Science.gov

Sample records for conventional machine countersunk

  1. Investigation of Surfaces after Non Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micietova, Anna; Neslusan, Miroslav; Cillikova, Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of surface integrity of steel after electro discharge machining (EDM), water jet machining, (WJM) laser beam machining (LBM) and plasma beam machining (PBM). The paper discusses surface integrity expressed in surface roughness, sample precision expressed in perpendicularity deviation as well as stress state. This study also demonstrates influence of the various non-conventional methods on structure transformations and reports about sensitivity of the different non-conventional methods of machining with regard to variable thickness of machined samples.

  2. The Experiment and Numerical Simulation of Composite Countersunk-head Fasteners Pull-through Mechanical Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Junwu; Guan, Zhidong; Bian, Tianya; Li, Zengshan; Wang, Kailun; Liu, Sui

    2014-10-01

    Fasteners made of the anisotropic carbon/carbon (C/C) composite material have been developed for joining C/C composite material components in the high-temperature environment. The fastener specimens are fabricated from the C/C composites which are made from laminated carbon cloths with Z-direction carbon fibers being punctured as perform. Densification process cycles such as the thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) technology were repeated to obtain high density C/C composites fastener. The fasteners were machined parallel to the carbon cloths (X-Y direction). A method was proposed to test pull-through mechanical behavior of the countersunk-head C/C composite material fasteners. The damage morphologies of the fasteners were observed through the charge coupled device (CCD) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The internal micro-structure were observed through the high-resolution Mirco-CT systems. Finally, an excellent simulation of the C/C composite countersunk-head fasteners were performed with the finite element method (FEM), in which the damage evolution model of the fastener was established based on continuum damage mechanics. The simulation is correspond well with the test result . The damage evolution process and the relation between the countersunk depth and the ultimate load was investigated.

  3. Conventional machining of ESR 4340 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niji, K. K.

    1980-07-01

    This program involved the study of conventional machining of heat treated ESR 4340 steel (Rc 54-57). Initial effort involved a survey of available data regarding the machining of high strength steels with hardnesses of Rc 50 and above. A machining program was conducted, determining optimum tools and conditions for turning, drilling, face milling, end milling, and grinding operations. Effects of various parameters includng cutting speeds, feeds, depths of cut, and cutting fluids on tool life was determined. All the operations were found to be extremely difficult and applicaton of conventional procedures is not feasible. Tool lives remained short despite reductions in speeds and feeds. Conventional grinding methods induced detrimental residual tensile stresses along the surface, resulting in cracking, lapping, and untempered martensitic structures. Low stress grinding techniques were found to be applicable to this material when proper dressing procedures and reduced rates were used.

  4. The Invention Convention: Mind Meets Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    1997-01-01

    Describes an Earth Day celebration where students had to design an invention made of simple machines that could crush an empty aluminum can through 10 rapid mechanical movements using materials foraged from the students' homes. (JRH)

  5. Osteoporosis risk prediction using machine learning and conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Kean; Yoo, Tae Keun; Oh, Ein; Kim, Deok Won

    2013-01-01

    A number of clinical decision tools for osteoporosis risk assessment have been developed to select postmenopausal women for the measurement of bone mineral density. We developed and validated machine learning models with the aim of more accurately identifying the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and compared with the ability of a conventional clinical decision tool, osteoporosis self-assessment tool (OST). We collected medical records from Korean postmenopausal women based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys (KNHANES V-1). The training data set was used to construct models based on popular machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVM), random forests (RF), artificial neural networks (ANN), and logistic regression (LR) based on various predictors associated with low bone density. The learning models were compared with OST. SVM had significantly better area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) than ANN, LR, and OST. Validation on the test set showed that SVM predicted osteoporosis risk with an AUC of 0.827, accuracy of 76.7%, sensitivity of 77.8%, and specificity of 76.0%. We were the first to perform comparisons of the performance of osteoporosis prediction between the machine learning and conventional methods using population-based epidemiological data. The machine learning methods may be effective tools for identifying postmenopausal women at high risk for osteoporosis.

  6. A hand-held ultrasound machine vs. conventional ultrasound machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Bruno, Onorina; Angeli, Maria Luigia; Belghiti, Jacques; Chatellier, Gilles; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a hand-held Doppler ultrasound (US) machine for the bedside detection of liver and vascular abnormalities after liver transplantation in the intensive care unit. The IRB approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients or the patient's legal representative. Any liver transplant recipient at our institution who needed a bedside Doppler US examination in the intensive care unit was eligible. Patients underwent routine grey-scale, colour, and spectral Doppler US examinations of the liver with a conventional machine, which was taken as the reference method, and with a hand-held machine on the same day. Examinations followed one another and were performed in a blinded fashion by two radiologists. Over a 4-month period, 24 consecutive patients (16 men, median age 54 years old; 16 cadaveric and 8 living related right liver transplantations) underwent 43 examinations with both conventional and hand-held machines. Image quality and overall satisfaction scores of grey-scale were lower with the hand-held than with the conventional machine. The hand-held was similar to the conventional machine for assessing the patency of portal veins, hepatic veins and the IVC in all patients but one. The hand-held machine failed to detect signals in the right branch of the hepatic artery and in the hilum in two and one cases, respectively. There was no abnormal hepatic arterial flow with the conventional machine in any of the patients, and the results were the same with the hand-held machine. Total examination time was significantly longer with the hand-held machine. The hand-held US machine had a high diagnostic accuracy for both parenchymal and vascular analyses compared with a conventional US machine in the bedside assessment of post-liver transplant patients.

  7. Stress-intensity factor solutions for cracks at countersunk rivet holes under uniaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. W.; Bigelow, C. A.; Odonoghue, P. E.; Atluri, S. N.

    1994-02-01

    To predict crack growth and fracture strengths of riveted joints subjected to widespread fatigue damage, accurate stress and fracture analyses of corner and surface cracks at a rivet hole are needed. The results presented in this report focus on the computation of stress-intensity factor solutions for rivet holes with cracks. The stress-intensity factor solutions for surface and corner cracks at countersunk rivet holes in a plate were obtained using the finite-element-alternating technique. A range of crack shapes, crack sizes, and crack locations under remote tension were considered.

  8. Experimental characterization of damage at countersunk bolted joints tested under quasi-static bearing loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Alexandru Paul

    The use of composite materials in aerospace vehicles has allowed for creation of lighter structures that provide excellent stiffness. Although they allow for easy disassembly and inspection of critical assemblies, bolted joints are common damage initiation sites in composite structures. In order for aging aircraft to be considered for life extension programs, the damage at these locations must be characterized and well-understood. Failure studies require that data be provided through experimental tests. The drawback of the present test standard for bolted composite joints is that it was initially designed for testing polymers. This thesis discusses deficiencies in the measurement of bearing strength as a result of this shortcoming, although the battery of bearing tests is modeled after this established test standard. The goal of the present work is to characterize the bearing load induced damage in laminates with pin bearing and countersunk fasteners through a series of bearing tests on laminated composites using a new modified ASTM D5961 fixture designed for testing countersunk bolted joints. This thesis examines variations in measurement of bearing strength that comes with using different test fixtures. The reliability of each test fixture to represent real conditions is evaluated using test fixtures that represent real joint configurations. Results for damage conditions and joint responses are compared. This thesis presents a study of the damage initiation and accumulation in composite specimens loaded in bearing using three different test fixtures: Procedure A, Procedure C, and Procedure A Modified. Procedure A, which is used to load the test specimen in double-shear via a straight pin, is a well known test fixture that comes from ASTM D5961. Procedure C has a countersunk fastener that loads the test specimen in single-shear. These types of fasteners are preferred in the aerospace industry over traditional bolts in order to maintain a smooth aerodynamic profile

  9. Microfiber Masses Recovered from Conventional Machine Washing of New or Aged Garments.

    PubMed

    Hartline, Niko L; Bruce, Nicholas J; Karba, Stephanie N; Ruff, Elizabeth O; Sonar, Shreya U; Holden, Patricia A

    2016-11-01

    Synthetic textiles can shed numerous microfibers during conventional washing, but evaluating environmental consequences as well as source-control strategies requires understanding mass releases. Polyester apparel accounts for a large proportion of the polyester market, and synthetic jackets represent the broadest range in apparel construction, allowing for potential changes in manufacturing as a mitigation measure to reduce microfiber release during laundering. Here, detergent-free washing experiments were conducted and replicated in both front- and top-load conventional home machines for five new and mechanically aged jackets or sweaters: four from one name-brand clothing manufacturer (three majority polyester fleece, and one nylon shell with nonwoven polyester insulation) and one off-brand (100% polyester fleece). Wash water was filtered to recover two size fractions (>333 μm and between 20 and 333 μm); filters were then imaged, and microfiber masses were calculated. Across all treatments, the recovered microfiber mass per garment ranged from approximately 0 to 2 g, or exceeding 0.3% of the unwashed garment mass. Microfiber masses from top-load machines were approximately 7 times those from front-load machines; garments mechanically aged via a 24 h continuous wash had increased mass release under the same wash protocol as new garments. When published wastewater treatment plant influent characterization and microfiber removal studies are considered, washing synthetic jackets or sweaters as per this study would account for most microfibers entering the environment.

  10. Stress concentrations for straight-shank and countersunk holes in plates subjected to tension, bending, and pin loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional stress concentration analysis was conducted on straight shank and countersunk (rivet) holes in a large plate subjected to various loading conditions. Three dimensional finite element analysis were performed with 20 node isoparametric elements. The plate material was assumed to be linear elastic and isotropic, with a Poisson ratio of 0.3. Stress concentration along the bore of the hole were computed for several ratios of hole radius to plate thickness (0.1 to 2.5) and ratios of countersink depth to plate thickness (0.25 to 1). The countersink angles were varied from 80 to 100 degrees in some typical cases, but the angle was held constant at 100 degrees for most cases. For straight shank holes, three types of loading were considered: remote tension, remote bending, and wedge loading in the hole. Results for remote tension and wedge loading were used to estimate stress concentration for simulated rivet in pin loading. For countersunk holes only remote tension and bending were considered. Based on the finite element results, stress concentration equations were developed. Whenever possible, the present results were compared with other numerical solutions and experimental results from the literature.

  11. Multicenter Comparison of Machine Learning Methods and Conventional Regression for Predicting Clinical Deterioration on the Wards

    PubMed Central

    Churpek, Matthew M; Yuen, Trevor C; Winslow, Christopher; Meltzer, David O; Kattan, Michael W; Edelson, Dana P

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Machine learning methods are flexible prediction algorithms that may be more accurate than conventional regression. We compared the accuracy of different techniques for detecting clinical deterioration on the wards in a large, multicenter database. DESIGN Observational cohort study. SETTING Five hospitals, from November 2008 until January 2013. PATIENTS Hospitalized ward patients INTERVENTIONS None MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Demographic variables, laboratory values, and vital signs were utilized in a discrete-time survival analysis framework to predict the combined outcome of cardiac arrest, intensive care unit transfer, or death. Two logistic regression models (one using linear predictor terms and a second utilizing restricted cubic splines) were compared to several different machine learning methods. The models were derived in the first 60% of the data by date and then validated in the next 40%. For model derivation, each event time window was matched to a non-event window. All models were compared to each other and to the Modified Early Warning score (MEWS), a commonly cited early warning score, using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). A total of 269,999 patients were admitted, and 424 cardiac arrests, 13,188 intensive care unit transfers, and 2,840 deaths occurred in the study. In the validation dataset, the random forest model was the most accurate model (AUC 0.80 [95% CI 0.80–0.80]). The logistic regression model with spline predictors was more accurate than the model utilizing linear predictors (AUC 0.77 vs 0.74; p<0.01), and all models were more accurate than the MEWS (AUC 0.70 [95% CI 0.70–0.70]). CONCLUSIONS In this multicenter study, we found that several machine learning methods more accurately predicted clinical deterioration than logistic regression. Use of detection algorithms derived from these techniques may result in improved identification of critically ill patients on the wards. PMID:26771782

  12. Some aspects of machining cast Al-SiCp composites with conventional high speed steel and tungsten carbide tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narahari, P.; Pai, B. C.; Pillai, R. M.

    1999-10-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate machining of eutectic Al-Si (LM6) and hypoeutectic Al-Si (LM25) alloys reinforced with 10, 15, and 20% SiCp of two particle sizes using conventional high-speed steel (HSS) and tungsten carbide (WC) tools by varying cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, and environment. Machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs) is a difficult task using HSS and WC tools. The tool life of both these conventional tools was observed to decrease with increasing percentage and coarseness of SiCp in the composites. Tungsten carbide tools had a longer tool life than HSS under all the different conditions studied. Contrary to the known phenomenon of enhanced tool life in machining monolithic alloys with the use of cutting fluid, the tool life of WC/HSS tool in machining composites with cutting fluid was only 10 to 20% of that without cutting fluid.

  13. Biomarkers to assess graft quality during conventional and machine preservation in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Cornelia J; Farid, Waqar R R; de Jonge, Jeroen; Metselaar, Herold J; Kazemier, Geert; van der Laan, Luc J W

    2014-09-01

    A global rising organ shortage necessitates the use of extended criteria donors (ECD) for liver transplantation (LT). However, poor preservation and extensive ischemic injury of ECD grafts have been recognized as important factors associated with primary non-function, early allograft dysfunction, and biliary complications after LT. In order to prevent for these ischemia-related complications, machine perfusion (MP) has gained interest as a technique to optimize preservation of grafts and to provide the opportunity to assess graft quality by screening for extensive ischemic injury. For this purpose, however, objective surrogate biomarkers are required which can be easily determined at time of graft preservation and the various techniques of MP. This review provides an overview and evaluation of biomarkers that have been investigated for the assessment of graft quality and viability testing during different types of MP. Moreover, studies regarding conventional graft preservation by static cold storage (SCS) were screened to identify biomarkers that correlated with either allograft dysfunction or biliary complications after LT and which could potentially be applied as predictive markers during MP. The pros and cons of the different biomaterials that are available for biomarker research during graft preservation are discussed, accompanied with suggestions for future research. Though many studies are currently still in the experimental setting or of low evidence level due to small cohort sizes, the biomarkers presented in this review provide a useful handle to monitor recovery of ECD grafts during clinical MP in the near future.

  14. Development of hardware system using temperature and vibration maintenance models integration concepts for conventional machines monitoring: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani; Kareem, Buliaminu

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the integration of temperature and vibration models for maintenance monitoring of conventional machinery parts in which their optimal and best functionalities are affected by abnormal changes in temperature and vibration values thereby resulting in machine failures, machines breakdown, poor quality of products, inability to meeting customers' demand, poor inventory control and just to mention a few. The work entails the use of temperature and vibration sensors as monitoring probes programmed in microcontroller using C language. The developed hardware consists of vibration sensor of ADXL345, temperature sensor of AD594/595 of type K thermocouple, microcontroller, graphic liquid crystal display, real time clock, etc. The hardware is divided into two: one is based at the workstation (majorly meant to monitor machines behaviour) and the other at the base station (meant to receive transmission of machines information sent from the workstation), working cooperatively for effective functionalities. The resulting hardware built was calibrated, tested using model verification and validated through principles pivoted on least square and regression analysis approach using data read from the gear boxes of extruding and cutting machines used for polyethylene bag production. The results got therein confirmed related correlation existing between time, vibration and temperature, which are reflections of effective formulation of the developed concept.

  15. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  16. Comparative study for surface topography of bone drilling using conventional drilling and loose abrasive machining.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2015-03-01

    Drilling through the bone is a complicated process in orthopaedic surgery. It involves human as a part of the work so it needs better perfection and quality which leads to the sustainability. Different studies were carried out on this curious topic and some interesting results were obtained, which help the orthopaedic surgeon on the operation table. Major problems faced during bone drilling were crack initiation, thermal necrosis and burr formation. The surface topography of the bone is an indirect indication for the sustainability of bone joint. In this study, a comparison is made between conventional and a loose abrasive unconventional drilling technique for the surface characterization of the bone. The attempt has been made to show the feasibility of bone drilling with non-conventional technique and its aftereffect on the bone structure. The burr formation during conventional bone drilling was found to be more which leads to problems such as crack initiation and thermal necrosis. Scanning electrode microscope and surface roughness tester were used to characterize the surface of the fine drilled bone specimen and the results testified quite better surface finish and least crack formation while drilling with loose abrasive unconventional technique.

  17. Verification of Entrance Dose Measurements with Thermoluminescent Dosimeters in Conventional Radiotherapy Procedures Delivered with Co-60 Teletherapy Machine

    PubMed Central

    Evwierhurhoma, OB; Ibitoye, ZA; Ojieh, CA; Duncan, JTK

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of in vivo dosimetry with thermolumiscent dosimeters (TLDs) as a veritable means of quality control in conventional radiotherapy procedures was determined in this work. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the role of in vivo dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as part of quality control and audit in conventional radiotherapy procedures delivered with Co-60 teletherapy machine. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-seven patients with cancers of the breast, pelvis, head and neck were admitted for this study. TLD system at the Radiation Monitoring and Protection Centre, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos-Nigeria was used for the in vivo entrance dose readings. All patients were treated with Co-60 (T780c) teletherapy machine at 80 cm source to surface distance located at Eko Hospitals, Lagos. Two TLDs were placed on the patient surface within 1 cm from the center of the field of treatment. Build-up material made of paraffin wax with a density of 0.939 g/cm3 and a thickness 0.5 cm was placed on top of the TLDs. A RADOS RE 200 TLD reader was used to read out the TLDs over 12 s and at a temperature of 300°C. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference between the expected dose and measured dose of breast (P = 0.11), H and N (P = 0.52), and pelvis (P = 0.31) patients. Furthermore, percentage difference between expected dose and measured dose of the three treatment sites were not significantly different (P = 0.11). More so, 88.9% (16/18) treated breast, 91.3% (21/23) pelvis, and 86.7% (13/15) H and N patients had percentage deviation difference less than 5%. In general, 89.3% (50/56) patients admitted for this study had their percentage deviation difference below 5% recommended standard limit. Conclusion: The values obtained establish that there are no major differences from similar studies reported in literature. This study was also part of quality control and audit of the radiotherapy procedures in the

  18. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-11-29

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition.

  19. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition.

  20. Recognition of Mould Colony on Unhulled Paddy Based on Computer Vision using Conventional Machine-learning and Deep Learning Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ke; Wang, Zhengjie; Tu, Kang; Wang, Shaojin; Pan, Leiqing

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potential of conventional and deep learning techniques to recognize the species and distribution of mould in unhulled paddy, samples were inoculated and cultivated with five species of mould, and sample images were captured. The mould recognition methods were built using support vector machine (SVM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), and deep belief network (DBN) models. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved by using the DBN model to identify the mould species in the sample images based on selected colour-histogram parameters, followed by the SVM and BPNN models. A pitch segmentation recognition method combined with different classification models was developed to recognize the mould colony areas in the image. The accuracy rates of the SVM and CNN models for pitch classification were approximately 90% and were higher than those of the BPNN and DBN models. The CNN and DBN models showed quicker calculation speeds for recognizing all of the pitches segmented from a single sample image. Finally, an efficient uniform CNN pitch classification model for all five types of sample images was built. This work compares multiple classification models and provides feasible recognition methods for mouldy unhulled paddy recognition. PMID:27897236

  1. Comparison of muscle involvement and posture between the conventional deadlift and a 'walk-in' style deadlift machine.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Benjamin J; Cauthen, Courtney P; Senger, Scott R

    2016-11-16

    The deadlift exercise is one of the most effective exercises for developing lower-body strength; however, technique errors can lead to low back injuries. The use of a 'walk-in' deadlift machine removes the weight bar by using a lever system with independent handles on either side of the body. Theoretically, this would allow alignment of the load with the center of gravity, encouraging a more upright torso and decreasing the involvement of the low back extensors. This study compared trunk angle, knee angle and electrical activity of key muscles between the conventional deadlift (CDL) and two foot positions (ball of foot or toe alignment) with pronated grip, (called BallPro and ToePro) of a walk-in deadlift machine among high-skilled and low-skilled lifters. While there were no skill group differences, in the combined groups the walk-in deadlift resulted in a significantly more upright trunk angle (p≤.05) for both the BallPro (29.9° ± 12.0 SD) and the ToePro (32.4° ± 10.4) compared to the CDL (23.7° ± 11.3) at the start of the lift. Similar results were noted in the mid-concentric phase, with trunk angles for the ToePro (46.9° ± 6.8) significantly different from CDL (42.66° ± 3.7), and for the mid-eccentric phase of the lift, with ToePro (47.2° ± 7.0) significantly higher than CDL (42.9° ± 6.5). ToePro knee angle was significantly more flexed (101.6° ± 10.6) than CDL (110.8° ± 11.5) at the starting position, with both BallPro (135.7° ± 14.2) and ToePro (136.5° ± 8.8) significantly more flexed than CDL (159.3° ± 5.9) in both the mid-concentric phase and the mid-eccentric phase (BallPro 129.2° ± 14.0, ToePro 127.7° ± 8.9, and CDL 150.5° ± 7.8). In the combined low and high skilled groups, electrical activity as a percent of maximum isometric root mean square activity of the erector spinae during the BallPro variation (53.1% ± 33.8) was significantly lower than CDL (73.19% ± 23.9), while vastus lateralis activity was significantly

  2. Learning to Classify Organic and Conventional Wheat - A Machine Learning Driven Approach Using the MeltDB 2.0 Metabolomics Analysis Platform.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Nikolas; Bonte, Anja; Albaum, Stefan P; Mäder, Paul; Messmer, Monika; Goesmann, Alexander; Niehaus, Karsten; Langenkämper, Georg; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2015-01-01

    We present results of our machine learning approach to the problem of classifying GC-MS data originating from wheat grains of different farming systems. The aim is to investigate the potential of learning algorithms to classify GC-MS data to be either from conventionally grown or from organically grown samples and considering different cultivars. The motivation of our work is rather obvious nowadays: increased demand for organic food in post-industrialized societies and the necessity to prove organic food authenticity. The background of our data set is given by up to 11 wheat cultivars that have been cultivated in both farming systems, organic and conventional, throughout 3 years. More than 300 GC-MS measurements were recorded and subsequently processed and analyzed in the MeltDB 2.0 metabolomics analysis platform, being briefly outlined in this paper. We further describe how unsupervised (t-SNE, PCA) and supervised (SVM) methods can be applied for sample visualization and classification. Our results clearly show that years have most and wheat cultivars have second-most influence on the metabolic composition of a sample. We can also show that for a given year and cultivar, organic and conventional cultivation can be distinguished by machine-learning algorithms.

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of independent dose calculation followed by machine log file analysis against conventional measurement based IMRT QA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baozhou; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Boddu, Sunita; Goddu, Murty; Yang, Deshan; Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya; Yaddanapudi, Sridhar; Wooten, Omar; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-09-06

    Experimental methods are commonly used for patient-specific IMRT delivery verification. There are a variety of IMRT QA techniques which have been proposed and clinically used with a common understanding that not one single method can detect all possible errors. The aim of this work was to compare the efficiency and effectiveness of independent dose calculation followed by machine log file analysis to conventional measurement-based methods in detecting errors in IMRT delivery. Sixteen IMRT treatment plans (5 head-and-neck, 3 rectum, 3 breast, and 5 prostate plans) created with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) were recalculated on a QA phantom. All treatment plans underwent ion chamber (IC) and 2D diode array measurements. The same set of plans was also recomputed with another commercial treatment planning system and the two sets of calculations were compared. The deviations between dosimetric measurements and independent dose calculation were evaluated. The comparisons included evaluations of DVHs and point doses calculated by the two TPS systems. Machine log files were captured during pretreatment composite point dose measurements and analyzed to verify data transfer and performance of the delivery machine. Average deviation between IC measurements and point dose calculations with the two TPSs for head-and-neck plans were 1.2 ± 1.3% and 1.4 ± 1.6%, respectively. For 2D diode array measurements, the mean gamma value with 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement was within 1.5% for 13 of 16 plans. The mean 3D dose differences calculated from two TPSs were within 3% for head-and-neck cases and within 2% for other plans. The machine log file analysis showed that the gantry angle, jaw position, collimator angle, and MUs were consistent as planned, and maximal MLC position error was less than 0.5 mm. The independent dose calculation followed by the machine log analysis takes an average 47 ± 6 minutes, while the experimental approach (using IC and

  4. Online Classification of Contaminants Based on Multi-Classification Support Vector Machine Using Conventional Water Quality Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pingjie; Jin, Yu; Hou, Dibo; Yu, Jie; Tu, Dezhan; Cao, Yitong; Zhang, Guangxin

    2017-01-01

    Water quality early warning system is mainly used to detect deliberate or accidental water pollution events in water distribution systems. Identifying the types of pollutants is necessary after detecting the presence of pollutants to provide warning information about pollutant characteristics and emergency solutions. Thus, a real-time contaminant classification methodology, which uses the multi-classification support vector machine (SVM), is proposed in this study to obtain the probability for contaminants belonging to a category. The SVM-based model selected samples with indistinct feature, which were mostly low-concentration samples as the support vectors, thereby reducing the influence of the concentration of contaminants in the building process of a pattern library. The new sample points were classified into corresponding regions after constructing the classification boundaries with the support vector. Experimental results show that the multi-classification SVM-based approach is less affected by the concentration of contaminants when establishing a pattern library compared with the cosine distance classification method. Moreover, the proposed approach avoids making a single decision when classification features are unclear in the initial phase of injecting contaminants. PMID:28335400

  5. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  6. Effects of conventional machining on the high cycle fatigue strength and crack initiation sites of the gamma titanium aluminide alloy Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr (at%) at 23 and 760 C

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.E.; Eylon, D.

    1999-07-01

    Effects of a deformed surface layer, created by conventional machining, on the high cycle fatigue strength (10e6 cycles) and fatigue initiation sites of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at%) were examined above and below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. All samples were tested to failure under the same step loading profile. Comparisons were made between samples having the same load history. At room temperature, fatigue strength and initiation sites were equivalent for turned and electropolished surface conditions. At the anticipated service temperature, 760 C, the work hardened layer created by turning quickly recrystallized. This fine recrystallized surface enhanced the fatigue crack initiation resistance of turned specimens when compared to coarse grained electropolished samples which did not recrystallize during the test. The severe surface deformation resulting from conventional machining did not impair the high cycle fatigue behavior of this intermetallic alloy under the conditions evaluated.

  7. A Qualitative Analysis to Compare the Effects of Surface Machining of Conventional Denture Base Resin and Two Soft Liners: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Taruna, M.; Chittaranjan, B.; Reddy, Sushendhar M.; Reddy, Kranti Kiran E.; Kulkarni, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The denture base acrylic resins require adjustments for various reasons. During this process there is an alteration in the surface characteristics of the denture base. Rough surfaces promote the bacterial adhesion and plaque accumulation; therefore it is important to know the character of the surface left by instrumentation on denture base materials. This study evaluated the surface characteristics of the machined surfaces of heat-cured acrylic denture base resin, GC supersoft and Permasoft softliners. Materials and Methods: Thirty 15×15×1.5mm acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with each of three acrylic resins: Lucitone 199 denture base resin (Group I), GC supersoft (Group II) and Permasoft (Group III) softliners. They were further divided into three sub Groups A, B and C, in which Sub Group A was control group that is smooth produced against the glass. Sub Group B was produced by machining with the tungsten carbide bur and Sub group C is machined with the stone bur. Each surface was evaluated by a Scanning electron microscope and data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s HSD test. Results: Stone bur produced smoother surface (Ra 3.6681μm± 0.254) on Lucitone199 than the tungsten carbide bur (Ra 5.3881μm ± 0.3373). Carbide bur produced a smoother surface on the GC super soft (Ra 1.617097μm ± 0.191767) and Permasoft softliners (Ra 2.237419μm ± 0.354259). Whereas stone bur produced rougher surface on GC supersoft(Ra 2.6μm) and Permasoft (Ra 4.184839μm ± 0.409869) softliners. Conclusion: The present study shows each type of rotary instrument produces its own characteristic surface on each type of denture base materials and that care is needed when selecting the most appropriate instrument to adjust denture base materials. These results can have a significant clinical implication. While using Lucitone 199 stone bur can be used for chair side adjustments. Tungsten carbide bur can be used for GC supersoft and

  8. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  9. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  10. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  11. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  12. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  13. Instantaneous Conventions

    PubMed Central

    Misyak, Jennifer; Noguchi, Takao; Chater, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Humans can communicate even with few existing conventions in common (e.g., when they lack a shared language). We explored what makes this phenomenon possible with a nonlinguistic experimental task requiring participants to coordinate toward a common goal. We observed participants creating new communicative conventions using the most minimal possible signals. These conventions, furthermore, changed on a trial-by-trial basis in response to shared environmental and task constraints. Strikingly, as a result, signals of the same form successfully conveyed contradictory messages from trial to trial. Such behavior is evidence for the involvement of what we term joint inference, in which social interactants spontaneously infer the most sensible communicative convention in light of the common ground between them. Joint inference may help to elucidate how communicative conventions emerge instantaneously and how they are modified and reshaped into the elaborate systems of conventions involved in human communication, including natural languages. PMID:27793986

  14. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  15. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  16. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  17. The Potential to Machine Superconductors with Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Rebecca J.; Ivanov, Atanas; Babu-Nadendla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    Superconductors (SCs), such as gadolinium barium copper oxide, are brittle ceramics which are very difficult to machine conventionally due to the easy propagation of cracks. The cracks formed during conventional machining destroy the superconductive properties of the material. As a result a new method to machine ceramic SCs is needed. In this paper, polarization experiments were conducted in various nonaqueous salt electrolytes to determine whether electrochemical machining (ECM) is a suitable method for machining gadolinium barium copper oxide with silver inclusions (GdBCO-Ag) for the first time. Sodium chloride in formic acid proved to be the best electrolyte for this application with higher dissolution rates and achieving a better surface finish. It was noted that GdBCO-Ag dissolved at higher rates in NaCl in formic acid than in other salt-solvent systems.

  18. Database machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiefel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

  19. Defect Detectability Improvement for Conventional Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of defect detectability via phased array ultrasound technology in conventional friction stir welds by comparing conventionally prepped post weld surfaces to a machined surface finish. A machined surface is hypothesized to improve defect detectability and increase material strength.

  20. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  1. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, Spivey S.; Green, Walter L.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  2. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  3. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions.

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Townsend, Joe A; Adams, Sam E; Phadungsukanan, Weerapong; Thomas, Jens

    2011-10-14

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs.

  4. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    t^ ~cMnrc.pVbU of evaluating rheocasting as tell as more conventional casting techniques has been designed and is presently under construction...construction. The immediate objective of this machine is to study rheocasting and conventional casting with respect to .processing and properties. The...used in small, bottom-pour ladles. The stirring required by the Rheocasting proce- dures is to be accomplished by the paddle assembly shown in Figure

  5. Refrigerated cutting tools improve machining of superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Freon-12 applied to tool cutting edge evaporates quickly, leaves no residue, and permits higher cutting rate than with conventional coolants. This technique increases cutting rate on Rene-41 threefold and improves finish of machined surface.

  6. Machine learning for medical images analysis.

    PubMed

    Criminisi, A

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the application of machine learning for the analysis of medical images. Specifically: (i) We show how a special type of learning models can be thought of as automatically optimized, hierarchically-structured, rule-based algorithms, and (ii) We discuss how the issue of collecting large labelled datasets applies to both conventional algorithms as well as machine learning techniques. The size of the training database is a function of model complexity rather than a characteristic of machine learning methods.

  7. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  8. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  9. Intelligent Vehicle Power Management Using Machine Learning and Fuzzy Logic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    machine learning and fuzzy logic. A machine learning algorithm, LOPPS, has been developed to learn about optimal power source combinations with... machine learning algorithm combined with fuzzy logic is a promising technology for vehicle power management. I. INTRODUCTION ROWING...sources, and the complex configuration and operation modes, the control strategy of a hybrid vehicle is more complicated than that of a conventional

  10. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  11. High-speed machining of Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential production rates and project cost savings achieved by converting the conventional machining process in manufacturing shuttle external tank panels to high speed machining (HSM) techniques were studied. Savings were projected from the comparison of current production rates with HSM rates and with rates attainable on new conventional machines. The HSM estimates were also based on rates attainable by retrofitting existing conventional equipment with high speed spindle motors and rates attainable using new state of the art machines designed and built for HSM.

  12. Thread cutting with 3-axis N/C milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salley, G. C.; Wood, C. H., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    TAPDIE, a generalized macro written for the APT numerical control system, cuts threads in stock too big for conventional machines or for which conventional methods are unsuitable. TAPDIE computes the machine tool path necessary and the information is passed on to a post-processor which produces a control tape.

  13. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  14. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  15. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  16. Progressive damage in single lap countersunk composite joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Maajid; Wang, Chun Hui; Thomson, Rodney S.; Orifici, Adrian

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental and computational investigation of the influences of countersink and bolt torque on the progressive failure of single-lap composite joint. Using the Abaqus® software, delamination damage and ply fracture are modelled using cohesive element approach and continuum damage mechanics method, respectively. The model is first validated against a filled-hole tension test to calibrate the composite damage model. Comparison with the experimental results indicates that the computational model is capable of accurately predicting the joint strength and the damage progression process.

  17. Machine learning phases of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Stoudenmire, Miles; Melko, Roger

    We show how the technology that allows automatic teller machines read hand-written digits in cheques can be used to encode and recognize phases of matter and phase transitions in many-body systems. In particular, we analyze the (quasi-)order-disorder transitions in the classical Ising and XY models. Furthermore, we successfully use machine learning to study classical Z2 gauge theories that have important technological application in the coming wave of quantum information technologies and whose phase transitions have no conventional order parameter.

  18. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  19. Machine musicianship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  20. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

    For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

  1. Decomposing Composing Conventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Terry

    Recent research has invited critiques of the authoritative descriptions of composing found in many rhetoric textbooks. The concept of "convention" may be especially useful in rethinking the teleological basis of these textbook descriptions. Conventions found in composition textbooks need to be unmasked as arbitrary concepts which serve…

  2. Flotation machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

    1993-08-10

    A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

  3. A Quiet Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2003-01-01

    Describes how discussion of governance and academic standards dominated the proceedings at the first NCAA convention of Myles Brand's presidency. The new president also offered a qualified endorsement of Title IX. (EV)

  4. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  5. A novel ensemble machine learning for robust microarray data classification.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yonghong

    2006-06-01

    Microarray data analysis and classification has demonstrated convincingly that it provides an effective methodology for the effective diagnosis of diseases and cancers. Although much research has been performed on applying machine learning techniques for microarray data classification during the past years, it has been shown that conventional machine learning techniques have intrinsic drawbacks in achieving accurate and robust classifications. This paper presents a novel ensemble machine learning approach for the development of robust microarray data classification. Different from the conventional ensemble learning techniques, the approach presented begins with generating a pool of candidate base classifiers based on the gene sub-sampling and then the selection of a sub-set of appropriate base classifiers to construct the classification committee based on classifier clustering. Experimental results have demonstrated that the classifiers constructed by the proposed method outperforms not only the classifiers generated by the conventional machine learning but also the classifiers generated by two widely used conventional ensemble learning methods (bagging and boosting).

  6. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  7. Evaluation of waterjet-machined metal matrix composite tensile specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, C.A.; Smith, M.T.

    1986-04-01

    Four magnesium/boron carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) tensile specimens fabricated using the waterjet machining method were evaluated in order to determine the effects of the waterjet material removal process on the composite material surface structure and properties. These results were then compared with data from material conventionally machined. Results showed that while waterjet cutting produces a rough surface finish and does not meet specified dimensional tolerances, the technique appears to be suitable for sectioning and rough machining of metal matrix composites.

  8. Optical alignment of electrodes on electrical discharge machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boissevain, A. G.; Nelson, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Shadowgraph system projects magnified image on screen so that alignment of small electrodes mounted on electrical discharge machines can be corrected and verified. Technique may be adapted to other machine tool equipment where physical contact cannot be made during inspection and access to tool limits conventional runout checking procedures.

  9. Job Grading Standard for Machine Tool Operator, WG-3431.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard covers nonsupervisory work involved in the set up, adjustment, and operation of conventional machine tools to perform machining operations in the manufacture and repair of castings, forgings, or parts from raw stock made of various metals, metal alloys, and other materials. A general description of the job at both the WG-8 and WG-9…

  10. Quality assurance of a helical tomotherapy machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenwick, J. D.; Tomé, W. A.; Jaradat, H. A.; Hui, S. K.; James, J. A.; Balog, J. P.; DeSouza, C. N.; Lucas, D. B.; Olivera, G. H.; Mackie, T. R.; Paliwal, B. R.

    2004-07-01

    Helical tomotherapy has been developed at the University of Wisconsin, and 'Hi-Art II' clinical machines are now commercially manufactured. At the core of each machine lies a ring-gantry-mounted short linear accelerator which generates x-rays that are collimated into a fan beam of intensity-modulated radiation by a binary multileaf, the modulation being variable with gantry angle. Patients are treated lying on a couch which is translated continuously through the bore of the machine as the gantry rotates. Highly conformal dose-distributions can be delivered using this technique, which is the therapy equivalent of spiral computed tomography. The approach requires synchrony of gantry rotation, couch translation, accelerator pulsing and the opening and closing of the leaves of the binary multileaf collimator used to modulate the radiation beam. In the course of clinically implementing helical tomotherapy, we have developed a quality assurance (QA) system for our machine. The system is analogous to that recommended for conventional clinical linear accelerator QA by AAPM Task Group 40 but contains some novel components, reflecting differences between the Hi-Art devices and conventional clinical accelerators. Here the design and dosimetric characteristics of Hi-Art machines are summarized and the QA system is set out along with experimental details of its implementation. Connections between this machine-based QA work, pre-treatment patient-specific delivery QA and fraction-by-fraction dose verification are discussed.

  11. Experimental Investigation of process parameters influence on machining Inconel 800 in the Electrical Spark Eroding Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, K.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Electrical Spark Eroding Machining is an entrenched sophisticated machining process for producing complex geometry with close tolerances in hard materials like super alloy which are extremely difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining processes. It is sometimes offered as a better alternative or sometimes as an only alternative for generating accurate 3D complex shapes of macro, micro and nano-features in such difficult-to-machine materials among other advanced machining processes. The accomplishment of such challenging task by use of Electrical Spark Eroding Machining or Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is depending upon selection of apt process parameters. This paper is about analyzing the influencing of parameter in electrical eroding machining for Inconel 800 with electrolytic copper as a tool. The experimental runs were performed with various input conditions to process Inconel 800 nickel based super alloy for analyzing the response of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate. These are the measures of performance of individual experimental value of parameters such as pulse on time, Pulse off time, peak current. Taguchi full factorial Design by using Minitab release 14 software was employed to meet the manufacture requirements of preparing process parameter selection card for Inconel 800 jobs. The individual parameter's contribution towards surface roughness was observed from 13.68% to 64.66%.

  12. Development of synchronous machines with HTS rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Frank, M.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    Optimized design of synchronous machines can be achieved by use of HTS tape conductors. The introduction of an iron-free air-core stator winding and replacement of the rotor's copper windings by Bi-2223 tapes allows to develop very compact HTS machines with less than half the weight and volume, higher efficiency and excellent operational behavior compared to conventional devices. In consequence these rotating machines with HTS rotors become very attractive for ship drives, power generation and industrial applications. A 400 kW synchronous HTS machine was designed, manufactured and tested at Siemens. Main goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. Development of a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is currently under way.

  13. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  14. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  15. The Iowa wave machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

    2010-03-01

    Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

  16. Convention Problems - 1787.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Deroy L.

    Designed to motivate eighth-grade civics students in the study of the United States Constitution, this game is intended to simulate the basic problems faced by the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. The four parts of the game introduce the governmental concepts of the bicameral legislature, the executive branch, the judicial branch,…

  17. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  18. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  19. Clamping in Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Livesey, M

    1991-01-01

    A certain assumption that appears in the proof of correctness of the standard Boltzmann machine learning procedure is investigated. The assumption, called the clamping assumption, concerns the behavior of a Boltzmann machine when some of its units are clamped to a fixed state. It is argued that the clamping assumption is essentially an assertion of the time reversibility of a certain Markov chain underlying the behavior of the Boltzmann machine. As such, the clamping assumption is generally false, though it is certainly true of the Boltzmann machines themselves. The author also considers how the concept of the Boltzmann machine may be generalized while retaining the validity of the clamping assumption.

  20. Conventional Strategic Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.; Speed, R.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Bush Administration argues that the US, as the world's only remaining superpower, must be prepared to intervene militarily in regional conflicts. However, the traditional American way of fighting-relying on ground forces with heavy equipment, supported by naval and air forces--could prove too expensive, both monetarily and in terms of expected American casualties, to garner the support of the American public or Congress. This paper argues that the revolution in conventional weaponry demonstrated in the Persian Gulf War opens up the possibility of a new strategy--called Conventional Strategic Deterrence--that could reduce both financial costs and casualties (if it were necessary to implement the strategy) while still being a strong and credible deterrent to regional conflict.

  1. Laparoscopic versus conventional appendectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Vallina, V L; Velasco, J M; McCulloch, C S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to prospectively define the impact of laparoscopy on the management of patients with a presumed diagnosis of appendicitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: While the role of laparoscopy in the management of cholelithiasis is well established, its impact on the management of acute appendicitis needs to be objectively defined and compared to that of conventional management. Several authors have predicted that laparoscopic appendectomy will become the preferred treatment for appendicitis. METHODS: Two groups of consecutive patients with similar clinical characteristics of acute appendicitis were compared. Data on the laparoscopic group were compiled prospectively on standardized forms; data on the conventional group were collected retrospectively. Operative time, hospital stay, analgesia, cost, and return to normal activities were noted. RESULTS: Seventeen consecutive patients who underwent appendectomy were compared to 18 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopy (16 of these 18 had laparoscopic appendectomy). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of clinical characteristics and appendiceal histopathology. The mean operative times were 61 +/- 4.1 minutes and 46 +/- 2.9 minutes for the laparoscopy and conventional groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic appendectomy group, with 81% of patients being discharged on their first postoperative day (p < 0.001). The laparoscopic appendectomy patients required significantly less narcotic analgesia (p < 0.02). Return to normal activity was not significantly different between the two groups. The average total cost of laparoscopic appendectomy was 30% greater than that of conventional appendectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy is a useful adjunct to the management of patients with a presumed clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:8239785

  2. IERS Conventions (2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    3), are the respective resonance frequencies associated with the Chandler wobble (CW), the retrograde free core nutation (FCN), and the pro- grade...Soc., 64, pp. 747–765. Zschau, J., 1983, “Rheology of the Earth’s mantle at tidal and Chandler Wobble periods,” Proc. Ninth Int. Symp. Earth Tides, New...Reference Frame CTRS Conventional Terrestrial Reference System CW Chandler Wobble DOMES Directory Of MERIT Sites DORIS Doppler Orbit determination

  3. Convention, Confirmation, and Credibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    4 It was Pierre Duhem , a physicist, who made the strongest claim regarding the conventionality of what most people think of as empirical theory near...Mach, op. cit. p. 306. 5. Pierre Duhem , The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1954. In French, it appeared as...examine in detail the ideas of Mach, Poincare, and Duhem . That they had the idea that it could be philosophically respectable to regard scientific

  4. [Neonatal conventional ventilation guidelines].

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    Respiratory pathology is a frequent problem in Neonatal Intensive Care Units; the last few years, our knowledge about its management has improved enormously. Conventional Ventilatory support is a high-specialized technique that maintains a correct alveolar gas exchange while the primary aetiology is to present some clinical guidelines for every professional working with newborns who have respiratory failure improves. The aim of this document is to present some clinical guidelines for every professional working with newborns who have respiratory pathology

  5. The Effect of Active Phase of the Work Material on Machining Performance of a NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynak, Yusuf; Karaca, Haluk E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Jawahir, I. S.

    2015-06-01

    Poor machinability with conventional machining processes is a major shortcoming that limits the manufacture of NiTi components. To better understand the effects of phase state on the machining performance of NiTi alloys, cutting temperature, tool-wear behavior, cutting force components, tool-chip contact length, chip thickness, and machined surface quality data were generated from a NiTi alloy using precooled cryogenic, dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and preheated machining conditions. Findings reveal that machining NiTi in the martensite phase, which was achieved through precooled cryogenic machining, profoundly improved the machining performance by reducing cutting force components, notch wear, and surface roughness. Machining in the austenite state, achieved through preheating, did not provide any benefit over dry and MQL machining, and these processes were, in general, inferior to cryogenic machining in terms of machining performance, particularly at higher cutting speeds.

  6. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  7. Unorganized machines for seasonal streamflow series forecasting.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Hugo; Boccato, Levy; Attux, Romis; Lyra, Christiano

    2014-05-01

    Modern unorganized machines--extreme learning machines and echo state networks--provide an elegant balance between processing capability and mathematical simplicity, circumventing the difficulties associated with the conventional training approaches of feedforward/recurrent neural networks (FNNs/RNNs). This work performs a detailed investigation of the applicability of unorganized architectures to the problem of seasonal streamflow series forecasting, considering scenarios associated with four Brazilian hydroelectric plants and four distinct prediction horizons. Experimental results indicate the pertinence of these models to the focused task.

  8. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  9. Laser assisted machining: a state of art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punugupati, Gurabvaiah; Kandi, Kishore Kumar; Bose, P. S. C.; Rao, C. S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Difficult-to-cut materials have increasing demand in aerospace and automobile industries due to their high yield stress, high strength to weight ratio, high toughness, high wear resistance, high creep, high corrosion resistivity, ability to retain high strength at high temperature, etc. The machinability of these advanced materials, using conventional methods of machining is typical due to the high temperature and pressure at the cutting zone and tool and properties such as low thermal conductivity, high cutting forces and cutting temperatures makes the materials difficult to machine. Laser assisted machining (LAM) is a new and innovative technique for machining the difficult-to-cut materials. This paper deals with a review on the advances in lasers, tools and the mechanism of machining using LAM and their effects.

  10. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  11. Conventional magnetic superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowiec, C. T.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss several classes of conventional magnetic superconductors including the ternary rhodium borides and molybdenum chalcogenides (or Chevrel phases), and the quaternary nickel-borocarbides. These materials exhibit some exotic phenomena related to the interplay between superconductivity and long-range magnetic order including: the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order; reentrant and double reentrant superconductivity, magnetic field induced superconductivity, and the formation of a sinusoidally-modulated magnetic state that coexists with superconductivity. We introduce the article with a discussion of the binary and pseudobinary superconducting materials containing magnetic impurities which at best exhibit short-range “glassy” magnetic order. Early experiments on these materials led to the idea of a magnetic exchange interaction between the localized spins of magnetic impurity ions and the spins of the conduction electrons which plays an important role in understanding conventional magnetic superconductors. Furthermore, these advances provide a natural foundation for investigating unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds, cuprates, and other classes of materials in which superconductivity coexists with, or is in proximity to, a magnetically-ordered phase.

  12. Conventional magnetic superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Wolowiec, C. T.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss several classes of conventional magnetic superconductors including the ternary rhodium borides and molybdenum chalcogenides (or Chevrel phases), and the quaternary nickel-borocarbides. These materials exhibit some exotic phenomena related to the interplay between superconductivity and long-range magnetic order including: the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order; reentrant and double reentrant superconductivity, magnetic field induced superconductivity, and the formation of a sinusoidally-modulated magnetic state that coexists with superconductivity. We introduce the article with a discussion of the binary and pseudobinary superconducting materials containing magnetic impurities which at best exhibit short-range “glassy” magnetic order. Early experiments on these materials led tomore » the idea of a magnetic exchange interaction between the localized spins of magnetic impurity ions and the spins of the conduction electrons which plays an important role in understanding conventional magnetic superconductors. Furthermore, these advances provide a natural foundation for investigating unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds, cuprates, and other classes of materials in which superconductivity coexists with, or is in proximity to, a magnetically-ordered phase.« less

  13. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  14. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  15. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  16. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  17. Progress in machine consciousness.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of the work that has been carried out on machine consciousness. A clear overview of this diverse field is achieved by breaking machine consciousness down into four different areas, which are used to understand its aims, discuss its relationship with other subjects and outline the work that has been carried out so far. The criticisms that have been made against machine consciousness are also covered, along with its potential benefits, and the work that has been done on analysing systems for signs of consciousness. Some of the social and ethical issues raised by machine consciousness are examined at the end of the paper.

  18. Biodiesel from conventional feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Liu, De-Hua

    2012-01-01

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.

  19. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  20. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  1. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  4. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  5. The Hooey Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  6. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  7. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  8. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  9. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  10. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  11. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  12. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  13. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  14. Conventional mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    The provision of mechanical ventilation for the support of infants and children with respiratory failure or insufficiency is one of the most common techniques that are performed in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Despite its widespread application in the PICUs of the 21st century, before the 1930s, respiratory failure was uniformly fatal due to the lack of equipment and techniques for airway management and ventilatory support. The operating rooms of the 1950s and 1960s provided the arena for the development of the manual skills and the refinement of the equipment needed for airway management, which subsequently led to the more widespread use of endotracheal intubation thereby ushering in the era of positive pressure ventilation. Although there seems to be an ever increasing complexity in the techniques of mechanical ventilation, its successful use in the PICU should be guided by the basic principles of gas exchange and the physiology of respiratory function. With an understanding of these key concepts and the use of basic concepts of mechanical ventilation, this technique can be successfully applied in both the PICU and the operating room. This article reviews the basic physiology of gas exchange, principles of pulmonary physiology, and the concepts of mechanical ventilation to provide an overview of the knowledge required for the provision of conventional mechanical ventilation in various clinical arenas. PMID:20927268

  15. Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2000-05-15

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.

  16. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  17. Comparison of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Laser Machined and Milled 304 L Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, Aniruddha; Nagpure, D. C.; Rai, S. K.; Singh, M. K.; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, A. K.; Singh, Amrendra; Tiwari, M. K.; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Singh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Machining of austenitic stainless steel components is known to introduce significant enhancement in their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The paper compares stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined 304 L stainless steel specimens with conventionally milled counterpart in chloride environment. With respect to conventionally milled specimens, laser machined specimens displayed more than 12 times longer crack initiation time in accelerated stress corrosion cracking test in boiling magnesium chloride as per ASTM G36. Reduced stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined surface is attributed to its predominantly ferritic duplex microstructure in which anodic ferrite phase was under compressive stress with respect to cathodic austenite.

  18. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  19. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  20. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  1. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  2. Graphite fiber reinforced structure for supporting machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kovach, Louis; Hurst, John S.

    1978-01-01

    Machine tools utilized in precision machine operations require tool support structures which exhibit minimal deflection, thermal expansion and vibration characteristics. The tool support structure of the present invention is a graphite fiber reinforced composite in which layers of the graphite fibers or yarn are disposed in a 0/90.degree. pattern and bonded together with an epoxy resin. The finished composite possesses a low coefficient of thermal expansion and a substantially greater elastic modulus, stiffness-to-weight ratio, and damping factor than a conventional steel tool support utilized in similar machining operations.

  3. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  4. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  5. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1997-02-11

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  6. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  7. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  9. Molecular Machines: Nanoscale gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

    2008-06-01

    Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

  10. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  11. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  12. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  13. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  14. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  15. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  16. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  17. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  18. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  19. Multistage axial-flux PM machine for wheel direct drive

    SciTech Connect

    Caricchi, F.; Crescimbini, F.; Mezzetti, F.; Santini, E.

    1996-07-01

    The design of direct-drive wheel motors must comply with diameter restriction due to housing the motor in a wheel rim and allow the achievement of very high torque density and overload capability. Slotless axial-flux permanent magnet machines (AFPMs) prove to be the best candidate for application in electric vehicles as direct-drive wheel motors, as in comparison with conventional machines they allow designs with higher compactness, lightness and efficiency. The paper presents a newly conceived AFPM which has a multistage structure and a water-cooled ironless stator. In the proposed new topology of the machine the space formerly occupied by the toroidal core becomes a water duct, which removes heat directly from the interior surface of the stator winding. The high efficiency of the machine cooling arrangement allows long-term 100% overload operation and great reduction of the machine weight. The multistage structure of the machine is suited to overcome the restriction on the machine diameter and meet the torque required at the wheel shaft. The paper gives guidelines for the design of a multistage AFPM with water-cooled ironless stator, and describes characteristics of a two-stage prototype machine rated 215 N{center_dot}m, 1,100 r/min.

  20. Experimental investigation of machining parameter under MQL milling of SS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatade, Vivek T.; Patil, Vikas T.; Kuppan, P.; Balan, A. S. S.; Oyyaravelu, R.

    2016-09-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) or near dry machining has been recognized by many researchers and industrialist in order to move one step ahead towards the green manufacturing. MQL assisted machining reduces the harmful environmental impact caused by flood coolant and machining cost. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the impact of oxygen as a carrier gas in MQL during end milling of austenitic stainless steel grade SS304. Also, the machining performance under conventional MQL with air and dry machining have been studied. The evaluation was done on tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces under two distinct cutting speeds i.e. 75 m/min and 100 m/min. Investigation brings to light that presence of oxygen is susceptible in the case of machining of SS304, it provides extra protective oxide layer near the tool chip interface. Consequently, increased tool life, reduced surface roughness and cutting forces when compared to conventional MQL assisted milling.

  1. The Emergence of Conventional Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Maria

    Children in the emergent writing stage write in pre-conventional or emergent forms (scribbling, drawing, non-phonetic letterings, and phonetic spelling) before they write conventionally. A special education teacher in a kindergarten inclusion setting in the Bronx, New York, noticing that her students did not particularly like to write, decided and…

  2. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  3. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  4. A Saturated Synchronous Machine Study for the Converter-Machine-Command Set Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasquellee, S.; Benkhoris, M. F.; Féliachi, M.

    1997-11-01

    The electromagnetic study presented models a saturated synchronous machine for the Converter-Machine-Command (CMC) set simulation. The proposed method is based on a modified Park model (Garrido and De Jaeger Model: GDJ model [1,2]) when calculating the GDJ model laws and the GDJ model parameters using a field computation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The first model (GDJ model) is modified in accordance to the field results and a 4.8% improvement has been estimated. The model validity is obtained when comparing the computed and measured reactances. The improved model is elaborated in order to be introduced into the saturated machine algorithm to simulate the CMC set. In comparison with the model based on experiments, the proposed one avoids complex tests on high power range synchronous machines. On the other hand, this study reveals Potier parameter variations with the saturation state whereas the conventional methods consider it as a constant value. Finally we develop the saturated synchronous machine model associated with the converter.

  5. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  6. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  7. The Bateman Flotation Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Bezuidenhout, G.

    1995-12-31

    The newly developed Bateman Flotation Machine has proven its versatility in roughing and cleaning flotation circuits. This mechanical flotation machine has the dual performance capability of suspending solids and dispersing air at relatively low power inputs without compromising these two important fundamentals. This new development has been successfully marketed to a wide cross section of concentrator mineral processes. The mechanical design of the flotation mechanism has been optimized to reduce operational costs and to lower manufacturing costs. Production process environments were utilized for verification of the scale-up of each cell volume size rated mechanism. These thorough investigations produced performance data which could be accurately quoted. This paper is a historical account of the Batement Flotation Machine. Technical details of the development are covered with descriptions of the operational applications.

  8. Brown coal preparation machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, H.; Sitte, W.; Kellerwessel, H.

    1981-05-01

    Lignite usually requires comminuting and screening before being used as a fuel in power plants. Reduction machines normally used for coarse crushing bituminous coal, such as jaw crushers, roll crushers, and impact crushers, are not generally suitable for lignite as they require a brittle feed and large grain size. In contrast to these requirements, lignite can be easily compressed and has a small grain size. Therefore, special crusher types have been developed for the coarse reduction of lignite. These machines resemble roll crushers but subject the feed to shearing and tearing forces rather than to compressive stress. It is often necessary to screen the lignite to remove the undersize or to limit the maximum particle size before the next comminution process. Screening the lignite is a particularly difficult operation due to the high water content and the presence of clay minerals which tend to clog the screening machines. These problems can be overcome with multi-roll sizers.

  9. A Review on High-Speed Machining of Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wong, Yoke-San

    Titanium alloys have been widely used in the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries because of their good strength-to-weight ratio and superior corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult to machine them due to their poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with conventional tools, the tool wear rate progresses rapidly, and it is generally difficult to achieve a cutting speed of over 60m/min. Other types of tool materials, including ceramic, diamond, and cubic boron nitride (CBN), are highly reactive with titanium alloys at higher temperature. However, binder-less CBN (BCBN) tools, which do not have any binder, sintering agent or catalyst, have a remarkably longer tool life than conventional CBN inserts even at high cutting speeds. In order to get deeper understanding of high speed machining (HSM) of titanium alloys, the generation of mathematical models is essential. The models are also needed to predict the machining parameters for HSM. This paper aims to give an overview of recent developments in machining and HSM of titanium alloys, geometrical modeling of HSM, and cutting force models for HSM of titanium alloys.

  10. Machining in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Graylan

    2003-01-01

    A CNC mill was flown aboard NASA's KC-135 ``Weightless Wonder'' microgravity research aircraft to investigate the effect of gravity on the machining process and to demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of a CNC mill in a weightless environment, such as aboard the International Space Station. The experiment hypothesis was that the surface roughness of milling cuts made in microgravity would be of higher quality than cuts made in a gravitational environment due to increased chip removal. The technical problems associated with microgravity machining (such as the chip removal and collection process), and the engineering solutions to these problems were also evaluated in this experiment.

  11. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  12. Intersecting vane machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  13. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  14. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  15. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  16. Autonomous quantum thermodynamic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonner, Friedemann; Mahler, Günter

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system consisting of a single spin coupled to an oscillator and sandwiched between two thermal baths at different temperatures. By means of an adequately designed Lindblad equation, it is shown that this device can function as a thermodynamic machine exhibiting Carnot-type cycles. For the present model, this means that when run as a heat engine, coherent motion of the oscillator is amplified. Contrary to the quantum computer, such a machine has a quantum as well as a classical limit. Away from the classical limit, it asymptotically approaches a stationary transport scenario.

  17. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  18. A Study in the Applications of Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homme, Lloyd E.; And Others

    Three experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of programed learning. The first compared the use of a programed text and a teaching machine with a television plus conventional lecture presentation in a DC Electricity course. The second experiment tested the same techniques in an AC Electricity course. The third experiment compared…

  19. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  3. Recent advances in ultrasonic-assisted machining for the fabrication of micro/nano-textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaolin; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto; Shimada, Keita; Mizutani, Masayoshi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the state of art of ultrasonicassisted machining technologies used for fabrication of micro/nano-textured surfaces is reviewed. Diamond machining is the most widely used method in industry for manufacturing precision parts. For fabrication of fine structures on surfaces, conventional diamond machining methods are competitive by considering the precision of structures, but have limitations at machinable structures and machining efficiency, which have been proved to be partly solved by the integration of ultrasonic vibration motion. In this paper, existing ultrasonic-assisted machining methods for fabricating fine surface structures are reviewed and classified, and a rotary ultrasonic texturing (RUT) technology is mainly introduced by presenting the construction of vibration spindles, the texturing principles, and the applications of textured surfaces. Some new ideas and experimental results are presented. Finally, the challenges in using the RUT method to fabricate micro/ nano-textured surfaces are discussed with respect to texturing strategies, machinable structures, and tool wear.

  4. Investigations on structural thinning in deformation machining stretching mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arshpreet; Nirala, Harish Kumar; Agrawal, Anupam

    2016-10-01

    Deformation machining is a combination of thin structure machining and single point incremental forming/bending. This process enables the creation of monolithic, complex structures and geometries, which are difficult or sometimes impossible to manufacture employing conventional manufacturing techniques. Section thinning of the formed structure is a measure of process formability and influences the strength and stiffness of the formed component. In this study, experimental and finite element investigations on structural thinning in Deformation machining stretching mode have been performed. Structural thinning was found out to be highly non uniform along the forming depth at varying forming angles. A compensation strategy in thin structure machining has been proposed for uniform section thickness in incremental forming.

  5. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  6. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s-1 averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ≈20 ng min-1. The average surface roughness, Sa, achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica.

  7. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  8. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  9. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video…

  10. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  11. Copy Machine Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Images created with copy machines make children feel successful, as their work acquires the authority of being printed. Students can learn advanced processes like electrostatic image-making and can get involved in projects like making collages. They acquire an appreciation of design and of two-dimensional composition. (CS)

  12. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  13. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  14. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  15. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  16. Laser machining of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  17. Characterisation of integrated WAAM and machining processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebayo, Adeyinka

    This research describes the process of manufacturing and machining of wire and arc additive manufactured (WAAM) thin wall structures on integrated and non-integrated WAAM systems. The overall aim of this thesis is to obtain a better understanding of deposition and machining of WAAM wall parts through an integrated system. This research includes the study of the comparison of deposition of WAAM wall structures on different WAAM platforms, namely an Integrated SAM Edgetek grinding machine, an ABB robot and a Friction Stir Welding (FSW) machine. The result shows that WAAM is a robustly transferable technique that can be implemented across a variety of different platforms typically available in industry.. For WAAM deposition, a rise in output repeatedly involves high welding travel speed that usually leads to an undesired humping effect. Part of the objectives of this work was to study the travel speed limit for humping. The findings from this research show that the travel speed limit falls within a certain region at which humping starts to occur. One of the objectives of this thesis was to study the effect of lubricants during sequential and non-sequential machining/deposition of the WAAM parts. Conventional fluid lubricants and solid lubricants were used. In addition, the effect of cleaning of deposited wall samples with acetone was also studied. A systematic study shows that a significant amount of solid lubricant contamination can be found in the deposited material. Furthermore, the results indicate that even cleaning of the wire and arc additive manufactured surfaces with acetone prior to the weld deposition can affect the microstructure of the deposited material..

  18. Fast, Continuous Audiogram Estimation using Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinyu D.; Wallace, Brittany M.; Gardner, Jacob R.; Ledbetter, Noah M.; Weinberger, Kilian Q.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pure-tone audiometry has been a staple of hearing assessments for decades. Many different procedures have been proposed for measuring thresholds with pure tones by systematically manipulating intensity one frequency at a time until a discrete threshold function is determined. The authors have developed a novel nonparametric approach for estimating a continuous threshold audiogram using Bayesian estimation and machine learning classification. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy and reliability of this new method relative to a commonly used threshold measurement technique. Design The authors performed air conduction pure-tone audiometry on 21 participants between the ages of 18 and 90 years with varying degrees of hearing ability. Two repetitions of automated machine learning audiogram estimation and 1 repetition of conventional modified Hughson-Westlake ascending-descending audiogram estimation were acquired by an audiologist. The estimated hearing thresholds of these two techniques were compared at standard audiogram frequencies (i.e., 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 kHz). Results The two threshold estimate methods delivered very similar estimates at standard audiogram frequencies. Specifically, the mean absolute difference between estimates was 4.16 ± 3.76 dB HL. The mean absolute difference between repeated measurements of the new machine learning procedure was 4.51 ± 4.45 dB HL. These values compare favorably to those of other threshold audiogram estimation procedures. Furthermore, the machine learning method generated threshold estimates from significantly fewer samples than the modified Hughson-Westlake procedure while returning a continuous threshold estimate as a function of frequency. Conclusions The new machine learning audiogram estimation technique produces continuous threshold audiogram estimates accurately, reliably, and efficiently, making it a strong candidate for widespread application in clinical and research audiometry. PMID

  19. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  1. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  2. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  3. Modeling and analysis of uncertainty in on-machine form characterization of diamond-machined optical micro-structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; Ren, Mingjun; Ehmann, Kornel F.; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Ultra-precision diamond machining is widely used in the manufacture of optical micro-structured surfaces with sub-micron form accuracy. As optical performance is highly-dependent on surface form accuracy, it is critically important to use reliable form characterization methods for surface quality control. To ascertain the characteristics of real machined surfaces, a reliable on-machine spiral scanning approach with high fidelity is presented in this paper. However, since many uncertainty contributors that lead to significant variations in the characterization results are unavoidable, an error analysis model is developed to identify the associated uncertainties to facilitate the reliable quantification of the demanding specifications of the manufactured surfaces. To accomplish this, both the diamond machining process and the on-machine spiral scanning procedure are investigated. Through the proposed model, via the Monte Carlo method, the estimation of form error parameters of a compound eye lens array is conducted in correlation with form deviations, scanning centering errors, measurement drift and noise, etc. Application experiments, using an on-machine scanning tunneling microscope, verify the proposed model and also confirm its potential superiority over the conventional off-machine raster scanning method for surface characterization and quality control.

  4. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  5. Interferometer systems in machine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzepka, Janusz; Pienkowski, Janusz; Sambor, Slawomir; Budzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-10-01

    In the report the arrangements of laser interferometers for machine history are presented; the laser interferometer LSP30 for investigation of geometry of machine tools, the setup for inspection of ball screw and laser liner for CNC machine. Outstanding feature of the interferometers is the stabilization system of laser frequency using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid cells (SSFLC).

  6. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  7. Development of a Flexible Laser Hardening & Machining Center and Proof of Concept on C-45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquet, Jan; Van Camp, Dries; Vanhove, Hans; Clijsters, Stijn; Amirahmad, Mohammadi; Lauwers, Bert

    The production of hardened precision parts is conventionally done in 3 steps. Rough machining of a workpiece in soft stage is followed by a hardening step, usually a batch process, and finalized by a hard machining finishing step. To omit the inevitable time delay and loss of accuracy because of part re-clamping, these steps should be incorporated within one flexible machining center. This paper describes the development of this machining center which allowsmachining and laser hardening in one setup, followed by a proof of concept for hardening C45 steel on this setup.

  8. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  9. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  10. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    PubMed

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  11. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation. PMID:25879069

  12. Safety features in anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, M; Mohan, S

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia is one of the few sub-specialties of medicine, which has quickly adapted technology to improve patient safety. This application of technology can be seen in patient monitoring, advances in anaesthesia machines, intubating devices, ultrasound for visualisation of nerves and vessels, etc., Anaesthesia machines have come a long way in the last 100 years, the improvements being driven both by patient safety as well as functionality and economy of use. Incorporation of safety features in anaesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is done before use on a patient ensures patient safety. This review will trace all the present safety features in the machine and their evolution.

  13. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  14. Swinging Atwood's Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufillaro, Nicholas B.; Abbott, Tyler A.; Griffiths, David J.

    1984-10-01

    We examine the motion of an Atwood's Machine in which one of the masses is allowed to swing in a plane. Computer studies reveal a rich variety of trajectories. The orbits are classified (bounded, periodic, singular, and terminating), and formulas for the critical mass ratios are developed. Perturbative techniques yield good approximations to the computer-generated trajectories. The model constitutes a simple example of a nonlinear dynamical system with two degrees of freedom.

  15. Making Atwood's machine ``work''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gordon O.

    2001-03-01

    PASCO scientific's Smart Pulley™, a lightweight, low-friction pulley and a photogate, begs to be used as an Atwood's machine to determine the acceleration of gravity, g. Unfortunately ignoring the mass and friction of the pulley results in poor values of g. In this paper a procedure is outlined that includes the effects of the pulley's inertia and friction. As a result, the value of g may be determined to an accuracy of 0.1%.

  16. Pulsed laser-assisted machining of Inconel 718 superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhdari Tadavani, Soheila; Shoja Razavi, Reza; Vafaei, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-based superalloys including Inconel 718(IN718) are widely used in aerospace industries due to their superior high temperature strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance. These alloys are difficult to machine mainly because of their low thermal conductivity and high work hardening rate, which cause steep temperature gradient and high cutting forces at the tool edge. The application of laser assisted machining is the subject of many new researches since shear forces; surface coarsening and tool wear are reduced. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate laser assisted machining behavior of a 718 Inconel superalloy from the view point of machining specific energy, surface roughness, tool wear and chip appearance. Experimental apparatuses used included optical and scanning electron microscopy, spark emission spectroscopy, and EDS analysis. The results indicated that increasing the temperature to about 540 °C just ahead of primary shear zone, can result in 35% reduction of machining specific energy, in comparison with conventional machining. Furthermore, surface coarsening and tool wear were reduced by 22% and 23% respectively. Flank wear was the main deteriorating factor on cutting tools during laser assisted machining. SEM micrographs indicated that increase in temperature has no noticeable effect on finished workpiece surface. Analysis of variance obtained from regression analysis indicated that frequency of laser beam has the most influential effect on temperature. The optimum conditions for laser assisted machining of 718 superalloy is suggested as follows: 80 Hz frequency, 400 W power, 24 m/min cutting speed, and 0.052 mm/rev feed rate along with 540 °C temperature, 2.51 J/mm2 machining specific energy and 130 N cutting force.

  17. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  18. Universal Memcomputing Machines.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the notion of universal memcomputing machines (UMMs): a class of brain-inspired general-purpose computing machines based on systems with memory, whereby processing and storing of information occur on the same physical location. We analytically prove that the memory properties of UMMs endow them with universal computing power (they are Turing-complete), intrinsic parallelism, functional polymorphism, and information overhead, namely, their collective states can support exponential data compression directly in memory. We also demonstrate that a UMM has the same computational power as a nondeterministic Turing machine, namely, it can solve nondeterministic polynomial (NP)-complete problems in polynomial time. However, by virtue of its information overhead, a UMM needs only an amount of memory cells (memprocessors) that grows polynomially with the problem size. As an example, we provide the polynomial-time solution of the subset-sum problem and a simple hardware implementation of the same. Even though these results do not prove the statement NP = P within the Turing paradigm, the practical realization of these UMMs would represent a paradigm shift from the present von Neumann architectures, bringing us closer to brain-like neural computation.

  19. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  20. High-precision laser machining of ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; von Alvensleben, Ferdinand; Graumann, Christoph; Willmann, Guido

    1998-09-01

    The increasing demand for highly developed ceramic materials for various applications calls for innovative machining technologies yielding high accuracy and efficiency. Associated problems with conventional, i.e. mechanical methods, are unacceptable tool wear as well as force induced damages on ceramic components. Furthermore, the established grinding techniques often meet their limits if accurate complex 2D or 3D structures are required. In contrast to insufficient mechanical processes, UV-laser precision machining of ceramics offers not only a valuable technological alternative but a considerable economical aspect as well. In particular, excimer lasers provide a multitude of advantages for applications in high precision and micro technology. Within the UV wavelength range and pulses emitted in the nano-second region, minimal thermal effects on ceramics and polymers are observed. Thus, the ablation geometry can be controlled precisely in the lateral and vertical directions. In this paper, the excimer laser machining technology developed at the Laser Zentrum Hannover is explained. Representing current and future industrial applications, examinations concerning the precision cutting of alumina (Al2O3), and HF-composite materials, the ablation of ferrite ceramics for precision inductors and the structuring of SiC sealing and bearing rings are presented.

  1. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Ergonomic evaluation of conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking with women workers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Sharma, D K

    2012-01-01

    Conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking were evaluated ergonomically on an experiment conducted for 20 minute with women workers. The working heart rate, energy expenditure rate, total cardiac cost of work and physiological cost of work with conventional tools varied from 93-102 beats.min-1, 6-7.5 kJ.min-1, 285-470 beats, 14 -23 beats.min-1 while with machine varied from 96-105 beats.min-1, 6.5-8 kJ.min-1 , 336-540 beats, 16-27 beats.min-1 respectively. OWAS score for conventional method was 2 indicating corrective measures in near future while with machine was 1 indicating no corrective measures. Result of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire revealed that subjects complaint of pain in back, neck, right shoulder and right hand due to unnatural body posture and repetitive movement with hand tool. Moreover pricking was carried out in improper lighting conditions (200-300 lux) resulting into finger injuries from sharp edges of hand tool, whereas with machine no such problems were observed. Output with machine increased thrice than hand pricking in a given time. Machine was found useful in terms of saving time, increased productivity, enhanced safety and comfort as involved improved posture, was easy to handle and operate, thus increasing efficiency of the worker leading to better quality of life.

  3. Diamond Machining of an Off-Axis Biconic Aspherical Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Preuss, Werner; Sohn, Alex; MacKenty, John

    2009-01-01

    Two diamond-machining methods have been developed as part of an effort to design and fabricate an off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal, concave aluminum mirror for an infrared spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Beyond this initial application, the methods can be expected to enable satisfaction of requirements for future instrument mirrors having increasingly complex (including asymmetrical), precise shapes that, heretofore, could not readily be fabricated by diamond machining or, in some cases, could not be fabricated at all. In the initial application, the mirror is prescribed, in terms of Cartesian coordinates x and y, by aperture dimensions of 94 by 76 mm, placements of -2 mm off axis in x and 227 mm off axis in y, an x radius of curvature of 377 mm, a y radius of curvature of 407 mm, an x conic constant of 0.078, and a y conic constant of 0.127. The aspect ratio of the mirror blank is about 6. One common, "diamond machining" process uses single-point diamond turning (SPDT). However, it is impossible to generate the required off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal shape by conventional SPDT because (1) rotational symmetry is an essential element of conventional SPDT and (2) the present off-axis biconic mirror shape lacks rotational symmetry. Following conventional practice, it would be necessary to make this mirror from a glass blank by computer-controlled polishing, which costs more than diamond machining and yields a mirror that is more difficult to mount to a metal bench. One of the two present diamond machining methods involves the use of an SPDT machine equipped with a fast tool servo (FTS). The SPDT machine is programmed to follow the rotationally symmetric asphere that best fits the desired off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal surface. The FTS is actuated in synchronism with the rotation of the SPDT machine to generate the difference between the desired surface and the best-fit rotationally symmetric asphere. In order to minimize the required stroke of the FTS

  4. LHCb experience with running jobs in virtual machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Luzzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment has been running production jobs in virtual machines since 2013 as part of its DIRAC-based infrastructure. We describe the architecture of these virtual machines and the steps taken to replicate the WLCG worker node environment expected by user and production jobs. This relies on the uCernVM system for providing root images for virtual machines. We use the CernVM-FS distributed filesystem to supply the root partition files, the LHCb software stack, and the bootstrapping scripts necessary to configure the virtual machines for us. Using this approach, we have been able to minimise the amount of contextualisation which must be provided by the virtual machine managers. We explain the process by which the virtual machine is able to receive payload jobs submitted to DIRAC by users and production managers, and how this differs from payloads executed within conventional DIRAC pilot jobs on batch queue based sites. We describe our operational experiences in running production on VM based sites managed using Vcycle/OpenStack, Vac, and HTCondor Vacuum. Finally we show how our use of these resources is monitored using Ganglia and DIRAC.

  5. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  6. Will machines ever think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence research has come under fire for failing to fulfill its promises. A growing number of AI researchers are reexamining the bases of AI research and are challenging the assumption that intelligent behavior can be fully explained as manipulation of symbols by algorithms. Three recent books -- Mind over Machine (H. Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus), Understanding Computers and Cognition (T. Winograd and F. Flores), and Brains, Behavior, and Robots (J. Albus) -- explore alternatives and open the door to new architectures that may be able to learn skills.

  7. Learning thermodynamics with Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2016-10-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a stochastic neural network that has been extensively used in the layers of deep architectures for modern machine learning applications. In this paper, we develop a Boltzmann machine that is capable of modeling thermodynamic observables for physical systems in thermal equilibrium. Through unsupervised learning, we train the Boltzmann machine on data sets constructed with spin configurations importance sampled from the partition function of an Ising Hamiltonian at different temperatures using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The trained Boltzmann machine is then used to generate spin states, for which we compare thermodynamic observables to those computed by direct MC sampling. We demonstrate that the Boltzmann machine can faithfully reproduce the observables of the physical system. Further, we observe that the number of neurons required to obtain accurate results increases as the system is brought close to criticality.

  8. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  9. Designing a leaner, cleaner machine

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-05-01

    With factories cutting back on emissions and municipalities stepping up recycling efforts, environmentalists have cast automobiles as the primary pollution culprit. A concept car called the XCAR, which incorporates a fuel-efficient, low-pollution engine from Australia, may one day rehabilitate automobiles` bad environmental reputation. The XCAR is being designed by XCORP in Malibu, Calif. The company was founded in 1991 to transfer cutting-edge aerospace and defense technologies to business and manufacturing applications. Their goals are to design a next-generation automobile that will use less energy; provide a higher degree of safety by being more impact-resistant; reduce stress on roads, highways, and bridges by its lighter weight, thus extending the life of infrastructure; and be easily recycled and repaired. The company is developing a roadster, a subcompact coupe, and a sports/utility version of the XCAR for American civilian use, as well as a general-purpose version for the US military and a multipurpose car for developing nations. The design of the XCAR includes molded thermoplastic panels, which reduces the vehicle`s overall weight. Thermoplastic also lowers the energy needed to stamp steel parts by eliminating the by-products generated from spot-welding, drilling, and riveting, such as welding fumes and spent machining oils. Using large, molded thermoplastic/aluminum sections for much of the chassis and body assemblies will also reduce the number of parts required by a third compared to conventional autos. In addition, paint application and its attendant solvents are eliminated because the color is molded into the plastic body.

  10. Application of Abrasive-Waterjets for Machining Fatigue-Critical Aircraft Aluminum Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H T; Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E; Zeng, J

    2010-08-19

    Current specifications require AWJ-cut aluminum parts for fatigue critical aerospace structures to go through subsequent processing due to concerns of degradation in fatigue performance. The requirement of secondary process for AWJ-machined parts greatly negates the cost effectiveness of waterjet technology. Some cost savings are envisioned if it can be shown that AWJ net cut parts have comparable durability properties as those conventionally machined. To revisit and upgrade the specifications for AWJ machining of aircraft aluminum, “Dog-bone” specimens, with and without secondary processes, were prepared for independent fatigue tests at Boeing and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Test results show that the fatigue life is proportional to quality levels of machined edges or inversely proportional to the surface roughness Ra . Even at highest quality level, the average fatigue life of AWJ-machined parts is about 30% shorter than those of conventionally machined counterparts. Between two secondary processes, dry-grit blasting with aluminum oxide abrasives until the striation is removed visually yields excellent result. It actually prolongs the fatigue life of parts at least three times higher than that achievable with conventional machining. Dry-grit blasting is relatively simple and inexpensive to administrate and, equally important, alleviates the concerns of garnet embedment.

  11. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  12. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  13. Earth boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M. E.

    1985-11-19

    An earth boring machine for boring straight and level elongated holes through rock-laden earth. The machine includes a stationary elongated frame upon which a first slide is carried. A second slide is carried on the first slide. An elongated auger guiding sleeve is carried adjacent one end of the first slide and has a cutting edge on a remote end thereof. A power-driven auger assembly is carried on the second slide and includes an auger which extends within the guiding sleeve. A cutting tool is carried on the end of the auger adjacent a remote end of the guiding sleeve. An hydraulic cylinder is provided for advancing the first sleeve for driving the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve into the earth while the power driven auger removes the earth as the guiding sleeve is advanced. Another set of hydraulic cylinders are provided for advancing the second slide on the first slide causing the cutting tool to extend out beyond the remote end of the guiding sleeve for cutting through obstructions in the earth when the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve is prevented from moving forward.

  14. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  15. Evaluation of the Technical-Economic Potential of Particle- Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites and Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, A.; Götze, U.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Lehnert, N.; Herold, F.; Meichsner, G.; Schmidt, A.

    2016-03-01

    Compared to conventional cutting, the processing of materials by electrochemical machining offers some technical advantages like high surface quality, no thermal or mechanical impact on the work piece and preservation of the microstructure of the work piece material. From the economic point of view, the possibility of process parallelization and the absence of any process-related tool wear are mentionable advantages of electrochemical machining. In this study, based on experimental results, it will be evaluated to what extent the electrochemical machining is technically and economically suitable for the finish-machining of particle- reinforced aluminum matrix composites (AMCs). Initial studies showed that electrochemical machining - in contrast to other machining processes - has the potential to fulfil demanding requirements regarding precision and surface quality of products or components especially when applied to AMCs. In addition, the investigations show that processing of AMCs by electrochemical machining requires less energy than the electrochemical machining of stainless steel. Therefore, an evaluation of electrochemically machined AMCs - compared to stainless steel - from a technical and an economic perspective will be presented in this paper. The results show the potential of electro-chemically machined AMCs and contribute to the enhancement of instruments for technical-economic evaluations as well as a comprehensive innovation control.

  16. A Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhao; Ahmed, Adeeb; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-10-05

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction application using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to Halbach-array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) show the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  17. Surface Integrity of Hard Metal Parts Machined by WEDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, S.; Izquierdo, B.; Sanchez, J. A.; Ortega, N.; Ramos, J. M.

    2009-11-01

    Hard metal is characterised by having a extremely high hardness and high wear resistance, and those characteristics make difficult conventional machining. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) has become an attractive and feasible method for the manufacturing of precision hard metal tooling, and it is now an alternative to classical diamond grinding. This is due to the thermal nature of material removal mechanism in EDM, which is therefore independent on part hardness. This work pays attention to the analysis of surface integrity in wire EDM'ed hard metal parts. Damages on the machined surfaces have been characterised for different cutting regimes. Special attention has been paid to the heat affected zone, since it is in this zone where cracking mostly occurs. The study includes the analysis of the chemical composition of the affected layers. Additionally, the influence of successive trim cuts on surface roughness is addressed.

  18. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  19. Electrochemical machining in-process data collection and control

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a fast and efficient method to fabricate intricate metal parts. However, tooling is often expensive; and electical power consumption is relatively high. The precision of an ECM process is dependent upon several variables which often cannot be predicted in the initial tool design. This leads to iterative tool adjustments until the desired level of precision is achieved. A system was devised to use a computer for collecting data from the ECM process and for monitoring and controlling ECM operations. It is believed that these data collections and analyses will lead to the formulation of algorithms to produce parts with better tolerances and will allow more efficient uses of the ECM machines. One algorithm has been developed to allow the efficient ECM of large-surface-area parts. Such programs and equipment will enhance the competitive position of the ECM process in machining applications previously performed by more conventional methods while minimizing electrical power consumption.

  20. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  1. Machine Shop Milling Machines. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trades at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It can also be adapted to open-entry,…

  2. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  3. Abrasive-waterjet machining of isogrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark; Monserud, David

    1990-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of machining isogrid structures with abrasive-waterjets (AWJs). The main objective was to mill isogrid patterns in surfaces with accurate depth control using an AWJ. Three different approaches using AWJs were tested: linear cutting of isogrid patterns for diffusion bonding, milling with conventional AWJ nozzles, and milling with a single-angled rotary AWJ nozzle. It was shown that pocket milling with conventional AWJs is the most feasible of those tested. The milling can be done internally on preformed aluminum tubes, and the AWJ can also be used on materials other than aluminum. Accurate depth control can be achieved at high productivity rates. As an example, it is projected that a 48-inch-diameter skirt 12 inches high could be milled with an isogrid pattern in 6.3 hours. Milled isogrid patterns can be controlled to 0.001 inch, and thin walls of less than 0.025 inch are achievable. Milling isogrid patterns with conventional AWJs could be very economical, but additional development efforts are required to optimize the milling process and to demonstrate the milling of prototype parts.

  4. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, J.I.; King, C.

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  5. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  6. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  7. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  8. Lathe tool bit and holder for machining fiberglass materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, L. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A lathe tool and holder combination for machining resin impregnated fiberglass cloth laminates is described. The tool holder and tool bit combination is designed to accommodate a conventional carbide-tipped, round shank router bit as the cutting medium, and provides an infinite number of cutting angles in order to produce a true and smooth surface in the fiberglass material workpiece with every pass of the tool bit. The technique utilizes damaged router bits which ordinarily would be discarded.

  9. Profile machining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A. J.

    1985-02-26

    The disclosure relates to a profile forming apparatus and in particular a cam grinding machine in which a cam to be ground is mounted for rotation about the axis of the cam shaft in a work-table and a drive motor rotates the cam about its axis at a speed controlled by a predetermined programme. The work-table is mounted for rocking movement about an axis parallel to the cam shaft axis to move towards and away from the rotating grinding wheel which grinds cam surfaces spaced apart along the camshaft. The work-table is driven positively about its axis by a reversible drive motor in accordance with a further programme to rock the camshaft towards and away from the axis of the grinding wheel as the camshaft rotates and thereby determine the shape and dimensions of the profile to which the cam is ground.

  10. Quantum adiabatic machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudenz, Kristen L.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2013-05-01

    We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. This approach consists of two quantum phases, with some amount of classical preprocessing to set up the quantum problems. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. All quantum processing is strictly limited to two-qubit interactions so as to ensure physical feasibility. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation, with a specific example of the learning phase applied to a problem of interest in flight control systems. Beyond this example, the algorithm can be used to attack a broad class of anomaly detection problems.

  11. An Experimental LISP Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Wang

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-microprocessor LISP machine whose goal is to exploit the inherent parallelism in the LISP programs fully. The base architecture is a MIMD architecture based on a hybrid model for combinating data driven, demand driven and VoN Neumann process schemes. The basic evaluation strategy is data driven. Lazy evaluation mechanism is introduced to avoid unnecessary and unsafe computations. An experimental system with the four processor elements has been built in HIT, China. The system consists of a Z80 microcomputer and three TP8O1s interconnected through three buses. Each processor evaluates a part of programs asynchronously. The shared memory is divided into two parts: list cell area and enviroment area, each of which has the indepen-dent common bus to avoid the bus bottleneck.

  12. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  13. MEMS electrostatic influence machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu Le, Cuong; Halvorsen, Einar

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of MEMS electrostatic influence machines using electromechanical switches like the historical predecessors did two centuries ago. We find that a generator design relying entirely on standard silicon-on-insulator(SOI) micromachining is conceivable and analyze its performance by simulations. The concept appears preferable over comparable diode circuits due to its higher maximum energy, faster charging and low precharging voltage. A full electromechanical lumped-model including parasitic capacitances of the switches is built to capture the dynamic of the generator. Simulation results show that the output voltage can be exponentially bootstrapped from a very low precharging voltage so that otherwise inadequately small voltage differences or charge imbalances can be made useful.

  14. Development of a Parching Machine Using Super-Heated Vapor or Super-Heated High-Moisture Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shoichi; Shinsho, Seiji; Iriki, Hiroyuki; Asai, Junya; Suganuma, Hirofumi; Shibata, Tsutomu

    We developed a new parching machine with super-heated vapor or super-heated highmoisture atmosphere as a heat medium, and investigated the influence exerted on the characteristics of manufactured tea and crude tea quality. (1)We developed machine specifications that improved throughput and allowed us to control stable quality compared with the conventional kamairicha parching machine. (2)The new parching machine could not only manufacture like kamairicha but also achieve various degrees of steaming of products like green tea or heavily steamed sencha. (3)The new parching machine could not only deactivate enzymes but dry leaves. (4)The influence of throughput was great with respect to the grade of pan-parched flavour, which meant that there was a contact opportunity for tea leaves and the surface of machine's wall. (5)Unpleasant smells such as that produced in a summer crop of tea were reduced by the new parching machine.

  15. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  16. Anaesthesia Machine: Checklist, Hazards, Scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20th century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered. PMID:24249887

  17. Self-Adjusting Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovgyallo, A. M.

    A study was made on the synthesis of teaching machine elements to ensure the stabilization of the chi indicator of the teaching process of each student. At first, a procedure was developed for calculating the chi indicator for the case when the teaching machine predicts the magnitude of this indicator based on probabilities derived from an…

  18. Anaesthesia machine: checklist, hazards, scavenging.

    PubMed

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-09-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20(th) century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  19. Two color machining of composites

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, W.

    1996-12-31

    Quality cutting and drilling of 9 composite materials is possible using diode-pumped neodymium lasers. Machining at 1.06 {mu}m is improved by optimizing the pulse format of the diode-pumped neodymium lasers of the Precision Laser Machining (PLM) Consortium. Further improvements are obtained with the PLM lasers operating at 0.53 {mu}m.

  20. The Blindstitch Machine. Module 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the purpose and use of the blindstitch machine, one in a series on clothing construction for industrial sewing machine operators designed for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check,…

  1. Robotics: self-reproducing machines.

    PubMed

    Zykov, Victor; Mytilinaios, Efstathios; Adams, Bryant; Lipson, Hod

    2005-05-12

    Self-reproduction is central to biological life for long-term sustainability and evolutionary adaptation. Although these traits would also be desirable in many engineered systems, the principles of self-reproduction have not been exploited in machine design. Here we create simple machines that act as autonomous modular robots and are capable of physical self-reproduction using a set of cubes.

  2. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  3. Machine Accounting. An Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, E. Noah, Ed.

    Designed to prepare students to operate the types of accounting machines used in many medium-sized businesses, this instructor's guide presents a full-year high school course in machine accounting covering 120 hours of instruction. An introduction for the instructor suggests how to adapt the guide to present a 60-hour module which would be…

  4. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  5. The Machine Intelligence Hex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-01-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students' progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex…

  6. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  7. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  8. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  9. Conventional and Non-Conventional Drosophila Toll Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Scott A.; Wasserman, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Toll in Drosophila and of the remarkable conservation in pathway composition and organization catalyzed a transformation in our understanding of innate immune recognition and response. At the center of that picture is a cascade of interactions in which specific microbial cues activate Toll receptors, which then transmit signals driving transcription factor nuclear localization and activity. Experiments gave substance to the vision of pattern recognition receptors, linked phenomena in development, gene regulation, and immunity into a coherent whole, and revealed a rich set of variations for identifying non-self and responding effectively. More recently, research in Drosophila has illuminated the positive and negative regulation of Toll activation, the organization of signaling events at and beneath membranes, the sorting of information flow, and the existence of non-conventional signaling via Toll-related receptors. Here, we provide an overview of the Toll pathway of flies and highlight these ongoing realms of research. PMID:23632253

  10. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  11. Machinability of Stellite 6 hardfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghersallah, M.; Boulanouar, L.; Le Coz, G.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports some experimental findings concerning the machinability at high cutting speed of nickel-base weld-deposited hardfacings for the manufacture of hot tooling. The forging work involves extreme impacts, forces, stresses and temperatures. Thus, mould dies must be extremely resistant. The aim of the project is to create a rapid prototyping process answering to forging conditions integrating a Stellite 6 hardfacing deposed PTA process. This study talks about the dry machining of the hardfacing, using a two tips machining tool and a high speed milling machine equipped by a power consumption recorder Wattpilote. The aim is to show the machinability of the hardfacing, measuring the power and the tip wear by optical microscope and white light interferometer, using different strategies and cutting conditions.

  12. Improved Methods for Teaching Machine Transcription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clara J.

    1980-01-01

    The increased use of machine transcription in business and industry demands that business educators attract and train more highly skilled machine transcriptionists. Realistic production measurement and appropriate vocabulary should be taught to link machine transcription to word processing. (Author)

  13. Design and chemical evaluation of reduced machine-yield cigarettes.

    PubMed

    McAdam, K G; Gregg, E O; Bevan, M; Dittrich, D J; Hemsley, S; Liu, C; Proctor, C J

    2012-02-01

    Experimental cigarettes (ECs) were made by combining technological applications that individually reduce the machine measured yields of specific toxicants or groups of toxicants in mainstream smoke (MS). Two tobacco blends, featuring a tobacco substitute sheet or a tobacco blend treatment, were combined with filters containing an amine functionalised resin (CR20L) and/or a polymer-derived, high activity carbon adsorbent to generate three ECs with the potential for generating lower smoke toxicant yields than conventional cigarettes. MS yields of smoke constituents were determined under 4 different smoking machine conditions. Health Canada Intense (HCI) machine smoking conditions gave the highest MS yields for nicotine-free dry particulate matter and for most smoke constituents measured. Toxicant yields from the ECs were compared with those from two commercial comparator cigarettes, three scientific control cigarettes measured contemporaneously and with published data on 120 commercial cigarettes. The ECs were found to generate some of the lowest machine yields of toxicants from cigarettes for which published HCI smoke chemistry data are available; these comparisons therefore confirm that ECs with reduced MS machine toxicant yields compared to commercial cigarettes can be produced. The results encourage further work examining human exposure to toxicants from these cigarettes, including human biomarker studies.

  14. Efficient forced vibration reanalysis method for rotating electric machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akira; Suzuki, Hiromitsu; Kuroishi, Masakatsu; Nakai, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Rotating electric machines are subject to forced vibration by magnetic force excitation with wide-band frequency spectrum that are dependent on the operating conditions. Therefore, when designing the electric machines, it is inevitable to compute the vibration response of the machines at various operating conditions efficiently and accurately. This paper presents an efficient frequency-domain vibration analysis method for the electric machines. The method enables the efficient re-analysis of the vibration response of electric machines at various operating conditions without the necessity to re-compute the harmonic response by finite element analyses. Theoretical background of the proposed method is provided, which is based on the modal reduction of the magnetic force excitation by a set of amplitude-modulated standing-waves. The method is applied to the forced response vibration of the interior permanent magnet motor at a fixed operating condition. The results computed by the proposed method agree very well with those computed by the conventional harmonic response analysis by the FEA. The proposed method is then applied to the spin-up test condition to demonstrate its applicability to various operating conditions. It is observed that the proposed method can successfully be applied to the spin-up test conditions, and the measured dominant frequency peaks in the frequency response can be well captured by the proposed approach.

  15. Enhanced analytical power of SDS-PAGE using machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Supek, Fran; Peharec, Petra; Krsnik-Rasol, Marijana; Smuc, Tomislav

    2008-01-01

    We aim to demonstrate that a complex plant tissue protein mixture can be reliably "fingerprinted" by running conventional 1-D SDS-PAGE in bulk and analyzing gel banding patterns using machine learning methods. An unsupervised approach to filter noise and systemic biases (principal component analysis) was coupled to state-of-the-art supervised methods for classification (support vector machines) and attribute ranking (ReliefF) to improve tissue discrimination, visualization, and recognition of important gel regions.

  16. Science and the climate convention

    SciTech Connect

    Goldemberg, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The scientific facts concerning the changes in the composition of the atmosphere that are leading to global warming are briefly presented. This greenhouse effect could be slowed or stopped if action is taken to curb emissions of greenhouse gases or enhance the [open quotes]sinks[close quotes] of these gases. The paper also addresses the response of the international community to this problem. Concern over global warming led to a landmark international agreement to work towards preventing global warming. This agreement is the Framework Convention on Climate Change; it was negotiated at the United Nations Conferences on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Government policies that could prevent climate change are discussed.

  17. High-temperature conventional superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremets, M. I.; Drozdov, A. P.

    2017-02-01

    Conventional superconductors are described well by the Bardeen – Cooper – Schrieffer (BCS) theory (1957) and its related theories, all of which importantly put no explicit limit on transition temperature Tc. While this allows, in principle, room-temperature superconductivity, no such phenomenon has been observed. Since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911, the measured critical temperature of BCS superconductors has not until recently exceeded 39 K. In 2014, hydrogen sulfide under high pressure was experimentally found to exhibit superconductivity at Tc = 200 K, a record high value which greatly exceeds that of the previous class of high-temperature superconductors, the cuprates. The superconductivity mechanism in cuprates has not yet been explained. Over a period of 25 years, the critical temperature of cuprates has not been increased above 164 K. The paper reviews research on record-high Tc superconductivity in hydrogen sulphide and other hydrides. Prospects for increasing Tc to room temperature are also discussed.

  18. High-temperature conventional superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremets, M. I.; Drozdov, A. P.

    2016-11-01

    Conventional superconductors are described well by the Bardeen - Cooper - Schrieffer (BCS) theory (1957) and its related theories, all of which importantly put no explicit limit on transition temperature T_c. While this allows, in principle, room-temperature superconductivity, no such phenomenon has been observed. Since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911, the measured critical temperature of BCS superconductors has not until recently exceeded 39 K. In 2014, hydrogen sulfide under high pressure was experimentally found to exhibit superconductivity at T_c=200 K, a record high value which greatly exceeds that of the previous class of high-temperature superconductors, the cuprates. The superconductivity mechanism in cuprates has not yet been explained. Over a period of 25 years, the critical temperature of cuprates has not been increased above 164 K. The paper reviews research on record-high T_c superconductivity in hydrogen sulphide and other hydrides. Prospects for increasing T_c to room temperature are also discussed.

  19. Conventionalism and integrable Weyl geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucheu, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Since the appearance of Einstein's general relativity, gravitation has been associated to the space-time curvature. This theory introduced a geometrodynamic language which became a convenient tool to predict matter behaviour. However, the properties of space-time itself cannot be measurable by experiments. Taking Poincaré idea that the geometry of space-time is merely a convention, we show that the general theory of relativity can be completely reformulated in a more general setting, a generalization of Riemannian geometry, namely, the Weyl integrable geometry. The choice of this new mathematical language implies, among other things, that the path of particles and light rays should now correspond to Weylian geodesies. Such modification in the dynamic of bodies brings a new perception of physical phenomena that we will explore.

  20. Non-conventional Fishbone Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.V. Lutsenko; V.S. Marchenko; R.B. White

    2004-11-10

    New instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. First, a trapped-particle-induced m = n = 1 instability with the mode structure having nothing to do with the conventional rigid kink displacement. This instability takes place when the magnetic field is weak, so that the precession frequency of the energetic ions is not small as compared to the frequency of the corresponding Alfven continuum at r = 0 and the magnetic shear is small inside the q = 1 radius [the case relevant to spherical tori]. Second, an Energetic Particle Mode fishbone instability driven by circulating particles. Third, a double-kink-mode instability driven by the circulating energetic ions. In particular, the latter can have two frequencies simultaneously: we refer to it as ''doublet'' fishbones. This instability can occur when the radial profile of the energetic ions has an off-axis maximum inside the region of the mode localization.

  1. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  2. Machine Learning for Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Bradley J; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Akkus, Zeynettin; Kline, Timothy L

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a technique for recognizing patterns that can be applied to medical images. Although it is a powerful tool that can help in rendering medical diagnoses, it can be misapplied. Machine learning typically begins with the machine learning algorithm system computing the image features that are believed to be of importance in making the prediction or diagnosis of interest. The machine learning algorithm system then identifies the best combination of these image features for classifying the image or computing some metric for the given image region. There are several methods that can be used, each with different strengths and weaknesses. There are open-source versions of most of these machine learning methods that make them easy to try and apply to images. Several metrics for measuring the performance of an algorithm exist; however, one must be aware of the possible associated pitfalls that can result in misleading metrics. More recently, deep learning has started to be used; this method has the benefit that it does not require image feature identification and calculation as a first step; rather, features are identified as part of the learning process. Machine learning has been used in medical imaging and will have a greater influence in the future. Those working in medical imaging must be aware of how machine learning works. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  3. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  4. Design of Ultra-High-Power-Density Machine Optimized for Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more-electric" aircraft with specific power in the projected range of 50 hp/lb, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20,000 A/sq cm, was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced.

  5. Knowledge-based load leveling and task allocation in human-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chignell, M. H.; Hancock, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional human-machine systems use task allocation policies which are based on the premise of a flexible human operator. This individual is most often required to compensate for and augment the capabilities of the machine. The development of artificial intelligence and improved technologies have allowed for a wider range of task allocation strategies. In response to these issues a Knowledge Based Adaptive Mechanism (KBAM) is proposed for assigning tasks to human and machine in real time, using a load leveling policy. This mechanism employs an online workload assessment and compensation system which is responsive to variations in load through an intelligent interface. This interface consists of a loading strategy reasoner which has access to information about the current status of the human-machine system as well as a database of admissible human/machine loading strategies. Difficulties standing in the way of successful implementation of the load leveling strategy are examined.

  6. Feasibility Study for Electrical Discharge Machining of Large DU-Mo Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Mary Ann; Dombrowski, David E.; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Forsyth, Robert Thomas; Aikin, Robert M.; Alexander, David John; Tegtmeier, Eric Lee; Robison, Jeffrey Curt; Beard, Timothy Vance; Edwards, Randall Lynn; Mauro, Michael Ernest; Scott, Jeffrey E.; Strandy, Matthew Thomas

    2016-10-31

    U-10 wt. % Mo (U-10Mo) alloys are being developed as low enrichment monolithic fuel for the CONVERT program. Optimization of processing for the monolithic fuel is being pursued with the use of electrical discharge machining (EDM) under CONVERT HPRR WBS 1.2.4.5 Optimization of Coupon Preparation. The process is applicable to manufacturing experimental fuel plate specimens for the Mini-Plate-1 (MP-1) irradiation campaign. The benefits of EDM are reduced machining costs, ability to achieve higher tolerances, stress-free, burr-free surfaces eliminating the need for milling, and the ability to machine complex shapes. Kerf losses are much smaller with EDM (tenths of mm) compared to conventional machining (mm). Reliable repeatability is achievable with EDM due to its computer generated machining programs.

  7. Aerodynamic Properties Analysis of Rapid Prototyped Models Versus Conventional Machined Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A.; Cooper, K.

    1998-01-01

    Initial studies of the aerodynamic characteristics of proposed launch vehicles can be made more accurately if lower cost, high fidelity aerodynamic models are available for wind tunnel testing early in the design phase. This paper discusses the results of a study undertaken at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to determine if four rapid prototyping methods using a variety of materials are suitable for the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications. It also gives an analysis of whether these materials and processes are of sufficient strength and fidelity to withstand the testing environment. In addition to test data, costs and turn-around times for the various models are given. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in limited direct application for preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  8. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-tier structure consisting of organization, coordination, and execution levels forms the architecture of an intelligent machine using the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence from a hierarchically intelligent control. This system has been formulated as a probabilistic model, where uncertainty and imprecision can be expressed in terms of entropies. The optimal strategy for decision planning and task execution can be found by minimizing the total entropy in the system. The focus is on the design of the organization level as a Boltzmann machine. Since this level is responsible for planning the actions of the machine, the Boltzmann machine is reformulated to use entropy as the cost function to be minimized. Simulated annealing, expanding subinterval random search, and the genetic algorithm are presented as search techniques to efficiently find the desired action sequence and illustrated with numerical examples.

  9. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  10. Virtual Machine Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  11. Solid waste comminution machine

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, R.L.

    1986-08-26

    A solid waste comminution machine is described of the type having two sets of interleaving wheels, including a lower set and an upper set of wheel members. Each set includes a pair of shafts on which the wheel members are mounted, the pairs of shafts mounted on upright, mutually facing, movable arms. The improvement consists of: the upper set of wheel members having ripping and shearing tools attached to the circumferential periphery of the wheel members, the pair of shafts associated with the upper set of wheel members mounted on the movable arms, the lower set of wheel members mounted on a pair of fixed, parallel shafts, the shafts supported at one end of the arms with the lower set of wheel members interleaving in a material shearing relation. The shafts form a fixed pivot axis for the arms, the arms having fixed lengths with inward and outward ends, the outward ends extending beyond the shafts associated with the upper set of wheels thereby forming leverage regions, and hydraulic piston means having fixed ends and free ends, the free ends connected to the leverage regions for bringing the arms toward each other to a point at which the upper set of wheels mesh with sufficient force to enable ripping of material between the upper set of wheels.

  12. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  13. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  14. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  15. Jet Electrochemical Machining of Particle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites with Different Neutral Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Lehnert, N.; Martin, A.; Schubert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional mechanical machining of particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) is challenging because the hard ceramic particles in the soft aluminum matrix lead to an increased tool wear. Furthermore, the mechanical and thermal impact during conventional machining affects the microstructure of the AMCs. Electrochemical machining (ECM) is an alternative method to machine AMCs. Based on anodic dissolution, ECM has a slight influence on the work piece material structure and is independent of material strength and hardness. So the microstructure of the work piece remains unaffected. One method of ECM is electrochemical machining with continuous electrolytic free jet (Jet-ECM). Hereby the electrochemical removal is localized by the geometry of the electrolyte jet. By moving the electrolyte jet micro-structures and microgeometries can be generated quickly and flexibly in metallic parts [1]. Another advantage of Jet-ECM is the low consumption of electrolyte which allows an easy and inexpensive change of electrolyte for investigations with different types of electrolyte. In this study AMCs reinforced with different amounts of SiC-particles are machined with two pH-neutral electrolytes using Jet-ECM. The results provide information about the suitability of the selected electrolytes for the machining of AMCs. In addition, the influence of the particle content on the electrochemical removal result will be evaluated.

  16. Conventional treatments for ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, M; Dijkmans, B; Khan, M; Maksymowych, W; van der Linden, S.; Brandt, J

    2002-01-01

    Management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is challenged by the progressive nature of the disease. To date, no intervention is available that alters the underlying mechanism of inflammation in AS. Currently available conventional treatments are palliative at best, and often fail to control symptoms in the long term. Current drug treatment may perhaps induce a spurious state of "disease remission," which is merely a low level of disease activity. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are first line treatment, but over time, the disease often becomes refractory to these agents. Disease modifying antirheumatic drugs are second line treatment and may offer some clinical benefit. However, conclusive evidence of the efficacy of these drugs from large placebo controlled trials is lacking. Additionally, these drugs can cause treatment-limiting adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection guided by arthrography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging is an effective means of reducing inflammatory back pain, but controlled studies are lacking. A controlled study has confirmed moderate but significant efficacy of intravenous bisphosphonate (pamidronate) treatment in patients with AS; further evaluation of bisphosphonate treatment is warranted. Physical therapy and exercise are necessary adjuncts to pharmacotherapy; however, the paucity of controlled data makes it difficult to identify the best way to administer these interventions. Surgical intervention may be required to support severe structural damage. Thus, for patients with AS, the future of successful treatment lies in the development of pharmacological agents capable of both altering the disease course through intervention at sites of disease pathogenesis, and controlling symptoms. PMID:12381510

  17. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M; Briegel, Hans J

    2016-09-23

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  18. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  19. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  20. Z Machine at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-17

    Sandia Labs' Z machine is the largest laboratory source of x-rays in the world. For the few nanoseconds of a Z Machine test, its electrical output equals the output of 50x the electrical generating stations of all the power plants on earth. The Z Machine complex encompasses an area roughly the size of a major college basketball arena. Originally created to validate nuclear weapons models, the Z Machine is also considered a "dark horse" in the race for viable fusion energy production. After the famous "arcs and sparks" photo of Z (a photo no longer possible after its refurbishment), this is a fast-motion video of workers completing Z's recent refurbishment.

  1. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  2. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  3. Building and simulating protein machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Ataur Rahim

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines

  4. Machine Gun Liner Bond Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    investigation does not constitute a complete analysis of liner failures in the M2 machine gun. The fact that two different liner-failure modes were...An order-of-magnitude estimate can be made of the bond strength in this case using a standard elastic analysis and some reasonable assumptions... analysis of the forces on the machine gun bullet, it was found that the measured bond strength was adequate to resist the reaction forces produced when

  5. Adaptive machine vision. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, W.W.; Brill, M.H.; Bergeron, D.W.

    1988-03-08

    The mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative is to develop defenses against threatening ballistic missiles. There are four distinct phases to the SDI defense; boost, post-boost, midcourse and terminal. In each of these phases, one or more machine-vision functions are required, such as pattern recognition, stereo image fusion, clutter rejection and discrimination. The SDI missions of coarse track, stereo track and discrimination are examined here from the point of view of a machine-vision system.

  6. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  7. Model-based machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  8. Division Reports from the 2005 AECT Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association for Educational Communication & Technology held its International Convention in Orlando, Florida, October 18-22, 2005. The convention theme was "Exploring the Vision". Division report highlights include: (1) Reflections on a Convention: A Vision Explored (Wes Miller); (2) Definition and Terminology Committee (Al…

  9. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  11. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  12. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  13. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  14. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  15. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  17. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  18. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  19. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining…

  20. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power driven... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting...

  1. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power driven... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting...

  2. Compensating for Shrinkage in Machined Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, L.; Fitchett, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Technique insures machined ceramics shrink to correct dimensions after baked in kiln. New method automatically compensates during machining for shrinkage later, when part baked. Applicable to numerically controlled machines that include provision to adjust for variations in cuttingtool size, but do not provide for automatic verification of dimensions of machined parts.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  4. Effective dose estimation during conventional and CT urography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzimami, K.; Sulieman, A.; Omer, E.; Suliman, I. I.; Alsafi, K.

    2014-11-01

    Intravenous urography (IVU) and CT urography (CTU) are efficient radiological examinations for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose. The objectives of this study are to: (i) measure and compare patient radiation dose by computed tomography urography (CTU) and conventional intravenous urography (IVU) and (ii) evaluate organ equivalent dose and cancer risks from CTU and IVU imaging procedures. A total of 141 patients were investigated. A calibrated CT machine (Siemens-Somatom Emotion duo) was used for CTU, while a Shimadzu X ray machine was used for IVU. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-GR200A) were used to measure patients' entrance surface doses (ESD). TLDs were calibrated under reproducible reference conditions. Patients radiation dose values (DLP) for CTU were 172±61 mGy cm, CTDIvol 4.75±2 mGy and effective dose 2.58±1 mSv. Patient cancer probabilities were estimated to be 1.4 per million per CTU examination. Patients ESDs values for IVU were 21.62±5 mGy, effective dose 1.79±1 mSv. CT involves a higher effective dose than IVU. In this study the radiation dose is considered low compared to previous studies. The effective dose from CTU procedures was 30% higher compared to IVU procedures. Wide dose variation between patient doses suggests that optimization is not fulfilled yet.

  5. Analysis and modeling of tribology effects in conventional glass polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waechter, Daniel; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz

    2013-09-01

    Conventional or chemo-mechanical polishing represents the polishing technology most often applied for manufacturing precision glass optics. It is applied on various machine types and for all kinds of geometries. But it still represents the manufacturing step with the lowest process stability. This work deals with the analysis and descriptive modeling of contact conditions occurring in the process area. The polishing process is assumed as a hydrodynamic system. The model aims for a qualitative description of the formation of a fluid film between pad and surface. The models enable the theoretical discussion of the effects of major process parameters on the fluid film thickness. Secondly, the theoretical considerations are validated by experiments on a tribometer. With this test bench the effects of the polishing parameters as well pad properties on the contact conditions are investigated. Additional experiments are conducted on a polishing machine for validation the results. It is found, that the hydrodynamic theory describes the formation of fluid film in polishing. Under typical polishing conditions, the friction regime is in the range of mixed friction. That means pad asperities and polishing grains are not completely separated from the surface by a fluid film. The transition into erosive wear and pure liquid friction was not reached. But an analysis of the surface quality in dependence on the relative speed showed, that the quality starts decreasing after a minimum, far before reaching the transition point. Based on the derived qualitative description, the effects of process parameters and pad properties on the fluid film can be discussed.

  6. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.

    1994-01-01

    This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

  7. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  8. Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

  9. Multi-stage axial-flux PM machine for wheel direct drive

    SciTech Connect

    Caricchi, F.; Crescimbini, F.; Mezzetti, F.; Santini, E.

    1995-12-31

    The design of direct-driven wheel motors must comply with diameter restriction due to housing the motor in a wheel rim and allow the achievement of very high torque density and overload capability. Slotless axial-flux permanent magnet machines (AFPMs) prove to be one best candidate for application in electric vehicles as direct-drive wheel motors, as in comparison with conventional machines they allow designs with higher compactness, lightness and efficiency. The paper presents a newly-conceived AFPM which has multi-stage structure and water-cooled ironless stator. In the proposed new topology of the machine the space formerly occupied by the toroidal core becomes a water duct, which removes heat directly from the interior surface of the stator winding. The high efficiency of the machine cooling arrangement allows long-term 100% overload operation and great reduction of the machine weight. The multistage structure of the machine is suited to overcome the restriction on the machine diameter and meet the torque required at the wheel shaft. The paper gives guidelines for the design of a multi-stage AFPM with water-cooled ironless stator, and describes characteristics of a two-stage prototype machine rated 220 Nm, 1,100 rpm.

  10. Analysis and design of asymmetrical reluctance machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harianto, Cahya A.

    Over the past few decades the induction machine has been chosen for many applications due to its structural simplicity and low manufacturing cost. However, modest torque density and control challenges have motivated researchers to find alternative machines. The permanent magnet synchronous machine has been viewed as one of the alternatives because it features higher torque density for a given loss than the induction machine. However, the assembly and permanent magnet material cost, along with safety under fault conditions, have been concerns for this class of machine. An alternative machine type, namely the asymmetrical reluctance machine, is proposed in this work. Since the proposed machine is of the reluctance machine type, it possesses desirable feature, such as near absence of rotor losses, low assembly cost, low no-load rotational losses, modest torque ripple, and rather benign fault conditions. Through theoretical analysis performed herein, it is shown that this machine has a higher torque density for a given loss than typical reluctance machines, although not as high as the permanent magnet machines. Thus, the asymmetrical reluctance machine is a viable and advantageous machine alternative where the use of permanent magnet machines are undesirable.

  11. Incremental ECAP of thick continuous plates - machine and initial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosochowski, A.; Olejnik, L.

    2014-08-01

    Incremental ECAP (I-ECAP) can be used for SPD of continuous bars, plates and sheets. This paper describes design, construction and preliminary trials of a prototype machine capable of processing thick continuous plates. To increase productivity, a two-turn I-ECAP is used, which is equivalent to route C in conventional one-turn ECAP. The machine has a reciprocating punch inclined at 45°, a clamp holding the plate in the die during deformation and a feeder incrementally feeding the plate when it is not deformed; all these devices are driven by hydraulic actuators controlled by a PLC. The machine is capable of deforming materials at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. The die is heated with electric heaters. The machine has also an integrated cooling system and a lubrication system. The material used for the initial trials was Al 1050 plate (10×50×1000) conversion coated with calcium aluminate and lubricated with dry soap. The process was carried out at room temperature using 1.6 mm feeding stroke and a low cycle frequency of approximately 0.2 Hz. The UFG structure after the first pass of the process revealed by STEM confirms process feasibility.

  12. Comparison of Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, and CART Algorithms for the Land-Cover Classification Using Limited Training Data Points

    EPA Science Inventory

    Support vector machine (SVM) was applied for land-cover characterization using MODIS time-series data. Classification performance was examined with respect to training sample size, sample variability, and landscape homogeneity (purity). The results were compared to two convention...

  13. Risk estimation using probability machines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Logistic regression has been the de facto, and often the only, model used in the description and analysis of relationships between a binary outcome and observed features. It is widely used to obtain the conditional probabilities of the outcome given predictors, as well as predictor effect size estimates using conditional odds ratios. Results We show how statistical learning machines for binary outcomes, provably consistent for the nonparametric regression problem, can be used to provide both consistent conditional probability estimation and conditional effect size estimates. Effect size estimates from learning machines leverage our understanding of counterfactual arguments central to the interpretation of such estimates. We show that, if the data generating model is logistic, we can recover accurate probability predictions and effect size estimates with nearly the same efficiency as a correct logistic model, both for main effects and interactions. We also propose a method using learning machines to scan for possible interaction effects quickly and efficiently. Simulations using random forest probability machines are presented. Conclusions The models we propose make no assumptions about the data structure, and capture the patterns in the data by just specifying the predictors involved and not any particular model structure. So they do not run the same risks of model mis-specification and the resultant estimation biases as a logistic model. This methodology, which we call a “risk machine”, will share properties from the statistical machine that it is derived from. PMID:24581306

  14. Reusable State Machine Code Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

    2010-12-01

    The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

  15. Game-powered machine learning.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  16. Game-powered machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the “wisdom of the crowds.” Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., “funky jazz with saxophone,” “spooky electronica,” etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data. PMID:22460786

  17. Mechanical design of walking machines.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Shigeo

    2007-01-15

    The performance of existing actuators, such as electric motors, is very limited, be it power-weight ratio or energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the method to design a practical walking machine under this severe constraint with focus on two concepts, the gravitationally decoupled actuation (GDA) and the coupled drive. The GDA decouples the driving system against the gravitational field to suppress generation of negative power and improve energy efficiency. On the other hand, the coupled drive couples the driving system to distribute the output power equally among actuators and maximize the utilization of installed actuator power. First, we depict the GDA and coupled drive in detail. Then, we present actual machines, TITAN-III and VIII, quadruped walking machines designed on the basis of the GDA, and NINJA-I and II, quadruped wall walking machines designed on the basis of the coupled drive. Finally, we discuss walking machines that travel on three-dimensional terrain (3D terrain), which includes the ground, walls and ceiling. Then, we demonstrate with computer simulation that we can selectively leverage GDA and coupled drive by walking posture control.

  18. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  19. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  20. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  1. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  2. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  3. Effects of sandblasting and electrical discharge machining on porcelain adherence to cast and machined commercially pure titanium.

    PubMed

    Inan, Ozgür; Acar, Asli; Halkaci, Selçuk

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sandblasting and electrical discharge machining (EDM) on cast and machined titanium surfaces and titanium-porcelain adhesion. Twenty machined titanium specimens were prepared by manufacturer (groups 1 and 2). Thirty specimens were prepared with autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Twenty of these specimens (groups 3 and 4) were cast with commercially pure titanium and the alpha-case layer was removed. For control group (group 5), 10 specimens were cast by using NiCr alloy. Groups 2 and 4 were subjected to EDM while groups 1, 3, and 5 were subjected to sandblasting. Surface examinations were made by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A low-fusing porcelain was fused on the titanium surfaces, whereas NiCr specimens were covered using a conventional porcelain. Titanium-porcelain adhesion was characterized by a 3-point bending test. Results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Metal-porcelain interfaces were characterized by SEM. The bond strength of control group was higher than that of the titanium-porcelain system. There was no significant difference between cast and machined titanium groups (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between EDM and sandblasting processes (p > 0.05). The use of EDM as surface treatment did not improve titanium-porcelain adhesion compared with sandblasting.

  4. Energy landscapes for machine learning.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Andrew J; Das, Ritankar; Martiniani, Stefano; Mehta, Dhagash; Sagun, Levent; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J

    2017-04-03

    Machine learning techniques are being increasingly used as flexible non-linear fitting and prediction tools in the physical sciences. Fitting functions that exhibit multiple solutions as local minima can be analysed in terms of the corresponding machine learning landscape. Methods to explore and visualise molecular potential energy landscapes can be applied to these machine learning landscapes to gain new insight into the solution space involved in training and the nature of the corresponding predictions. In particular, we can define quantities analogous to molecular structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics, and relate these emergent properties to the structure of the underlying landscape. This Perspective aims to describe these analogies with examples from recent applications, and suggest avenues for new interdisciplinary research.

  5. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  6. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    PubMed

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  7. Biological and biomimetic molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tony J; Juluri, Bala K

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of life facilitates the creation of biological molecular machines. In these so-called 'nanomachines,' nature elegantly shows that when precisely organized and assembled, simple molecular mechanical components can link motions efficiently from the nanometer scale to the macroscopic world, and achieve complex functions such as powering skeletal muscles, synthesizing ATP and producing DNA/RNA. Inspired by nature, researchers are creating artifical molecular machines with tailored structures and properties, with the aim of realizing man-made active nanosystems that operate with the same efficiency and complexity as biological nanomachines. It is anticipated that in the not-too-distant future, unique applications of biological and biomimetic molecular machines will emerge in areas such as biochemical instrumentation and nanomedicine.

  8. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  9. Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John B O

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

  10. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  11. Information geometry of Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Amari, S; Kurata, K; Nagaoka, H

    1992-01-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a network of stochastic neurons. The set of all the Boltzmann machines with a fixed topology forms a geometric manifold of high dimension, where modifiable synaptic weights of connections play the role of a coordinate system to specify networks. A learning trajectory, for example, is a curve in this manifold. It is important to study the geometry of the neural manifold, rather than the behavior of a single network, in order to know the capabilities and limitations of neural networks of a fixed topology. Using the new theory of information geometry, a natural invariant Riemannian metric and a dual pair of affine connections on the Boltzmann neural network manifold are established. The meaning of geometrical structures is elucidated from the stochastic and the statistical point of view. This leads to a natural modification of the Boltzmann machine learning rule.

  12. MATERIAL PROCESSING FOR SELF-ASSEMBLING MACHINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    K. LACKNER; D. BUTT; C. WENDT

    1999-06-01

    We are developing an important aspect of a new technology based on self-reproducing machine systems. Such systems could overcome resource limitations and control the deleterious side effects of human activities on the environment. Machine systems capable of building themselves promise an increase in industrial productivity as dramatic as that of the industrial revolution. To operate successfully, such systems must procure necessary raw materials from their surroundings. Therefore, next to automation, most critical for this new technology is the ability to extract important chemicals from readily available soils. In contrast to conventional metallurgical practice, these extraction processes cannot make substantial use of rare elements. We have designed a thermodynamically viable process and experimentally demonstrated most steps that differ from common practice. To this end we had to develop a small, disposable vacuum furnace system. Our work points to a viable extraction process.

  13. Applying machine learning techniques to DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shavlik, J.W. . Dept. of Computer Sciences); Noordewier, M.O. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1992-01-01

    We are primarily developing a machine teaming (ML) system that modifies existing knowledge about specific types of biological sequences. It does this by considering sample members and nonmembers of the sequence motif being teamed. Using this information, our teaming algorithm produces a more accurate representation of the knowledge needed to categorize future sequences. Specifically, our KBANN algorithm maps inference rules about a given recognition task into a neural network. Neural network training techniques then use the training examples to refine these inference rules. We call these rules a domain theory, following the convention in the machine teaming community. We have been applying this approach to several problems in DNA sequence analysis. In addition, we have been extending the capabilities of our teaming system along several dimensions. We have also been investigating parallel algorithms that perform sequence alignments in the presence of frameshift errors.

  14. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  15. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-07-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: (1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and (2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1,000 {micro}m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 {micro}m diameter of laser drilling. 5 figs.

  16. Convergence Properties of High-order Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J Antonio; Graña, Manuel; d'Anjou, Alicia; Albizuri, F Xabier

    1996-12-01

    The high-order Boltzmann machine (HOBM) approximates probability distributions defined on a set of binary variables, through a learning algorithm that uses Monte Carlo methods. The approximation distribution is a normalized exponential of a consensus function formed by high-degree terms and the structure of the HOBM is given by the set of weighted connections. We prove the convexity of the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the distribution to learn and the approximation distribution of the HOBM. We prove the convergence of the learning algorithm to the strict global minimum of the divergence, which corresponds to the maximum likelihood estimate of the connection weights, establishing the uniqueness of the solution. These theoretical results do not hold in the conventional Boltzmann machine, where the consensus function has first and second-degree terms and hidden units are used. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. The arbitrariness and normativity of social conventions.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Ismael; Latsis, John

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates a puzzling feature of social conventions: the fact that they are both arbitrary and normative. We examine how this tension is addressed in sociological accounts of conventional phenomena. Traditional approaches tend to generate either synchronic accounts that fail to consider the arbitrariness of conventions, or diachronic accounts that miss central aspects of their normativity. As a remedy, we propose a processual conception that considers conventions as both the outcome and material cause of much human activity. This conceptualization, which borrows from the économie des conventions as well as critical realism, provides a novel perspective on how conventions are nested and defined, and on how they are established, maintained and challenged.

  18. Geological Mapping Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, A. S.; Fotopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    Remotely sensed spectral imagery, geophysical (magnetic and gravity), and geodetic (elevation) data are useful in a variety of Earth science applications such as environmental monitoring and mineral exploration. Using these data with Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA), which are widely used in image analysis and statistical pattern recognition applications, may enhance preliminary geological mapping and interpretation. This approach contributes towards a rapid and objective means of geological mapping in contrast to conventional field expedition techniques. In this study, four supervised MLAs (naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbour, random forest, and support vector machines) are compared in order to assess their performance for correctly identifying geological rocktypes in an area with complete ground validation information. Geological maps of the Sudbury region are used for calibration and validation. Percent of correct classifications was used as indicators of performance. Results show that random forest is the best approach. As expected, MLA performance improves with more calibration clusters, i.e. a more uniform distribution of calibration data over the study region. Performance is generally low, though geological trends that correspond to a ground validation map are visualized. Low performance may be the result of poor spectral images of bare rock which can be covered by vegetation or water. The distribution of calibration clusters and MLA input parameters affect the performance of the MLAs. Generally, performance improves with more uniform sampling, though this increases required computational effort and time. With the achievable performance levels in this study, the technique is useful in identifying regions of interest and identifying general rocktype trends. In particular, phase I geological site investigations will benefit from this approach and lead to the selection of sites for advanced surveys.

  19. XTOD to Conventional Facilities Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D

    2005-09-29

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS X-ray Transport and Diagnostics (XTOD) (WBS 1.5) and the LCLS Conventional Facilities (CF) (WBS 1.1). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Conventional Facilities provides x-ray, beamline and equipment enclosures, mounting surfaces, conventional utilities, compressed (clean, dry) air, process and purge gases, exhaust systems, power, and environmental conditions for the XTOD components and controls.

  20. Cooling system for rotating machine

    DOEpatents

    Gerstler, William Dwight; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; Quirion, Owen Scott; Palafox, Pepe; Shen, Xiaochun; Salasoo, Lembit

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  1. Thermoacoustic simulator for regenerative machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, E.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

    2002-05-01

    Linear thermoacoustic theory is a powerful tool to understand the working mechanism of many regenerative machines. Based on the theory, the authors have developed a computer code "Thermoacoustic Simulator" for analyzing and designing different regenerative cryocoolers including String refrigerators, Stirling and G-M types of pulse tube refrigerators and G-M cryocoolers. Also, standing-wave and traveling-wave thermoacoustic machines can be simulated, too. This paper will present the philosophy of the "Thermoacoustic Simulator" and some demonstrations of simulation for different types of cryocoolers and thermoacoustic engines.

  2. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  3. Magnet management in electric machines

    DOEpatents

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum Kang

    2017-03-21

    A magnet management method of controlling a ferrite-type permanent magnet electrical machine includes receiving and/or estimating the temperature permanent magnets; determining if that temperature is below a predetermined temperature; and if so, then: selectively heating the magnets in order to prevent demagnetization and/or derating the machine. A similar method provides for controlling magnetization level by analyzing flux or magnetization level. Controllers that employ various methods are disclosed. The present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiment(s), and it is recognized that equivalents, alternatives, and modifications, aside from those expressly stated, are possible and within the scope of the appending claims.

  4. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  5. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  6. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  7. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  8. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  9. Rainfall simulation experiments in ecological and conventional vineyards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, Alexander; Brings, Christine; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014, the Trier University started a measurement series, which defines, compares and evaluates the behavior of runoff and soil erosion with different farming productions in vineyards. The research area is located in Kanzem, a traditional wine village in the Saar Valley (Rheinland-Palatinate, Germany). The test fields show different cultivation methods: ecological (with natural vegetation cover under and around the vines) and conventional cultivated rows of wine. By using the small portable rainfall simulator of Trier University it shall be proved if the assumption that there is more runoff and soil erosion in the conventional part than in the ecological part of the tillage system. Rainfall simulations assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion and infiltration. So, a trend of soil erosion and runoff of the different cultivation techniques are noted. The objective of this work is to compare the geomorphological dynamics of two different tillage systems. Therefore, 30 rainfall simulations plots were evenly distributed on a west exposition hillside with different slope angels (8-25°), vegetation- and stone-covers. In concrete, the plot surface reaches from strongly covered soil across lithoidal surfaces to bare soil often with compacted lanes of typical using machines. In addition, by using the collected substrate, an estimation and distribution of the grain size of the eroded material shall be given. The eroded substrate is compared to soil samples of the test plots. The first results have shown that there is slightly more runoff and soil erosion in the ecological area than on the conventional part of the vineyard.

  10. Selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after 14 weeks of isokinetic and conventional resistance training.

    PubMed

    Matta, Thiago Torres; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier; Trajano, Gabriel S; Simão, Roberto; Willardson, Jeffrey Michael; Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    One of the fundamental adaptations observed with resistance training (RT) is muscle hypertrophy. Conventional and isokinetic machines provide different forms of mechanical stress, and it is possible that these two training modes could promote differing degrees of hypertrophic adaptations. There is a lack of data comparing the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature after training with a conventional knee extension machine versus an isokinetic machine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps musculature and knee extension maximal isometric torque after 14 weeks of conventional versus isokinetic RT. Thirty-five men were assigned to three groups: control group and training groups (conventional and isokinetic) performed three sets of unilateral knee extensions per session with a progressive loading scheme twice a week. Prior to and following the intervention, maximal isometric knee extensor torque was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, and muscle thickness (MT) of quadriceps femoris muscles was assessed via ultrasound. The results indicated non-uniform changes in MT between the muscles that comprise the quadriceps femoris group. For the conventional group, significantly greater increases in rectus femoris thickness were evident versus all other quadriceps muscles (14%). For the isokinetic group, increases in RF thickness (11%) were significantly greater in comparison with the vastus intermedius only. Although the muscle thickness did not increase for all the quadriceps femoris muscles, the relative rectus femoris adaptation suggested a selective hypertrophy favouring this portion.

  11. How To Teach Common Characteristics of Machine Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanas, H. C.

    1970-01-01

    Organizes machine tools and machine operations into commonalities in order to help the student visualize and distinguish the common characteristics which exist between machine tools and operations. (GR)

  12. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  13. Electrochemical Machining Removes Deep Obstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catania, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is effective way of removing obstructing material between two deep holes supposed to intersect but do not because of misalignment of drilling tools. ECM makes it possible to rework costly castings otherwise scrapped. Method fast even for tough or hard alloys and complicated three-dimensional shapes.

  14. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  15. Emerging systems and machine intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, J.C. II.

    1989-01-01

    A theory of mind or intelligence that derives from elements of philosophical, biological, linguistic, and psychological thought as well as of physics and information theory is presented. The hypothesis is defended that intelligence is not a thing but a composite of activities and attributes that must be described in terms of the evolution and interactions of systems, emerging into the environments in which they are embedded. It is proposed that a machine intelligence that emulates human intelligence must conform to certain restrictions that derive from accepting this hypothesis. In particular an implication is that for machine intelligence to be accepted as human-like intelligence it must be produced by a machine that functions in a manner substantially similar to a man and that interacts, grows or learns in and with an environment similar to that in which a man grows and learns. It is proposed that it should be possible to create machines and programs capable of this and that they can achieve intelligence with a large, but not arbitrarily large, degree of human-like characteristics. One system (of many possible systems), in development, based on grammars, and that satisfies some of those requirements is described. It consists of an artificial environment in which a grammar like program based on augmented transition networks, interacts with a human teacher. The purpose of KARA is to learn about the environment by being told and by imitation.

  16. Far Travelers: The Exploring Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicks, Oran W.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program of lunar and planetary exploration produced a flood of scientific information about the moon, planets and the environment of interplanetary space. This book is an account of the people, machines, and the events of this scientific enterprise. It is a story of organizations,…

  17. Underwater cold tap machine tested

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Tests are complete on a strategic cold tap machine for underwater lines. The system was designed around Total's Norway-UK Frigg gas line. It provides a permanent, easily mobilized, mechanical insurance against damage to the Frigg line but also provides a proven, workable principle for the repair or modification of other lines. The design of the system is discussed.

  18. Machine Tool Operation, Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Walter E.; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing them skill training, related information, and supportive services knowledge in machine tool operation. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and…

  19. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  20. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  1. Ultrashort-pulse lasers machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D, Stuart, B C

    1999-01-22

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 psec) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms which eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  2. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  3. Machines That Make Books Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Vicki, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes playback equipment provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped's Talking Books program. The history of these machines is reviewed from 1933 to the present and includes activities during World War II, the introduction of flexible discs and cassettes, descriptions of a variety of machines…

  4. Machine Shop. Student Learning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains eight modules for completing a course in machine shop. It is designed especially for use in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities and resources, information sheets, student self-check with answer key,…

  5. Simple Machines in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  6. Anisotropy of machine building materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the anisotropy of elastic and strength characteristics of various structural materials, including pressure worked metals and alloys, laminated fiberglass plastics, and laminated wood plastics, are correlated and classified. Strength criteria under simple and complex stresses are considered as applied to anisotropic materials. Practical application to determining the strength of machine parts and structural materials is discussed.

  7. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  8. Ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Sefcik, J A; Stuart, B C

    1998-09-01

    A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 ps) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms that eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High-precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.

  9. Basic Machines. Navy Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This document is a reference for the enlisted men in the Navy whose duties require knowledge of the fundamentals of machinery. Beginning with the simplest of machines--the lever--the book proceeds with the discussion of block and tackle, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw and gears. It explains the concepts of work and power, and differentiates…

  10. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  11. Man-Machine Communication Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    communication difficulty for the computer-naive; discovery of major communication structures in human communication that have been left out of man-machine...processes; creation of a new overview of how human communication functions in cooperative task-oriented activity; and assistance in ARPA policy formation on CAI equipment development.

  12. AECT Convention, Orlando, Florida 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Eddie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents several reports that highlight the events at the 2008 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) International Convention in Orlando, Florida. At the annual convention this year, the Multimedia Production Division goal was to continue to share information about the latest tools in multimedia production,…

  13. 40 CFR 401.16 - Conventional pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Conventional pollutants. 401.16 Section 401.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.16 Conventional pollutants. The following comprise the list...

  14. 40 CFR 401.16 - Conventional pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Conventional pollutants. 401.16 Section 401.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.16 Conventional pollutants. The following comprise the list...

  15. 47 CFR 32.20 - Numbering convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numbering convention. 32.20 Section 32.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.20 Numbering convention. (a) The number...

  16. The European Convention on Human Rights. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castberg, Frede

    This book outlines the contents of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols 1 and 4. The major goal of the Convention, which constitutes an innovation in international law, is to guarantee the protection of "human rights" by allowing both member states and individuals to institute proceedings…

  17. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  18. Conventional Expressions. Investigating Pragmatics and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Conventional expressions, a subset of multiword units, are the target of the current study, which aims to address questions concerning native and nonnative speakers' knowledge and processing of a set of such strings. To this end, 13 expressions identified as conventional in the southwest of France were tested in an online contextualized…

  19. Machine learning in the rational design of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Rondón-Villarreal, Paola; Sierra, Daniel A; Torres, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important public health issues is the microbial and bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics by pathogen microorganisms. In recent years, many researches have been focused on the development of new antibiotics. Among these, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have raised as a promising alternative to combat antibioticresistant microorganisms. For this reason, many theoretical efforts have been done in the development of new computational tools for the rational design of both better and effective AMPs. In this review, we present an overview of the rational design of AMPs using machine learning techniques and new research fields.

  20. Application of PLC in digitization control intelligence can-body high-speed resitance welding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaobo; Zhang, Ziqiang; Yan, Qiusheng; Zheng, Zhidan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Tianyu

    2003-09-01

    The application of position servo synchronously tracking system constituted with PLC and general AC servo system in digitalization control intelligence can-body high-speed resistance welding machine is introduced in this paper. By studying the digitalization control system of automatic can-body resistance welding machine, technologic upgrade of product is made, and application of PLC in controlling general AC servo motor multi-axes ganged system to replace conventional mechanical ganged mechanism is developed. It makes the coordination of movements between machine actions can be ensured and every correlative actions can quickly and precisely run synchronously, quondam mechanical branching driving can be replaced, and "mechanical locking" between quondam movements can be changed to the "electronic locking," complex mechanical structures such as cams, stepless speed changing machines and universal joints and so on can be omitted, so the working capability of whole machine can effectively be enhanced and synchronization between the machine actions can rapidly be reached. The application realizes digitalization process control, enhances reliability, stability and manufacturing efficiency of the machine, and reduces the manufacturing cost.

  1. [The current state of leak in anesthetic machines detected by low flow leak tests].

    PubMed

    Uehara, M; Tokumine, J; Iha, H; Nitta, K; Okuda, Y

    1999-05-01

    To assess the current state of leak in anesthetic machines, we selected 66 units of anesthetic machines for inspection and repair from various medical institutions. Based on a newly designed inspection flow chart a low flow leak test for internal circuits of the anesthetic machines was performed. The conventional low flow leak test was also performed for smooth detection of leak for rational evaluation. Only 39% of the anesthetic machines met the standard of the low flow leak tests, and leak was detected in the remaining 61%. The average residual leak mounted to 0.97 l.min-1, with the maximum of 5.3 l.min-1. Canisters, corrugated tubes, and vaporizers were considered the primary causes of leak. After the inspection and repair, leak in 77.5% of the anesthetic machines either disappeared or decreased and the average residual leak dropped to 0.34 l.min-1. However, 47% of the anesthetic machines still failed to meet the standard of the low flow leak tests. To further improve the situation, more detailed inspection and repair are necessary especially for precise detection of the cause of leak in the internal circuit of anesthetic machines which often remains undetected.

  2. Machining as a mechanical property test revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David L.

    There is much need for data on mechanical behavior of metals at high strains and strain rates. This need is dictated by modeling of processes like forming and machining, wherein the material in the deformation zone is subjected to severe deformation conditions atypical of conventional material property tests such as tension and torsion. Accurate flow stress data is an essential input for robust prediction of process outputs. Similar requirements arise from applications in high speed ballistic penetration and design of materials for armor. Since the deformation zone in cutting of metals is characterized by unique and extreme combinations of strain, strain rate and temperature, an opportunity exists for using plane-strain cutting as a mechanical property test for measuring flow properties of metals. The feasibility of using plane-strain cutting to measure flow properties of metals is revisited in the light of recent data showing controllability of the deformation conditions in chip formation by systematic variation of process input parameters. A method is outlined as to how the deformation conditions can be varied by changing the process parameters. The method is applied to cutting of commercially pure copper (FCC), iron (BCC) and zinc (HCP). Forces and chip geometries are measured, in conjunction with particle image velocimetry characterization of the deformation using high speed image sequences. The flow stresses are estimated from these measurements. The measured flow stress and its dependence on strain are shown to agree well with prior measurements of these parameters using conventional tests, and flow stress inferred from hardness characterization. The method is also demonstrated to be able to measure properties of metals that recrystallize at room temperature (zinc), wherein quasi-static tests predict much lower strength. Sources of variability and uncertainty in the application of this measurement technique are discussed. Future work in the context of further

  3. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  4. 70 FR 2656 - Drafting Machines From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drafting Machines From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on drafting machines from Japan would be...

  5. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  6. The U.S. Machine Tool Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    tool industry production cycles. The industry can improve its competitive posture by expanding from regional markets into the global market , increasing...indus- try by modifying or abolishing laws which disincentivize investment and pose barriers to entry into foreign markets . 1993 Executive Research...built on a machine tool or on a machine made by a machine tool.’ Losman & Liang, 1990 The machine tool industry has seen a decline in the U.S. market

  7. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-15

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  8. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  9. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  10. Calibration For On-Machine Inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, Carlton L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Permanent calibration setup on numerically-controlled machine tool enables fast and reliable calibration of automated probes for inspection of workpieces while still mounted on machine. Setup includes one or more artifacts, dimensions and locations known precisely and stored in memory of computer controlling machine. Before probes used to inspect newly machined part, used to check artifacts. Probe measurements compared with values in memory to determine whether probe readings need adjustment.

  11. Machine vision system for the control of tunnel boring machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habacher, Michael; O'Leary, Paul; Harker, Matthew; Golser, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a machine vision system for the control of dual-shield Tunnel Boring Machines. The system consists of a camera with ultra bright LED illumination and a target system consisting of multiple retro-reflectors. The camera mounted on the gripper shield measures the relative position and orientation of the target which is mounted on the cutting shield. In this manner the position of the cutting shield relative to the gripper shield is determined. Morphological operators are used to detect the retro-reflectors in the image and a covariance optimized circle fit is used to determine the center point of each reflector. A graph matching algorithm is used to ensure a robust matching of the constellation of the observed target with the ideal target geometry.

  12. Specimen coordinate automated measuring machine/fiducial automated measuring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hedglen, Robert E.; Jacket, Howard S.; Schwartz, Allan I.

    1991-01-01

    The Specimen coordinate Automated Measuring Machine (SCAMM) and the Fiducial Automated Measuring Machine (FAMM) is a computer controlled metrology system capable of measuring length, width, and thickness, and of locating fiducial marks. SCAMM and FAMM have many similarities in their designs, and they can be converted from one to the other without taking them out of the hot cell. Both have means for: supporting a plurality of samples and a standard; controlling the movement of the samples in the +/- X and Y directions; determining the coordinates of the sample; compensating for temperature effects; and verifying the accuracy of the measurements and repeating as necessary. SCAMM and FAMM are designed to be used in hot cells.

  13. Free-focus radiography using conventional films: Radiation exposures in a simulated clinical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.W.; Randall, G.J.; Goldberg, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    This study compared air exposures during conventional dental and maxillofacial radiography and similar views using free-focus radiography with conventional image receptors. The results show that periapical type surveys on nonscreen film placed extraorally or in the buccal fold may be carried out with an exposure to the surface tissues, which is similar to or less than conventional dental radiography. Extraoral survey type radiographs of the jaws may be carried out with significantly less surface exposure than lateral oblique views of the jaws. The least exposure was required, when the film was placed in the buccla fold instead of against the face during free-focus radiography. The exposures with film screen combinations were reduced by an order of magnitude when compared to the nonscreen techniques. Proper filtration of the beam of the miniaturized x-ray machines radiography in dentistry may thus be desirable and applications in other parts of the body encouraged.

  14. Analysis of deformations of thin wall parts in machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślusarczyk, Ł.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a study on deformation of thin-walled components during milling. In the practical part, the test position consisting of conventional milling machines, high-speed camera and piezoelectric dynamometer was prepared. Milling operations performed on samples prepared of ST3S steel. Cutting parameters for each sample were the same, the way of mounting the samples in a holder constituted the difference. The tests were made for conventional and climbing milling. During the tests, deformation of samples was recorded with the high-speed camera. Moreover, the cutting forces were also recorded. In the second part of the article, the work in NX application was described. Geometric models of samples and material model were built, and simulation of deformation of the samples was performed. A comparison of the deformation results obtained from the laboratory tests and simulations constitutes a summary of the article.

  15. Virtual Machine for Computer Forensics - the Open Source Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, Derek

    In this paper we discuss the potential role of virtual environments in the analysis phase of computer forensics investigations. We argue that commercial closed source computer forensics software has certain limitations, and we propose a method which may lead to gradual shift to open source software (OSS). A brief overview of virtual environments and open source software tools is presented and discussed. Further we identify current limitations of virtual environments leading to the conclusion that the method is very promising, but at this point in time it can not replace conventional techniques of computer forensics analysis. We demonstrate that using Virtual Machines (VM) in Linux environments can complement the conventional techniques, and often can bring faster and verifiable results not dependent on proprietary, close source tools.

  16. 48 CFR 908.7103 - Office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office machines. 908.7103... PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7103 Office machines. Acquisitions of office machines by DOE offices and its authorized contractors shall be in accordance with...

  17. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  18. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  19. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  20. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7103 - Office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Office machines. 908.7103... PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7103 Office machines. Acquisitions of office machines by DOE offices and its authorized contractors shall be in accordance with...

  2. 48 CFR 908.7103 - Office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office machines. 908.7103... PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7103 Office machines. Acquisitions of office machines by DOE offices and its authorized contractors shall be in accordance with...

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring machine performance

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1996-01-01

    Machine operating conditions can be monitored by analyzing, in either the time or frequency domain, the spectral components of the motor current. Changes in the electric background noise, induced by mechanical variations in the machine, are correlated to changes in the operating parameters of the machine.

  4. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  5. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  6. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  7. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  8. 48 CFR 908.7103 - Office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office machines. 908.7103... PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7103 Office machines. Acquisitions of office machines by DOE offices and its authorized contractors shall be in accordance with...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7103 - Office machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office machines. 908.7103... PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7103 Office machines. Acquisitions of office machines by DOE offices and its authorized contractors shall be in accordance with...

  10. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  12. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  13. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  14. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or...

  15. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines...

  16. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  17. USSR Report Machine Tools and Metalworking Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    CONTROLLED SYSTEMS, COMPUTERS AND GEARS . SOLVING THESE AND OTHER TECHNICAL QUESTIONS IS MOST DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL AND...SOVET- SKAYA LITVA readers that these enterprises produce high-precision machine tools: gear hobbing machines, cylindrical grinding machines...Tashkent. Taking part in this meeting are representa- tives of Bulgaria, Hungary, Cuba, Poland , Romania, Czechoslovakia, the USSR and Yugoslavia. The

  18. 29 CFR 1917.151 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Machine guarding. 1917.151 Section 1917.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.151 Machine guarding. (a...) Danger zones on machines and equipment used by employees shall be guarded. (2) Where chips and...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.151 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Machine guarding. 1917.151 Section 1917.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.151 Machine guarding. (a...) Danger zones on machines and equipment used by employees shall be guarded. (2) Where chips and...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.151 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Machine guarding. 1917.151 Section 1917.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.151 Machine guarding. (a...) Danger zones on machines and equipment used by employees shall be guarded. (2) Where chips and...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.151 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Machine guarding. 1917.151 Section 1917.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.151 Machine guarding. (a...) Danger zones on machines and equipment used by employees shall be guarded. (2) Where chips and...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.151 - Machine guarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Machine guarding. 1917.151 Section 1917.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.151 Machine guarding. (a...) Danger zones on machines and equipment used by employees shall be guarded. (2) Where chips and...

  3. Computational work and time on finite machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Measures of the computational work and computational delay required by machines to compute functions are given. Exchange inequalities are developed for random access, tape, and drum machines to show that product inequalities between storage and time, number of drum tracks and time, number of bits in an address and time, etc., must be satisfied to compute finite functions on bounded machines.

  4. THE FIRST BOOK OF TEACHING MACHINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPSTEIN, SAM; EPSTEIN, BERYL

    THE FIRST TEACHING MACHINE WAS INVENTED IN THE 1920'S BY SIDNEY L. PRESSEY AND THE FIRST MODERN TEACHING MACHINE WAS DEVELOPED AND POPULARIZED IN THE EARLY 1930'S BY B.F. SKINNER. TODAY BUSINESSMEN AND INDUSTRIALISTS AS WELL AS EDUCATORS HAVE FOUND TEACHING MACHINES USEFUL. ACTUALLY, TEACHING IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE PROGRAM, A CAREFULLY…

  5. Automated Tape Laying Machine for Composite Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention comprises an automated tape laying machine, for laying tape on a composite structure. The tape laying machine has a tape laying head...neatly cut. The automated tape laying device utilizes narrow width tape to increase machine flexibility and reduce wastage.

  6. Mechanisms and economy of molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Cells contain millions of biomolecules that function as molecular machines. This paper reviews aspects of the mechanisms of these machines (alternative pathways and cooperativity) as well as the economic principles of their use in cells. The focus is on the machines that process the genetic information, in particular RNA polymerases.

  7. Preliminary study of high-speed machining

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of a high speed machining process has been established for application to Bendix aluminum products, based upon information gained through visits to existing high speed machining facilities and by the completion of a representative Bendix part using this process. The need for an experimental high speed machining capability at Bendix for further process evaluation is established.

  8. Automated solar-cell-array assembly machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Mueller, R. L.; Person, J. K.; Yasui, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous-feeding machine automatically bonds solar cells to printed-circuit substrate. In completed machine, cells move to test station where electrical characteristics could be checked. If performance of cell is below specifications, that cell is marked and removed. All machine functions are synchronized by electronics located within unit. It may help to lower costs in future solar-cell production.

  9. Some Aspects of Soviet Trenching Machines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    the course of a seven-week trip, many construction sites were visited in Leningrad, Novosibirsk, Bratsk , Yakutsk, and Neriungri. There were no frozen...disabled bar machine by the roadside were seen at Bratsk . In Leningrad, a bar machine was seen parked on a street. Another bar machine was glimpsed while

  10. Bookkeeping Machines, Business Education: 7718.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Jane

    Postings, accounts receivable and payable, and payroll entries made while using a bookkeeping machine make up the course content described in this pamphlet. The course seeks to prepare students to operate accounting machines as a prerequisite to the operation of more complex machines and adult, on-the-job training. Course guidelines, objectives,…

  11. Evaluation of an improved centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Donovan, T E; White, L E

    1985-05-01

    A Type III gold alloy, a silver-palladium alloy, and a base metal alloy were cast in two different centrifugal casting machines. With the number of complete cast mesh squares as an indicator of castability, the Airspin casting machine produced superior castings with all three alloys. The base metal alloy produced the greatest number of complete squares with both casting machines.

  12. Debugging Fortran on a shared memory machine

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.R.; Padua, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Debugging on a parallel processor is more difficult than debugging on a serial machine because errors in a parallel program may introduce nondeterminism. The approach to parallel debugging presented here attempts to reduce the problem of debugging on a parallel machine to that of debugging on a serial machine by automatically detecting nondeterminism. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  14. Evolutionary Cost-Sensitive Extreme Learning Machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2016-10-11

    Conventional extreme learning machines (ELMs) solve a Moore-Penrose generalized inverse of hidden layer activated matrix and analytically determine the output weights to achieve generalized performance, by assuming the same loss from different types of misclassification. The assumption may not hold in cost-sensitive recognition tasks, such as face recognition-based access control system, where misclassifying a stranger as a family member may result in more serious disaster than misclassifying a family member as a stranger. Though recent cost-sensitive learning can reduce the total loss with a given cost matrix that quantifies how severe one type of mistake against another, in many realistic cases, the cost matrix is unknown to users. Motivated by these concerns, this paper proposes an evolutionary cost-sensitive ELM, with the following merits: 1) to the best of our knowledge, it is the first proposal of ELM in evolutionary cost-sensitive classification scenario; 2) it well addresses the open issue of how to define the cost matrix in cost-sensitive learning tasks; and 3) an evolutionary backtracking search algorithm is induced for adaptive cost matrix optimization. Experiments in a variety of cost-sensitive tasks well demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches, with about 5%-10% improvements.

  15. Representational issues in machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.; Hilliard, M.R.

    1986-10-25

    Classifier systems are numeric machine learning systems. They are machine counterparts to the natural genetic process and learn by reproduction, crossover, and mutation. Much publicity has been attended to their ability to demonstrate significant learning from a random start and without human intervention. Less well publicized is the considerable care that must be given to the choices of parameter settings and representation. Without the proper ''nurturing environment'' genetic algorithms are apt to learn very little. This infusion of human intelligence is often discounted, but the choice of appropriate representation forms the core of much of the current genetic algorithm research. This paper will address some of the representational issues from the perspective of two current experiments, one with scheduling and the other with a simulated robot. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Multi-valued Boltzmann machine

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.T.; Lee, C.S.G.

    1995-04-01

    The idea of Hopfield network is based on the Ising spin glass model in which each spin has only two possible states: up and down. This paper generalizes these ideas to multivalue case based on the XY spin glass model in which each spin can be in any direction in a plane. Simply using the gradient descent method and the analog Hopfield network, two different analog connectionist structures and their corresponding evolving rules are first designed to transform the XY spin glass model to distributed computational models. Since these two structures can easily get stuck in local minima, a multivalued Boltzmann machine is proposed which adopts the discrete planar spin glass model for the local minimum problem. The multivalued Boltzmann machine can be applied to the mobile robot navigation problem by defining proper artificial magnetic field on the traverse terrain. This new approach has shown to have several advantages over existing graph search and potential field techniques. 28 refs.

  17. Machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Survey of the present technological development status of machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation in the U.S., Japan, USSR, and England. The extent of task-performance autonomy is examined that machine intelligence gives the manipulator by eliminating the need for a human operator to close continuously the control loop, or to rewrite control programs for each different task. Surveyed research projects show that the development of some advanced automation systems for manipulator control are within the state of the art. Yet, many more realistic breadboard systems and experimental work are needed before further progress can be made in the design of advanced automation systems for manipulator control suitable for new major practical applications. Specific research areas of promise are pointed out.

  18. The Higgs Machine Learning Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Cowan, G.; Germain-Renaud, C.; Guyon, I.; Kégl, B.; Rousseau, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Higgs Machine Learning Challenge was an open data analysis competition that took place between May and September 2014. Samples of simulated data from the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC corresponding to signal events with Higgs bosons decaying to τ+τ- together with background events were made available to the public through the website of the data science organization Kaggle (kaggle.com). Participants attempted to identify the search region in a space of 30 kinematic variables that would maximize the expected discovery significance of the signal process. One of the primary goals of the Challenge was to promote communication of new ideas between the Machine Learning (ML) and HEP communities. In this regard it was a resounding success, with almost 2,000 participants from HEP, ML and other areas. The process of understanding and integrating the new ideas, particularly from ML into HEP, is currently underway.

  19. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  20. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-13

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  1. Machine tools and fixtures: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    As part of NASA's Technology Utilizations Program, a compilation was made of technological developments regarding machine tools, jigs, and fixtures that have been produced, modified, or adapted to meet requirements of the aerospace program. The compilation is divided into three sections that include: (1) a variety of machine tool applications that offer easier and more efficient production techniques; (2) methods, techniques, and hardware that aid in the setup, alignment, and control of machines and machine tools to further quality assurance in finished products: and (3) jigs, fixtures, and adapters that are ancillary to basic machine tools and aid in realizing their greatest potential.

  2. Finite element simulation of conventional and prestressed cutting of Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ruitao; Tang, Xinzi; Tan, Yuanqiang; Liu, Xiongwei

    2013-05-01

    Titanium alloys are known as difficult-to-machine materials, chip morphology plays a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining of titanium alloys. Based on the finite element analysis and experimental validation, the cutting processes in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting of titanium alloy ring parts were explored respectively. The Johnson-Cook model expressed by equivalent plastic strain flow stress is utilized to describe the constitutive properties. A ductile fracture criterion based on the strain energy is applied to model the crack initiation and evolution during the chip segmentation. Cutting force as well as distributions of stress, temperature and equivalent plastic strain along cutting time were numerically compared. The results indicate that in conventional cutting and prestressed cutting, chips show the similar characteristic of continuous and regular serrated shape. Initial stress distribution of workpiece was changed by prestress, which correspondingly leads to the alteration of stress distribution in the subsurface layer. Prestress hardly influences the distributions of temperature and equivalent plastic strain on workpiece. The cutting force curves share the same average amplitude and analogous undulating rhythm.

  3. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  4. Galaxy Classification using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Lucas; Schawinski, Kevin; Brandt, Ben-Elias; widmer, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    We present our current research into the use of machine learning to classify galaxy imaging data with various convolutional neural network configurations in TensorFlow. We are investigating how five-band Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data can be used to train on physical properties such as redshift, star formation rate, mass and morphology. We also investigate the performance of artificially redshifted images in recovering physical properties as image quality degrades.

  5. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  6. Spiking neuron network Helmholtz machine

    PubMed Central

    Sountsov, Pavel; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggests that the brain performs optimal (or near-optimal) probabilistic inference and learning during perception and other tasks. Although many machine learning algorithms exist that perform inference and learning in an optimal way, the complete description of how one of those algorithms (or a novel algorithm) can be implemented in the brain is currently incomplete. There have been many proposed solutions that address how neurons can perform optimal inference but the question of how synaptic plasticity can implement optimal learning is rarely addressed. This paper aims to unify the two fields of probabilistic inference and synaptic plasticity by using a neuronal network of realistic model spiking neurons to implement a well-studied computational model called the Helmholtz Machine. The Helmholtz Machine is amenable to neural implementation as the algorithm it uses to learn its parameters, called the wake-sleep algorithm, uses a local delta learning rule. Our spiking-neuron network implements both the delta rule and a small example of a Helmholtz machine. This neuronal network can learn an internal model of continuous-valued training data sets without supervision. The network can also perform inference on the learned internal models. We show how various biophysical features of the neural implementation constrain the parameters of the wake-sleep algorithm, such as the duration of the wake and sleep phases of learning and the minimal sample duration. We examine the deviations from optimal performance and tie them to the properties of the synaptic plasticity rule. PMID:25954191

  7. Spiking neuron network Helmholtz machine.

    PubMed

    Sountsov, Pavel; Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggests that the brain performs optimal (or near-optimal) probabilistic inference and learning during perception and other tasks. Although many machine learning algorithms exist that perform inference and learning in an optimal way, the complete description of how one of those algorithms (or a novel algorithm) can be implemented in the brain is currently incomplete. There have been many proposed solutions that address how neurons can perform optimal inference but the question of how synaptic plasticity can implement optimal learning is rarely addressed. This paper aims to unify the two fields of probabilistic inference and synaptic plasticity by using a neuronal network of realistic model spiking neurons to implement a well-studied computational model called the Helmholtz Machine. The Helmholtz Machine is amenable to neural implementation as the algorithm it uses to learn its parameters, called the wake-sleep algorithm, uses a local delta learning rule. Our spiking-neuron network implements both the delta rule and a small example of a Helmholtz machine. This neuronal network can learn an internal model of continuous-valued training data sets without supervision. The network can also perform inference on the learned internal models. We show how various biophysical features of the neural implementation constrain the parameters of the wake-sleep algorithm, such as the duration of the wake and sleep phases of learning and the minimal sample duration. We examine the deviations from optimal performance and tie them to the properties of the synaptic plasticity rule.

  8. Another look at Atwood's machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    1999-02-01

    Atwood's machine is a standard experimental apparatus that is likely to get pushed out of the laboratory portion of the general physics course due to the ever increasing use of microcomputers. To avoid this, I now use the apparatus for an experiment during the work and energy portion of the course which not only allows us to demonstrate those principles but also compare them with Newton's laws of motion.

  9. Nanoporous films: From conventional to the conformal

    DOE PAGES

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2015-12-14

    Here, thin and continuous films of porous metal-organic frameworks can now be conformally deposited on various substrates using a vapor-phase synthesis approach that departs from conventional solution-based routes.

  10. The conventions for the polarization angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serego Alighieri, Sperello di

    2017-02-01

    Since more than a century astronomers measure the position angle of the major axis of the polarization ellipse starting from the North direction and increasing counter-clockwise, when looking at the source. This convention has been enforced by the IAU with a Resolution in 1973. Much later the WMAP satellite, which has observed the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, has unfortunately adopted the opposite convention: the polarization position angle is measured starting from the South and increasing clockwise, when looking at the source. This opposite convention has been followed by most cosmic microwave background polarization experiments and is causing obvious problems and misunderstandings. The attempts and prospects to enforce the official IAU convention are described.

  11. 7 CFR 58.316 - Conventional churns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....316 Conventional churns. Churns shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless steel or equally corrosion resistant metal, free from cracks, and in good repair. All gasket material shall be fat resistant,...

  12. High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum

    SciTech Connect

    Božović, Ivan

    2016-01-07

    High-temperature superconductivity in ultrathin films of iron selenide deposited on strontium titanate has been attributed to various exotic mechanisms, and new experiments indicate that it may be conventional, with broader implications.

  13. Design and market considerations for axial flux superconducting electric machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; George, A.; Shaw, R.; Dawson, L.; Winfield, A.; Steketee, M.; Stockley, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate a number of design and market considerations for an axial flux superconducting electric machine design that uses high temperature superconductors. The axial flux machine design is assumed to utilise high temperature superconductors in both wire (stator winding) and bulk (rotor field) forms, to operate over a temperature range of 65-77 K, and to have a power output in the range from 10s of kW up to 1 MW (typical for axial flux machines), with approximately 2-3 T as the peak trapped field in the bulk superconductors. The authors firstly investigate the applicability of this type of machine as a generator in small- and medium-sized wind turbines, including the current and forecasted market and pricing for conventional turbines. Next, a study is also carried out on the machine's applicability as an in-wheel hub motor for electric vehicles. Some recommendations for future applications are made based on the outcome of these two studies. Finally, the cost of YBCO-based superconducting (2G HTS) wire is analysed with respect to competing wire technologies and compared with current conventional material costs and current wire costs for both 1G and 2G HTS are still too great to be economically feasible for such superconducting devices.

  14. Machinability studies on INCONEL 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavior, M. Anthony; Patil, Mahesh; Maiti, Abheek; Raj, Mrinal; Lohia, Nitesh

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of proposed work is to determine the influence of controllable parameters on machining characteristics of Inconel-718 and to achieve the optimum parameters for sustainable and efficient turning. Understanding the consequences of advanced tool materials together with higher cutting speeds on the formation of residual stresses and therefore the underlying mechanisms of small structural alteration within the subterranean layer thereby becomes terribly crucial for predicting product quality and more optimizing the machining conditions. Controllable cutting parameters such as cutting velocity, feed rate and depth of cut were selected at different level for experimentations in accordance with the Taguchi L9 array method using Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) cutting condition and three different tools namely PVD TiAlN carbide, Cubic boron nitride and ceramic. Extensive study is done on the resulting surface roughness, surface subsurface hardness, tool wear and chip morphology. The results obtained from each of the tool were thoroughly analyzed and finally the optimized parameters are obtained for efficient machining of Inconel 718.

  15. Foundations of support constraint machines.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Giorgio; Gori, Marco; Melacci, Stefano; Sanguineti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    The mathematical foundations of a new theory for the design of intelligent agents are presented. The proposed learning paradigm is centered around the concept of constraint, representing the interactions with the environment, and the parsimony principle. The classical regularization framework of kernel machines is naturally extended to the case in which the agents interact with a richer environment, where abstract granules of knowledge, compactly described by different linguistic formalisms, can be translated into the unified notion of constraint for defining the hypothesis set. Constrained variational calculus is exploited to derive general representation theorems that provide a description of the optimal body of the agent (i.e., the functional structure of the optimal solution to the learning problem), which is the basis for devising new learning algorithms. We show that regardless of the kind of constraints, the optimal body of the agent is a support constraint machine (SCM) based on representer theorems that extend classical results for kernel machines and provide new representations. In a sense, the expressiveness of constraints yields a semantic-based regularization theory, which strongly restricts the hypothesis set of classical regularization. Some guidelines to unify continuous and discrete computational mechanisms are given so as to accommodate in the same framework various kinds of stimuli, for example, supervised examples and logic predicates. The proposed view of learning from constraints incorporates classical learning from examples and extends naturally to the case in which the examples are subsets of the input space, which is related to learning propositional logic clauses.

  16. Music emotion detection using hierarchical sparse kernel machines.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yu-Hao; Lin, Chang-Hong; Siahaan, Ernestasia; Wang, Jia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    For music emotion detection, this paper presents a music emotion verification system based on hierarchical sparse kernel machines. With the proposed system, we intend to verify if a music clip possesses happiness emotion or not. There are two levels in the hierarchical sparse kernel machines. In the first level, a set of acoustical features are extracted, and principle component analysis (PCA) is implemented to reduce the dimension. The acoustical features are utilized to generate the first-level decision vector, which is a vector with each element being a significant value of an emotion. The significant values of eight main emotional classes are utilized in this paper. To calculate the significant value of an emotion, we construct its 2-class SVM with calm emotion as the global (non-target) side of the SVM. The probability distributions of the adopted acoustical features are calculated and the probability product kernel is applied in the first-level SVMs to obtain first-level decision vector feature. In the second level of the hierarchical system, we merely construct a 2-class relevance vector machine (RVM) with happiness as the target side and other emotions as the background side of the RVM. The first-level decision vector is used as the feature with conventional radial basis function kernel. The happiness verification threshold is built on the probability value. In the experimental results, the detection error tradeoff (DET) curve shows that the proposed system has a good performance on verifying if a music clip reveals happiness emotion.

  17. Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process.

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at different frequency. The mathematical model for the material removal of cylindrical wire EDM process is derived. Experiments were conducted to explore the maximum material removal rate for cylindrical and 2D wire EDM of carbide and brass work-materials. Compared to the 2D wire EDM, higher maximum material removal rates may be achieved in the cylindrical wire EDM. This study also investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylindrical wire EDM process. For carbide parts, an arithmetic average surface roughness and roundness as low as 0.68 and 1.7 {micro}m, respectively, can be achieved. Surfaces of the cylindrical EDM parts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the craters, sub-surface recast layers and heat-affected zones under various process parameters. This study has demonstrated that the cylindrical wire EDM process parameters can be adjusted to achieve either high material removal rate or good surface integrity.

  18. Online Dynamic Parameter Estimation of Synchronous Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael R.

    Traditionally, synchronous machine parameters are determined through an offline characterization procedure. The IEEE 115 standard suggests a variety of mechanical and electrical tests to capture the fundamental characteristics and behaviors of a given machine. These characteristics and behaviors can be used to develop and understand machine models that accurately reflect the machine's performance. To perform such tests, the machine is required to be removed from service. Characterizing a machine offline can result in economic losses due to down time, labor expenses, etc. Such losses may be mitigated by implementing online characterization procedures. Historically, different approaches have been taken to develop methods of calculating a machine's electrical characteristics, without removing the machine from service. Using a machine's input and response data combined with a numerical algorithm, a machine's characteristics can be determined. This thesis explores such characterization methods and strives to compare the IEEE 115 standard for offline characterization with the least squares approximation iterative approach implemented on a 20 h.p. synchronous machine. This least squares estimation method of online parameter estimation shows encouraging results for steady-state parameters, in comparison with steady-state parameters obtained through the IEEE 115 standard.

  19. Cleaning of uranium vs machine coolant formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Byrd, V.R.; Simandl, R.F.

    1984-10-01

    This study compares methods for cleaning uranium chips and the residues left on chips from alternate machine coolants based on propylene glycol-water mixtures with either borax, ammonium tetraborate, or triethanolamine tetraborate added as a nuclear poison. Residues left on uranium surfaces machined with perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolant and on surfaces machined with the borax-containing alternate coolant were also compared. In comparing machined surfaces, greater chlorine contamination was found on the surface of the perchloroethylene-mineral oil machined surfaces, but slightly greater oxidation was found on the surfaces machined with the alternate borax-containing coolant. Overall, the differences were small and a change to the alternate coolant does not appear to constitute a significant threat to the integrity of machined uranium parts.

  20. ''Diagonalization'' of a compound Atwood machine

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1987-06-01

    We consider a simple Atwood machine consisting of a massless frictionless pulley no. 0 supporting two masses m/sub 1/ and m/sub 2/ connected by a massless flexible string. We show that the string that supports massless pulley no. 0 ''thinks'' it is simply supporting a mass m/sub 0/, with m/sub 0/ = 4m/sub 1/m/sub 2//(m/sub 1/+m/sub 2/). This result, together with Einstein's equivalence principle, allows us to solve easily those compound Atwood machines created by replacing one or both of m/sub 1/ and m/sub 2/ in machine no. 0 by an Atwood machine. We may then replacing the masses in these new machines by machines, etc. The complete solution can be written down immediately, without solving simultaneous equations. Finally we give the effective mass of an Atwood machine whose pulley has nonzero mass and moment of inertia.

  1. ``Diagonalization'' of a compound Atwood machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1987-06-01

    We consider a simple Atwood machine consisting of a massless frictionless pulley no. 0 supporting two masses m1 and m2 connected by a massless flexible string. We show that the string that supports massless pulley no. 0 ``thinks'' it is simply supporting a mass m0, with m0=4m1m2/(m1+m2). This result, together with Einstein's equivalence principle, allows us to solve easily those compound Atwood machines created by replacing one or both of m1 and m2 in machine no. 0 by an Atwood machine. We may then replacing the masses in these new machines by machines, etc. The complete solution can be written down immediately, without solving simultaneous equations. Finally we give the effective mass of an Atwood machine whose pulley has nonzero mass and moment of inertia.

  2. Extreme learning machine for regression and multiclass classification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang-Bin; Zhou, Hongming; Ding, Xiaojian; Zhang, Rui

    2012-04-01

    Due to the simplicity of their implementations, least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) and proximal support vector machine (PSVM) have been widely used in binary classification applications. The conventional LS-SVM and PSVM cannot be used in regression and multiclass classification applications directly, although variants of LS-SVM and PSVM have been proposed to handle such cases. This paper shows that both LS-SVM and PSVM can be simplified further and a unified learning framework of LS-SVM, PSVM, and other regularization algorithms referred to extreme learning machine (ELM) can be built. ELM works for the "generalized" single-hidden-layer feedforward networks (SLFNs), but the hidden layer (or called feature mapping) in ELM need not be tuned. Such SLFNs include but are not limited to SVM, polynomial network, and the conventional feedforward neural networks. This paper shows the following: 1) ELM provides a unified learning platform with a widespread type of feature mappings and can be applied in regression and multiclass classification applications directly; 2) from the optimization method point of view, ELM has milder optimization constraints compared to LS-SVM and PSVM; 3) in theory, compared to ELM, LS-SVM and PSVM achieve suboptimal solutions and require higher computational complexity; and 4) in theory, ELM can approximate any target continuous function and classify any disjoint regions. As verified by the simulation results, ELM tends to have better scalability and achieve similar (for regression and binary class cases) or much better (for multiclass cases) generalization performance at much faster learning speed (up to thousands times) than traditional SVM and LS-SVM.

  3. Superplasticity and machinability in a four-phase ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Men, Danju; Mecartney, Martha L.

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► New fine grained ceramic composites of ZrO{sub 2}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Mg{sub 2}AlO{sub 4}–LaPO{sub 4} were synthesized. ► At high temperatures, deformation strain rates are comparable to superplastic TZP. ► These are machinable at room temperature using conventional tungsten drill bits. ► Magnetoplumbite can form under certain process conditions. -- Abstract: Fine grained four-phase ceramic materials were fabricated to have a combination of high temperature superplasticity and room temperature machinability. The composite ceramics were made of 25 vol.% 3Y-TZP/8YSZ–25 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–25 vol.% MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}–25 vol.% LaPO{sub 4}, using LaPO{sub 4} powders fabricated in-house. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the grain size for the best mixed samples was in the range of 600 nm, tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} transformed into monoclinic, and reactions in the sintered samples produced a new phase, magnetoplumbite (LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}) with lath-like grains. The formation of magnetoplumbite was facilitated by the presence of yttria and by a liquid phase generated at elevated temperatures. These four-phase ceramics had a maximum hardness of 12 GPa and fracture toughness was no more than 3 MPa√m. Deformation rates at 1400 °C under 40 MPa stress were in the superplastic range of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} for most compositions. These four-phase ceramics were machinable as demonstrated using conventional tungsten drill bits.

  4. Smart material screening machines using smart materials and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Corradi, Gary; Waigand, Al

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this product is to address the specific need for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness in physical separation technologies in the screening areas. Currently, the mining industry uses approximately 33 billion kW-hr per year, costing 1.65 billion dollars at 0.05 cents per kW-hr, of electrical energy for physical separations. Even though screening and size separations are not the single most energy intensive process in the mining industry, they are often the major bottleneck in the whole process. Improvements to this area offer tremendous potential in both energy savings and production improvements. Additionally, the vibrating screens used in the mining processing plants are the most costly areas from maintenance and worker health and safety point of views. The goal of this product is to reduce energy use in the screening and total processing areas. This goal is accomplished by developing an innovative screening machine based on smart materials and smart actuators, namely smart screen that uses advanced sensory system to continuously monitor the screening process and make appropriate adjustments to improve production. The theory behind the development of Smart Screen technology is based on two key technologies, namely smart actuators and smart Energy Flow ControlT (EFCT) strategies, developed initially for military applications. Smart Screen technology controls the flow of vibration energy and confines it to the screen rather than shaking much of the mass that makes up the conventional vibratory screening machine. Consequently, Smart Screens eliminates and downsizes many of the structural components associated with conventional vibratory screening machines. As a result, the surface area of the screen increases for a given envelope. This increase in usable screening surface area extends the life of the screens, reduces required maintenance by reducing the frequency of screen change-outs and improves throughput or productivity.

  5. Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.

  6. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    DOEpatents

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  7. Conventions and workflows for using Situs

    SciTech Connect

    Wriggers, Willy

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments of the Situs software suite for multi-scale modeling are reviewed. Typical workflows and conventions encountered during processing of biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering are described. Situs is a modular program package for the multi-scale modeling of atomic resolution structures and low-resolution biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering. This article provides an overview of recent developments in the Situs package, with an emphasis on workflows and conventions that are important for practical applications. The modular design of the programs facilitates scripting in the bash shell that allows specific programs to be combined in creative ways that go beyond the original intent of the developers. Several scripting-enabled functionalities, such as flexible transformations of data type, the use of symmetry constraints or the creation of two-dimensional projection images, are described. The processing of low-resolution biophysical maps in such workflows follows not only first principles but often relies on implicit conventions. Situs conventions related to map formats, resolution, correlation functions and feature detection are reviewed and summarized. The compatibility of the Situs workflow with CCP4 conventions and programs is discussed.

  8. Machine characterization based on an abstract high-level language machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.; Smith, Alan Jay; Miya, Eugene

    1989-01-01

    Measurements are presented for a large number of machines ranging from small workstations to supercomputers. The authors combine these measurements into groups of parameters which relate to specific aspects of the machine implementation, and use these groups to provide overall machine characterizations. The authors also define the concept of pershapes, which represent the level of performance of a machine for different types of computation. A metric based on pershapes is introduced that provides a quantitative way of measuring how similar two machines are in terms of their performance distributions. The metric is related to the extent to which pairs of machines have varying relative performance levels depending on which benchmark is used.

  9. Efficient Checkpointing of Virtual Machines using Virtual Machine Introspection

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Han, Fang; Scott, Stephen L; Naughton, III, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing environments rely heavily on system-level virtualization. This is due to the inherent benefits of virtualization including fault tolerance through checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanisms. Because clouds are the abstraction of large data centers and large data centers have a higher potential for failure, it is imperative that a C/R mechanism for such an environment provide minimal latency as well as a small checkpoint file size. Recently, there has been much research into C/R with respect to virtual machines (VM) providing excellent solutions to reduce either checkpoint latency or checkpoint file size. However, these approaches do not provide both. This paper presents a method of checkpointing VMs by utilizing virtual machine introspection (VMI). Through the usage of VMI, we are able to determine which pages of memory within the guest are used or free and are better able to reduce the amount of pages written to disk during a checkpoint. We have validated this work by using various benchmarks to measure the latency along with the checkpoint size. With respect to checkpoint file size, our approach results in file sizes within 24% or less of the actual used memory within the guest. Additionally, the checkpoint latency of our approach is up to 52% faster than KVM s default method.

  10. Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation of the DCD Kidney: Machine Effects.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Susanne L; Muir, Heather; Brassil, John; Mangino, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Kidneys from DCD donors represent a significant pool, but preservation problems exist. The study objective was to test the importance of machine type for hypothermic preservation of DCD kidneys. Methods. Adult Beagle dog kidneys underwent 45 minutes of warm in situ ischemia followed by hypothermic perfusion for 24 hours (Belzer-MPS Solution) on either an ORS LifePort or a Waters RM3 using standard perfusion protocols. Kidneys were then autotransplanted, and renal function was assessed over 7 days following contralateral nephrectomy. Results. Renal vascular resistance was not different between the two pumps. After 24 hours, the oxygen partial pressure and oxygen delivery in the LifePort perfusate were significantly lower than those in the RM3 but not low enough to change lactate production. TheLifePort ran significantly colder than RM3 (2° versus 5°C). The arterial pressure waveform of the RM3 was qualitatively different from the waveform of the LifePort. Preservation injury after transplantation was not different between the devices. When the LifePort was changed to nonpulsatile flow, kidneys displayed significantly greater preservation injury compared to RM3. Conclusions. Both LifePort and RM3 can be used for hypothermic machine perfusion preservation of DCD kidneys with equal outcomes as long as the duty cycle remains pulsatile.

  11. Experiments with the Dragon Machine

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Malenfant

    2005-08-12

    The basic characteristics of a self-sustaining chain reaction were demonstrated with the Chicago Pile in 1943, but it was not until early 1945 that sufficient enriched material became available to experimentally verify fast-neutron cross-sections and the kinetic characteristics of a nuclear chain reaction sustained with prompt neutrons alone. However, the demands of wartime and the rapid decline in effort following the cessation of hostilities often resulted in the failure to fully document the experiments or in the loss of documentation as personnel returned to civilian pursuits. When documented, the results were often highly classified. Even when eventually declassified, the data were often not approved for public release until years later.2 Even after declassification and approval for public release, the records are sometimes difficult to find. Through a fortuitous discovery, a set of handwritten notes by ''ORF July 1945'' entitled ''Dragon - Research with a Pulsed Fission Reactor'' was found by William L. Myers in an old storage safe at Pajarito Site of the Los Alamos National Laboratory3. Of course, ORF was identified as Otto R. Frisch. The document was attached to a page in a nondescript spiral bound notebook labeled ''494 Book'' that bore the signatures of Louis Slotin and P. Morrison. The notes also reference an ''Idea LS'' that can only be Louis Slotin. The discovery of the notes led to a search of Laboratory Archives, the negative files of the photo lab, and the Report Library for additional details of the experiments with the Dragon machine that were conducted between January and July 1945. The assembly machine and the experiments were carefully conceived and skillfully executed. The analyses--without the crutch of computers--display real insight into the characteristics of the nuclear chain reaction. The information presented here provides what is believed to be a complete collection of the original documentation of the observations made with the Dragon

  12. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  13. The collapse of the conventional career.

    PubMed

    Mangan, P

    The Collapse of the Conventional Career was commissioned by the ENB as 'the first in a number of discussion papers in which important issues were to be explored so that the professional could debate them fully' (Jean Hooper, chairwoman of the ENB, in her foreword). The author Celia Davis' premise was that, conventionally, a career was seen as comprising full-time work carried out without a break in service. Because many female nurses could not fulfil this expectation they were disadvantaged in a number of ways. In order to address the problems faced in practice by those who would not be able, for various reasons, to undertake a conventional career, Professor Davis looked at what changes in thinking and policy would be required.

  14. Knee bone tumors: findings on conventional radiology*

    PubMed Central

    Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019

  15. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOEpatents

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  16. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Smith, Stephen F.; Oden, Patrick I.; Bryan, William L.; Moore, James A.; Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  17. Creating unorganised machines from memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; Costello, Ben De Lacy; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    There is growing interest in memristive devices following their recent nanoscale fabrication. This paper describes initial consideration of the implementation of artificial intelligence within predominantly memristive hardware. In particular, versions of Alan Turing's discrete dynamical network formalism — the unorganised machine — are used as the knowledge representation scheme and a population-based search technique is used to design appropriate networks. Issues including memristor count and global network synchrony are compared for two memristive logic implementations (NAND and IMP) on a well-known simulated robotics benchmark task. It is shown that IMP networks are harder to design than NAND, but are simpler to implement and require fewer processor cycles.

  18. Machine-Assisted Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Myers, Rebecca M; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ingham, Richard J

    2015-08-24

    In this Review we describe how the advent of machines is impacting on organic synthesis programs, with particular emphasis on the practical issues associated with the design of chemical reactors. In the rapidly changing, multivariant environment of the research laboratory, equipment needs to be modular to accommodate high and low temperatures and pressures, enzymes, multiphase systems, slurries, gases, and organometallic compounds. Additional technologies have been developed to facilitate more specialized reaction techniques such as electrochemical and photochemical methods. All of these areas create both opportunities and challenges during adoption as enabling technologies.

  19. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-07-16

    This Final Report for DE-FG02-06ER54851, Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines, was in fact submitted on April 9, 2010. Some confusion arose because it was submitted as an initial progress report on a related grant, Alpha Channeling in Open- System Magnetic Devices. The original text is reproduced below, except that the publication record is undated. Note that the articles published in 2009 and 2010 reflect work in fact done under DE-FG02-06ER54851.

  20. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

  1. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

  2. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Solar prediction and intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1987-01-01

    The solar prediction program is aimed at reducing or eliminating the need to throughly understand the process previously developed and to still be able to produce a prediction. Substantial progress was made in identifying the procedures to be coded as well as testing some of the presently coded work. Another project involves work on developing ideas and software that should result in a machine capable of learning as well as carrying on an intelligent conversation over a wide range of topics. The underlying idea is to use primitive ideas and construct higher order ideas from these, which can then be easily related one to another.

  5. 1985 CSEG/CGU National Convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirce, John W.; Millington, Graham

    The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists (CSEG) and the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) held their first joint national meeting in Calgary, Canada, May 7-10, 1985. As the CSEG represents primarily the oil exploration side of geophysics and the CGU represents mainly the academic side, both groups felt that a joint convention would broaden their perspectives. Some 1750 delegates and over 100 students registered for the meeting. The Convention Committee was chaired by Ian Baker (Atlantis Resources Ltd.), and CGU was represented by Peter Savage (Pan Canadian Petroleum Ltd.). The Technical Committee was chaired by John Peirce (Petro-Canada Inc.) for CGU and Graham Millington (Canadian Superior Oil Ltd.) for CSEG

  6. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival.

  7. Light-driven artificial molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Hao, Qingzhen; Yang, Ying-Wei; Kiraly, Brian; Chiang, I.-Kao; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-08-01

    Artificial molecular machines represent a growing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stimulated by chemical reagents, electricity, or light, artificial molecular machines exhibit precisely controlled motion at the molecular level; with this ability molecular machines have the potential to make significant impacts in numerous engineering applications. Compared with molecular machines powered by chemical or electrical energy, light-driven molecular machines have several advantages: light can be switched much faster, work without producing chemical waste, and be used for dual purposes-inducing (writing) as well as detecting (reading) molecular motions. The following issues are significant for light-driven artificial molecular machines in the following aspects: their chemical structures, motion mechanisms, assembly and characterization on solid-state surfaces. Applications in different fields of nanotechnology such as molecular electronics, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), nanophotonics, and nanomedicine are envisaged.

  8. Preliminary study on wilcoxon learning machines.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J G; Lin, Y L; Jeng, J H

    2008-02-01

    As is well known in statistics, the resulting linear regressors by using the rank-based Wilcoxon approach to linear regression problems are usually robust against (or insensitive to) outliers. This motivates us to introduce in this paper the Wilcoxon approach to the area of machine learning. Specifically, we investigate four new learning machines, namely Wilcoxon neural network (WNN), Wilcoxon generalized radial basis function network (WGRBFN), Wilcoxon fuzzy neural network (WFNN), and kernel-based Wilcoxon regressor (KWR). These provide alternative learning machines when faced with general nonlinear learning problems. Simple weights updating rules based on gradient descent will be derived. Some numerical examples will be provided to compare the robustness against outliers for various learning machines. Simulation results show that the Wilcoxon learning machines proposed in this paper have good robustness against outliers. We firmly believe that the Wilcoxon approach will provide a promising methodology for many machine learning problems.

  9. Safety improvements in high pressure thermal machines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1988-02-09

    In a thermal machine of the type including a machine body having a main axis extending between a thermal end and a work end, a working fluid at relatively high pressure in a working fluid chamber defined in the body and a displacer element reciprocable within the chamber for subjecting the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a reciprocable work piston, the improvement is described comprising outer shell means enclosing the machine body for maintaining a substantially sealed atmosphere about the machine body, and diffuser means arranged between the machine body and the outer shell means for diffusing a shock wave traveling towards the outer shell means resulting from explosive failure of the machine body and for shielding the outer shell means against fragments projected upon such failure.

  10. Spectral Classification Using Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuqiang, Chen; Yan, Wu; Yude, Bu; Guodong, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel machine learning algorithm, restricted Boltzmann machine, is introduced. The algorithm is applied for the spectral classification in astronomy. Restricted Boltzmann machine is a bipartite generative graphical model with two separate layers (one visible layer and one hidden layer), which can extract higher level features to represent the original data. Despite generative, restricted Boltzmann machine can be used for classification when modified with a free energy and a soft-max function. Before spectral classification, the original data are binarised according to some rule. Then, we resort to the binary restricted Boltzmann machine to classify cataclysmic variables and non-cataclysmic variables (one half of all the given data for training and the other half for testing). The experiment result shows state-of-the-art accuracy of 100%, which indicates the efficiency of the binary restricted Boltzmann machine algorithm.

  11. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-02-01

    Austenitic stainless steel weld fabri- cation. Conventional induction melting coils with special support construction for mounting and bottom pour...mmmmmmmmmmmm 1 . ^ I ^ L ■41- (3) contd. There are several companies that manufacture Al^O-j mixed graphite. We examined one sample from Vesuvius

  12. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    produce porosity-free parts and to evaluate the Rheocasting and Thixocasting processes from both a technical and economical point of view. Analytical...and computer models were developed for solutionizing of Rheocast and conventional cast (dendritic) alloys. The predictions were compared with

  13. Introducing Machine Learning Concepts with WEKA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony C; Frank, Eibe

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to data mining with machine learning. It gives an overview of various types of machine learning, along with some examples. It explains how to download, install, and run the WEKA data mining toolkit on a simple data set, then proceeds to explain how one might approach a bioinformatics problem. Finally, it includes a brief summary of machine learning algorithms for other types of data mining problems, and provides suggestions about where to find additional information.

  14. Toward Harnessing User Feedback For Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-02

    feedback and to understand what kinds of feedback users could give . Users were shown explanations of machine learning predictions and asked to provide... learning algorithm. The results show that user feedback has the potential to significantly improve machine learning systems, but that learning ...machine learning predictions and asked to provide feedback to improve the predictions. We found that users had no difficulty providing generous amounts

  15. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    SciTech Connect

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  16. Machining of low percentage beryllium copper alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermeyer, J. G.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne beryllium sampling during machining of low percentage beryllium-copper alloys shows that normal dry machining creates 45.2 microgram/cu m of airborne beryllium in the casting operators breathing zone and 2.3 microgram/cu m in an adjacent machine working area. A small vacuum system placed over the tool effectively removes airborne beryllium in the breathing zone sample to 0.2 microgram/cu m.

  17. Machining Thin-Walled Cylindrical Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbak, Joe; Spagnolo, Jim; Kraus, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Cylindrical walls only few thousandths of inch thick machined accurately and without tears or punctures with aid of beryllium copper mandrel. Chilled so it contracts, then inserted in cylinder. As comes to room temperature, mandrel expands and fits snugly inside cylinder. Will not allow part to slide and provides solid backup to prevent deflection when part machined by grinding wheel. When machining finished, cylinder-and-mandrel assembly inserted in dry ice, mandrel contracts and removed from part.

  18. Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-14

    ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) torque compensated motors, (3) high-speed generator, (4) rotating air-gap armature induction motor, (5) thyristor switched AC motors. The first four machine types were studied theoretically while experimental models were constructed of the last two. Preliminary designs were completed...of the five mahcines for an appropriate ship ... propulsion application. In

  19. Machine learning in genetics and genomics

    PubMed Central

    Libbrecht, Maxwell W.; Noble, William Stafford

    2016-01-01

    The field of machine learning promises to enable computers to assist humans in making sense of large, complex data sets. In this review, we outline some of the main applications of machine learning to genetic and genomic data. In the process, we identify some recurrent challenges associated with this type of analysis and provide general guidelines to assist in the practical application of machine learning to real genetic and genomic data. PMID:25948244

  20. CNC Machining Of The Complex Copper Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popan, Ioan Alexandru; Balc, Nicolae; Popan, Alina

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the machining process of the complex copper electrodes. Machining of the complex shapes in copper is difficult because this material is soft and sticky. This research presents the main steps for processing those copper electrodes at a high dimensional accuracy and a good surface quality. Special tooling solutions are required for this machining process and optimal process parameters have been found for the accurate CNC equipment, using smart CAD/CAM software.