG. Under general anesthesia, the operation was performed using a pneumoperitonium. When a laparoscope was inserted, the RGEA pedicle could be clearly recognized. The pedicle obstructed the operating field and made the working space narrower than usual. No ST changes on the electrocardiogram were seen during LC, especially during the initiation of pneumoperitonium, the insertion of the ports, or when retracting the gallbladder. The postoperative course was uneventful. To avoid complications, care should be taken not to stretch the RGEA pedicle during LC, and careful monitoring of the electrocardiogram is also necessary. It is difficult to view the operating field and the RGEA pedicle together. It is therefore better to insert another laparoscope for concomitant monitoring of the RGEA pedicle.
Shaikh, Haris R; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R
Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the "Gold Standard" for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC.
Allegri, Massimo; Ornaghi, Martina; Meghani, Yash; Calcinati, Serena; Lovisari, Federica; Radhakrishnan, Krishnaprabha; Cusato, Maria; Scalia Catenacci, Stefano; Somaini, Marta; Fanelli, Guido; Ingelmo, Pablo
Background. Intraperitoneal nebulization of ropivacaine reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption after laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of different doses and dose-related absorption of ropivacaine when nebulized in the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Patients were randomized to receive 50, 100, or 150 mg of ropivacaine 1% by peritoneal nebulization through a nebulizer. Morphine consumption, pain intensity in the abdomen, wound and shoulder, time to unassisted ambulation, discharge time, and adverse effects were collected during the first 48 hours after surgery. The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography. Results. Nebulization of 50 mg of ropivacaine had the same effect of 100 or 150 mg in terms of postoperative morphine consumption, shoulder pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting, activity resumption, and hospital discharge timing (>0.05). Plasma concentrations did not reach toxic levels in any patient, and no significant differences were observed between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. There is no enhancement in analgesic efficacy with higher doses of nebulized ropivacaine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. When administered with a microvibration-based aerosol humidification system, the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine is constant and maintains an adequate safety profile for each dosage tested. PMID:28316464
Gomes, Rachel M.; Mehta, Niraj T.; Varik, Vanesha; Doctor, Nilesh H.
Background The pathological boundary of acute cholecystitis (AC) between early edematous and late chronic fibrotic inflammation beyond 72 h is well-described. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) is safe in AC but the timing still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the duration of symptoms on clinical severity, pathology and outcome in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for AC during the urgent admission. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of 61 patients who underwent LC for AC over a 6-month period was performed. Results Of 61 patients 21 (34.43%) received ELC at <72 h and 40 (65.57%) received late LC (LLC) at >72 h. Clinically in the ELC group the majority were mild and in the LLC group the majority were moderate and severe in severity grading as per Tokyo guidelines (P<0.001). Surgical findings and histopathology showed no significant difference in the distribution of simple, phlegmonous and gangrenous cholecystitis between both groups (P=0.94). The majority were completed by a standard four port technique and only one required subtotal cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference between operating time, return to normal activities or hospital stay between both groups. There were no conversions to open cholecystectomy, no wound infections, no intra-abdominal collections, no biliary tract injury or mortality in either group. Conclusions The degree of inflammatory change in AC is not dependent on time. LC can be safely performed in AC regardless of timing with a standardized surgical strategy in experienced units. PMID:24714318
Beilin, Benzion; Mayburd, Eduard; Yardeni, Israel-Zeev; Bessler, Hanna
Laparoscopic surgery has become a widely used procedure with many advantages compared to conventional laparotomy. Although rare, this technique is not entirely absent from clinical hazards and particularly thromboembolic events. This complication is due to activation of the coagulation cascade, as well as factors that may cause alterations in blood rheology. Apart from high hematocrit, presence of abnormal proteins and elevated fibrinogen level, the type of anesthesia, temperature, and increased intra-abdominal pressure following CO(2) insufflation may affect blood viscosity. Therefore, the objective of the study was to compare rheological events in 17 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery to those in 15 patients who underwent laparotomy. Both groups of patients did not show any complications during the early and late post-operative period. The values of whole blood viscosity in patients undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from those in patients treated by laparotomy. A slight, although significant decrease in plasma viscosity and red blood cell aggregation was observed in patients who underwent laparotomy. The results suggest that the benefits of laparoscopic surgery in the present series were not affected by alterations in blood and plasma viscosity, as well as in red blood cell aggregation.
Pujari, Vinayak S; R, Sreevathsa.M.; Hiremath, Bharati. V.; Bevinaguddaiah, Yatish
Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is conventionally performed under general anaesthesia (GA) in our institution. There are multiple studies which have found spinal anaesthesia as a safe alternative. We have conducted this study of LC, performed under spinal anesthesia to assess its safety and feasibility in comparison with GA. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or II were randomised to have LC under spinal (n = 25) or general (n = 25) anesthesia. Intraoperative vitals, postoperative pain, complications, recovery, and surgeon satisfaction were compared between the 2 groups. Results: In the SA group six patients (24%) complained of shoulder pain, two patients required conversion to GA (8%) as the pain did not subside with Fentanyl. None of the patients in the SA group had immediate postoperative pain at operated site. Only two (8%) patients had pain score of 4 at the operative site within eight hours requiring rescue analgesic. One patient had nausea but no vomiting (4%). All the patients (100%) in the GA group had pain at operated site immediately after surgery and their pain score ranged from 4-7, all patients received rescue analgesic before shifting to the ward. In the first 24h tramadol required as rescue in the GA group was 82±24 mg which was significantly higher than the SA group requiring only 30±33.16 mg. Although, the GA group had more patients experiencing postoperative nausea & vomiting it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: SA as the sole anaesthesia technique is feasible, safe and cost effective for elective LC. PMID:25302232
Hajong, Ranendra; Khariong, Peter DS
BACKGROUND: Conventionally, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is performed by using three or four ports of various sizes. As cosmesis is an important aspect of LC, the trend is now towards use of fewer ports, thereby resulting in better cosmesis for patients. The aim of this study was to compare three-port against two-port LC techniques and to see whether there is any advantage in using one technique over the other. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery of North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences (NEIGRIHMS) hospital in Northeast India. A prospective comparative type of study was designed. An odd number of patients were operated on by using the three-port technique (Group A), whereas an even number of patients were operated on by the two-port technique (Group B). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients with symptomatic gallstone disease were included in the study after obtaining informed consent from each of the patients. All patients were operated on under general anaesthesia. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 22. RESULTS: There were 51 female patients and 9 male patients. The mean patient age was 38.67 years. There was less operative time in group A but less postoperative pain in group B. Cosmetic appearance and patient satisfaction for the scar were better in group B. CONCLUSIONS: The two-port method appeared to have better acceptability among patients due to lower pain score and better cosmesis. PMID:27251814
Iimuro, Yuji; Okada, Toshihiro; Ohashi, Koichiro; Uda, Yugo; Suzumura, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Jiro
The incidence of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC)-associated bile duct injury has reached a steady state despite learning curve effect. Herein we report the case of a 74-year-old Japanese man who suffered from bile duct stenosis and stones after LC. The stenosis was due to stricture caused by surgical clips used inappropriately during LC. We planned a salvage treatment combining laparoscopic and endoscopic approaches. At laparoscopic observation, the clips had already invaded the right side of the bile duct; minimal absorbable suture was performed after all the clips were removed. The bile duct stenosis was then endoscopically dilated and the biliary stones were successfully removed. For the recurrent biliary stenosis after discharge, endoscopic balloon dilation was performed and multiple plastic stent tubes were placed. The stent tubes were removed 4 months later, and the patient has had no symptoms for 1 year. A combined laparoscopic and endoscopic approach was useful for the salvage treatment of LC-associated bile duct stenosis. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Bilgi, Murat; Alshair, Esin Erkan; Göksu, Hüseyin; Sevim, Osman
Although the traditional anaesthesia method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been general anaesthesia, regional anaesthesia techniques are also successfully used today. In this paper, we aimed to report our experiences with thoracic epidural anaesthesia, including complications, postoperative analgesia, technical difficulties and side effects. Between December 2009 and November 2012, 90 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were retrospectively analysed. Demographic data, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, comorbidities, duration of operations, medications and doses used for sedation were reviewed. The gender distribution of patients were recorded as 15 males (15%) and 81 females (85%). The patients had an average age of 46.74±13.28, an average height of 162.50±5.57 cm and a mean weight of 73.57±12.48 kg. ASA classifications were distributed as follows: ASA I: 63 (65%) patients, ASA II 28 (29%) patients and ASA III: 5 patients. We recorded 3 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 22 patients with hypertension who got their diagnosis in the perioperative visit. During the operation, three patients had bradycardia (heart rate 50 min(-1)), and atropine was applied. Ephedrine and fluid resuscitation had been applied to 3 patients for the treatment of intraoperative hypotension. Midazolam, ketamine hydrochloride and propofol were administered to patients for sedation during the operations. Thoracic epidural anaesthesia was performed at the level of T7 -9 intervertebral space with the patients in the sitting position. Patients were given oxygen by a face mask at a rate of 3-4 L min(-1). The pneumoperitoneum was created by giving carbon dioxide at the standard pressure of 12 mmHg into the abdominal cavity in all patients. If needed, postoperative analgesia was provided by epidural local anaesthetic administration. Thoracic epidural anaesthesia can be applied as an
Voyles, C R; Sanders, D L; Hogan, R
The authors documented the evolution of common bile duct (CBD) evaluation after the development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and CBD exploration. Emphasis was placed on stratification of CBD stone risk so that subgroups could be selected appropriately for no further studies, preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram (ERC), or intraoperative intervention. Data were accumulated by the authors on presentation, findings, and outcomes of 1050 patients who underwent cholecystectomies. Risk stratification was based on the history, ultrasound findings, biochemical derangements, and operative findings. Fifty-seven per cent of patients met criteria to be "no/low" risk for CBD stones (CBD diameter < 5 mm, normal liver enzymes, and no history of acute cholecystitis, jaundice, or pancreatitis); in these patients, cholangiograms were not obtained, and there was no clinical evidence of CBD stones observed in follow-up at 45 months (sensitivity = 100%). As techniques developed for laparoscopic CBD exploration, there was a decreased incidence of open cholecystectomy (p < 0.05) and preoperative ERC (p < 0.05). The rate of operative cholangiogram increased from 13% to 23% during the series (p < 0.01). There were no CBD injuries or late strictures. The only bile leak occurred from a peripheral segmental duct in the gallbladder bed and was resolved with a laparotomy and suture. There were no transfusions. Three retained stones were documented in patients who had false-normal operative cholangiograms. Criteria were defined that delineate a "no/low" risk group of LC patients for whom operative cholangiograms were not indicated for excluding CBD stones. The routine use of operative cholangiography as a means of preventing CBD injury was not substantiated by this study. The indications for preoperative ERC should continue to decrease as laparoscopic techniques evolve.
Bilgi, Murat; Alshair, Esin Erkan; Göksu, Hüseyin; Sevim, Osman
Objective Although the traditional anaesthesia method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been general anaesthesia, regional anaesthesia techniques are also successfully used today. In this paper, we aimed to report our experiences with thoracic epidural anaesthesia, including complications, postoperative analgesia, technical difficulties and side effects. Methods Between December 2009 and November 2012, 90 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were retrospectively analysed. Demographic data, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, comorbidities, duration of operations, medications and doses used for sedation were reviewed. Results The gender distribution of patients were recorded as 15 males (15%) and 81 females (85%). The patients had an average age of 46.74±13.28, an average height of 162.50±5.57 cm and a mean weight of 73.57±12.48 kg. ASA classifications were distributed as follows: ASA I: 63 (65%) patients, ASA II 28 (29%) patients and ASA III: 5 patients. We recorded 3 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 22 patients with hypertension who got their diagnosis in the perioperative visit. During the operation, three patients had bradycardia (heart rate 50 min−1), and atropine was applied. Ephedrine and fluid resuscitation had been applied to 3 patients for the treatment of intraoperative hypotension. Midazolam, ketamine hydrochloride and propofol were administered to patients for sedation during the operations. Thoracic epidural anaesthesia was performed at the level of T7 -9 intervertebral space with the patients in the sitting position. Patients were given oxygen by a face mask at a rate of 3–4 L min−1. The pneumoperitoneum was created by giving carbon dioxide at the standard pressure of 12 mmHg into the abdominal cavity in all patients. If needed, postoperative analgesia was provided by epidural local anaesthetic administration. Conclusion Thoracic epidural
Graversen, M; Sommer, T
Acute post-operative pain is a predictor in the development of chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Music has been shown to reduce surgical stress. In a randomized, clinical trial, we wanted to test the hypothesis that perioperative and post-operative soft music reduces pain, nausea, fatigue and surgical stress in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy as day surgery. The study was performed in otherwise healthy Danish patients eligible for day surgery. Ninety-three patients were included and randomized to either soft music or no music perioperatively and post-operatively. Using visual analog score pain, nausea and fatigue at baseline, 1 h, 3 h, 1 day and 7 days after surgery were recorded. C-reactive protein and cortisol were sampled before and after surgery. Music did not lower pain 3 h after surgery, which was the main outcome. The music group had less pain day 7 (P = 0.014). Nausea was low in both groups and was not affected by music. The music group experienced less fatigue at day 1 (P = 0.042) and day 7 (P = 0.015). Cortisol levels decreased during surgery in the music group (428.5-348.0 nmol/l), while it increased in the non-music group (443.5-512.0 nmol/l); still, the difference between the two groups were only significant using general linear models as post-hoc analysis. Soft music did not affect C-reactive protein levels. Soft music did not reduce pain 3 h after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Soft music may reduce later post-operative pain and fatigue by decreasing the surgical stress response. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Neumeyer, D A; LoCicero, J; Pinkston, P
A 90-year-old man presented with a large right-sided complex pleural effusion 4 months after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. An initial thoracic CT scan confirmed the presence of the effusion, and the results of thoracentesis on three separate occasions were consistent with an exudative process. Another CT scan of the chest with thin-section cuts through the diaphragm along with an abdominal ultrasound revealed a retrohepatic subdiaphragmatic gallstone collection that eroded into the right hemidiaphragm. Thoracoscopic evacuation of the phlegmon, removal of the spilled gallstones, and repair of the diaphragm resulted in resolution of the effusion.
Postoperative complications can pose a significant obstacle in the ongoing management of surgical patients. However, it is pertinent to remember that postoperative events are not always complications of the preceding operation. We present the case of a patient with calculous cholecystitis and gallbladder empyema who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Postoperatively, he continued to have right upper quadrant pain associated with abnormal liver function tests. Ultimately, the cause of his postoperative symptoms was rather prosaic and ran counter to Occam’s razor, the relevance of which is discussed below. PMID:27310811
Lin, Chien-Hua; Chu, Heng-Cheng; Hsieh, Huan-Fa; Jin, Jong-Shiaw; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Cheng, Ming-Fang; Hsu, Sheng-Der; Chan, De-Chuan
Spillage of gallstones into the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) occurs frequently and may be associated with complications. Most of these complications present late after the original procedure, and many have clinical pictures that are not related to biliary etiology, which can confound and delay adequate management. Our patient presented with an intra-abdominal firm heterogeneous mass lesion. Imaging studies showed obvious abdominal wall invasion, and CA-125 level was elevated. Thus, malignancy could not be excluded. Final operative pathology revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. Complications of LC should be considered for patients with intra-abdominal abscess or mass lesion if there is a history of LC, regardless of time interval.
Korkmaz, Mehmet; Adıgüzel, Ünal; Şanal, Bekir; Zeren, Sezgin; Ekici, Mehmet Fatih
Bile duct injury is a commonly seen complication of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) approach, which can even lead to a life-threatening condition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first-line choice in treatment. Beside this, it can be concluded that percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and balloon dilatation methods may also constitute a reasonable selection with non-invasive, feasible and effective aspects prior to open surgery. In the present case, we report the management of a bile duct obstruction due to surgical clips following LC, treated with PTC and balloon dilatation instead of surgical procedure in a child patient.
Matłok, Maciej; Migaczewski, Marcin; Major, Piotr; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Piotr; Winiarski, Marek; Ostachowski, Mateusz; Budzyński, Andrzej; Rembiasz, Kazimierz
Due to the constant increase of public health awareness and widespread "cancerophobia", the progressively larger number of incidentally diagnosed gall-bladder polyps became the source of anxiety, which leads patients and physicians to undertake therapeutic decisions, despite the absence of symptoms. The majority of gall-bladder polyps are benign. It is estimated that only 3 to 5% of polyps are malignant. Currently, there is lack of randomized control trials based on which the clear-cut criteria of qualification of patients with gall-bladder polyps for surgical procedure can be created. The aim of the study was to analyze gall-bladder polyps in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum. The retrospective study was conducted on 5369 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum with special attention to 152 (2.8%) patients in whom gall-bladder polyps were diagnosed preoperatively. Qualification criteria for surgery, surgical treatment results, and histopathological examination results were also analyzed. Amongst the 5369 patients qualified for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 152 (2.8%) were diagnosed with gall-bladder polyps during the preoperative ultrasound examinations. Postoperative histopathological examinations of 41 (27%) patients confirmed the presence of gall-bladder polyps. In 102 (67%) patients, only gall-stones were diagnosed without previously described polyps during the ultrasound examination. Analysis of the histopathological examination results revealed the presence of benign lesions in 35 (23.35%) patients. In 5 (3%) patients the presence of an adenoma, and in one (0.65%) the presence of adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Based on the conducted study and previous personal experience in the treatment of patients with gall-bladder polyps, we believe that due to the potential
Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R; Channa, M A; Yousuf, M
This study was done to evaluate the frequency of iatrogenic gall bladder perforation (IGBP) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to determine its association with gender, adhesions in right upper quadrant and types of gall bladder. This retrospective descriptive study included 200 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis at Jamal Noor Hospital and Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi from January 2007 to January 2009. Video recording of all 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were analyzed for the IGBP. The different factors; sex of the patient, type of gall bladder, presence of adhesions in the right upper quadrant, timing of perforation, site of perforation, cause of perforation and spillage of stones were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 15. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to check the significance of these factors in IGBP where applicable. In this study there were 173 females and 27 male patients. IGBP occurred in 51 patients (25.5%) and among them 40(23.12%) were females and 11(40.74%) males. Statistical analysis failed to prove male gender a significant factor in the IGBP (p=0.051). Spillage of stones occurred in 23 patients (11.5% in total study population). In 32(18.49%) patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis IGBP occured while in other cluster of 27 patients suffering from acute cholecystitis, empyema & mucocele, 19(70.37%) had IGBP. Hence the condition of gall bladder (acute cholecystitis, empyema and mucocele) was proved statistically a significant factor in IGBP (p=0.000). Adhesiolysis in right upper quadrant was required in 109 patients in whom 31 patients (28.44%) had IGBP while in 91 patients in whom no adhesiolysis was required, 20 patients (21.98%) had IGBP. Statistically no significant difference was present regarding this factor (p=0.296). In total of 51 patients of IGBP, fundus of gall bladder was the commonest site of perforation in 21(41.18%), followed by body of gall bladder in
Shetty, Geeta S; Falconer, J Stuart; Benyounes, Hakim
Two female patients underwent an uneventful laparoscopic chloecystectomy (LC) for cholelithiasis. Their past medical history was insignificant. The first patient had diclofenac sodium for her postoperative pain relief. Both patients returned in the early postoperative period with pain in the right hypochondrium. Laboratory investigations revealed elevated leucocytes, C reactive protein (CRP), and deranged liver function tests. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed subcapsular haematoma of liver. CT-guided aspiration of hematoma was done in one case. Both patients improved over a period of time and a follow-up radiological scan showed resolving hematoma. The presentation, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and possible causes are discussed.
Krajinovic, Katica; Koeberlein, Christina; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Reibetanz, Joachim
Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) requires a larger initial umbilical incision than conventional multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC). In this retrospective analysis study we compared the demographics, clinical data, and incidence of postoperative trocar site hernias (TSH) in patients undergoing SLC with those in patients undergoing MLC. A total of 161 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 104 underwent MLC, 57 SLC. Patients in the MLC group were operated on using the four-trocar technique, patients in the SLC-port group using a fully reusable multi-trocar port system (X-Cone™). The earliest follow-up point was 12 months, the average follow-up period was 16.4 months (range 12-24 mos). The follow-up examinations for all patients consisted of a review of their medical history, a thorough physical examination, and an ultrasound examination of all existing trocar site scars. Patients in the SLC group had a lower mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score and a lower mean body mass index compared to patients in the MLC group. The average operating time was shorter for the patients in the SLC group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Ten (9.6%) patients in the MLC group and 3 (5.3%) in the SLC group developed a TSH (p = .55). At midterm follow-up the incidence of umbilical incisional hernias was not greater for SLC compared to MLC. The incidence of TSH after MLC was significantly higher than expected.
Karayiannakis, Anastasios J; Anagnostoulis, Stavros; Michailidis, Konstantinos; Vogiatzaki, Theodosia; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Simopoulos, Constantinos
Pneumothorax is a rare but potentially serious complication that can occur during laparoscopic surgery. We describe a case of a spontaneous massive right-sided pneumothorax that occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, presumably because of escape of intraperitoneal carbon dioxide under pressure into the pleural cavity through a congenital defect in the diaphragm. During the procedure, arterial oxygen saturation decreased and clinical examination revealed signs of a right-sided pneumothorax. This was confirmed on chest x-ray in the immediate postoperative period. Since the patient was clinically stable without any signs of respiratory distress, a conservative approach was adopted. The patient remained on close clinical observation and continuous monitoring of arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and repeat chest x-rays and had an uneventful recovery with complete resolution of the pneumothorax 3 hours after surgery and without the need for thoracic aspiration or tube thoracostomy.
Djaghloul, Haroun; Batouche, Mohammed; Jessel, Jean-Pierre
An automatic and markerless tracking method of deformable structures (digestive organs) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy intervention that uses the (PSO) behavour and the preoperative a priori knowledge is presented. The associated shape to the global best particles of the population determines a coarse representation of the targeted organ (the gallbladder) in monocular laparoscopic colored images. The swarm behavour is directed by a new fitness function to be optimized to improve the detection and tracking performance. The function is defined by a linear combination of two terms, namely, the human a priori knowledge term (H) and the particle's density term (D). Under the limits of standard (PSO) characteristics, experimental results on both synthetic and real data show the effectiveness and robustness of our method. Indeed, it outperforms existing methods without need of explicit initialization (such as active contours, deformable models and Gradient Vector Flow) on accuracy and convergence rate.
Dávila, Fausto; Tsin, Daniel; González, Gloria; Dávila, M Ruth; Lemus, José; Dávila, Ulises
The usefulness of percutaneous needles (PN) to replace traditional assistance ports in mini-invasive techniques with a single port is analyzed and their feasibility for conducting a single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) is demonstrated. A retrospective, linear and descriptive study covering 2,431 patients with a diagnosis of acute and non-acute gallbladder disease has been conducted. The patients underwent a single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy using some type of PNs, replacing the assisting ports used in traditional laparoscopic cholecystechtomy (TLC). Based on the progressive use of PNs-reins (R), hooked needles (HN) and passing suture needles (PSN)-to carry out the SPLC technique, 3 groups have been established: A, B and C. The results were compared using a Student T test, odds ratio and CI and were analyzed by means of the SPSS software v. 13.0. The use of PNs showed an increased feasibility for the laparoscopic procedure, as they were included in the surgical technique. The R were useful when carrying out the SPLC in 78% of the cases and when the HK were added, the results increased to 88%. When using the 3 types (R, HN and PSN), the results increased by 96%. Statistical significance was obtained with these values: chi 2=67.13 and P<.001; odds ratio and 95% CI became significant when comparing the B/C, A/C, and A-B/C groups. The PNs, replacing the assisting ports in laparoscopy, make it possible to attain a feasibility of the process in 96% of the cases. This percentage was similar to what is achieved with the TLC, which places the one port laparoscopy surgery technique as an advantageous and economic alternative. This application of the PNs could be made extensive to other single-port techniques, with a multi-valve platform and natural orifice surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
DEL GRANDE, Leonardo de Mello; LEME, Luis Fernando Paes; MARQUES, Francisco Pimenta; RAMOS, Andressa Teruya; RAMOS, Paula Teruya; de SOUZA, Felipe Araújo
ABSTRACT Background: The incidence of cholecystolithiasis is approximately 15% of the population. It is believed that between 30-40% of cholecystectomy patients have symptoms after surgery, being changes in bowel habits the most common among them. Aim: 1) Defining the prevalence, and 2) identifying predictors of changes in bowel habits after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study with an initial sample of 150 patients diagnosed with cholecystolithiasis operated between July and September 2014. Patients were submitted to a questionnaire about the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and changes in stools consistency before and after the surgical procedure. They were divided into two groups (with or without changes in bowel habits) being combined with the following variables: high blood pressure, body mass index, hypothyroidism, adherence to postoperative dietary orientations, previous abdominal and bariatric surgery. Results: The prevalence of changes in bowel habits in the study population was 35.1%. The association between it and gastrointestinal symptoms was demonstrated to be statistically significant (‰2=7.981; p=0.005), and people who did not have gastrointestinal symptoms had 2.34 times the odds of not presenting changes in bowel habits. None of the other investigated factors had shown to be a predictor of risk for post-cholecystectomy changes in bowel habits. Conclusion: 1) There was a high prevalence of changes in bowel habits, and 2) there was association between changes in bowel habits and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:28489158
Introduction Routine abdominal drainage after laparoscopy cholecystectomy is an issue of considerable debate. Reason for draining is to detect early bile/blood leak and allow CO2 insufflate during laparoscopy to escape via drain site thereby decreased shoulder tip pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting. But some studies show no difference in post-operative nausea /vomiting/pain between drain and no drain group. Aim To assess the role of drains following uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College and Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. Hundred patients of symptomatic gallstones satisfying the selection and exclusion criteria, undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this study, 50 cases with drains in right subhepatic space (Group I) and 50 cases without drains (Group II). Both groups were compared in terms of post-operative shoulder pain, analgesic requirement, nausea and vomiting, hospital stay and analgesic requirement in patient with drains and without drains. SPSS version 16.0 (Chi-Square Test and Fisher-Exact Test) were used for statistical analysis. Results In this study, average operative time in both the groups was same (p-value 0.977). There was more incidence of nausea /vomiting in no drain group than in drain group. Shoulder tip pain was lower in drain group in first 12 hours post-operative. However, after 12 hours, drain group had higher shoulder tip pain than no drain group. Analgesic requirement was higher in no drain group upto 12 hours after which it was higher in drain group (statistically not significant). In terms of hospital stay patients in drain group had a longer stay in hospital as compared to no drain group (2.96 vs 2.26; p <0.001 statistically significant). Conclusion Use of drains in uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not advantageous; its role in reducing post
Ragozzino, Alfonso; Puglia, Marta; Romano, Federica; Imbriaco, Massimo
Summary Background Spillage of gallstones in the abdominal cavity may rarely occur during the course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Dropped gallstones in the peritoneal and extra-peritoneal cavity are usually asymptomatic. However, they may lead to abscess formation with an estimated incidence of about 0.3%. Common locations of the abscess are in the abdominal wall followed by the intra-abdominal cavity, usually in the sub-hepatic or retro-peritoneum inferior to the sub-hepatic space. Case Report We hereby describe an unusual case of infected spilled gallstones in the right sub-phrenic space, prospectively detected on abdominal MRI performed two years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in a patient with only a mild right-sided abdominal complaint. Conclusions This case highlights the role of MRI in suggesting the right diagnosis in cases with vague or even absent symptomatology. In our case the patient’s history together with high quality abdomen MRI allowed the correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of this rare and late onset complication, even after many years from surgery as an incidental finding in almost asymptomatic patients. PMID:27471576
Rademaker, B M; Kalkman, C J; Odoom, J A; de Wit, L; Ringers, J
We have compared the efficacy of 0.9% NaCl 20 ml (n = 15), 0.25% bupivacaine 20 ml (n = 15) and 0.5% lignocaine 20 ml (n = 15), administered i.p., in reducing postoperative pain and opioid requirements, and modifying the metabolic response to surgery and postoperative lung function after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were no differences in postoperative pain scores (visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale) between the three groups in the first 4 h after operation and in analgesic requirements during the first 24 h. In all groups, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased 2 h after surgery (P < 0.001). Ventilatory values recovered only partially in the first 2 days after operation (P < 0.05), with no significant differences between groups. Plasma concentrations of glucose and cortisol increased after surgery (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentrations returned to baseline 48 h after operation. There were no significant differences between the groups in any measured variable. These data suggest that the administration of 20 ml of local anaesthetics i.p. is not effective in reducing postoperative pain, improving lung function, or attenuating the metabolic endocrine response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Lam, Tracey; Usatoff, Val; Chan, Steven T F
Background At laparoscopic cholecystectomy, most surgeons have adopted the operative approach where the ‘critical view of safety’ (CVS) is achieved prior to dividing the cystic duct and artery. This prospective study evaluated whether an adequate critical view was achieved by scoring standardized intra-operative photographic views and whether there were other factors that might impact on the ability to obtain an adequate critical view. Methods One hundred consecutive patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied. At each operation, two photographs were taken. Two independent experienced hepatobiliary surgeons scored the photographs on whether a critical view of safety was achieved. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using the weighted kappa coefficient. The Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test was used to analyse the scores with potential confounding clinical factors. Results The kappa coefficient for adequate display of the cystic duct and artery was 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.64; P = 0.001. No bias was detected in the overall scorings between the two observers (χ2 1.33; P = 0.312). Other clinical factors including surgeon seniority did not alter the outcome [odds ratio (OR) 0.902; 95% confidence interval 0.622 to 1.264]. Conclusion Heightened awareness of the CVS through mandatory documentation may improve both trainee and surgeon technique. PMID:24635851
Rajkomar, Kheman; Bowman, Matthew; Rodgers, Michael; Koea, Jonathan B
This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the shape of the inferior surface quadrate lobe (segment IV) can assist in defining a safe starting point for dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively audited. Intraoperative cholangiograms and photographs of the quadrate lobe were reviewed measuring the angle between the cystic duct and common bile duct and its relationship to quadrate shape. The results of 56 patients were included. The shape of the inferior surface of the quadrate lobe was rectangular in 35, pyramidal in 13 and square in eight patients. The median cystic/bile duct angle was 43°, 37° and 26° for square, rectangular and pyramidal quadrate shapes, respectively. The angle for pyramidal-shaped lobes was narrower than that for rectangular or square lobes (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between the shape ratio and the cystic/bile duct angle (P = 0.015). This investigation confirms a relationship between the shape of the inferior surface of the quadrate lobe and the cystic/bile duct angle and suggests that the anatomy of the inferior surface of the quadrate lobe can be used to define an optimal starting point for dissection of the biliary cystic triangle. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Kavanagh, T; Hu, P; Minogue, S
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been performed as a day-case procedure for over a decade. This procedure can be associated with a high incidence of pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). There is a paucity of information regarding the post-discharge care of these patients. To determine the effectiveness and adequacy of take-home analgesic packs given to patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. A prospective study of 40 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to evaluate post-operative pain, analgesia requirements and PONV following discharge. Data regarding unplanned admissions, patient satisfaction and GP attendance rates were also recorded. At 24 h, 65% of patients reported moderate pain, 23% severe pain and 25% of patients reported PONV. The rate of GP attendance for further analgesia or antiemetics was 12.5%. Unexpected admission rate was 10%. The incidence of PONV post-discharge suggests that adding an antiemetic to our take-home analgesic packs may improve patient comfort. The 2-day supply of diclofenac and co-codamol could also be extended as 65% of patients had moderate to severe pain. The information gathered shows the importance of post-discharge follow-up of ambulatory surgery patients.
Donmez, Turgut; Erdem, Vuslat Muslu; Uzman, Sinan; Yildirim, Dogan; Avaroglu, Huseyin; Ferahman, Sina; Sunamak, Oguzhan
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is usually performed under the general anesthesia (GA). Aim of the study is to investigate the availability, safety and side effects of combined spinal/epidural anesthesia (CSEA) and comparison it with GA for LC. Forty-nine patients who have a LC plan were included into the study. The patients were randomly divided into GA (n = 25) and CSEA (n = 24) groups. Intraoperative and postoperative adverse events, postoperative pain levels were compared between groups. Anesthesia procedures and surgeries for all patients were successfully completed. After the organization of pneumoperitoneum in CSEA group, 3 patients suffered from shoulder pain (12.5%) and 4 patients suffered from abdominal discomfort (16.6%). All these complaints were recovered with IV fentanyl administration. Only 1 patient developed hypotension which is recovered with fluid replacement and no need to use vasopressor treatment. Postoperative shoulder pain was significantly less observed in CSEA group (25% vs. 60%). Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was less observed in CSEA group but not statistically significant (4.2% vs. 20%). In the group of CSEA, 3 patients suffered from urinary retention (12.5%) and 2 patients suffered from spinal headache (8.3%). All postoperative pain parameters except 6th hour, were less observed in CSEA group, less VAS scores and less need to analgesic treatment in CSEA group comparing with GA group. CSEA can be used safely for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Less postoperative surgical field pain, shoulder pain and PONV are the advantages of CSEA compared to GA.
Planells Roig, Manuel; Garcia Espinosa, Rafael; Cervera Delgado, María; Navarro Vicente, Francisco; Carrau Giner, Miguel; Sanahuja Santafé, Angel; Arnal Bertomeu, Consuelo
A descriptive analysis of day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ALC) in a cohort of 1,600 consecutive patients performed in Instituto de Cirugía y Aparato Digestivo (ICAD), Clínica Quirón de Valencia in the period 1997-2010. Prospective observational study of 1,601 consecutive patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) provided by the regional health service and private health companies. Conversion rate, non-planned admissions, readmissions, surgery duration and demographics. ALC was successfully performed in 80.8% of cases. LC with over-night (ON) stay accounted for 13.4% of patients. Admission was necessary in 4.6%. Mortality was 0.13%, 0.08 in ALC and 0.5% in ON LC. Readmissions occurred in 2.1%, 1.6% in ALC group, 5.4% in ON stay and 4.2% in admission group. ALC is a reliable and safe procedure. Minimization of admission rates is the key for cost-effective optimization in the management of cholelithiasis. ALC should be considered as the reference standard in gallbladder stone disease treatment. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
El-Awadi, Saleh; El-Nakeeb, Ayman; Youssef, Tamer; Fikry, Amir; Abd El-Hamed, Tito M; Ghazy, Hosam; Foda, Elyamany; Farid, Mohamed
Improved laparoscopic experience and techniques have made laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) feasible options in cirrhotic patients. This study was designed to compare the risk and benefits of open cholecystectomy (OC) versus LC in compensated cirrhosis. A randomized prospective study, in the period from October 2002 till December 2006, where 110 cirrhotic patients with symptomatic gallstone were randomly divided into OC group (55 patients) and LC group (55 patients). There was no operative mortality. In LC group 4 (7.33%) patients were converted to OC. Mean surgical time was significantly longer in OC group than LC group (96.13+17.35 min versus 76.13+15.12) P<0.05, associated with significantly higher intraoperative bleeding in OC group (P<0.01), necessitating blood transfusions to 7 (12.72%) patients in OC group. The time to resume diet was 18.36+8.18 h in LC group which is significantly earlier than in OC group 47.84+14.6h P<0.005. Hospital stay was significantly longer in OC group than LC group (6+1.74 days versus 1.87+1.11 days) P<0.01 with low postoperative morbidity. LC in cirrhotics is still complicated and highly difficult which associates with significant morbidity compared with that of patients without cirrhosis. However, it offers lower morbidity, shorter operative time; early resume dieting with less need for blood transfusion and reducing hospital stay than OC.
Zirpe, Dinesh; Swain, Sudeepta K.; Das, Somak; Gopakumar, CV; Kollu, Sriharsha; Patel, Darshan; Patta, Radhakrishna; Balachandar, Tirupporur G.
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become a regular daycare surgery at many centres across the world. However, only a few centres in India have a dedicated daycare surgery centre, and very few of them have reported their experience. Concerns remain regarding the feasibility, safety and acceptability of the introduction of daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DCLC) in India. There is a need to assess the safety and acceptability of the implementation of short-stay DCLC service at a centre completely dedicated to daycare surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Comprehensive care and operative data were retrospectively collected from a daycare centre of our hospital. Postoperative recovery was monitored by telephone questionnaire on days 0, 1 and 5 postoperatively, including adverse outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were admitted for DCLC during the period from November 2011 till November 2014, of whom 211 were discharged on the day of surgery. Two hundred and two patients could be discharged within 6 h of surgery. Mean operation time was 72 min. No patient required admission. No patient needed conversion to open surgery. Only 1 patient was re-admitted due to bilioma formation and was managed with minimal intervention. CONCLUSION: The introduction of short-stay DCLC in India is feasible and acceptable to patients. High body mass index (BMI) in otherwise healthy patients and selective additional procedures are not contraindications for DCLC. PMID:27251816
Albarrak, Abdullah A; Khairy, Sami; Ahmed, Alzahrani Mohammed
Management of patients who have ventriculoperitoneal shunt presenting with acute calcular cholecystitis has remained a clinical challenge. In this paper, the hospital course and the follow-up of a patient presenting with acute calcular cholecystitis and ventriculoperitoneal shunt managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy are presented followed by literature review on the management of acute calcular cholecystitis in patients who have ventriculoperitoneal shunts.
Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro
Abstract To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available. In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies. FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD–CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD–CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90 min; range, 15–165 min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 min; range, 21–205 min; P < 0.01). The signal contrast on the fluorescence images of the bile duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker. FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the “critical view of safety” during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of
Wu, X-D; Tian, X; Liu, M-M; Wu, L; Zhao, S; Zhao, L
Previous studies comparing early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) with delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC) for acute cholecystitis were incomplete. A meta-analysis was undertaken to compare the cost-effectiveness, quality of life, safety and effectiveness of ELC versus DLC. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared ELC (performed within 7 days of symptom onset) with DLC (undertaken at least 1 week after symptoms had subsided) for acute cholecystitis. Sixteen studies reporting on 15 RCTs comprising 1625 patients were included. Compared with DLC, ELC was associated with lower hospital costs, fewer work days lost (mean difference (MD) -11·07 (95 per cent c.i. -16·21 to -5·94) days; P < 0·001), higher patient satisfaction and quality of life, lower risk of wound infection (relative risk 0·65, 95 per cent c.i. 0·47 to 0·91; P = 0·01) and shorter hospital stay (MD -3·38 (-4·23 to -2·52) days; P < 0·001), but a longer duration of operation (MD 11·12 (4·57 to 17·67) min; P < 0·001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in mortality, bile duct injury, bile leakage, conversion to open cholecystectomy or overall complications. For patients with acute cholecystitis, ELC appears as safe and effective as DLC. ELC might be associated with lower hospital costs, fewer work days lost, and greater patient satisfaction. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yokomuro, Shigeki; Arima, Yasuo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kannda, Tomohiro; Arai, Masao; Tajiri, Takashi
Eighty-four patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) from January through August 2006. Of these patients, 4 (4.7%) were found to have occult gallbladder carcinoma (GC) either during or after the procedure. Two of the patients were women and 2 were men. The mean age was 75.0 years. One patient had mucosal tumors, 2 had subserosal tumors, and 1 had a serosal lesion. One of the 2 patients with subserosal tumors underwent radical surgery. In a previous study, 0.83% (10 of 1,195) of patients who had undergone LC were found to have occult GC, either during of after the procedure. The prevalence of gallbladder carcinoma has recently been increasing. GC has been reported in 0.3% to 1.5% of patients who have undergone cholecystectomy. Since the introduction of laparoscopic surgery, the number of cholecystectomies being performed has increased, which may explain why occult GC seems to be occurring more frequently. The prognosis for GC is poor, and surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. However, GC is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and difficult to recognize even in the advanced stages. Fifteen percent to 30% of patients show no preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy. Occult GC is also increasing. Because flat infiltrating GC and GC with cholecystitis and numerous stones are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, we recommend taking frozen sections from patients who are of advanced age (older than 70 years), have a long history of stones, or have a thickened gallbladder wall.
Sun, Susie X; Kulaylat, Afif N; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Soybel, David I
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of routine intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS), cholangiography (IOC), or expectant management without imaging (EM) for investigation of clinically silent common bile duct (CBD) stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The optimal algorithm for the evaluation of clinically silent CBD stones during routine cholecystectomy is unclear. A decision tree model of CBD exploration was developed to determine the optimal diagnostic approach based on preoperative probability of choledocholithiasis. The model was parameterized with meta-analyses of previously published studies. The primary outcome was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from each diagnostic strategy. A secondary outcome was the percentage of missed stones. Costs were from the perspective of the third party payer and sensitivity analyses were performed on all model parameters. In the base case analysis with a prevalence of stones of 9%, IOUS was the optimal strategy, yielding more QALYs (0.9858 vs 0.9825) at a lower expected cost ($311 vs $574) than EM. IOC yielded more QALYs than EM in the base case (0.9854) but at a much higher cost ($1122). IOUS remained dominant as long as the preoperative probability of stones was above 3%; EM was the optimal strategy if the probability was less than 3%. The percentage of missed stones was 1.5% for IOUS, 1.8% for IOC and 9% for EM. In the detection and resultant management of CBD stones for the majority of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, IOUS is cost-effective relative to IOC and EM.
Obeid, Nabeel R; Kurian, Marina S; Ren-Fielding, Christine J; Fielding, George A; Schwack, Bradley F
The prevalence of cholelithiasis correlates with obesity. Patients often present for bariatric surgery with symptomatic cholelithiasis. There is a concern of cross-contamination when performing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) with concurrent cholecystectomy. The primary goal of this study is to address the safety and feasibility of this practice. A retrospective cohort study was designed from a prospectively collected database. All LAGB patients from July 2005 to April 2013 were included. Patients undergoing LAGB with concurrent cholecystectomy comprised the study group (LAGB/chole). The control group (LAGB) consisted of patients undergoing LAGB alone, and was selected using a 3:1 (control:study) case-match based on demographic and comorbidity data. The primary outcome was overall complication rate, with secondary outcomes including operating room (OR) time, length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission/reoperation, erosion, infection, and band/port revisional surgery. There were 4,982 patients who met criteria. Of these, 28 patients had a LAGB with concurrent cholecystectomy, comprising the LAGB/chole (study) group. The remaining 4,954 patients were eligible controls, of which 84 were selected for the LAGB (control) group. Demographic and comorbidity data, along with mean follow-up time, were similar between the two groups. OR time was longer in the LAGB/chole group, but LOS was the same. The overall complication rate in the LAGB/chole group was 21 (n = 6) versus 20% (n = 17) in the LAGB group (p = 0.893). Thirty-day readmission and reoperation were similar. There was also no difference in port site, wound, and intra-abdominal infections. There were no band erosions in either group. Performing a concurrent cholecystectomy at the time of LAGB does not result in increased immediate or delayed morbidity. Although longer to perform, this safe operation would avoid a second surgery for a patient already diagnosed with symptomatic cholelithiasis.
Al-Salem, Ahmed Hassan; Issa, Hussain
Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a high incidence of cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. This report is an analysis of our experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for children with SCA and the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The records of children with SCA who had cholecystectomy were retrospectively reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin level, hemoglobin electrophoresis, indication for cholecystectomy, operative time, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. They were divided into 2 groups, open cholecystectomy (OC) group and LC group, and the 2 were compared in terms of operative time, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Over a period of 15 years (January 1995 and December 2009), 94 children with SCA had cholecystectomy. Thirty-five (19 males and 16 females) had OC, 52 (28 males and 24 females) had LC, and 7 (4 males and 3 females) had LC and splenectomy. Their age ranged from 4 to 15 years (mean, 11.4 y). The indications for cholecystectomy were biliary dyspepsia and biliary colic (55), acute cholecystitis (7), obstructive jaundice (17), asymptomatic (12), and biliary pancreatitis (3). All those who had OC underwent intraoperative cholangiogram, 9 of them (25.7%) had common bile duct (CBD) exploration and 2 transduodenal sphincterotomy. Of those who had LC, 13 (25%) underwent preoperative ERCP, which was normal in 1, showed dilated CBD with no stones in 2, and dilated CBD with stones in 7. In 3, ERCP showed dilated CBD with enlarged, inflammed papilla suggestive of recent stone passage. Nine underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction followed by LC. There was no mortality; 1 (2.1%) required conversion to OC and another underwent postoperative exploration because of bleeding from an accessory cystic artery. In the LC group, 4 (7.7%) developed minor postoperative complications, whereas 8 (22.9%) in the OC group developed complications. With proper perioperative management, LC is
Vilallonga, Ramon; Barbaros, Umut; Sümer, Aziz; Demirel, Tuğrul; Fort, José Manuel; González, Oscar; Rodriguez, Nivardo; Carrasco, Manuel Armengol
INTRODUCTION: A novel single port access (SPA) cholecystectomy approach is described in this study. We have designed a randomised comparative study in order to elucidate any possible differences between the standard treatment and this novel technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2009 and March 2010, 140 adult patients with gallbladder pathologies were enrolled in this multicentre study. Two surgeons (RV and UB) randomised patients to either a standard laparoscopic (SL) approach group or to an SPA cholecystectomy group. Two types of trocars were used for this study: the TriPort™ and the SILS™ Port. Outcomes including blood loss, operative time, complications, length of stay and pain were recorded. RESULTS: There were 69 patients in the SPA group and 71 patients in the SL group. The mean age of the patients was 43.2 (17-77) for the SPA group and 42.6 (19-70) for the SL group. The mean operative time was 63.9 min in the SPA group and 58.4 min in the SL group. For one patient, the SPA procedure was converted to a standard laparoscopic technique and to open approach in the SL group. Complications occurred in eight patients: Five seromas (two in the SPA group) and three hernias (one in the SPA group).The mean hospital stay was 38.5 h in the SPA group and 24.1 h in the SL group. Pain was evaluated and was 2 in the SPA and 2.9 in the SL group, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) after 24 h (P<0.001). The degree of satisfaction was higher in the SPA group (8.3 versus 6.7). Similar results were found for the aesthetic result (8.8 versus 7.5). (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be feasible and safe. When technical difficulties arise, early conversion to a standard laparoscopic technique is advised to avoid serious complications. The SPA approach can be undertaken without the expense of additional operative time and provides patients with minimal scarring. The cosmetic results and the degree of satisfaction
Shaikh, Haris R.; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R.
BACKGROUND: Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the “Gold Standard” for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC. PMID:27251827
Van Wijk, R M; Watts, R W; Ledowski, T; Trochsler, M; Moran, J L; Arenas, G W N
Laparoscopic surgery causes specific post-operative discomfort and intraoperative cardiovascular, pulmonary, and splanchnic changes. The CO2 pneumoperitoneum-related intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) remains one of the main drivers of these changes. We investigated the influence of deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) on IAP and surgical conditions. This is an open prospective single-subject design study in 20 patients (14 female/6 male) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification 1 to 3. Under a standardised anaesthesia, lowest IAP providing adequate surgical conditions was assessed without NMB and with deep NMB [post-tetanic count (PTC)<2] with rocuronium. The differences between IAP allowing for an adequate surgical field before and after administration of rocuronium were determined, as were effects of patient gender, age, and body mass index. Mean IAP without NMB was 12.75 (standard deviation 4.49) mmHg. Immediately after achieving a deep NMB, this was 7.20 (2.51). This pressure difference of 5.55 mmHg (5.08, P<0.001) dropped to 3.00 mmHg (4.30, P<0.01) after 15 min. Higher IAP differences were found in women compared with men. A modest inverse relationship was found between pressure difference and age. We found an almost 25% lower IAP after a deep NMB compared with no block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Younger and female patients appear to benefit more from deep neuromuscular blockade to reduce IAP. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yetişir, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Parlak, Omer; Basaran, Basar; Yazıcıoğlu, Omer
The Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct (CBD). We would like to report laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (SC) and resection of cholecystocolic fistula by the help of Tri-Staple™ in a case with type V MS and cholecystocolic fistula, for first time in the literature. A 24-year-old man was admitted to emergency department with the complaint of abdominal pain, intermittent fever, jaundice, and diarrhea. Two months ago with the same complaint, ERCP was performed. Laparoscopic resection of cholecystocolic fistula and subtotal cholecystectomy were performed by the help of Tri-Staple. At the eight-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. In a patient with type V MS and cholecystocolic fistula, laparoscopic resection of cholecystocolic fistula and SC can be performed by using Tri-Staple safely. PMID:26904324
Trejos, Ana Luisa; Siroen, Karen; Ward, Christopher D W; Hossain, Shahan; Naish, Michael D; Patel, Rajni V; Schlachta, Christopher M
Training surgeons in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) requires surgical residents to operate under the direction of a consultant. The inability of the instructing surgeon to point at the laparoscopic monitor without releasing the instruments remains a barrier to effective instruction. The wireless hands-free surgical pointer (WHaSP) has been developed to aid instruction during MIS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and likeability of the WHaSP as an instructional tool compared with the conventional methods. Data were successfully collected during 103 laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedures, which had been randomized to use or not use the WHaSP as a teaching tool. Audio and video from the surgeries were recorded and analyzed. Instructing surgeons, operating surgeons, and camera assistants provided feedback through a post-operative questionnaire that used a five-level Likert scale. The questionnaire results were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. There were no negative effects on surgery completion time or instruction practice due to the use of the WHaSP. The number of times an instructor surgeon pointed to the laparoscopic screen with their hand was significantly reduced when the WHaSP was utilized (p < 0.001). The questionnaires showed that WHaSP users found it to be comfortable, easy to use, and easy to control. Compared to when the WHaSP was not used, users found that communication was more effective (p = 0.002), locations were easier to communicate (p < 0.001), and instructions were easier to follow (p = 0.005). The WHaSP system was successfully used in surgery. It integrated seamlessly into existing equipment within the operating room and did not affect flow. The positive outcomes of utilizing the WHaSP were improved communication in the OR, improved efficiency and safety of the surgery, easy to use, and comfortable to wear. The surgeons showed a preference for utilizing the WHaSP if given a choice.
Gulwani, Hanni V; Gupta, Suneeta; Kaur, Sukhpreet
Carcinoma of gall bladder is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract worldwide and is usually associated with poor prognosis. In this era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there has been increase in detection of early stage incidental gall bladder carcinoma in cholecystectomy specimens. A retrospective study was carried out in tertiary care hospital in central India. A total of 2990 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the year 2001-2013. Hospital records and histopathology reports of these patients were studied in detail. Twenty three cases of gall bladder carcinoma were detected incidentally accounting for an incidence of 0.76 %. It was more common in females with an M: F ratio of 1:1.9. Mean age of presentation was 57.8 years. Gall stones were present in 22 cases and one patient presented with features of acute cholecystitis. Three patients had associated xanthogranulomatous inflammation and 10 had associated intestinal metaplasia. It is not uncommon to encounter incidental malignancies of gall bladder in laparoscopic cholecystectomy specimens sent to histopathology for presumably benign disease. Histopathology reports must include comments on extent of infiltration, perineural invasion, tumor differentiation and nodal involvement for oncologist information and subsequent management of patients.
Grass, Fabian; Cachemaille, Matthieu; Blanc, Catherine; Fournier, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas; Hübner, Martin
Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the accepted standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a standardized approach with tailored care maps for pre- and postoperative care by comparing pain, nausea and patient satisfaction after elective and emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. From January 2014 until April 2015, data on pain and nausea management were prospectively recorded for all elective and emergency procedures in the department of visceral surgery. This prospective observational study compared consecutive laparoscopic elective vs. emergency cholecystectomies. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to measure pain, nausea, and satisfaction from recovery room until 96 hours postoperatively. Final analysis included 168 (79%) elective cholecystectomies and 44 (21%) emergent procedures. Demographics (Age, gender, BMI and ASA-scores) were comparable between the 2 groups. In the emergency group, patients did not receive anxiolytic medication (0% vs.13%, p = 0.009) and less postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis (77% vs. 97% p = <0.001). Perioperative pain management was similar in terms of opioid consumption (median amount of fentanyl 450ug [IQR 350-500] vs. 450ug [375-550], p = 0.456) and wound infiltration rates (24% vs. 25%, p = 0.799). Postoperative consumption of paracetamol, metamizole and opiod medications were similar between the 2 groups. VAS scores for pain (p = 0.191) and nausea (p = 0.392) were low for both groups. Patient satisfaction was equally high in both clinical settings (VAS 8.5 ± 1.1 vs. 8.6 ± 1.1, p = 0.68). A standardized pathway allows equally successful control of pain and nausea after both elective and emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was retrospectively registered by March 01, 2016 in the following trial register: www.researchregistry.com (UIN researchregistry993).
del Avila-Silva, María Rocío; Zavala-Castillo, Julio César; Coronel-Cruz, Fausto Moisés
Cholecystitis is the second cause of abdominal pain during pregnancy. 1-8 of 10,000 requiring surgery, being performed in the first and second quarter laparoscopically. 100% of patients with cholecystitis, about 12% are associated with pancreatitis with high rates of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. To evaluate advantages--disadvantages of maternal-fetal pregnancy laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its preventive character avoiding cases of pancreatitis. We analyze the results obtained in Perinatology Service in General Hospital of Mexico (2008 to 2012) comparing them with the current literature. A retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive. Analyzing the following variables: maternal age, gestational age, number of gestations, surgical technique, and postoperative complications trans, maternal and perinatal morbidity, gallbladder colic episodes prior, liver ultrasound report--bile ducts, tocolytic management. 20 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed in pregnant patients. Maternal age 21-38 years, mostly multigesta. 5 patients was performed at weeks 9, 14, 20 and 25 between the SDG and 1 at 27.5 SDG.Vesicular colicky eight previous USG mostly with gallstones.Two cases of mild acute pancreatitis satisfactorily resolved. No trans or postoperative complications. Open technique for performing pneumoperitoneum (Hasson). Tocolytic management indomethacin in 100% of cases. The results obtained are consistent with the current literature, confirming that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment option with minimal fetal maternal morbidity, reducing the incidence of pancreatitis and maternal- fetal consequences.
Ejduk, Anna; Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Szczepanik, Andrzej B.
Acute acalculous cholecystitis (ACC) is most frequently reported in critically ill patients following sepsis, extensive injury or surgery. It is rather uncommon as a chemotherapy-induced complication, which is usually life-threatening in neutropenic patients subjected to myelosuppressive therapy. A 23-year-old patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was subjected to myelosuppressive chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, pegaspargase). After the first chemotherapy cycle the patient was neutropenic and feverish; she presented with vomiting and pain in the right epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder with wall thickening up to 14 mm. The ACC was diagnosed. Medical therapy included a broad spectrum antibiotic regimen and granulocyte-colony stimulating factors. On the second day after ACC diagnosis the patient's general condition worsened. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. The resected gallbladder showed no signs of bacterial or leukemic infiltrates. The postoperative course was uneventful. In the management of neutropenic patients with ACC surgical treatment is as important as pharmacological therapy. PMID:25337176
Blobner, M; Felber, A R; Gögler, S; Feussner, H; Weigl, E M; Jelen, G; Jelen-Esselborn, S
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is claimed to be a minimally invasive procedure, but uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the pneumoperitoneum (CO2-PP) can cause clinically relevant hypercapnia. In this prospective study, CO2 resorption during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was investigated. METHODS. In 30 patients (ASA I and II) total intravenous anesthesia was performed with propofol and fentanyl. Controlled ventilation was started with a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg min, a respiratory rate of 10/min, and FiO2 = 0.4 using an Engström Erica ventilator. When end-tidal CO2 (PeCO2) rose to 42 mmHg the respiratory rate was increased. In addition to standard monitoring, intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured. Minute volume (VI), CO2 elimination (VCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), and the respiratory quotient (RQ) were registered by indirect calorimetry from the Erica Metabolic Monitor. The CO2 resorption (delta VCO2) was calculated from the equation: delta VCO2(Mi) = VCO2(Mi) RQ(M1)VO2(Mi). (i = 1; 2; ...;5) All values are medians (interquartile range) or ranges. All parameters were compared at five measuring points that are characteristic for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: M1 baseline, 30 min after induction of anaesthesia, M2 10 min after starting CO2 insufflation, M3 while mobilising the gallbladder from the liver bed, M4 while extracting the gallbladder from the abdominal cavity, and M5 10 min after desufflating the CO2-PP (spontaneous breathing). RESULTS. A typical pattern of VCO2 was observed (Fig. 1). Baseline VCO2 was 165 (145-180) ml/min, PeCO2 was 33 (31-35) mmHg, and VI was 6.0 (6.0-7.0) l/min. After insufflation of CO2 to an IAP of between 14 and 20 mmHg, an increase in VCO2 to 201 (179-222) ml/min was registered (P < 0.05). During mobilisation of the gallbladder, the IAP was between 12 and 18 mmHg and no further increase in VCO2 (200 (179-229) ml/min) was observed. During extraction of the gallbladder from the abdominal cavity, the CO2-PP deflated and IAP dropped to 1
Jiménez Fuertes, Montiel; Costa Navarro, David
We present our experience of 100 consecutive cases that underwent ambulatory cholecystectomy using a standard protocol of anesthesia and surgery. Prospective study of 100 consecutive patients assessed in the surgery outpatient clinic in Torrevieja Hospital (September 2008-september 2009). Both anesthetic and surgical techniques were protocolized, standardized. The protocol included the use of intraperitoneal and parietal anesthesia. One hundred patients were included. Average age was 53 years and average surgical time was 29±12 min. Day-case surgery rate was 96%. Postoperative pain (VAS scale) was less than 4 in all cases. Six patients complained of nausea that eased with the administration of ev metoclopramide. Average length of stay in the day-case surgery unit was 7.4h (maximum 9.6, minimum 7). Morbidity and mortality rates were 0%. No re-admission was registered and conversion rate was 0%. Postoperative follow-up was 100%. A total of 97% of the cases were fully satisfied with the procedure. Ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a feasible and safe technique. Postoperative pain has classically been the reason to not perform day-case surgery, but we achieved an excellent control by the combined use of local anesthetics and warm intraperitoneal saline solution. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ko-iam, Wasana; Sandhu, Trichak; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Pongchairerks, Paisal; Chotirosniramit, Anon; Chotirosniramit, Narain; Chandacham, Kamtone; Jirapongcharoenlap, Tidarat
Background. Although the advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over open cholecystectomy are immediately obvious and appreciated, several patients need a postoperative hospital stay of more than 24 hours. Thus, the predictive factors for this longer stay need to be investigated. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of a long hospital stay after LC. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study with 500 successful elective LC patients being included in the analysis. Short hospital stay was defined as being discharged within 24 hours after the operation, whereas long hospital stay was defined as the need for a stay of more than 24 hours after the operation. Results. Using multivariable analysis, ten independent predictive factors were identified for a long hospital stay. These included patients with cirrhosis, patients with a history of previous acute cholecystitis, cholangitis, or pancreatitis, patients on anticoagulation with warfarin, patients with standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum, patients who had been given metoclopramide as an intraoperative antiemetic drug, patients who had been using abdominal drain, patients who had numeric rating scale for pain > 3, patients with an oral analgesia requirement > 2 doses, complications, and private ward admission. Conclusions. LC difficulties were important predictive factors for a long hospital stay, as well as medication and operative factors. PMID:28239497
Reibetanz, Joachim; Kim, Mia; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Krajinovic, Katica
To compare the perioperative outcome of elderly patients undergoing either single-port cholecystectomy (SPC) or standard multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SMLC). Patients older than 50 years who underwent SPC using the reusable X-Cone were compared with age-matched, sex-matched, and body mass index-matched patients after SMLC, and postoperative outcome was analyzed. Of 97 patients who underwent SPC during July 2009 and August 2011, 33 patients (34%) were older than 50 years. Baseline characteristics were comparable for either group, as was the operative time (min) (SPC: 82.7 ± 25.1 vs. SMLC: 83.9 ± 22.1; P=0.85), postoperative hospital stay (d) (SPC: 3.7 ± 1.6 vs. SMLC: 3.9 ± 1.5; P=0.61), and postoperative complication rate [SPC: 4 of 33 patients (12.1%) vs. SMLC: 3 of 33 patients (9.1%); P=1.0]. Our study suggests that older age might not be predictive of an inferior outcome after SPC, compared with patients who were treated with the "golden standard."
Longo, Marcelo A; Cavalheiro, Bárbara T; de Oliveira Filho, Getúlio R
Pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can cause hypercapnia, hypoxemia, hemodynamic changes and shoulder pain. General anesthesia (GA) enables the control of intraoperative pain and ventilation. The need for GA has been questioned by studies suggesting that neuraxial anesthesia (NA) is adequate for LC. To quantify the prevalence of intraoperative pain and to verify whether evidence on the maintenance of ventilation, circulation and surgical anesthesia during NA compared with GA is consistent. Systematic review with meta-analyses. Anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched Medline, Cochrane and EBSCO databases up to 2016 for randomized controlled trials that compared LC in the two groups under study, neuraxial (subarachnoid or epidural) and general anesthesia. The primary outcome was the prevalence of intraoperative pain referred to the shoulder in the NA group. Hemodynamic and respiratory outcomes and adverse effects in both groups were also collected. Eleven comparative studies were considered eligible. The pooled prevalence of shoulder pain was 25%. Intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia occurred more frequently in patients who received NA, with a risk ratio of 4.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-12.48, p=0.003) and 6.67 (95% CI 2.02-21.96, p=0.002), respectively. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was more prevalent in patients who submitted to GA. The prevalence of postoperative urinary retention did not differ between the techniques. Postoperative headache was more prevalent in patients who received NA, while the postoperative pain intensity was lower in this group. Performing meta-analyses on hypertension, hypercapnia and hypoxemia was not possible. NA as sole anesthetic technique, although feasible for LC, was associated with intraoperative pain referred to the shoulder, required anesthetic conversion in 3.4% of the cases and did not demonstrate evidence of respiratory benefits for patients with normal pulmonary
Introduction Efforts to use safer drug with minimal side effects for postoperative analgesia are growing day by day for surgeries of shorter duration or which may require day care only, search for ideal agent has been a never ending process. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and Tramadol for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods This study was done at Department of Anaesthesiology, Era’s Medical College, Lucknow, India. Sixty ASA-I or II patients between 18-55 years of age, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to two groups of 30 each. Group A received IV infusion of paracetamol 1g in 100 ml solution, while Group B received IV infusion of Tramadol 100 mg in 100 ml NS at 0 (first complain of pain postoperatively), 6, 12 and 18 hours respectively. Pain intensity was measured by a 10 point Visual Analogue Scale (0→no pain and 10→worst imaginable pain) VAS at T(0)→just before analgesic administration, at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours thereafter, in addition to HR, SBP, DBP. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, Student t-test and p-values <0.05 was considered significant. Results During postoperative follow-up intervals, paracetamol showed significantly lower VAS scores as compared to tramadol at 1.5 hour, 3 hour, 6 hour, 12 hour and 24 hour follow up intervals. One patient in tramadol group had nausea postoperatively (p>0.05). No adverse effect attributable to paracetamol was noticed. Conclusion Intravenous Paracetamol can be advocated as an effective and safe analgesic agent for postoperative pain relief. PMID:27656532
Tan, Jarrod K H; Goh, Joel C I; Lim, Janice W L; Shridhar, Iyer G; Madhavan, Krishnakumar; Kow, Alfred W C
Studies have shown that same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SALC) is superior to delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (AC). While some proposed a"golden 72-hour" for SALC, the optimal timing remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of SALC in AC patients with different time intervals from symptom onset. A retrospective analysis of 311 patients who underwent SALC for AC from June 2010-June 2015 was performed. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time interval between symptom onset and surgery: <4 days (E-SALC), 4-7 days (M-SALC), >7 (L-SALC). The mean duration of symptoms was 2(1-3), 5(4-7) and 9 (8-13) days for E-SALC, M-SALC and L-SALC, respectively (p < 0.001). Conversion rates were higher in the L-SALC group [E-SALC, 8.2% vs M-SALC, 9.6% vs L-SALC, 21.4%] (p = 0.048). The total length of stay was longer in patients with longer symptom duration [E-SALC, 4 (2-33) vs M-SALC, 2 (2-23) vs L-SALC, 7 (2-49)] (p < 0.001). Patients with AC presenting beyond 7 days of symptoms have higher conversion rates and longer length of stay associated with SALC. However, patients with less than a week of symptoms should be offered SALC. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wright, Barry; Aghahoseini, Assad
Objective To determine whether preoperative psychological depression and/or serotonin transporter gene polymorphism are associated with poor outcomes after the common procedure of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Design Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and assessed for psychological morbidity before and 6 weeks after surgery. The main outcome was postoperative depression; secondary outcomes included fatigue, perceived pain, quality of life and subjective perception about return to usual. Results Full genetic and psychological data were obtained from 273 out of 330 patients consented to the study (82% female). Significantly fewer people with preoperative depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score >5) had returned to employment (57% vs 86%, p<0.001) or made a full recovery (11% vs 44%, p<0.001) 6 weeks after surgery. Independent predictors for subjective return to usual after surgery included preoperative depression, body mass index and postoperative pain scores. Independent predictors of postoperative depression included preoperative antidepressant use and preoperative depression. SS genotype was associated with use of antidepressants preoperatively and higher anxiety levels after surgery. However, it was not associated with other salient postoperative psychosocial outcomes. Conclusions Depressive psychological morbidity preoperatively, pain and body mass index appear to be important factors in predicting recovery after this common surgical procedure. There may be a place to include preoperative brief psychological screening to enable targeted support. Our results suggest that the serotonin transporter gene is unlikely to be a useful clinical predictor of outcome in this group. Trial registration number ISRCTN40219584. PMID:27601483
Lee, Jun Suh; Seo, Ho Seok; Hong, Tae Ho
The purpose of this study was to analyze the educational quality of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) videos accessible on YouTube, one of the most important sources of internet-based medical information. The keyword 'laparoscopic cholecystectomy' was used to search on YouTube and the first 100 videos were analyzed. Among them, 27 videos were excluded and 73 videos were included in the study. An arbitrary score system for video quality, devised from existing LC guidelines, were used to evaluate the quality of the videos. Video demographics were analyzed by the quality and source of the video. Correlation analysis was performed. When analyzed by video quality, 11 (15.1%) were evaluated as 'good', 40 (54.8%) were 'moderate', and 22 (30.1%) were 'poor', and there were no differences in length, views per day, or number of likes, dislikes, and comments. When analyzed by source, 27 (37.0%) were uploaded by primary centers, 20 (27.4%) by secondary centers, 15 (20.5%) by tertiary centers, 5 (6.8%) by academic institutions, and 6 (8.2%) by commercial institutions. The mean score of the tertiary center group (6.0 ± 2.0) was significantly higher than the secondary center group (3.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.001). The video score had no correlation with views per day or number of likes. Many LC videos are accessible on YouTube with varying quality. Videos uploaded by tertiary centers showed the highest educational value. This discrepancy in video quality was not recognized by viewers. More videos with higher quality need to be uploaded, and an active filtering process is necessary.
Guo, Wei; Liu, Yang; Han, Wei; Liu, Jun; Jin, Lan; Li, Jian-She; Zhang, Zhong-Tao
Background: We undertook a randomized controlled trial to ascertain if single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) was more beneficial for reducing postoperative pain than traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC). Moreover, the influencing factors of SILC were analyzed. Methods: A total of 552 patients with symptomatic gallstones or polyps were allocated randomly to undergo SILC (n = 138) or TLC (n = 414). Data on postoperative pain score, operative time, complications, procedure conversion, and hospital costs were collected. After a 6-month follow-up, all data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Results: Among SILC group, 4 (2.9%) cases required conversion to TLC. Mean operative time of SILC was significantly longer than that of TLC (58.97 ± 21.56 vs. 43.38 ± 19.02 min, P < 0.001). The two groups showed no significant differences in analgesic dose, duration of hospital stay, or cost. Median pain scores were similar between the two groups 7 days after surgery, but SILC-treated patients had a significantly lower median pain score 6 h after surgery (10-point scale: 3 [2, 4] vs. 4 [3, 5], P = 0.009). Importantly, subgroup analyses of operative time for SILC showed that a longer operative time was associated with greater prevalence of pain score >5 (≥100 min: 5/7 patients vs. <40 min, 3/16 patients, P = 0.015). Conclusions: The primary benefit of SILC appears to be slightly less pain immediately after surgery. Surgeon training seems to be important because the shorter operative time for SILC may elicit less pain immediately after surgery. PMID:26668145
Nataly, Yogesh; Merrie, Arend E; Stewart, Ian D
The use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of suspected common bile duct (CBD) stones prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy is common. The associated morbidity can be significant. The present study determines significant predictors of CBD stones and improves the selection of patients for preoperative ERCP. All preoperative ERCP for suspected CBD stones in the year 1998 were studied retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses of a number of clinical, biochemical and radiological variables were carried out to determine the best predictors of CBD stones. A total of 112 patients had successful preoperative ERCP. Sixty-one per cent of these were negative for stones and the morbidity was 9%. Univariate analysis revealed the following variables as predictors: cholangitis (P = 0.006), abnormal serum bilirubin > or = 3 days (P = 0.002), serum alkaline phosphatase > or = 130 U/L (P = 0.002), deranged liver function tests (P = < 0.001) and CBD diameter > or = 8 mm (P = 0.009) with positive predictive values of 80%, 68%, 49%, 38% and 52%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed the model with the best ability to discriminate for CBD stones (P = 0.0005) was cholangitis, abnormal serum bilirubin for > or = 3 days and CBD diameter > or = 8 mm. The best predictors from this study had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 27%. The predictors of CBD stones are imprecise. Until laparoscopic exploration of CBD becomes widely available, ERCP prior to cholecystectomy will remain popular. The use of stricter selection criteria can reduce the number of negative preoperative ERCP.
de MENEZES, Francisco Julimar Correia; de MENEZES, Lara Gadelha Luna; da SILVA, Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira; MELO-FILHO, Antônio Aldo; MELO, Daniel Hardy; da SILVA, Carlos Antonio Bruno
ABSTRACT Background: In the Western world, the population developed an overweight profile. The morbidly obese generate higher cost to the health system. However, there is a gap in this approach with regard to individuals above the eutrofic pattern, who are not considered as morbidly obese. Aim: To correlate nutritional status according to BMI with the costs of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a public hospital. Method: Data were collected from medical records about: nutritional risk assessment, nutricional state and hospital cost in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: Were enrolled 814 procedures. Average age was 39.15 (±12.16) years; 47 subjects (78.3%) were women. The cost was on average R$ 6,167.32 (±1830.85) to 4.06 (±2.76) days of hospitalization; 41 (68.4%) presented some degree of overweight; mean BMI was 28.07 (±5.41) kg/m²; six (10%) individuals presented nutritional risk ≥3. There was a weak correlation (r=0.2) and not significant (p <0.08) between the cost of hospitalization of the sample and length of stay; however, in individuals with normal BMI, the correlation was strong (r=0,57) and significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: Overweight showed no correlation between cost and length of stay. However, overweight individuals had higher cost of hospitalization than those who had no complications, but with no correlation with nutritional status. Compared to those with normal BMI, there was a strong and statistically significant correlation with the cost of hospital stay, stressing that there is normal distribution involving adequate nutritional status and success of the surgical procedure with the consequent impact on the cost of hospitalization. PMID:27438031
Erdem, Vuslat Muslu; Uzman, Sinan; Yildirim, Dogan; Avaroglu, Huseyin; Ferahman, Sina; Sunamak, Oguzhan
Purpose Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is usually performed under the general anesthesia (GA). Aim of the study is to investigate the availability, safety and side effects of combined spinal/epidural anesthesia (CSEA) and comparison it with GA for LC. Methods Forty-nine patients who have a LC plan were included into the study. The patients were randomly divided into GA (n = 25) and CSEA (n = 24) groups. Intraoperative and postoperative adverse events, postoperative pain levels were compared between groups. Results Anesthesia procedures and surgeries for all patients were successfully completed. After the organization of pneumoperitoneum in CSEA group, 3 patients suffered from shoulder pain (12.5%) and 4 patients suffered from abdominal discomfort (16.6%). All these complaints were recovered with IV fentanyl administration. Only 1 patient developed hypotension which is recovered with fluid replacement and no need to use vasopressor treatment. Postoperative shoulder pain was significantly less observed in CSEA group (25% vs. 60%). Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was less observed in CSEA group but not statistically significant (4.2% vs. 20%). In the group of CSEA, 3 patients suffered from urinary retention (12.5%) and 2 patients suffered from spinal headache (8.3%). All postoperative pain parameters except 6th hour, were less observed in CSEA group, less VAS scores and less need to analgesic treatment in CSEA group comparing with GA group. Conclusion CSEA can be used safely for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Less postoperative surgical field pain, shoulder pain and PONV are the advantages of CSEA compared to GA. PMID:28289667
Cheng, Yuan; Jiang, Ze-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ting-Cheng; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Qin, Jia-Sheng; He, Guo-Lin; Gao, Yi; Pan, Ming-Xin
AIM: To perform a large-scale retrospective comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESSC) and three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TPLC) in a single institution. METHODS: Data were collected from 366 patients undergoing LESSC between January 2005 and July 2008 and were compared with the data from 355 patients undergoing TPLC between August 2008 and November 2011 in our department. Patients with body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2, a history of major upper abdominal surgery, signs of acute cholecystitis, such as fever, right upper quadrant tenderness with or without Murphy’s sign, elevated white blood cell count, imaging findings suggestive of pericholecystic fluid, gallbladder wall thickening > 4 mm, and gallstones > 3 cm, were excluded to avoid bias. RESULTS: Altogether, 298 LESSC and 315 TPLC patients met the inclusion criteria. The groups were well matched with regard to demographic data. There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative complications (contusion: 19 vs 25 and hematoma at incision: 11 vs 19), hospital stay (mean ± SD, 1.4 ± 0.2 d vs 1.4 ± 0.7 d) and visual analogue pain score (mean ± SD, 8 h after surgery: 2.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.3 ± 1.3 and at day 1: 1.2 ± 0.4 vs 1.3 ± 1.2) between the LESSC and TPLC patients. Four patients required the addition of extra ports and 2 patients were converted to open surgery in the LESSC group, which was not significantly different when compared with TPLC patients converted to laparotomy (2 vs 2). LESSC resulted in a longer operating time (mean ± SD, 54.8 ± 11.0 min vs 33.5 ± 9.0 min), a higher incidence of intraoperative gallbladder perforation (56 vs 6) and higher operating cost (mean ± SD, 1933.7 ± 64.4 USD vs 1874.7 ± 46.2 USD) than TPLC. No significant differences in operating time (mean ± SD, 34.3 ± 6.0 min vs 32.7 ± 8.7 min) and total cost (mean ± SD, 1881.3 ± 32.8 USD vs 1876.2 ± 33.4 USD) were found when the last 100 cases in the two groups were
Bodner, Johannes; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Lucciarini, Paolo; Fish, John H; Schmid, Thomas
The benefit of robotic systems for general surgery is a matter of debate. We compare our initial series of robotic splenectomies with our first series of conventional laparoscopic ones. A retrospective analysis of the first six robotic versus the first six conventional laparoscopic splenectomies is presented. Patients were matched with regard to age, body-mass index, ASA score, and preoperative platelet levels. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon. Size and weight of the resected specimens were comparable in both groups. Median overall operating time was 154 (range, 115-292) min for the robotic and 127 (range, 95-174) min for the laparoscopic group. No complications occurred. There were no open conversions. The median postoperative hospital stay was 7 (robotic group) and 6 (laparoscopic group) days. Median average costs were 6927 dollars for the robotic procedure versus $4084 for the conventional laparoscopic procedure (p < 0.05). Minimally invasive splenectomies are feasible using either conventional laparoscopic techniques or the da Vinci robotic system. In this analysis, procedures performed with the da Vinci robotic system resulted in prolonged overall operative time and significantly higher procedural costs. The use of a robotic system for laparoscopic splenectomy offers, at this stage, no relevant benefit and thus is not justified.
Surbatović, Maja; Vesić, Zoran; Djordjević, Dragan; Radaković, Sonja; Zeba, Snjeiana; Jovanović, Dusko; Novaković, Marijan
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be a greater challenge for anesthesiologist than for surgeon if the patient is ASA III with concomitant cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA--propofol with midazolam) and general balanced anesthesia (GBA--midazolam, thiopenton, nitrous oxide and 02) on hemodynamic stability in the ASA III patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In our study, 60 patients were randomized into two groups depending on whether they received TIVA or GBA. Heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure were monitored continuously and recorded in five time intervals. Statistical analysis showed that TIVA with propofol provides better hemodynamic stability (less than 10% deviation from basal values for each measured parameter) then GBA group (p < 0.01). Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol provides better hemodynamic stability for ASA III patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases then GBA.
Kayashima, H; Ikegami, T; Ueo, H; Tsubokawa, N; Matsuura, H; Okamoto, D; Nakashima, A; Okadome, K
We report on a case of a female patient diagnosed with inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in association with spilled gallstones 3 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for calculous acute cholecystitis. She was asymptomatic, but CT revealed an intrahepatic mass and two other extrahepatic masses between the liver and the diaphragm. Furthermore, diffusion-weighted MRI and PET suggested all three lesions could be malignant tumors. As the preoperative diagnosis was intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma with peritoneal disseminations, we performed a posterior segmentectomy of the liver combined with partial resection of the diaphragm. Histological examination showed the intrahepatic tumor was an inflammatory granuloma with abscess formations. There were bilirubin stones between the liver and the diaphragm. Therefore, the tumor was diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in association with spilled gallstones. In conclusion, the liver tumor emerged after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and may involve inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in association with spilled gallstones.
Cristian, Rapicetta; Massimiliano, Paci; Tommaso, Ricchetti; Sara, Tenconi; Federico, Biolchini; Emilio, Belluzzi; Giorgio, Sgarbi
A 62-year old man was referred to our institution in hemorrhagic shock after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, performed at an outside hospital. A chest X-ray revealed a right-sided massive pleural effusion. Urgent surgical exploration was performed through a video-assisted mini-thoracotomy which revealed active bleeding from a pleural adherence. Successful hemostasis was achieved intraoperatively and the patient had an uneventful recovery. In absence of intra-abdominal hemorrhage, a hemothorax should be considered as a potential source of major bleeding in patients who develop symptoms of hypovolemia after laparoscopic surgery.
Liang, Bo; Dai, Min; Zou, Zhenhong
Owing to persistent controversy regarding the use of routine antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the availability of several new randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we conducted an up-to-date meta-analysis to provide the best current evidence. The aim of the article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of routine antibiotic prophylaxis in low-risk patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for RCTs that compared antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo or no antibiotics in low-risk patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The meta-analysis included 21 RCTs (5207 patients). Antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the incidence of surgical site infections (risk ratio [RR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 0.82, P = 0.001) and global infections (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P = 0.001) during hospitalization or after discharge, and postoperative length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference -0.16, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.04, P = 0.008). No adverse events were reported. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that two doses of antibiotic and 3-10 doses of antibiotic significantly reduced the incidence of surgical site infections compared with placebo or no antibiotics (two doses: RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.06-0.47; 3-10 doses: RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.80), while a single dose of antibiotic administration did not. Antibiotic prophylaxis is safe and effective in reducing surgical site infections and global infections during hospitalization or after discharge, and postoperative length of hospital stay in low-risk patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Tsalis, Konstantinos; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Koukouritaki, Zambia; Patridas, Dimitrios; Christoforidis, Emmanuel; Lazaridis, Charalampos
The 2 main challenges of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are primary peritoneal access and safe identification, ligation, and division of the cystic duct and cystic artery. This is a 13-year period retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. All the operations were performed by 1 surgeon and all the data were collected from the hospitals archive. A total of 929 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The first author was involved in all the operations either by performing or assisting in them. The open access (OA) technique was used in all cases for the creation of pneumoperitoneum. After establishing the pneumoperitoneum, the "critical view of safety" (CVS) technique was used to ligate and divide the cystic duct and cystic artery. When the OA was not possible or CVS was not feasible, the operation was converted to open. Successful establishment of pneumoperitoneum with OA was possible in 911 of 929 (98.06%) patients and CVS was achieved in 873 patients (95.82%). In 18 patients the operation was converted to open because of dense adhesions not permitting the establishment of the pneumoperitoneum. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred in these patients. No bile duct injury occurred in this series. Postoperative complications were recorded in 19 patients (2.04%). Five patients had bleeding from port sites, 12 patients had wound infection at the umbilical incision, and 2 patients developed subhepatic collections, which were drained percutaneously under computed tomographic guidance. In this series of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, we used the "open access" technique to create pneumoperitoneum and we obtained the "critical view of safety" for the identification of the cystic duct. Our results show that this approach is the safest way to perform and teach laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Ankersmit, Marjolein; van Dam, Dieuwertje A; van Rijswijk, Anne-Sophie; van den Heuvel, Baukje; Tuynman, Jurriaan B; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J H J
Although rare, injury to the common bile duct (CBD) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be reduced by better intraoperative visualization of the cystic duct (CD) and CBD. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy of early visualization of the CD and the added value of CBD identification, using near-infrared (NIR) light and the fluorescent agent indocyanine green (ICG), in patients at increased risk of bile duct injury. Patients diagnosed with complicated cholecystitis and scheduled for LC were included. The CBD and CD were visualized with NIR light before and during dissection of the liver hilus and at critical view of safety (CVS). Of the 20 patients originally included, 2 were later excluded due to conversion. In 6 of 18 patients, the CD was visualized early during dissection and prior to imaging with conventional white light. The CBD was additionally visualized with ICG-NIR in 7 of 18 patients. In 1 patient, conversion was prevented due to detection of the CD and CBD with ICG-NIR. Early visualization of the CD or additional identification of the CBD using ICG-NIR in patients with complicated cholecystolithiasis can be helpful in preventing CBD injury. Future studies should attempt to establish the optimal dosage and time frame for ICG administration and bile duct visualization with respect to different gallbladder pathologies.
Beuran, M; Chiotoroiu, A L; Avram, M; Vartic, Mihaela; Constantinescu, G; Dorobăţ, B; Roşu, Oana; Diaconescu, B I
Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis, it is associated with an increased risk of biliary and vascular injury compared to the traditional technique. Massive hemobilia is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Arterio-biliary fistula is an uncommon cause of hemobilia. We describe a case of cystic artery pseudo-aneurysm causing arterio-biliary fistula and presenting as severe melaena and cholangitis that occurred 7 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gastroduodenoscopy failed to establish the exact source of bleeding and hepatic artery angiography and selective embolization of the pseudo-aneurysm successfully controlled the bleeding. Pseudo-aneurysm of the hepatic artery is mostly iatrogenic due to biliary intervention, as demonstrated in this case. Transarterial embolization is considered the first line of intervention to stop the bleeding for most causes of hemobilia. Hemobilia is a rare complication that should be considered when managing patients with bleeding or jaundice even several months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Fersahoglu, Mehmet Mahir; Kilic, Fatih; Onur, Ender; Memisoglu, Kemal
Backgrounds/Aims To determine the importance of critical view of safety techniques in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods A total of 120 patients were included in the study, between January 2015 to March 2016. Hydrodissection was performed for cases presenting with severe adhesions or cholecystitis. A critical view of safety was performed for all patients undergoing the procedure for isolation of cystic duct and cystic artery with cystic plate dissection. Demographic characteristics of the patients, as well as intraoperative and postoperative minor or major complications were recorded. Results A total of 81 (67.5%) female and 39 (32.5%) male patients succesfully underwent surgeries following the critical view of safety and hydrodissection technique. Acute/chronic cholecystitis, or severe adhesions in the surgical field, were detected in 34 (28.3%) patients. There were no intraoperative or postoperative biliary complications. Wound infection was detected in 5 (4.1%) patients. All patients were discharged on either the first, second or third postoperative day. Conclusions Biliary duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an important complication. In this study, we show that the critical view of safety and hydrodissection techniquesminimizes the bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, including in difficult cases. PMID:28317041
Mohsen, Amr; Elbasiouny, Mahmoud S; El-Shazli, Mostafa; Azmy, Osama; Amr, Ahmed
Background This work studied the diagnostic effectiveness of a new technology and device to augment visualization of bile ducts at laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It depends on excitation of fluorescein in bile by ultraviolet light to get green fluorescent light emanating from these ducts. Methods Forty laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients received fluorescein sodium injections either in the gallbladder or intravenously, followed by exposure of the expected bile ducts area to ultraviolet light that was delivered by a specially designed device. Neutral observing surgeons were asked to judge whether or not they could see fluorescent bile ducts early in the operation before they were displayed by dissection. Accordingly, specificity, sensitivity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values of the technique were calculated. Results Fluorescent bile ducts were seen at an earlier stage than their detection by dissection in 33 out of 40 operations. The technique had 100% specificity, 82.5% sensitivity, 0.18 negative likelihood ratio, 100% positive predictive value, and 85.11% negative predictive value. There were no complications related to the technique. Conclusions The developing ultraviolet/fluorescein technique is helpful in early localization of bile ducts at laparoscopic cholecystectomy. When fluorescence is detected in the field, the technique can be completely relied on to denote the position of bile ducts. In a few cases fluorescence is not detected. Here further development of the device is the need to improve its sensitivity. Otherwise, the technique is quite simple and safe.
Caskey, Robert C; Owei, Lily; Rao, Raghavendra; Riddle, Elijah W; Brooks, Ari D; Dempsey, Daniel T; Morris, Jon B; Neylan, Christopher J; Williams, Noel N; Dumon, Kristoffel R
Nontechnical skills are an essential component of surgical education and a major competency assessed by the ACGME milestones project. However, the optimal way to integrate nontechnical skills training into existing curricula and then objectively evaluate the outcome is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect laparoscopic team-based task training would have on the nontechnical skills needed for laparoscopic surgery. 9 PGY-1 residents underwent an established training curriculum for teaching the knowledge and technical skills involved in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Initial training involved a didactic session, expert-led practice on a porcine model in a simulated operating room and laparoscopic skills practice on a virtual reality trainer. Residents then performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the same porcine model as a preintervention test. Three to four months following this, residents were subjected to specific nontechnical skills training involving 2 simple team-based laparoscopic tasks. They then practiced a further 4 to 6 hours on the virtual reality trainer. A repeat postintervention laparoscopic cholecystectomy was then performed 3 to 4 months after nontechnical skills training. Both the preintervention and postintervention laparoscopic cholecystectomies were audiovisually recorded and then evaluated by 2 independent surgeons in a blinded fashion. Technical skills were assessed using objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) and a technique specific rating scale (TRS) that we developed for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Nontechnical skills were assessed using nontechnical skills for surgeons (NOTSS). Residents also completed a survey at the beginning and end of the training. Tertiary care, university based teaching institution. A total of 9 general surgery residents at the intern level. The mean OSATS score improved from 13.7 ± 1.24 to 26.7 ± 0.31 (p < 0.001), the mean TRS score improved from 6 ± 0.46 to 13
Costantini, Raffaele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Massimini, Francesca; Tana, Claudio; Innocenti, Paolo; Giamberardino, Maria Adele
Fibromyalgia, a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain and somatic hyperalgesia from central sensitization, is very often comorbid with visceral pain conditions. In fibromyalgia patients with gallbladder calculosis, this study assessed the short and long-term impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on fibromyalgia pain symptoms. Fibromyalgia pain (VAS scale) and pain thresholds in tender points and control areas (skin, subcutis and muscle) were evaluated 1week before (basis) and 1week, 1,3,6 and 12months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fibromyalgia patients with symptomatic calculosis (n = 31) vs calculosis patients without fibromyalgia (n. 26) and at comparable time points in fibromyalgia patients not undergoing cholecystectomy, with symptomatic (n = 27) and asymptomatic (n = 28) calculosis, and no calculosis (n = 30). At basis, fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis patients presented a significant linear correlation between the number of previously experienced biliary colics and fibromyalgia pain (direct) and muscle thresholds (inverse)(p<0.0001). After cholecystectomy, fibromyalgia pain significantly increased and all thresholds significantly decreased at 1week and 1month (1-way ANOVA, p<0.01-p<0.001), the decrease in muscle thresholds correlating linearly with the peak postoperative pain at surgery site (p<0.003-p<0.0001). Fibromyalgia pain and thresholds returned to preoperative values at 3months, then pain significantly decreased and thresholds significantly increased at 6 and 12months (p<0.05-p<0.0001). Over the same 12-month period: in non-fibromyalgia patients undergoing cholecystectomy thresholds did not change; in all other fibromyalgia groups not undergoing cholecystectomy fibromyalgia pain and thresholds remained stable, except in fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis at 12months when pain significantly increased and muscle thresholds significantly decreased (p<0.05-p<0.0001). The results of the study show that biliary colics from
Costantini, Raffaele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Massimini, Francesca; Tana, Claudio; Innocenti, Paolo; Giamberardino, Maria Adele
Fibromyalgia, a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain and somatic hyperalgesia from central sensitization, is very often comorbid with visceral pain conditions. In fibromyalgia patients with gallbladder calculosis, this study assessed the short and long-term impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on fibromyalgia pain symptoms. Fibromyalgia pain (VAS scale) and pain thresholds in tender points and control areas (skin, subcutis and muscle) were evaluated 1week before (basis) and 1week, 1,3,6 and 12months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fibromyalgia patients with symptomatic calculosis (n = 31) vs calculosis patients without fibromyalgia (n. 26) and at comparable time points in fibromyalgia patients not undergoing cholecystectomy, with symptomatic (n = 27) and asymptomatic (n = 28) calculosis, and no calculosis (n = 30). At basis, fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis patients presented a significant linear correlation between the number of previously experienced biliary colics and fibromyalgia pain (direct) and muscle thresholds (inverse)(p<0.0001). After cholecystectomy, fibromyalgia pain significantly increased and all thresholds significantly decreased at 1week and 1month (1-way ANOVA, p<0.01-p<0.001), the decrease in muscle thresholds correlating linearly with the peak postoperative pain at surgery site (p<0.003-p<0.0001). Fibromyalgia pain and thresholds returned to preoperative values at 3months, then pain significantly decreased and thresholds significantly increased at 6 and 12months (p<0.05-p<0.0001). Over the same 12-month period: in non-fibromyalgia patients undergoing cholecystectomy thresholds did not change; in all other fibromyalgia groups not undergoing cholecystectomy fibromyalgia pain and thresholds remained stable, except in fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis at 12months when pain significantly increased and muscle thresholds significantly decreased (p<0.05-p<0.0001). The results of the study show that biliary colics from
Adkins, Heather H; Hardacker, Thomas J; Ceppa, Eugene P
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the standard of care for treatment of benign biliary disease. Declining reimbursements and increasing medical costs require physicians to examine closely their choices for equipment to decrease overall costs, particularly looking at key steps of cholecystectomy. The objective of this study was to examine variations between surgeons in equipment and operating room costs for elective LC. Elective LC performed at IUH West Hospital in 2013 was analyzed. Patient demographics, preoperative diagnosis, operative time, surgical equipment, and resident participation were tracked. Exclusion criteria included acute cholecystitis and cases with additional procedures. Electronic medical records for clinical data and administrative records for reimbursement data were reviewed. Total supply costs and disposable costs for key portions of the LC were analyzed. Reimbursements were obtained from all payers for LC. All LC were examined (n = 362) and 272 met inclusion criteria. Demographics and pathology were similar between surgeons. Operative time varied significantly (range 53-98 min) with the lowest cost surgeon taking the longest overall time. Times were significantly affected by resident participation. The total morbidity was 4 %, with no mortalities. Total supply costs by surgeon ranged from $412-$924. The most costeffective technique included the use of plastic locking clips and hook electrocautery. Hospital and surgeon reimbursements were $336-$11,554 and $669-$1500 respectively. This study highlights effects of surgeon choice as it relates to variable costs for surgical technique during elective LC without compromising safety. With healthcare reform emphasizing reduced healthcare expenditures, it is vital for surgeons to identify areas of unnecessary cost. Operating room time also contributes to cost, thus surgeons should implement techniques to complete procedures in a safe yet efficient fashion. Transparency by surgeons can lead to
Backgrounds/Aims Frequently encountered in practice, the first-line treatment for acute cholecystitis is early or urgent cholecystectomy, with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) being the preferred method. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is considered as a safe alternative therapeutic option for resolving acute cholecystitis in surgically high-risk patients. We evaluated the surgical outcomes of acute cholecystitis, focusing on the differences between emergent LC without PTGBD, and scheduled LC following PTGBD. Methods Between March 2010 and December 2014, 294 patients with acute cholecystitis who had undergone LC, were retrospectively studied. Group I included 166 patients who underwent emergency LC without PTGBD. Group II included 128 patients who underwent scheduled LC after PTGBD. Clinical outcomes were analyzed according to each group. Results On admission, Group II had a higher mean level of c-reactive protein than Group I. According to the classification of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), group II had a greater number of high-risk patients than group I. There was no significant difference on perioperative outcomes between the two groups, including open conversion rate and complications. Analysis as per the ASA classes revealed no statistically remarkable finding between the groups. Conclusions There are no significant differences in the surgical outcomes of emergency LC group without PTGBD, and scheduled LC group following PTGBD. Comparison between two groups according to ASA classification reflecting the comorbidity and severity of condition of the patients also revealed no significant differences. However, scheduled LC following PTGBD is important for patients having acute cholecystitis with concurrent comorbidity. PMID:28317042
Liang, Han-sheng; Feng, Yi; Liu, Yi-zhao; An, Hai-yan; Yang, Ba-xian
To investigate the effects of postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy using intravenous flurbiprofen combined with different concentrations of ropivacaine incision infiltration. Eighty patients who underwent traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy received standard general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, patients were randomly divided into four groups: group Con (control group: no analgesics was administered, n=20); group F (flurbiprofen group: 100 mg of flurbiprofen was given intravenously with no incision infiltration, n=20); group FR(0.25) (100 mg of flurbiprofen was given intravenously, combined with 0.25% ropivacaine incision infiltration, 2 mL per incision, 6 mL in total, n=20) and group FR(0.5) (100 mg of flurbiprofen was given intravenously, combined with 0.5% ropivacaine incision infiltration, 2 mL per incision, 6 mL in total, n=20). The intensity of postoperative pain was evaluated using numeric rating scale (NRS) in a double-blinded manner. Intramuscularly 50 mg of meperidin was administered as rescue medication when NRS was above 4. The NRS and the associated side effects were observed and recorded at the end of 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively (T(0 h)h,T(2 h),T(6 h),T(12 h),T(24 h),and T(48 h)). There was no obvious difference among the four groups in respect of gender, age, body weight, baseline blood pressure, heart rate(HR), and total doses of sufentanil and remifentanil during operation and surgical time(P>0.05).There were significant differences among group FR(0.25)(2.34 ± 0.89,3.01 ± 1.27,2.79 ± 0.94), group FR(0.5)(2.42 ± 0.79, 2.69 ± 0.96, 2.03 ± 0.87)and group Con(3.42 ± 1.23, 5.98 ± 1.46, 4.53 ± 0.92)in NRS at T(2 h), T(6 h), and T(12 h)(P<0.05).Systolic blood pressures (SBP) of patients in group FR(0.25) [(114.19 ± .74) mmHg,(108.31 ± 7.62) mmHg) and group FR(0.5) [(115.26 ± 8.95) mmHg,(111.25 ± 9.12) mmHg] were significantly lower than those of patients in group Con [(137.11 ± 8.71) mm
Beck, Catherine; Eakin, Jeffrey; Dettorre, Rebecca; Renton, David
Recent technological advances in single-incision platforms have allowed many general surgeons to add single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) to their armamentarium. However, adopting new surgical technologies comes at a cost to the patient and the surgeon. This study compared retrospective case-matched SILC and traditional multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MILC) to evaluate the effects of SILC on perioperative outcomes and patient cost. The study compared 50 patients who underwent SILC with a case-matched population of individuals who underwent traditional MILC. The SILC technique was performed using one of three commercially available single-incision platforms currently used for single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) cholecystectomies. All the SILS platforms were placed in a 2-cm supraumbilical incision. All statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel 2008 for Macintosh, with statistical significance determined by a p value of 0.05 or less. The average operative time was 42 min for the SILC group and 45 min for the MILC group. The difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the average estimated blood loss was 14 ml for the SILC group and 11 ml for the MILC group. Again, the difference was not statistically significant. Moreover, the body mass index (BMI) did not differ statistically between the SILC group (28.4 kg/m(2)) and the MILC group (32.2 kg/m(2)). The average patient cost was $18,447 for SILC and $17,701 for MILC, yielding a cost difference of $746. This difference was not statistically significant. At the authors' institution, SILS cholecystectomy was performed with blood loss, operating room time, and cost equal to that for MILC. Further research is necessary to assess the economic feasibility of SILC and the trade-off of cost with the improved cosmesis, decreased pain, greater patient satisfaction, reduced postoperative analgesic requirement, and faster return to work to determine the overall value
Altuntaş, Gülsüm; Akkaya, Ömer Taylan; Özkan, Derya; Sayın, Mehmet Murat; Balas, Şener; Özlü, Elif
Objective This study aimed to compare the efficacy of local anaesthetic infiltration to trocar wounds and intraperitoneally on postoperative pain as a part of a multimodal analgesia method after laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Methods The study was performed on 90 ASA I–III patients aged between 20 and 70 years who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients had the same general anaesthesia drug regimen. Patients were randomized into three groups by a closed envelope method: group I (n=30), trocar site local anaesthetic infiltration (20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine); group II (n=30), intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation (20 mL of 0.5%) and group III (n=30), saline infiltration both trocar sites and intraperitoneally. Postoperative i.v. patient controlled analgesia was initiated for 24 h. In total, 4 mg of i.v. ondansetron was administered to all patients. Visual analogue scale (VAS), nausea and vomiting and shoulder pain were evaluated at 1., 2., 4., 8., 12., 24. hours. An i.v. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (50 mg of dexketoprofen) as a rescue analgesic was given if the VAS was ≥5. Results There were no statistical significant differences between the clinical and demographic properties among the three groups (p≥0.005). During all periods, VAS in group I was significantly lower than that in groups II and III (p<0.001). Among the groups, although there was no significant difference in nausea and vomiting (p=0.058), there was a significant difference in shoulder pain. Group III (p<0.05) had more frequent shoulder pain than groups I and II. The total morphine consumption was higher in groups II and III (p<0.001 vs p<0.001) than in group I. The requirement for a rescue analgesic was significantly higher in group III (p<0.05). Conclusion Trocar site local anaesthetic infiltration is more effective for postoperative analgesia, easier to apply and safer than other analgesia methods. Morphine consumption is lesser and side effects
Youssef, Yassar; Lee, Gyusung; Godinez, Carlos; Sutton, Erica; Klein, Rosemary V; George, Ivan M; Seagull, F Jacob; Park, Adrian
This study compares surgical techniques and surgeon's standing position during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), investigating each with respect to surgeons' learning, performance, and ergonomics. Little homogeneity exists in LC performance and training. Variations in standing position (side-standing technique vs. between-standing technique) and hand technique (one-handed vs. two-handed) exist. Thirty-two LC procedures performed on a virtual reality simulator were video-recorded and analyzed. Each subject performed four different procedures: one-handed/side-standing, one-handed/between-standing, two-handed/side-standing, and two-handed/between-standing. Physical ergonomics were evaluated using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Mental workload assessment was acquired with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Virtual reality (VR) simulator-generated performance evaluation and a subjective survey were analyzed. RULA scores were consistently lower (indicating better ergonomics) for the between-standing technique and higher (indicating worse ergonomics) for the side-standing technique, regardless of whether one- or two-handed. Anatomical scores overall showed side-standing to have a detrimental effect on the upper arms and trunk. The NASA-TLX showed significant association between the side-standing position and high physical demand, effort, and frustration (p<0.05). The two-handed technique in the side-standing position required more effort than the one-handed (p<0.05). No difference in operative time or complication rate was demonstrated among the four procedures. The two-handed/between-standing method was chosen as the best procedure to teach and standardize. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy poses a risk of physical injury to the surgeon. As LC is currently commonly performed in the United States, the left side-standing position may lead to increased physical demand and effort, resulting in ergonomically unsound conditions for
Bakhtiari, Jalal; Khalaj, Ali Reza; Aminlou, Elham; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir
To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a transvaginal approach for laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (OVH) in dogs and to compare it with conventional laparoscopic OVH. Prospective study. Adult healthy female mixed breed dogs (n = 24). Dogs (weighing 14-17 kg) were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency for ovariohysterectomy. Dogs were prepared for either conventional (n = 12) or transvaginal (n = 12) laparoscopic OVH. For conventional laparoscopic OVH, 3 midline abdominal portals were used and for the transvaginal approach, 2 midline abdominal portals and one vaginal portal were used. The transected ovarian pedicles, broad ligament, and uterus were removed through the umbilical region in the conventional method and through the vagina in the transvaginal method. Mean surgical time, intraoperative and postoperative complications, clinical and hematologic findings, and wound complications were compared. OVH was successfully performed without complications using both methods. Mean ± SD surgical times were similar between conventional (34.2 ± 4.03 min) and transvaginal (37.0 ± 3.56 min) methods. No significant differences, hematologic and clinical variables, were found between groups. The vaginal port could limit surgical maneuvers ergonomically during manipulation of the uterine body. Transvaginal approach for laparoscopic OVH is a feasible technique with the advantage of requiring one less abdominal portal. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of VeterinarySurgeons.
Kamble, Shruthi P.; Bevinaguddaiah, Yatish; Nagaraja, Dinesh Chillkunda; Pujar, Vinayak S.; Anandaswamy, Tejesh C.
Background: Pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic procedures is associated with hemodynamic response, due to the release of catecholamines and vasopressin. Magnesium and clonidine have been used to attenuate such hemodynamic responses by inhibiting release of these mediators. We conducted this randomized, double-blinded study to assess which of the two attenuates hemodynamic response better. Materials and Methods: Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists health status Classes I and II patients posted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into three groups of thirty patients each. Group C received injection clonidine 1 μg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline over 10 min, prior to pneumoperitoneum. Group M received injection magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg diluted in 10 mL normal saline over 10 min, prior to pneumoperitoneum. Group NS received 10 mL normal saline intravenously over 10 min, prior to pneumoperitoneum. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction (baseline values), at the end of magnesium sulfate/clonidine/saline administration and before pneumoperitoneum (P0), 5 min (P5), 10 min (P10), 20 min (P20), 30 min (P30), and 40 min (P40) after pneumoperitoneum. Results: Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were all significantly higher in the normal saline group compared to magnesium and clonidine. On comparing patients in Group M and Group C, DBP, MAP, and HR were significantly lower in the magnesium group. Mean extubation time and time to response to verbal commands were significantly longer in the magnesium group. Conclusions: Both magnesium and clonidine attenuated the hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum. However, magnesium 50 mg/kg, attenuated hemodynamic response better than clonidine 1 μg/kg. PMID:28298759
Kataria, Amar Parkash; Attri, Joginder Pal; Kashyap, Ramita; Mahajan, Leena
Background: The advent of laparoscopic surgeries has proved to be beneficial for both patient and surgeon although increased morbidity may result from hemodynamic changes associated with laryngoscopy, intubation, and pneumoperitoneum (PNP). Aim: The present study was prospective, randomized, double-blind conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dexmdetomidine and fentanyl in attenuation of pressor responses to laryngoscopy, intubation, and PNP in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients of 18–65 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Class I/II of either sex for elective LC, were included. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Group I received dexmedetomidine and Group II Fentanyl loading 1 μg/kg over 15 min followed by maintenance 0.2 μg/kg/h throughout the PNP. Measurements: Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were recorded preoperatively, 15 min after infusion of study drug, 1 min after induction, 1 min after intubation, throughout the PNP, end of surgery, and until 60 min in postoperative period. Sedation score, visual analog scale score along with modified Alderete score applied in postanesthesia care unit. Results: Control of HR and MAP in Group I was better than in Group II during laryngoscopy, intubation and PNP. There was also smooth extubation, less sedation and better control of pain in Group I than in Group II. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the benefits of dexmedetomidine over fentanyl in hemodynamic stability and analgesic quality in LC. Thus, it is establishing its utility over for attenuation of pressor response. PMID:27746530
Torres, Kamil; Trębacz, Hanna; Bącik-Donica, Magdalena; Atras, Agnieszka; Torres, Anna; Plewa, Zbigniew
Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum used during laparoscopic surgeries alters the integrity of the peritoneum and results in denudation of the basal lamina that might cause altered immune response, inhibited fibrinolysis, hypoxia, and acidosis. The changes in the structure of pneumoperitoneum were described as bulging of mesothelial cells, irregular cell junction's cell membrane degradation, and mesodermal edema. As denaturation of peritoneal proteins reflects overall condition of its structure and interactions with the surrounding molecules, the physical status of collagen was assessed on the basis of parameters of thermal denaturation measured by DSC method. Twenty-four female patients operated on due to cholelithiasis were enrolled in this study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using standard four-trocar technique, and standard values of insufflated carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum were used. After trocar placement, the first collection of peritoneal sample (sample A) was performed. The second peritoneal sample (sample B) was collected after the removal of gall bladder. Differential scanning calorimetry (Q200 calorimeter, TA Instruments) was performed on samples defrosted at room temperature. In all samples of peritoneum, a nonreversible endothermal process recognized as denaturation was observed. Sample B obtained at the end of surgery did not differ from sample A obtained at the beginning in terms of all parameters under study. Temperature of denaturation in A and B was correlated only marginally, but enthalpy and specific heat were significantly correlated. The analysis of data from DSC measurements did not reveal differences in physical stability of collagen in peritoneal samples obtained at the beginning and at the end of surgery. Significant negative correlations between duration of CO2 pneumoperitoneum and enthalpy of denaturation in sample B were found. Differences in enthalpy of denaturation may reflect a quantitative relation between amount of
Al-Hakkak, Samer Makki Mohamed
Agenesis of gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly of biliary tree that may be associated with other biliary and extra biliary congenital anomalies. A 43- year- old female presented with a 4 months history of upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. It was associated with dyspeptic symptoms and become worse following ingestion of high-fat meal contents. Clinically, a differential of gall stone disease was considered. Ultrasonography of abdomen revealed a contracted gallbladder with multiple stones with normal wall thickness, so the fact of clinical diagnosis considering finding cholithiasis. She was submitted to laparoscopic exploration which revealed that the gall bladder was absent within gall bladder fossa. In this case, the differential of cholithiasis symptoms considered support by ultrasonography, symptomatic gall stones presented more than half of cases of gall bladder agenesis, Diagnosis of gall bladder disease usually done by ultrasound modality, it must be done by expert one. Awareness of this entity by clinicians, surgeons and radiologists are essential because many of these patients present with biliary symptoms and have unnecessary operations. Agenesis of gallbladder should be kept in mind whenever the gall bladder was improperly visualized in routine imaging methods. Ultrasonography operated dependent we must not depend on single one or even multiple done by the same person. Avoid a needless surgical exploration, which might be risky. Non-visualized gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is challenging should not convert to open unless sure that the gall bladder was present. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Bilge Erdogan, Mustafa; Kaplan, Mehmet; Kazaz, Hakki; Salman, Bulent
Acute cholecystitis (AC) may be a severe problem and may increase the mortality rate and hospital stay in patients who undergo open heart surgery (OHS), due to its aggressive course; therefore, AC should be treated as soon as possible. We aimed to present data on our synchronous cardiac and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) operations performed for AC complicating patients with cardiac disease and who were waiting to undergo OHS. Between January 2008 and September 2014, we performed 2773 OHSs in Medical Park Gaziantep Hospital. Among these, 28 (1%) patients underwent concomitant LC in the same session by the same experienced surgeon. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 ± 9.1 years, and the proportion of males was 71.4 per cent. Acalculous cholecystitis was found in 42.9 per cent of the patients. Patients stayed in the intensive care unit for 3.1 ± 1.4 days and were discharged from the hospital after 16.5 ± 6.3 days. Postoperative 2-year follow-up was completed in all patients with a mean follow-up period of 3.4 ± 2.0 years. The overall complication rate was 28.6 per cent. LC-related complications were seen in four patients. No inhospital mortality was observed. Only one patient who underwent mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair died in the second year after the operation due to congestive heart failure. Three patients died due to noncardiac reasons in the follow-up period. By increasing the experiences of surgeons in laparoscopic surgery in critically ill patients, LC can be safely performed concurrently in patients scheduled for OHS.
Lee, Doo-ho; Lee, Hae Won; Chung, Jung Kee; Jung, In Mok
Purpose To investigate the prevalence and clinical features of retained symptomatic common bile duct (CBD) stone detected after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients without preoperative evidence of CBD or intrahepatic duct stones. Methods Of 2,111 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between September 2007 and December 2014 at Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 1,467 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder stones and their medical records were analyzed. We reviewed the clinical data of patients who underwent postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for clinically significant CBD stones (i.e., symptomatic stones requiring therapeutic intervention). Results Overall, 27 of 1,467 patients (1.84%) underwent postoperative ERCP after LC because of clinical evidence of retained CBD stones. The median time from LC to ERCP was 152 days (range, 60–1,015 days). Nine patients had ERCP-related complications. The median hospital stay for ERCP was 6 days. Conclusion The prevalence of clinically significant retained CBD stone after LC for symptomatic cholelithiasis was 1.84% and the time from LC to clinical presentation ranged from 2 months to 2 years 9 months. Therefore, biliary surgeons should inform patients that retained CBD stone may be detected several years after LC for simple gallbladder stones. PMID:27847796
Yun, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hae Il; Lee, Hyoung Uk; Baek, Moo-Jun
Purpose Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in the world today. However, there is no consensus regarding whether LC can be performed in patients with acute cholecystitis while on antithrombotic therapy. The objective of our study was to describe postoperative outcomes of patients who underwent emergent LC without interruption to antithrombotic therapy. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent LC for acute cholecystitis while on antithrombotic therapy from 2010 to 2015 at Soonchunhyang Universtiy Cheonan Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups as underwent emergent LC and elective LC. Results A total of 67 patients (emergent group, 22; elective group, 45) were included in the analysis. Elective group had significantly longer duration between the admission and operation (8 [7–10] days vs. 2 [1–3] days, P < 0.001) and longer duration of antithrombotic drugs discontinuation (7 days vs. 1 [0–3] days, P < 0.001). Emergent group had significantly more postoperative anemia (6 patients vs. 0 patient, P = 0.001) and 3 of 6 patients received packed RBC transfusion in postoperative period. However, there was no significant difference in length of postoperative stays, length of intensive care unit stays and mortality rates. Conclusion Emergent LC without interruption to antithrombotic therapy was relatively safe and useful. A well-designed multicenter study is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of LC without suspension of antithrombotic therapy and to provide a simple guideline. PMID:28289668
Bani Hani, Mohammed; Al Manasra, Abdel Rahman; Qandeel, Haitham
Gallstones patients without preoperative history of jaundice, deranged liver function tests, or dilated bile ducts (BD) are unlikely to have BD stones. However, some of these patients in our series underwent endoscopic stone(s) removal after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We aim to find the incidence, possible intraoperative risk factors, and if the Surgeon can be blamed for this event. We studied LC cases over 12-year period at our university hospital and identified patients who did not have preoperative risk factors for BD stones but developed postoperative jaundice and/or persistent abdominal pain. Only 16 (0.7%) of 2390 LC met the inclusion criteria. In 5/16 patients, cystic duct (CD) stones were felt Intraoperatively and likely passed into BD during surgery. After surgery, 14/16 patients underwent endoscopic stone(s) removal. If CD stone(s) are encountered during LC, we suggest that careful attention should be paid to make sure that patient does not develop complications from possible BD stone(s). Technical precautions during LC (ie, early CD clipping, avoiding excessive manipulation, and crushing the stones) are recommended.
Fessenden, J M; Wittenborn, W; Clarke, L
An increasing variety of alternative health care products (defined as "over-the-counter," nonprescribed herbal medicines) are taken by patients for a plethora of reasons. Unfortunately these self-prescribed remedies are seldom considered by the patient to be medications and as a result it has been noted that 70 per cent of patients do not reveal herbal use to their allopathic practitioners or hospital personnel. The rapid growth of this herbal self-therapy has important implications for the practice of surgery. A case of post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bleeding in a patient taking Gingko biloba is reported. This preparation has been reported to cause spontaneous bleeding and may interact with anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Other herbal medicines have also been associated with potential increased bleeding including garlic, feverfew, ginger, and ginseng. It is vital for surgeons to be apprised of all substances ingested by patients, to be cognizant of their potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and to be familiar with their therapeutic modality, all of which will help to optimize therapeutic approaches and improve patient outcome.
March, Brayden; Burnett, David; Gani, Jon
Currently in Australasia, concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis are usually managed with two procedures: laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and pre or postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This approach exposes the patient to the risk of complications from the common bile duct stone(s) while awaiting ERCP, the risks of the ERCP itself (particularly pancreatitis) and the need for a second anaesthetic. This article explores the evidence for a newer hybrid approach, single stage LC and intraoperative ERCP (SSLCE) and compares this approach with the commonly used alternatives. SSLCE offers reduced rates of pancreatitis, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced cost compared with the two-stage approach and requires only one anaesthetic. There is a reduced risk of bile leak compared with procedures that involve a choledochotomy, and ductal clearance rates are superior to trans-cystic exploration and equivalent to the standard two-stage approach. Barriers to widespread implementation relate largely to operating theatre logistics and availability of appropriate endoscopic expertise, although when bile duct stones are anticipated these issues are manageable. There is compelling justification in the literature to gather prospective evidence surrounding SSLCE in the Australian Healthcare system.
Iohom, G; Szarvas, S; Larney, V; O'Brien, J; Buckley, E; Butler, M; Shorten, G
In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.
Gholson, C F; Dungan, C; Neff, G; Ferguson, R; Favrot, D; Nandy, I; Banish, P; Sittig, K
To study how suspected postoperative biliary complications are influenced by surgical technique, we compared clinical profiles of 63 patients referred for ERCP after open (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over a four-year period. ERCP was not performed for postoperative pain alone and only six (9.5%) studies were normal. Referrals after LC were younger (mean 39.1 vs 53.6 years, P < 0.001) and ERCP was requested earlier (mean 71.6 vs 2360 days, P < 0.001) in the postoperative course. Choledocholithiasis (CDL) alone, the most common finding, was successfully managed with a single ERCP in 97.2% of cases. CDL after LC occurred in younger patients (35.5 vs 58.9 years, P < 0.01) who presented earlier (mean 98.6 days vs 5.1 years, P < 0.01), without biliary ductal dilatation (P < 0.01). Although CDL after LC was associated with higher ALT and bilirubin levels than after OC, the difference was not statistically significant. Cystic duct leaks (LC: six patients, OC: four patients) were typically associated with CDL after OC and 90% resolved with endoscopic therapy. Biliary ligation (four cases) was managed successfully with choledochojejunostomy. We conclude that findings at ERCP for suspected biliary obstruction or injury after OC or LC are similar and usually can be endoscopically managed. After LC, referrals currently are younger, present much earlier, and retained stones are less likely to be associated with ductal dilatation than after OC.
Yadav, Ghanshyam; Jain, Gaurav; Samprathi, Abhishek; Baghel, Annavi; Singh, Dinesh Kumar
Background and Aims: Poorly managed acute postoperative pain may result in prolonged morbidity. Various pharmacotherapies have targeted this, but research on an ideal preemptive analgesic continues, taking into account drug-related side effects. Considering the better tolerability profile of tapentadol, we assessed its role as a preemptive analgesic in the reduction of postoperative analgesic requirements, after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: In a prospective-double-blinded fashion, sixty patients posted for above surgery, were randomized to receive tablet tapentadol 75 mg (Group A) or starch tablets (Group B) orally, an hour before induction of general anesthesia. Perioperative analgesic requirement, time to first analgesia, pain, and sedation score were compared for first 24 h during the postoperative period and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed. The perioperative analgesic requirement was significantly lower in Group A. Verbal numerical score was significantly lower in Group A at the time point, immediately after shifting the patient to the postanesthesia care unit. Ramsay sedation scores were similar between the groups. No major side effects were observed except for nausea and vomiting in 26 cases (10 in Group A, 16 in Group B). Conclusion: Single preemptive oral dose of tapentadol (75 mg) is effective in reducing perioperative analgesic requirements and acute postoperative pain, without added side effects. It could be an appropriate preemptive analgesic, subjected to future trials concentrating upon its dose-response effects. PMID:28096581
Bhatia, Tarundeep; Bhatia, Jaideep; Attri, Joginder Pal; Singh, Sukhpreet; Khetarpal, Ranjana
Background: General anesthesia as a technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomies has disadvantage in terms of the stress response, lack of postoperative analgesia and emesis. Regional anesthesia offers advantages over general anesthesia in terms of cost, postoperative analgesia, intact respiratory control mechanism and early ambulation. Shoulder tip pain remains the main concerns that can be alleviated by adding various adjuvants to local anesthetics. Aims and Objectives: To study the effect of adding intrathecal dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine to decrease shoulder tip pain, onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic changes and side effects if any. Materials and Methods: Totally, 60 patients were divided into two groups of 30 each. Group A received 3 ml of bupivacaine heavy and group B received 5 µg of dexmedetomidine along with 3 ml of bupivacaine diluted to total volume of 3.5 ml in each group. Statistical Analysis: It was done using Chi-square and Student's t-test. Results and Conclusions: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine provides stable hemodynamics, excellent sedation and analgesia and abolishes shoulder tip pain. PMID:26712967
Lee, Hyojin; Park, Inseok; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Yang, Keunho; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kim, Hong-Ju; Kim, Young Duk
Backgrounds/Aims We investigated patients' clinical and radiological data to determine preoperative factors that predict cholesterol gallbladder (GB) polyps of large size, which can be helpful for decision on further diagnostic tools. Methods In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 126 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for GB polyps >10 mm diagnosed preoperatively by abdominal ultrasonography between February 2002 and February 2016 in Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital. Patients were divided into non-cholesterol polyps group and cholesterol polyps group, based on the postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Clinical and radiological data, such as gender, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), laboratory findings, size, number and shape of the polypoid lesions, and presence of the concurrent GB stone were compared between the two groups. Results Of the 126 cases, 73 had cholesterol polyps (57.9%) and 53 cases were non-cholesterol polyps (42.1%). The younger age (<48.5 years), size of polyp <13.25 mm and multiple polyps were independent predictive variables for cholesterol polyps, with odd ratios (OR) of 2.352 (p=0.045), 5.429 (p<0.001) and 0.472 (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Age, size and polyp number were used to predict cholesterol GB polyp among polypoid lesions of the gallbladder >10 mm. For cases in which these factors are not applicable, it is strongly recommended to evaluate further diagnostic tools, such as computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and tumor markers. PMID:28261697
The sequelae of spilled gallstones after Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and the occurring complications may go unnoticed for a long time and can be a diagnostic challenge. The aim of this survey was to study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of surgeons regarding spilled gallstones during LC. An observational, cross-sectional survey, using a questionnaire based on 11 self-answered close-ended questions, was conducted among general surgeons. Of the 138 respondents only 29.7% had observed a complication related to gallstone spillage during LC. There was varied opinion of surgeons regarding management of spilled gallstones, documenting the same in operative notes and consent. It was observed that there is lack of knowledge regarding the complications related to gallstone spillage during LC. There is need to educate surgeons regarding safe practices during LC to avoid gallstone spillage, early diagnosis, and management of complications. There is need to standardize practice to retrieve lost gallstones to reduce complication and legal consequences. PMID:27355068
Sarli, L; Costi, R; Gobbi, S; Iusco, D; Sgobba, G; Roncoroni, L
The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate if a recently proposed score system based on six preoperative parameters [history of colic pain and/or jaundice, dyspepsia, cholecystitis, ultrasound (US), evidence of common bile duct stones (CBDS), number and size of gallbladder stones at US, level of serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and/or alkaline phosphatase is effective in the selection of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with asymptomatic CBDS and could allow a significant reduction of the total number of preoperative examinations. In the case group, 408 patients were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-risk classes and underwent, respectively, no further preoperative assessment of the bile duct, intravenous cholangiography (IVC), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was performed whenever the surgeon was in doubt as to biliary anatomy or bile duct clearance. These patients were compared with 408 retrospectively matched patients (control group) undergoing routine preoperative IVC and/or ERC. In the case group, significantly lower numbers of IVC (120 vs 392) and IOC (3 vs 16) were performed ( p < 0.005), whereas no difference in the total number of ERCs was noted. One patient in the control group had retained CBDS detected during follow-up evaluation, whereas none occurred in the case group. The proposed scoring system allows selective use of IVC, ERC, and/or IOC in patients undergoing elective LC.
Kundra, Pankaj; Vitheeswaran, Madhurima; Nagappa, Mahesh; Sistla, Sarath
This study was designed to compare the effects of preoperative and postoperative incentive spirometry on lung functions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 50 otherwise normal healthy adults. Patients were randomized into a control group (group PO, n=25) and a study group (group PR, n=25). Patients in group PR were instructed to carry out incentive spirometry before the surgery 15 times, every fourth hourly, for 1 week whereas in group PO, incentive spirometry was carried out during the postoperative period. Lung functions were recorded at the time of preanesthetic evaluation, on the day before the surgery, postoperatively at 6, 24, and 48 hours, and at discharge. Significant improvement in the lung functions was seen after preoperative incentive spirometry (group PR), P<0.05. The lung functions were significantly reduced till the time of discharge in both the groups. However, lung functions were better preserved in group PR at all times when compared with group PO; P<0.05. To conclude, lung functions are better preserved with preoperative than postoperative incentive spirometry.
de La Peña, M; Togores, B; Bosch, M; Maimo, A; Abad, S; Garrido, P; Soro, J A; Agustí, A G N
Lung function has been shown to deteriorate after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The present study evaluated 1) the rate of recovery after LC, and 2) the pathogenic role of postoperative pain in functional deterioration. Lung function was measured 24 hours before LC, upon hospital discharge (48-72 h after LC), and 10 days later. All patients received metamizol after LC until discharge (2 g every 6 h i.v.). Half the patients (analgesia group) received tramadol (150 mg i.m.) 30 minutes before lung function testing on the day of hospital discharge. The remaining patients constituted the control group. Twenty healthy subjects (53 4 years old) undergoing LC for gall bladder removal. All signed informed consent forms. Measures and outcomes: Patient characteristics and preoperative lung function results were similar in both groups. LC duration and postoperative course were also similar in both groups. All were discharged without complications within 72 hours after LC. Lung function upon discharge (FVC, FEV1, TLC, PaO2 and AaPO2) had deteriorated in both groups (p<0.001). Deterioration was less marked in the analgesia group (p < 0.05). Ten days later, lung function had normalized for all subjects. These results indicate that after LC, 1) lung function is still abnormal when the patient is discharged from hospital, 2) lung function has fully recovered within 10 days, and 3) postoperative pain contributes significantly to temporary deterioration in lung function.
Seneca, Michael; Zapp, Mark; Seneca, Martha
In the ambulatory surgical setting, patients may present with grossly abnormal oxygen saturation (Spo2) readings that, along with other disease pathology, make referral to an inpatient facility a straightforward decision. Patients presenting with unexplained slightly abnormal Spo2 readings might make evaluation as an appropriate candidate for the ambulatory setting more problematic. Little guidance is provided for these scenarios in current consensus documents, and minimal data exist regarding preoperative baseline Spo2 readings as a predictor for postoperative Spo2 readings after undergoing general anesthesia and surgery in the ambulatory care setting. A retrospective analysis was performed of all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed at a freestanding ambulatory surgery center during 2011 (n = 56). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to establish predictors for variability in baseline Spo2. Wilcoxon tests were used to compare preoperative baseline Spo2 readings with readings taken at discharge. Increased patient age was the only statistically significant predictor of lower baseline Spo2 levels, although no statistically significant decrease in Spo2 was found at discharge in patients above 60 years old. Males, patients who smoke, and patients whose body mass index exceeded 30 kg/m2 all demonstrated statistically significant decreases in Spo2 values at discharge home (Z = -1.947, -1.807, -1.75, P < .05).
Lee, Elizabeth; Teeple, Mary; Bagrodia, Naina; Hannallah, Jack; Yazzie, Nazhone P; Adamas-Rappaport, William J
Ethnic disparities in pain assessment and analgesic administration following surgery have received little attention in the surgery literature. We noted that our Native American patients were less likely than others to complain of pain. A retrospective chart review of 21 Native American patients and a control group who underwent outpatient, elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Native American patients had a statistically lower numeric pain score (mean, 6.5; 95% CI, 3.6-9.4) than non-Native American patients (mean, 8.1; 95% CI, 6.3-9.9; t38 = 2.63; P < .05). Native American patients also received less postsurgical analgesic (mean, 7.4; 95% CI, 4.0-10.8) than non-Native American patients (mean, 11.2; 95% CI, 7.2-15.2; t38 = 3.07; P < .01). Medical staff attending Native American patients should be aware that response to some scales to assess pain may not reflect accurately the degree of pain experienced.
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qing; Wu, Weiqing; Shi, Haihua
To investigate the effect of two methods on postoperative shoulder pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A total of 99 patients undergoing LC were prospectively divided into three groups (33 patients in each group): Patients in group A underwent LC were control group, those in group B were inserted negative pressure drainage tube under the right inferior phrenic after LC, and patients in group C accepted warm and normal saline flush during operation under the right inferior phrenic. Shoulder pain occurrence and shoulder pain levels (visual analogue pain scale-VAS) were recorded on 1, 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after operation. Postoperative shoulder pain occurrence was significantly higher in group A (14/33) than those in group B (6/33) and group C (1/33), and group C had the best effect (χ(2)=2.733, P=0.004) among the 3 groups. For shoulder pain levels, same result was achieved with group C had the best effect (P<0.05). Warm and normal saline flush during operation under the right inferior phrenic could help to obviously reduce the occurrence of post LC shoulder pain probably by blocking some mechanisms causing postoperative shoulder pain after LC.
Rawal, Krishn Kant
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is currently the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. Associated complications include bile duct injury, retained common bile duct (CBD) stones, and migration of surgical clips. Clip migration into the CBD can present with recurrent cholangitis over a period of time. Retained CBD stones can be another cause of recurrent cholangitis. A case of two surgical clips migrating into the common bile duct with few retained stones following LC is reported here. The patient had repeated episodes of fever, pain at epigastrium, jaundice, and pruritus 3 months after LC. Liver function tests revealed features of obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed dilated CBD with few stones. In view of acute cholangitis, an urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was done, which demonstrated few filling defects and 2 linear metallic densities in the CBD. A few retained stones along with 2 surgical clips were removed successfully from the CBD by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after papillotomy using a Dormia basket. The patient improved dramatically following the procedure. PMID:28203125
Liu, Dan-Shu; Guan, Feng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Tian
Postoperative pain is the main obstacle for safely rapid recovery of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). In this study, we systemically evaluated the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine injected at the end of the LC. A total of 160 patients, scheduled for elective LC, were allocated into four groups. Group Sham received intraperitoneal and incisional normal saline (NS). Group IC received incisional ropivacaine and intraperitoneal NS. Group IP received incisional NS and intraperitoneal ropivacaine. Group ICP received intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ropivacaine was injected into the surgical bed through the right subcostal port and infiltrated at the four ports. Dynamic pain by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and cumulative morphine consumption at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h postoperatively, as well as incidence of side-effects over 48 h after LC was recorded. Compared with those in group Sham, the time of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, dynamic VAS score (VAS-D) 2 h and 6 h postoperatively, cumulative morphine consumption 6 h and 24 h postoperatively, and incidence of nausea and vomiting 48 h after LC in group IC and ICP were less (P<0.05). Furthermore, intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine exerts more powerful analgesic effect than single usage with intraperitoneal or incisional ropivacaine (P<0.05). No patients exhibited signs of local anesthetic toxicity. In conclusion, intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine might facilitate PACU transfer and effectively and safely reduce pain intensity after LC.
Baronia, Benedicto C
With the recent advances in eye tracking technology, it is now possible to track surgeons’ eye movements while engaged in a surgical task or when surgical residents practice their surgical skills. Several studies have compared eye movements of surgical experts and novices and developed techniques to assess surgical skill on the basis of eye movement utilizing simulators and live surgery. None have evaluated simultaneous visual tracking between an expert and a novice during live surgery. Here, we describe a successful simultaneous deployment of visual tracking of an expert and a novice during live laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One expert surgeon and one chief surgical resident at an accredited surgical program in Lubbock, TX, USA performed a live laparoscopic cholecystectomy while simultaneously wearing the visual tracking devices. Their visual attitudes and movements were monitored via video recordings. The recordings were then analyzed for correlation between the expert and the novice. The visual attitudes and movements correlated approximately 85% between an expert surgeon and a chief surgical resident. The surgery was carried out uneventfully, and the data was abstracted with ease. We conclude that simultaneous deployment of visual tracking during live laparoscopic surgery is a possibility. More studies and subjects are needed to verify the success of our results and obtain data analysis. PMID:27774359
Puckett, Yana; Baronia, Benedicto C
With the recent advances in eye tracking technology, it is now possible to track surgeons' eye movements while engaged in a surgical task or when surgical residents practice their surgical skills. Several studies have compared eye movements of surgical experts and novices and developed techniques to assess surgical skill on the basis of eye movement utilizing simulators and live surgery. None have evaluated simultaneous visual tracking between an expert and a novice during live surgery. Here, we describe a successful simultaneous deployment of visual tracking of an expert and a novice during live laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One expert surgeon and one chief surgical resident at an accredited surgical program in Lubbock, TX, USA performed a live laparoscopic cholecystectomy while simultaneously wearing the visual tracking devices. Their visual attitudes and movements were monitored via video recordings. The recordings were then analyzed for correlation between the expert and the novice. The visual attitudes and movements correlated approximately 85% between an expert surgeon and a chief surgical resident. The surgery was carried out uneventfully, and the data was abstracted with ease. We conclude that simultaneous deployment of visual tracking during live laparoscopic surgery is a possibility. More studies and subjects are needed to verify the success of our results and obtain data analysis.
Păun, I; Florescu, M; Coajă, Florina; Mogoş, D; Păun, Mariana; Teodorescu, M; Picu, Mirela; Dumitrealea, D; Muşat, S; Mogoş, D G
The study's aim was to analyze a series of colon cancer cases in which the mirage of the first (clinically most obvious) lesion (gallstones) along with its minimally invasive approach - that explored only the biliary disease - had contributed to the delay of large bowel malignancy' diagnosis and treatment. 1327 patients aged between 17 and 83 years and diagnosed with cholecystolithiasis were operated upon laparoscopically in the Department of General Surgery of Craiova CFR University Hospital from 2000 through 2004. Four out of these 1327 patients (0,3%) were readmitted with the diagnosis of colon carcinoma between 1 and 16 months after the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our retrospective study gives a full report on these 4 cases insisting upon the links between their clinical - laboratory evaluations and final diagnosis. Despite the low laparoscopic cholecystectomy overlooked colon cancer' incidence it seems reasonable to both improve the technique of peritoneal cavity exploration during this type of surgery and extend the preoperative evaluation whenever the slightest suspicion of associated pathology is raised especially in patients over 50 years of age.
Hibi, Taizo; Iwashita, Yukio; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Honda, Goro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Shinya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Miura, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Manabu; Abe, Yuta; Misawa, Takeyuki; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Jang, Jin-Young; Yu, Hee Chul; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Song Cheol; Song, In Sang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yun, Sung Su; Choi, Seong Ho; Jan, Yi-Yin; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ker, Chen-Guo; Chan, De-Chuan; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Toyota, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Yutaka; Ito, Masahiro; Norimizu, Shinji; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Matsumura, Naoki; Shindoh, Junichi; Sunagawa, Hiroki; Gocho, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Kitano, Seigo; Tokumura, Hiromi; Yamashita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Goro; Nakagawa, Kunitoshi; Kimura, Taizo; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Itaru; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Masakazu
Generally, surgeons' perceptions of surgical safety are based on experience and institutional policy. Our recent pilot survey demonstrated that the acceptable duration of surgery and criteria for open conversion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) vary among workplaces. A web-based survey was distributed to 554 expert LC surgeons in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The questionnaire covered LC experience, safety measures and recognition of landmarks, decision-making regarding conversion to open/partial cholecystectomy and the implications of this decision. Overall responses were compared among nations, and then stratified by LC experience level (lifetime cases 200-499, 500-999, and ≥1,000). The response rate was 92.6% (513/554); 67 surgeons with ≤199 LCs were excluded, and responses from 446 surgeons were analyzed. We observed significant differences among nations on almost all questions. Differences that remained after stratification by LC experience were on questions related to acceptable duration of surgery, adoption rates of intraoperative cholangiography, the "critical view of safety" technique, identification of Rouvière's sulcus, recognition of the SS-Inner layer theory, and intraoperative judgment to abandon conventional LC. Even among experts, surgeons' perceptions during LC are workplace-dependent. A novel grading system of surgical difficulty and standardized LC procedures are paramount to generate high-level evidence. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.
Sistla, Sarath; Rajesh, Rajalingam; Sadasivan, Jagdish; Kundra, Pankaj; Sistla, Sujatha
Stress response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is less compared with open cholecystectomy, but is still responsible for significant postoperative morbidity. Though preoperative glucocorticoids were found to be effective in reducing the response in open surgical procedures, their role in minimal access surgery is not clear. To evaluate the efficacy of single-dose preoperative dexamethasone in reducing the stress response and postoperative morbidity after LC. In a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 70 patients undergoing elective LC were randomized to receive either dexamethasone (8 mg intravenously), or placebo. The change in C-reactive protein levels after LC, pain scores at rest, and on exertion and narcotic requirements, the incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), anti-emetic requirement, peak expiratory flow rate in both groups were compared. Dexamethasone was more effective in controlling late PONV (P=0.05). The antiemetic requirement was significantly less in the dexamethasone group (0.56 mg vs. 2.24 mg; P=0.02). Median pain scores were significantly less in the dexamethasone group at 24 hours at rest (P=0.002) and on exertion at 24 and 48 hours (P=0.03 and 0.001). Analgesic requirement was less in the test group (22.9 mg vs. 29.9 mg; P=0.054). The peak expiratory flow rate at 48 hours was higher in the dexamethasone group (315.28 vs. 285.8 l/min; P=0.04). The dexamethasone group showed significantly less elevation of C-reactive protein levels at 24 hours (7.17 microg/mL vs. 17.53 microg/mL; P=0.003) and 48 hours (10.65 microg/mL vs. 23.18 microg/mL; P=0.02) postoperatively. Preoperative single-dose dexamethasone significantly reduces the pain scores, PONV, and antiemetic requirements while improving the respiratory function in the postoperative period after LC.
Worth, Patrick J; Kaur, Taranjeet; Diggs, Brian S; Sheppard, Brett C; Hunter, John G; Dolan, James P
Bile duct injury (BDI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has significant cost impact and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. We undertook a population-based assessment of the national experience with BDI between 2001 and 2011 and compared this to our report for the prior decade. Using the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) for 2001-2011, we identified patients who underwent LC or partial cholecystectomy, with and without biliary reconstruction. Data were analyzed using methods that accounted for the hierarchical, stratified random sampling of the NIS. Both univariate modeling and multivariate modeling were performed. LCs increased from 71.1 % in 2001 to 79.0 % in 2011 (p < 0.0001). Annual mortality decreased from 0.56 to 0.38 % (p = 0.002). In 2001, 0.11 % of LCs were associated with biliary reconstruction versus 0.09 % in 2011 (p = 0.15) with rates ranging from 0.08 to 0.12 %. The need for reconstruction was associated with an average in-hospital mortality rate of 4.4 %. Mortality rates from LC remained consistent across the study period (average mortality, 0.10 %, p = 0.57). Under multivariate analysis, admission to rural or urban non-teaching centers was associated with a decreased rate of injury; the majority of major BDIs were admitted from clinic or outpatient settings. These results are consistent with results from the prior decade. Neither emergent admission nor race was associated with increased odds of BDI, and this differs from our prior analysis. LC continued to increase in utilization between 2001 and 2011. Although rates of BDI have decreased, the need for reconstruction continues to be associated with a significant mortality. In addition, mortality related to biliary reconstruction is also higher than previously published series and may reflect the complexity of managing biliary injury as well as the higher likelihood of these patients having comorbid conditions.
Breazu, Caius Mihai; Ciobanu, Lidia; Bartos, Adrian; Bodea, Raluca; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Ionescu, Daniela
Pethidine is a synthetic opioid with local anesthetic properties. Our goal was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of pethidine for achieving the ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This prospective, double-blind study included 79 patients of physical status I and II according to American Society of Anesthesiologists, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups, depending on the drug used to achieve preoperative bilateral OSTAP block: 1) OSTAP-Placebo (treated with normal saline); 2) OSTAP-Bupivacaine (treated with 0.25% bupivacaine); and 3) OSTAP-Pethidine (treated with 1% pethidine). The efficacy of pethidine in achieving the OSTAP block was analyzed using visual analog scale (VAS), intraoperative opioid dose, opioid consumption in post anesthesia care unit, and opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. The pain scores assessed by VAS at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours were significantly lower in OSTAP-Pethidine than in OSTAP-Placebo group (p < 0.001). The mean intraoperative opioid consumption was significantly lower in OSTAP-Pethidine compared to OSTAP-Placebo group (150 versus 400 mg, p < 0.001), as well as the mean opioid consumption in the first 24 hours (20.4 versus 78 mg, p < 0.001). Comparing VAS assessment between OSTAP-Bupivacaine and OSTAP-Pethidine groups, statistically significant differences were observed only for the immediate postoperative pain assessment (0 hours), where lower values were observed in OSTAP-Pethidine group (p = 0.004). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (p = 0.131) between the groups. The use of 1% pethidine can be an alternative to 0.25% bupivacaine in achieving OSTAP block for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:28027453
Jensen, K; Kehlet, H; Lund, C M
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now often an ambulatory procedure, but dependent on short-term post-operative complaints of pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The efficacy of post-anaesthesia care units (PACUs) is therefore important to facilitate return to normal functions. We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of a standardized, evidence-based anaesthesia/analgesic regime to identify residual problems in the early post-operative phase. One hundred and thirty-four consecutive patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Hvidovre University Hospital between 15 March and 30 September 2005 were included in the study. The standardized, evidence-based regime consisted of total intravenous (i.v.) anaesthesia (propofol-remifentanil), well-defined fluid therapy, dexamethasone, ketorolac, ondansetron, sufentanil and incisional bupivacaine intra-operatively, and in the PACU on demand (prn) administration of sufentanil, morphine, paracetamol, ondansetron, droperidol, oral fluids and oxygen (if SpO(2) < 93%) with PACU discharge using a modified Aldrete score. Protocol violations were moderate and occurred unsystematically, 8% had medical violations and 10% did not receive the pre-planned fluid amount. Severe PONV was seen in 2%. Thirteen per cent experienced severe pain, and the presence of any pain and/or PONV were predictors of an extended PACU stay. Mean oxygen demand was 46 min (range, 0-300 min), which influenced time to discharge (mean, 88 min). There were on average 2.7 treatment interventions (range, 0-11) before discharge. An evidence-based, multimodal approach to the anaesthetic/analgesic management in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible and advantageous in the early post-operative phase. Pain and PONV are predictors of a complicated recovery profile and deserve further attention. Transient oxygen desaturations postpone discharge from the PACU, but the clinical significance of this fact is questionable.
Koo, Bon-Wook; Oh, Ah-Young; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Han, Ji-Won; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok
The beneficial effects of deep blockade are not fully known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of deep neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under low-pressure pneumoperitoneum. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to either the moderate group (train-of-four count of 1 or 2) or deep group (posttetanic count of 1 or 2). Neuromuscular blockade was induced and maintained with rocuronium; it was reversed with sugammadex in the deep group and with neostigmine in the moderate group. At the beginning of surgery, the intra-abdominal pressure was set at 8 mmHg. The surgeon rated the surgical condition on a 4-point scale (1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = acceptable, 4 = poor) and was allowed to increase the pressure to 12 mmHg if it was determined that the surgical conditions were inadequate for the operation. A total of 64 patients completed the study. The rate of increasing intra-abdominal pressure to maintain optimal surgical conditions was 34.4 % in the moderate group and 12.5 % in the deep group (P = 0.039). The proportion of patients with a surgical condition score of 1 or 2 (excellent or good) was 34.4 % in the moderate group and 68.8 % in the deep group (P = 0.006). The maintenance of intraoperative deep neuromuscular blockade was associated with a lower rate of conversion to standard pressure and higher surgeon satisfaction with the surgical conditions than was moderate blockade in patients undergoing low-pressure pneumoperitoneum laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Beleña, José M.; Núñez, Mónica; Vidal, Alfonso; Anta, Diego
Background and Aims: To compare the use of remifentanil and alfentanil to suppress intraoperative adrenergic response of pain and the influence of these drugs on the recovery profile in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique. Material and Methods: One hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to be managed with either remifentanil (group R) or alfentanil (group A). During general anesthesia, we evaluated adrenergic responses to intubation to first surgical incision and over the surgical procedure. We also recorded time to first spontaneous breathing, time to successful ventilation, time to respond to verbal orders, and time to extubation. Results: The R group reported a significantly lower number of responses to intubation and responses to first surgical incision (14% vs. 30%; P = 0.013 and 8% vs. 18%; P = 0,037, respectively). The event of one or more responses during the surgical procedure was also lower in the R group (56% vs. 70%; P = 0.017). Hypertensive response to surgical stimuli during the procedure was lower in the R group as well as a lower frequency of tachycardia episodes in this group (34% vs. 56%; P = 0.033 and 28% vs. 44%; P = 0.041, respectively). No differences were found between groups relating to the percentage of hypotensive episodes and no episodes of bradycardia were appreciated. Both groups were similar relating to recovery times: time to the first spontaneous breathing, time to successful ventilation, time to respond to verbal orders, and time to extubation. Conclusion: Remifentanil showed a more stable hemodynamic response during the surgery compared with the use of alfentanil in anesthetized patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using TIVA. Both opioids, alfentanil and remifentanil, have a similar recovery profile, and they do not delay time to awakening. PMID:28096580
Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Electrocautery remains the main energy form used during laparoscopic dissection. However, due to its risks, search is continuous for safer and more efficient forms of energy. This review assesses the effects of dissection using ultrasonic energy compared with monopolar electrocautery during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was performed. Studies included were trials that prospectively randomized adult patients with symptomatic gallstone disease to either ultrasonic or monopolar electrocautery dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Data were collected regarding the characteristics and methodological quality of each trial. Outcome measures included operating time, gallbladder perforation rate, bleeding, bile leak, conversion rate, length of hospital stay and sick leave, postoperative pain and nausea scores, and influence on systemic immune and inflammatory responses. For metaanalysis, the statistical package RevMan version 4.2 was used. For continuous data, Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effects model. For Categorical data, the Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated with 95% confidence interval using fixed effects model. Results: Seven trials were included in this review, with a total number of 695 patients randomized to 2 dissection methods: 340 in the electrocautery group and 355 in the ultrasonic group. No mortality was recorded in any of the trials. With ultrasonic dissection, operating time is significantly shorter in elective surgery (WMD −8.19, 95% CI −10.36 to −6.02, P>0.0001), acute cholecystitis (WMD −17, 95% CI −28.68 to −5.32, P=0.004), complicated cases (WMD −15, 95% CI −28.15 to −1.85, P=0.03), or if surgery was performed by trainee
Guercio, G; Sandonato, L; Cintorino, D; Ricotta, C; Diana, G
Ketorolac is one of the most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used to control postoperative pain. However, peri- and postoperative administration of ketorolac is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as described in the literature. Notwithstanding this event is not frequent, it can expose the patient to serious complications that should be quickly recognised and effectively treated. We present a report about a female patient with cholelithiasis who underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After the operation, the patient had a haemorrhage that we attributed to surgery in a first time and then to administration of ketorolac.
A 37-year-old woman diagnosed with sickle cell anemia (SCA), beta (+) thalassemia, Crohn's disease, and liver dysfunction was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) due to acute cholecystitis with gall bladder. Regional anesthesia was performed. An epidural catheter was inserted into the 9-10 thoracal epidural space and then 15 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine was injected through the catheter. The level of sensorial analgesia tested with pinprick test reached up to T4. Here we describe the first case of the combination of sickle cell anemia (SCA), beta (+) thalassemia, and Crohn's disease successful anesthetic management with attention to hemodynamics, particularly with regards to liver dysfunction. PMID:23115690
Del Grande, Leonardo de Mello; Leme, Luis Fernando Paes; Marques, Francisco Pimenta; Ramos, Andressa Teruya; Ramos, Paula Teruya; Souza, Felipe Araújo de
The incidence of cholecystolithiasis is approximately 15% of the population. It is believed that between 30-40% of cholecystectomy patients have symptoms after surgery, being changes in bowel habits the most common among them. 1) Defining the prevalence, and 2) identifying predictors of changes in bowel habits after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study with an initial sample of 150 patients diagnosed with cholecystolithiasis operated between July and September 2014. Patients were submitted to a questionnaire about the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and changes in stools consistency before and after the surgical procedure. They were divided into two groups (with or without changes in bowel habits) being combined with the following variables: high blood pressure, body mass index, hypothyroidism, adherence to postoperative dietary orientations, previous abdominal and bariatric surgery. The prevalence of changes in bowel habits in the study population was 35.1%. The association between it and gastrointestinal symptoms was demonstrated to be statistically significant (‰2=7.981; p=0.005), and people who did not have gastrointestinal symptoms had 2.34 times the odds of not presenting changes in bowel habits. None of the other investigated factors had shown to be a predictor of risk for post-cholecystectomy changes in bowel habits. 1) There was a high prevalence of changes in bowel habits, and 2) there was association between changes in bowel habits and the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. A incidência da colecistopatia calculosa é de aproximadamente 15% da população brasileira. Acredita-se que entre 30-40% dos pacientes colecistectomizados apresentem sintomas pós-operatório, sendo a alteração do hábito intestinal o mais comum. 1) Determinar a prevalência, e 2) identificar preditores de mudanças do hábito intestinal pós-colecistectomia videolaparoscópica. Estudo transversal retrospectivo com amostra
Nickel, Felix; Kowalewski, Karl-Friedrich; Rehberger, Florian; Hendrie, Jonathan David; Mayer, Benjamin Friedrich Berthold; Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Bintintan, Vasile; Linke, Georg Richard; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter
The pulsatile organ perfusion (POP) trainer provides training of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with real instruments and cadaveric organs. It provides training of full procedures with simulation of bleeding. Although widely used, the face validity has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to establish face validity of the POP trainer for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and its usefulness compared with other training modalities. During MIS courses, the participants (n = 52) used the POP trainer to perform LC. Face validity was assessed with questionnaires for realism and usefulness on a five-point Likert scale. Participants were divided into two groups: experts (n = 15) who had performed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures and novices (n = 37) with less than 50 procedures. Secondary aims included the ranking of training modalities, as well as exploration of their specific advantages and disadvantages. The POP trainer was found to be realistic (3.8 ± 0.9) and useful (4.6 ± 0.9). Differences between experts and novices were only found for "The training modality resembles reality" (3.1 ± 0.8 vs. 3.8 ± 0.7; p = 0.010), "The operation on the POP trainer is realistic" (3.4 ± 1.1 vs. 4.5 ± 0.8; p = 0.003), and "It would be desirable to have a POP trainer at my own hospital" (4.2 ± 1.1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.8; p = 0.040). In the ranking, the animal training (1.1 ± 0.3) placed first, the POP trainer (2.3 ± 0.9) second, and the VR trainer (2.8 ± 0.9) and box trainer (2.8 ± 1.1) third. The realistic simulation of animal training was named as an advantage most often, while the unrealistic simulation of the VR trainer was the most often named disadvantage. The POP trainer was rated a highly realistic and useful training modality with face validity for LC. Differences between experts and novices existed concerning realism and desirability. Future studies should evaluate the POP trainer for more advanced surgical procedures. The POP
Çakırgöz, Mensure Yılmaz; Duran, Esra; Topuz, Cem; Kara, Deniz; Turgut, Namigar; Türkmen, Ülkü Aygen; Turanç, Bülent; Dolap, Mustafa Önder; Hancı, Volkan
Guillain-Barré Syndrome is one of the most common causes of acute polyneuropathy in adults. Recently, the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome after major and minor surgical operations has been increasingly debated. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and dysautonomy are generally observed after maximal motor deficit. A 44-year-old male patient underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. After the development of a severe headache, nausea, diplopia, and attacks of hypertension in the early postoperative period, a computer tomography of the brain was normal. Laboratory tests revealed hyponatremia linked to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, the patient's fluids were restricted, and furosemide and 3% NaCl treatment was initiated. On the second day postoperative, the patient developed numbness moving upward from the hands and feet, loss of strength, difficulty swallowing and respiratory distress. Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected, and the patient was moved to intensive care. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 320 mg/dL protein, and acute motor-sensorial axonal neuropathy was identified by electromyelography. Guillain-Barré syndrome was diagnosed, and intravenous immune globulin treatment (0.4 g/kg/day, 5 days) was initiated. After 10 days in the intensive care unit, at which the respiratory, hemodynamic, neurologic and laboratory results returned to normal, the patient was transferred to the neurology service. Our case report indicates that although syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and autonomic dysfunction are rarely the initial characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the possibility of postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion should be kept in mind. The presence of secondary hyponatremia in this type of clinical presentation may delay diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Bal, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Yavas, Betul Demirciler; Ozdemir, Cigdem; Ozsoy, Mustafa; Akici, Murat; Kalkan, Mustafa; Ersen, Ogun; Saripinar, Baris; Arikan, Yuksel
Introduction Developmental abnormalities of liver including ectopic liver tissue (ELT) are rare conditions. Few cases presenting ELT have been reported in literature till now. Even though the most common area seen is gallbladder, it is detected both abdominal and thoracic sites. There is a relationship between HCC and ectopic liver that necessitates the removal. Presentation of case A 51-year-old female was hospitalized because of abdominal pain. Gallstone and bile duct dilatation were determined during ultrasonographic (USG) evaluation. The patient was operated for cholecystectomy following a successful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). During operation, a mass located on gallbladder with its unique vascular support was identified and resected together with gallbladder. The mass had a separate vascular stalk arising from liver parenchyma substance and it was clipped with laparoscopic staples. The histopathological examination revealed that the mass adherent to gallbladder was ectopic liver confirming the intraoperative observation. The postoperative course of patient was uneventfull and she was discharged at the second day after the operation. Discussion Ectopic liver tissue is incidentally found both in abdominal and thoracic cavity. ELT can rarely be diagnosed before surgical procedures or autopsies. It can be overlooked easily by radiological techniques. Although it does not usually produce any symptom clinically, it can rarely result in serious complications such as bleeding, pyloric and portal vein obstruction. ELT also has the capacity of malignant transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma that makes it essential to be removed. Conclusion Although ELT is rarely seen, it should be removed when recognized in order to prevent the complications and malignant transformation. PMID:25723748
Bokhari, S; Walsh, U; Qurashi, K; Liasis, L; Watfah, J; Sen, M; Gould, S
Introduction Emergency general surgery (EGS) accounts for 50% of the surgical workload, and yet outcomes are variable and poorly recorded. The management of acute cholecystitis (AC) at a dedicated emergency surgical unit (ESU) was assessed as a performance target for EGS. Methods The outcomes for AC admissions were compared one year before and after inception of the ESU. The impact on cost and compliance with national guidance recommending early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) within seven days of diagnosis was assessed. Results The overall ELC rate increased from 26% for the 126 patients admitted in the pre-ESU period to 45% for the 152 patients admitted in the post-ESU period (p=0.001). With those unsuitable for ELC excluded, the ELC rate increased from 34% to 82% (p<0.001). The proportion of patients precluded from ELC for avoidable reasons, particularly owing to ‘surgeon preference/skill’, was reduced from 69% to 18% (p<0.001). The mean total length of stay (LOS) and postoperative LOS fell by 1.7 days (from 8.3 to 6.6 days, p=0.040) and 2 days (from 5.6 to 3.6 days, p=0.020) respectively. The higher ELC rate and the reduction in LOS produced additional tariff income (£111,930) and estimated savings in bed day (£90,440) and readmission (£27,252) costs. Conclusions A dedicated ESU incorporating national recommendations for EGS improves alignment of best practice with best evidence and can also result in financial rewards for a busy district general hospital. PMID:26673047
Yildirim, Dogan; Hut, Adnan; Avaroglu, Huseyin Imam; Erdem, Duygu Ayfer; Cekic, Erdinc; Erozgen, Fazilet
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) are generally performed in a 12 mmHg-pressured pneumoperitoneum in a slight sitting position. Considerable thromboembolism risk arises in this operation due to pneumoperitoneum, operation position and risk factors of patients. We aim to investigate the effect of pneumoperitoneum pressure on coagulation and fibrinolysis under general anesthesia. Material and Methods Fifty American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) I–III patients who underwent elective LC without thromboprophlaxis were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the pneumoperitoneum pressure during LC: the 10 mmHg group (n = 25) and the 14 mmHg group. Prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and blood levels of d-dimer and fibrinogen were measured preoperatively (pre), one hour (post1) and 24 h (post24) after the surgery. Moreover, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured before and after the surgery. These parameters were compared between and within the groups. Results PT, TT, aPTT, INR, and D-dimer and fibrinogen levels significantly increased after the surgery in both of the groups. D-dimer level was significantly higher in 14-mmHg group at post24. Conclusion Both the 10-mmHg and 14-mmHg pressure of pneumoperitoneum may lead to affect coagulation tests and fibrinogen and D-dimer levels without any occurrence of deep vein thrombosis, but 14-mmHg pressure of pneumoperitoneum has a greater effect on D-dimer. However, lower pneumoperitoneum pressure may be useful for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. PMID:27651988
Mishra, Rajshree; Tripathi, Manoj; Chandola, H. C.
Background: Reduction in central sensitization by gabapentinoids that include gabapentin and pregabalin may reduce acute postoperative pain. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate postoperative analgesic benefit and efficacy in patients administered with oral gabapentin or pregabalin as premedication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. Settings and Design: Randomized, prospective, and comparative study. Materials and Methods: In this study, recruited patients were randomly allocated in three groups. Groups A, B, and C received 2 capsules of B complex, 3 capsules of 300 mg gabapentin each, and 2 capsules of 75 mg pregabalin, respectively, each in 30 patients of each group, 1 h before induction of anesthesia. Postoperative efficacy among these three groups was compared with respect to increase in duration of analgesia, reduction in postoperative pain scores, total postoperative requirements of analgesics and side effects. Statistical Analysis: Mean and standard deviation were calculated. Test of analysis between two groups was done by t-test and among three groups by analysis of variance, and then P value was calculated. Results: Pregabalin and gabapentin group had lower visual analog scale (VAS) score (P < 0.05), prolonged timing of first rescue analgesic (4.67 ± 14.79 vs. 158 ± 13.10 vs. 343.16 ± 9.69) min, and less opioid consumption (169.87 ± 20.32 vs. 116.13 ± 14.08 vs. 64.67 ± 16.69) mg compared to placebo group. Between the gabapentinoids, pregabalin group had lower VAS score, prolonged timing of first rescue analgesic, and less opioids consumption than the gabapentin group. Conclusion: It is concluded in this study that pregabalin group had lower VAS score, prolonged timing of first rescue analgesic, and less opioids consumption than the gabapentin group. Both gabapentinoids had better postoperative analgesic profile than placebo. PMID:27212747
Şen, Meral; Özol, Duygu; Bozer, Mikdat
Pain and diaphragmatic dysfunction are the major reasons for postoperative pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery. Preoperative administration of analgesics helps to reduce and prevent pain. The objective of this study was first to research the rate of pulmonary complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and then analyze the influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary functions and complications. Seventy patients scheduled for elective LC were included in our double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Randomly, 35 patients received 1 g etofenamate (group 1) and 35 patients 0.9% saline (group 2) intramuscularly 1 h before surgery. All patients underwent physical examination, chest radiography, lung function tests, and pulse oxygen saturation measurements 2 h before surgery and postoperatively on day 2. Atelectasis was graded as micro, focal, segmental, or lobar. With preemptive analgesia, the need for postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group 1. In both groups mean spirometric values were reduced significantly after the operation, but the difference and proportional change according to preoperative recordings were found to be similar [29.5 vs. 31.3% reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 32.9 vs. 33.5% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for groups 1 and 2, respectively]. There was an insignificant drop in oxygen saturation rates for both groups. The overall incidence of atelectasia was similar for group 1 and 2 (30.2 vs. 29.2%). Although the degree of atelectesia was found to be more severe in the placebo group, the difference was not statistically significant. We concluded that although preemptive analgesia decreased the need for postoperative analgesia, this had no effect on pulmonary functions and pulmonary complications. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008
Ercan, Metin; Bostanci, Erdal B; Ozer, Ilter; Ulas, Murat; Ozogul, Yusuf B; Teke, Zafer; Akoglu, Musa
Among patients on long-term anticoagulant therapy who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), bleeding complications have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate postoperative bleeding complications prospectively in patients on chronic oral anticoagulation. In the period of January 2002 to December 2007, 44 patients on long-term anticoagulation with warfarin, an oral anticoagulant (OAC), underwent LC in our center. Oral anticoagulant was discontinued 5 days before the planned date of surgery, and patients were admitted to the hospital 3 days before. Upon admission, bridging anticoagulation with enoxaparin, a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), was started. When their international normalized ratio (INR) decreased to <1.5, patients underwent LC. In the absence of postoperative bleeding complications, OAC and LMWH were resumed on the evening of the day of surgery, and LMWH was continued until each patient's target INR was reached. A comparison group was comprised by 1,421 consecutively enrolled patients with no comorbid disease who underwent LC during the same period. In the comparison group, postoperative bleeding was encountered in 21 patients (1.5%). In the anticoagulation group, postoperative bleeding was encountered in 11 patients (25%) and ranged from minor oozing from a port incision in one patient to hemorrhage, sepsis, and fatality in one patient. In the anticoagulation group, no significant differences were found between patients with and without postoperative bleeding in terms of age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, INR, or other hemostasis parameters. In patients who underwent LC with bridging anticoagulation, postoperative bleeding was markedly more frequent than expected and was not predicted by the usual coagulation parameters. This suggests a need for methods that can indicate which patients on long-term anticoagulation are at risk for postoperative bleeding.
Donmez, Turgut; Uzman, Sinan; Yildirim, Dogan; Hut, Adnan; Avaroglu, Huseyin Imam; Erdem, Duygu Ayfer; Cekic, Erdinc; Erozgen, Fazilet
Laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) are generally performed in a 12 mmHg-pressured pneumoperitoneum in a slight sitting position. Considerable thromboembolism risk arises in this operation due to pneumoperitoneum, operation position and risk factors of patients. We aim to investigate the effect of pneumoperitoneum pressure on coagulation and fibrinolysis under general anesthesia. Fifty American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) I-III patients who underwent elective LC without thromboprophlaxis were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the pneumoperitoneum pressure during LC: the 10 mmHg group (n = 25) and the 14 mmHg group. Prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and blood levels of d-dimer and fibrinogen were measured preoperatively (pre), one hour (post1) and 24 h (post24) after the surgery. Moreover, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and lactate dehydrogenase were measured before and after the surgery. These parameters were compared between and within the groups. PT, TT, aPTT, INR, and D-dimer and fibrinogen levels significantly increased after the surgery in both of the groups. D-dimer level was significantly higher in 14-mmHg group at post24. Both the 10-mmHg and 14-mmHg pressure of pneumoperitoneum may lead to affect coagulation tests and fibrinogen and D-dimer levels without any occurrence of deep vein thrombosis, but 14-mmHg pressure of pneumoperitoneum has a greater effect on D-dimer. However, lower pneumoperitoneum pressure may be useful for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis.
Darzi, A.; Geraghty, J. G.; Williams, N. N.; Sheehan, S. S.; Tanner, A. N.; Keane, F. B.
The recent introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LAPC) has revolutionised the surgical treatment of gallstone disease. However, it has also raised doubts about the future role of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of gallstones. In this study, we compared patients treated successfully with ESWL and dissolution therapy with patients treated by LAPC. Out of 67 patients, 50 had successful clearance with ESWL while 50 out of 54 had successful LAPC. We evaluate treatment duration, recurrence rate (ESWL) and cost of treatment in both groups. All patients had uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones. The inclusion criteria were similar in both groups with the exception of patients with non-functioning gallbladders who were excluded from ESWL. The results of the study show that although ESWL is noninvasive and associated with minimal morbidity, it is also costly and has a high failure and recurrence rate. In contrast, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while requiring short-term hospital stay and debility, seems to be a safe and effective alternative with an advantage in terms of cost and duration of treatment. PMID:8054014
Mattila, Anne; Mrena, Johanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Nevantaus, Juha; Kellokumpu, Ilmo
To examine the impact of day-care laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with ultrasonic scissors dissection versus diathermy hook dissection method in a randomized setting. From April 2012 to September 2014, a total of 169 elective day-care patients were randomized to undergo either laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ultrasonic scissors using fundus-first approach (n = 88) or diathermy hook dissection starting from the triangle of Calot (n = 79). Main measures of outcome were operative time, same-day discharge and intraoperative complications. Secondary outcome measures were postoperative pain (numeric rating scale), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), readmissions and 30-day morbidity. Median operative time was similar in the ultrasonic dissection and diathermy hook dissection groups (45 vs 45 min, p = 0.95). Same-day discharge was possible in 77 patients (87 %) in the ultrasonic dissection group and in 69 patients (87 %) in the diathermy group, p = 0.98. Intraoperative gallbladder perforations, mean intraoperative bleeding, postoperative pain and PONV at 1, 2 and 4 h (p = 0.78) did not differ significantly between the study groups. Day-care LC using either diathermy hook or ultrasonic dissection resulted in excellent same-day discharge in both groups (87 %). LC with ultrasonic dissection does not offer any clinical advantages compared to diathermy dissection.
Yao, Lei; Wang, Yulan; Du, Boxiang; Song, Jie; Ji, Fuhai
Different fluid regimens are used in the clinical management of perioperative fluid therapy, but there still is the argument about which fluid regimen is better for patients. This study was mainly designed to compare different fluid regimens on postoperative pain and residual gas in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 100 patients were equally randomized to receive restrictive fluid infusion (n=50) with lactated Ringer (LR) solution 5 mL/kg/h or liberal fluid infusion (n=50), with 30 mL/kg/h lactated Ringer solution. Postoperative pain was evaluated at 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery using a visual analog scale (VAS). Postoperative subdiaphragmatic residual gas was monitored by x-ray at 24 hours after surgery. Patients in the restrictive group had significantly higher VAS pain scores at 6 hours after surgery than those in the liberal group (P=0.009). The incidence of subdiaphragmatic residual gas in the restrictive group was higher than in the liberal group (P=0.045). Patients who had residual gas had higher VAS pain scores than those with no residual gas in the restrictive group at 6 hours after surgery (P=0.02). Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with restrictive fluid therapy may suffer more severe postoperative pain than those receiving liberal fluid therapy. It suggests that the higher incidence of subdiaphragmatic residual gas may have occurred with restrictive fluid therapy.
Wu, Si-Jia; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Cheng, Tie-Yao; Lin, Yi-Xin; Cheng, Nan-Sheng
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting is truly high after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ondansetron and metoclopramide may be effective in preventing it. Our aim was to estimate the efficacy of ondansetron vs. metoclopramide in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Science Citation Index Expanded, EMBASE etc. to obtain relevant randomized controlled trials until October 2011. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. The odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous data was used with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity and subgroup analysis were performed, if necessary. The total incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 31% (74 of 235) in the ondansetron group and 56% (127 of 225) in the metoclopramide group (OR=0.33, 95%CI=0.22-0.49, p<0.00001, 12=49%). The total incidences of nausea and vomiting were lower in the ondansetron group (OR=0.28, 95%CI=0.15-0.54, p=0.0002, I²=0%) and (OR=0.31, 95%CI=0.17-0.55, p<0.0001, I²=0%), respectively. Based on the evidence, ondansetron has a better effect than metoclopramide for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. If we ignore the price factor, ondansetron is recommended for adhibition.
Rademaker, B M; Ringers, J; Odoom, J A; de Wit, L T; Kalkman, C J; Oosting, J
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LPC) is increasingly used to treat symptomatic cholelithiasis. We compared the effects of cholecystectomy by subcostal incision to those of LPC on lung function and endocrine metabolic response. The effects of thoracic epidural analgesia for LPC were studied as well. Thirty patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were allocated to three study groups: group I, cholecystectomy by subcostal incision; group II, LPC; group III, LPC and epidural analgesia with 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine, followed by continuous epidural infusion of 6 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine. Forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were measured with the patients in a half-sitting position. In all groups, sustained decreases in FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak expiratory flow were observed up to 24 h after surgery. Reduction of FVC was significantly more in group I compared with groups II and III (P less than 0.05). The FVC in group I decreased from 3.8 +/- 0.42 (SD) to 1.1 +/- 0.27 L (P less than 0.01), in group II from 3.6 +/- 1.46 to 2.1 +/- 0.94 L (P less than 0.05), and in group III from 3.8 +/- 0.92 to 2.8 +/- 0.90 L (P less than 0.05). In all groups, plasma glucose and cortisol increased after surgery compared with baseline levels (P less than 0.05). At 240 min after surgery, a small but significant decrease of cortisol was measured in group III (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Nigim, Fares; Thomas, Ajith J.; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Critchlow, Jonathan F.; Chen, Clark C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.
Objectives: Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a mainstay of hydrocephalus therapy, but carries a significant risk of device malfunctioning. This study aims to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunting versus open ventriculoperitoneal shunting (OVPS) VPS-placement and reviews our findings in the pertinent context of the literature from 1993 to 2012. Materials and Methods: Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 232 patients underwent first time VPS placement at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Of those, 155 were laparoscopically guided and 77 were done conventionally. We analyzed independent variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique) and dependent variables (operative time, post-operative complications, length of stay in the hospital) and occurrence of shunt failure. Results: Mean operative time was 43.7 min (18.0-102.0) in the laparoscopic group versus 63.0 min (30.0-151.0) in the open group, (P < 0.05). Length of stay was similar, 5 days in the laparoscopic and in the open group, (P = 0.945). The incidence of shunt failure during the entire follow-up period was not statistically different between the two groups, occurring in 14.1% in the laparoscopic group and 16.9% in the open group, (P = 0.601). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in shunt survival between the two groups (P = 0.868), with functionality in 85% at 6-months and 78.5% at 1-year. Conclusion: According to our study, LVPS-placement results compare similarly to OVPS placement in most aspects. Since laparoscopic placement is not routinely indicated, we suggest a prospective study to assess its value as an alternate technique especially suitable in obese patients and patients with previous abdominal operations. PMID:25126122
Nigim, Fares; Thomas, Ajith J; Papavassiliou, Efstathios; Schneider, Benjamin E; Critchlow, Jonathan F; Chen, Clark C; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Zinn, Pascal O; Kasper, Ekkehard M
Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a mainstay of hydrocephalus therapy, but carries a significant risk of device malfunctioning. This study aims to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunting versus open ventriculoperitoneal shunting (OVPS) VPS-placement and reviews our findings in the pertinent context of the literature from 1993 to 2012. Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 232 patients underwent first time VPS placement at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Of those, 155 were laparoscopically guided and 77 were done conventionally. We analyzed independent variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique) and dependent variables (operative time, post-operative complications, length of stay in the hospital) and occurrence of shunt failure. Mean operative time was 43.7 min (18.0-102.0) in the laparoscopic group versus 63.0 min (30.0-151.0) in the open group, (P < 0.05). Length of stay was similar, 5 days in the laparoscopic and in the open group, (P = 0.945). The incidence of shunt failure during the entire follow-up period was not statistically different between the two groups, occurring in 14.1% in the laparoscopic group and 16.9% in the open group, (P = 0.601). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in shunt survival between the two groups (P = 0.868), with functionality in 85% at 6-months and 78.5% at 1-year. According to our study, LVPS-placement results compare similarly to OVPS placement in most aspects. Since laparoscopic placement is not routinely indicated, we suggest a prospective study to assess its value as an alternate technique especially suitable in obese patients and patients with previous abdominal operations.
Zaporozhchenko, B S; Kolodiĭ, V V; Gorbunov, A A; Zaporozhchenko, M B; Kirpichnikova, E P
The results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performance in a combination with laparoscopic gynecologic operation on the background of concomitant cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases were analyzed in 67 patients. In 26 patients (main group) the original lifting system was used, 41 (control group)--operated on classical technology. Optimal operative accesses variants a defined, carboxyperitoneum influence on the central hemodynamics in the postoperative period, time of restoration of patients, frequency of postoperative complications is studied. It is revealed that simultaneous lifting laparoscopic operations possess have conclusive advantages: frequency and severity of postoperative complications decrease, intensity of a postoperative pain syndrome, frequency of concomitant chronic diseases exacerbations, and duration of hospital treatment after operation.
Sutton, A J; Vohra, R S; Hollyman, M; Marriott, P J; Buja, A; Alderson, D; Pasquali, S; Griffiths, E A
The optimal timing of cholecystectomy for patients admitted with acute gallbladder pathology is unclear. Some studies have shown that emergency cholecystectomy during the index admission can reduce length of hospital stay with similar rates of conversion to open surgery, complications and mortality compared with a 'delayed' operation following discharge. Others have reported that cholecystectomy during the index acute admission results in higher morbidity, extended length of stay and increased costs. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of emergency versus delayed cholecystectomy for acute benign gallbladder disease. Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study examining the outcomes of cholecystectomy in the UK and Ireland, a model-based cost-utility analysis was conducted from the perspective of the UK National Health Service, with a 1-year time horizon for costs and outcomes. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to investigate the impact of parameter uncertainty on the results obtained from the model. Emergency cholecystectomy was found to be less costly (£4570 versus £4720; €5484 versus €5664) and more effective (0·8868 versus 0·8662 QALYs) than delayed cholecystectomy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the emergency strategy is more than 60 per cent likely to be cost-effective across willingness-to-pay values for the QALY from £0 to £100 000 (€0-120 000). Emergency cholecystectomy is less costly and more effective than delayed cholecystectomy. This approach is likely to be beneficial to patients in terms of improved health outcomes and to the healthcare provider owing to the reduced costs. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Naumowicz, Eryk; Białecki, Jacek; Kołomecki, Krzysztof
Choledocholithiasis is the most common cause of obstructive jaundice. Common bile duct stones are observed in 10-14% of patients diagnosed with gall bladder stones. In the case of gall bladder and common bile duct stones the procedure involves not only performing cholecystectomy but also removing the stones from bile ducts. To compare the results of the treatment of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi by one-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration with two other methods: one-stage open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, and a two-stage procedure involving endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Between 2004 and 2011 three groups of 100 patients were treated for obstructive jaundice caused by choledocholithiasis. The first group of 42 patients underwent ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The second group of 23 patients underwent open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, whereas the third group of 35 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration. The data were analysed prospectively. The methods were compared according to complete execution, bile duct clearance and complication rate. Complications were analysed according to Clavien's Classification of Surgical Complications. The results were compared using the ANOVA statistical test and Student's t-test in Statistica. Value of p was calculated statistically. A p-value less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) signified that groups differed statistically, whereas a p-value more than 0.05 (p > 0.05) suggested no statistically significant differences between the groups. The procedure could not be performed in 11.9% of patients in the first group and in 14.3% of patients in the third group. Residual stones were found in 13.5% of the patients in the first group, in 4.3% of the patients in the second group and in 6.7% of the patients in the third group. According to
Masuda, Yuka; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kanda, Tomohiro; Furuki, Hiroyasu; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Yoshioka, Masato; Matsushita, Akira; Kawano, Yoichi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Uchida, Eiji
Limy bile syndrome extending to the common bile duct (CBD) is a rare condition that lacks a standardized treatment. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with laparoscopic choledocholithotomy by CBD exploration is preferred because it preserves the function of the sphincter of the Vater's papilla and allows treatment of both lesions. A 37-year-old man who was receiving entecavir for chronic hepatitis B developed right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a calcified shadow in the gallbladder and CBD. Abdominal imaging revealed a liquid-like material identified by a calcified shadow in two phases separated by a fluid-fluid level. Abdominal and 3-D drip infusion cholangiography CT showed stones in the gallbladder and CBD with limy bile. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and choledocholithotomy. Intraoperatively, white-yellow-colored bile and stones were drained from the CBD. A C-tube was placed. Postoperatively, remnant stones and radiopaque materials were absent. The stones comprised of >95% calcium carbonate.
YAN, YE; LI, FENG; GAI, YONG-HAO; LIU, QING-WEI
The present study reports a novel approach to laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) resection and cholecystectomy, and conducts a review of the associated literature. The novel surgical procedure was performed on one patient who was diagnosed with a GIST and cholecystic polypus. The GIST was resected using an insulation-tipped diathermic electrosurgical knife under the guide of an endoscope. Subsequently, a cholecystectomy was performed by inserting two more 5-mm trocars and instruments transumbilically, guided using an endoscope. The tumor and the gallbladder were exteriorized using a peroral approach and the incision lining of the stomach was sutured laparoscopically. The procedure was successfully performed and the patient experienced no discomfort during the 5-year follow-up. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery is feasible and would be an ideal choice for invisible abdominal scar surgery, in particular for multi-visceral resection. PMID:27073455
Osayi, Sylvester N.; Wendling, Mark R.; Drosdeck, Joseph M.; Chaudhry, Umer I.; Perry, Kyle A.; Noria, Sabrena F.; Mikami, Dean J.; Needleman, Bradley J.; Muscarella, Peter; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Renton, David B.; Melvin, W. Scott; Hazey, Jeffrey W.; Narula, Vimal K.
BACKGROUND Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is the current gold standard for biliary imaging during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, utilization of IOC remains low. Near Infrared Fluorescence Cholangiography (NIRF-C) is a novel, noninvasive method for real-time, intraoperative biliary mapping. Our aims were to assess the safety and efficacy of NIRF-C for identification of biliary anatomy during LC. METHODS Patients were administered indocyanine green (ICG) prior to surgery. NIRF-C was used to identify extrahepatic biliary structures before, and after partial and complete dissection of Calot's triangle. Routine IOC was performed in each case. Identification of biliary structures using NIRF-C and IOC, and time required to complete each procedure were collected. RESULTS Eighty-two patients underwent elective LC with NIRF-C and IOC. Mean age and BMI were 42.6±13.7 years and 31.5±8.2 kg/m2, respectively. ICG was administered 73.8±26.4 minutes prior to incision. NIRF-C was significantly faster than IOC (1.9±1.7 vs. 11.8±5.3 minutes, p<0.001). IOC was unobtainable in 20 (24.4%) patients while NIRF-C did not visualize biliary structures in 4 (4.9%) patients. After complete dissection, the rates of visualization of the cystic duct, common bile duct, and common hepatic duct using NIRF-C were 95.1%, 76.8%, and 69.5%, respectively, compared to 72.0%, 75.6%, and 74.3% for IOC. In 20 patients where IOC could not be obtained, NIRF-C successfully identified biliary structures in 80% of the cases. Higher BMI was not a deterrent to visualization of anatomy with NIRF-C. No adverse events were observed with NIRF-C. CONCLUSIONS NIRF-C is a safe and effective alternative to IOC for imaging extrahepatic biliary structures during LC. This technique should be evaluated further under a variety of acute and chronic gallbladder inflammatory conditions to determine its usefulness in biliary ductal identification. PMID:24986018
Paige, John T; Yu, Qingzhao; Hunt, John P; Marr, Alan B; Stuke, Lance E
Simulation-based training (SBT) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCCY) provides an opportunity for junior residents to learn the procedure in a safe, nonthreatening environment. Mental rehearsal (MR) has the potential of augmenting skill acquisition. This project investigated the correlation between MR of LCCY with performance on 2 different types of simulators: a procedural task (PT) training model and virtual reality (VR) machine. Prospective, quasi-experimental design with purposeful sampling. Postgraduate years (PGYs) 1 through 3 general surgical residents underwent standardized, distributed SBT in LCCY on either a PT trainer or a VR machine with group-based MR undertaken before 2 SBT sessions. Participants completed a pre-MR and post-MR session mental imagery questionnaire (MIQ) containing 8-items using a 7-point Likert-type scale. Data related to VR objective measures and PT video-based performances were also collected. Total scale mean scores were calculated for the first MR session and the second MR session and were compared using the t test. Pearson correlation analysis of MIQ scores with performance scores was determined. Louisiana State University Health New Orleans Health Sciences Center in New Orleans, Louisiana. This health sciences center is a tertiary care, academic state institution located in the Southeastern United States. A total of 21 PGYs 1 through 3 general surgery residents participated. They were purposefully divided into the PT and VR training groups to allow for even PGY distribution. Of the 21 participants, 19 completed both training sessions (n = 10 for PT [PGY1 = 4, PGY2 = 4, PGY3 = 2] and n = 9 for VR [PGY1 = 4, PGY2 = 3, PGY3 = 2]). After the Bonferroni adjustment, significant gains in the MIQ items related to confidence, visual imagery, and knowledge of the procedure were found. VR performance data demonstrated some statistically significant improvements. A significant negative correlation was present between the two-handed clip
Sharma, Ankush; Dahiya, Divya; Kaman, Lileswar; Saini, Vikas; Behera, Arunanshu
High intra-abdominal pressure and reverse Trendelenburg position during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) are risk factors for venous stasis in lower extremity. Lower limb venous stasis is one of the major pathophysiological elements involved in the development of peri-operative deep vein thrombosis. Low pressure pneumoperitoneum (7-10 mmHg) has been recommended in patients with limited cardiac, pulmonary or renal reserve. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of various pneumoperitoneum pressures on femoral vein (FV) hemodynamics during LC. A total of 50 patients undergoing elective LC were enrolled and they were prospectively randomized into two groups containing 25 patients each. In group A high pressure pneumoperitoneum (14 mmHg) and in group B low pressure pneumoperitoneum (8 mmHg) was maintained. Comparison of pre-operative and post-operative coagulation profile was done. Preoperative and intraoperative change in femoral vein diameter (FVD) (AP and LAT), cross-sectional area (CSA) and peak systolic flow (PSF) during varying pneumoperitoneum pressure was recorded in FV by ultrasound Doppler. First measurement (pre-operative) was carried out just after the induction of anesthesia before creation of pneumoperitoneum and second measurement (intra-operative) was taken just before completion of surgery with pneumoperitoneum maintained. Changes in coagulation parameters were less significant at low pressure pneumoperitoneum. There was statistical significant difference in the pre-operative and intra-operative values of FVD, CSA and PSF in both groups when analyzed independently (P = 0.00). There was no significant difference in pre-operative values of FVD, CSA and PSF (P > 0.05) among two groups but when the comparison was made between the intra-operative values, there was significant increase in FVD (AP) (P = 0.016), CSA (P = 0.00) and decrease in PSF (P = 0.00) at high pressure pneumoperitoneum. This study provides evidence of using low
Darzi, Ali Asghar; Nikmanesh, Alieh; Bagherian, Farhad
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most common surgeries in laparoscopic surgery. Although, it is believed that LC has low-risk for post-operative infectious complications, the use of a prophylactic antibiotic is still controversial in elective LC. Objective To determine the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on postoperative infection complications in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial, patients who were candidates for elective LC, from March 2012 to 2015, in four hospitals in Babol, Iran, were studied. Patients were allocated randomly to two groups, i.e., group C: Cefazolin (n = 182) and group P: placebo (n = 247). Group C received 1 g of Cefazolin 30 minutes before anesthesia and and then, six and 12 hours after anesthesia. Group P patients received 10 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution. Age, gender, type of gallbladder diseases (stone, polyp, or hydrops), the length of post-operative hospitalization, frequency of gallbladder rupture, the duration of surgery, and the kinds of complications associated with infections were collected for each patient in the two groups. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS version 20, using the t-test and the chi-squared test, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of gender (C versus P: 18 (9.9%) male versus 22 (9%); p = 0.74), age (C versus P: 43.75 + 13.30 years versus 40.91 + 13.05; p = 0.20), and duration of surgery (C versus P: 34.97 ± 8.25 min versus 34.11 ± 8.39; p = 0.71). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidences of post-operative infection (C versus P: 3 (1.7%) versus 5 (2%); p = 0.99) and rupture of the gallbladder (C versus P: 14 (7.8%) versus 17 (6.8%); p = 0.85). No other post-operative systemic infectious complications (e.g., sepsis, pneumonia, or urinary tract infection) were found
Darcy, Michael D.; Kushnir, Vladimir M.
We discuss a patient with late presentation of hemobilia following cholecystectomy, which is unusual because pseudoaneurysm caused by vascular injury during surgery typically presents soon after surgery. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a large blood clot arising from the biliary orifice with subsequent computed tomography angiography diagnosing a large pseudoaneurysm in the region of the cystic artery adjacent to the cholecystectomy clips. Embolization was performed via direct percutaneous puncture of the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:28331877
Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Aydin, Pelin; Yayik, Ahmet Murat; Temiz, Ayetullah
Although studies involving intravenous (IV) ibuprofen are still limited, it has been shown to have a potential role in the treatment of postoperative pain. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preemptive IV ibuprofen on postoperative 24 hour opioid consumption and postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Following ethical committee approval, 60 patients aged 18 to 65, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I-II, and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Patients were randomly divided into 1 of 2 groups. The control group (n = 30) received 100 mL saline solution 30 minutes before surgery, while the ibuprofen group (n = 30) received 400 mg IV ibuprofen in 100 mL saline. The same general anesthesia protocol was applied in both groups, and all operations were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Postoperative analgesia was assessed using a visual analogue pain scale (VAS) with active and passive movements. Twenty-four hour postoperative fentanyl consumption with patient-controlled analgesia and additional analgesia requirements were recorded. Postoperative analgesia was established with 1000 mg paracetamol once every 6 hours and patient-controlled IV fentanyl. Compared with the control group, VAS scores in the IV ibuprofen group were statistically lower at postoperative 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours (P < 0.001). Twenty-four hour opioid consumption was statistically significantly higher in the control group compared to the ibuprofen group (553.00 ± 257.04 and 303.33 ± 132.08 μcq, respectively, P < 0.001). Additional analgesia use was statistically significantly higher in the control group than in the ibuprofen group (14/30 vs 5/30, respectively, P < 0.001). The rates of nausea and vomiting were higher in group control than in group ibuprofen (13/30 vs
Menezes, Francisco Julimar Correia de; Menezes, Lara Gadelha Luna de; Silva, Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira da; Melo-Filho, Antônio Aldo; Melo, Daniel Hardy; Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno da
In the Western world, the population developed an overweight profile. The morbidly obese generate higher cost to the health system. However, there is a gap in this approach with regard to individuals above the eutrofic pattern, who are not considered as morbidly obese. To correlate nutritional status according to BMI with the costs of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a public hospital. Data were collected from medical records about: nutritional risk assessment, nutricional state and hospital cost in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Were enrolled 814 procedures. Average age was 39.15 (±12.16) years; 47 subjects (78.3%) were women. The cost was on average R$ 6,167.32 (±1830.85) to 4.06 (±2.76) days of hospitalization; 41 (68.4%) presented some degree of overweight; mean BMI was 28.07 (±5.41) kg/m²; six (10%) individuals presented nutritional risk ≥3. There was a weak correlation (r=0.2) and not significant (p <0.08) between the cost of hospitalization of the sample and length of stay; however, in individuals with normal BMI, the correlation was strong (r=0,57) and significant (p<0.01). Overweight showed no correlation between cost and length of stay. However, overweight individuals had higher cost of hospitalization than those who had no complications, but with no correlation with nutritional status. Compared to those with normal BMI, there was a strong and statistically significant correlation with the cost of hospital stay, stressing that there is normal distribution involving adequate nutritional status and success of the surgical procedure with the consequent impact on the cost of hospitalization. No mundo ocidental, a população desenvolveu um perfil de excesso de peso corporal. Os obesos mórbidos geram custo mais alto para o sistema de saúde. Entretanto, observa-se um hiato no tocante aos indivíduos acima do eutrofismo, mas não considerados obesos mórbidos. Correlacionar estado nutricional, segundo o IMC, com custo de
Chen, X Z; Lou, Q B; Sun, C C; Zhu, W S; Li, J
Objective: To investigate the effect of intravenous infusion with lidocaine on rapid recovery of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: This study was a prospective randomized controlled trial. From February to August 2016 in Affiliated Yiwu Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 60 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were involved and randomly divided into control group (n=30) and lidocaine group (n=30). Patients in lidocaine group received lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg intravenously before induction and followed by 2.0 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) to the end of surgery. Patients in control group received equal volumes of saline intravenously. Anesthesia induction in both groups were given intravenous midazolam 0.03 mg/kg, sufentanil 0.2 μg/kg, propofol 2.0 mg/kg and cisatracuium 0.2 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol 0.05-0.20 mg·kg(-1)·min(-1) and remifentanil 0.1-0.5 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1) for laryngeal mask airway which bispectral index (BIS) value maintained at 40-60. BIS, heart rate(HR) and mean arterial pressure(MAP) were recorded before anesthesia induction, before and immediately after laryngeal mask implantation, intraoperative 30 min and anesthesia awake. Pain scores were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS) at postoperation immediately, 30 min during postanesthesia care unit (PACU), 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. The time of PACU retention, postoperative ambulation, first intestine venting and discharge were recorded. The dosage of propofol and remifentanil, the frequency of sufentanil used, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were also recorded. Patient satisfaction was evaluated by using Simple Restoration Quality Score (QoR-9). Results: BIS values before and after laryngeal mask implantation in lidocaine group were 50.50±3.47 and 54.63±1.25 respectively, which was lower than those in control group(54.30±4.78, 55.80±2.33; t=3.542, 2.423, all P<0.05). The VAS score at postoperation
Keir, Arran; Rhodes, Louise; Kayal, Ajit; Khan, Omar A
A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed whether local anaesthetic infiltration of the transversus abdominis plane (TAP block) during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy improves pain control. Ten papers were found using the reported search, of which four represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group, study type, relevant outcomes and key results of these papers were tabulated. Three of the randomised controlled trials demonstrated a reduction in analgesic requirements associated with TAP blocks following laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to placebo. The remaining randomised study compared TAP blocks with local anaesthetic infiltration of laparoscopic port sites and showed no significant difference in clinical outcomes between these two techniques. We conclude that there is good evidence that TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy leads to a reduction in pain scores and analgesic requirement, however there is no significant difference when compared to local anaesthetic infiltration of trocar insertion sites. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gill, Diana; Locher, Stephen R.
Objectives: To compare patient characteristics, operative variables, and outcomes of 24 patients who underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) with 44 patients who underwent conventional TLH. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 44 patients with TLH and 24 patients with robotic TLH. Results: Robotic TLH was associated with a shorter hospital stay (1.0 vs 1.4 days, P=0.011) and a significant decrease in narcotic use (1.2 vs 5.0 units, P=0.002). EBL and drop in hemoglobin were not significantly different. The operative time was significantly longer in patients undergoing robotic TLH (142.2 vs 122.1 minutes, P=0.027). However, only need for laparoscopic morcellation, BMI, and uterine weight, not robotic use, were independently associated with increased operative times. Conclusions: Robotic hysterectomy can be performed safely with comparable operative times to those of conventional laparoscopic hysterectomy. Postoperative measures were improved over measures for conventional laparoscopy. PMID:19793478
Paajanen, Hannu; Miilunpohja, Sami; Joukainen, Sarianna; Heikkinen, Jari
Our aim was to examine the diagnostic role and therapeutic guide of quantitative cholescintigraphy in 122 patients with a biliary-type chronic abdominal pain and normal abdominal ultrasound. The patients with severe symptoms and an impaired ejection fraction (EF
Monkhouse, S J W; Court, E L; Dash, I; Coombs, N J
The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends that all patients with gallstone pancreatitis should undergo cholecystectomy within 2 weeks. This study assessed whether these guidelines are feasible and cost-effective. Admissions for gallstone pancreatitis between January 2006 and January 2008 were reviewed. Readmissions for subsequent pancreatitis or biliary pathology were noted together with additional investigations, severity scores, hospital stay and time to cholecystectomy. The costs of readmission and theoretical costs of developing a dedicated operating list were provided by independent accountants. During the 2 years, 153 patients were admitted. Twenty-one patients (13.7 per cent) had further attacks requiring 40 readmissions. There were no deaths. Additional hospital costs related to readmissions were 172,170 pound sterling, including bed occupancy (67,860 pound sterling), investigations (12,510 pound sterling) and 153 cholecystectomies on an existing theatre list (91,800 pound sterling). The estimated cost of staffing a half-day theatre list every fortnight, performing 153 cholecystectomies, was 170,391 pound sterling. Instigating a dedicated theatre for cholecystectomy after biliary pancreatitis has many potential benefits. The costs of readmissions and ad hoc operating are balanced by those of a dedicated theatre list in the long term. Implementation of the guidelines would save approximately 900 pound sterling annually and be cost neutral. Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
Jessica Mok, Kam Wa; Goh, Yan Li; Howell, Laura E.; Date, Ravindra S.
INTRODUCTION: Both converted and difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) have impact on operating time and training of juniors. The aim of this study is to evaluate parameters that predict difficult LC or conversion (C), and find predictive values for different cut-off points of C-reactive protein (CRP) for conversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cholecystectomies performed from January 2011 to December 2012 at NHS trust was undertaken. Association of intra-operative difficulties or conversion with the following factors was studied: Age, gender, CRP, white blood cell count (WBC), history of pancreatitis, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety one patients were analysed (222 laparoscopic, 45 difficult LC and 24 C). Only 141 patients had a recorded CRP. Median CRP was highest for patients who were converted (286.20) compared to those who had difficult LC (67.40) or LC (7.05). Those patients who did not have preoperative CRP (8/150, 5.3%) had less chance of conversion than those who had CRP (16/141, 11.34%) (P = 0.063). Patients with CRP of ≤220 (3/91, 3.2%) had significantly less chance of conversion than those with CRP >220 (13/21, 61.9%) (P < 0.001). High preoperative CRP, WBC count and ERCP, were predictors of conversion. These factors were only marginally better than CRP alone in predicting conversion. CONCLUSION: CRP can be a strong predictor of conversion of LC. Further validation of the results is needed. PMID:26917916
Dogan, Serpil Dagdelen; Ustun, Faik Emre; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Kaya, Cengiz; Ozkan, Fatih
We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. The first group (n=30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5mg/kg/min and the second group (n=30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20min following surgical incision (p<0.05). Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p<0.001); Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p<0.05). The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20min after extubation (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR) scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Dogan, Serpil Dagdelen; Ustun, Faik Emre; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Kaya, Cengiz; Ozkan, Fatih
We compared the effects of lidocaine and esmolol infusions on intraoperative hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. The first group (n=30) received IV lidocaine infusions at a rate of 1.5mg/kg/min and the second group (n=30) received IV esmolol infusions at a rate of 1mg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes, intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements, and recovery characteristics were evaluated. In the lidocaine group, systolic arterial blood pressures values were lower after the induction of anesthesia and at 20min following surgical incision (p<0.05). Awakening time was shorter in the esmolol group (p<0.001); Ramsay Sedation Scale scores at 10min after extubation were lower in the esmolol group (p<0.05). The modified Aldrete scores at all measurement time points during the recovery period were relatively lower in the lidocaine group (p<0.05). The time to attain a modified Aldrete score of ≥9 points was prolonged in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). Postoperative resting and dynamic VAS scores were higher in the lidocaine group at 10 and 20min after extubation (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Analgesic supplements were less frequently required in the lidocaine group (p<0.01). In laparoscopic cholecystectomies, lidocaine infusion had superiorities over esmolol infusions regarding the suppression of responses to tracheal extubation and postoperative need for additional analgesic agents in the long run, while esmolol was more advantageous with respect to rapid recovery from anesthesia, attenuation of early postoperative pain, and modified Aldrete recovery (MAR) scores and time to reach MAR score of 9 points. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Geng, Ying-Jie; Wu, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Rui-Qin
To compare the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in elderly surgical patients (>60years) receiving different anesthetics (propofol, sevoflurane, or isoflurane) and to identify potential biomarkers of POCD in this patient population. Prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. University-affiliated teaching hospital. One hundred and fifty elderly patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive propofol, sevoflurane, or isoflurane anesthesia. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological tests at baseline (1day before surgery [D0]), and on postoperative day 1 (D1) and day 3 (D3). Plasma S-100β and Aβ1-40 protein, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were assessed before induction of anesthesia (T0), after extubation (T1), and 1h (T2) and 24h (T3) postoperatively. The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in the propofol group compared to the isoflurane group and the sevoflurane group at D1 and D3 (propofol vs. isoflurane: D1 and D3, P<0.001; propofol vs. sevoflurane: D1, P=0.012; D3, P=0.013). The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in the sevoflurane group compared to the isoflurane group at D1 (P=0.041), but not at D3. Postoperatively, plasma S-100β and Aβ1-40 protein, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were significantly decreased in the propofol group compared to the isoflurane group. Propofol anesthesia may be an option for elderly surgical patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sen, Oznur; Erdogan Doventas, Yasemin
General anesthesia causes reduction of functional residual capacity. And this decrease can lead to atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting in the lung. In this study we want to evaluate the effects of 5 and 10cmH2O PEEP levels on gas exchange, hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. American Society of Anesthesiologist I-II physical status 43 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly selected to receive external PEEP of 5cmH2O (PEEP 5 group) or 10cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 10 group) during pneumoperitoneum. Basal hemodynamic parameters were recorded, and arterial blood gases (ABG) and blood sampling were done for cortisol, insulin and glucose level estimations to assess the systemic stress response before induction of anesthesia. Thirty minutes after the pneumoperitoneum, the respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded again and ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels were repeated. Lastly hemodynamic parameters were recorded; ABG analysis and sampling for stress response levels were taken after 60minutes from extubation. There were no statistical differences between the two groups about hemodynamic and respiratory parameters except mean airway pressure (Pmean). Pmean, compliance and PaO2; pH values were higher in 'PEEP 10 group'. Also, PaCO2 values were lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. No differences were observed between insulin and lactic acid levels in the two groups. But postoperative cortisol level was significantly lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. Ventilation with 10cmH2O PEEP increases compliance and oxygenation, does not cause hemodynamic and respiratory complications and reduces the postoperative stress response. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Sen, Oznur; Erdogan Doventas, Yasemin
General anesthesia causes reduction of functional residual capacity. And this decrease can lead to atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting in the lung. In this study we want to evaluate the effects of 5 and 10cmH2O PEEP levels on gas exchange, hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. American Society of Anesthesiologist I-II physical status 43 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly selected to receive external PEEP of 5cmH2O (PEEP 5 group) or 10cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 10 group) during pneumoperitoneum. Basal hemodynamic parameters were recorded, and arterial blood gases (ABG) and blood sampling were done for cortisol, insulin and glucose level estimations to assess the systemic stress response before induction of anesthesia. Thirty minutes after the pneumoperitoneum, the respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded again and ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels were repeated. Lastly hemodynamic parameters were recorded; ABG analysis and sampling for stress response levels were taken after 60minutes from extubation. There were no statistical differences between the two groups about hemodynamic and respiratory parameters except mean airway pressure (Pmean). Pmean, compliance and PaO2; pH values were higher in 'PEEP 10 group'. Also, PaCO2 values were lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. No differences were observed between insulin and lactic acid levels in the two groups. But postoperative cortisol level was significantly lower in 'PEEP 10 group'. Ventilation with 10cmH2O PEEP increases compliance and oxygenation, does not cause hemodynamic and respiratory complications and reduces the postoperative stress response. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.