Science.gov

Sample records for conventional mismatch controls

  1. Optimal control design that accounts for model mismatch errors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.J.; Hull, D.G.

    1995-02-01

    A new technique is presented in this paper that reduces the complexity of state differential equations while accounting for modeling assumptions. The mismatch controls are defined as the differences between the model equations and the true state equations. The performance index of the optimal control problem is formulated with a set of tuning parameters that are user-selected to tune the control solution in order to achieve the best results. Computer simulations demonstrate that the tuned control law outperforms the untuned controller and produces results that are comparable to a numerically-determined, piecewise-linear optimal controller.

  2. Stent valve implantation in conventional redo aortic valve surgery to prevent patient-prosthesis mismatch.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; Franciosi, Giorgio; Clivio, Sara; Faletra, Francesco; Moccetti, Marco; Moccetti, Tiziano; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Demertzis, Stefanos

    2017-03-01

    The goal was to show the technical details, feasibility and clinical results of balloon-expandable stent valve implantation in the aortic position during conventional redo open-heart surgery in selected obese patients with a small aortic prosthesis and severe patient-prosthesis mismatch. Two symptomatic overweight patients (body mass index of 31 and 38), each with a small aortic prosthesis (a 4-year-old, 21-mm Hancock II biological valve and a 29-year-old, 23-mm Duromedic mechanical valve), increased transvalvular gradients (59/31 and 74/44 mmHg) and a reduced indexed effective orifice area (0.50 and 0.43 cm 2 /m 2 ) underwent implantation of two 26-mm balloon-expandable Sapien 3 valves during standard on-pump redo valve surgery. Using full re-sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest, the two balloon-expandable stent valves were implanted under direct view using a standard aortotomy, after prosthesis removal and without annulus enlargement. Aortic cross-clamp times were 162 and 126 min; cardiopulmonary bypass times were 178 and 180 min; total surgical times were 360 and 318 min. At discharge, echocardiograms showed transvalvular peak and mean gradients of 13/9 and 23/13 mmHg and indexed effective orifice areas of 0.64 and 1.08 cm 2 /m 2 . The 3-month echocardiographic follow-up showed transvalvular peak and mean gradients of 18/9 and 19/11 mmHg and indexed effective orifice areas of 0.78 cm 2 /m 2 and 0.84 cm 2 /m 2 , with improved symptoms (New York Heart Association class 1). Implantation of a balloon-expandable stent valve during redo aortic valve surgery is feasible in selected cases and prevents patient-prosthesis mismatch in obese patients without need for aortic annulus enlargement. Moreover, in the case of stent valve degeneration, this approach permits additional valve-in-valve procedures with large stent valves and prevents re-redo surgery.

  3. Dynamic control of strand excision during human DNA mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yongmoon; Kim, Daehyung; Martín-López, Juana V; Lee, Ryanggeun; Oh, Jungsic; Hanne, Jeungphill; Fishel, Richard; Lee, Jong-Bong

    2016-03-22

    Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3'- or 5'-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a complete MMR reaction remain enigmatic. The purified human (Homo sapien or Hs) 5'-MMR excision reaction requires the HsMSH2-HsMSH6 heterodimer, the 5' → 3' exonuclease HsEXOI, and the single-stranded binding heterotrimer HsRPA. The HsMLH1-HsPMS2 heterodimer substantially influences 5'-MMR excision in cell extracts but is not required in the purified system. Using real-time single-molecule imaging, we show that HsRPA or Escherichia coli EcSSB restricts HsEXOI excision activity on nicked or gapped DNA. HsMSH2-HsMSH6 activates HsEXOI by overcoming HsRPA/EcSSB inhibition and exploits multiple dynamic sliding clamps to increase tract length. Conversely, HsMLH1-HsPMS2 regulates tract length by controlling the number of excision complexes, providing a link to 5' MMR.

  4. Decentralized Adaptive Control of Systems with Uncertain Interconnections, Plant-Model Mismatch and Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized adaptive control is considered for systems consisting of multiple interconnected subsystems. It is assumed that each subsystem s parameters are uncertain and the interconnection parameters are not known. In addition, mismatch can exist between each subsystem and its reference model. A strictly decentralized adaptive control scheme is developed, wherein each subsystem has access only to its own state but has the knowledge of all reference model states. The mismatch is estimated online for each subsystem and the mismatch estimates are used to adaptively modify the corresponding reference models. The adaptive control scheme is extended to the case with actuator failures in addition to mismatch.

  5. Rubberband Effect in Temporal Control of Mismatch Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Zhou, Bin; Pöppel, Ernst; Bao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a difference event-related potential (ERP) wave reflecting the brain’s automatic reaction to deviant sensory stimuli, and it has been proven to be a useful tool in research on cognitive functions or clinical disorders. In most MMN studies, amplitude, peak latency, or the integral of the responses, in rare cases also the slopes of the responses, have been employed as parameters of the ERP responses for quantitative analyses. However, little is known about correlations between these parameters. To better understand the relations between different ERP parameters, we extracted and correlated several different parameters characterizing the MMN waves. We found an unexpected correlation which gives new insight into the temporal control of MMN: response amplitudes are positively correlated with downside slopes, whereas barely correlated with upside slopes. This result suggests an efficient feedback mechanism for the MMN to return to the baseline within a predefined time window, contradicting an exponential decay function as one might expect. As a metaphor we suggest a rubberband effect for the MMN responses, i.e., the larger the distance of the response from neural equilibrium, the stronger the return force to equilibrium. PMID:27642285

  6. Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A; Petruzielo, Robin S; Pan, Jianjun; Drazba, Paul; Kucerka, Norbert; Feigenson, Gerald; Katsaras, John

    2013-01-01

    The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

  7. Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus conventional graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in mismatched unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rohtesh S.; Saliba, Rima M.; Chen, Julianne; Rondon, Gabriela; Hammerstrom, Aimee E.; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Bashir, Qaiser; Ahmed, Sairah; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Khouri, Issa; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan O.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective strategy to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haploidentical haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We determined the efficacy of PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) HCT. We analysed 113 adult patients with high-risk haematological malignancies who underwent one-antigen MMUD transplantation between 2009 and 2013. Of these, 41 patients received PTCy, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for GVHD prophylaxis; 72 patients received conventional prophylaxis with anti-thymocyte globulin, tacrolimus and methotrexate. Graft source was primarily bone marrow (83% PTCy vs. 63% conventional group). Incidence of grade II–IV (37% vs. 36%, P = 0.8) and grade III–IV (17% vs. 12%, P = 0.5) acute GVHD was similar at day 100. However, the incidence of grade II–IV acute GVHD by day 30 was significantly lower in the PTCy group (0% vs. 15%, P = 0.01). Median time to neutrophil (18 days vs. 12 days, P < 0.001) and platelet (25.5 days vs. 18 days, P = 0.05) engraftment was prolonged in PTCy group. Rates of graft failure, chronic GVHD, 2-year non-relapse mortality, relapse, progression-free survival or overall survival were similar. Our results demonstrate that PTCy, tacrolimus and MMF for GVHD prophylaxis is safe and produced similar results as conventional prophylaxis in patients with one antigen HLA-MMUD HCT. PMID:26947769

  8. A Direct Adaptive Control Approach in the Presence of Model Mismatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Tao, Gang; Khong, Thuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of direct model reference adaptive control when the plant-model matching conditions are violated due to abnormal changes in the plant or incorrect knowledge of the plant's mathematical structure. The approach consists of direct adaptation of state feedback gains for state tracking, and simultaneous estimation of the plant-model mismatch. Because of the mismatch, the plant can no longer track the state of the original reference model, but may be able to track a new reference model that still provides satisfactory performance. The reference model is updated if the estimated plant-model mismatch exceeds a bound that is determined via robust stability and/or performance criteria. The resulting controller is a hybrid direct-indirect adaptive controller that offers asymptotic state tracking in the presence of plant-model mismatch as well as parameter deviations.

  9. Copper(II)-Controlled Molecular Glue for Mismatched DNA.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Naoko; Guillot, Régis; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Granzhan, Anton

    2017-04-04

    Isothermal hybridization of two DNA strands bearing three thymine-thymine (T:T) mismatches can be brought about in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of a bis-naphthalene macrocycle, 2,7-BisNP-NH. This process can be reverted by addition of a Cu(II) salt due to formation of a dinuclear metal complex which does not bind to DNA. Subsequent sequestration of Cu(II) releases the macrocycle and restores the hybridization state of DNA strands, thus allowing implementation of a fast fluorescent two-state DNA switch. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. XTOD to Conventional Facilities Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D

    2005-09-29

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS X-ray Transport and Diagnostics (XTOD) (WBS 1.5) and the LCLS Conventional Facilities (CF) (WBS 1.1). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Conventional Facilities provides x-ray, beamline and equipment enclosures, mounting surfaces, conventional utilities, compressed (clean, dry) air, process and purge gases, exhaust systems, power, and environmental conditions for the XTOD components and controls.

  11. A Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Mismatch Control for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Duman, Turgay; Marti, Shilpa; Moonem, M. A.; ...

    2017-05-17

    A modular multilevel power converter configuration for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed. The converter configuration replaces the conventional bulky line frequency transformer with several high frequency transformers, potentially reducing the balance of systems cost of PV systems. The front-end converter for each port is a neutral-point diode clamped (NPC) multi-level dc-dc dual-active bridge (ML-DAB) which allows maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The integrated high frequency transformer provides the galvanic isolation between the PV and grid side and also steps up the low dc voltage from PV source. Following the ML-DAB stage, in each port, is a NPC inverter.more » N number of NPC inverters’ outputs are cascaded to attain the per-phase line-to-neutral voltage to connect directly to the distribution grid (i.e., 13.8 kV). The cascaded NPC (CNPC) inverters have the inherent advantage of using lower rated devices, smaller filters and low total harmonic distortion required for PV grid interconnection. The proposed converter system is modular, scalable, and serviceable with zero downtime with lower foot print and lower overall cost. A novel voltage balance control at each module based on power mismatch among N-ports, have been presented and verified in simulation. Analysis and simulation results are presented for the N-port converter. The converter performance has also been verified on a hardware prototype.« less

  12. Effect of delay mismatch in Pyragas feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purewal, A. S.; Postlethwaite, C. M.; Krauskopf, B.

    2014-11-01

    Pyragas time-delayed feedback is a control scheme designed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits, which occur naturally in many nonlinear dynamical systems. It has been successfully implemented in a number of applications, including lasers and chemical systems. The control scheme targets a specific unstable periodic orbit by adding a feedback term with a delay chosen as the period of the unstable periodic orbit. However, in an experimental or industrial environment, obtaining the exact period or setting the delay equal to the exact period of the target periodic orbit may be difficult. This could be due to a number of factors, such as incomplete information on the system or the delay being set by inaccurate equipment. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of Pyragas control on the prototypical generic subcritical Hopf normal form when the delay is close to but not equal to the period of the target periodic orbit. Specifically, we consider two cases: first, a constant, and second, a linear approximation of the period. We compare these two cases to the case where the delay is set exactly to the target period, which serves as the benchmark case. For this comparison, we construct bifurcation diagrams and determine any regions where a stable periodic orbit close to the target is stabilized by the control scheme. In this way, we find that at least a linear approximation of the period is required for successful stabilization by Pyragas control.

  13. Mismatching Among Guidelines, Providers, and Parents on Controller Medication Use in Children with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ann Chen; Li, Lingling; Fung, Vicki; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Larkin, Emma K; Butler, Melissa G; Galbraith, Alison; Miroshnik, Irina; Davis, Robert L; Horan, Kelly; Lieu, Tracy A

    2016-01-01

    Underuse of controller medicines among children with asthma remains widespread despite national guidelines. To (1) assess provider prescribing patterns for asthma controller medications; (2) assess how frequently parents' reports of their child's asthma controller medicine use were mismatched with their provider's recommendations; and (3) evaluate parent attitudes and demographic characteristics associated with these mismatches. In this cross-sectional study, we conducted linked surveys of parents and providers of children with probable persistent asthma in a Medicaid program and 4 commercial health plans in 2011. Probable persistent asthma was defined as a diagnosis of asthma and 1 or more controller medication dispensing. This study included 740 children (mean age, 8.6 years). Providers for 50% of the children reported prescribing controller medications for daily year-round use, 41% for daily use during active asthma months, and 9% for intermittent use for relief. Among parents, 72% knew which class of controller medication the provider prescribed and 49% knew the administration frequency and the medication class. Parents were less likely to report the same controller medication type as the provider, irrespective of dose and frequency, if they were Latino (odds ratio [OR], 0.23; CI, 0.057-0.90), had a household smoker (OR, 2.87; CI, 0.42-19.6), or believed the controller medicine was not helping (OR, 0.15; CI, 0.048-0.45). Mismatches between parent reports and providers intentions regarding how the child was supposed to use inhaled steroids occurred for half of the children. Efforts should focus on ways to reduce mismatches between parent and provider intentions regarding controller medication use. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. FAT-based adaptive control for pneumatic servo systems with mismatched uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, a function approximation technique (FAT)-based adaptive controller is proposed for pneumatic servo systems with variable payload and uncertain disturbances. The system model is firstly described by a set of non-autonomous state equations with mismatched uncertainties. Since the uncertainties are time-varying and their variation bounds are not available, most traditional robust designs or adaptive strategies are not directly applicable. The FAT-based design is proposed here to estimate these uncertainties so that the closed-loop stability can be proved by using the Lyapunov-like theory. The problem in dealing with the mismatched uncertainties is circumvented by using the multiple-surface sliding control (MSSC) algorithm. Experimental results justify that the proposed scheme can give good performance regardless of various uncertainties.

  15. HMI conventions for process control graphics.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    Process operators supervise and control complex processes. To enable the operator to do an adequate job, instrumentation and process control engineers need to address several related topics, such as console design, information design, navigation, and alarm management. In process control upgrade projects, usually a 1:1 conversion of existing graphics is proposed. This paper suggests another approach, efficiently leading to a reduced number of new powerful process graphics, supported by a permanent process overview displays. In addition a road map for structuring content (process information) and conventions for the presentation of objects, symbols, and so on, has been developed. The impact of the human factors engineering approach on process control upgrade projects is illustrated by several cases.

  16. Chattering free adaptive multivariable sliding mode controller for systems with matched and mismatched uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sanjoy; Mahanta, Chitralekha

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a chattering free adaptive sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed for stabilizing a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems affected by both matched and mismatched types of uncertainties. The proposed controller uses a proportional plus integral sliding surface whose gain is adaptively tuned to prevent overestimation. A vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft system is simulated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Event-triggered reliable control for fuzzy Markovian jump systems with mismatched membership functions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liyuan; Cheng, Jun; Qi, Wenhai

    2017-01-01

    The problem of event-triggered reliable control for fuzzy Markovian jump system (FMJS) with mismatched membership functions (MMFs) is addressed. Based on the mode-dependent reliable control and event-triggered communication scheme, the stability conditions and control design procedure are formulated. More precisely, a general actuator-failure is designed such that the FMJS is reliable in the sense of stochastically stable and reduce the utilization of network resources. Furthermore, the improved MMFs are introduced to reduce the conservativeness of obtained results. Finally, simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  18. Disturbance observer based sliding mode control of nonlinear mismatched uncertain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginoya, Divyesh; Shendge, P. D.; Phadke, S. B.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new design of multiple-surface sliding mode control for a class of nonlinear uncertain systems with mismatched uncertainties and disturbances. In the method of multiple-surface sliding mode control, it is required to compensate for the derivatives of the virtual inputs which gives rise to the so-called problem of 'explosion of terms'. In this paper a disturbance observer based multiple-surface sliding mode control is proposed to estimate the uncertainties as well as the derivative of the virtual inputs to overcome this problem. The practical stability of the overall system is proved. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated via simulation of a benchmark problem and comparison with other control strategies. The proposed scheme is validated by implementing it on a serial flexible joint manipulator in the laboratory.

  19. Robust control of nonlinear MAGLEV suspension system with mismatched uncertainties via DOBC approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Zolotas, Argyrios; Chen, Wen-Hua; Michail, Konstantinos; Li, Shihua

    2011-07-01

    Robust control of a class of uncertain systems that have disturbances and uncertainties not satisfying "matching" condition is investigated in this paper via a disturbance observer based control (DOBC) approach. In the context of this paper, "matched" disturbances/uncertainties stand for the disturbances/uncertainties entering the system through the same channels as control inputs. By properly designing a disturbance compensation gain, a novel composite controller is proposed to counteract the "mismatched" lumped disturbances from the output channels. The proposed method significantly extends the applicability of the DOBC methods. Rigorous stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the proposed method is established under mild assumptions. The proposed method is applied to a nonlinear MAGnetic LEViation (MAGLEV) suspension system. Simulation shows that compared to the widely used integral control method, the proposed method provides significantly improved disturbance rejection and robustness against load variation.

  20. Continuous uniformly finite time exact disturbance observer based control for fixed-time stabilization of nonlinear systems with mismatched disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chongxin; Liu, Hang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous composite control scheme to achieve fixed-time stabilization for nonlinear systems with mismatched disturbances. The composite controller is constructed in two steps: First, uniformly finite time exact disturbance observers are proposed to estimate and compensate the disturbances. Then, based on adding a power integrator technique and fixed-time stability theory, continuous fixed-time stable state feedback controller and Lyapunov functions are constructed to achieve global fixed-time system stabilization. The proposed control method extends the existing fixed-time stable control results to high order nonlinear systems with mismatched disturbances and achieves global fixed-time system stabilization. Besides, the proposed control scheme improves the disturbance rejection performance and achieves performance recovery of nominal system. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness, the superiority and the applicability of the proposed control scheme. PMID:28406966

  1. Transcription of eucaryotic tRNA1met and 5SRNA genes by RNA polymerase III is blocked by base mismatches in the intragenic control regions.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, M A; Folk, W R

    1987-01-01

    We have constructed duplex DNAs containing single G-T or A-C mismatches in the X. laevis tRNA1met gene. Mismatches within regions of this gene which are bound by transcription factor TFIIIC prevent transcription by RNA polymerase III. Homoduplexes with G-C----A-T mutations at some of the same sites, however, are transcribed efficiently in oocytes. Mismatches outside of the tRNA1met gene have no effect upon transcription. A survey of several point mutants in the Syrian hamster 5SRNA gene indicates that mismatches outside the internal control region somewhat reduce transcription, but a mismatch within the internal control region blocks transcription. Thus, the presence of mismatched bases in the region of DNA which interacts with RNA polymerase III transcription factors blocks transcription, perhaps by interfering with DNA renaturation following transit of the RNA polymerase. Images PMID:3645544

  2. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOEpatents

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  3. Controlling Kondo Scattering at the Conducting Oxide Interfaces via Lattice Mismatch and Growth Oxygen Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kun; Zheng, Shengwei; Huang, Zhen; Li, Changjian; Zhou, Wenxiong; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando, Ariando; Ariando Team

    The interface magnetism, such as Kondo effect and ferromagnetism at the conducting interfaces between nonmagnetic oxides, has attracted great attention in recent years. In this report, we show that the interfacial Kondo scattering is enhanced by large lattice mismatch and high growth oxygen pressure. For the (001) LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface with 3.0% lattice mismatch, the sheet resistance upturn appears around 40 K when the growth oxygen pressure PO 2 is beyond 1 mTorr. By contrast, for the (001) (La0.3Sr0.7) (Al0.65Ta0.35) O3/SrTiO3 interface with 1.0% lattice mismatch, no resistance upturn is observed until PO 2 is increased to 100 mTorr. Moreover, the magnetoresistance data confirm the resistance upturn is caused by Kondo scattering. We propose that the interface disorders, which can be induced by a large lattice mismatch and high PO 2, are important for forming localized Ti3+ ions. These Ti3+ ions can be spin-polarized and scatter electrons that are confined near the interface by high PO 2. This explains why the stronger magnetic interaction is observed at the SrTiO3-based interfaces with the higher PO 2 and larger lattice mismatch, paving the way for manipulating the interface magnetism at the functional oxide interface.

  4. SPATIAL MISMATCH OR RACIAL MISMATCH?*

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Neumark, David; McInerney, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the spatial mismatch hypothesis with what we term the racial mismatch hypothesis – that the problem is not a lack of jobs, per se, where blacks live, but a lack of jobs where blacks live into which blacks are hired. We first report new evidence on the spatial mismatch hypothesis, using data from Census Long-Form respondents. We construct direct measures of the presence of jobs in detailed geographic areas, and find that these job density measures are related to employment of black male residents in ways that would be predicted by the spatial mismatch hypothesis – in particular that spatial mismatch is primarily an issue for low-skilled black male workers. We then look at mismatch along not only spatial lines but racial lines as well, by estimating the effects of job density measures that are disaggregated by race. We find that it is primarily black job density that influences black male employment, whereas white job density has little if any influence on their employment. The evidence implies that space alone plays a relatively minor role in low black male employment rates. PMID:19727422

  5. Origins of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ruth; Taylor, Allyn; Lariviere, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control originated in 1993 with a decision by Ruth Roemer and Allyn Taylor to apply to tobacco control Taylor’s idea that the WHO should utilize its constitutional authority to develop international conventions to advance global health. In 1995, Taylor and Ruth Roemer proposed various options to WHO, recommending the framework convention-protocol approach conceptualized by Taylor. Despite initial resistance by some WHO officials, this approach gained wide acceptance. In 1996, the World Health Assembly voted to proceed with its development. Negotiations by WHO member states led the World Health Assembly in May 2003 to adopt by consensus the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control—the first international treaty adopted under WHO auspices. The treaty formally entered into force for state parties on February 27, 2005. PMID:15914812

  6. Energy losses of nanomechanical resonators induced by atomic force microscopy-controlled mechanical impedance mismatching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Johannes; Isacsson, Andreas; Seitner, Maximilian J.; Kotthaus, Jörg P.; Weig, Eva M.

    2014-03-01

    Clamping losses are a widely discussed damping mechanism in nanoelectromechanical systems, limiting the performance of these devices. Here we present a method to investigate this dissipation channel. Using an atomic force microscope tip as a local perturbation in the clamping region of a nanoelectromechanical resonator, we increase the energy loss of its flexural modes by at least one order of magnitude. We explain this by a transfer of vibrational energy into the cantilever, which is theoretically described by a reduced mechanical impedance mismatch between the resonator and its environment. A theoretical model for this mismatch, in conjunction with finite element simulations of the evanescent strain field of the mechanical modes in the clamping region, allows us to quantitatively analyse data on position and force dependence of the tip-induced damping. Our experiments yield insights into the damping of nanoelectromechanical systems with the prospect of engineering the energy exchange in resonator networks.

  7. Energy losses of nanomechanical resonators induced by atomic force microscopy-controlled mechanical impedance mismatching

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Johannes; Isacsson, Andreas; Seitner, Maximilian J.; Kotthaus, Jörg P.; Weig, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Clamping losses are a widely discussed damping mechanism in nanoelectromechanical systems, limiting the performance of these devices. Here we present a method to investigate this dissipation channel. Using an atomic force microscope tip as a local perturbation in the clamping region of a nanoelectromechanical resonator, we increase the energy loss of its flexural modes by at least one order of magnitude. We explain this by a transfer of vibrational energy into the cantilever, which is theoretically described by a reduced mechanical impedance mismatch between the resonator and its environment. A theoretical model for this mismatch, in conjunction with finite element simulations of the evanescent strain field of the mechanical modes in the clamping region, allows us to quantitatively analyse data on position and force dependence of the tip-induced damping. Our experiments yield insights into the damping of nanoelectromechanical systems with the prospect of engineering the energy exchange in resonator networks. PMID:24594876

  8. Applied intelligent systems: blending fuzzy logic with conventional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filev, Dimitar; Syed, Fazal U.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that design of applied intelligent control systems requires different types of blending between fuzzy logic and conventional control systems. Two alternative automotive applications - a manufacturing process control problem and an advisory system for fuel efficient driving - that benefit from both fuzzy and control theories are reviewed and different levels of prioritisations of both approaches are discussed based on the specificity of the applications.

  9. Mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Fishel, Richard

    2015-10-30

    Highly conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS) are the fundamental components of mismatch repair (MMR). After decades of debate, it appears clear that the MSH proteins initiate MMR by recognizing a mismatch and forming multiple extremely stable ATP-bound sliding clamps that diffuse without hydrolysis along the adjacent DNA. The function(s) of MLH/PMS proteins is less clear, although they too bind ATP and are targeted to MMR by MSH sliding clamps. Structural analysis combined with recent real-time single molecule and cellular imaging technologies are providing new and detailed insight into the thermal-driven motions that animate the complete MMR mechanism.

  10. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  11. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  12. Interfacial Octahedral Rotation Mismatch Control of the Symmetry and Properties of SrRuO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Ran; Dong, Yongqi; Xu, Han; ...

    2016-05-24

    We can use epitaxial strain to tune the properties of complex oxides with perovskite structure. Beyond just lattice mismatch, the use of octahedral rotation mismatch at heterointerfaces could also provide a route to manipulate material properties. We examine the evolution of the lattice (i.e., parameters, symmetry, and octahedral rotations) of SrRuO3 films grown on substrates engineered to have the same lattice parameters, but 2 different octahedral rotations. SrRuO3 films grown on SrTiO3 (001) (no octahedral rotations) and GdScO3-buffered SrTiO3 (001) (with octahedral rotations) substrates are found to exhibit monoclinic and tetragonal symmetry, respectively. Electrical transport and magnetic measurements reveal thatmore » the tetragonal films exhibit higher resistivity, lower magnetic Curie temperatures, and more isotropic magnetism as compared to those with monoclinic structure. Synchrotron-based half-order Bragg peak analysis reveals that the octahedral rotation pattern in both film variants is the same (albeit with slightly different magnitudes of in-plane rotation angles). Furthermore, the abnormal rotation pattern observed in tetragonal SrRuO3 indicates a possible decoupling between the internal octahedral rotation and lattice symmetry, which could provide new opportunities to engineer thin-film structure and properties.« less

  13. Ice Nucleation Efficiency of Hydroxylated Organic Surfaces Is Controlled by Their Structural Fluctuations and Mismatch to Ice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuqing; Odendahl, Nathan; Hudait, Arpa; Mason, Ryan; Bertram, Allan K; Paesani, Francesco; DeMott, Paul J; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation of ice induced by organic materials is of fundamental importance for climate, biology, and industry. Among organic ice-nucleating surfaces, monolayers of long chain alcohols are particularly effective, while monolayers of fatty acids are significantly less so. As these monolayers expose to water hydroxyl groups with an order that resembles the one in the basal plane of ice, it was proposed that lattice matching between ice and the surface controls their ice-nucleating efficiency. Organic monolayers are soft materials and display significant fluctuations. It has been conjectured that these fluctuations assist in the nucleation of ice. Here we use molecular dynamic simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the relationship between the structure and fluctuations of hydroxylated organic surfaces and the temperature at which they nucleate ice. We find that these surfaces order interfacial water to form domains with ice-like order that are the birthplace of ice. Both mismatch and fluctuations decrease the size of the preordered domains and monotonously decrease the ice freezing temperature. The simulations indicate that fluctuations depress the freezing efficiency of monolayers of alcohols or acids to half the value predicted from lattice mismatch alone. The model captures the experimental trend in freezing efficiencies as a function of chain length and predicts that alcohols have higher freezing efficiency than acids of the same chain length. These trends are mostly controlled by the modulation of the structural mismatch to ice. We use classical nucleation theory to show that the freezing efficiencies of the monolayers are directly related to their free energy of binding to ice. This study provides a general framework to relate the equilibrium thermodynamics of ice binding to a surface and the nonequilibrium ice freezing temperature and suggests that these could be predicted from the structure of interfacial water.

  14. A comparative design and tuning for conventional fuzzy control.

    PubMed

    Li, H X

    1997-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced for designing and tuning the scaling gains of the conventional fuzzy logic controller (FLC) based on its well-tuned linear counterpart. The conventional FLC with a linear rule base is very similar to its linear counterpart. The linear three-term controller has proportional, integral and/or derivative gains. Similarly, the conventional fuzzy three-term controller also has fuzzy proportional, integral and/or derivative gains. The new concept "fuzzy transfer function" is invented to connect these fuzzy gains with the corresponding scaling gains. The comparative gain design is presented by using the gains of the well-tuned linear counterpart as the initial fuzzy gains of the conventional FLC. Furthermore, the relationship between the scaling gains and the performance can be deduced to produce the comparative tuning algorithm, which can tune the scaling gains to their optimum by less trial and error. The performance comparison in the simulation demonstrates the viability of the new methodology.

  15. Fuzzy and conventional control of high-frequency ventilation.

    PubMed

    Noshiro, M; Matsunami, T; Takakuda, K; Ryumae, S; Kagawa, T; Shimizu, M; Fujino, T

    1994-07-01

    A high-frequency ventilator was developed, consisting of a single-phase induction motor, an unbalanced mass and a mechanical vibration system. Intermittent positive pressure respiration was combined with high-frequency ventilation to measure end-tidal pCO2. Hysteresis was observed between the rotational frequency of the high-frequency ventilator and end-tidal pCO2. A fuzzy proportional plus integral control system, designed on the basis of the static characteristics of the controlled system and a knowledge of respiratory physiology, successfully regulated end-tidal pCO2. The characteristics of gas exchange under high-frequency ventilation was approximated by a first-order linear model. A conventional PI control system, designed on the basis of the approximated model, regulated end-tidal pCO2 with a performance similar to that of the fuzzy PI control system. The design of the fuzzy control system required less knowledge about the controlled system than that of the conventional control system.

  16. British Military Requirements, Resources, and Conventional Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AF." Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-8330-1042-5 1. Great Britain-Armed Forces-Appropriations and expenditures. 2 . Great Britain-Armed...high resource scenario, defense budget share of GDP should increase at an annual rate of 2 percent. In a middle ex- penditure scenario, the defense...and £30 billion from 1990 to 2005 based on defense budget growth of-1 percent and + 2 percent per year, respectively. Conventional arms control

  17. Cascading MutS and MutL sliding clamps control DNA diffusion to activate mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaquan; Hanne, Jeungphill; Britton, Brooke M; Bennett, Jared; Kim, Daehyung; Lee, Jong-Bong; Fishel, Richard

    2016-11-24

    Mismatched nucleotides arise from polymerase misincorporation errors, recombination between heteroallelic parents and chemical or physical DNA damage. Highly conserved MutS (MSH) and MutL (MLH/PMS) homologues initiate mismatch repair and, in higher eukaryotes, act as DNA damage sensors that can trigger apoptosis. Defects in human mismatch repair genes cause Lynch syndrome or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and 10-40% of related sporadic tumours. However, the collaborative mechanics of MSH and MLH/PMS proteins have not been resolved in any organism. We visualized Escherichia coli (Ec) ensemble mismatch repair and confirmed that EcMutS mismatch recognition results in the formation of stable ATP-bound sliding clamps that randomly diffuse along the DNA with intermittent backbone contact. The EcMutS sliding clamps act as a platform to recruit EcMutL onto the mismatched DNA, forming an EcMutS-EcMutL search complex that then closely follows the DNA backbone. ATP binding by EcMutL establishes a second long-lived DNA clamp that oscillates between the principal EcMutS-EcMutL search complex and unrestricted EcMutS and EcMutL sliding clamps. The EcMutH endonuclease that targets mismatch repair excision only binds clamped EcMutL, increasing its DNA association kinetics by more than 1,000-fold. The assembly of an EcMutS-EcMutL-EcMutH search complex illustrates how sequential stable sliding clamps can modulate one-dimensional diffusion mechanics along the DNA to direct mismatch repair.

  18. Metals in combined conventional and vegetated road runoff control systems.

    PubMed

    Pontier, H; Williams, J B; May, E

    2001-01-01

    Combined conventional and vegetated runoff treatment systems were installed on the rural Newbury Bypass in Southern England, which was estimated to carry an average daily traffic of 30,000 vehicles. The system components were arranged in series to give progressive pollutant removal, comprising an oil separator, sediment trap, grassy slope and constructed wetland. In the absence of specific design criteria for road runoff control, the system design was based on available guidance notes. Since the road opened, an 18-month monitoring programme has examined the performance of these systems. Early indications are that the systems, and especially the wetlands, promote removal of suspended solids (>1.2 microm) and effectively trap fine (<63 microm) sediments. The waters were generally oxidising with neutral to basic pH which may have favoured metal partitioning to the solid phase. The distribution pattern for Zn and Cu in fine sediments contrasted in two of the systems studied, indicating the complex behaviour of metals in wetlands. Further work will increase the data set and examine the adsorption behaviour of metals. These results will contribute to the development of future design criteria for the application of wetlands to road runoff treatment.

  19. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment... the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through... limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by application of the best conventional...

  20. Conventional Arms Control Revisited: Objectives in the New Phase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    ORIMiNG ORSANIZATION NMAE AMO -AGOMES UIIVX4AUTI I Ibj TASK? Thyi RAND Corporation Sanita Monica , CA. 90406 _____________Itn. CaiOO TR Lse4 arluCa MAI AN... convento settle this argumenlt We have instead strpalated an objective ofh"stalwav t conventional defense" capability: a balane in which NATO forces

  1. A new fractional-order sliding mode controller via a nonlinear disturbance observer for a class of dynamical systems with mismatched disturbances.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, Shabnam; Badamchizadeh, Mohammadali

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the stabilization and disturbance rejection for a class of fractional-order nonlinear dynamical systems with mismatched disturbances. To fulfill this purpose a new fractional-order sliding mode control (FOSMC) based on a nonlinear disturbance observer is proposed. In order to design the suitable fractional-order sliding mode controller, a proper switching surface is introduced. Afterward, by using the sliding mode theory and Lyapunov stability theory, a robust fractional-order control law via a nonlinear disturbance observer is proposed to assure the existence of the sliding motion in finite time. The proposed fractional-order sliding mode controller exposes better control performance, ensures fast and robust stability of the closed-loop system, eliminates the disturbances and diminishes the chattering problem. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed fractional-order controller is depicted via numerical simulation results of practical example and is compared with some other controllers.

  2. Conventional Arms Control and Europe's Future. Headline Series No. 287.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Stanley R.

    This brief issues booklet provides basic information about the arms control issue in Europe, as of 1988. The table of contents includes the following: (1) "Trying Again"; (2) "Prelude to Arms Control"; (3) "The First Attempts: MBFR (Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions) and CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in…

  3. Interfacial Octahedral Rotation Mismatch Control of the Symmetry and Properties of SrRuO 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Ran; Dong, Yongqi; Xu, Han; Zhou, Hua; Yuan, Yakun; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Gao, Chen; Fong, Dillon D.; Chen, Zuhuang; Luo, Zhenlin; Martin, Lane W.

    2016-05-24

    We can use epitaxial strain to tune the properties of complex oxides with perovskite structure. Beyond just lattice mismatch, the use of octahedral rotation mismatch at heterointerfaces could also provide a route to manipulate material properties. We examine the evolution of the lattice (i.e., parameters, symmetry, and octahedral rotations) of SrRuO3 films grown on substrates engineered to have the same lattice parameters, but 2 different octahedral rotations. SrRuO3 films grown on SrTiO3 (001) (no octahedral rotations) and GdScO3-buffered SrTiO3 (001) (with octahedral rotations) substrates are found to exhibit monoclinic and tetragonal symmetry, respectively. Electrical transport and magnetic measurements reveal that the tetragonal films exhibit higher resistivity, lower magnetic Curie temperatures, and more isotropic magnetism as compared to those with monoclinic structure. Synchrotron-based half-order Bragg peak analysis reveals that the octahedral rotation pattern in both film variants is the same (albeit with slightly different magnitudes of in-plane rotation angles). Furthermore, the abnormal rotation pattern observed in tetragonal SrRuO3 indicates a possible decoupling between the internal octahedral rotation and lattice symmetry, which could provide new opportunities to engineer thin-film structure and properties.

  4. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy: conventional versus target controlled infusion techniques--a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Andrea; Agnoletti, Vanni; Berrettini, Stefano; Piraccini, Emanuele; Criscuolo, Armando; Corso, Ruggero; Campanini, Aldo; Gambale, Giorgio; Vicini, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the sites of pharyngeal collapse is mandatory for surgical treatment decision-making in obstructive sleep-apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) allows for the direct observation of the upper airway during sedative-induced sleep. In order to re-create snoring and apnea patterns related to a spontaneous sleep situation, the authors used a target-controlled infusion (TCI) sleep endoscopy (DISE-TCI), comparing this technique to conventional DISE, in which sedation was reached by a manual bolus injection. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, unicenter study. The apneic event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plans of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to June 2009, 40 OSAHS patients were included in the study and randomized allocated in two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the DISE-TCI group. We recorded the complete apnea event at the oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 4 patients of the conventional DISE group (20%) and in 17 patients of the DISE-TCI group (85%) (P < 0.0001). Two patients needed oxygen in the conventional DISE group because of severe desaturation that resulted from the first bolus of propofol (1 mg/kg) (P = 0.4872 ns). We recorded the instability of the sedation plan in 13 patients from the conventional DISE group (65%) and 1 patient from the DISE-TCI group (5%) (P = 0.0001). Our results suggest that the DISE-TCI technique should be the first choice in performing sleep endoscopy because of its increased accuracy, stability and safety.

  5. Altering Hydrophobic Sequence Lengths Shows That Hydrophobic Mismatch Controls Affinity for Ordered Lipid Domains (Rafts) in the Multitransmembrane Strand Protein Perfringolysin O*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that mismatch between transmembrane (TM) length and bilayer width controls TM protein affinity for ordered lipid domains (rafts) was tested using perfringolysin O (PFO), a pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin. PFO forms a multimeric barrel with many TM segments. The properties of PFO mutants with lengthened or shortened TM segments were compared with that of PFO with wild type TM sequences. Both mutant and wild type length PFO exhibited cholesterol-dependent membrane insertion. Maximal PFO-induced pore formation occurred in vesicles with wider bilayers for lengthened TM segments and in thinner bilayers for shortened TM segments. In diC18:0 phosphatidylcholine (PC)/diC14:1 PC/cholesterol vesicles, which form ordered domains with a relatively thick bilayer and disordered domains with a relatively thin bilayer, affinity for ordered domains was greatest with lengthened TM segments and least with shortened TM segments as judged by FRET. Similar results were observed by microscopy in giant vesicles containing sphingomyelin in place of diC18:0 PC. In contrast, in diC16:0 PC/diC14:0 PC/diC20:1 PC/cholesterol vesicles, which should form ordered domains with a relatively thin bilayer and disordered domains with a relatively thick bilayer, relative affinity for ordered domains was greatest with shortened TM segments and least with lengthened TM segments. The inability of multi-TM segment proteins (unlike single TM segment proteins) to adapt to mismatch by tilting may explain the sensitivity of raft affinity to mismatch. The difference in width sensitivity for single and multi-TM helix proteins may link raft affinity to multimeric state and thus control the assembly of multimeric TM complexes in rafts. PMID:23150664

  6. Command and Control of Strategic Aircraft in Integrated Conventional Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    AV-AZOZ 642 ~~17-aVAR COLLEGE C~ t ~INDAND CONTROLM OF 3TRATEGIC AIRCRAFT IN VJEGRATED CONVEN7IONAL OPERATIONS LCOL ARVID P. PEDERSON Ij 1988 ~~Au...or Dist " -"" W --"=’= -- " ro l ii ~ l i I "II T .. ś-" 1 . .. n ’ " i1" t : " DISCLAIMER This research report represents the views of the author and...into conven- t ional operations. This paper investigates historical airpower doctrine, command structures, control systems, and scmie technologies

  7. Baywide conventional pollutants control strategy: an agreement commitment report from the Chesapeake Executive Council. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The strategy outlines programs under way and planned by Bay watershed jurisdictions (Pennsylvania, Virginia, the District of Columbia, Maryland) to address the water-quality problems caused by conventional pollutants. It calls for a coordinated effort to improve the quality of control programs and proposes an annual Conventional Pollutant Working Conference to provide an information exchange forum.

  8. High mobility AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on Si substrates using a large lattice-mismatch induced stress control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jianpeng; Yang, Xuelin Sang, Ling; Guo, Lei; Hu, Anqi; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo

    2015-04-06

    A large lattice-mismatch induced stress control technology with a low Al content AlGaN layer has been used to grow high quality GaN layers on 4-in. Si substrates. The use of this technology allows for high mobility AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with electron mobility of 2040 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) at sheet charge density of 8.4 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}. Strain relaxation and dislocation evolution mechanisms have been investigated. It is demonstrated that the large lattice mismatch between the low Al content AlGaN layer and AlN buffer layer could effectively promote the edge dislocation inclination with relatively large bend angles and therefore significantly reduce the dislocation density in the GaN epilayer. Our results show a great potential for fabrication of low-cost and high performance GaN-on-Si power devices.

  9. Robust integral variable structure controller and pulse-width pulse-frequency modulated input shaper design for flexible spacecraft with mismatched uncertainty/disturbance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a dual-stage control system design method for the flexible spacecraft attitude maneuvering control by use of on-off thrusters and active vibration control by input shaper. In this design approach, attitude control system and vibration suppression were designed separately using lower order model. As a stepping stone, an integral variable structure controller with the assumption of knowing the upper bounds of the mismatched lumped perturbation has been designed which ensures exponential convergence of attitude angle and angular velocity in the presence of bounded uncertainty/disturbances. To reconstruct estimates of the system states for use in a full information variable structure control law, an asymptotic variable structure observer is also employed. In addition, the thruster output is modulated in pulse-width pulse-frequency so that the output profile is similar to the continuous control histories. For actively suppressing the induced vibration, the input shaping technique is used to modify the existing command so that less vibration will be caused by the command itself, which only requires information about the vibration frequency and damping of the closed-loop system. The rationale behind this hybrid control scheme is that the integral variable structure controller can achieve good precision pointing, even in the presence of uncertainties/disturbances, whereas the shaped input attenuator is applied to actively suppress the undesirable vibrations excited by the rapid maneuvers. Simulation results for the spacecraft model show precise attitude control and vibration suppression.

  10. Activity-dependent mismatch between axo-axonic synapses and the axon initial segment controls neuronal output.

    PubMed

    Wefelmeyer, Winnie; Cattaert, Daniel; Burrone, Juan

    2015-08-04

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is a structure at the start of the axon with a high density of sodium and potassium channels that defines the site of action potential generation. It has recently been shown that this structure is plastic and can change its position along the axon, as well as its length, in a homeostatic manner. Chronic activity-deprivation paradigms in a chick auditory nucleus lead to a lengthening of the AIS and an increase in neuronal excitability. On the other hand, a long-term increase in activity in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons results in an outward movement of the AIS and a decrease in the cell's excitability. Here, we investigated whether the AIS is capable of undergoing structural plasticity in rat hippocampal organotypic slices, which retain the diversity of neuronal cell types present at postnatal ages, including chandelier cells. These interneurons exclusively target the AIS of pyramidal neurons and form rows of presynaptic boutons along them. Stimulating individual CA1 pyramidal neurons that express channelrhodopsin-2 for 48 h leads to an outward shift of the AIS. Intriguingly, both the pre- and postsynaptic components of the axo-axonic synapses did not change position after AIS relocation. We used computational modeling to explore the functional consequences of this partial mismatch and found that it allows the GABAergic synapses to strongly oppose action potential generation, and thus downregulate pyramidal cell excitability. We propose that this spatial arrangement is the optimal configuration for a homeostatic response to long-term stimulation.

  11. Minor access control of Hong Kong under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Kan, Ming-yue; Lau, Maggie

    2010-05-01

    Asia's tobacco control movement was strengthened owing to the need to fulfill the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The present study aims to assess the compliance rates of tobacco retailers to the law forbidding the sales of tobacco to minors in Hong Kong before and after the growth of the tobacco control movement brought by the enactment of the newly amended tobacco control law with effect from 2007. The legislation was enacted to fulfill the FCTC. Two waves of territory-wide compliance checks conducted in 2006 and 2008 were compared. The compliance check was conducted using Standard Protocol. The overall compliance rate was still low though it increased from 18.9% in 2006 to 27.0% in 2008. The compliance rate of convenience stores and newspaper stands improved whereas the rate for restaurants, grocery stores and petrol stations worsened. Less tobacco retailing outlets displayed a specified warning sign required in 2008 (33.7%) comparing to 2006 (41.4%). The indoor smoking ban of the FCTC unintentionally changed the cigarette retailing landscape and finally improved the compliance rate. The case study also demonstrated that the Asia region still has much room for improvement in fulfilling the FCTC in term of effective implementation and enforcement. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  13. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  14. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents.

    PubMed

    Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP <140/90 mm Hg and ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg) occurred in 16.9% (8.8%-30.5%) of 3320 untreated subjects who were normotensive on conventional measurement. Exclusion of participants with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, or history of cardiovascular complications resulted in a <9% reduction in the conventional and 24-hour ambulatory hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  16. Improvement of helicopter attitude stability by active control of the conventional swash plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Norman D.

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report on improvement of helicopter attitude stability by active control of the conventional swash plate covering the period from Nov. 1986 to Dec. 1993 is presented. A paper on the history, principles, and applications of helicopter individual-blade-control is included.

  17. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health. PMID:19333806

  18. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, H M; Glantz, S A

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies, including publication of a newsletter, shaming symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process, by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet, and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health.

  19. Participation of non-conventional energy resources in power system frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mehriar

    Frequency control is one of the key issues in designing, planning and reliably operating a power system and is becoming more challenging as new complexities and uncertainties are introduced into the modern power systems. Traditionally, power system frequency has been controlled using conventional generation units' capabilities namely inertial, primary and secondary frequency responses. Limited fossil-based fuel resources, ever-increasing energy consumption and rising public awareness for environmental protection have created growing interest in use of non-conventional energy resources such as Wind Generation Resources (WGRs) and Solar Generation Resources (SGRs) which have unfavorable characteristics in comparison with conventional generation units such as lack of frequency response. The more conventional generation units are replaced by these resources, the more challenges power system operators will face in terms of power system frequency control. These challenges are further compounded due to less system inertia during off-peak hours or within small power systems. This dissertation mainly focuses on participation of SGRs and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (IPMSG) based WGRs in power system frequency control. Detailed information regarding dynamic modeling of power system including conventional generation units, SGRs and IPMSG based WGRs is provided. The frequency response of conventional generation units is compared with that of SGRs and IPMSG based WGRs. The control systems associated with IPMSG based WGR and SGR are modified in order to improve their frequency response capabilities. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategies is evaluated and confirmed via MATLAB based time-domain simulations for different scenarios. Moreover, application of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) in power system frequency regulation is discussed. The detailed dynamic model of BESSs is utilized to develop a simplified model suitable for Automatic

  20. A Jobs Mismatch. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marina, Brenda L. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the article "A Jobs Mismatch", Jaschik has compiled the findings of a new report that was released by the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. The Georgetown University report claims that there is a severe shortage of college graduates in America, and that this shortage has the United States on a…

  1. Intensive glucose control versus conventional glucose control for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Jeitler, Klaus; Seitz, Mirjam; Horvath, Karl; Berghold, Andrea; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2014-02-14

    Clinical guidelines differ regarding their recommended blood glucose targets for patients with type 1 diabetes and recent studies on patients with type 2 diabetes suggest that aiming at very low targets can increase the risk of mortality. To assess the effects of intensive versus conventional glycaemic targets in patients with type 1 diabetes in terms of long-term complications and determine whether very low, near normoglycaemic values are of additional benefit. A systematic literature search was performed in the databases The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The date of the last search was December 2012 for all databases. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that had defined different glycaemic targets in the treatment arms, studied patients with type 1 diabetes, and had a follow-up duration of at least one year. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias, with differences resolved by consensus. Overall study quality was evaluated by the 'Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation' (GRADE) system. Random-effects models were used for the main analyses and the results are presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. We identified 12 trials that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including a total of 2230 patients. The patient populations varied widely across studies with one study only including children, one study only including patients after a kidney transplant, one study with newly diagnosed adult patients, and several studies where patients had retinopathy or microalbuminuria at baseline. The mean follow-up duration across studies varied between one and 6.5 years. The majority of the studies were carried out in the 1980s and all trials took place in Europe or North America. Due to the nature of the intervention, none of the studies could be carried out in a blinded fashion so that the risk of performance bias, especially for

  2. Operation logic and functionality of automatic dose rate and image quality control of conventional fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul

    2009-05-15

    New generation of fluoroscopic imaging systems is equipped with spectral shaping filters complemented with sophisticated automatic dose rate and image quality control logic called ''fluoroscopy curve'' or ''trajectory''. Such fluoroscopy curves were implemented first on cardiovascular angiographic imaging systems and are now available on conventional fluoroscopy equipment. This study aims to investigate the control logic operations under the fluoroscopy mode and acquisition mode (equivalent to the legacy spot filming) of a conventional fluoroscopy system typically installed for upper-lower gastrointestinal examinations, interventional endoscopy laboratories, gastrointestinal laboratory, and pain clinics.

  3. Simulation of traffic flow and control using conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.; Kelsey, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the graphical simulation of a traffic environment. The environment includes streets leading to an intersection, the intersection, vehicle traffic, and signal lights in the intersection controlled by different methods. The simulation allows for the study of parameters affecting traffic environments and the study of different control strategies for traffic signal lights, including conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive control methods. Realistic traffic environments are simulated including a cross intersection, with one or more lanes of traffic in each direction, with and without turn lanes. Vehicle traffic patterns are a mixture of cars going straight and making right or left turns. The free velocities of vehicles follow a normal distribution with a mean of the posted'' speed limit. Actual velocities depend on such factors as the proximity and velocity of surrounding traffic, approaches to intersections, and human response time. The simulation proves the be a useful tool for evaluating controller methods. Preliminary results show that larger quantities of traffic are handled'' by fuzzy control methods then by conventional control methods. Also, the average time spent waiting in traffic decreases with the use of fuzzy control versus conventional control.

  4. Simulation of traffic flow and control using conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.; Kelsey, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes the graphical simulation of a traffic environment. The environment includes streets leading to an intersection, the intersection, vehicle traffic, and signal lights in the intersection controlled by different methods. The simulation allows for the study of parameters affecting traffic environments and the study of different control strategies for traffic signal lights, including conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive control methods. Realistic traffic environments are simulated including a cross intersection, with one or more lanes of traffic in each direction, with and without turn lanes. Vehicle traffic patterns are a mixture of cars going straight and making right or left turns. The free velocities of vehicles follow a normal distribution with a mean of the ``posted`` speed limit. Actual velocities depend on such factors as the proximity and velocity of surrounding traffic, approaches to intersections, and human response time. The simulation proves the be a useful tool for evaluating controller methods. Preliminary results show that larger quantities of traffic are ``handled`` by fuzzy control methods then by conventional control methods. Also, the average time spent waiting in traffic decreases with the use of fuzzy control versus conventional control.

  5. Randomized controlled pilot study to compare Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Sinha, M N; Siddiqui, V A; Nayak, C; Singh, Vikram; Dixit, Rupali; Dewan, Deepti; Mishra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media (AOM). A randomized placebo-controlled parallel group pilot study of homeopathic vs conventional treatment for AOM was conducted in Jaipur, India. Patients were randomized by a computer generated random number list to receive either individualized homeopathic medicines in fifty millesimal (LM) potencies, or conventional treatment including analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients who did not improve were prescribed antibiotics at the 3rd day. Outcomes were assessed by the Acute Otitis Media-Severity of Symptoms (AOM-SOS) Scale and Tympanic Membrane Examination over 21 days. 81 patients were included, 80 completed follow-up: 41 for conventional and 40 for homeopathic treatment. In the Conventional group, all 40 (100%) patients were cured, in the Homeopathy group, 38 (95%) patients were cured while 02 (5%) patients were lost to the last two follow-up. By the 3rd day of treatment, 4 patients were cured in Homeopathy group but in Conventional group only one patient was cured. In the Conventional group antibiotics were prescribed in 39 (97.5%), no antibiotics were required in the Homeopathy group. 85% of patients were prescribed six homeopathic medicines. Individualized homeopathy is an effective conventional treatment in AOM, there were no significant differences between groups in the main outcome. Symptomatic improvement was quicker in the Homeopathy group, and there was a large difference in antibiotic requirements, favouring homeopathy. Further work on a larger scale should be conducted. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  7. Ground Truthing the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  8. College Student Learning from Televised Versus Conventional Classroom Lectures: A Controlled Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Lee; Mathis, Dan

    1985-01-01

    In a controlled experiment, students in two sections of introductory sociology were exposed either to conventional classroom lectures or to identical lectures broadcast live in an adjacent room on a television monitor. Class attendance and learning under the two modes were statistically equivalent. The findings confirm those of past studies.…

  9. SHIFTS IN VINEYARD WEED SEED BANK COMPOSITION IN REPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL WEED CONTROL PRACTICES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this research was to compare the organic weed control practice, soil cultivation, to the conventional practice, applications of the herbicide, glyphosate, in terms of their effects on weed seed bank in a vineyard system. The experiment was conducted in a commercial winegrape vineyard in t...

  10. Ground Truthing the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  11. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  12. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  13. Nonlinear disturbance observer-based control for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems subject to mismatching condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Chen, Wen-Hua

    2012-08-01

    For a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear system, the existing disturbance observer-based control (DOBC) only provides solutions to those whose disturbance relative degree (DRD) is higher than or equal to its input relative degree. By designing a novel disturbance compensation gain matrix, a generalised nonlinear DOBC method is proposed in this article to solve the disturbance attenuation problem of the MIMO nonlinear system with arbitrary DRD. It is shown that the disturbances are able to be removed from the output channels by the proposed method with appropriately chosen control parameters. The property of nominal performance recovery, which is the major merit of the DOBCs, is retained with the proposed method. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by simulation studies of both the numerical and application examples.

  14. A comparison of the real-time controllability of pattern recognition to conventional myoelectric control for discrete and simultaneous movements.

    PubMed

    Young, Aaron J; Smith, Lauren H; Rouse, Elliott J; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-10

    Myoelectric control has been used for decades to control powered upper limb prostheses. Conventional, amplitude-based control has been employed to control a single prosthesis degree of freedom (DOF) such as closing and opening of the hand. Within the last decade, new and advanced arm and hand prostheses have been constructed that are capable of actuating numerous DOFs. Pattern recognition control has been proposed to control a greater number of DOFs than conventional control, but has traditionally been limited to sequentially controlling DOFs one at a time. However, able-bodied individuals use multiple DOFs simultaneously, and it may be beneficial to provide amputees the ability to perform simultaneous movements. In this study, four amputees who had undergone targeted motor reinnervation (TMR) surgery with previous training using myoelectric prostheses were configured to use three control strategies: 1) conventional amplitude-based myoelectric control, 2) sequential (one-DOF) pattern recognition control, 3) simultaneous pattern recognition control. Simultaneous pattern recognition was enabled by having amputees train each simultaneous movement as a separate motion class. For tasks that required control over just one DOF, sequential pattern recognition based control performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error. For tasks that required control over 2 DOFs, the simultaneous pattern recognition controller performed the best with the lowest average completion times, completion rates and length error compared to the other control strategies. In the two strategies in which users could employ simultaneous movements (conventional and simultaneous pattern recognition), amputees chose to use simultaneous movements 78% of the time with simultaneous pattern recognition and 64% of the time with conventional control for tasks that required two DOF motions to reach the target. These results suggest that when amputees are given the

  15. Integration of Kinetic Control and Lattice Mismatch To Synthesize Pd@AuCu Core-Shell Planar Tetrapods with Size-Dependent Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Meng, Min; Fang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Chao; Su, Hongyang; He, Rong; Zhang, Renpeng; Li, Hongliang; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Wu, Xiaojun; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie

    2016-05-11

    Planar nanocrystals with multiple branches exhibit unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties and great promise in optical applications. Here, we report an aqueous synthesis of Pd@AuCu core-shell planar tetrapods through preferential overgrowth on Pd cubic seeds. The large lattice mismatch between the Pd core and the AuCu shell is the key to induce the formation of branches under sluggish reduction kinetics. Meanwhile, the capping effect of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride on the {100} facets of Pd cubes with an aspect ratio of 1.2 can determine the growth direction of AuCu branches to form a planar structure. Through simply varying the amounts of Pd cubic seeds, the sizes of products can be well-controlled in the range from 33 to 70 nm. With the manipulation of sizes, the peak position of in-plane dipole resonance can be adjusted from visible to near-infrared region. Due to the presence of tips and edges in the branches, planar tetrapods exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering performance with an enhancement factor up to 9.0 × 10(3) for 70 nm Pd@AuCu planar tetrapods.

  16. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  17. Comparison of conventional and integrated programs for control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Iwassaki, Larissa Akemi; Sato, Mário Eidi; Calegario, Fagoni Fayer; Poletti, Marcelo; Maia, Aline de Holanda Nunes

    2015-02-01

    The twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the main pests on strawberry crops in Brazil. TSSM can be difficult to control due to acaricide resistance. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of conventional and integrated strawberry production (ISP) systems on mite abundance and acaricide resistance. The control of TSSM in ISP was based on the release of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) or application of a selective acaricide (propargite), when TSSM monitoring indicated the timing for the release of predaceous mites (1-3 mites per leaflet on 30% leaflets) or chemical intervention (>10 mites per leaflet). Only acaricides (abamectin, fenpyroximate) were applied in the conventional system. Integrated control of TSSM were sufficient to maintain a significantly lower pest infestation level, resulting in a sixfold reduction in the frequency of acaricide applications, and consequently, a lower selection pressure for acaricide resistance. Strategies for the management of TSSM in strawberry fields are described and discussed.

  18. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  19. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  20. Effect of conventional and controlled freezing method on the post thaw characteristics of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Baishya, S K; Biswas, R K; Kadirvel, G; Deka, B C; Kumar, Suresh; Sinha, S; Dutta, D J; Saikia, G K

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional, and controlled freezing method adopting three freezing rates 20°C, 40°C and 60°C/min for cryopreservation of boar semen. Sixty sperm-rich fractions of ejaculates from six boars were utilized for freezing of semen with different freezing methods in lactose-egg yolk glycerol extender using 0.5 ml straws. Semen samples were evaluated for sperm motility, live sperm, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) by carboxyfluorescein diacetate plus propidium iodide (PI) staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by combined JC-1 plus PI staining and lipid peroxidation (LPO) by BODIPY (581/591)-C11 probe after equilibration and after freezing. The results revealed that the post thaw sperm motility, live sperm, live intact acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were significantly (p<0.05) higher in all the three controlled freezing methods (20°C, 40°C and 60°C/min) as compared to that in conventional method. In addition, the controlled freezing methods yielded higher (p>0.05) mean values of live sperm with high MMP as compared to conventional freezing. However, the post thaw sperm LPO did not influence by difference in freezing methods. No significant difference on the post thaw sperm qualities was recorded among the three controlled freezing rates. All the sperm parameters assessed declined significantly (p<0.05) after freezing as compared to that after equilibration irrespective of freezing method employed. In conclusion, cryopreservation of boar semen with controlled freezing methods conferred better post thaw sperm quality as compared to conventional method, and the freezing rates of either 20, 40 or 60°C/min could provide better freezability of boar semen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Randomized controlled within-subject evaluation of digital and conventional workflows for the fabrication of lithium disilicate single crowns. Part I: digital versus conventional unilateral impressions.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Mühlemann, Sven; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2016-11-01

    Trials comparing the overall performance of fully digital and conventional workflows in reconstructive dentistry are needed. The purpose of the first part of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine whether optical impressions produce different results from conventional impressions with respect to time efficiency and patient and operator perceptions of the clinical workflow. Three digital impressions and 1 conventional impression were made in each of 10 participants according to a randomly generated sequence. The digital systems were Lava COS, iTero, and Cerec Bluecam. The conventional impression was made with the closed-mouth technique and polyvinyl siloxane material. The time needed for powdering, impressions, and interocclusal record was recorded. Patient and clinician perceptions of the procedures were rated by means of visual analog scales. The paired t test with Bonferroni correction was applied to detect differences (α=.05/6=.0083). The mean total working time ±standard deviation amounted to 260 ±66 seconds for the conventional impression, 493 ±193 seconds for Lava, 372 ±126 seconds for iTero, and 357 ±55 seconds for Cerec. The total working time for the conventional impression was significantly lower than that for Lava and Cerec. With regard to the working time without powdering, the differences between the methods were not statistically significant. The patient rating (very uncomfortable=0; comfortable=100) measured 61 ±34 for conventional impression, 71 ±18 for Lava, 66 ±20 for iTero, and 48 ±18 for Cerec. The differences were not statistically significant. The clinician rating (simple=0; very difficult=100) was 13 ±13 for the conventional impression, 54 ±27 for Lava, 22 ±11 for iTero, and 36 ±23 for Cerec. The differences between the conventional impression and Lava and between iTero and Lava were statistically significant. The conventional impression was more time-effective than the digital impressions. In terms of

  2. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  3. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  4. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  10. An Experimental Database for Conventional and Alternate Control Concepts on the HSR 1.675% Reference H Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Naomi; Allen, Jerry; Erickson, Gary; Campbell, Jim; Mann, Mike; Kubiatko, Paul; Yingling, David; Mason, Charlie

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to experimentally evaluate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Reference H configuration at supersonic and transonic speeds. A series of conventional and alternate control devices were also evaluated at supersonic and transonic speeds. A database on the conventional and alternate control devices was to be created for use in the HSR program.

  11. Dental Students' Perceptions of Digital and Conventional Impression Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Joda, Tim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze inexperienced dental students' perceptions of the difficulty and applicability of digital and conventional implant impressions and their preferences including performance. Fifty undergraduate dental students at a dental school in Switzerland were randomly divided into two groups (2×25). Group A first took digital impressions in a standardized phantom model and then conventional impressions, while the procedures were reversed for Group B. Participants were asked to complete a VAS questionnaire (0-100) on the level of difficulty and applicability (user/patient-friendliness) of both techniques. They were asked which technique they preferred and perceived to be more efficient. A quotient of "effective scan time per software-recorded time" (TRIOS) was calculated as an objective quality indicator for intraoral optical scanning (IOS). The majority of students perceived IOS as easier than the conventional technique. Most (72%) preferred the digital approach using IOS to take the implant impression to the conventional method (12%) or had no preference (12%). Although total work was similar for males and females, the TRIOS quotient indicated that male students tended to use their time more efficiently. In this study, dental students with no clinical experience were very capable of acquiring digital tools, indicating that digital impression techniques can be included early in the dental curriculum to help them catch up with ongoing development in computer-assisted technologies used in oral rehabilitation.

  12. COMPARISON OF THE PAIN LEVELS OF COMPUTER-CONTROLLED AND CONVENTIONAL ANESTHESIA TECHNIQUES IN PROSTHODONTIC TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Yenisey, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels on opposite sides of the maxilla at needle insertion during delivery of local anesthetic solution and tooth preparation for both conventional and anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) technique with the Wand computer-controlled local anesthesia application. Material and methods: Pain scores of 16 patients were evaluated with a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS) and data were analyzed nonparametrically. Pain differences at needle insertion, during delivery of local anesthetic, and at tooth preparation, for conventional versus the Wand technique, were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.01). Results: The Wand technique had a lower pain level compared to conventional injection for needle insertion (p<0.01). In the anesthetic delivery phase, pain level for the Wand technique was lower (p<0.01). However, there was no difference between the Wand and conventional technique for pain level during tooth preparation (p>0.05). Conclusions; The AMSA technique using the Wand is recommended for prosthodontic treatment because it reduces pain during needle insertion and during delivery of local anaesthetic. However, these two techniques have the same pain levels for tooth preparation. PMID:19936518

  13. Experimental comparison of conventional and nonlinear model-based control of a mixing tank

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, K.E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    In this case study concerning control of a laboratory-scale mixing tank, conventional multiloop single-input single-output (SISO) control is compared with model-based'' control where the nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of the process are explicitly taken into account. It is shown, especially if the operating range of the process is large, that the two outputs (level and temperature) cannot be adequately controlled by multiloop SISO control even if gain scheduling is used. By nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control, on the other hand, very good control performance is obtained. The basic approach to nonlinear control used in this study is first to transform the process into a globally linear and decoupled system, and then to design controllers for this system. Because of the properties of the resulting MIMO system, the controller design is very easy. Two nonlinear control system designs based on a steady-state and a dynamic model, respectively, are considered. In the dynamic case, both setpoint tracking and disturbance rejection can be addressed separately.

  14. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  15. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  16. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as...

  17. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as...

  18. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  19. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of... Petroleum Cargos § 442.32 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  20. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of... Petroleum Cargos § 442.32 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  1. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of... and Petroleum Cargos § 442.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  2. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of... and Petroleum Cargos § 442.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32,...

  3. 40 CFR 412.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.32 Section 412.32 Protection of... Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology...

  4. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection of... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except...

  5. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.22 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

  6. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of... EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos § 442.22 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

  7. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.42 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  8. A Randomized Controlled Study to Compare Conventional and Evidence Based Treatment Protocols in Fresh Compound Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kanika; Singh, Girish Kumar; Kumar, Santosh; Avasthi, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A recent concept review in Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS) outlines evidence to control peri-operative infections in compound fractures. However, evidence for impact of adopting a protocol combining measures that have some evidence is lacking in literature. The present method of treatment at King George’s Medical University (KGMU) is representative of the conventional practice of managing compound fractures in India and is an appropriate control for trial against the Experimental Evidence Based Protocol (EBP). Aim To study the additional impact of adopting Evidence Based Protocol on parameters defining infection rate and bone union. Materials and Methods This randomized controlled study was conducted at the orthopaedics department of KGMU. Two hundred and twenty six patients of compound fractures of both bone leg, age > 12y were randomized to two groups. One group received standard treatment and the experimental group received treatment as per JBJS review. Statistical Analysis Random allocation was tested by comparing baseline characteristics of the two groups. The two groups were compared for all the outcome variables in terms of time to a negative wound culture, time to wound healing, time to union at fracture site and time to achieve complete range of motion at knee joint. Results Random allocation was successful. EBP group reported significantly lesser time to a negative culture report from wound (mean in conventional=4.619, experimental=1.9146, p=0.0006), lesser time to bony union (mean in conventional=23.8427 weeks, experimental=22.8125 weeks, p=0.0027), lesser time to wound healing (mean in conventional=14.4425 weeks experimental=10.4513 weeks, p=0.0032), and a lesser duration of hospital stay (mean in conventional=6.5982 days, experimental=4.5000 days, p=0.0343). Conclusion EBP based on the guidelines suggested by Fletcher et al., significantly shorten the time taken for achieving a negative culture and hasten wound and fracture

  9. Access and benefit sharing (ABS) under the convention on biological diversity (CBD): implications for microbial biological control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Researchers and implementers of biological control are confronted with a variety of scientific, regulatory and administrative challenges to their biological control programs. One developing challenge will arise from the implementation of provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) co...

  10. Comparison of model-based and conventional controllers on a pilot-scale heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Raul, Pramod R; Srinivasan, Haritha; Kulkarni, Sanket; Shokrian, Mazdak; Shrivastava, Glory; Russell Rhinehart, R

    2013-05-01

    This pilot-scale heat exchanger demonstration compares two relatively simple nonlinear model-based control strategies to conventional proportional-integral (PI) control. The two nonlinear controllers, generic model control (GMC) and process-model based control (PMBC), use a first-principles model thereby providing characterization of the nonlinear process throughout the operating range. There are two approaches to GMC, one uses a dynamic model, the other a steady-state model. This work uses the steady-state model; accordingly, will use the term GMC-SS, which can be classified as output characterization for a PI controller, making it relatively simple to implement. PMBC uses a dynamic model and adapts to represent the process. These two nonlinear controllers were selected for this application evaluation because of their simplicity (they can be implemented in-house within many commercial control systems), diversity (steady-state and dynamic models), and demonstrated utility for control of nonlinear single-input-single-output processes. The application and results are presented and discussed. Summarizing the results: Within a small temperature operating range PI provides good control, but over the full operating range, the nonlinear and variable delay of the process lead to poor control with PI. GMC can handle the nonlinear issues, but using the convenient steady-state model; it also, provides poor control because of the variable delay associated with flow rate. PMBC was able to provide good control throughout the entire operating range. PMBC has a further advantage of only having one tuning coefficient, while PI and GMC-SS have two.

  11. Time efficiency, difficulty, and operator's preference comparing digital and conventional implant impressions: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Joda, Tim; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Bragger, Urs; Zitzmann, Nicola U

    2016-09-05

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze implant impression techniques applying intraoral scanning (IOS) and the conventional method according to time efficiency, difficulty, and operator's preference. One hundred participants (n = 100) with diverse levels of dental experience were included and randomly assigned to Group A performing digital scanning (TRIOS Pod) first or Group B conducting conventional impression (open tray with elastomer) first, while the second method was performed consecutively. A customized maxillary model with a bone-level-type implant in the right canine position (FDI-position 13) was mounted on a phantom training unit realizing a standardized situation for all participants. Outcome parameter was time efficiency, and potential influence of clinical experience, operator's perception of level of difficulty, applicability of each method, and subjective preferences were analyzed with Wilcoxon -Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Mean total work time varied between 5.01 ± 1.56 min (students) and 4.53 ± 1.34 min (dentists) for IOS, and between 12.03 ± 2.00 min (students) and 10.09 ± 1.15 min (dentists) for conventional impressions with significant differences between the two methods. Neither assignment to Group A or B, nor gender nor number of impression-taking procedures did influence working time. Difficulty and applicability of IOS was perceived more favorable compared to conventional impressions, and effectiveness of IOS was rated better by the majority of students (88%) and dentists (64%). While 76% of the students preferred IOS, 48% of the dentists were favoring conventional impressions, and 26% each IOS and either technique. For single-implant sites, the quadrant-like intraoral scanning (IOS) was more time efficient than the conventional full-arch impression technique in a phantom head simulating standardized optimal conditions. A high level of acceptance for IOS was observed among students and

  12. Conventional vs. tablet computer-based patient education following lung transplantation--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Suhling, Hendrik; Rademacher, Jessica; Zinowsky, Imke; Fuge, Jan; Greer, Mark; Warnecke, Gregor; Smits, Jacqueline M; Bertram, Anna; Haverich, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Accurate immunosuppression is of critical importance in preventing rejection, while avoiding toxicity following lung transplantation. The mainstay immunosuppressants are calcineurin inhibitors, which require regular monitoring due to interactions with other medications and diet. Adherence to immunosuppression and patient knowledge is vital and can be improved through patient education. Education using tablet-computers was investigated. To compare tablet-PC education and conventional education in improving immunosuppression trough levels in target range 6 months after a single education. Secondary parameters were ratio of immunosuppression level measurements divided by per protocol recommended measurements, time and patient satisfaction regarding education. Single-centre, open labelled randomised controlled trial. Patients >6 months after lung-transplantation with <50% of calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in target range. Tablet-pc education versus personal, nurse-led education. Calcineurin inhibitor levels in target range 6 months after education, level variability, interval adherence, knowledge and adherence was studied. As outcome parameter, renal function was measured and adverse events registered. Sixty-four patients were 1:1 randomised for either intervention. Levels of immunosuppression 6 months after education were equal (tablet-PC 58% vs. conventional 48%, p = 0.27), both groups improved in achieving a CNI trough level within target range by either education method (delta tablet-PC 29% vs. conventional 20%). In all patients, level variability decreased (-20.4%), whereas interval adherence remained unchanged. Knowledge about immunosuppression improved by 7% and compliance tests demonstrated universal improvements with no significant difference between groups. Education is a simple, effective tool in improving adherence to immunosuppression. Tablet-PC education was non-inferior to conventional education. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398488 http

  13. Conventional vs. Tablet Computer-Based Patient Education following Lung Transplantation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suhling, Hendrik; Rademacher, Jessica; Zinowsky, Imke; Fuge, Jan; Greer, Mark; Warnecke, Gregor; Smits, Jacqueline M.; Bertram, Anna; Haverich, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate immunosuppression is of critical importance in preventing rejection, while avoiding toxicity following lung transplantation. The mainstay immunosuppressants are calcineurin inhibitors, which require regular monitoring due to interactions with other medications and diet. Adherence to immunosuppression and patient knowledge is vital and can be improved through patient education. Education using tablet-computers was investigated. Objective To compare tablet-PC education and conventional education in improving immunosuppression trough levels in target range 6 months after a single education. Secondary parameters were ratio of immunosuppression level measurements divided by per protocol recommended measurements, time and patient satisfaction regarding education. Design Single-centre, open labelled randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients >6 months after lung-transplantation with <50% of calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in target range. Intervention Tablet-pc education versus personal, nurse-led education. Measurements Calcineurin inhibitor levels in target range 6 months after education, level variability, interval adherence, knowledge and adherence was studied. As outcome parameter, renal function was measured and adverse events registered. Results Sixty-four patients were 1:1 randomised for either intervention. Levels of immunosuppression 6 months after education were equal (tablet-PC 58% vs. conventional 48%, p = 0.27), both groups improved in achieving a CNI trough level within target range by either education method (delta tablet-PC 29% vs. conventional 20%). In all patients, level variability decreased (−20.4%), whereas interval adherence remained unchanged. Knowledge about immunosuppression improved by 7% and compliance tests demonstrated universal improvements with no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Education is a simple, effective tool in improving adherence to immunosuppression. Tablet-PC education was

  14. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  15. Prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing Versajet™ hydrosurgery and conventional debridement of partial thickness paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Ela J; D'Cruz, Rachel; Menon, Seema; Chan, Queenie; Harvey, John G; Lawrence, Torey; La Hei, Erik; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-06-01

    Conventional surgical debridement of burn wounds consists of tangential excision of eschar using a knife or dermabrasion until viable dermis or punctate bleeding occurs. The Versajet™ (Smith and Nephew, St. Petersburg, FL, USA) hydrosurgery system has also been advocated for burn wound debridement, with the suggestion that enhanced preservation of dermal tissue might reduce subsequent scarring. A prospective randomised controlled trial was undertaken comparing Versajet™ to conventional debridement. After excluding those with facial burns, 61 children ≤16 years of age undergoing debridement and skin grafting for partial thickness burns were recruited. Adequacy of debridement was assessed by 2mm punch biopsies taken pre- and post-debridement. Surgical time, percentage graft take at day 10, time to healing, post-operative infection and scarring at 3 and 6 months were assessed. Thirty-one children underwent conventional debridement and 30 debridement using Versajet™. There was a significant difference in the amount of viable dermal preservation between the two groups (p=0.02), with more viable tissue lost in the conventional group (median 325 μm) versus the Versajet™ group (median 35 μm). There was no significant difference between graft take at day 10 (p=0.9), post-operative wound infection (p=0.5), duration of surgery (p=0.6) or time to healing after grafting (p=0.6). Despite better dermal preservation in the Versajet™ group, there was no significant difference between scarring at 3 or 6 months (p=1.0, 0.1). These findings suggest that Versajet™ hydrosurgery appears a more precise method of burn wound debridement. Although dermal preservation may be a factor in reducing subsequent hypertrophic scarring, there were no significant differences found between scarring at 3 or 6 months after-injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Cocktail sedation containing propofol versus conventional sedation for ERCP: a prospective, randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Angsuwatcharakon, Phonthep; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Poonyathawon, Sahadol; Ponauthai, Yuwadee; Sumdin, Sakolkan; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2012-08-09

    ERCP practically requires moderate to deep sedation controlled by a combination of benzodiazepine and opiod. Propofol as a sole agent may cause oversedation. A combination (cocktail) of infused propofol, meperidine, and midazolam can reduce the dosage of propofol and we hypothesized that it might decrease the risk of oversedation. We prospectively compare the efficacy, recovery time, patient satisfactory, and side effects between cocktail and conventional sedations in patients undergoing ERCP. ERCP patients were randomized into 2 groups; the cocktail group (n = 103) and the controls (n = 102). For induction, a combination of 25 mg of meperidine and 2.5 mg of midazolam were administered in both groups. In the cocktail group, a bolus dose of propofol 1 mg/kg was administered and continuously infused. In the controls, 25 mg of meperidine or 2.5 mg/kg of midazolam were titrated to maintain the level of sedation. In the cocktail group, the average administration rate of propofol was 6.2 mg/kg/hr. In the control group; average weight base dosage of meperidine and midazolam were 1.03 mg/kg and 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Recovery times and patients' satisfaction scores in the cocktail and control groups were 9.67 minutes and 12.89 minutes (P = 0.045), 93.1and 87.6 (P <0.001), respectively. Desaturation rates in the cocktail and conventional groups were 58.3% and 31.4% (P <0.001), respectively. All desaturations were corrected with temporary oxygen supplementation without the need for scope removal. Cocktail sedation containing propofol provides faster recovery time and better patients' satisfaction for patients undergoing ERCP. However, mild degree of desaturation may still develop. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01540084.

  17. Optimal control strategies of eradicating invisible glioblastoma cells after conventional surgery

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes V, Aurelio A.; Jung, Eunok; Kim, Yangjin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer, has median survival time of 1 year after diagnosis. It is characterized by alternating modes of rapid proliferation and aggressive invasion in response to metabolic stress in the microenvironment. A particular microRNA, miR-451, and its downstream signalling molecules, AMPK complex, are known to be key determinants in switching cell fate. These components form a core control system determining a balance between cell growth and migration which is regulated by fluctuating glucose levels in the microenvironment. An important factor from the treatment point of view is that low levels of glucose affect metabolism and activate cell migration through the miR-451-AMPK control system, creating ‘invisible’ migratory cells and making them inaccessible by conventional surgery. In this work, we apply optimal control theory to deal with the problem of maintaining upregulated miR-451 levels that prevent cell infiltration to surrounding brain tissue and thus induce localization of these cancer cells at the surgical site. The model also considers the effect of a drug that blocks inhibitive pathways of miR-451 from AMPK complex. Glucose infusion control and drug infusion control are chosen to represent dose rates of glucose and drug intravenous administrations, respectively. The characteristics of optimal control lead us to investigate the structure of optimal intravenous infusion regimen under various circumstances and predict best clinical outcomes with minimum expense possible. PMID:25833239

  18. Novel HPLC Analysis of Hydrocortisone in Conventional and Controlled-Release Pharmaceutical Preparations.

    PubMed

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Oppong Bekoe, Samuel; Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Appiah, Enoch; Peprah, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An isocratic sensitive and precise reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination and quantification of hydrocortisone in controlled-release and conventional (tablets and injections) pharmaceutical preparations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ODS (C18), 5 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm, with an isocratic elution using a freshly prepared mobile phase of composition methanol : water : acetic acid (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection of the drug was successfully achieved at a wavelength of 254 nm. The retention time obtained for the drug was 2.26 min. The proposed method produced linear detectable responses in the concentration range of 0.02 to 0.4 mg/ml of hydrocortisone. High recoveries of 98-101% were attained at concentration levels of 80%, 100%, and 120%. The intraday and interday precision (RSD) were 0.19-0.55% and 0.33-0.71%, respectively. A comparison of hydrocortisone analyses data from the developed method and the official USP method showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) at a 95% confidence interval. The method was successfully applied to the determination and quantification of hydrocortisone in six controlled-release and fifteen conventional release pharmaceutical preparations.

  19. Novel HPLC Analysis of Hydrocortisone in Conventional and Controlled-Release Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Oppong Bekoe, Samuel; Appiah, Enoch; Peprah, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An isocratic sensitive and precise reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination and quantification of hydrocortisone in controlled-release and conventional (tablets and injections) pharmaceutical preparations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ODS (C18), 5 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm, with an isocratic elution using a freshly prepared mobile phase of composition methanol : water : acetic acid (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection of the drug was successfully achieved at a wavelength of 254 nm. The retention time obtained for the drug was 2.26 min. The proposed method produced linear detectable responses in the concentration range of 0.02 to 0.4 mg/ml of hydrocortisone. High recoveries of 98–101% were attained at concentration levels of 80%, 100%, and 120%. The intraday and interday precision (RSD) were 0.19–0.55% and 0.33–0.71%, respectively. A comparison of hydrocortisone analyses data from the developed method and the official USP method showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) at a 95% confidence interval. The method was successfully applied to the determination and quantification of hydrocortisone in six controlled-release and fifteen conventional release pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:28660092

  20. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Bendrick, Gregg A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. cones ) of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though all were within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight. The learning objectives include: 1) Know three

  1. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Bendrick, Gregg A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. cones ) of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though all were within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight. The learning objectives include: 1) Know three

  2. Surgical vs conventional therapy for weight loss treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dixon, John B; Schachter, Linda M; O'Brien, Paul E; Jones, Kay; Grima, Mariee; Lambert, Gavin; Brown, Wendy; Bailey, Michael; Naughton, Matthew T

    2012-09-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly related to obesity. Weight loss is recommended as part of the overall management plan for obese patients diagnosed with OSA. To determine whether surgically induced weight loss is more effective than conventional weight loss therapy in the management of OSA. A randomized controlled trial of 60 obese patients (body mass index: >35 and <55) with recently diagnosed (<6 months) OSA and an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 20 events/hour or more. These patients had been prescribed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy to manage OSA and were identified via accredited community sleep clinics. The trial was conducted between September 2006 and March 2009 by university- and teaching hospital-based clinical researchers in Melbourne, Australia. Patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome, previous bariatric surgery, contraindications to bariatric surgery, or significant cardiopulmonary, neurological, vascular, gastrointestinal, or neoplastic disease were excluded. Patients were randomized to a conventional weight loss program that included regular consultations with a dietitian and physician, and the use of very low-calorie diets as necessary (n = 30) or to bariatric surgery (laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; n = 30). The primary outcome was baseline to 2-year change in AHI on diagnostic polysomnography scored by staff blinded to randomization. Secondary outcomes were changes in weight, CPAP adherence, and functional status. Patients lost a mean of 5.1 kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 9.3 kg) in the conventional weight loss program compared with 27.8 kg (95% CI, 20.9 to 34.7 kg) in the bariatric surgery group (P < .001). The AHI decreased by 14.0 events/hour (95% CI, 3.3 to 24.6 events/hour) in the conventional weight loss group and by 25.5 events/hour (95% CI, 14.2 to 36.7 events/hour) in the bariatric surgery group. The between-group difference was -11.5 events/hour (95% CI, -28.3 to 5.3 events/hour; P = .18). CPAP adherence

  3. Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862

  4. Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; McNeill, Ann; Lewis, Sarah; Gilmore, Anna; Britton, John

    2010-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic.

  5. Temperature-dependent spectral mismatch corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Campanelli, Mark; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith A.; Williams, Rafell

    2015-11-01

    This study develops the mathematical foundation for a translation of solar cell short-circuit current from one thermal and spectral irradiance operating condition to another without the use of ill-defined and error-prone temperature coefficients typically employed in solar cell metrology. Using the partial derivative of quantum efficiency with respect to temperature, the conventional isothermal expression for spectral mismatch corrections is modified to account for changes of current due to temperature; this modification completely eliminates the need for short-circuit-current temperature coefficients. An example calculation is provided to demonstrate use of the new translation.

  6. Data quality control methodologies for large, non-conventional DC resistivity datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael A.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2016-12-01

    With developments in instrumentation and computational resources, the collection of large, non-conventional DC resistivity datasets has become commonplace. While the increased data content of these large datasets can significantly improve the resolution of inverse models, these datasets also present challenges for standard data quality control (QC) methodologies. Standard QC methodologies for DC resistivity datasets typically rely on our ability to decompose the dataset into 2D lines and/or reciprocal measurements. Non-conventional electrode geometries and the cost of collecting a large number of reciprocal measurements can severely limit the applicability of standard DC resistivity QC methodologies. To address these limitations, we developed a more generalized data QC methodology which utilizes statistical analysis and classification tools. The merit of this methodology is illustrated using a field dataset collected in an underground potash mine and several synthetic examples. Results from these applications show that the methodology has the ability to identify and characterize highly noise-contaminated data from a number of different sources. The flexibility of the 4-stage methodology allows it be tailored to accommodate data from any type of DC resistivity survey and the use of statistical analysis and classification tools decreases the subjectivity of the process. Although this study focuses on the applicability of this methodology for DC resistivity data, it is potentially applicable to a variety of geophysical surveys.

  7. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Materials and Methods: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Findings: Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Conclusions: Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions. PMID:23833621

  8. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions.

  9. Recognition of GT mismatches by Vsr mismatch endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Keith R.; Allinson, Sarah L.; Sahagun-Krause, Heidi; Brown, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Vsr mismatch endonuclease recognises the sequence CTWGG (W = A or T) in which the underlined thymine is paired with guanine and nicks the DNA backbone on the 5′-side of the mispaired thymine. By using base analogues of G and T we have explored the functional groups on the mismatch pair which are recognised by the enzyme. Removal of the thymine 5-methyl group causes a 60% reduction in activity, while removing the 2-amino group of guanine reduces cleavage by 90%. Placing 2-aminopurine or nebularine opposite T generates mismatches which are cut at a much lower rate (0.1%). When either base is removed, generating a pseudoabasic site (1′,2′-dideoxyribose), the enzyme still produces site-specific cleavage, but at only 1% of the original rate. Although TT and CT mismatches at this position are cleaved at a low rate (~1%), mismatches with other bases (such as GA and AC) and Watson–Crick base pairs are not cleaved by the enzyme. There is also no cleavage when the mismatched T is replaced with difluorotoluene. PMID:10871403

  10. Recognition of GT mismatches by Vsr mismatch endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Fox, K R; Allinson, S L; Sahagun-Krause, H; Brown, T

    2000-07-01

    The Vsr mismatch endonuclease recognises the sequence CTWGG (W = A or T) in which the underlined thymine is paired with guanine and nicks the DNA backbone on the 5'-side of the mispaired thymine. By using base analogues of G and T we have explored the functional groups on the mismatch pair which are recognised by the enzyme. Removal of the thymine 5-methyl group causes a 60% reduction in activity, while removing the 2-amino group of guanine reduces cleavage by 90%. Placing 2-amino-purine or nebularine opposite T generates mis-matches which are cut at a much lower rate (0.1%). When either base is removed, generating a pseudoabasic site (1', 2'-dideoxyribose), the enzyme still produces site-specific cleavage, but at only 1% of the original rate. Although TT and CT mismatches at this position are cleaved at a low rate (approximately 1%), mismatches with other bases (such as GA and AC) and Watson-Crick base pairs are not cleaved by the enzyme. There is also no cleavage when the mismatched T is replaced with difluorotoluene.

  11. 78 FR 64014 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Pharmacopeial Convention Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34 (a), this is notice that on July 31, 2013, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville,...

  12. Retracted: Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, D; Yilmaz, S; Dumani, A; Yoldas, O

    2016-08-01

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial' by D. Bilgili, S. Yilmaz, A. Dumani & O. Yoldas, published online on 29 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the corresponding author did not contact the first author who carried out the work before alterations to the article were made prior to submission. This damages the integrity of the work and there are additional concerns over the number of patients and the accuracy of the results and conclusions.

  13. China's position in negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines China's position in the negotiations of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations. In particular, it explores three sets of factors shaping China's attitudes and actions in the negotiations: the aspiration to be a responsible power; concerns about sovereignty; and domestic political economy. In both cases, China demonstrated strong incentives to participate in the negotiation of legally binding international rules. Still, the sovereignty issue was a major, if not the biggest, concern for China when engaging in global health rule making. The two cases also reveal domestic political economy as an important factor in shaping China's position in international health negotiations. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal regulator or conventional? Setup techniques for a model following simulator control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deets, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Optimal regulator technique was compared for determining simulator control system gains with the conventional servo analysis approach. Practical considerations, associated with airborne motion simulation using a model-following system, provided the basis for comparison. The simulation fidelity specifications selected were important in evaluating the relative advantages of the two methods. Frequency responses for a JetStar aircraft following a roll mode model were calculated digitally to illustrate the various cases. A technique for generating forward loop lead in the optimal regulator model-following problem was developed which increases the flexibility of that approach. It appeared to be the only way in which the optimal regulator method could meet the fidelity specifications.

  15. Global health, equity and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health demonstrates the renewed salience of health inequalities within the international health policy agenda. The tobacco pandemic is characterized by an escalating burden of death and disease that is increasingly being borne by developing countries. Efforts to promote global health equity must therefore prioritize reductions in tobacco consumption. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) offers a remarkable opportunity to address the health inequalities associated with tobacco use, and represents an important innovation within global governance. But the FCTC’s failure to adequately address the health impacts of trade liberalization highlights the difficulties of ensuring policy coherence across international health, development and economic policies. Recognition of such limitations is important both to inform the further development of the FCTC and to ensure that appropriate lessons are drawn for future initiatives. PMID:20595357

  16. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  17. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.

  18. Project Cerberus: Tobacco Industry Strategy to Create an Alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  19. Interpretation of the source-specific substantive control measures of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    PubMed

    You, Mingqing

    2015-02-01

    Being persistent, toxic, and bio-accumulative, Mercury (Hg) seriously affects the environment and human health. Due to Hg's attribute of long-range environmental transport across national borders, especially through atmospheric transport, no country can fully protect its environment and human health with its own efforts, without global cooperation. The Minamata Convention on Mercury, which was formally adopted and opened for signature in October 2013, is the only global environmental regime on the control of Hg pollution. Its main substantive control measures are source-specific: its phasing-out, phasing-down, and other main substantive requirements all direct to specific categories of pollution sources through the regulation of specific sectors of the economy and social life. This Convention does not take a national quota approach to quantify the Parties' nationwide total allowable consumption or discharge of Hg or Hg compounds, nor does it quantify their nationwide total reduction requirements. This paper attempts to find the underlying reasons for this source-specific approach and offers two interpretations. One possible interpretation is that Hg might be a non-threshold pollutant, i.e., a pollutant without a risk-free value of concentration. The existence of a reference dose (RfD), reference concentration (RfC), provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), minimal risk level (MRL) or other similar reference values of Hg does not necessarily mean that Hg cannot be regarded as non-threshold because such reference values have scientific uncertainties and may also involve policy considerations. Another interpretation is that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity. There is evidence that negotiators might have treated Hg as non-threshold, or at least accepted that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity: (1) The negotiators were informed about the serious situations of the current emissions, releases, and legacy deposition; (2

  20. Mismatch repair in heteroduplex DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wildenberg, J; Meselson, M

    1975-01-01

    DNA with base pair mismatches was prepared by annealing mixtures of genetically marked DNA from bacteriophage lambda. This heteroduplex DNA was used to transfect bacteria under conditions minimizing recombination. Genetic analysis of the progeny phages indicates that: (i) Mismatch repair occurs, usually giving rise to a DNA molecule with one chain with the genotype arising from repair and one parental chain. (ii) The frequency of repair of a given mismatch to wild type depends on the marker, ranging from 3 to 20%. (iii) Excision tracts may extend several hundred nucleotides but are usually shorter than about 2000 nucleotides. (iv) In Rec-mediated bacteriophage crosses, recombination of markers closer than about 10-3 nucleotide pairs frequently occurs by mismatch repair within heteroduplex DNA. (V) The average amount of heteroduplex DNA formed in a Rec-mediated recombination event is a few thousand nucleotide pairs. PMID:1094458

  1. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC.

  2. Hingeless rotor theory and experiment on vibration reduction by periodic variation of conventional controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sissingh, G. J.; Donham, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the n per rev. pitch-, roll- and vertical vibrations of an n-bladed rotor by n per rev. sinusoidal variations of the collective and cyclic controls is investigated. The numerical results presented refer to a four-bladed, 7.5-foot model and are based on frequency response tests conducted under an Army-sponsored research program. The following subjects are treated: extraction of the rotor transfer functions (.073R hub flapping and model thrust versus servo valve command, amplitude and phase), calculation of servo commands (volts) required to compensate .073R hub flapping (3P and 5P) and model thrust (4P), evaluation of the effect of the vibratory control inputs on blade loads, and theoretical prediction of the root flapbending moments generated by 0 to 5P perturbations of the feathering angle and rotor angle of attack. Five operating conditions are investigated covering advance ratios from approximately 0.2 to 0.85. The feasibility of vibration reduction by periodic variation on conventional controls is evaluated.

  3. [Evaluating tobacco control policy in Latin American countries during the era of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control].

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James Francis; Chaloupka, Frank; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey; Borland, Ron; Hastings, Gerard; Cummings, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to coordinate tobacco control policies around the world that reduce tobacco consumption. The FCTC's recommended policies are likely to be effective in low- and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, policy evaluation studies are needed to determine policy impact and potential synergies across policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC) is an international collaboration to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of the FCTC's policies among adult smokers in nine countries. The ITC evaluation framework utilizes multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of given policies. ITC Project results generally confirm previous studies that form the evidence base for FCTC policy recommendations, in particular: the use of graphic warning labels; banning of "light" and "mild" descriptors; smoking bans; increasing tax and price; banning advertising; and using new cigarette product testing methods. Initial findings from the ITC Project suggest that Latin American countries could use similar methods to monitor and evaluate their own tobacco control policies while contributing to the evidence base for policy interventions in other countries.

  4. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    PubMed

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  5. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)—(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in

  6. Electron energy distribution control by fiat: breaking from the conventional flux ratio scaling rules in etch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Alok; Wang, Mingmei; Sherpa, Sonam; Ventzek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    With shrinking critical dimensions, minimizing each of aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE), bowing, undercut, selectivity, and within die uniformly across a wafer is met by trading off one requirement against another. The problem of trade-offs is especially critical. At the root of the problem is that roles radical flux, ion flux and ion energy play may be both good and bad. Increasing one parameter helps meeting one requirement but hinders meeting the other. Managing process by managing flux ratios and ion energy alone with conventional sources is not adequate because surface chemistry is uncontrollable. At the root of lack of control is that the electron energy distribution function (eedf) has not been controlled. Fortunately the high density surface wave sources control the eedf by fiat. High density surface wave sources are characterized by distinct plasma regions: an active plasma generation region with high electron temperature (Te) and an ionization free but chemistry rich diffusive region (low Te region). Pressure aids is segregating the regions by proving a means for momentum relaxation between the source and downstream region. "Spatial pulsing" allows access to plasma chemistry with reasonably high ion flux, from the active plasma generation region, just above the wafer. Low plasma potential enables precise passivation of surfaces which is critical for atomic layer etch (ALE) or high precision etch where the roles of plasma species can be limited to their purposed roles. High precision etch need not be at the cost of speed and manufacturability. Large ion flux at precisely controlled ion energy with RLSATM realizes fast desorption steps for ALE without compromising process throughput and precision.

  7. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  8. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    PubMed

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  9. Comparison of the pain levels of computer controlled and conventional anesthesia techniques in supraperiosteal injections: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Singh, Smita; Garg, Aniket

    2013-01-01

    To compare the pain perception using a traditional Syringe vs Computer controlled 'Anaeject' device in supra periosteal injections. One hundred volunteers were selected on a random basis for the study and were explained about the goals of study and signed the consent form. They served as their own controls, i.e. in the same subject both the computer controlled 'Anaeject' device and traditional syringe were used on the contralateral sides for obtaining anesthesia. Pain levels were recorded during needle prick and anesthetic delivery. Post-operative pain at the site of injection 5 h after the anesthesia was also recorded. Heft Parker visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain levels. Final analysis was done on 90 subjects. Subjects reported significantly lower pain ratings at the time of needle prick and the delivery of local anesthetic using a computer-controlled 'Anaeject' device as compared to traditional syringes. Pain at the site of injection 5 h post-operative was also low in the computerized anesthesia group but it was not statistically significant. In this in vivo study it was found that subjects perception of pain was significantly low for supraperiosteal injections while using computerized anesthesia as compared to that of conventional disposable syringes.

  10. Comparison between a novel and conventional artificial pancreas for perioperative glycemic control using a closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Maeda, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Hirano, Kenichi; Asano, Takuji; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    This clinical study aimed to compare a novel and conventional artificial pancreas (AP) used in surgical patients for perioperative glycemic control, with respect to usability, blood glucose measurements, and glycemic control characteristics. From July in 2010 to March in 2015, 177 patients underwent perioperative glycemic control using a novel AP. Among them, 166 patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) targeting a blood glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL was implemented in 82 patients (49 %), and the remaining 84 patients (51 %) received a less-intensive regime of insulin therapy. Data were collected prospectively and were reviewed or analyzed retrospectively. A comparison study of 324 patients undergoing IIT for glycemic control using a novel (n = 82) or conventional AP (n = 242) was conducted retrospectively. All patients had no hypoglycemia. The comparison study revealed no significant differences in perioperative mean blood glucose level, achievement rates for target blood glucose range, and variability in blood glucose level achieved with IIT between the novel AP and conventional AP groups. The usability, performance with respect to blood glucose measurement, and glycemic control characteristics of IIT were comparable between novel and conventional AP systems. However, the novel AP was easier to manipulate than the conventional AP due to its smaller size, lower weight, and shorter time for preparation. In the near future, this novel AP system might be accepted worldwide as a safe and useful device for use in perioperative glycemic control.

  11. Ankaferd Blood Stopper for controlling gastrointestinal bleeding due to distinct benign lesions refractory to conventional antihemorrhagic measures

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Mevlut; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Akdogan, Meral; Kekilli, Murat; Arhan, Mehmet; Sayilir, Abdurrahim; Oztas, Erkin; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemostatic efficacy of the Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS, Ankaferd Health Products Ltd, Turkey) hemostatic agent for controlling gastrointestinal bleeding associated with various benign lesions refractory to conventional antihemorrhagic measures. METHODS: The records of all patients who underwent upper and lower endoscopy procedures at the Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Teaching and Research Hospital (Ankara, Turkey) between April 2008 and June 2009 were reviewed. Patients in whom ABS was used as a primary or adjuvant hemostatic agent were included in the study. Rates of bleeding control and postprocedural complications were documented. RESULTS: Hemostasis with no immediate complications was achieved in all patients within seconds of endoscopic application of ABS. CONCLUSIONS: ABS may have a role as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant to conventional modalities used to control gastrointestinal bleeding. Prospective controlled studies are needed to help establish its efficacy and, perhaps, offer a comparison with conventional hemostatic interventions. PMID:20559581

  12. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Size mismatch in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Size mismatch is an unique and inevitable but critical issue in live donor liver transplantation. Unmatched metabolic demand of recipient as well as physiologic mismatch aggravates the damage to liver graft, inevitably leading to graft failure on recipient. Also, an excessive resection of liver graft for better recipient outcome in live donor liver transplant may jeopardize the healthy donor well-being and even put donor life in danger. There is a fine balance between resected graft volume required to meet the recipient's metabolic demand and residual graft volume required for donor safety. The obvious clinical necessity of finding that balance has prompted a clinical need and promoted the improvement of knowledge and development of management strategies for size-mismatched transplants. The development of the size-matching methodology has significantly improved graft outcome and recipient survival in live donor liver transplants. On the other hand, the effect of size mismatch in cadaveric transplants has never been observed as being so pronounced. The importance of matching of the donor recipient size has been unrecognized in cadaveric liver transplant. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current most updated knowledge on the subject, particularly addressing the definition and complications of size-mismatched cadaveric liver transplant, as well as management strategies. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

  15. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 8: protection from exposure to tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Yamato, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ying; Ohta, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to implement 100% smoke-free environments in all indoor workplaces and indoor public places in order to protect people from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). Forty-four countries have already implemented comprehensive smoke-free legislations according to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Guidelines on protection from exposure to tobacco smoke. The Occupational Safety and Health Law (OSHL) was partially revised to strengthen the countermeasures against SHS in Japan in 2014. However, the revision was only minimal. Firstly, it is necessary to make efforts to implement countermeasures against SHS (their implementations are not obligatory, as required in Article 8). Secondly, the revised OSHL allowed the implementation of designated smoking rooms inside workplaces (Article 8 requires 100% smoke-free environments). Thirdly, revised OSHL does not effectively cover the small-scale entertainment industry so that workers in restaurants and pubs will not be protected from occupational SHS. We explain the importance of implementation of 100% smoke-free environments by law, using the data on leakage of smoke from designated smoking rooms, and occupational exposure to SHS among service industry workers. The decrease in the incidence of smoking-related diseases in people where a comprehensive smoke-free law is implemented is also introduced. These data and information should be widely disseminated to policy makers, media, owners of service industries, and Japanese people.

  16. Helminth ova control in wastewater and sludge for advanced and conventional sanitation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Maya, C; Galván, M

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, the most important reuse of wastewater, in volume, is agricultural irrigation. Therefore, there is a need to properly treat wastewater for such purpose, considering the removal of pathogens while leaving suitable amounts of nutrients and other compounds to increase productivity. Helminth ova are one of the main targeted pathogens in the new guidelines for water reuse in agriculture and aquaculture issued in 2006 by the World Health Organization. However, relatively little research has been done recently on how to remove and inactivate helminth ova from wastewater and sludge and recommendations given several decades ago are still used, but when put into practice, particularly in developing countries, produce unsatisfactory results. One problem is that these criteria were developed using inaccurate analytical techniques and the other is the large number and variety of helminth ova species found in wastewater and sludge from the developing world. In fact, the few technological options to remove and inactivate helminth ova come from research performed using wastewater and sludge with low helminth ova content, and refer almost only to Ascaris (one type of helminth). This paper summarises recent research work and results from practical experience concerning helminth ova control for advanced and conventional sanitation.

  17. Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2010-06-01

    China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction.

  18. Single-incision versus conventional laparoscopic colectomy for colonic neoplasm: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poon, Jensen T C; Cheung, Chi-Wai; Fan, Joe K M; Lo, Oswen S H; Law, Wai-Lun

    2012-10-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) is a newly developed procedure with the benefit of better cosmetic outcome and potentially reduced wound pain compared with conventionally laparoscopic colectomy (CLC). However, the application of SILC requires careful evaluation to prove its benefit and safety. This randomized, controlled study compared the operative outcome of patients who underwent SILC and CLC. Patients who had small cancer (<4 cm) or adenomatous polyp requiring colectomy were randomized to have SILC or CLC. The patients were blinded to the procedures and the postoperative pain was used as the primary outcome measure. All patients had patient-controlled analgesia with intravenous morphine after the operation and the nominal rating score on days 1-3 and day 14 were recorded by research staff, who did not known the types of operations. Other operative outcomes of the two groups of patients also were recorded prospectively and compared. There were 25 patients in each group. The patients' demographics, tumor characteristics, operating time, blood loss, complication rate, number of lymph nodes harvested, and resection margin have no statistically significant difference between the two groups. There was no operative mortality in both groups. The SILC group had consistently lower median pain score than CLC group in the whole postoperative course and the difference was statistically significant on day 1 (0 (0-5) vs. day 3 (0-6) respectively; p = 0.002) and day 2 (0 (0-3) vs. 2 (0-8) respectively; p = 0.014). The median hospital stay in the SILC group also was shorter the CLC group. In a selected group of patients with small tumor and good operative risk, SILC is a safe alternative to CLC. Single-port laparoscopic colectomy also is associated with the benefits of less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay than CLC.

  19. Investment Incentives and the Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Evidence from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify providing investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organizations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to economic development policy in Zambia. Results We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: 1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, 2) economic benefits outweigh health costs, and 3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Conclusions Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia’s development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must understand and work within this context of economic development in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global analysis on the barriers and facilitators of FCTC implementation. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of other sectors and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonizing FCTC implementation across sectors. PMID:26135987

  20. A double-blind comparison of conventional and controlled-release carbamazepine in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, J G; McLellan, A; Munday, A; Sutherland, M; Butler, E; Brodie, M J

    1989-01-01

    1. Eight healthy subjects took part in a balanced, double-blind, crossover comparison of conventional carbamazepine (Tegretol, Ciba-Geigy Ltd, CBZ-C) and a novel controlled-release formulation (Tegretol CR Divitabs, Ciba-Geigy Ltd; CBZ-CR). An initial single dose of either preparation was followed 1 week later by a 2 week course of 200 mg twice daily. 2. Following the single dose, CBZ-CR produced a concentration plateau from 6-56 h at 50-60% of the CBZ-CR peak. 3. After 2 weeks' treatment, CBZ daytime levels measured as area under the concentration-time curve over a dosage interval were 7% lower with CBZ-CR, but this difference was not statistically significant. 4. CBZ-CR showed less diurnal fluctuation (12%) of CBZ than CBZ-C (24%; P less than 0.025) with less rapid changes in concentration (P less than 0.02). 5. Diurnal fluctuation of free CBZ and of CBZ 10,11 epoxide, the active metabolite, did not differ significantly between the two preparations. 6. Auto-induction of CBZ metabolism resulted from the administration of both formulations. The mean elimination half-life was 23 h (CBZ-C) and 25 h (CBZ-CR) after dose 29 compared with a base-line value of 37 h (both P less than 0.02). Antipyrine metabolism was also induced to a similar extent in both legs of the study (P less than 0.01). 7. No significant alteration in psychomotor function was demonstrated with either preparation. 8. CBZ-CR fulfils the criteria for a controlled-release preparation with comparable apparent bioavailability to CBZ-C. Further pharmacokinetic and, more importantly, pharmacodynamic studies are required in epileptic patients to confirm a clinical advantage over the currently available formulation. PMID:2655682

  1. Do Iranian tobacco growers support the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control?

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Rabiei, Katayoun; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Manzouri, Leila; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kelishadi, Roya; Abedi, Heidarali; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Context: Studies on the World Health Organization Frame-work Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are scarce in Iran and the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). Aim: This study was conducted in 2007-2008 in Iran to design a practical evaluation model of the implementation of FCTC with the potential to be adopted in the EMR. Given that, the findings of this evaluation can be useful in increasing political and public support for enforcing the implementation of legislations, testing their feasibility, and maintaining sustainability. The viewpoints of tobacco growers as part of stakeholders in this regardwould have an influential role. Settings and Design: This study was a qualitative one to investigate the tobacco growers viewpoints about thestrengths/weaknesses of FCTC implementation in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, we conducted semi-structured in-depth individual interviews with 5 tobacco growers. All interviews were carried out with their permissionwere recorded and were assured that their interviews will be kept confidential. All questions were related to different FCTC articles, then written transcripts were prepared and the basic concepts were extrapolated. Statistical Analysis: After transcribing the recorded interviews, we extracted first level codes and main concepts from them. Results: The findings suggested that although tobacco growers agreed with FCTC implementation, however, subjects like the necessity to support tobacco growers and obtaining insurance from the government, the necessity of the enforcement of national tobacco control law and planning to decrease access to tobacco by policy makers were the most key points that tobacco growers pointed to them. Conclusion: Our results showed that tobacco growers agreed with the implementation of FCTC but they worried about their job and the expenses of their daily life. Therefore, it seems that policy makers have to design a plan to support tobacco growers for changing tobacco with a safe

  2. Do Iranian tobacco growers support the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Rabiei, Katayoun; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Manzouri, Leila; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kelishadi, Roya; Abedi, Heidarali; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the World Health Organization Frame-work Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are scarce in Iran and the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This study was conducted in 2007-2008 in Iran to design a practical evaluation model of the implementation of FCTC with the potential to be adopted in the EMR. Given that, the findings of this evaluation can be useful in increasing political and public support for enforcing the implementation of legislations, testing their feasibility, and maintaining sustainability. The viewpoints of tobacco growers as part of stakeholders in this regardwould have an influential role. This study was a qualitative one to investigate the tobacco growers viewpoints about thestrengths/weaknesses of FCTC implementation in Iran. In this study, we conducted semi-structured in-depth individual interviews with 5 tobacco growers. All interviews were carried out with their permissionwere recorded and were assured that their interviews will be kept confidential. All questions were related to different FCTC articles, then written transcripts were prepared and the basic concepts were extrapolated. After transcribing the recorded interviews, we extracted first level codes and main concepts from them. The findings suggested that although tobacco growers agreed with FCTC implementation, however, subjects like the necessity to support tobacco growers and obtaining insurance from the government, the necessity of the enforcement of national tobacco control law and planning to decrease access to tobacco by policy makers were the most key points that tobacco growers pointed to them. Our results showed that tobacco growers agreed with the implementation of FCTC but they worried about their job and the expenses of their daily life. Therefore, it seems that policy makers have to design a plan to support tobacco growers for changing tobacco with a safe cultivate.

  3. Investment incentives and the implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone

    2016-07-01

    Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. We conducted qualitative semistructured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organisations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to the policy of economic development in Zambia. We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: (1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, (2) economic benefits outweigh health costs and (3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced in implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia's development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must recognise and work within this context in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global context. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonising FCTC implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: adherence and establishment in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Portes, Leonardo Henriques; Machado, Cristiani Vieira

    2015-11-01

    To draw an overview of the adherence of countries around the world to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and to describe the establishment of WHO FCTC recommended measures in Latin American countries. This descriptive study was based on analysis of documents and secondary data to determine the status of countries from the six WHO regions regarding adherence to the FCTC. After that, the establishment of recommended measures until the year 2012 was mapped in all States Parties and particularly in 12 Latin American States Parties. Finally, the degree to which FCTC measures had been established in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela was assessed (incipient, intermediate, or advanced). This step took into consideration the measures covered by four domains - reduction in the demand for tobacco, reduction in the offer of tobacco, reduction in damage to the environment and to the health of people caused by tobacco, and support for quitting the use of tobacco. Until August 2015, 180 countries had joined as States Parties to the FCTC. Considering the 126 countries that submitted global progress reports in the 2012 cycle, the most prevalent measures adopted referred to the protection against exposure to tobacco smoke (83.0% for all countries and 100% for the group of Latin American countries). Among the five countries selected for detailed analysis, the measures referring to the reduction of demand and offer of tobacco were the most frequent. Measures focused on reducing environmental damage were rare. Brazil and Mexico had the most advanced FCTC status among the studied countries. Latin America presented a high proportion of States Parties with established FCTC recommended measures. The heterogeneity of the FCTC status in the five selected countries suggests that the implementation of tobacco control policies depends on specific aspects of each country.

  5. Infrequent identity mismatches are frequently undetected

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to quickly and accurately match faces to photographs bears critically on many domains, from controlling purchase of age-restricted goods to law enforcement and airport security. Despite its pervasiveness and importance, research has shown that face matching is surprisingly error prone. The majority of face-matching research is conducted under idealized conditions (e.g., using photographs of individuals taken on the same day) and with equal proportions of match and mismatch trials, a rate that is likely not observed in everyday face matching. In four experiments, we presented observers with photographs of faces taken an average of 1.5 years apart and tested whether face-matching performance is affected by the prevalence of identity mismatches, comparing conditions of low (10 %) and high (50 %) mismatch prevalence. Like the low-prevalence effect in visual search, we observed inflated miss rates under low-prevalence conditions. This effect persisted when participants were allowed to correct their initial responses (Experiment 2), when they had to verify every decision with a certainty judgment (Experiment 3) and when they were permitted “second looks” at face pairs (Experiment 4). These results suggest that, under realistic viewing conditions, the low-prevalence effect in face matching is a large, persistent source of errors. PMID:24500751

  6. Mismatch repair proteins: key regulators of genetic recombination.

    PubMed

    Surtees, J A; Argueso, J L; Alani, E

    2004-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) systems are central to maintaining genome stability in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. MMR proteins play a fundamental role in avoiding mutations, primarily by removing misincorporation errors that occur during DNA replication. MMR proteins also act during genetic recombination in steps that include repairing mismatches in heteroduplex DNA, modulating meiotic crossover control, removing 3' non-homologous tails during double-strand break repair, and preventing recombination between divergent sequences. In this review we will, first, discuss roles for MMR proteins in repairing mismatches that occur during recombination, particularly during meiosis. We will also explore how studying this process has helped to refine models of double-strand break repair, and particularly to our understanding of gene conversion gradients. Second, we will examine the role of MMR proteins in repressing homeologous recombination, i.e. recombination between divergent sequences. We will also compare the requirements for MMR proteins in preventing homeologous recombination to the requirements for these proteins in mismatch repair.

  7. Mismatches in genetic markers in a large family study.

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, G C

    1980-01-01

    The Hawaii Family Study of Cognition provided an opportunity to investigate the frequency and implications of non-agreement, or mismatches, between observed and expected genetic marker phenotypes of husbands, wives, and children. Mismatch data from 68 families in which one or both spouses were known not to be a biological parent were used to determine the rate of undeclared nonparentage in 1,748 families in which conventional relationships were claimed. Two independent approaches gave consistent estimates, suggesting that approximately 2.3% of the 2,839 tested children from these families were probably the result of infidelity, concealed adoption, or another event. About two-thirds of the mismatches detected were probably due to properties of the techniques employed. PMID:6930820

  8. Visual mismatch negativity: a predictive coding view

    PubMed Central

    Stefanics, Gábor; Kremláček, Jan; Czigler, István

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies investigate the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) or use the vMMN as a tool to probe various aspects of human cognition. This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of vMMN in the light of methodological considerations and provides recommendations for measuring and interpreting the vMMN. The following key issues are discussed from the experimentalist's point of view in a predictive coding framework: (1) experimental protocols and procedures to control “refractoriness” effects; (2) methods to control attention; (3) vMMN and veridical perception. PMID:25278859

  9. Emotion-related visual mismatch responses in schizophrenia: impairments and correlations with emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) measure of preattentional sensory processing. While deficits in the auditory MMN are robust electrophysiological findings in schizophrenia, little is known about visual mismatch response and its association with social cognitive functions such as emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Our aim was to study the potential deficit in the visual mismatch response to unexpected facial emotions in schizophrenia and its association with emotion recognition impairments, and to localize the sources of the mismatch signals. The sample comprised 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy control subjects. Controls were matched individually to patients by gender, age, and education. ERPs were recorded using a high-density 128-channel BioSemi amplifier. Mismatch responses to happy and fearful faces were determined in 2 time windows over six regions of interest (ROIs). Emotion recognition performance and its association with the mismatch response were also investigated. Mismatch signals to both emotional conditions were significantly attenuated in patients compared to controls in central and temporal ROIs. Controls recognized emotions significantly better than patients. The association between overall emotion recognition performance and mismatch response to the happy condition was significant in the 250-360 ms time window in the central ROI. The estimated sources of the mismatch responses for both emotional conditions were localized in frontal regions, where patients showed significantly lower activity. Impaired generation of mismatch signals indicate insufficient automatic processing of emotions in patients with schizophrenia, which correlates strongly with decreased emotion recognition.

  10. Independent Control of the Magnetization in Ferromagnetic La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/SrTiO3/LaCoO3 Heterostructures Achieved by Epitaxial Lattice Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Lucas, Irene; Jiménez-Cavero, Pilar; Magén, César; Morellón, Luis; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2016-03-09

    We report the effect of interface symmetry-mismatch on the magnetic properties of LaCoO3 (LCO) thin films. Growing epitaxial LCO under tensile strain on top of cubic SrTiO3 (STO) produces a contraction along the c axis and a characteristic ferromagnetic response. However, we report here that ferromagnetism in LCO is completely suppressed when grown on top of a buffer layer of rhombohedral La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO), in spite of identical in-plane and out-of-plane lattice deformation. This confirms that it is the lattice symmetry mismatch and not just the total strain, which determines the magnetism of LCO. On the basis of this control over the magnetic properties of LCO, we designed a multilayered structure to achieve independent rotation of the magnetization in ferromagnetic insulating LCO and half-metallic ferromagnet LSMO. This is an important step forward for the design of spin-filtering tunnel barriers based on LCO.

  11. Converging Research Needs Across Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Articles: Making Research Relevant to Global Tobacco Control Practice and Policy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute’s process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts’ recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC. PMID:22990225

  12. Breaking Free of Control: How Conventional T Cells Overcome Regulatory T Cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Mercadante, Emily R.; Lorenz, Ulrike M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional T (Tcon) cells are crucial in shaping the immune response, whether it is protection against a pathogen, a cytotoxic attack on tumor cells, or an unwanted response to self-antigens in the context of autoimmunity. In each of these immune settings, regulatory T cells (Tregs) can potentially exert control over the Tcon cell response, resulting in either suppression or activation of the Tcon cells. Under physiological conditions, Tcon cells are able to transiently overcome Treg-imposed restraints to mount a protective response against an infectious threat, achieving clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function. However, evidence has accumulated in recent years to suggest that Tcon cell resistance to Treg-mediated suppression centrally contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Tipping the balance too far in the other direction, cancerous tumors utilize Tregs to establish an overly suppressive microenvironment, preventing antitumor Tcon cell responses. Given the wide-ranging clinical importance of the Tcon/Treg interaction, this review aims to provide a better understanding of what determines whether a Tcon cell is susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression and how perturbations to this finely tuned balance play a role in pathological conditions. Here, we focus in detail on the complex array of factors that confer Tcon cells with resistance to Treg suppression, which we have divided into two categories: (1) extracellular factor-mediated signaling and (2) intracellular signaling molecules. Further, we explore the therapeutic implications of manipulating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which is proposed to be the convergence point of signaling pathways that mediate Tcon resistance to suppression. Finally, we address important unresolved questions on the timing and location of acquisition of resistance, and the stability of the “Treg-resistant” phenotype. PMID:27242798

  13. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition

  14. Dynamics of DNA Mismatch Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Julie; Lin, Yuyen; Rasnik, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    DNA mismatch repair protects the genome from spontaneous mutations by recognizing errors, excising damage, and re-synthesizing DNA in a pathway that is highly conserved. Mismatch recognition is accomplished by the MutS family of proteins which are weak ATPases that bind specifically to damaged DNA, but the specific molecular mechanisms by which these proteins recognize damage and initiate excision are not known. Previous structural investigations have implied that protein-induced conformational changes are central to mismatch recognition. Because damage detection is a highly dynamic process in which conformational changes of the protein-DNA complexes occur on a time scale of a few seconds, it is difficult to obtain meaningful kinetic information with traditional ensemble techniques. In this work, we use single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study the conformational dynamics of fluorescently labeled DNA substrates in the presence of the mismatch repair protein MutS from E. coli and its human homolog MSH2/MSH6. Our studies allow us to obtain quantitative kinetic information about the rates of binding and dissociation and to determine the conformational states for each protein-DNA complex.

  15. Percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional microdiscectomy in sciatica: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Brand, Ronald; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Schenk, Barry; van den Berg-Huijsmans, Annette A; Koes, Bart W; van Buchem, M A; Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C

    2015-05-01

    Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) is a minimally invasive treatment for lumbar disc herniation, with Food and Drug Administration approval since 1991. However, no randomized trial comparing PLDD to conventional treatment has been performed. In this trial, we assessed the effectiveness of a strategy of PLDD as compared with conventional surgery. This randomized prospective trial with a noninferiority design was carried out in two academic and six teaching hospitals in the Netherlands according to an intent-to-treat protocol with full institutional review board approval. One hundred fifteen eligible surgical candidates, with sciatica from a disc herniation smaller than one-third of the spinal canal, were included. The main outcome measures for this trial were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for sciatica, visual analog scores for back and leg pain, and the patient's report of perceived recovery. Patients were randomly allocated to PLDD (n=57) or conventional surgery (n=58). Blinding was impossible because of the nature of the interventions. This study was funded by the Healthcare Insurance Board of the Netherlands. The primary outcome, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, showed noninferiority of PLDD at 8 (-0.1; [95% confidence interval (CI), -2.3 to 2.1]) and 52 weeks (-1.1; 95% CI, -3.4 to 1.1) compared with conventional surgery. There was, however, a higher speed of recovery in favor of conventional surgery (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.97]). The number of reoperations was significantly less in the conventional surgery group (38% vs. 16%). Overall, a strategy of PLDD, with delayed surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes at 1 year. At 1 year, a strategy of PLDD, followed by surgery if needed, resulted in noninferior outcomes compared with surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic control of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Kabrawala, Shail; Fox, Emily P; Nobile, Clarissa J; Johnson, Alexander D; Bennett, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque. Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. albicans and therefore undergo efficient polarized growth and mating in the presence of pheromone. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced - under a specialized set of conditions - to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In this work, we compare the genetic regulation of such "pheromone-stimulated" biofilms with that of "conventional" C. albicans biofilms. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1) that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. We show that four of the six transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1) promote formation of both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone-stimulated biofilms as C. albicans Cph1, ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12. Cph1 regulates mating in C. albicans opaque cells, and here we show that Cph1 is also essential for pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in white cells. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone- stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified 196 genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in C. albicans, and demonstrate that Cph1 is required for the latter, but not the former.

  17. Differences in proprioception, muscle force control and comfort between conventional and new-generation knee and ankle orthoses.

    PubMed

    Marchini, A; Lauermann, S P; Minetto, M A; Massazza, G; Maffiuletti, N A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle force control and proprioception between conventional and new-generation experimental orthoses. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a single-blind controlled trial in which two different types of orthosis were applied to the dominant knee or ankle, while the following variables were evaluated: muscle force control (accuracy), joint position sense, kinesthesia, static balance as well as subjective outcomes. The use of experimental orthoses resulted in better force accuracy during isometric knee extensions compared to conventional orthoses (P=0.005). Moreover, the use of experimental orthoses resulted in better force accuracy during concentric (P=0.010) and eccentric (P=0.014) ankle plantar flexions and better knee joint kinesthesia in the flexed position (P=0.004) compared to conventional orthoses. Subjective comfort (P<0.001) and preference scores were higher with experimental orthoses compared to conventional ones. In conclusion, orthosis type affected static and dynamic muscle force control, kinesthesia, and perceived comfort in healthy subjects. New-generation experimental knee and ankle orthoses may thus be recommended for prophylactic joint bracing during physical activity and to improve the compliance for orthosis use, particularly in patients who require long-term bracing.

  18. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos... technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject...

  19. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos... technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject...

  20. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rail Tank Cars Transporting Chemical and Petroleum Cargos... technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject...

  1. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.33 Section 439.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  2. 40 CFR 439.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.43 Section 439.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  3. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  4. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  5. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  6. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.33 Section 439.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  7. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  8. 40 CFR 439.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.43 Section 439.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL...

  9. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tank Barges and Ocean/Sea Tankers Transporting Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection...

  10. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tank Barges and Ocean/Sea Tankers Transporting Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection...

  11. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tank Barges and Ocean/Sea Tankers Transporting Chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection...

  12. Comparison between Variable and Conventional Volume-Controlled Ventilation on Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Experimental Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Isabela; Padilha, Gisele A; Huhle, Robert; Wierzchon, Caio; Miranda, Paulo J B; Ramos, Isalira P; Rocha, Nazareth; Cruz, Fernanda F; Santos, Raquel S; de Oliveira, Milena V; Souza, Sergio A; Goldenberg, Regina C; Luiz, Ronir R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo G; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung tissue elasticity and destruction of structures supporting alveoli and capillaries. The impact of mechanical ventilation strategies on ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in emphysema is poorly defined. New ventilator strategies should be developed to minimize VILI in emphysema. The present study was divided into two protocols: (1) characterization of an elastase-induced emphysema model in rats and identification of the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, defined as a high specific lung elastance associated with large right ventricular end-diastolic area; and (2) comparison between variable (VV) and conventional volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) on lung mechanics and morphometry, biological markers, and cardiac function at that time point. In the first protocol, Wistar rats (n = 62) received saline (SAL) or porcine pancreatic elastase (ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks, respectively. Evaluations were performed 1, 3, 5, or 8 weeks after the last intratracheal instillation of saline or elastase. After identifying the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, an additional 32 Wistar rats were randomized into the SAL and ELA groups and then ventilated with VV or VCV (n = 8/group) [tidal volume (VT) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 3 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.4] for 2 h. VV was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (mean VT = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. Non-ventilated (NV) SAL and ELA animals were used for molecular biology analysis. The time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, was observed 5 weeks after the last elastase instillation. At this time point, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, amphiregulin, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels were higher in ELA compared to SAL. In ELA animals

  13. Comparison between Variable and Conventional Volume-Controlled Ventilation on Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Experimental Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Isabela; Padilha, Gisele A.; Huhle, Robert; Wierzchon, Caio; Miranda, Paulo J. B.; Ramos, Isalira P.; Rocha, Nazareth; Cruz, Fernanda F.; Santos, Raquel S.; de Oliveira, Milena V.; Souza, Sergio A.; Goldenberg, Regina C.; Luiz, Ronir R.; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo G.; Silva, Pedro L.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung tissue elasticity and destruction of structures supporting alveoli and capillaries. The impact of mechanical ventilation strategies on ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in emphysema is poorly defined. New ventilator strategies should be developed to minimize VILI in emphysema. The present study was divided into two protocols: (1) characterization of an elastase-induced emphysema model in rats and identification of the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, defined as a high specific lung elastance associated with large right ventricular end-diastolic area; and (2) comparison between variable (VV) and conventional volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) on lung mechanics and morphometry, biological markers, and cardiac function at that time point. In the first protocol, Wistar rats (n = 62) received saline (SAL) or porcine pancreatic elastase (ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks, respectively. Evaluations were performed 1, 3, 5, or 8 weeks after the last intratracheal instillation of saline or elastase. After identifying the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, an additional 32 Wistar rats were randomized into the SAL and ELA groups and then ventilated with VV or VCV (n = 8/group) [tidal volume (VT) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 3 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.4] for 2 h. VV was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (mean VT = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. Non-ventilated (NV) SAL and ELA animals were used for molecular biology analysis. The time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, was observed 5 weeks after the last elastase instillation. At this time point, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, amphiregulin, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels were higher in ELA compared to SAL. In ELA animals

  14. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-yan; Li, Qiang; Chen, Xi-ping; Tao, Lu-yang

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26170824

  15. Analysis of the computed torque drive method and comparison with conventional position servo for a computer-controlled manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markiewicz, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    A manipulator and its control system (modeled after a Stanford design) is being developed as part of an artificial intelligence project. This development includes an analytical study of the control system software. A comparison is presented of the computed torque method and the conventional position servo. No conclusion is made as to the perference of one system over the other, as it is dependent upon the application and the results of a sampled data analysis.

  16. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Western Alkaline Coal Mining § 434.84 Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant...

  17. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Western Alkaline Coal Mining § 434.84 Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant...

  18. Genetic Control of Conventional and Pheromone-Stimulated Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Kabrawala, Shail; Fox, Emily P.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque. Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. albicans and therefore undergo efficient polarized growth and mating in the presence of pheromone. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced – under a specialized set of conditions – to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In this work, we compare the genetic regulation of such “pheromone-stimulated” biofilms with that of “conventional” C. albicans biofilms. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1) that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. We show that four of the six transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1) promote formation of both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone-stimulated biofilms as C. albicans Cph1, ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12. Cph1 regulates mating in C. albicans opaque cells, and here we show that Cph1 is also essential for pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in white cells. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone- stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified 196 genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in C. albicans, and demonstrate that Cph1 is required for the latter, but not the former. PMID:23637598

  19. Educational Mismatch and Self-Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Keith A.; Roche, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on educational mismatch concentrates on estimating its labor market consequences but with a focus on wage and salary workers. This paper examines the far less studied influence of mismatch on the self-employed. Using a sample of workers in science and engineering fields, results show larger earnings penalties for mismatch among…

  20. Minimum Power Requirements and Optimal Rotor Design for Conventional, Compound, and Coaxial Helicopters Using Higher Harmonic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanetti, Eli B.

    This thesis presents a method for computing the optimal aerodynamic performance of conventional, compound, and coaxial helicopters in trimmed forward flight with a limited set of design variables, including the blade's radial twist and chord distributions and conventional and higher harmonic blade pitch control. The optimal design problem, which is cast as a variational statement, minimizes the sum of the induced and viscous power required to develop a prescribed lift and/or thrust. The variational statement is discretized and solved efficiently using a vortex-lattice technique. We present two variants of the analysis. In the first, the sectional blade aerodynamics are modeled using a linear lift curve and a quadratic drag polar, and flow angles are assumed to be small. The result is a quadratic programming problem that yields a linear set of equations to solve for the unknown optimal design variables. In the second approach, the problem is cast as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem, which is solved using Newton iteration. This approach, which accounts for realistic lift and drag coefficients including the effects of stall and the attendant increase in drag at high angles of attack, is capable of optimizing the blade planform in addition to the radial twist distribution and conventional and higher harmonic blade pitch control. We show that for conventional rotors, coaxial counterrotating rotors, and a wing-rotor compound, using radially varying twist and chord distributions and higher harmonic blade pitch control can produce significant reductions in required power, especially at high advance ratios.

  1. Opposite Drug Prescription and Cost Trajectories following Integrative and Conventional Care for Pain – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Tobias; Petzold, Max; Kohls, Niko; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacotherapy may have a limited role in long-term pain management. Comparative trajectories of drug prescriptions and costs, two quality-of-care indicators for pain conditions, are largely unknown subsequent to conventional or integrative care (IC) management. The objectives of this study were to compare prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and cost of first line drugs for pain patients referred to conventional or anthroposophic IC in Stockholm County, Sweden. Methods In this retrospective high quality registry case-control study, IC and conventional care patients were identified through inpatient care registries and matched on pain diagnosis (ICD-10: M79), age, gender and socio-demographics. National drug registry data was used to investigate changes in DDD and costs from 90/180 days before, to 90/180 days after, index visits to IC and conventional care. The primary selected drug category was analgesics, complemented by musculo-skeletal system drugs (e.g. anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants) and psycholeptics (e.g. hypnotics, sedatives). Results After index care visits, conventional care pain patients (n = 1050) compared to IC patients (n = 213), were prescribed significantly more analgesics. The average (95% CI) group difference was 15.2 (6.0 to 24.3), p = 0.001, DDD/patient after 90 days; and 21.5 (7.4 to 35.6), p = 0.003, DDD/patient after 180 days. The cost of the prescribed and sold analgesics was significantly higher for conventional care after 90 days: euro/patient 10.7 (1.3 to 20.0), p = 0.025. Changes in drug prescription and costs for the other drug categories were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Drug prescriptions and costs of analgesics increased following conventional care and decreased following IC, indicating potentially fewer adverse drug events and beneficial societal cost savings with IC. PMID:24827981

  2. Opposite drug prescription and cost trajectories following integrative and conventional care for pain--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Tobias; Petzold, Max; Kohls, Niko; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy may have a limited role in long-term pain management. Comparative trajectories of drug prescriptions and costs, two quality-of-care indicators for pain conditions, are largely unknown subsequent to conventional or integrative care (IC) management. The objectives of this study were to compare prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and cost of first line drugs for pain patients referred to conventional or anthroposophic IC in Stockholm County, Sweden. In this retrospective high quality registry case-control study, IC and conventional care patients were identified through inpatient care registries and matched on pain diagnosis (ICD-10: M79), age, gender and socio-demographics. National drug registry data was used to investigate changes in DDD and costs from 90/180 days before, to 90/180 days after, index visits to IC and conventional care. The primary selected drug category was analgesics, complemented by musculo-skeletal system drugs (e.g. anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants) and psycholeptics (e.g. hypnotics, sedatives). After index care visits, conventional care pain patients (n = 1050) compared to IC patients (n = 213), were prescribed significantly more analgesics. The average (95% CI) group difference was 15.2 (6.0 to 24.3), p = 0.001, DDD/patient after 90 days; and 21.5 (7.4 to 35.6), p = 0.003, DDD/patient after 180 days. The cost of the prescribed and sold analgesics was significantly higher for conventional care after 90 days: euro/patient 10.7 (1.3 to 20.0), p = 0.025. Changes in drug prescription and costs for the other drug categories were not significantly different between groups. Drug prescriptions and costs of analgesics increased following conventional care and decreased following IC, indicating potentially fewer adverse drug events and beneficial societal cost savings with IC.

  3. European Expert Consensus Paper on the implementation of Article 14 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Luke

    2016-11-01

    On 24 November 2015, under the auspices of the European Policy Roundtable on Smoking Cessation, 15 experts on tobacco control and dependence from across the European Union, chaired by Professor Luke Clancy, met in Oslo, Norway, to discuss the implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, namely Article 14. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, this paper reports the consensus reached by all Roundtable participants on the need to further advance the availability and access to services to support cessation of tobacco use. The implementation of services to support cessation of tobacco use in line with Article 14 can and should be significantly improved to protect the health of European citizens. The meeting was initiated and funded by Pfizer.

  4. A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Study of Nanocrystalline Silver, Manuka Honey, and Conventional Dressing in Healing Diabetic Foot Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Enid Wai-Yung; To, Tony Shing-Shun; Wong, Thomas Kwok-Shing

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline silver (nAg) and Manuka honey (MH) dressing have increasing popularity for treating diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). This study was an open-label randomized controlled trial with three parallel groups' design in examining the preliminary effectiveness of nAg against MH and conventional dressing in healing DFU in terms of ulcer healing, ulcer infection, and inflammation. 31 participants (11 in the nAg group, 10 in the MH group, and 10 in the convention group) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Wound cleaning, debridement, and topical dressing application were performed according to the group allocation in each visit at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. The results found that the proportions of complete ulcer healing were 81.8%, 50%, and 40% in the nAg, MH, and conventional groups, respectively. The ulcer size reduction rate was potentially higher in the nAg group (97.45%) than the MH group (86.21%) and the conventional group (75.17%). In bacteriology, nAg showed a greater rate of microorganism reduction although it was not significant. To conclude, nAg alginate was potentially superior to MH and conventional dressing in healing diabetic foot ulcer in terms of ulcer size reduction rate. PMID:28239398

  5. Outline of an on-site inspection regime for conventional arms control in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The complexity of the negotiations on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was emphasized recently by General John R. Galvin, SACEUR, when he stated, {open_quotes}The difficulties of comparing the relative strengths of strategic or intermediate-range nuclear arsenals pale in comparison with the problems of assessing the relative capabilities of opposing conventional forces.{open_quotes} Throughout this process, intensive and rigorous verification measures must be developed and enforced to ensure an acceptable degree of reliability. The eventual agreement will require a complex verification monitoring process covering a vast geographical area. The long-term success of the agreement to a large extent will depend on the level of confidence achieved by the verification process and the effective deployment of technological means will be essential to that process.

  6. Control of Structure in Conventional Friction Stir Welds Through a Kinematic Theory of Metal Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    suggested a “chaotic-dynamic mixing” in the material [2]. Later tracer studies, using steel shot [3], aluminum shims [4], copper foil [5], bi-metallic...35812 Keywords: friction stir welding, AA2219, material flow Abstract In friction stir welding ( FSW ), a rotating pin is translated along a...welding, by a shoulder on the pin. In conventional FSW , the weld metal rests on an “anvil”, which supports the heavy “plunge” load on the tool. In

  7. The structural impact of DNA mismatches

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Giulia; Dans, Pablo D.; Gomez-Pinto, Irene; Ivani, Ivan; Gonzalez, Carlos; Orozco, Modesto

    2015-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of all the transversion and transition mismatches in three different DNA environments have been characterized by molecular dynamics simulations and NMR spectroscopy. We found that the presence of mismatches produced significant local structural alterations, especially in the case of purine transversions. Mismatched pairs often show promiscuous hydrogen bonding patterns, which interchange among each other in the nanosecond time scale. This therefore defines flexible base pairs, where breathing is frequent, and where distortions in helical parameters are strong, resulting in significant alterations in groove dimension. Even if the DNA structure is plastic enough to absorb the structural impact of the mismatch, local structural changes can be propagated far from the mismatch site, following the expected through-backbone and a previously unknown through-space mechanism. The structural changes related to the presence of mismatches help to understand the different susceptibility of mismatches to the action of repairing proteins. PMID:25820425

  8. German cockroach allergen levels in North Carolina schools: comparison of integrated pest management and conventional cockroach control.

    PubMed

    Nalyanya, Godfrey; Gore, J Chad; Linker, H Michael; Schal, Coby

    2009-05-01

    Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) and conventional pest control in controlling German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations and concentrations of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 in public school buildings. Two school districts included six schools that used conventional pest control and one district included seven schools that used IPM to control pests. Cockroach traps were deployed to assess the level of infestation, settled dust samples were collected in food service areas, classrooms, and other school areas, and the Bla g 1 allergen was quantified by ELISA. Both cockroach counts and Bla g 1 concentrations were dependent on the pest control approach, with highly significant differences between IPM-treated schools and conventionally treated schools in both the cockroach mean trap counts (0 versus 82.6 +/- 17.3 cockroaches/trap/wk, respectively) and in the amount of Bla g 1 in dust samples (2.8 +/- 0.3 versus 30.6 +/- 3.4 U/g dust). Cockroaches and Bla g 1 were primarily associated with food preparation and food service areas and much less with classrooms and offices. Our data extend recent findings from studies in homes, showing that cockroach allergens can be reduced by cockroach elimination alone or by integrating several tactics including education, cleaning, and pest control. IPM is not only effective at controlling cockroaches but also can lead to long-term reductions in cockroach allergen concentrations, resulting in a healthier environment for students and school personnel.

  9. Mandibular arch orthodontic treatment stability using passive self-ligating and conventional systems in adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wey, Mang Chek; Othman, Siti Adibah

    2017-01-01

    Objective This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the stability of mandibular arch orthodontic treatment outcomes between passive self-ligating and conventional systems during 6 months of retention. Methods Fortyseven orthodontic patients with mild to moderate crowding malocclusions not requiring extraction were recruited based on inclusion criteria. Patients (mean age 21.58 ± 2.94 years) were randomized into two groups to receive either passive self-ligating (Damon® 3MX, n = 23) or conventional system (Gemini MBT, n = 24) orthodontic treatment. Direct measurements of the final sample comprising 20 study models per group were performed using a digital caliper at the debonding stage, and 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after debonding. Paired t-test, independent t-test, and non-parametric test were used for statistical analysis. Results A significant increase (p < 0.01) in incisor irregularity was observed in both self-ligating and conventional system groups. A significant reduction (p < 0.01) in second interpremolar width was observed in both groups. Mandibular arch length decreased significantly (p = 0.001) in the conventional system group but not in the self-ligating system group. A similar pattern of stability was observed for intercanine width, first interpremolar width, intermolar width, and arch depth throughout the 6-month retention period after debonding. Comparison of incisor irregularity and arch dimension changes between self-ligating system and conventional system groups during the 6 months were non-significant. Conclusions The stability of treatment outcomes for mild to moderate crowding malocclusions was similar between the self-ligating system and conventional system during the first 6 months of retention. PMID:28127535

  10. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509

  11. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Joossens, L

    2000-01-01

    Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing.

  12. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L.

    2000-01-01

    Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing. PMID:10994267

  13. Chimeric Proteins to Detect DNA Damage and Mismatches

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchen-Maloney, S; Malfatti, M; Robbins, K M

    2002-01-14

    assays in which we looked both at (1) preferential degradation of damaged or mismatched DNA after addition of a chimeric protein, and (2) preferential binding of the chimeric proteins to damaged or mismatched DNA. In our experiments, we used various samples containing damage or mismatches and a control sample containing no damage or mismatches. When a chimeric protein was added to the DNA samples, the damage- or mismatch-recognition portion of the chimeric protein bound the samples containing the DNA damage or mismatch, allowing the nuclease portion to degrade the DNA. Thus, we measured both the preferential binding to the damaged or mismatched DNA and the preferential degradation of these same samples. We showed this in gel-based assays as well as in multiplex flow-cytometry assays. This year, we also focused on a thermophilic protein, MutS, which in nature functions to detect mistakes in DNA replication by its mismatch-detection capability in an organism that lives under extreme thermal conditions (75 C). Because of its thermophilic stability, this protein has great potential as a SNP detection tool. However, the results of our multiplex experiments were unclear-potentially because of interference between samples on different beads. In summary, our results using chimeric proteins and MutS suggest that the proteins and methods developed in this project have application for detecting SNPs and DNA damage as well as for genetic testing.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of epitaxial growth on a (111) layer with mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Ghazali, A.; Lévy, J.-C. S.

    1997-04-01

    A high-temperature deposition of adatoms on a substrate with or without lattice mismatch from -10% to +10%, followed by slow cooling to a given temperature, is simulated by means of a Monte Carlo algorithm with Lennard-Jones interatomic pair potentials. Stranski-Krastanov growth is always observed with a lateral island size controlled by the lattice mismatch, while the deposition mode acts strongly on the island slope. Complete healing of the island structure never occurs before the tenth layer. The interlayer distance undergoes oscillations as a function of the layer number. This is observed for a ±10% mismatch as well as for a -5% mismatch.

  15. Effect of strength mismatch on fracture toughness of HSLA steel weld joints

    SciTech Connect

    Rak, I.; Gliha, V.; Gubeljak, N.; Praunseis, Z.; Kocak, M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this experimental work is to present the results of measured toughness and strength on mismatched weld joints made on HSLA steel grade HT 80. In the determined over and undermatched weld joints the local mismatching in the through thickness direction was found by hardness measurement. It seems that local mismatch because of WM low toughness has controlled the fracture behavior of weld metal and HAZ in both cases instead of the global one. Direct local CTOD({delta}{sub 5}) technique is found to be particular useful for the determination of fracture toughness values on mismatched weld joints.

  16. Localized and Controlled Delivery of Nitric Oxide to the Conventional Outflow Pathway via Enzyme Biocatalysis: Toward Therapy for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chandrawati, Rona; Chang, Jason Y H; Reina-Torres, Ester; Jumeaux, Coline; Sherwood, Joseph M; Stamer, W Daniel; Zelikin, Alexander N; Overby, Darryl R; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is able to lower intraocular pressure (IOP); however, its therapeutic effects on outflow physiology are location- and dose-dependent. A NO delivery platform that directly targets the resistance-generating region of the conventional outflow pathway and locally liberates a controlled dose of NO is reported. An increase in outflow facility (decrease in IOP) is demonstrated in a mouse model. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Tracking the relevance of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in legislation and litigation through the online resource, Tobacco Control Laws.

    PubMed

    Muggli, Monique E; Zheng, Annie; Liberman, Jonathan; Coxon, Nicholas; Candler, Liz; Donley, Kaitlin; Lambert, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is increasingly referenced and incorporated into the objectives, definitions and provisions of domestic legislation worldwide. It is also relied upon by courts in interpreting and upholding strong tobacco control measures challenged by the tobacco industry. In this special communication, we describe these trends and explore the important new online resource-Tobacco Control Laws (http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org)--that has been used to track them.

  18. Phase-reduction-theory-based treatment of extended delayed feedback control algorithm in the presence of a small time delay mismatch.

    PubMed

    Novičenko, Viktor; Pyragas, Kestutis

    2012-08-01

    The delayed feedback control (DFC) methods are noninvasive, which means that the control signal vanishes if the delay time is adjusted to be equal to the period of a target unstable periodic orbit (UPO). If the delay time differs slightly from the UPO period, a nonvanishing periodic control signal is observed. We derive an analytical expression for this period for a general class of multiple-input multiple-output systems controlled by an extended DFC algorithm. Our approach is based on the phase-reduction theory adapted to systems with time delay. The analytical results are supported by numerical simulations of the controlled Rössler system.

  19. Phase-reduction-theory-based treatment of extended delayed feedback control algorithm in the presence of a small time delay mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novičenko, Viktor; Pyragas, Kestutis

    2012-08-01

    The delayed feedback control (DFC) methods are noninvasive, which means that the control signal vanishes if the delay time is adjusted to be equal to the period of a target unstable periodic orbit (UPO). If the delay time differs slightly from the UPO period, a nonvanishing periodic control signal is observed. We derive an analytical expression for this period for a general class of multiple-input multiple-output systems controlled by an extended DFC algorithm. Our approach is based on the phase-reduction theory adapted to systems with time delay. The analytical results are supported by numerical simulations of the controlled Rössler system.

  20. The influence of sound generator associated with conventional amplification for tinnitus control: randomized blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Gisele Munhoes; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Medeiros, Italo Roberto Torres; Oiticcica, Jeanne; da Silva, Eleonora Csipai; Penteado, Silvio

    2014-07-23

    Hearing aids with an integrated sound generator have been used to enhance the treatment of tinnitus. The main aim of this study was to verify whether the combined use of amplification and sound generator is more effective than conventional amplification alone in reducing tinnitus annoyance by means of the use of a new hearing aid with an integrated sound generator. A total of 49 patients underwent a blind randomized clinical trial. Tinnitus annoyance was measured by Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and numerical scales, and psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus were also performed. The sound generator was set at the lowest intensity capable of providing relief from tinnitus. Results showed that 62.5% of the patients presented a reduction in tinnitus annoyance in the combined fitting group and in the group with amplification alone, 78% showed a reduction. This difference between the groups was not statistically significant. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Control of Structure in Conventional Friction Stir Welds through a Kinematic Theory of Metal Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubisoff, H.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Nunes, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating pin is translated along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. Metal is prevented from flowing up the pin, which would result in plowing/cutting instead of welding, by a shoulder on the pin. In conventional FSW, the weld metal rests on an "anvil", which supports the heavy "plunge" load on the tool. In this study, both embedded tungsten wires along and copper plating on the faying surfaces were used to trace the flow of AA2219 weld metal around the C-FSW tool. The effect of tool rotational speed, travel speed, plunge load, and pin thread pitch on the resulting weld metal flow was evaluated. Plan, longitudinal, and transverse section x-ray radiographs were examined to trace the metal flow paths. The results are interpreted in terms of a kinematic theory of metal flow in FSW.

  2. Curricula, Competition and Conventional Bonds: The Educational Role in Drug Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norland, Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluations of school curricular drug control efforts show they are only modestly successful because they are based on an inaccurate theory of drug taking. Social control theory is suggested as a better model of drug taking and drug resistance. Asserts strong bonds to school decrease the likelihood of interaction with delinquent peers and thereby…

  3. Screening conventional fungicides...control of blister rust on sugar pine in California

    Treesearch

    Clarence R. Quick

    1967-01-01

    After 5 years, 4 of 14 fungicides tested showed varying pr of development into satisfactory direct control of blister rust. Little promise of systemic control was found. Trees treated were second-growth sugar pine in a mixed conifer forest in eastern Shasta County, California, where blister rust has been intensifying for many years. Most trees received basal-stem...

  4. Randomized controlled trial of the shang ring versus conventional surgical techniques for adult male circumcision: safety and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Sokal, David C; Li, Philip S; Zulu, Robert; Awori, Quentin D; Combes, Stephanie L; Simba, Raymond O; Lee, Richard; Hart, Catherine; Perchal, Paul; Hawry, Hayden J; Bowa, Kasonde; Goldstein, Marc; Barone, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    To compare clinical profiles of Shang Ring versus conventional circumcisions. Parallel group open-label randomized controlled trial with one-to-one allocations in 2 sites. We enrolled HIV-negative men aged 18-54 years in Homa Bay, Kenya, and Lusaka, Zambia and followed them at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 60 days after Shang Ring versus conventional circumcision. We compared the duration of surgery, postoperative pain using a visual analog scale, adverse events rates, time to complete wound healing by clinical assessment, participant acceptability, and provider preferences between circumcision groups. We randomized 200 men to each group; 197 and 201 contributed to the Shang Ring and conventional surgery analyses, respectively. Adverse event rates were similar between groups. Pain scores at most time points were similar, however, the Shang Ring group reported higher scores for worst pain during erections (3.5 ± 1.9 vs. 2.3 ± 1.7; P < 0.001). Significantly more men were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance following Shang Ring male circumcision (MC), 95.7% versus 85.9% (P = 0.02) in Kenya, and 96.8% versus 71.3% (P < 0.01) in Zambia. Although median time to complete wound healing was 43 days in both groups, conventional circumcisions healed on average 5.2 days sooner (P < 0.001). Shang Ring procedures took one-third the time of conventional MC, 7 versus 20 minutes. All circumcision providers preferred the Shang Ring. Safety profiles of the 2 techniques were similar, all MC providers preferred the Shang Ring technique, and study participants preferred the Shang Ring's cosmetic results. The Shang Ring should be considered for adult MC as programs scale-up.

  5. Manual wheelchair-handling skills by caregivers using new and conventional rear anti-tip devices: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R Lee; Walker, Rebecca; Smith, Cher; Best, Krista; Macleod, Donald A; Thompson, Kara

    2009-10-01

    Kirby RL, Walker R, Smith C, Best K, MacLeod DA, Thompson K. Manual wheelchair-handling skills by caregivers using new and conventional rear anti-tip devices: a randomized controlled trial. To test the hypothesis that, in comparison with caregivers handling manual wheelchairs equipped with conventional rear anti-tip devices (C-RADs), those using a new design (Arc-RADs) perform relevant wheelchair skills better and as safely. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation center. Caregivers (n=16) and the wheelchair users (n=16) for whom they cared. Participants were trained in wheelchair-handling skills for an average of 54 minutes each. Total percentage score on a set of 20 rear anti-tip device- and caregiver-relevant skills from the Wheelchair Skills Test, version 3.2, administered a minimum of 3 days after training. For the C-RAD and Arc-RAD groups, the mean +/- SD Wheelchair Skills Test scores were 40%+/-0% and 98.8%+/-3.5%, respectively (P<.001). Skills that required the wheelchair to be tipped back extensively (eg, for ascending a 15cm curb) accounted for the differences between the groups. There were no adverse effects in either group. The Arc-RAD design allows significantly better caregiver wheelchair-handling skills than the conventional design, without compromising safety.

  6. Job Sprawl, Spatial Mismatch, and Black Employment Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between job sprawl and the spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs. Using data from a variety of sources, including the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and U.S. Department of Commerce's ZIP Code Business Patterns, I control extensively for metropolitan area characteristics and other factors. In addition, I use…

  7. Job Sprawl, Spatial Mismatch, and Black Employment Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between job sprawl and the spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs. Using data from a variety of sources, including the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and U.S. Department of Commerce's ZIP Code Business Patterns, I control extensively for metropolitan area characteristics and other factors. In addition, I use…

  8. Periacetabular bone mineral density changes after resurfacing hip arthroplasty versus conventional total hip arthroplasty. A randomized controlled DEXA study.

    PubMed

    Smolders, José M H; Pakvis, Dean F; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W; Verdonschot, Nico; van Susante, Job L C

    2013-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) changes after hip resurfacing (RHA) versus an established conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 71 patients were allocated randomly to receive either an RHA press-fit cobalt-chromium cup (n=38) or a THA with a threaded titanium cup and polyethylene-metal-inlay insert (n=33). The BMD in five separate periacetabular regions of interest (ROI) was prospectively quantified preoperative until 24 months. We conclude that, in contrast to our hypothesis, periacetabular BMD was better preserved after RHA than after placement of a conventional THA. Long term follow-up studies are necessary to see whether this benefit in bone preservation sustains over longer time periods and whether it is turned into clinical benefits at future revision surgery.

  9. 78 FR 54913 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; United States..., made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as...

  10. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  11. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  12. Effect of burst TENS and conventional TENS combined with cryotherapy on pressure pain threshold: randomised, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Macedo, L B; Josué, A M; Maia, P H B; Câmara, A E; Brasileiro, J S

    2015-06-01

    To assess the immediate effect of conventional and burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in combination with cryotherapy on pain threshold and tolerance in healthy individuals. Randomised, controlled trial. University laboratory. One hundred and twelve healthy women. Volunteers were allocated at random to seven groups (n=16): (1) control, (2) placebo TENS, (3) conventional TENS, (4) burst TENS, (5) cryotherapy, (6) cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS, and (7) cryotherapy in combination with conventional TENS. Pain threshold and tolerance were measured by applying a pressure algometer at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, before and after each intervention. The primary outcome measure was pressure pain threshold. A significant increase in pain threshold and tolerance at the 5% level of significance was recorded as follows: burst TENS {pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 1.2]; pain tolerance: mean difference 3.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 3.7)}, cryotherapy [pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.2); pain tolerance: mean difference 1.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.0)] and cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS [pain threshold: mean difference 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.8); pain tolerance: mean difference 4.9 (95% CI 5.0 to 4.8)]. Cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS provided greater analgesia compared with the other groups (P<0.001). These results support the use of cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS to reduce induced pain, and suggest a potentiating effect when these techniques are combined. No such association was found between cryotherapy and conventional TENS. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defect control of conventional and anomalous electron transport at complex oxide interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Gunkel, F.; Bell, Chris; Inoue, Hisashi; ...

    2016-08-30

    Using low-temperature electrical measurements, the interrelation between electron transport, magnetic properties, and ionic defect structure in complex oxide interface systems is investigated, focusing on NdGaO3/SrTiO3 (100) interfaces. Field-dependent Hall characteristics (2–300 K) are obtained for samples grown at various growth pressures. In addition to multiple electron transport, interfacial magnetism is tracked exploiting the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). These two properties both contribute to a nonlinearity in the field dependence of the Hall resistance, with multiple carrier conduction evident below 30 K and AHE at temperatures ≲10 K. Considering these two sources of nonlinearity, we suggest a phenomenological model capturing themore » complex field dependence of the Hall characteristics in the low-temperature regime. Our model allows the extraction of the conventional transport parameters and a qualitative analysis of the magnetization. The electron mobility is found to decrease systematically with increasing growth pressure. This suggests dominant electron scattering by acceptor-type strontium vacancies incorporated during growth. The AHE scales with growth pressure. In conclusion, the most pronounced AHE is found at increased growth pressure and, thus, in the most defective, low-mobility samples, indicating a correlation between transport, magnetism, and cation defect concentration.« less

  14. A randomised controlled trial comparing a dilating vaginal speculum with a conventional bivalve speculum.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Weisberg, E; Lieberman, D; Fraser, I S

    2001-11-01

    Cervical smears are traditionally taken with the aid of a metal or disposable plastic bivalve speculum. Many women complain of discomfort with these specula. This study compares the efficacy and women's experiences of a new 'dilating speculum' called the Veda-scope, with a conventional metal bivalve speculum (Pederson). The aims of this study were: to determine whether the Veda-scope provides adequate visualisation of the cervix and vaginal walls and an adequate cervical cytology specimen; and to compare user acceptability and women's levels of comfort between the Veda-scope and the bivalve speculum. Sixty-four women were randomised to be examined with the Veda-scope and 60 with the bivalve speculum, by one of two operators. Each woman completed a questionnaire that included subjective views of their previous cervical smear experiences, and acceptability of the examination at the study consultation. Cytologists were blinded as to which speculum was used for cervical sampling. Of women examined, 7-83% of women found Veda-scope examinations comfortable, compared to 38-62% of women who found examinations with the bivalve comfortable; 94% of the women preferred the 'comfort' of the Veda-scope. The Veda-scope was as good as the bivalve speculum in providing samples for cytological analysis following the initial learning curve, and also provided markedly superior magnified views of the cervix and vaginal fornices.

  15. Defect Control of Conventional and Anomalous Electron Transport at Complex Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunkel, F.; Bell, Chris; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Bongju; Swartz, Adrian G.; Merz, Tyler A.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Harashima, Satoshi; Sato, Hiroki K.; Minohara, Makoto; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Dittmann, Regina; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2016-07-01

    Using low-temperature electrical measurements, the interrelation between electron transport, magnetic properties, and ionic defect structure in complex oxide interface systems is investigated, focusing on NdGaO3 /SrTiO3 (100) interfaces. Field-dependent Hall characteristics (2-300 K) are obtained for samples grown at various growth pressures. In addition to multiple electron transport, interfacial magnetism is tracked exploiting the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). These two properties both contribute to a nonlinearity in the field dependence of the Hall resistance, with multiple carrier conduction evident below 30 K and AHE at temperatures ≲10 K . Considering these two sources of nonlinearity, we suggest a phenomenological model capturing the complex field dependence of the Hall characteristics in the low-temperature regime. Our model allows the extraction of the conventional transport parameters and a qualitative analysis of the magnetization. The electron mobility is found to decrease systematically with increasing growth pressure. This suggests dominant electron scattering by acceptor-type strontium vacancies incorporated during growth. The AHE scales with growth pressure. The most pronounced AHE is found at increased growth pressure and, thus, in the most defective, low-mobility samples, indicating a correlation between transport, magnetism, and cation defect concentration.

  16. Numerical simulations of flow fields through conventionally controlled wind turbines & wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emre Yilmaz, Ali; Meyers, Johan

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, an Actuator-Line Model (ALM) is implemented in our in-house pseudo-spectral LES solver SP-WIND, including a turbine controller. Below rated wind speed, turbines are controlled by a standard-torque-controller aiming at maximum power extraction from the wind. Above rated wind speed, the extracted power is limited by a blade pitch controller which is based on a proportional-integral type control algorithm. This model is used to perform a series of single turbine and wind farm simulations using the NREL 5MW turbine. First of all, we focus on below-rated wind speed, and investigate the effect of the farm layout on the controller calibration curves. These calibration curves are expressed in terms of nondimensional torque and rotational speed, using the mean turbine-disk velocity as reference. We show that this normalization leads to calibration curves that are independent of wind speed, but the calibration curves do depend on the farm layout, in particular for tightly spaced farms. Compared to turbines in a lone-standing set-up, turbines in a farm experience a different wind distribution over the rotor due to the farm boundary-layer interaction. We demonstrate this for fully developed wind-farm boundary layers with aligned turbine arrangements at different spacings (5D, 7D, 9D). Further we also compare calibration curves obtained from full farm simulations with calibration curves that can be obtained at a much lower cost using a minimal flow unit.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of doxorubicin-eluting beads vs conventional chemoembolisation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Golfieri, R; Giampalma, E; Renzulli, M; Cioni, R; Bargellini, I; Bartolozzi, C; Breatta, A D; Gandini, G; Nani, R; Gasparini, D; Cucchetti, A; Bolondi, L; Trevisani, F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is the treatment of choice for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Doxorubicin-loaded drug-eluting beads (DEB)-TACE is expected to improve the performance of conventional TACE (cTACE). The aim of this study was to compare DEB-TACE with cTACE in terms of time-to-tumour progression (TTP), adverse events (AEs), and 2-year survival. Methods: Patients were randomised one-to-one to undergo cTACE or DEB-TACE and followed-up for at least 2 years or until death. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation was repeated ‘on-demand'. Results: We enrolled 177 patients: 89 underwent DEB-TACE and 88 cTACE. The median number of procedures was 2 in each arm, and the in-hospital stay was 3 and 4 days, respectively (P=0.323). No differences were found in local and overall tumour response. The median TTP was 9 months in both arms. The AE incidence and severity did not differ between the arms, except for post-procedural pain, more frequent and severe after cTACE (P<0.001). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 86.2% and 56.8% after DEB-TACE and 83.5% and 55.4% after cTACE (P=0.949). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), serum albumin, and tumour number independently predicted survival (P<0.05). Conclusions: The DEB-TACE and the cTACE are equally effective and safe, with the only advantage of DEB-TACE being less post-procedural abdominal pain. PMID:24937669

  18. Moon Convention

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-23

    People with similar jobs or interests hold conventions and meetings, so why shouldn't moons? Pandora, Prometheus, and Pan -- seen here, from right to left -- also appear to be holding some sort of convention in this image. Some moons control the structure of nearby rings via gravitational "tugs." The cumulative effect of the moon's tugs on the ring particles can keep the rings' edges from spreading out as they are naturally inclined to do, much like shepherds control their flock. Pan is a prototypical shepherding moon, shaping and controlling the locations of the inner and outer edges of the Encke gap through a mechanism suggested in 1978 to explain the narrow Uranian rings. However, though Prometheus and Pandora have historically been called "the F ring shepherd moons" due to their close proximity to the ring, it has long been known that the standard shepherding mechanism that works so well for Pan does not apply to these two moons. The mechanism for keeping the F ring narrow, and the roles played -- if at all -- by Prometheus and Pandora in the F ring's configuration are not well understood. This is an ongoing topic for study by Cassini scientists. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 29 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Jan. 2, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.6 million miles (2.6 million kilometers) from the rings and at a Sun-ring-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 86 degrees. Image scale is 10 miles (15 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia18306

  19. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  20. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  1. Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongsup.

    1991-01-01

    As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base case scenario (a one-day surprise attach by North Korea) whether arms control measures will stabilize or destabilize the military status quo on the Peninsula in terms of North Korea's extent of penetration in the actual war situations. Four alternative measures are derived from the analysis: (1) Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs); (2) Establishment of Asymmetric Non-Deployment Zone (NDZ); (3) Reduction of the joint US-South Korean Team Spirit' exercises and North Korea's Forward Deployed Forces; and, (4) Reduction of South Korean and US forces and North Korean Forces. Findings indicate that establishment of the NDZ and a North Korean unilateral reduction are estimated to best achieve the goal of South Korean arms control.

  2. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO framework convention on tobacco control: the case for India.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Reddy, K Srinath; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2006-01-01

    India ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world's first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impacts of tobacco. Post ratification, each member state as part of general obligation has agreed to develop, implement, periodically update and review comprehensive multisectoral national tobacco control strategies, plans and programmes in accordance with this Convention and the protocols to which it is a Party. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to track tobacco use among young people across countries and the GYTS surveillance system intends to enhance the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programs. The South-East Asia Region of WHO has developed the "Regional Strategy for Utilization of the GYTS" to meet this need for countries in the Region. In 2003, India has passed its national tobacco control legislation (India Tobacco Control Act [ITCA]), which includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to second hand smoke. Data in the GYTS (India) report can be used as a baseline measure for future evaluation of the tobacco control programs implemented by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. India has to upscale some provisions of its National Law to accommodate all of the requirements of FCTC. Using determinants measured by GYTS in India, the government can monitor the impact of enforcing various provisions of the ITCA and the progress made in achieving the goals of the WHO FCTC and the Regional Strategies. Effective enforcement of the provisions of ITCA will show in the receding numbers of tobacco use prevalence figures and reduction in the expenditures associated with tobacco use in India.

  3. Connections between conventional and singular-value-based multi-variable flight control system design techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Myers, T. T.; Thompson, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that frequency-domain multivariable robustness techniques, when combined with classical multivariable procedures, can offer an additional means of evaluating FCS designs. A lateral-directional FCS for an advanced fighter is used as an example. Robustness to unstructured aircraft-input uncertainties is assessed using purely numerical singular-value procedures. Literal approximations for the singular values of the open-loop plant and controller and for the inverse return difference are shown to provide a means of decomposing and diagnosing robustness problems that are insoluble via purely numerical methods.

  4. Non-conventional methods for the control of post-harvest pear diseases.

    PubMed

    Mari, M; Bertolini, P; Pratella, G C

    2003-01-01

    Pears are highly perishable products, especially during the post-harvest phase, when considerable losses can occur. Among the fungal diseases, blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum, grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea, Mucor rot caused by Mucor piriformis are common on pear fruits. Other (weak) pathogens like Phialophora malorum, Alternaria spp., and Cladosporium herbarum tend to infect wounds and senescent fruits. A post-harvest fungicide treatment can reduce decay but effectiveness decreases with the appearance of resistant strains. There is a clear need to develop new and alternative methods of controlling post-harvest diseases. The emerging technologies for the control of post-harvest fungal diseases are essentially threefold: application of antagonistic microorganisms, application of natural antimicrobial substances and application of sanitizing products. Two biological control products, Aspire (Candida oleophila I-182) (Ecogen, Langhorne, PA, USA) and Bio-Save 110 (Pseudomonas syringae) (EcoScience, Worcester, MA, USA; formerly Bio-Save 11) are currently registered in the USA for post-harvest application to pears. Other potential biocontrol agents have been isolated from fruit and shown to suppress post-harvest decay in pear. It is important that evaluation of these microorganisms be carried out in a product formulation because the formulation may improve or diminish antagonistic efficacy depending on the concentration of chemical product and the duration of exposure to the treatment. Plants produce a large number of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial effects on post-harvest pathogens. Detailed studies have been conducted on aromatic compounds, essential oils, volatile substances and isothiocyanates, with encouraging results. In particular, allyl-isothiocyanate used as a volatile substance, controls blue mould in 'Conference' and 'Kaiser' pear inoculated with a thiabendazole-resistant strain. Sanitizing products such as chlorine dioxide, peracetic

  5. Rethinking the Air Operations Center, Air Force Command and Control in Conventional War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    ADm-A285 444 DTIC ELECT ,IAll Rethinking the Air Operations Center Air Force C)mmand and Control in Conv6ntal War. J. TAYOR SIMK, Lt Col, USAF School...at the theater level as the best way to achieve these dual aims.3 Indeed, this advocacy is tightly intertwined with the history of the USAF in its...Conversely, fully effective strikes on poorly selected targets will, at best , merely waste effort, and are quite likely to be counterproductive. Thus

  6. Emotion-Related Visual Mismatch Responses in Schizophrenia: Impairments and Correlations with Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential (ERP) measure of preattentional sensory processing. While deficits in the auditory MMN are robust electrophysiological findings in schizophrenia, little is known about visual mismatch response and its association with social cognitive functions such as emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Our aim was to study the potential deficit in the visual mismatch response to unexpected facial emotions in schizophrenia and its association with emotion recognition impairments, and to localize the sources of the mismatch signals. Experimental Design The sample comprised 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy control subjects. Controls were matched individually to patients by gender, age, and education. ERPs were recorded using a high-density 128-channel BioSemi amplifier. Mismatch responses to happy and fearful faces were determined in 2 time windows over six regions of interest (ROIs). Emotion recognition performance and its association with the mismatch response were also investigated. Principal Observations Mismatch signals to both emotional conditions were significantly attenuated in patients compared to controls in central and temporal ROIs. Controls recognized emotions significantly better than patients. The association between overall emotion recognition performance and mismatch response to the happy condition was significant in the 250–360 ms time window in the central ROI. The estimated sources of the mismatch responses for both emotional conditions were localized in frontal regions, where patients showed significantly lower activity. Conclusions Impaired generation of mismatch signals indicate insufficient automatic processing of emotions in patients with schizophrenia, which correlates strongly with decreased emotion recognition. PMID:24116046

  7. Identification of the human chromosomal region containing the iridogoniodysgenesis anomaly locus by genomic-mismatch scanning.

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, F; Mears, A J; Guo, S W; Pearce, W G; Walter, M A

    1997-01-01

    Genome-mismatch scanning (GMS) is a new method of linkage analysis that rapidly isolates regions of identity between two genomes. DNA molecules from regions of identity by descent from two relatives are isolated based on their ability to form extended mismatch-free heteroduplexes. We have applied this rapid technology to identify the chromosomal region shared by two fifth-degree cousins with autosomal dominant iridogoniodysgenesis anomaly (IGDA), a rare ocular neurocristopathy. Markers on the short arm of human chromosome 6p were recovered, consistent with the results of conventional linkage analysis conducted in parallel, indicating linkage of IGDA to 6p25. Control markers tested on a second human chromosome were not recovered. A GMS error rate of approximately 11% was observed, well within an acceptable range for a rapid, first screening approach, especially since GMS results would be confirmed by family analysis with selected markers from the putative region of identity by descent. These results demonstrate not only the value of this technique in the rapid mapping of human genetic traits, but the first application of GMS to a multicellular organism. Images Figure 2 PMID:9245991

  8. Selective nanoscale growth of lattice mismatched materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Seung-Chang; Brueck, Steven R. J.

    2017-06-20

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods of forming high-quality semiconductor devices using lattice-mismatched materials. In one embodiment, a composite film including one or more substantially-single-particle-thick nanoparticle layers can be deposited over a substrate as a nanoscale selective growth mask for epitaxially growing lattice-mismatched materials over the substrate.

  9. Mismatch Receptive Fields in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zmarz, Pawel; Keller, Georg B

    2016-11-23

    In primary visual cortex, a subset of neurons responds when a particular stimulus is encountered in a certain location in visual space. This activity can be modeled using a visual receptive field. In addition to visually driven activity, there are neurons in visual cortex that integrate visual and motor-related input to signal a mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow. Here we show that these mismatch neurons have receptive fields and signal a local mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow in restricted regions of visual space. These mismatch receptive fields are aligned to the retinotopic map of visual cortex and are similar in size to visual receptive fields. Thus, neurons with mismatch receptive fields signal local deviations of actual visual flow from visual flow predicted based on self-motion and could therefore underlie the detection of objects moving relative to the visual flow caused by self-motion. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  10. Entanglement verification with detection efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanbao; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    Entanglement is a necessary condition for secure quantum key distribution (QKD). When there is an efficiency mismatch between various detectors used in the QKD system, it is still an open problem how to verify entanglement. Here we present a method to address this problem, given that the detection efficiency mismatch is characterized and known. The method works without assuming an upper bound on the number of photons going to each threshold detector. Our results suggest that the efficiency mismatch affects the ability to verify entanglement: the larger the efficiency mismatch is, the smaller the set of entangled states that can be verified becomes. When there is no mismatch, our method can verify entanglement even if the method based on squashing maps [PRL 101, 093601 (2008)] fails.

  11. Valence band anticrossing in highly mismatched alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberi, Kirstin Mclean

    Semiconductor alloys offer the ability to tune certain material parameters such as the band gap or carrier effective mass through precise control of the alloy composition, allowing them to be optimized for specific device requirements. While many alloys demonstrate near linear composition dependencies in these properties, those containing isoelectronic anion species that are significantly mismatched in electronegativity or ionization energy, known as highly mismatched alloys (HMA), exhibit substantial deviation from this trend. Here, the optical and electrical properties of HMAs containing dilute concentrations of large metallic anions are investigated in the context of a valence band anticrossing (VBAC) theory. Minority species with low ionization energies often introduce localized p-states near the valence band edge of the host semiconductor. Hybridization of these localized states with the extended p-states of the host may be described by a 12 x 12 Hamiltonian and produces a splitting of the alloy valence band into E+ and E - states. Photomodulated reflectance studies coupled with the VBAC theory confirm that the band gap bowing observed in GaSbxAs1-x and GaBixAs1-x is caused by an upward movement of the valence band edge as a result of the anticrossing interaction between the E+ and E- states. The valence band restructuring also adversely affects hole transport in these alloys through an increase in the heavy hole effective mass and the addition of an alloy disorder scattering mechanism. Finally, the VBAC theory has been extended to group IV HMAs as well as to the dilute magnetic semiconductor Ga1-x MnxAs, both of which exhibit strong hole localization at the minority species sites.

  12. Osmium complexation of mismatched DNA: effect of the bases adjacent to mismatched 5-methylcytosine.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-03-18

    The efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes is a key point for the design of sequence-specific detection of DNA methylation. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes changed depending on the type of 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine forming a mismatched base pair. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique "side reaction" was observed. However, the nature of the mismatched base pairs in the reaction site did not influence the selectivity of osmium complex formation with methylated DNA.

  13. The Association Between Broad Antigen HLA Mismatches, Eplet HLA Mismatches and Acute Rejection After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Do Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Wong, Germaine; Chapman, Jeremy R.; McDonald, Stephen P.; Coates, Patrick T.; Watson, Narelle; Russ, Graeme R.; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Lim, Wai Hon

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitope matching, which evaluates mismatched amino acids within antigen-antibody interaction sites (eplets), may better predict acute rejection than broad antigen matching alone. We aimed to determine the association between eplet mismatches and acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Methods The association between eplet mismatches, broad antigen mismatches and acute rejection was assessed using adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression. Model discrimination for acute rejection was evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Of the 3,499 kidney transplant recipients from 2006 to 2011, the average (SD) number of broad antigen and eplet mismatches were 3.4 (1.7) and 22.8 (12.2), respectively. Compared with 0 to 2 eplet mismatches, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for acute rejection among those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches was 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.52; P = 0.001). The adjusted area under the curve for broad antigen mismatches was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.56-0.61), similar to that for eplet mismatches (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.56-0.61; P = 0.365). In recipients who were considered as low immunological risk (0-2 broad antigen HLA-ABDR mismatch), those with 20 or greater eplet mismatches experienced an increased risk of rejection compared to those with less than 20 mismatches (adjusted HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11-3.08; P = 0.019). Conclusions Increasing number of eplet mismatches is associated with acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Consideration of eplet HLA mismatches may improve risk stratification for acute rejection in a selected group of kidney transplant candidates. PMID:27990485

  14. Instantaneous Conventions

    PubMed Central

    Misyak, Jennifer; Noguchi, Takao; Chater, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Humans can communicate even with few existing conventions in common (e.g., when they lack a shared language). We explored what makes this phenomenon possible with a nonlinguistic experimental task requiring participants to coordinate toward a common goal. We observed participants creating new communicative conventions using the most minimal possible signals. These conventions, furthermore, changed on a trial-by-trial basis in response to shared environmental and task constraints. Strikingly, as a result, signals of the same form successfully conveyed contradictory messages from trial to trial. Such behavior is evidence for the involvement of what we term joint inference, in which social interactants spontaneously infer the most sensible communicative convention in light of the common ground between them. Joint inference may help to elucidate how communicative conventions emerge instantaneously and how they are modified and reshaped into the elaborate systems of conventions involved in human communication, including natural languages. PMID:27793986

  15. Conventional SLA and chemically modified SLA implants in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Namita; Oates, Thomas W; Vargas, Adriana; Alexander, Peggy P; Schoolfield, John D; Alex McMahan, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a chemically modified Sand blasted, Large grit, Acid etched (SLA) surface, compared with a conventional SLA surface, to enhance implant healing and integration in poorly controlled diabetic patients, a group previously demonstrated to have compromises and delays in implant stabilization during the metabolically active healing period following implant placement. The study enrolled 24 patients with type 2 diabetes, baseline HbA1c levels between 7.5-11.4%, and a minimum of two posterior mandibular tooth sites at least 4 months following extraction and appropriate for implant placement. Each patient, at a randomly selected site, received an implant with the conventional SLA surface; at the second site, the patient received an implant with the chemically modified SLA (modSLA) surface. Thus, 48 study implants were placed. Implant stability was assessed using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA). Readings were taken from the buccal and proximal directions for each implant. Implant stability (ISQ) was assessed at the time of surgical placement (baseline) and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 weeks following implant placement. No significant differences in implant stability were observed between conventional SLA implants and modSLA implants, and the time courses of implant stabilization following implant placement were similar for the two implant types. Baseline ISQ and minimum ISQ was slightly higher in subjects with higher HbA1c levels, but were similar during 12-16 weeks following implant placement. Forty-seven (98%) of the 48 implants were determined to be successfully osseointegrated and continued to restoration. Implant stabilization was similar for the conventional SLA and chemically modified SLA implants in type 2 diabetic patients with relatively poor glycemic control. Furthermore, this study demonstrated clinically successful implant placement even in poorly controlled diabetic patients. © 2011 John Wiley

  16. Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?

    PubMed

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Gibson, Rachel; Polaszek, Andrew; Morris, Rebecca J; Craze, Paul G; Planqué, Robert; Symondson, William O C; Memmott, Jane

    2009-03-01

    While many studies have demonstrated that organic farms support greater levels of biodiversity, it is not known whether this translates into better provision of ecosystem services. Here we use a food-web approach to analyse the community structure and function at the whole-farm scale. Quantitative food webs from 10 replicate pairs of organic and conventional farms showed that organic farms have significantly more species at three trophic levels (plant, herbivore and parasitoid) and significantly different network structure. Herbivores on organic farms were attacked by more parasitoid species on organic farms than on conventional farms. However, differences in network structure did not translate into differences in robustness to simulated species loss and we found no difference in percentage parasitism (natural pest control) across a variety of host species. Furthermore, a manipulative field experiment demonstrated that the higher species richness of parasitoids on the organic farms did not increase mortality of a novel herbivore used to bioassay ecosystem service. The explanation for these differences is likely to include inherent differences in management strategies and landscape structure between the two farming systems.

  17. The decision-making process in Brazil's ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Erica Cavalcanti; Pereira, Andre; Cavalcante, Tania Maria; Oliveira, Egléubia Andrade; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-09-21

    Tobacco consumption is a leading cause of various types of cancer and other tobacco-related diseases. In 2003, the World Health Assembly adopted the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), which aims to protect citizens from the health, social, environmental, and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. The Convention was to be ratified by the Member States of the WHO; in Brazil's case, ratification involved the National Congress, which held public hearings in the country's leading tobacco growing communities (municipalities). The current study analyzes this decision-making process according to the different interests, positions, and stakeholders. In methodological terms, this is a qualitative study based on document research, drawing primarily on the shorthand notes from the public hearings. We analyze the interests and arguments for and against ratification. The article shows that although preceded by intense debates, the final decision in favor of ratification was made by a limited group of government stakeholders, characterizing a decision-making process similar to a funnel.

  18. Immediate versus conventional loaded single implants in the posterior mandible: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Porto Barboza, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare implant survival, marginal bone loss, and complications between immediate and conventional loading of single implants installed in the posterior mandible. An extensive electronic search was performed of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant articles published up to January 2015. After the selection process, five studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. The results of the meta-analysis were expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD), with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. Results were pooled according to heterogeneity using the fixed- or random-effects model. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques (immediate loading vs. conventional loading) with regard to implant survival (OR 1.71, 95% CI 0.40 to 7.36; P=0.47). There was no statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -1.55 to 0.38; P=0.24). The reported mechanical and biological complications were common to both types of intervention, with the exception of probing depth, which was greater following the immediate loading technique (SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.44), although this was not statistically significant (P=0.43). Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) compared to conventional treatment in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; van de Meent, Henk; van Dongen, Robert T M; Klomp, Frank P; Groenewoud, Hans; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Staal, J Bart

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) with conventional treatment in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) in a randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Setting The study was conducted at a level 1 trauma centre in the Netherlands. Participants 56 adult patients with CRPS-1 participated. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Interventions Patients received either PEPT in a maximum of five treatment sessions, or conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Measurements Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6 and 9 months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure was the Impairment level Sum Score—Restricted Version (ISS-RV), consisting of visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire, active range of motion (AROM) and skin temperature. Secondary outcome measures included Pain Disability Index (PDI); muscle strength; Short Form 36 (SF-36); disability of arm, shoulder and hand; Lower Limb Tasks Questionnaire (LLTQ); 10 m walk test; timed up-and-go test (TUG) and EuroQol-5D. Results The intention-to-treat analysis showed a clinically relevant decrease in ISS-RV (6.7 points for PEPT and 6.2 points for conventional treatment), but the between-group difference was not significant (0.96, 95% CI −1.56 to 3.48). Participants allocated to PEPT experienced a greater improvement in AROM (between-group difference 0.51, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.94; p=0.02). The per protocol analysis showed larger and significant between-group effects on ISS-RV, VAS-pain, AROM, PDI, SF-36, LLTQ and TUG. Conclusions We cannot conclude that PEPT is superior to conventional treatment for patients with CRPS-1. Further high-quality research on the effects of PEPT is warranted given the potential effects as indicated by the per protocol analysis. Trial registration numbers NCT00817128 and NTR 2090. PMID:26628523

  20. Mismatch negativity in socially withdrawn children.

    PubMed

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Marshall, Peter J; Fox, Nathan A; Schorr, Efrat A; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Individual differences in auditory processing have been associated with social withdrawal, introversion, and other forms of dysfunction in social engagement. The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of an electrophysiologic response that is seen to index early cortical auditory processing (mismatch negativity, MMN) among socially withdrawn and more sociable control children. Auditory event-related potentials to standard and deviant tone stimuli were computed for 23 socially withdrawn children and 22 control subjects. We calculated MMN difference waveforms for frontal, central, and parietal electrode sites. Socially withdrawn children had smaller MMN amplitude and longer MMN latencies compared with more sociable control children. The findings point to the involvement of individual differences in early cortical auditory processing in childhood social withdrawal. Reduced MMN amplitude and delayed latency may index a component of social withdrawal seen in socially withdrawn children and in depressed and schizophrenic patients. The existence of a secondary MMN generator in the frontal cortex may provide a link between the hypothesized frontal lobe involvement in childhood social withdrawal, schizophrenia, and depression and the MMN reductions seen in these conditions.

  1. Home-based virtual reality balance training and conventional balance training in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Chieh; Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Lo, Chien-Shun; Lin, Kwan-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Virtual reality has the advantage to provide rich sensory feedbacks for training balance function. This study tested if the home-based virtual reality balance training is more effective than the conventional home balance training in improving balance, walking, and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-three patients with idiopathic PD were recruited and underwent twelve 50-minute training sessions during the 6-week training period. The experimental group (n = 11) was trained with a custom-made virtual reality balance training system, and the control group (n = 12) was trained by a licensed physical therapist. Outcomes were measured at Week 0 (pretest), Week 6 (posttest), and Week 8 (follow-up). The primary outcome was the Berg Balance Scale. The secondary outcomes included the Dynamic Gait Index, timed Up-and-Go test, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, and the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The experimental and control groups were comparable at pretest. After training, both groups performed better in the Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, timed Up-and-Go test, and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire at posttest and follow-up than at pretest. However, no significant differences were found between these two groups at posttest and follow-up. This study did not find any difference between the effects of the home-based virtual reality balance training and conventional home balance training. The two training options were equally effective in improving balance, walking, and quality of life among community-dwelling patients with PD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Monitoring Fine-Grained Sediment in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona - Control Network and Conventional Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Roderic A.; Kohl, Keith; Schmidt, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam was initiated to survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents the methods used to establish the high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) control network required for this effort as well as the conventional surveying techniques used in the study. Using simultaneous, dual-frequency GPS vector-based methods, the network points were determined to have positioning accuracies of less than 0.03 meters (m) and ellipsoidal height accuracies of between 0.01 and 0.10 m at a 95-percent degree of confidence. We also assessed network point quality with repeated, electronic (optical) total-station observations at 39 points for a total of 362 measurements; the mean range was 0.022 m in horizontal and 0.13 in vertical at a 95-percent confidence interval. These results indicate that the control network is of sufficient spatial and vertical accuracy for collection of airborne and subaerial remote-sensing technologies and integration of these data in a geographic information system on a repeatable basis without anomalies. The monitoring methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches over various time intervals. The reaches varied from 1.3 to 6.4 kilometers in length. Field results from surveys in 2000, 2002, and 2004 are described, during which conventional surveying was used to collect more than 3000 points per day. Ground points were used as checkpoints and to supplement areas just below or above the water surface, where remote-sensing data are not collected or are subject to greater error. An accuracy of +or- 0.05 m was identified as the minimum precision of individual ground points. These results are important for assessing digital elevation model (DEM) quality and identifying detection limits of significant change among surfaces generated from remote-sensing technologies.

  3. Postoperative pain after conventional laparoscopic versus single-port sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Conde, Salvador; Del Agua, Isaías Alarcón; Moreno, Antonio Barranco; Macías, María Socas

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic approach is the gold standard for surgical treatment of morbid obesity. The single-port (SP) approach has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective technique for the treatment of morbid obesity in several case control studies. Compare conventional multiport laparoscopy (LAP) with an SP approach for the treatment of morbid obesity using sleeve gastrectomy in terms of postoperative pain using a visual analog scale (VAS) 0-100, surgical outcome, weight loss, and aesthetical satisfaction at 6 months after surgery. University Hospital, Spain. Randomized, controlled pilot study. The trial enrolled patients suitable for bariatric surgery, with a body mass index lower than 50 kg/m(2) and xiphoumbilical distance lower than 25 cm. Patients were randomly assigned to receive LAP or SP sleeve gastrectomy. A total of 30 patients were enrolled; 15 were assigned to LAP group and 15 to SP group. No patients were lost during follow-up. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. A significantly higher level of pain during movement was noted for the patients in the LAP group on the first (mean VAS 49.3±12.2 versus 34.1±8.9, P = .046) and second days (mean VAS 35.9±10.2 versus 22.1±7.9, P = .044) but not the third day (mean VAS 20.1±5.2 versus 34.12.9 ±4.3, P = .620). No differences regarding pain at rest, operative time, complications, or weight loss at 6 months were observed. Higher aesthetical satisfaction was noticed in SP group. In selected patients, SP surgery presented less postoperative pain in sleeve gastrectomy compared with the conventional laparoscopic approach with similar surgical results. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lattice QCD with mismatched fermi surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2014-04-25

    We study two flavor fermions with mismatched chemical potentials in quenched lattice QCD. We first consider a large isospin chemical potential, where a charged pion is condensed, and then introduce a small mismatch between the chemical potentials of the up quark and the down antiquark. We find that the homogeneous pion condensate is destroyed by the mismatch of the chemical potentials. We also find that the two-point correlation function shows spatial oscillation, which indicates an inhomogeneous ground state, although it is not massless but massive in the present simulation setup.

  5. Health treaty dilution: a case study of Japan's influence on the language of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Assunta, Mary; Chapman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Background The Japanese government is an important shareholder in the Japanese tobacco industry. Negotiations to develop the WHO's historic Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) were based on consensus, resulting in countries needing to agree to the lowest acceptable common denominator in clause development. Objective To illustrate Japan's role in negotiating key optional language in the FCTC text. Methods Summary reports, text proposals, conference papers, and speeches related to the six FCTC negotiation sessions were reviewed for repeated words, concepts and emerging themes. Key stakeholders were interviewed. Key words such as “sovereignty”, “appropriate”, “latitude”, “individual”, “flexibility”, and “may” representing optional language were examined. Results The Japanese government's proposals for “appropriate” and optional measures are reflected in the final FCTC text that accommodates flexibility on interpretation and implementation on key tobacco controls. While Japan was not alone in proposing optional language, consensus accommodated their proposals. Conclusion Japan's success in arguing for extensive optional language seriously weakened the FCTC. Accordingly, international tobacco control can be expected to be less successful in reducing the burden of disease caused by tobacco use. PMID:16905717

  6. Suction assisted pulse lavage: randomised controlled studies comparing its efficacy with conventional dressings in healing of chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Rahul; Barreto, Elvino; Paul, Kingsly M

    2014-02-01

    Chronic, open, non-healing wounds pose a continual challenge in medicine as the treatment is variable and there are no documented consistent responses. Although wound aetiologies vary and there are a number of factors that affect chronic wound pathogenesis, wound ischaemia and bacterial colonisation of wounds are the chief concerns among them. Conventionally, pulse lavage has been used primarily as a wound debriding device. To address both the critical factors of wound ischaemia and bacterial burden, a couple of technical points were proposed and applied in this study. The objective of our study was to evaluate pulse lavage therapy's ability to improve the healing rate of chronic wounds compared to that of the traditional saline-wet-to-moist dressings. The study period was from 1 August 2010 to 31 January 2012 and was conducted in our institution. Thirty patients with 31 chronic, non-healing wounds were enrolled in the study after obtaining proper consent. Subjects were randomised (15 patients each) to the pulse lavage group and the control group. Patients in the test group were subjected to irrigation of their wounds with pulsed lavage at 10 to 15 psi pressure. In the control group, wound was closed by applying moist betadine saline gauze dressings after cleaning with saline. Wounds treated with pulse lavage system significantly reduced in size, had better control of bacterial contamination and had overall faster healing rates. Efficacy of pulse lavage can be increased by correct method of administration of the irrigant.

  7. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the Brazilian political agenda, 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luiz Antônio da Silva; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Ferreira, Vanessa Nolasco

    2017-09-21

    This study analyses the development of a tobacco-control agenda in Brazil following the country's participation in the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). This process started with the diplomatic negotiations for the participation of Brazil in the treaty, in 2003, and its ratification by the National Congress, in 2005, and was marked by substantial controversies between public health players, who are accountable for tobacco-control actions, and the high echelon of Brazilian diplomacy, emissaries of the tobacco industry, representatives of small tobacco farmers from the Southern region of the country, congress representatives, senators and ministers. The study is based on the contributions of John W. Kingdon on the development of an agenda for the formulation of public policies. It took into account secondary references, legislative and institutional sources from the 1995 to 2005 period. It concluded that the association of tobacco-related healthcare actions by technically skilled officials, the involvement of the high echelon of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (policy flow), the initiative for the establishment of the WHO-FCTC (problem flow), and the existence of a favorable environment in both, executive and legislative (political flow), opened a window of opportunity for WHO-FCTC ratification and its inclusion in the government decision agenda.

  8. Health treaty dilution: a case study of Japan's influence on the language of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Assunta, Mary; Chapman, Simon

    2006-09-01

    The Japanese government is an important shareholder in the Japanese tobacco industry. Negotiations to develop the WHO's historic Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) were based on consensus, resulting in countries needing to agree to the lowest acceptable common denominator in clause development. To illustrate Japan's role in negotiating key optional language in the FCTC text. Summary reports, text proposals, conference papers, and speeches related to the six FCTC negotiation sessions were reviewed for repeated words, concepts and emerging themes. Key stakeholders were interviewed. Key words such as "sovereignty", "appropriate", "latitude", "individual", "flexibility", and "may" representing optional language were examined. The Japanese government's proposals for "appropriate" and optional measures are reflected in the final FCTC text that accommodates flexibility on interpretation and implementation on key tobacco controls. While Japan was not alone in proposing optional language, consensus accommodated their proposals. Japan's success in arguing for extensive optional language seriously weakened the FCTC. Accordingly, international tobacco control can be expected to be less successful in reducing the burden of disease caused by tobacco use.

  9. Comparison of Gene Expression and Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling between Phenotypically Normal Cloned Pigs and Conventionally Bred Controls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengting; Li, Jian; Lin, Lin; Nielsen, Anders Lade; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt; Vajta, Gábor; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Du, Yutao; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Animal breeding via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) has enormous potential in agriculture and biomedicine. However, concerns about whether SCNT animals are as healthy or epigenetically normal as conventionally bred ones are raised as the efficiency of cloning by SCNT is much lower than natural breeding or In-vitro fertilization (IVF). Thus, we have conducted a genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and control pigs in two tissues (muscle and liver), using Affymetrix Porcine expression array as well as modified methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MMSDK) and Solexa sequencing technology. Typical tissue-specific differences with respect to both gene expression and DNA methylation were observed in muscle and liver from cloned as well as control pigs. Gene expression profiles were highly similar between cloned pigs and controls, though a small set of genes showed altered expression. Cloned pigs presented a more different pattern of DNA methylation in unique sequences in both tissues. Especially a small set of genomic sites had different DNA methylation status with a trend towards slightly increased methylation levels in cloned pigs. Molecular network analysis of the genes that contained such differential methylation loci revealed a significant network related to tissue development. In conclusion, our study showed that phenotypically normal cloned pigs were highly similar with normal breeding pigs in their gene expression, but moderate alteration in DNA methylation aspects still exists, especially in certain unique genomic regions. PMID:22022462

  10. Comparison of robotic-assisted and conventional acetabular cup placement in THA: a matched-pair controlled study.

    PubMed

    Domb, Benjamin G; El Bitar, Youssef F; Sadik, Adam Y; Stake, Christine E; Botser, Itamar B

    2014-01-01

    Improper acetabular component orientation in THA has been associated with increased dislocation rates, component impingement, bearing surface wear, and a greater likelihood of revision. Therefore, any reasonable steps to improve acetabular component orientation should be considered and explored. We therefore sought to compare THA with a robotic-assisted posterior approach with manual alignment techniques through a posterior approach, using a matched-pair controlled study design, to assess whether the use of the robot made it more likely for the acetabular cup to be positioned in the safe zones described by Lewinnek et al. and Callanan et al. Between September 2008 and September 2012, 160 THAs were performed by the senior surgeon. Sixty-two patients (38.8%) underwent THA using a conventional posterior approach, 69 (43.1%) underwent robotic-assisted THA using the posterior approach, and 29 (18.1%) underwent radiographic-guided anterior-approach THAs. From September 2008 to June 2011, all patients were offered anterior or posterior approaches regardless of BMI and anatomy. Since introduction of the robot in June 2011, all THAs were performed using the robotic technique through the posterior approach, unless a patient specifically requested otherwise. The radiographic cup positioning of the robotic-assisted THAs was compared with a matched-pair control group of conventional THAs performed by the same surgeon through the same posterior approach. The safe zone (inclination, 30°-50°; anteversion, 5°-25°) described by Lewinnek et al. and the modified safe zone (inclination, 30°-45°; anteversion, 5°-25°) of Callanan et al. were used for cup placement assessment. Matching criteria were gender, age ± 5 years, and (BMI) ± 7 units. After exclusions, a total of 50 THAs were included in each group. Strong interobserver and intraobserver correlations were found for all radiographic measurements (r > 0.82; p < 0.001). One hundred percent (50/50) of the robotic

  11. Effect of Conventional and Game-based Teaching on Oral Health Status of Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Yogesh; Asokan, Sharath; John, Baby; Gopalan, Thiruvenkadam

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of conventional and game-based teaching on the level of knowledge and practice regarding oral hygiene among 7 to 10-year-old school children. A total of 60 children aged 8 to 10 years were randomly divided into two groups: groups A and B. The intervention was started after the pretest evaluation of their knowledge regarding oral health and estimation of Debris Index-simplified (DI-S). Children in group A were given oral health education through flash cards once daily for 7 days. Children in group B were educated through the play-way method, i.e. connect the dots game combined with flash cards. The evaluations, regarding oral hygiene and DI-S were recorded on the 8th day after intervention. A follow-up score was also recorded after 1 and 3 months. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test and Chi-square test. There was significant increase in oral hygiene scores and decrease in debris scores compared to baseline in both groups at 1 week and 1 month. At 3 months interval, both groups showed a decrease in oral hygiene scores from baseline with group B showing highly significant reduction. The mean increase in knowledge score was also significantly better in group B (p < 0.05). The connect the dots game that includes oral health guidelines including good dental hygiene and dietary habits can thus be an effective intervention aid for teaching the basic oral health concepts among school going children. How to cite this article: Kumar Y, Asokan S, John B, Gopalan T. Effect of Conventional and Game-based Teaching on Oral Health Status of Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):123-126.

  12. Genetic control of conventional labeling through the bovine meat production chain by single nucleotide polymorphisms using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Capoferri, Rossana; Bongioni, Graziella; Galli, Andrea; Aleandri, Riccardo

    2006-08-01

    Since January 2002, the European Union has adopted precise guidelines aimed at protecting the safety of meat and controlling the production chain. To this purpose, the conventional traceability of livestock and meat represents the main tool, but verification of traceability requires genetic support. At present, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most innovative molecular markers in genotyping studies. The aim of this study was to verify correct labeling in a bovine meat production chain by a real-time PCR protocol based on SNP analysis. Reference hair samples from 5,000 animals were randomly collected from 22 farms. Twelve hundred meat samples were collected at different steps of the bovine meat production chain. In particular, 1,000 meat samples were collected at the slaughterhouse and 200 samples from the same animals directly at the butcher's shop. The protocol was optimized and validated by testing a set of 16 SNP markers on 95 DNA samples from bovine sires of different breeds. Thereafter, the genotyping of 2,200 samples was conducted with a set of 12 selected SNPs to verify traceability of the meat production chain at three different stages: farm, slaughterhouse, and butcher's shop. Irregularities in conventional traceability were evidenced directly in 1.87% of the samples at the slaughterhouse. This percentage increased to 3.25% when sampling was conducted at the butcher's shop. This study demonstrates that despite the precautions adopted over the meat production chain, some critical points still exist that cause the loss of a correct association between registration numbers and samples.

  13. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: the case for Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aditama, Tjandra Y; Pradono, Julianty; Rahman, Khalilul; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira; Lee, Juliette

    2008-09-01

    Indonesia has the fifth highest rate of annual cigarette consumption per person of all countries worldwide. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to provide data on youth tobacco use to countries for their development of youth-based tobacco control programs. Data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation of the tobacco control program implemented by Indonesia's Ministry of Health. The 2006 Indonesia GYTS is a school-based survey that included separate samples for Java and Sumatera, representing more than 84% of the population of Indonesia. Each sample used a two-stage cluster sample design that produced representative samples of students in secondary grades 1-3, which are associated with ages 13-15 years. This report shows that more than 1 in 10 students (12.6%) currently smoked cigarettes, with the prevalence among boys (24.5%) significantly higher than among girls (2.3%). Of the students who currently smoked, more than 7 in 10 (75.9%) reported that they desired to stop smoking now. Regarding secondhand smoke exposure, more than 6 in 10 students (64.2%) reported that they were exposed to smoke from other people in their home during the week before the survey. More than 9 in 10 students (92.9%) had seen a lot of advertisements for cigarettes on billboards during the past month and more than 8 in 10 (82.8%) had seen a lot of advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or in magazines. Tobacco control in Indonesia will likely not move forward until the government evaluates and strengthens existing laws, considers passing new strong laws, and develops protocols for enforcing all laws. The Indonesian government also should strongly consider accession to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  14. Implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in China: An arduous and long-term task.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Bai, Chun-Xue; Chen, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Chen

    2015-09-01

    China is the largest producer and consumer of tobacco in the world. Consequently, the burden of tobacco-related diseases in China is enormous. Implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) may lead to a significant reduction in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality both in China and globally. In this review, the authors summarize the epidemic of tobacco use and the progress made in implementing the WHO FCTC, including the promotion of legislation for smoke-free public places; smoking-cessation assistance; labeling of tobacco packaging; enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; increased taxes on tobacco products; increased tobacco prices; improvements in public awareness of the dangers of smoking; and identifying the barriers to implementing effective tobacco-control measures in China. Since the WHO FCTC officially took effect in China on January 9, 2006, China has taken some important steps, especially in promoting legislation for smoke-free public places. Because tobacco permeates the fabric of society, business, commerce, and politics in China, commitments and actions from the government are crucial, and implementing the WHO FCTC in China will be an arduous and long-term task.

  15. The origins, development, effects, and future of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek

    2014-05-17

    Worldwide, more than 1 billion people use tobacco, resulting in about 6 million deaths per year. The tobacco industry's documented history of subverting control efforts required innovative approaches by WHO--led by Gro Harlem Brundtland--including invocation of its constitutional authority to develop treaties. In 2003, WHO member states adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). In the decade since, 177 countries have ratified and started to implement its full provisions. Success has been tempered by new challenges. Tobacco use has fallen in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development but increased in low-income and middle-income countries, a result in no small part of illicit trade and cheap products from China and other unregulated state monopolies. This review of 50 years of policy development aimed at reducing the burden of disease attributable to tobacco reviews the origins and strategies used in forging the WHO FCTC, from the perspective of one who was there.

  16. A teleofunctional account of evolutionary mismatch.

    PubMed

    Cofnas, Nathan

    When the environment in which an organism lives deviates in some essential way from that to which it is adapted, this is described as "evolutionary mismatch," or "evolutionary novelty." The notion of mismatch plays an important role, explicitly or implicitly, in evolution-informed cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and medicine. The evolutionary novelty of our contemporary environment is thought to have significant implications for our health and well-being. However, scientists have generally been working without a clear definition of mismatch. This paper defines mismatch as deviations in the environment that render biological traits unable, or impaired in their ability, to produce their selected effects (i.e., to perform their proper functions in Neander's sense). The machinery developed by Millikan in connection with her account of proper function, and with her related teleosemantic account of representation, is used to identify four major types, and several subtypes, of evolutionary mismatch. While the taxonomy offered here does not in itself resolve any scientific debates, the hope is that it can be used to better formulate empirical hypotheses concerning the effects of mismatch. To illustrate, it is used to show that the controversial hypothesis that general intelligence evolved as an adaptation to handle evolutionary novelty can, contra some critics, be formulated in a conceptually coherent way.

  17. Controlling corporate influence in health policy making? An assessment of the implementation of article 5.3 of the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary Jonas; Smith, Julia; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2017-03-08

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) stands to significantly reduce tobacco-related mortality by accelerating the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control measures. However, the extent to which States Parties have implemented the Convention varies considerably. Article 5.3 of the FCTC, is intended to insulate policy-making from the tobacco industry's political influence, and aims to address barriers to strong implementation of the Convention associated with tobacco industry political activity. This paper quantitatively assesses implementation of Article 5.3's Guidelines for Implementation, evaluates the strength of Parties' efforts to implement specific recommendations, and explores how different approaches to implementation expose the policy process to continuing industry influence. We cross-referenced a broad range of documentary data (including FCTC Party reports and World Bank data on the governance of conflicts of interest in public administration) against Article 5.3 implementation guidelines (n = 24) for 155 Parties, and performed an in-depth thematic analysis to examine the strength of implementation for specific recommendations. Across all Parties, 16% of guideline recommendations reviewed have been implemented. Eighty-three percent of Parties that have taken some action under Article 5.3 have introduced less than a third of the guidelines. Most compliance with the guidelines is achieved through pre-existing policy instruments introduced independently of the FCTC, which rarely cover all relevant policy actors and fall short of the guideline recommendations. Measures introduced in response to the FCTC are typically restricted to health ministries and not explicit about third parties acting on behalf of the industry. Parties systematically overlook recommendations that facilitate industry monitoring. Highly selective and incomplete implementation of specific guideline recommendations facilitates

  18. Smokeless Tobacco Supply Chain in South Asia: A Comparative Analysis Using the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Kamran; Scammell, Katy; Huque, Rumana; Khan, Amina; Baral, Sushil; Ali, Shehzad; Watt, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Most South Asian countries are signatories to the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, there is little information on the extent to which FCTC standards are effectively implemented for controlling smokeless tobacco (SLT)-used by over 250 million people in the region. We assessed the feasibility of a novel approach based on interviewing the key actors of SLT supply chain and analyzing its findings using standards set by FCTC. Using a snowball-sampling technique, we interviewed point-of-sale vendors, wholesale retailers, manufacturers, raw-tobacco retailers, and farmers involved in the supply chain of SLT in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. Using a structured-questionnaire, participants were asked about their customer profiles; product types; marketing practices; suppliers; profit margins, awareness and adherence to legislation. We recruited 72% (130/180) of all supply chain actors approached. Findings indicate several loopholes in the existing taxation, regulatory, and inspection systems. A significant proportion of smuggled and counterfeit SLT products are available in the market. Most SLT products are sold without recommended warnings, information on their ingredients, and manufacturers' details. There appear to be no restrictions on sale of SLT products to minors. On the other hand, there are also several incentives built-in the supply chain that makes tobacco farming, SLT manufacturing, and its sale a profitable business. Our novel approach to study SLT control was successful in identifying and interviewing actors involved in its supply chain. The analysis using FCTC could provide valuable information to policy makers and enable them to effectively regulate SLT products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of resonant-frequency mismatch on attractors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lai, Choy Heng

    2006-06-01

    Resonant perturbations are effective for harnessing nonlinear oscillators for various applications such as controlling chaos and inducing chaos. Of physical interest is the effect of small frequency mismatch on the attractors of the underlying dynamical systems. By utilizing a prototype of nonlinear oscillators, the periodically forced Duffing oscillator and its variant, we find a phenomenon: resonant-frequency mismatch can result in attractors that are nonchaotic but are apparently strange in the sense that they possess a negative Lyapunov exponent but its information dimension measured using finite numerics assumes a fractional value. We call such attractors pseudo-strange. The transition to pesudo-strange attractors as a system parameter changes can be understood analytically by regarding the system as nonstationary and using the Melnikov function. Our results imply that pseudo-strange attractors are common in nonstationary dynamical systems.

  20. Effects of organic fractions on the formation and control of N-nitrosamine precursors during conventional drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengkun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Wang, Jun; Liu, Shuming; Chen, Chao; Xie, Yuefeng

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of N-nitrosamine precursors from dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important for water professionals to better control N-nitrosamine formation. The characterization of DOM from the Luan River in Northern China was conducted using Amberlite XAD resins and ultra-filtration methods. N-nitrosamine formation potentials were investigated for various DOM fractions. The removal of the DOM during water treatment were evaluated using dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) bulk parameters as well as size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicated that the XAD-4 hydrophilic fraction, with normalized yields of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) of 27.2, 5.2, 5.9, and 6.1 ng/mg-DOC, respectively, tended to form more N-nitrosamines than the hydrophobic and the transphilic fractions. The DOM fraction with a molecular weight (MW) below 1 kDa, with normalized yields of NDMA, NPYR, NMOR, and NPIP of 39.6, 8.1, 14.7, and 3.3 ng/mg-DOC, respectively, tended to form more N-nitrosamines than those with a higher MW. The limited removal of the hydrophilic fraction and the lower MW DOM faction during conventional water treatment processes suggests that the process may not effectively remove the nitrosamine precursors.

  1. Novel Noxipoint Therapy versus Conventional Physical Therapy for Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Charles C.; Lin, Ray S.; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yen, Chen-Tung; Biswal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    As chronic pain affects 115 million people and costs $600B annually in the US alone, effective noninvasive nonpharmacological remedies are desirable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and the generalisability of Noxipoint therapy (NT), a novel electrotherapy characterised by site-specific stimulation, intensity-and-submodality-specific settings and a immobilization period, for chronic neck and shoulder pain. Ninety-seven heavily pretreated severe chronic neck/shoulder pain patients were recruited; 34 and 44 patients were randomly allocated to different treatment arms in two patient-and-assessor-blinded, randomised controlled studies. The participants received NT or conventional physical therapy including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PT-TENS) for three to six 90-minute sessions. In Study One, NT improved chronic pain (−89.6%, Brief Pain Inventory, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval), function (+77.4%, range of motion) and quality of life (+88.1%) at follow-up (from 4 weeks to 5 months), whereas PT-TENS resulted in no significant changes in these parameters. Study Two demonstrated similar advantages of NT over PT-TENS and the generalisability of NT. NT-like treatments in a randomised rat study showed a similar reduction in chronic hypersensitivity (−81%, p < 0.01) compared with sham treatments. NT substantially reduces chronic neck and shoulder pain, restores function, and improves quality of life in a sustained manner. PMID:26552835

  2. [Effects of coated controlled release urea combined with conventional urea on winter wheat growth and soil NO3- -N].

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-ping; Sun, Zhe; Wu, Liang; Shi, Gui-fang; Zhu, Guo-liang; Li, Ya-xing; Gu, Jia-lin; Xu, Qiu-ming

    2011-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different dosages coated controlled release urea (PCU60, 60 d release duration) combined with conventional urea (U) used as basal on the winter wheat grain yield, nitrogen (N) recovery rate, and soil NO3- -N content, etc. Five treatments were installed, i.e., U (CK), 10% PCU60+90% U (PU1), 20% PCU60+80% U (PU2), 30% PCU60+70% U (PU3), and 40% PCU60+60% U (PU4). In the meantime, a comparative analysis was also carried out on the PCU60 N release characteristics under field condition and in 25 "C static water. At the same N dosage, all the test indices in treatment PU4 were significantly higher, with the grain yield, N recovery rate, total N accumulation amount, total tiller number and aboveground biomass at ripening stage, and economic benefit increased by 5.6%, 14.6%, 7.2%, 2.6%, 7.5%, and 984.3 yuan x hm(-2), respectively, compared with those in treatment U. The accumulation amount of NO3- -N in 0-100 cm soil layer in all treatments ranged in 39.70-49.93 kg x hm-2, and was the lowest (39.70 kg x hm(-2)) in treatment PU4. The N release pattern of PCU60 under field condition better fitted the N absorption characteristics of winter wheat.

  3. Tobacco industry attempts to influence and use the German government to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Thilo; Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Gilmore, Anna B

    2012-01-01

    Germany has been identified as one of a few high-income countries that opposed a strong Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the WHO's first global public health treaty. This paper examines whether the tobacco industry had influenced the German position on the FCTC. Analysis of previously confidential tobacco industry documents. The tobacco industry has identified Germany as a key target within its global strategy against the FCTC. Building on an already supportive base, the industry appears to have successfully lobbied the German government, influencing Germany's position and argumentation on key aspects of the FCTC. It then used Germany in its efforts to weaken the FCTC. The evidence suggests that the industry enjoyed success in undermining the Federal Health Ministry's position and using Germany to limit the European Union negotiating mandate. The tactics used by the tobacco industry included the creation of controversy between the financial, trade and other ministries on one side and the health ministry on the other side, the use of business associations and other front groups to lobby on the industry's behalf and securing industry access to the FCTC negotiations via the International Standardization Organization. The evidence suggests that Germany played a major role in the tobacco industry's efforts to undermine the FCTC. Germany's position consistently served to protect industry interests and was used to influence and constrain other countries. Germany thus contributed significantly to attempts to weaken an international treaty and, in doing so, failed in its responsibility to advance global health.

  4. Accelerated Adoption of Smoke-Free Laws After Ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Uang, Randy; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to evaluate the effect of ratifying the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on countries enacting smoke-free laws covering indoor workplaces, restaurants, and bars. Methods. We compared adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the FCTC and for countries’ World Bank income group. Results. Ratification of the FCTC significantly (P < .001) increased the probability of smoke-free laws. This effect faded with time, with a half-life of 3.1 years for indoor workplaces and 3.8 years for restaurants and bars. Compared with high-income countries, upper-middle–income countries had a significantly higher probability of smoke-free indoor workplace laws. Conclusions. The FCTC accelerated the adoption of smoke-free indoor workplace, restaurant, and bar laws, with the greatest effect in the years immediately following ratification. The policy implication is that health advocates must increase efforts to secure implementation of FCTC smoke-free provisions in countries that have not done so. PMID:26562125

  5. Integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Conventional baseline configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of the U.S. domestic fleet were evaluated to determine the mission characteristics that would have the most impact on U. S. transport fuel use in the future. This resulted in selection of a 197-passenger (plus cargo), about 3710-km (2000 nmi) mission. The existing data base was reviewed and additional analysis was conducted as necessary to complete the technical descriptions. The resulting baseline configuration utilizes a double-lobe, but nearly circular, body with seven-abreast seating. External characteristics feature an 8.71 aspect ratio, 31.5-degree sweep wing, a T-tail empennage, and a dual CF6-6D2, wing-mounted engine arrangement. It provides for 22 LD-2 or 11 LD-3 containers plus bulk cargo in the lower lobe. Passenger/cargo loading, servicing provisions, taxi/takeoff speeds, and field length characteristics are all compatible with accepted airline operations and regulatory provisions. The baseline configuration construction uses conventional aluminum structure except for advanced aluminum alloys and a limited amount of graphite epoxy secondary structure. Modern systems are used, including advanced guidance, navigation, and controls which emphasize application of digital electronics and advanced displays.

  6. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  7. Means and ENDS - e-cigarettes, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and global health diplomacy in action.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie

    2016-03-07

    E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.

  8. Intensive Patient Education Improves Glycaemic Control in Diabetes Compared to Conventional Education: A Randomised Controlled Trial in a Nigerian Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Essien, Okon; Otu, Akaninyene; Umoh, Victor; Enang, Ofem; Hicks, Joseph Paul; Walley, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes is now a global epidemic, but most cases are now in low- and middle-income countries. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is key to enabling patients to manage their chronic condition and can reduce the occurrence of costly and devastating complications. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of different DSME programmes in resource limited settings. Methods We conducted an unblinded, parallel-group, individually-randomised controlled trial at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (Nigeria) to evaluate whether an intensive and systematic DSME programme, using structured guidelines, improved glycaemic control compared to the existing ad hoc patient education (clinical practice was unchanged). Eligible patients (≥18 years, HbA1c > 8.5% and physically able to participate) were randomly allocated by permuted block randomisation to participate for six months in either an intensive or conventional education group. The primary outcome was HbA1c (%) at six-months. Results We randomised 59 participants to each group and obtained six-month HbA1c outcomes from 53 and 51 participants in the intensive and conventional education groups, respectively. Intensive group participants had a mean six-month HbA1c (%) of 8.4 (95% CI: 8 to 8.9), while participants in the conventional education group had a mean six-month HbA1c (%) of 10.2 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.7). The difference was statistically (P < 0.0001) and clinically significant, with intensive group participants having HbA1c outcomes on average -1.8 (95% CI: -2.4 to -1.2) percentage points lower than conventional group participants. Results were robust to adjustment for a range of covariates and multiple imputation of missing outcome data. Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a structured, guideline-based DSME intervention in a LMIC setting versus a pragmatic comparator. The intervention is potentially replicable at other levels of the Nigerian healthcare system

  9. Intensive Patient Education Improves Glycaemic Control in Diabetes Compared to Conventional Education: A Randomised Controlled Trial in a Nigerian Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Essien, Okon; Otu, Akaninyene; Umoh, Victor; Enang, Ofem; Hicks, Joseph Paul; Walley, John

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is now a global epidemic, but most cases are now in low- and middle-income countries. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is key to enabling patients to manage their chronic condition and can reduce the occurrence of costly and devastating complications. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of different DSME programmes in resource limited settings. We conducted an unblinded, parallel-group, individually-randomised controlled trial at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (Nigeria) to evaluate whether an intensive and systematic DSME programme, using structured guidelines, improved glycaemic control compared to the existing ad hoc patient education (clinical practice was unchanged). Eligible patients (≥18 years, HbA1c > 8.5% and physically able to participate) were randomly allocated by permuted block randomisation to participate for six months in either an intensive or conventional education group. The primary outcome was HbA1c (%) at six-months. We randomised 59 participants to each group and obtained six-month HbA1c outcomes from 53 and 51 participants in the intensive and conventional education groups, respectively. Intensive group participants had a mean six-month HbA1c (%) of 8.4 (95% CI: 8 to 8.9), while participants in the conventional education group had a mean six-month HbA1c (%) of 10.2 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.7). The difference was statistically (P < 0.0001) and clinically significant, with intensive group participants having HbA1c outcomes on average -1.8 (95% CI: -2.4 to -1.2) percentage points lower than conventional group participants. Results were robust to adjustment for a range of covariates and multiple imputation of missing outcome data. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a structured, guideline-based DSME intervention in a LMIC setting versus a pragmatic comparator. The intervention is potentially replicable at other levels of the Nigerian healthcare system and in other LMICs, where nurses

  10. Control of damping-off of organic and conventional cucumber with extracts from a plant-associated bacterium rivals a seed treatment pesticide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmentally friendly control measures are needed for soilborne diseases of crops grown in organic and conventional production systems. We tested ethanol extracts from cultures of Serratia marcescens N4-5 and N2-4, Burkholderia cepacia BC-1 and BC-2, and B. ambifaria BC-F for control of damping-o...

  11. Influence of sequence mismatches on the specificity of recombinase polymerase amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Daher, Rana K; Stewart, Gale; Boissinot, Maurice; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-04-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology relies on three major proteins, recombinase proteins, single-strand binding proteins, and polymerases, to specifically amplify nucleic acid sequences in an isothermal format. The performance of RPA with respect to sequence mismatches of closely-related non-target molecules is not well documented and the influence of the number and distribution of mismatches in DNA sequences on RPA amplification reaction is not well understood. We investigated the specificity of RPA by testing closely-related species bearing naturally occurring mismatches for the tuf gene sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for the cfb gene sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae. In addition, the impact of the number and distribution of mismatches on RPA efficiency was assessed by synthetically generating 14 types of mismatched forward primers for detecting five bacterial species of high diagnostic relevance such as Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, P. aeruginosa, and M. tuberculosis as well as Bacillus atropheus subsp. globigii for which we use the spores as internal control in diagnostic assays. A total of 87 mismatched primers were tested in this study. We observed that target specific RPA primers with mismatches (n > 1) at their 3'extrimity hampered RPA reaction. In addition, 3 mismatches covering both extremities and the center of the primer sequence negatively affected RPA yield. We demonstrated that the specificity of RPA was multifactorial. Therefore its application in clinical settings must be selected and validated a priori. We recommend that the selection of a target gene must consider the presence of closely-related non-target genes. It is advisable to choose target regions with a high number of mismatches (≥36%, relative to the size of amplicon) with respect to closely-related species and the best case scenario would be by choosing a unique target gene.

  12. Research Required for the Effective Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Articles 9 and 10

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge. PMID:23024247

  13. Higher-Than-Conventional Radiation Doses in Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment: A Meta-analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda Stefano, Eduardo Jose; Afonso, Sergio Luis

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To determine in a meta-analysis whether the outcomes in men with localized prostate cancer treated with high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) are better than those in men treated with conventional-dose radiotherapy (CDRT), by quantifying the effect of the total dose of radiotherapy on biochemical control (BC). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as the proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing HDRT with CDRT for localized prostate cancer. To evaluate the dose-response relationship, we conducted a meta-regression analysis of BC ratios by means of weighted linear regression. Results: Seven RCTs with a total patient population of 2812 were identified that met the study criteria. Pooled results from these RCTs showed a significant reduction in the incidence of biochemical failure in those patients with prostate cancer treated with HDRT (p < 0.0001). However, there was no difference in the mortality rate (p = 0.38) and specific prostate cancer mortality rates (p = 0.45) between the groups receiving HDRT and CDRT. However, there were more cases of late Grade >2 gastrointestinal toxicity after HDRT than after CDRT. In the subgroup analysis, patients classified as being at low (p = 0.007), intermediate (p < 0.0001), and high risk (p < 0.0001) of biochemical failure all showed a benefit from HDRT. The meta-regression analysis also detected a linear correlation between the total dose of radiotherapy and biochemical failure (BC = -67.3 + [1.8 x radiotherapy total dose in Gy]; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis showed that HDRT is superior to CDRT in preventing biochemical failure in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer patients, suggesting that this should be offered as a treatment for all patients, regardless of their risk status.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing single incision versus conventional laparoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Clerveus, Michael; Morandeira-Rivas, Antonio; Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Herrero-Bogajo, Maria Luz; Picazo-Yeste, Joaquin Salvelio; Tadeo-Ruiz, Gloria

    2014-08-01

    Single incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA) has been proposed as an alternative to conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (CLA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SILA when compared with CLA through a systematic review. We performed an electronic search of EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared SILA with CLA were included. Six RCTs met eligibility criteria, which included a total of 800 patients, 401 in the SILA group and 399 in the CLA group. There were no significant differences in terms of overall complications (odds ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-1.47; p = 0.77). SILA had a higher technical failure rate (OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.26-8.65; p = 0.01) and required a longer operative time (mean difference [MD] 4.67; 95% CI 1.76-7.57; p = 0.002). SILA was associated with better cosmetic results (standardized MD -0.4; 95% CI -0.64 to -0.16; p = 0.001) and earlier return to normal activity (MD -0.64; 95% CI -1.09 to -0.20; p = 0.005), although these advantages should be taken with caution due to the small number of studies reporting these two items and the short follow-up in the evaluation of cosmetic results. There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative pain or length of hospital stay between groups. SILA is comparable to CLA in selected patients, although it is associated with a higher technical failure rate and longer operative time. Further randomized trials are needed to determine if SILA really offers benefits over CLA.

  15. Research required for the effective implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control, articles 9 and 10.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nigel; Borland, Ron

    2013-04-01

    This paper is part of a series of articles intended to set out the research questions that are relevant to the successful implementation of the various provisions of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This paper focuses on issues affecting Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC. This paper focuses on the research that is most important for most countries, rather than on what is desirable in countries with high levels of research capacity. Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC address the regulation of contents and emissions of tobacco products and regulation of tobacco product disclosure. Such regulation will be essential if the long-term objective of reducing the danger of tobacco products is to be achieved. There are many components of tobacco and tobacco smoke that are excessively toxic and dangerous to the user. Many of these components are carcinogenic and addictive and can be removed or reduced substantially with current known technology. The fact that these components remain in tobacco and tobacco smoke at levels that are unnecessarily dangerous is precisely the reason why the successful implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC is important to tobacco control. This paper discusses the scientific challenges involved in successfully implementing Articles 9 and 10 of the FCTC, which focuses on regulating carcinogens and toxins in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the abuse liability of tobacco products, and the additives and engineering features in tobacco products that make tobacco products appealing to future consumers. The research issues we focus on are those required to support the early stages of regulation. As regulation proceeds, new and more sophisticated research questions will undoubtedly emerge.

  16. Educational Mismatches and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Both Vertical and Horizontal Mismatches in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pholphirul, Piriya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Educational mismatches constitute negative impacts on labor markets in most countries, Thailand is no exception. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the degree of educational mismatch in Thailand and its impacts on labor market outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This study analyzes data obtained from Thailand's Labor Force Survey…

  17. Memory-based mismatch response to frequency changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Astikainen, Piia; Stefanics, Gabor; Nokia, Miriam; Lipponen, Arto; Cong, Fengyu; Penttonen, Markku; Ruusuvirta, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Any occasional changes in the acoustic environment are of potential importance for survival. In humans, the preattentive detection of such changes generates the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related brain potentials. MMN is elicited to rare changes ('deviants') in a series of otherwise regularly repeating stimuli ('standards'). Deviant stimuli are detected on the basis of a neural comparison process between the input from the current stimulus and the sensory memory trace of the standard stimuli. It is, however, unclear to what extent animals show a similar comparison process in response to auditory changes. To resolve this issue, epidural potentials were recorded above the primary auditory cortex of urethane-anesthetized rats. In an oddball condition, tone frequency was used to differentiate deviants interspersed randomly among a standard tone. Mismatch responses were observed at 60-100 ms after stimulus onset for frequency increases of 5% and 12.5% but not for similarly descending deviants. The response diminished when the silent inter-stimulus interval was increased from 375 ms to 600 ms for +5% deviants and from 600 ms to 1000 ms for +12.5% deviants. In comparison to the oddball condition the response also diminished in a control condition in which no repetitive standards were presented (equiprobable condition). These findings suggest that the rat mismatch response is similar to the human MMN and indicate that anesthetized rats provide a valuable model for studies of central auditory processing.

  18. Effect of Fuel System Impedance Mismatch on Combustion Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Combustion dynamics are a challenging problem in the design and operation of premixed gas turbine combustors. In premixed combustors, pressure oscillations created by the flame dynamic response can lead to damage. These dynamics are typically controlled by designing the combustor to achieve a stable operation for planned conditions, but dynamics may still occur with minor changes in ambient operating conditions or fuel composition. In these situations, pilot flames or adjustment to fuel flow splits can be used to stabilize the combustor, but often with a compromise in emission performance. As an alternative to purely passive design changes, prior studies have demonstrated that adjustment to the fuel system impedance can be used to stabilize combustion. Prior studies have considered just the response of an individual fuel injector and combustor. However, in practical combustion systems, multiple fuel injectors are used. In this situation, individual injector impedance can be modified to produce a different dynamic response from individual flames. The resulting impedance mismatch prevents all injectors from strongly coupling to the same acoustic mode. In principle, this mismatch should reduce the amplitude of dynamics and may expand the operating margin for stable combustion conditions. In this paper, a 30 kW laboratory combustor with two premixed fuel injectors is used to study the effect of impedance mismatch on combustion stability. The two fuel injectors are equipped with variable geometry resonators that allow a survey of dynamic stability while changing the impedance of the individual fuel systems. Results demonstrate that a wide variation in dynamic response can be achieved by combining different impedance fuel injectors. A base line 7% rms pressure oscillation was reduced to less than 3% by mismatching the fuel impedance.

  19. The developmental mismatch in structural brain maturation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Regions of the human brain develop at different rates across the first two decades of life, with some maturing before others. It has been hypothesized that a mismatch in the timing of maturation between subcortical regions (involved in affect and reward processing) and prefrontal regions (involved in cognitive control) underlies the increase in risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors observed during adolescence. Most support for this 'dual systems' hypothesis relies on cross-sectional data, and it is not known whether this pattern is present at an individual level. The current study utilizes longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to describe the developmental trajectories of regions associated with risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors, namely, the amygdala, nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Structural trajectories of gray matter volumes were analyzed using FreeSurfer in 33 participants aged 7-30 years, each of whom had at least three high-quality MRI scans spanning three developmental periods: late childhood, adolescence and early adulthood (total 152 scans). The majority of individuals in our sample showed relatively earlier maturation in the amygdala and/or NAcc compared to the PFC, providing evidence for a mismatch in the timing of structural maturation between these structures. We then related individual developmental trajectories to retrospectively assessed self-reported risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors during adolescence in a subsample of 24 participants. Analysis of this smaller sample failed to find a relationship between the presence of a mismatch in brain maturation and risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors during adolescence. Taken together, it appears that the developmental mismatch in structural brain maturation is present in neurotypically developing individuals. This pattern of development did not directly relate to self-reported behaviors at an individual level in our sample

  20. Non-canonical actions of mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Crouse, Gray F.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the mismatch repair (MMR) system are proteins that recognize mismatches in DNA. Such mismatches can be mispairs involving normal or damaged bases or insertion/deletion loops due to strand misalignment. When such mispairs are generated during replication or recombination, MMR will direct removal of an incorrectly paired base or block recombination between nonidentical sequences. However, when mispairs are recognized outside the context of replication, proper strand discrimination between old and new DNA is lost, and MMR can act randomly and mutagenically on mispaired DNA. Such non-canonical actions of MMR are important in somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, expansion of triplet repeats, and potentially in mutations arising in nondividing cells. MMR involvement in damage recognition and signaling is complex, with the end result likely dependent on the amount of DNA damage in a cell. PMID:26698648

  1. Receiver IQ mismatch estimation in PDM CO-OFDM system using training symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dandan; Ma, Xiurong; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Haoyuan

    2017-07-01

    Receiver in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mismatch is hard to mitigate at the receiver via using conventional method in polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. In this paper, a novel training symbol structure is proposed to estimate IQ mismatch and channel distortion. Combined this structure with Gram Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) algorithm, we can get lower bit error rate (BER). Meanwhile, based on this structure one estimation method is deduced in frequency domain which can achieve the estimation of IQ mismatch and channel distortion independently and improve the system performance obviously. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed two methods have better performance than compared method at 100 Gb/s after 480 km fiber transmission. Besides, the calculation complexity is also analyzed.

  2. The role of non-governmental organizations in global health diplomacy: negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Lencucha, Raphael; Kothari, Anita; Labonté, Ronald

    2011-09-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is an exemplar result of global health diplomacy, based on its global reach (binding on all World Health Organization member nations) and its negotiation process. The FCTC negotiations are one of the first examples of various states and non-state entities coming together to create a legally binding tool to govern global health. They have demonstrated that diplomacy, once consigned to interactions among state officials, has witnessed the dilution of its state-centric origins with the inclusion of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the diplomacy process. To engage in the discourse of global health diplomacy, NGO diplomats are immediately presented with two challenges: to convey the interests of larger publics and to contribute to inter-state negotiations in a predominantly state-centric system of governance that are often diluted by pressures from private interests or mercantilist self-interest on the part of the state itself. How do NGOs manage these challenges within the process of global health diplomacy itself? What roles do, and can, they play in achieving new forms of global health diplomacy? This paper addresses these questions through presentation of findings from a study of the roles assumed by one group of non-governmental actors (the Canadian NGOs) in the FCTC negotiations. The findings presented are drawn from a larger grounded theory study. Qualitative data were collected from 34 public documents and 18 in-depth interviews with participants from the Canadian government and Canadian NGOs. This analysis yielded five key activities or roles of the Canadian NGOs during the negotiation of the FCTC: monitoring, lobbying, brokering knowledge, offering technical expertise and fostering inclusion. This discussion begins to address one of the key goals of global health diplomacy, namely 'the challenges facing health diplomacy and how they have been addressed by different groups and at different levels of

  3. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  4. Antiseptic Effect of Conventional Povidone-Iodine Scrub, Chlorhexidine Scrub, and Waterless Hand Rub in a Surgical Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Huang, Yen-Jung; Loh, El-Wui; Wen, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Yin-Tai; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled. INTERVENTION Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone-iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol). RESULTS Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, P<0.01) and waterless hand rub groups (1.4±0.7, P<0.05) were significantly lower than that of the conventional povidone group (4.3±1.3). No significant difference was observed in the mean CFU count among the groups after surgery. Similar results were obtained when preexisting differences before disinfection were considered in the analysis of covariance. Furthermore, multivariate regression indicated that the antiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count. CONCLUSIONS Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone-iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:417-422.

  5. Tinnitus Management: Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Extended-Wear Hearing Aids, Conventional Hearing Aids, and Combination Instruments.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; McMillan, Garnett; Dann, Serena; Bennett, Keri; Griest, Susan; Theodoroff, Sarah; Silverman, Shien Pei; Whichard, Susan; Saunders, Gabrielle

    2017-06-01

    Whereas hearing aids have long been considered effective for providing relief from tinnitus, controlled clinical studies evaluating this premise have been very limited. The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the relative efficacy of conventional receiver-in-the-canal hearing aids (HA), the same hearing aids with a sound generator (HA+SG), and extended-wear, deep fit hearing aids (EWHA), to provide relief from tinnitus through a randomized controlled trial. Each of these ear-level devices was a product of Phonak, LLC. Participants were randomized to HA, HA+SG, or EWHA and wore bilaterally fit devices for about 4 months. Fittings, adjustments, and follow-up appointments were conducted to comply with company guidelines and to ensure that all participants attended appointments on the same schedule. At 4-5 months, participants returned to complete final outcome measures, which concluded their study participation. Participants were 55 individuals (mean age: 63.1 years) with mild to moderately-severe hearing loss who: (a) did not currently use hearing aids; (b) reported tinnitus that was sufficiently bothersome to warrant intervention; and (c) were suitable candidates for each of the study devices. The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary outcome measures included hearing-specific questionnaires and the Quick Speech in Noise test (QuickSIN). The goal of the analysis was to evaluate efficacy of the EWHA and HA+SG devices versus the HA standard device. There were 18 participants in each of the HA and EWHA groups and 19 in the HA+SG group. Gender, age, and baseline TFI severity were balanced across treatment groups. Nearly all participants had a reduction in tinnitus symptoms during the study. The average TFI change (improvement) from baseline was 21 points in the HA group, 31 points in the EWHA group, and 33 points in the HA+SG group. A "clinically significant" improvement in reaction to tinnitus (at least 13-point

  6. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. Design: A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques, and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The treatments consisted of restorations, endodontic procedures and simple extractions. Results: The study series comprised 12 females and 18 males with a mean age of 36.8 years. The 30 subjects underwent a total of 60 anesthetic procedures. Intraosseous and conventional oral anesthesia caused discomfort during administration in 46.3% and 32.1% of the patients, respectively. The latency was 7.1±2.23 minutes for the conventional technique and 0.48±0.32 for intraosseous anesthesia – the difference being statistically significant. The depth of the anesthetic effect was sufficient to allow the patients to tolerate the dental treatments. The duration of the anesthetic effect in soft tissues was 199.3 minutes with the conventional technique versus only 1.6 minutes with intraosseous anesthesia – the difference between the two techniques being statistically significant. Most of the patients (69.7%) preferred intraosseous anesthesia. Conclusions: The described intraosseous anesthetic system is effective, with a much shorter latency than the conventional technique, sufficient duration of anesthesia to perform the required dental treatments, and with a much lesser soft tissue anesthetic effect. Most of the patients preferred intraosseous anesthesia. Key words:Anesthesia, intraosseous, oral anesthesia, infiltrating, mandibular block, Quicksleeper®. PMID

  7. Intraosseous anesthesia with solution injection controlled by a computerized system versus conventional oral anesthesia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Brotons, Rut; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha, María

    2012-05-01

    To compare a computerized intraosseous anesthesia system with the conventional oral anesthesia techniques, and analyze the latency and duration of the anesthetic effect and patient preference. A simple-blind prospective study was made between March 2007 and May 2008. Each patient was subjected to two anesthetic techniques: conventional and intraosseous using the Quicksleeper® system (DHT, Cholet, France). A split-mouth design was adopted in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques, and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The treatments consisted of restorations, endodontic procedures and simple extractions. The study series comprised 12 females and 18 males with a mean age of 36.8 years. The 30 subjects underwent a total of 60 anesthetic procedures. Intraosseous and conventional oral anesthesia caused discomfort during administration in 46.3% and 32.1% of the patients, respectively. The latency was 7.1±2.23 minutes for the conventional technique and 0.48±0.32 for intraosseous anesthesia--the difference being statistically significant. The depth of the anesthetic effect was sufficient to allow the patients to tolerate the dental treatments. The duration of the anesthetic effect in soft tissues was 199.3 minutes with the conventional technique versus only 1.6 minutes with intraosseous anesthesia--the difference between the two techniques being statistically significant. Most of the patients (69.7%) preferred intraosseous anesthesia. The described intraosseous anesthetic system is effective, with a much shorter latency than the conventional technique, sufficient duration of anesthesia to perform the required dental treatments, and with a much lesser soft tissue anesthetic effect. Most of the patients preferred intraosseous anesthesia.

  8. Game, set, match for factor VIII mismatch?

    PubMed

    Miller, Connie H

    2015-08-13

    In this issue of Blood, Gunasekera et al provide evidence that the high rate of factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors seen in black hemophilia A (HA) patients is not due to a mismatch between the structure of treatment products and FVIII genotypes common in blacks.

  9. Aortic mismatch in heart transplantation: readaptation.

    PubMed

    Miralles, A

    1997-10-01

    Great vessel mismatch between donor and recipient is very usual in heart transplantation. Different procedures have been used to manage this situation. A tailoring aortoplasty is described, as a technical alternative, in cases of considerable size incongruence between donor and recipient aortic diameters.

  10. Mismatch repair during homologous and homeologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Spies, Maria; Fishel, Richard

    2015-03-02

    Homologous recombination (HR) and mismatch repair (MMR) are inextricably linked. HR pairs homologous chromosomes before meiosis I and is ultimately responsible for generating genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. HR is initiated in meiosis by numerous programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; several hundred in mammals). A characteristic feature of HR is the exchange of DNA strands, which results in the formation of heteroduplex DNA. Mismatched nucleotides arise in heteroduplex DNA because the participating parental chromosomes contain nonidentical sequences. These mismatched nucleotides may be processed by MMR, resulting in nonreciprocal exchange of genetic information (gene conversion). MMR and HR also play prominent roles in mitotic cells during genome duplication; MMR rectifies polymerase misincorporation errors, whereas HR contributes to replication fork maintenance, as well as the repair of spontaneous DSBs and genotoxic lesions that affect both DNA strands. MMR suppresses HR when the heteroduplex DNA contains excessive mismatched nucleotides, termed homeologous recombination. The regulation of homeologous recombination by MMR ensures the accuracy of DSB repair and significantly contributes to species barriers during sexual reproduction. This review discusses the history, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, and the current state of studies on the role of MMR in homologous and homeologous recombination from bacteria to humans.

  11. Mismatch Repair during Homologous and Homeologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Spies, Maria; Fishel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) and mismatch repair (MMR) are inextricably linked. HR pairs homologous chromosomes before meiosis I and is ultimately responsible for generating genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. HR is initiated in meiosis by numerous programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; several hundred in mammals). A characteristic feature of HR is the exchange of DNA strands, which results in the formation of heteroduplex DNA. Mismatched nucleotides arise in heteroduplex DNA because the participating parental chromosomes contain nonidentical sequences. These mismatched nucleotides may be processed by MMR, resulting in nonreciprocal exchange of genetic information (gene conversion). MMR and HR also play prominent roles in mitotic cells during genome duplication; MMR rectifies polymerase misincorporation errors, whereas HR contributes to replication fork maintenance, as well as the repair of spontaneous DSBs and genotoxic lesions that affect both DNA strands. MMR suppresses HR when the heteroduplex DNA contains excessive mismatched nucleotides, termed homeologous recombination. The regulation of homeologous recombination by MMR ensures the accuracy of DSB repair and significantly contributes to species barriers during sexual reproduction. This review discusses the history, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, and the current state of studies on the role of MMR in homologous and homeologous recombination from bacteria to humans. PMID:25731766

  12. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal preservation: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeon Jean; Kim, Mi-La; Lee, Soo Yoon; Lee, Hee Suk; Kim, Joo Myoung; Joo, Kwan Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the operative outcomes, postoperative pain, and subsequent convalescence after laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) or conventional laparoscopic surgery for adnexal preservation. Study design From December 2009 to September 2010, 63 patients underwent LESS (n = 33) or a conventional laparoscopic surgery (n = 30) for cyst enucleation. The overall operative outcomes including postoperative pain measurement using the visual analog scale (VAS) were evaluated (time points 6, 24, and 24 hours). The convalescence data included data obtained from questionnaires on the need for analgesics and on patient-reported time to recovery end points. Results The preoperative characteristics did not significantly differ between the two groups. The postoperative hemoglobin drop was higher in the LESS group than in the conventional laparoscopic surgery group (P = 0.048). Postoperative pain at each VAS time point, oral analgesic requirement, intramuscular analgesic requirement, and the number of days until return to work were similar in both groups. Conclusion In adnexa-preserving surgery performed in reproductive-age women, the operative outcomes, including satisfaction of the patients and convalescence after surgery, are comparable for LESS and conventional laparoscopy. LESS may be a feasible and a promising alternative method for scarless abdominal surgery in the treatment of young women with adnexal cysts PMID:22448110

  13. Short-term outcome after computer-assisted versus conventional total knee arthroplasty: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei Ting; Chin, Pak Lin; Lo, Ngai Nung; Yeo, Seng Jin

    2015-04-01

    To compare the short-term functional outcome after computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA) versus conventional TKA. 23 men and 67 women aged 48 to 80 years were randomised to undergo (1) conventional TKA using an intramedullary guide, (2) conventional TKA using an extramedullary guide, or (3) computer-assisted TKA. Two senior surgeons performed all the TKAs using the same TKA system and the standard anteromedial arthrotomy with eversion of the patella. Patients were assessed by physiotherapists before and 6 months and 2 years after TKA using the Short Form-36 Health Survey, Oxford Knee Score, and Knee Society Score. Of the 90 patients, 67 and 70 were assessed at 6 months and 2 years after TKA, respectively. No patient developed deep infection or required revision surgery. Functional outcomes of the 3 groups did not differ significantly at the corresponding follow-ups. Significant improvement in the functional outcome was not shown in patients treated with computer-assisted TKA, compared with conventional TKA. Thus, computer-assisted TKA has limited additional short-term benefits. Further studies with longer follow-up are required to examine the benefits of computer-assisted TKA.

  14. A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

  15. A comparative study of mismatch negativity (MMN) in epilepsy and non-epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Gene-Cos, Nuri; Pottinger, Richard; Barrett, Geoff; Trimble, Michael R; Ring, Howard A

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated mismatch negativity (MMN) differences between subjects with non-epileptic seizures (NES), subjects with epilepsy, and healthy controls. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 14 patients with NES, 15 patients with epilepsy and 16 healthy control subjects. A conventional MMN procedure was used with a random sequence of 12% deviant tones (922 Hz) and 88% standard tones (1000 Hz). Subjects were instructed to ignore the tones delivered through headphones whilst reading a book. Significant differences in distribution of the mismatch negativity (MMN) in patients with NES compared to controls were obtained (F3, p controls, suggesting that the MMN is generated in a different way in NES compared with controls. This could indicate that one of the normal MMN generator areas does not function normally in NES. Increased absolute amplitude of the MMN has previously been observed in anxiety disorders particularly in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We discuss similarities between NES and PTSD, suggesting that the increased relative amplitude obtained in this study may be related to mechanisms of generation of NES. The prolonged duration of the MMN in epilepsy could be related to difficulties in processes associated with novelty discrimination (closure of MMN generating mechanism). This information processing dysfunction could be associated with the concentration and memory difficulties that are observed in some patients with epilepsy. This study provides electrophysiological evidence of abnormal processing of auditory stimuli in both clinical

  16. A comparative evaluation of pain and anxiety levels in 2 different anesthesia techniques: locoregional anesthesia using conventional syringe versus intraosseous anesthesia using a computer-controlled system (Quicksleeper).

    PubMed

    Özer, Senem; Yaltirik, Mehmet; Kirli, Irem; Yargic, Ilhan

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anxiety and pain levels during anesthesia and efficacy of Quicksleeper intraosseous (IO) injection system, which delivers computer-controlled IO anesthesia and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in impacted mandibular third molars. Forty subjects with bilateral impacted mandibular third molars randomly received IO injection or conventional IANB at 2 successive appointments. The subjects received 1.8 mL 2% articaine. IO injection has many advantages, such as enabling painless anesthesia with less soft tissue numbness and quick onset of anesthesia as well as lingual and palatal anesthesia with single needle penetration. Although IO injection is a useful technique commonly used during various treatments in dentistry, the duration of injection takes longer than conventional techniques, there is a possibility of obstruction at the needle tip, and, the duration of the anesthetic effect is inadequate for prolonged surgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  18. Thirteen-year wear rate comparison of highly crosslinked and conventional polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty: long-term follow-up of a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Yuan, Xunhua; Somerville, Lyndsay E; MacDonald, Steven J; McCalden, Richard W; Naudie, Douglas D

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic wear rates from a previous randomized controlled trial of first-generation highly crosslinked versus conventional polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty (THA) at a minimum of 13 years' follow-up. Patients returned for radiographic imaging and radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Radiographs were reviewed for the presence of osteolysis or component loosening. Femoral head penetration (which includes both wear and creep) was measured using RSA. We compared Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and Harris Hip Scores (HHS) with preoperative values. There was 1 revision in each group. There was no difference in WOMAC, SF-12, or HHS outcome scores between the highly crosslinked and conventional polyethylene groups (all p ≥ 0.13). Wear rate was lower with crosslinked polyethylene than conventional polyethylene (0.04 ± 0.02 mm/year v. 0.08 ± 0.03 mm/year, p = 0.007). First-generation crosslinked polyethylene demonstrates greater wear resistance than conventional polyethylene after 13 years of implantation. Crosslinked polyethylene continues to outperform conventional polyethylene into the second decade of implantation.

  19. A randomised controlled trial of mini incision or conventional incision for saphenous vein harvesting in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo de Deus, Kleber; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Cesar Santos, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compare the evolution regarding the complications concerning two types of incision (conventional × mini-incision), for saphenectomy in patients that go under myocardial revascularization or otherwise known as coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods In January 2012 to August 2013, 66 patients were prospectively selected for coronary artery bypass with cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. These were divided into two groups: Conventional and Mini-Incision, with 33 patients in each group chosen in a random fashion and with knowledge of which technique to be used being presented only at the start of the surgery. In the conventional group, the patients received an incision to the lower member of 7–10 cm. The patients in the Mini-Incision group received an incision to the lower member of 3–4 cm, both performed without the use of any special material. Results The groups were similar in terms of clinical data and in the preoperative period. Males made up a greater part of the group with 63.7% and 81.9% in groups C and M, respectively. Among the complications analysed, edema (p = 0.011), hematoma (p = 0.020), dehiscence (p = 0.012) and infection (p = 0.012), were significantly greater in group C when compared to group M. When the matter comes to the variable in relation to the risk of Surgical Site Infections (SSI), no difference was found between the groups. Conclusion Coronary artery bypass surgery with mini-incision for saphenectomy, demonstrated a lower rate for preoperative complications when compared to saphenectomy under conventional incision procedures. PMID:27006766

  20. Immediate versus conventional loading for the maxilla with implants placed into fresh and healed extraction sites to support a full-arch fixed prosthesis: nonrandomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Covani, Ugo; Aparicio, Arnau; Ata-Ali, Javier; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2013-01-01

    To compare immediate and conventional loading of fixed full-arch maxillary prostheses supported by implants placed in healed and fresh postextraction sites. This prospective, controlled, nonrandomized 12-month study included 30 consecutive patients requiring fixed full-arch maxillary prostheses supported by implants placed in healed and fresh extraction sites. Fifteen patients were treated with conventional loading (control group), and 15 were treated with immediate loading (test group). Each patient received six to eight implants; implants with insertion torque < 35 Ncm were conventionally loaded and excluded from the analysis. Implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, success of the immediately loaded provisional prostheses, and marginal bone loss were assessed and analyzed statistically. One test group patient failed to attend recall visits and was excluded from the study, and 16 implants did not achieve insertion torque of 35 Ncm and were excluded from analyses. The final sample included 29 patients and 193 implants (94 test implants, 99 control implants). Implant success rates were 96.8% (test) and 99.0% (control). In the test group, the most common complications were screw loosening and tooth fractures; in the control group, dentures caused discomfort and soft tissue irritation. The success rate of the immediately loaded prostheses was 100%. Average bone loss was 0.61 ± 0.21 mm for test implants and 0.53 ± 0.18 mm for control implants. Differences between loading protocols were not statistically significant. No significant differences in implant success and peri-implant marginal bone loss were seen in the current 12-month comparison of immediate and conventional loading of maxillary fixed full-arch prostheses. Biologic and prosthetic complications were rare with both loading protocols, and all immediately loaded provisional fixed prostheses performed successfully.

  1. Growth and Characterization of Large Lattice Mismatch Heteroepitaxial Systems: SILVER/SILICON(111) and SILVER/SILICON(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Ho.

    In this thesis, the Ag/Si systems have been studied in order to understand the mechanisms of the epitaxial formation and defect evolution in the large lattice mismatch (~25%) heteroepitaxial systems. In this work, special emphasis was placed on studying the effects of the substrate structure on the epitaxial orientation, the crystalline quality and the morphology of the film, the nature of defects in the film, and the thermostability of the Ag/Si interface. Ag films (~600- ~4000 A thickness) were grown on flat and misoriented Si(111), flat Si(100) and thin oxide layers by the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technique. The crystalline structures and defects of the films were characterized by using multiple analysis techniques including x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and MeV He ^+ RBS/channeling. The thermostability of the Ag/Si interface was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) after annealing the films at 500^ circC for 30 min. Despite the large lattice mismatch between Ag and Si, high quality Ag single crystal films (surface minimum yield chi_{rm min} = 6-10%) were grown on clean Si substrates. The quality of the Ag film depends on the film thickness and the substrate orientation. The model for twinning formation consistent with these observations is proposed. A model accounting for the misorientational growth is proposed. Ag was grown on Si(111) in an island growth mode and the morphology of the film was controlled by the substrate orientation and annealing. The epitaxial Ag/Si interface was thermally stable up to at least 500 ^circC. The adhesion between Ag and the oxide layer was poor and its interface was not thermally stable. The findings in this thesis indicate that (1) the epitaxial films involving "four (Ag) to three (Si) superlattice matching" can be grown in contrast to the conventional thinking that a possible heteroepitaxy system should involve a small lattice mismatch. However, the large lattice mismatch may play

  2. Comparison between microprocessor-controlled ankle/foot and conventional prosthetic feet during stair negotiation in people with unilateral transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vibhor; Gailey, Robert S; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; O'Toole, Christopher; Finnieston, Adam A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to stance-phase dorsiflexion of conventional prosthetic feet, the microprocessor-controlled Proprio foot permits swing-phase dorsiflexion on stairs. The purpose of this study was to compare Symmetry in External Work (SEW) between a microprocessor-controlled foot and conventional prosthetic feet in two groups with unilateral transtibial amputation (Medicare Functional Classification Levels K-Level-2 and K-Level-3) during stair ascent and descent. Ten subjects were evaluated while wearing three conventional prosthetic feet- solid ankle cushion heel (SACH), stationary attachment flexible endoskeleton (SAFE), and Talux-and the Proprio foot using a study socket and were given a 10- to 14-day accommodation period with each foot. Ground reaction forces were collected using F-scan sensors during stair ascent and descent. The SEW between the intact and amputated limbs was calculated for each foot. During stair ascent, the Proprio foot resulted in a higher interlimb symmetry than conventional prosthetic feet, with significant differences between the Pro prio and SACH/SAFE feet. The swing-phase dorsiflexion appeared to promote greater interlimb symmetry because it facilitated forward motion of the body, resulting in a heel-to-toe center of pressure trajectory. During stair descent, all feet had low symmetry without significant differences between feet. The movement strategy used when descending stairs, which is to roll over the edge of a step, had a greater influence on symmetry than the dorsiflexion features of prosthetic feet.

  3. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Versus Conventional Oxygen Therapy in Emergency Department Patients With Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Makdee, Onlak; Monsomboon, Apichaya; Surabenjawong, Usapan; Praphruetkit, Nattakarn; Chaisirin, Wansiri; Chakorn, Tipa; Permpikul, Chairat; Thiravit, Phakphoom; Nakornchai, Tanyaporn

    2017-10-01

    High-flow nasal cannula is a new method for delivering high-flow supplemental oxygen for victims of respiratory failure. This randomized controlled trial compares high-flow nasal cannula with conventional oxygen therapy in emergency department (ED) patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial in the ED of Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Patients aged 18 years or older with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were randomly assigned to receive either conventional oxygen therapy or high-flow nasal cannula. The primary outcome was the respiratory rate 60 minutes postintervention. We enrolled 128 participants (65 in the conventional oxygen therapy and 63 in the high-flow nasal cannula groups). Baseline high-flow nasal cannula and conventional oxygen therapy mean respiratory rates were 28.7 breaths/min (SD 3.2) and 28.6 breaths/min (SD 3.5). Mean respiratory rates at 60 minutes postintervention were lower in the high-flow nasal cannula group (21.8 versus 25.1 breaths/min; difference 3.3; 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.6). No significant differences were found in the admission rate, ED and hospital lengths of stay, noninvasive ventilation, intubation, or mortality. In patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema in the ED, high-flow nasal cannula therapy may decrease the severity of dyspnea during the first hour of treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pursestring Closure versus Conventional Primary Closure Following Stoma Reversal to Reduce Surgical Site Infection Rate: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Kuo, Liang-Tseng; Chi, Ching-Chi; Huang, Wen-Shih; Chin, Chih-Chien

    2015-08-01

    Stoma reversal is a surgical procedure commonly used following temporary defunctioning stoma surgery. Surgical site infection is one of the most common postoperative morbidities. A few skin closure methods have been developed to decrease surgical site infection. However, the optimal skin closure method is still in debate. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical site infection rate and other postoperative outcomes between the pursestring closure and conventional primary closure techniques. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant trials. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared the surgical outcomes following pursestring closure and conventional primary closure techniques. We conducted the meta-analysis by using the random-effects model. The primary outcome of interest was surgical site infection following stoma reversal within 30 days after operation. This meta-analysis included 4 randomized controlled trials with a total of 319 participants (162 in the pursestring closure group and 157 in the conventional primary closure group). Compared with the conventional primary closure group, the pursestring closure group had a significant decrease in surgical site infection (risk difference, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.36 to -0.15; p < 0.00001; number needed to treat = 4) and higher satisfaction with cosmetic outcomes (standard mean difference, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.13-1.27; p = 0.02). No other significant differences in operative time, length of hospital stay, and wound healing time were found between the 2 groups. This study was limited to the lack of double blinding and long-term follow-up in the included trials. Pursestring closure has significantly fewer surgical site infections and achieves better cosmetic outcomes following stoma reversal than conventional primary closure.

  5. Proteasome inhibition rescues clinically significant unstable variants of the mismatch repair protein Msh2

    PubMed Central

    Arlow, Tim; Scott, Kristan; Wagenseller, Aubrey; Gammie, Alison

    2013-01-01

    MSH2 is required for DNA mismatch repair recognition in eukaryotes. Deleterious mutations in human MSH2 account for approximately half of the alleles associated with a common hereditary cancer syndrome. Previously, we characterized clinically identified MSH2 missense mutations, using yeast as a model system, and found that the most common cause of defective DNA mismatch repair was low levels of the variant Msh2 proteins. Here, we show that increased protein turnover is responsible for the reduced cellular levels. Increasing gene dosage of more than half of the missense alleles fully restored function. A titration experiment revealed that raising the expression level of one variant to less than wild-type levels restored mismatch repair, suggesting that overexpression is not always required to regain function. We found that the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation pathway is the major mechanism for increased turnover of the Msh2 variants and identified the primary ubiquitin ligase as San1. Deletion of San1 restored protein levels for all but one variant, but did not elevate wild-type Msh2 levels. The unstable variants interacted with San1, whereas wild-type Msh2 did not. Additionally, san1Δ suppressed the mismatch repair defect of unstable variants. Of medical significance, the clinically approved drug Bortezomib partially restored protein levels and mismatch repair function for low-level variants and reversed the resistance to cisplatin, a common chemotherapeutic. Our results provide the foundation for an innovative therapeutic regime for certain mismatch-repair-defective cancers that are refractory to conventional chemotherapies. PMID:23248292

  6. Trophic mismatch requires seasonal heterogeneity of warming.

    PubMed

    Straile, Dietmar; Kerimoglu, Onur; Peeters, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Climate warming has been shown to advance the phenology of species. Asynchronous changes in phenology between interacting species may disrupt feeding interactions (phenological mismatch), which could have tremendous consequences for ecosystem functioning. Long-term field observations have suggested asynchronous shifts in phenology with warming, whereas experimental studies have not been conclusive. Using proxy-based modeling of three trophic levels (algae, herbivores, and fish), we .show that asynchronous changes in phenology only occur if warming is seasonally heterogeneous, but not if warming is constant throughout the year. If warming is seasonally heterogeneous, the degree and even direction of asynchrony depends on the specific seasonality of the warming. Conclusions about phenological mismatches in food web interactions may therefore produce controversial results if the analyses do not distinguish between seasonally constant and seasonal specific warming. Furthermore, our results suggest that predicting asynchrony between interacting species requires reliable warming predictions that resolve sub-seasonal time scales.

  7. Topologically clustering: a method for discarding mismatches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongtao; Zhang, Dazhi; Gao, Chenqiang; Tian, Jinwen

    2007-11-01

    Wide baseline stereo correspondence has become a challenging and attractive problem in computer vision and its related applications. Getting high correct ratio initial matches is a very important step of general wide baseline stereo correspondence algorithm. Ferrari et al. suggested a voting scheme called topological filter in [3] to discard mismatches from initial matches, but they didn't give theoretical analysis of their method. Furthermore, the parameter of their scheme was uncertain. In this paper, we improved Ferraris' method based on our theoretical analysis, and presented a novel scheme called topologically clustering to discard mismatches. The proposed method has been tested using many famous wide baseline image pairs and the experimental results showed that the developed method can efficiently extract high correct ratio matches from low correct ratio initial matches for wide baseline image pairs.

  8. Acoustic evidence for phonologically mismatched speech errors.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of speech errors that uncovers non-accommodated or mismatch errors. A mismatch error is a sub-phonemic error that results in an incorrect surface phonology. This type of error could arise during the processing of phonological rules or they could be made at the motor level of implementation. The results of this work have important implications for both experimental and theoretical research. For experimentalists, it validates the tools used for error induction and the acoustic determination of errors free of the perceptual bias. For theorists, this methodology can be used to test the nature of the processes proposed in language production.

  9. Tretinoin Nanogel 0.025% Versus Conventional Gel 0.025% in Patients with Acne Vulgaris: A Randomized, Active Controlled, Multicentre, Parallel Group, Phase IV Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhar, B S; Anitha, M.; Ruparelia, Mukesh; Vaidya, Pradyumna; Aamir, Riyaz; Shah, Sunil; Thilak, S; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev; Pal, Sandeep; Saraswat, Abir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Conventional topical tretinoin formulation is often associated with local adverse events. Nanogel formulation of tretinoin has good physical stability and enables good penetration of tretinoin into the pilo-sebaceous glands. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a nanogel formulation of tretinoin as compared to its conventional gel formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face. Materials and Methods: This randomized, active controlled, multicentric, phase IV clinical trial evaluated the treatment of patients with acne vulgaris of the face by the two gel formulations locally applied once daily at night for 12 wk. Acne lesion counts (inflammatory, non-inflammatory & total) and severity grading were carried out on the monthly scheduled visits along with the tolerability assessments. Results: A total of 207 patients were randomized in the study. Reductions in the total (72.9% vs. 65.0%; p = 0.03) and inflammatory (78.1% vs. 66.9%; p = 0.02) acne lesions were reported to be significantly greater with the nanogel formulation as compared to the conventional gel formulation. Local adverse events were significantly less (p = 0.04) in the nanogel group (13.3%) as compared to the conventional gel group (24.7%). Dryness was the most common adverse event reported in both the treatment groups while peeling of skin, burning sensation and photosensitivity were reported in patients using the conventional gel only. Conclusion: In the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face, tretinoin nanogel formulation appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the conventional gel formulation. PMID:25738069

  10. Associations of Cognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2016-06-01

    The indoor built environment plays a critical role in our overall well-being because of both the amount of time we spend indoors (~90%) and the ability of buildings to positively or negatively influence our health. The advent of sustainable design or green building strategies reinvigorated questions regarding the specific factors in buildings that lead to optimized conditions for health and productivity. We simulated indoor environmental quality (IEQ) conditions in "Green" and "Conventional" buildings and evaluated the impacts on an objective measure of human performance: higher-order cognitive function. Twenty-four participants spent 6 full work days (0900-1700 hours) in an environmentally controlled office space, blinded to test conditions. On different days, they were exposed to IEQ conditions representative of Conventional [high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)] and Green (low concentrations of VOCs) office buildings in the United States. Additional conditions simulated a Green building with a high outdoor air ventilation rate (labeled Green+) and artificially elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels independent of ventilation. On average, cognitive scores were 61% higher on the Green building day and 101% higher on the two Green+ building days than on the Conventional building day (p < 0.0001). VOCs and CO2 were independently associated with cognitive scores. Cognitive function scores were significantly better under Green+ building conditions than in the Conventional building conditions for all nine functional domains. These findings have wide-ranging implications because this study was designed to reflect conditions that are commonly encountered every day in many indoor environments. Allen JG, MacNaughton P, Satish U, Santanam S, Vallarino J, Spengler JD. 2016. Associations of cognitive function scores with carbon dioxide, ventilation, and volatile organic compound exposures in office workers: a controlled exposure study of green and

  11. A randomized controlled trial of the Arctic Sun Temperature Management System versus conventional methods for preventing hypothermia during off-pump cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Grocott, Hilary P; Mathew, Joseph P; Carver, Elizabeth H; Phillips-Bute, Barbara; Landolfo, Kevin P; Newman, Mark F

    2004-02-01

    In this trial we compared the hypothermia avoidance abilities of the Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (a servo-regulated system that circulates temperature-controlled water through unique energy transfer pads adherent to the patient's body) with conventional temperature control methods. Patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery were randomized to either the Arctic Sun System alone (AS group) or conventional methods (control group; increased room temperature, heated IV fluids, convective forced air warming system) for the prevention of hypothermia (defined by a temperature <36 degrees C). The AS group had nasopharyngeal temperature servo-regulated to a target of 36.8 degrees C. Temperature was recorded throughout the operative period and comparisons were made between groups for both the time and area under the curve (AUC) for a temperature <36 degrees C (AUC<36 degrees C). Twenty-nine patients (AS group = 14, control group = 15) were studied. The AS group had significantly less hypothermia than the control group, both for duration of time <36 degrees C (2.5 [0-22] min, median [interquartile range] AS group versus 118 [49-192] min, control group; P = 0.0008) as well as for AUC<36 degrees C (0.3 [0-2.2] degrees C x min, AS group versus 17.1 [3.6-173.4] degrees C x min, control group; P = 0.002). The Arctic Sun Temperature Management System significantly reduced intraoperative hypothermia during OPCAB surgery. Importantly, this was achieved in the absence of any other temperature modulating techniques, including the use of IV fluid warming or increases in the ambient operating room temperature. The Arctic Sun Temperature Management System was more effective than conventional methods in preventing hypothermia during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  12. Eukaryotic Mismatch Repair in Relation to DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Thomas A; Erie, Dorothy A

    2015-01-01

    Three processes act in series to accurately replicate the eukaryotic nuclear genome. The major replicative DNA polymerases strongly prevent mismatch formation, occasional mismatches that do form are proofread during replication, and rare mismatches that escape proofreading are corrected by mismatch repair (MMR). This review focuses on MMR in light of increasing knowledge about nuclear DNA replication enzymology and the rate and specificity with which mismatches are generated during leading- and lagging-strand replication. We consider differences in MMR efficiency in relation to mismatch recognition, signaling to direct MMR to the nascent strand, mismatch removal, and the timing of MMR. These studies are refining our understanding of relationships between generating and repairing replication errors to achieve accurate replication of both DNA strands of the nuclear genome.

  13. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David JA; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. Objective: We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. Design: Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. Results: Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (−4.4 kg in the vegan group and −3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A1c changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A1c changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were −0.34 and −0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A1c changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were −0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  14. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber; Ferdowsian, Hope

    2009-05-01

    Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (-4.4 kg in the vegan group and -3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A(1c) changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were -0.34 and -0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were -0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00276939.

  15. Comparison between Nintendo Wii Fit and conventional rehabilitation on functional performance outcomes after hamstring anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, Gul; Harput, Gulcan; Haksever, Bunyamin; Ulusoy, Burak; Ozer, Hamza

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial was to compare the outcomes, including knee strength, balance, coordination, proprioception and response time, of Nintendo Wii Fit with those of conventional rehabilitation on the subjects with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Thirty volunteer subjects were enrolled in either Wii Fit (n = 15; mean age, 29 ± 7 years) or conventional rehabilitation (n = 15; mean age, 29 ± 6 years) programmes from the first week up to 12th weeks of the operation. Endoscopic reconstruction of a completely ruptured ACL was performed by using graft harvested from hamstrings. Each subject underwent an individual therapeutic programme. Functional examinations included the measurements of the balance using modified star excursion balance test, coordination, proprioception and response time using functional squat system and strength of flexor and extensor muscles of the involved and uninvolved leg using an isokinetic machine. There was no significant difference between Wii Fit and conventional group in terms of isokinetic knee strength at 12th week, and dynamic balance, and functional squat tests including coordination, proprioception and response time at first, 8th and 12th weeks of the rehabilitation. Two different 12-week-physiotherapy programmes following ACL reconstruction have the same affect on muscle strength, dynamic balance and functional performance values in both groups. We considered that the practice of Wii Fit activities like conventional rehabilitation could also address physical therapy goals, which included improving visual-perceptual processing, coordination, proprioception and functional mobility.

  16. Comparison of gait in patients following a computer-navigated minimally invasive anterior approach and a conventional posterolateral approach for total hip arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reininga, Inge H F; Stevens, Martin; Wagenmakers, Robert; Boerboom, Alexander L; Groothoff, Johan W; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2013-02-01

    Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (MIS THA) aims at minimizing damage to muscles and tendons to accelerate postoperative recovery. Computer navigation allows a precise prosthesis alignment without complete visualization of the bony landmarks during MIS THA. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer-navigated MIS anterior approach for THA compared to a conventional posterolateral THA technique on the restoration of physical functioning during recovery following surgery. Thirty-five patients underwent computer-navigated MIS THA via the anterior approach, and 40 patients underwent conventional THA using the conventional posterolateral approach. Gait analysis was performed preoperatively, 6 weeks, and 3 and 6 months postoperatively using a body-fixed-sensor based gait analysis system. Walking speed, step length, cadence, and frontal plane angular movements of the pelvis and thorax were assessed. The same data were obtained from 30 healthy subjects. No differences were found in the recovery of spatiotemporal parameters or in angular movements of the pelvis and thorax following the computer-navigated MIS anterior approach or the conventional posterolateral approach. Although gait improved after surgery, small differences in several spatiotemporal parameters and angular movements of the trunk remained at 6 months postoperatively between both patient groups and healthy subjects. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. A randomised controlled trial of nonlinear frequency compression versus conventional processing in hearing aids: speech and language of children at 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa YC; Day, Julia; Zhang, Vicky; Dillon, Harvey; Van Buynder, Patricia; Seeto, Mark; Hou, Sanna; Marnane, Vivienne; Thomson, Jessica; Street, Laura; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) on children’s development of speech and language at 3 years of age. Design A randomised controlled trial was conducted as part of the population-based Longitudinal study on Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI). Participants were randomly assigned to fitting with NLFC (Phonak Naida V SP or UP) or with conventional processing in hearing aids, prescribed by using either the NAL or the DSL formula. Standardized tests of speech production, receptive and expressive language were administered, and parent ratings were collected. All assessments were double-blinded. study sample Participants were 44 of the 450 children in the LOCHI cohort. Results Compared to children using conventional processing, receptive and expressive language was higher but receptive vocabulary and consonant articulation scores were lower for children who use NLFC. There was increased substitution of affricates by fricatives for children using NLFC, compared to children using conventional amplification. After allowing for the effect of multiple demographic variables, the difference in global language scores between groups was not significant (effect: 0.8 [confidence interval: −6.7, 8.3]). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support a difference in language ability between children using NLFC and those using conventional amplification. PMID:24350695

  18. Evaluation of pollutant source strengths and control strategies in conventional and R-2000 houses: A final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piersol, P.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted to further research in evaluating materials emissions and the resultant indoor air quality in new and occupied houses. Project objectives were: To characterize the material emissions of common construction and finishing materials; to evaluate the quality of the indoor air of R-2000 houses and conventional houses before and after occupancy; to characterize the degree to which the selection and use of healthy house concepts can improve indoor air quality; and to examine the relationships between construction material emissions, occupant-related emissions, ventilation system performance, and subsequent levels of indoor air quality. Project methodology involved monitoring of house characteristics and indoor air quality together with coincidental materials emissions testing. Materials tested included carpet, vinyl and hardwood flooring, plywood, oriented strand board, cabinet frame and board, oil- and latex-based painted wallboard and trim, and counter tops.

  19. Hypotensive effects of solitary addition of conventional nonfat dairy products to the routine diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Machin, Daniel R; Park, Wonil; Alkatan, Mohammed; Mouton, Melissa; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2014-07-01

    The high consumption of low-fat and nonfat dairy products is associated with reduced risk of high blood pressure. We aimed to investigate whether the solitary addition of nonfat dairy products to the normal routine diet was capable of lowering blood pressure in middle-aged and older adults with elevated blood pressure. With the use of a randomized, crossover intervention-study design, 49 adults (56% women) with elevated blood pressure (mean ± SEM age: 53 ± 2 y; systolic blood pressure: 135 ± 1; diastolic blood pressure: 80 ± 1 mm Hg) underwent a high-dairy condition (+4 servings conventional nonfat dairy products/d) and isocaloric no-dairy condition (+4 servings fruit products/d) in which all dairy products were removed. Both dietary conditions lasted 4 wk with a 2-wk washout before crossing over into the alternate condition. The high-dairy condition produced reductions in systolic blood pressure (135 ± 1 to 127 ± 1 mm Hg) and pulse pressure (54 ± 1 to 48 ± 1 mm Hg) (both P < 0.05). The hypotensive effects were observed within 3 wk after the initiation of the dietary intervention and in both casual seated and ambulatory (24-h) measurements (P < 0.05). Pulse pressure was increased after the removal of all dairy products in the no-dairy condition (54 ± 1 to 56 ± 1 mm Hg; P < 0.05). There were no changes in diastolic blood pressure after either dietary condition. We concluded that the solitary manipulation of conventional dairy products in the normal routine diet would modulate blood pressure in middle-aged and older adults with prehypertension and hypertension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01577030. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  1. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, James

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  2. Use of Green Infrastructure Integrated with Conventional Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control: Kansas City, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced design concepts such as Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Solutions (or upland runoff control techniques) are currently being encouraged by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a management practice to contain and control stormwater at the lot ...

  3. Use of Green Infrastructure Integrated with Conventional Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control: Kansas City, MO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced design concepts such as Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Solutions (or upland runoff control techniques) are currently being encouraged by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a management practice to contain and control stormwater at the lot ...

  4. Mismatch binding, ADP-ATP exchange and intramolecular signaling during mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Manju M.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the DNA binding and ATPase activities of the mismatch repair (MMR) protein, MutS—our current understanding of how this protein uses ATP to fuel its actions on DNA and initiate repair via interactions with MutL, the next protein in the pathway. Structure-function and kinetic studies have yielded detailed views of the MutS mechanism of action in MMR. How MutS and MutL work together after mismatch recognition to enable strand-specific nicking, which leads to strand excision and synthesis, is less clear and remains an active area of investigation. PMID:26704427

  5. A functional comparison of conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses and a microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis system based on biomechanical parameters.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Thomas; Pröbsting, Eva; Auberger, Roland; Siewert, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    The microprocessor-controlled leg orthosis C-Brace enables patients with paretic or paralysed lower limb muscles to use dampened knee flexion under weight-bearing and speed-adapted control of the swing phase. The objective of the present study was to investigate the new technical functions of the C-Brace orthosis, based on biomechanical parameters. The study enrolled six patients. The C-Brace orthosis is compared with conventional leg orthoses (four stance control orthoses, two locked knee-ankle-foot orthoses) using biomechanical parameters of level walking, descending ramps and descending stairs. Ground reaction forces, joint moments and kinematic parameters were measured for level walking as well as ascending and descending ramps and stairs. With the C-Brace, a nearly natural stance phase knee flexion was measured during level walking (mean value 11° ± 5.6°). The maximum swing phase knee flexion angle of the C-Brace approached the normal value of 65° more closely than the stance control orthoses (66° ± 8.5° vs 74° ± 6.4°). No significant differences in the joint moments were found between the C-Brace and stance control orthosis conditions. In contrast to the conventional orthoses, all patients were able to ambulate ramps and stairs using a step-over-step technique with C-Brace (flexion angle 64.6° ± 8.2° and 70.5° ± 12.4°). The results show that the functions of the C-Brace for situation-dependent knee flexion under weight bearing have been used by patients with a high level of confidence. The functional benefits of the C-Brace in comparison with the conventional orthotic mechanisms could be demonstrated most clearly for descending ramps and stairs. The C-Brace orthosis is able to combine improved orthotic function with sustained orthotic safety. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  6. Leg edema with (S)-amlodipine vs conventional amlodipine given in triple therapy for hypertension: a randomized double blind controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Galappatthy, Priyadarshani; Waniganayake, Yasindu C; Sabeer, Mohomad I M; Wijethunga, Thusitha J; Galappatthy, Gamini K S; Ekanayaka, Ruvan Ai

    2016-09-01

    Leg edema is a common adverse effect of dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB) that may need dose reduction or drug withdrawal, adversely affecting the antihypertensive efficacy. Leg edema is reported to occur less often with (S)-amlodipine compared to conventional racemic amlodipine. We aimed to find the incidence of leg edema as a primary outcome and antihypertensive efficacy with (S)-amlodipine compared to conventional amlodipine. This prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial randomized 172 hypertensive patients, not controlled on beta-blockers (BB) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB), to either conventional amlodipine (5-10 mg; n = 86) or (S)-amlodipine (2.5-5 mg; n = 86), while continuing their previous anti-hypertensive medications. Sample was sufficient to find a difference in edema between the interventions with 80 % power at 5 % significance level. Intension to treat analysis (ITT) for safety data and per protocol analysis for efficacy data was performed. Fischer's exact test was applied to observe difference between responder rates and proportions of subjects having peripheral edema in the two groups. Pitting edema test scores were compared using Mann-Whitney test. Altogether 146 patients (amlodipine, n = 76 and (S)-amlodipine, n = 70) completed 120 days treatment. Demographic variables and treatment adherence were comparable in the two groups. Incidence of new edema after randomization was 31.40 % in test group and 46.51 % in control group [p = 0.03; absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 15.1 %; Number Needed to Treat (NNT) = 7, ITT analysis]. Pitting edema score and patient rated edema score increased significantly in the control compared to test group (p = 0.038 and 0.036 respectively) after treatment period. Edema scores increased significantly in the control group from baseline (p < 0.0001). Responders in blood pressure were 98.57 % in test

  7. Mismatched DNTP Incorporation By DNA Polymerase Beta Does Not Proceed Via Globally Different Conformational Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, K.-H.; Niebuhr, M.; Tung, C.-S.; Chan, H.-c.; Chou, C.-C.; Tsai, M.-D.

    2009-05-26

    Understanding how DNA polymerases control fidelity requires elucidation of the mechanisms of matched and mismatched dNTP incorporations. Little is known about the latter because mismatched complexes do not crystallize readily. In this report, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and structural modeling to probe the conformations of different intermediate states of mammalian DNA polymerase {beta} (Pol {beta}) in its wild-type and an error-prone variant, I260Q. Our structural results indicate that the mismatched ternary complex lies in-between the open and the closed forms, but more closely resembles the open form for WT and the closed form for I260Q. On the basis of molecular modeling, this over-stabilization of mismatched ternary complex of I260Q is likely caused by formation of a hydrogen bonding network between the side chains of Gln{sup 260}, Tyr{sup 296}, Glu{sup 295} and Arg{sup 258}, freeing up Asp{sup 192} to coordinate MgdNTP. These results argue against recent reports suggesting that mismatched dNTP incorporations follow a conformational path distinctly different from that of matched dNTP incorporation, or that its conformational closing is a major contributor to fidelity.

  8. The Effectiveness of Articaine and Lidocaine Single Buccal Infiltration versus Conventional Buccal and Palatal Injection Using Lidocaine during Primary Maxillary Molar Extraction: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kolli, Naveen Kumar Reddy; Nirmala, S. V. S. G.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the advent of modern injection techniques, palatal injection continues to be a painful experience for children. Aims: To compare the pain experienced during extraction of maxillary primary molars with conventional lignocaine anesthesia versus lignocaine and articaine buccal infiltration in children aged 6–14 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized triple blinded study was conducted with ninety children (n = 90), randomly allocated to receive lignocaine conventional anesthesia (Group I [control group]), and buccal infiltration using articaine (Group II [articaine group]) or lignocaine (Group III [lignocaine group]). A composite score of self-report (faces pain scale-revised), behavioral measure (face legs activity cry consolability scale), and a physiological response (pulse rate) was measured following maxillary primary molar extraction. Statistical Analysis Used: To test the mean difference between two groups, Students’ t-test was used and among the three groups, one-way ANOVA with post hoc test was used. Results: Articaine group had significantly lower pain scores for self-report (P < 000.1) and behavioral measures (P < 000.1) while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between articaine and control groups during primary maxillary molar extraction. Conclusion: Maxillary primary molar extraction procedure can be successfully accomplished by bypassing the palatal injection. Articaine buccal infiltration can be considered as an alternative to conventional local anesthesia for the extraction of maxillary primary molars. PMID:28298777

  9. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. CRiS KCT0001771.

  10. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Materials and Methods Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. Results The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Conclusion Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. Trial Registration CRiS KCT0001771 PMID:27253526

  11. The effect of adding PTH(1-84) to conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sikjaer, Tanja; Rejnmark, Lars; Rolighed, Lars; Heickendorff, Lene; Mosekilde, Leif

    2011-10-01

    In hypoparathyroidism, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are inadequate to maintain plasma calcium concentration within the reference range. On conventional treatment with calcium supplements and active vitamin D analogues, bone turnover is abnormally low, and BMD is markedly increased. We aimed to study the effects of PTH-replacement therapy (PTH-RT) on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and BMD. In a double-blind design, we randomized 62 patients with hypoparathyroidism to daily treatment with PTH(1-84) 100 µg or similar placebo for 24 weeks as add-on therapy to conventional treatment. Compared with placebo, patients on PTH(1-84) reduced their daily dose of calcium and active vitamin D significantly by 75% and 73%, respectively, without developing hypocalcemia. However, hypercalcemia occurred frequently during the downtitration of calcium and active vitamin D. Plasma phosphate and renal calcium and phosphate excretion did not change. Compared with placebo, PTH(1-84) treatment significantly increased plasma levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (+226% ± 36%), osteocalcin (+807% ± 186%), N-terminal propeptide of procollagen 1 (P1NP; +1315% ± 330%), cross-linked C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX; +1209% ± 459%), and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX; (+830% ± 165%), whereas BMD decreased at the hip (-1.59% ± 0.57%), lumbar spine (-1.76% ± 1.03%), and whole body (-1.26% ± 0.49%) but not at the forearm. In conclusion, the need for calcium and active vitamin D is reduced significantly during PTH-RT, whereas plasma calcium and phosphate levels are maintained within the physiologic range. In contrast to the effect of PTH(1-84) treatment in patients with osteoporosis, PTH-RT in hypoparathyroidism causes a decrease in BMD. This is most likely due to the marked increased bone turnover. Accordingly, PTH-RT counteracts the state of overmineralized bone and, during long-term treatment, may cause a

  12. Associations of Cognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; MacNaughton, Piers; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The indoor built environment plays a critical role in our overall well-being because of both the amount of time we spend indoors (~90%) and the ability of buildings to positively or negatively influence our health. The advent of sustainable design or green building strategies reinvigorated questions regarding the specific factors in buildings that lead to optimized conditions for health and productivity. Objective: We simulated indoor environmental quality (IEQ) conditions in “Green” and “Conventional” buildings and evaluated the impacts on an objective measure of human performance: higher-order cognitive function. Methods: Twenty-four participants spent 6 full work days (0900–1700 hours) in an environmentally controlled office space, blinded to test conditions. On different days, they were exposed to IEQ conditions representative of Conventional [high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)] and Green (low concentrations of VOCs) office buildings in the United States. Additional conditions simulated a Green building with a high outdoor air ventilation rate (labeled Green+) and artificially elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels independent of ventilation. Results: On average, cognitive scores were 61% higher on the Green building day and 101% higher on the two Green+ building days than on the Conventional building day (p < 0.0001). VOCs and CO2 were independently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Cognitive function scores were significantly better under Green+ building conditions than in the Conventional building conditions for all nine functional domains. These findings have wide-ranging implications because this study was designed to reflect conditions that are commonly encountered every day in many indoor environments. Citation: Allen JG, MacNaughton P, Satish U, Santanam S, Vallarino J, Spengler JD. 2016. Associations of cognitive function scores with carbon dioxide, ventilation, and volatile organic compound

  13. Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules in addition to conventional treatment for patients with stable coronary artery disease (QUEST Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengyao; Guo, Ming; Mao, Huimin; Gao, Zhuye; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo

    2016-09-15

    Recurrent cardiovascular event remains high in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), especially in patients with multiple risk factors, despite a high rate of use conventional treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a promising complementary and alternative medicine for treating SCAD, while evidence for its effect on long-term survival is limited. This study was designed to test if Chinese herbal medicine in addition to conventional treatment is more effective than conventional treatment alone in reducing major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for SCAD patients with multiple risk factors during a 1-year follow-up. This is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1500 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules (QXJYG) or the placebo granules, twice daily for 6 months. The primary outcome is the combined outcomes including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and revascularization. The secondary outcome is the combined outcomes including all-cause mortality, re-admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, malignant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia influencing hemodynamics, ischemic stroke, and other thromboembolic events during 1-year follow-up. The assessment is performed at baseline (before randomization), 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. This is the first multicenter trial sponsored by the national funding of China to evaluate TCM in combination with conventional treatment on 1-year survival in high-risk SCAD patients. If successful, it will provide an evidence-based complementary therapeutic approach for reducing MACE from SCAD. The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on December 28, 2013. The registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-13004370 .

  14. Correlation of force control with regional spinal DTI in patients with cervical spondylosis without signs of spinal cord injury on conventional MRI.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Påvel G; Sanchez, Katherine; Ozcan, Fidan; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge; Feydy, Antoine; Maier, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate spinal cord structure in patients with cervical spondylosis where conventional MRI fails to reveal spinal cord damage. We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with cervical spondylosis without conventional MRI findings of spinal cord damage and healthy controls. Subjects were studied using spinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), precision grip and foot force-tracking tasks, and a clinical examination including assessment of neurological signs. A regional analysis of lateral and medial spinal white matter across multiple cervical levels (C1-C5) was performed. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (lowest Pavlov ratio) in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with spondylosis had greater error and longer release duration in both grip and foot force-tracking. Similar spinal cord deficits were present in patients without neurological signs. Increased error in grip and foot tracking (low accuracy) correlated with increased RD in the lateral spinal cord at the level of greatest compression (p ≤ 0.01). Spinal DTI can detect subtle spinal cord damage of functional relevance in cervical spondylosis, even in patients without signs on conventional T2-imaging and without neurological signs. DTI reveals spinal cord changes in cervical spondylosis with few symptoms. DTI changes were present despite normal spinal cord on conventional MRI. DTI parameters correlated with force control accuracy in hand and foot. Spinal DTI is a promising technique for patients with cervical spondylosis.

  15. Tunable sound transmission at an impedance-mismatched fluidic interface assisted by a composite waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wei, Zhi; Fan, Li; Qu, Jianmin; Zhang, Shu-Yi

    2016-10-01

    We report a composite waveguide fabricated by attaching a coupling aperture to a waveguide. The acoustic impedance of the composite waveguide can be regulated by merely controlling its coupling vibrations, depending on its structure size. By changing the size to adjust the acoustic impedance of the composite waveguide at an impedance-mismatched fluidic interface, tunable sound transmission at the desired frequencies is achieved. The reported composite waveguide provides a new method for sound regulation at a mismatched fluidic interface and has extensive frequency hopping and frequency agility applications in air-water sound communication.

  16. Test report for twinax cable (Rockwell type MB0150-051). [effects of mismatched termination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    A controlled impedance twisted pair shielded cable was tested to determine the frequency response and effects of mismatched termination. It was found that a long length of this cable, about 100 feet, exhibited a frequency sensitive attenuation roll-off greater than 1.5 db down at 5 MHz. It was also determined that improper termination resulted in losses of 1/2 to 1 db within the frequency range of 200 KHz to greater than 1-1/2 MHz. The test results indicate a possible problem where mismatched connectors are used in video signal cables.

  17. Tunable sound transmission at an impedance-mismatched fluidic interface assisted by a composite waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wei, Zhi; Fan, Li; Qu, Jianmin; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2016-01-01

    We report a composite waveguide fabricated by attaching a coupling aperture to a waveguide. The acoustic impedance of the composite waveguide can be regulated by merely controlling its coupling vibrations, depending on its structure size. By changing the size to adjust the acoustic impedance of the composite waveguide at an impedance-mismatched fluidic interface, tunable sound transmission at the desired frequencies is achieved. The reported composite waveguide provides a new method for sound regulation at a mismatched fluidic interface and has extensive frequency hopping and frequency agility applications in air-water sound communication. PMID:27698379

  18. The "case-chaos study" as an adjunct or alternative to conventional case-control study methodology.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Iain A; Mook, Piers; Adak, Goutam K; O'Brien, Sarah J; McCarthy, Noel D

    2012-09-15

    Case-control studies are important in infectious disease epidemiology for rapidly identifying and controlling risks, but challenges, including the need for speed, can place practical restrictions on control selection and recruitment. The biased comparisons that result can hamper or, worse, mislead investigators. Following a 2009 outbreak of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection associated with a petting farm in southeast England, it was hypothesized that case behavior alone could be used to identify risks. Case-patients' exposures were randomized on a case-by-case basis, and the resulting permuted data were compared with the actual events preceding illness by conditional logistic regression analysis. There was good agreement between the risks identified by using our new method and the risks elicited in the original outbreak case-control studies. This was also the case in analysis of 2 further historical outbreaks. These initial findings suggest that the technique, which we have called the "case-chaos" technique, appeared to be useful in this setting. Analysis of simulated data supports this view. Circumventing the need for traditional control data has the potential to reduce outbreak investigation lead times, leading to earlier interventions and reduced morbidity and mortality. However, further validation is necessary, coupled with an awareness of limitations of the method.

  19. Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy With Potassium-titanyl-phosphate Laser Versus Conventional Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: An Animal Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Jorge; Morcillo, Esther; Novalbos, José P; Sánchez-Hurtado, Miguel A; Soria, Federico; Pérez-Duarte, Francisco; Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugüés, Idoia; Laguna, Maria Pilar; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel; Rodríguez-Rubio Cortadellas, Federico

    2017-01-01

    To explore the feasibility, safety, and short-term results of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (KTP-LPN) vs conventional laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (C-LPN). Thirty large white female pigs were randomized to KTP-LPN or C-LPN. Laparoscopic radical right nephrectomy was performed, and an artificial renal tumor was placed in the left kidney in 3 locations. A week later, 15 pigs underwent C-LPN and 15 underwent KTP-LPN. All C-LPNs were performed with renal ischemia. A 120-W setting was used, without arterial clamping in the KTP-LPN group. Follow-up was done at day 1, week 3, and week 6. Retrograde pyelography was performed at 6 weeks, followed by animal sacrifice and necropsy. All KTP-LPNs were performed without hilar clamping. C-LPNs were performed with hilar clamping, closing of the collecting system, and renorraphy. In the KTP laser group, 2 pigs died due to urinary fistula in the first week after surgery. In the C-LPN group, 1 pig died due to myocardial infarction and another due to malignant hyperthermia. Hemoglobin and hematocrit recovery were lower at 6 weeks in the KTP-LPN group. Renal function 24 hours after surgery was worse in the KTP-LPN group but recovered at 3 weeks and 6 weeks. No differences were observed in surgical margins. The necropsy showed no differences. Limitations of the study are the impossibility to analyze the collecting tissue sealing by the KTP, and the potential renal toxicity of the KTP laser. Although KTP-LPN is feasible and safe in the animal model, further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are swimming or aerobic exercise better than conventional exercise in ankylosing spondylitis patients? A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Karapolat, H; Eyigor, S; Zoghi, M; Akkoc, Y; Kirazli, Y; Keser, G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of conventional exercise (CE), swimming and walking on the pulmonary functions, aerobic capacity, quality of life, Bath indexes and psychological symptoms in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Forty-five patients were randomised into either swimming (group 1), walking (group 2), CE group (group 3). Patients in Group 1 performed CE and swimming, patients in Group 2 performed CE and walking and patients in Group 3 performed CE only. Exercise sessions were performed three times a week for a period of six weeks. Patients were assessed before and after the rehabilitation program, with respect to, pulmonary function test (forced vital capacity [FVC, mL], forced expiration volume in one second [FEV1, mL], FEV1/FVC (%) and vital capacity [VC, mL]), maximal oxygen uptake (pV.O2), 6-minute walking test (6MWT), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, Nottingham Health Profile and Beck Depression Inventory. There were significant increases in pVO2 and 6MWT after treatment in Groups 1 and 2 (P<0.05). FeV1, FVC and VC improved significantly with treatment in all three groups (P<0.05). A statistically significant improvement was observed in energy, emotional reaction and physical mobility sub-scores of NHP in three exercise groups after completion of the exercise program (P<0.05). Swimming, walking and CE had beneficial effects on the quality of life and pulmonary functions. Aerobic exercises such as swimming and walking in addition to CE increased functional capacities of patients.

  1. The Impact of Educational Mismatch on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Linked Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We provide first evidence regarding the direct impact of educational mismatch on firm productivity. To do so, we rely on representative linked employer-employee panel data for Belgium covering the period 1999-2006. Controlling for simultaneity issues, time-invariant unobserved workplace characteristics, cohort effects and dynamics in the…

  2. The Impact of Educational Mismatch on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Linked Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We provide first evidence regarding the direct impact of educational mismatch on firm productivity. To do so, we rely on representative linked employer-employee panel data for Belgium covering the period 1999-2006. Controlling for simultaneity issues, time-invariant unobserved workplace characteristics, cohort effects and dynamics in the…

  3. Repair of mismatched basepairs in mammalian DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Hare, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    We have concentrated on three specific areas of our research plan. Our greatest emphasis is on the role of single strand nicks in influencing template strand selection in mismatch repair. We have found, that the ability of a nick in one strand to influence which strand is repaired is not a simple function of distance from the mismatched site but rather that an hot spot where a nick is more likely to have an influence can exist. The second line was production of single-genotype heteroduplexes in order to examine independently the repair of T/G and A/C mispairs within the same sequence context as in our mixed mispair preparations. We have shown preparations of supercoiled heteroduplex can be prepared that were exclusively T/G or exclusively A/C at the mispair site. The third effort has been to understand the difference in repair bias of different cell lines or different transfection conditions as it may relate to different repair systems in the cell. We have identified some of the sources of variation, including cell cycle position. We hope to continue this work to more precisely identify the phase of the cell cycle.

  4. Tobacco industry attempts to counter the World Bank report Curbing the Epidemic and obstruct the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton

    2008-12-01

    In 1999 the World Bank published a landmark study on the economics of tobacco control, Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control (CTE), which concluded that tobacco control brings unprecedented health benefits without harming economies, threatening the transnational tobacco companies' ability to use economic arguments to dissuade governments from enacting tobacco control policies and supporting the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used tobacco industry documents to analyze how tobacco companies worked to discredit CTE. They hired public relations firms, had academics critique CTE, hired consultants to produce "independent" estimates of the importance of tobacco to national economies, and worked through front groups, particularly the International Tobacco Growers' Association, to question CTE's findings. These efforts failed, and the report remains an authoritative economic analysis of global tobacco control during the ongoing FCTC negotiations. The industry's failure suggests that the World Bank should continue their analytic work on the economics of tobacco control and make tobacco control part of its development agenda.

  5. Tobacco Industry attempts to counter the World Bank Report Curbing the Epidemic and obstruct the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 the World Bank published a landmark study on the economics of tobacco control, Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control (CTE), which concluded that tobacco control brings unprecedented health benefits without harming economies, threatening the transnational tobacco companies’ ability to use economic arguments to dissuade governments from enacting tobacco control policies and supporting the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used tobacco industry documents to analyze how tobacco companies worked to discredit CTE. They hired public relations firms, had academics critique CTE, hired consultants to produce “independent” estimates of the importance of tobacco to national economies, and worked through front groups, particularly the International Tobacco Growers’ Association, to question CTE’s findings. These efforts failed, and the report remains an authoritative economic analysis of global tobacco control during the ongoing FCTC negotiations. The industry’s failure suggests that the World Bank should continue their analytic work on the economics of tobacco control and make tobacco control part of its development agenda. PMID:18950924

  6. Is case-chaos methodology an appropriate alternative to conventional case-control studies for investigating outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Michael; Wallensten, Anders; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2014-08-15

    Case-chaos methodology is a proposed alternative to case-control studies that simulates controls by randomly reshuffling the exposures of cases. We evaluated the method using data on outbreaks in Sweden. We identified 5 case-control studies from foodborne illness outbreaks that occurred between 2005 and 2012. Using case-chaos methodology, we calculated odds ratios 1,000 times for each exposure. We used the median as the point estimate and the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles as the confidence interval. We compared case-chaos matched odds ratios with their respective case-control odds ratios in terms of statistical significance. Using Spearman's correlation, we estimated the correlation between matched odds ratios and the proportion of cases exposed to each exposure and quantified the relationship between the 2 using a normal linear mixed model. Each case-control study identified an outbreak vehicle (odds ratios = 4.9-45). Case-chaos methodology identified the outbreak vehicle 3 out of 5 times. It identified significant associations in 22 of 113 exposures that were not associated with outcome and 5 of 18 exposures that were significantly associated with outcome. Log matched odds ratios correlated with their respective proportion of cases exposed (Spearman ρ = 0.91) and increased significantly with the proportion of cases exposed (b = 0.054). Case-chaos methodology missed the outbreak source 2 of 5 times and identified spurious associations between a number of exposures and outcome. Measures of association correlated with the proportion of cases exposed. We recommended against using case-chaos analysis during outbreak investigations.

  7. Efficacy of adding the kinesio taping method to guideline-endorsed conventional physiotherapy in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic nonspecific low back pain is a significant health condition with high prevalence worldwide and it is associated with enormous costs to society. Clinical practice guidelines show that many interventions are available to treat patients with chronic low back pain, but the vast majority of these interventions have a modest effect in reducing pain and disability. An intervention that has been widespread in recent years is the use of elastic bandages called Kinesio Taping. Although Kinesio Taping has been used extensively in clinical practice, current evidence does not support the use of this intervention; however these conclusions are based on a small number of underpowered studies. Therefore, questions remain about the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping method as an additional treatment to interventions, such as conventional physiotherapy, that have already been recommended by the current clinical practice guidelines in robust and high-quality randomised controlled trials. We aim to determine the effectiveness of the addition of the use of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain who receive guideline-endorsed conventional physiotherapy. Methods/design One hundred and forty-eight patients will be randomly allocated to receive either conventional physiotherapy, which consists of a combination of manual therapy techniques, general exercises, and specific stabilisation exercises (Guideline-Endorsed Conventional Physiotherapy Group) or to receive conventional physiotherapy with the addition of Kinesio Taping to the lumbar spine (Conventional Physiotherapy plus Kinesio Taping Group) over a period of 5 weeks (10 sessions of treatment). Clinical outcomes (pain intensity, disability and global perceived effect) will be collected at baseline and at 5 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after randomisation. We will also collect satisfaction with care and adverse effects after treatment. Data will be collected by a blinded assessor. All

  8. Fast HPLC for quality control of Harpagophytum procumbens by using a monolithic silica column: method transfer from conventional particle-based silica column.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander H

    2005-05-06

    The applicability of a monolithic C18-bonded silica column for the rapid HPLC separation of ingredients in medicinal plants and their phytopharmaceutical preparations has been evaluated in the author's laboratory. In this presentation, an existing method for the determination of the iridoid glycoside harpagoside in Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw) was successfully transferred from a conventional particle-based C18 silica column to a monolithic silica column. The very high porosity of the stationary phase allows chromatography with a much lower backpressure than on conventional columns. Therefore, the flow rate could be easily increased from 0.8 mL/min (particle-based column) to 5 mL/min (monolithic column) and the run-time reduced from 30 to 5 min (that is a reduction about 85% !), without losing any chromatographic resolution of the compound of interest. The amount of harpagoside was measured with the original method on a conventional particle-based silica column and on the adapted method on a monolithic silica column. The statistical mean t-test showed no significant differences of the variances and the means indicating that the fast HPLC method is an acceptable alternative. The shorter analysis time makes the method very valuable for commercial quality control of Harpagophytum extracts and its pharmaceutical preparations.

  9. Global Health Governance and the Commercial Sector: A Documentary Analysis of Tobacco Company Strategies to Influence the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. Methods and Findings The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, “good governance,” and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. Conclusions TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance

  10. Global health governance and the commercial sector: a documentary analysis of tobacco company strategies to influence the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Collin, Jeff; Smith, Katherine; Grüning, Thilo; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In successfully negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the World Health Organization (WHO) has led a significant innovation in global health governance, helping to transform international tobacco control. This article provides the first comprehensive review of the diverse campaign initiated by transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) to try to undermine the proposed convention. The article is primarily based on an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents made public through litigation, triangulated with data from official documentation relating to the FCTC process and websites of relevant organisations. It is also informed by a comprehensive review of previous studies concerning tobacco industry efforts to influence the FCTC. The findings demonstrate that the industry's strategic response to the proposed WHO convention was two-fold. First, arguments and frames were developed to challenge the FCTC, including: claiming there would be damaging economic consequences; depicting tobacco control as an agenda promoted by high-income countries; alleging the treaty conflicted with trade agreements, "good governance," and national sovereignty; questioning WHO's mandate; claiming the FCTC would set a precedent for issues beyond tobacco; and presenting corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an alternative. Second, multiple tactics were employed to promote and increase the impact of these arguments, including: directly targeting FCTC delegations and relevant political actors, enlisting diverse allies (e.g., mass media outlets and scientists), and using stakeholder consultation to delay decisions and secure industry participation. TTCs' efforts to undermine the FCTC were comprehensive, demonstrating the global application of tactics that TTCs have previously been found to have employed nationally and further included arguments against the FCTC as a key initiative in global health governance. Awareness of these strategies can help guard against

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials comparing purse-string vs conventional linear closure of the wound following ileostomy (stoma) closure

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Bhatti, Muhammad I.; Miles, William FA.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to systematically analyse the randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of purse-string closure (PSC) of an ileostomy wound with conventional linear closure (CLC). Methods: Randomized, controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of purse-string closure vs conventional linear closure (CLC) of ileostomy wound in patients undergoing ileostomy closure were analysed using RevMan®, and the combined outcomes were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and standardized mean difference (SMD). Results: Three randomized, controlled trials, recruiting 206 patients, were retrieved from medical electronic databases. There were 105 patients in the PSC group and 101 patients in the CLC group. There was no heterogeneity among included trials. Duration of operation (SMD: −0.18; 95% CI: −0.45, 0.09; z = 1.28; P < 0.20) and length of hospital stay (SMD: 0.01; 95% CI: −0.26, 0.28; z = 0.07; P < 0.95) was statistically similar following both approaches of ileostomy wound closure. The risk of surgical site infection (OR, 0.10; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.33; z = 3.78; P < 0.0001) was significantly reduced when ileostomy wound was closed using PSC technique. Conclusion: PSC technique for ileostomy wound is associated with a reduced risk of surgical site infection apparently without influencing the duration of operation and length of hospital stay. PMID:25011379

  12. Reducing measurement scale mismatch to improve surface energy flux estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, Joost; Rosolem, Rafael; Rahman, Mostaquimur; Blyth, Eleanor; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture importantly controls land surface processes such as energy and water partitioning. A good understanding of these controls is needed especially when recognizing the challenges in providing accurate hyper-resolution hydrometeorological simulations at sub-kilometre scales. Soil moisture controlling factors can, however, differ at distinct scales. In addition, some parameters in land surface models are still often prescribed based on observations obtained at another scale not necessarily employed by such models (e.g., soil properties obtained from lab samples used in regional simulations). To minimize such effects, parameters can be constrained with local data from Eddy-Covariance (EC) towers (i.e., latent and sensible heat fluxes) and Point Scale (PS) soil moisture observations (e.g., TDR). However, measurement scales represented by EC and PS still differ substantially. Here we use the fact that Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) estimate soil moisture at horizontal footprint similar to that of EC fluxes to help answer the following question: Does reduced observation scale mismatch yield better soil moisture - surface fluxes representation in land surface models? To answer this question we analysed soil moisture and surface fluxes measurements from twelve COSMOS-Ameriflux sites in the USA characterized by distinct climate, soils and vegetation types. We calibrated model parameters of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) against PS and CRNS soil moisture data, respectively. We analysed the improvement in soil moisture estimation compared to uncalibrated model simulations and then evaluated the degree of improvement in surface fluxes before and after calibration experiments. Preliminary results suggest that a more accurate representation of soil moisture dynamics is achieved when calibrating against observed soil moisture and further improvement obtained with CRNS relative to PS. However, our results also suggest that a more accurate

  13. Efficacy and Toxicity of Low-Dose versus Conventional-Dose Chemotherapy for Malignant Tumors: a Meta-Analysis of 6 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianhe; Wu, Yupeng; Luo, Shuimei; Yang, Haitao; Li, Lina; Zhou, Sijing; Shen, Ruifen; Lin, Heng

    2017-02-01

    Low-dose chemotherapy has emerged as a new strategy for control of cancer. However, there is a controversy as to whether low-dose chemotherapy is an effective way to manage many human malignancies. To shed light on this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of relative merits between low-dose and conventional-dose chemotherapy in different carcinomas. Studies published before February 29, 2016 were reviewed for the meta-analysis and selected according to defined criteria. The effect levels of low-dose chemotherapy regarding overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and severe adverse events (SAEs) (Grade≥3) were calculated as risk ratios (ORs) or adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). Six randomized controlled studies (RCTs) have provided data for low-dose chemotherapy versus conventional-dose chemotherapy for 838 cases and 833 cases, respectively. Interestingly, low-dose chemotherapy achieved the same desired potency as conventional-dose chemotherapy, with no differences in pooled ORR (RR=1.00, 95%CI [0.89, 1.13]; (P=0.97), OS (HR=1.07, 95%CI [0.90, 1.26]; P=0.44) and PFS (HR=1.02, 95%CI [0.84, 1.23]; P=0.87) values. Furthermore, pooled data for common SAEs showed that, compared with conventional-dose chemotherapy regimen, low-dose chemotherapy regimen resulted in significant less mucositis (P<0.0001), thrombocytopenia (P<0.00001), anemia (P=0.0001) and febrile neutropenia (P=0.004). At the same time, no statistically significant differences were observed with regard to treatment-related death (P=0.36), diarrhea (P=0.49), leucopenia (P=0.11), neutropenia (P=0.74) and nausea/vomiting (ʺPʺ=0.21). Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test and the funnel plot. In conclusion, the meta-analysis seems to support the idea that low-dose chemotherapy may play an important role in achieving the same desired potency as conventional-dose chemotherapy in managing malignant tumors. Moreover, low-dose regimen seems to possess positive advantages of lower

  14. Altered and Conventional Fractionated Radiotherapy in Locoregional Control and Survival of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx, Oropharynx, and Hypopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Krstevska, Valentina; Crvenkova, Simonida

    2006-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy of two altered fractionation radiotherapy treatment protocols (hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation with concomitant boost) with conventional fractionation in improvement of locoregional disease control and survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, oropharynx, or hypopharynx. Methods From March 1999 to December 2000, 51 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, oropharynx or hypopharynx underwent conventionally fractionated radiotherapy and received 66-70 Gy in 6˝-7 weeks (2 Gy per fraction a day, 5 fractions a week). From January 2001 to June 2004, 101 patients with the same diagnoses underwent either hyperfractionated radiotherapy, with 74.4-79.2 Gy delivered in 6.2-7 weeks (1.2 Gy per fraction twice a day), or accelerated fractionation with concomitant boost, which delivered 68.7-72 Gy in 6 weeks (1.8 Gy per fraction a day and 1.5 Gy per fraction a day to a boost filed as a second daily treatment for the last 11-12 treatment days). Locoregional relapse and overall survival were recorded. Results Complete response to treatment was obtained in 31 of 51 patients treated with conventional fractionation, 33 of 50 patients treated with hyperfractionation, and 36 of 51 patients treated with accelerated fractionation. No significant differences were observed among the patients treated with conventional, hyperfractionated, or accelerated radiotherapy modalities either in locoregional control rate (41% vs 35% vs 49%, respectively; P = 0.690) or overall survival rate (50% vs 40% vs 51%, respectively; P = 0.760). The grade of acute reactions of the larynx significantly differed among the treatment groups (Fisher exact test; P = 0.039). The difference in the grade of acute side effects in the skin among the treatment groups was of borderline significance (χ22 test; P = 0.054). There was also a borderline difference among the groups in the grade of late side

  15. Hydrotherapy vs. conventional land-based exercise for improving walking and balance after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhizhong; Cui, Liling; Yin, Miaomiao; Yu, Yang; Zhou, Xiaona; Wang, Hongtu; Yan, Hua

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of hydrotherapy on walking ability and balance in patients with chronic stroke. Single-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient rehabilitation clinic at a tertiary neurological hospital in China. A total of 28 participants with impairments in walking and controlling balance more than six months post-stroke. After baseline evaluations, participants were randomly assigned to a land-based therapy (control group, n = 14) or hydrotherapy (study group, n = 14). Participants underwent individual sessions for four weeks, five days a week, for 45 minutes per session. After four weeks of rehabilitation, all participants were evaluated by a blinded assessor. Functional assessments included the Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale, 2-minute walk test, and Timed Up and Go Test. After four weeks of treatment, the Berg Balance Scale, functional reach test, 2-minute walk test, and the Timed Up and Go Test scores had improved significantly in each group (P < 0.05). The mean improvement of the functional reach test and 2-minute walk test were significantly higher in the aquatic group than in the control group (P < 0.01). The differences in the mean values of the improvements in the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go Test were not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that a relatively short programme (four weeks) of hydrotherapy exercise resulted in a large improvement in a small group (n = 14) of individuals with relatively high balance and walking function following a stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Probing DNA hybridization efficiency and single base mismatch by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-Chun; Zhang, Xin; He, Nong-Yue; Lu, Zu-Hong; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrated the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study DNA hybridization. Target DNA labeled with hexachloro-fluorescein (HEX) was hybridized to DNA arrays with four different probes. Each probe dot of the hybridized arrays was detected with XPS. The XPS Cl2p peak areas were found to decrease with an increase in mismatched bases in DNA probes. The Cl2p core-level peak area ratio of a probe perfectly matched to one, two and three base-mismatched probes accorded well with the results of conventional fluorescent imaging, which shows that XPS is a potential tool for analyzing DNA arrays. The DNA arrays' hybridization efficiency was assessed by the molar ratio of chlorine to phosphorus in a DNA strand, which was determined from the relevant XPS Cl2p and P2p core-level peak areas after hybridization. This could provide a new method to detect DNA hybridization efficiency.

  17. ABO blood group mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tekgündüz, Sibel Akpınar; Özbek, Namık

    2016-02-01

    Apart from solid organ transplantations, use of ABO-blood group mismatched (ABO-mismatched) donors is acceptable in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. About 20-40% of allogeneic HSCT recipients will receive grafts from ABO-mismatched donors. ABO incompatible HSCT procedures are associated with immediate and late consequences, including but not restricted to acute or delayed hemolytic reactions, delayed red blood cell recovery, pure red cell aplasia and graft-versus-host disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge about consequences of ABO-mismatched HSCT in terms of associated complications and will evaluate its impact on important outcome parameters of HSCT.

  18. Educational mismatch and health status among foreign-born workers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dunlavy, A C; Garcy, A M; Rostila, M

    2016-04-01

    Foreign-born workers have been shown to experience poorer working conditions than native-born workers. Yet relationships between health and educational mismatch have been largely overlooked among foreign-born workers. This study uses objective and self-reported measures of educational mismatch to compare the prevalence of educational mismatch among native (n = 2359) and foreign-born (n = 1789) workers in Sweden and to examine associations between educational mismatch and poor self-rated health. Findings from weighted multivariate logistic regression which controlled for social position and individual-level demographic characteristics suggested that over-educated foreign-born workers had greater odds ratios for poor-self rated health compared to native-born matched workers. This association was particularly evident among men (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.04-4.39) and women (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.12-4.03) from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand. Associations between under-education and poor-self rated health were also found among women from countries outside of Western Europe, North America, and Australia/New Zealand (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.27-3.18). These findings suggest that educational mismatch may be an important work-related social determinant of health among foreign-born workers. Future studies are needed to examine the effects of long-term versus short-term states of educational mismatch on health and to study relationships over time.

  19. Convergent Transmission of RNAi Guide-Target Mismatch Information across Argonaute Internal Allosteric Network

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Thomas T.; Osman, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In RNA interference, a guide strand derived from a short dsRNA such as a microRNA (miRNA) is loaded into Argonaute, the central protein in the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that silences messenger RNAs on a sequence-specific basis. The positions of any mismatched base pairs in an miRNA determine which Argonaute subtype is used. Subsequently, the Argonaute-guide complex binds and silences complementary target mRNAs; certain Argonautes cleave the target. Mismatches between guide strand and the target mRNA decrease cleavage efficiency. Thus, loading and silencing both require that signals about the presence of a mismatched base pair are communicated from the mismatch site to effector sites. These effector sites include the active site, to prevent target cleavage; the binding groove, to modify nucleic acid binding affinity; and surface allosteric sites, to control recruitment of additional proteins to form the RISC. To examine how such signals may be propagated, we analyzed the network of internal allosteric pathways in Argonaute exhibited through correlations of residue-residue interactions. The emerging network can be described as a set of pathways emanating from the core of the protein near the active site, distributed into the bulk of the protein, and converging upon a distributed cluster of surface residues. Nucleotides in the guide strand “seed region” have a stronger relationship with the protein than other nucleotides, concordant with their importance in sequence selectivity. Finally, any of several seed region guide-target mismatches cause certain Argonaute residues to have modified correlations with the rest of the protein. This arises from the aggregation of relatively small interaction correlation changes distributed across a large subset of residues. These residues are in effector sites: the active site, binding groove, and surface, implying that direct functional consequences of guide-target mismatches are mediated through the cumulative

  20. Revisiting Hydrophobic Mismatch with Free Energy Simulation Studies of Transmembrane Helix Tilt and Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehoon; Im, Wonpil

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Protein-lipid interaction and bilayer regulation of membrane protein functions are largely controlled by the hydrophobic match between the transmembrane (TM) domain of membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer. To systematically characterize responses of a TM helix and lipid adaptations to a hydrophobic mismatch, we have performed a total of 5.8-μs umbrella sampling simulations and calculated the potentials of mean force (PMFs) as a function of TM helix tilt angle under various mismatch conditions. Single-pass TM peptides called WALPn (n = 16, 19, 23, and 27) were used in two lipid bilayers with different hydrophobic thicknesses to consider hydrophobic mismatch caused by either the TM length or the bilayer thickness. In addition, different flanking residues, such as alanine, lysine, and arginine, instead of tryptophan in WALP23 were used to examine their influence. The PMFs, their decomposition, and trajectory analysis demonstrate that 1), tilting of a single-pass TM helix is the major response to a hydrophobic mismatch; 2), TM helix tilting up to ∼10° is inherent due to the intrinsic entropic contribution arising from helix precession around the membrane normal even under a negative mismatch; 3), the favorable helix-lipid interaction provides additional driving forces for TM helix tilting under a positive mismatch; 4), the minimum-PMF tilt angle is generally located where there is the hydrophobic match and little lipid perturbation; 5), TM helix rotation is dependent on the specific helix-lipid interaction; and 6), anchoring residues at the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface can be an important determinant of TM helix orientation. PMID:20655845

  1. Conventional versus automated measurement of blood pressure in primary care patients with systolic hypertension: randomised parallel design controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Dawes, Martin; Kiss, Alexander; Tobe, Sheldon W; Grant, F Curry; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the quality and accuracy of manual office blood pressure and automated office blood pressure using the awake ambulatory blood pressure as a gold standard. Design Multi-site cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care practices in five cities in eastern Canada. Participants 555 patients with systolic hypertension and no serious comorbidities under the care of 88 primary care physicians in 67 practices in the community. Interventions Practices were randomly allocated to either ongoing use of manual office blood pressure (control group) or automated office blood pressure (intervention group) using the BpTRU device. The last routine manual office blood pressure (mm Hg) was obtained from each patient’s medical record before enrolment. Office blood pressure readings were compared before and after enrolment in the intervention and control groups; all readings were also compared with the awake ambulatory blood pressure. Main outcome measure Difference in systolic blood pressure between awake ambulatory blood pressure minus automated office blood pressure and awake ambulatory blood pressure minus manual office blood pressure. Results Cluster randomisation allocated 31 practices (252 patients) to manual office blood pressure and 36 practices (303 patients) to automated office blood pressure measurement. The most recent routine manual office blood pressure (149.5 (SD 10.8)/81.4 (8.3)) was higher than automated office blood pressure (135.6 (17.3)/77.7 (10.9)) (P<0.001). In the control group, routine manual office blood pressure before enrolment (149.9 (10.7)/81.8 (8.5)) was reduced to 141.4 (14.6)/80.2 (9.5) after enrolment (P<0.001/P=0.01), but the reduction in the intervention group from manual office to automated office blood pressure was significantly greater (P<0.001/P=0.02). On the first study visit after enrolment, the estimated mean difference for the intervention group between the awake ambulatory systolic/diastolic blood pressure

  2. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing grain from second-generation insect-protected and glyphosate-tolerant, conventional control or commercial reference corn.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Nemeth, M; Lucas, D; Davis, S

    2007-09-01

    Two 42-d floor pen studies were conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when broilers were fed diets containing grain from either second-generation lepidopteran insect-protected corn (MON 89034; study 1) or second-generation lepidopteran combined with second-generation corn rootworm-protected and glyphosate-tolerant corn (MON 89034 x MON 88017; study 2) with those of diets containing corn grain from the conventional control and 4 conventional corn hybrids. In both studies, broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 55%, wt/wt, corn grain) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 59%, wt/wt, corn grain) from d 21 to 42. Each study used a randomized complete block design with 6 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 12 pens each (6 male and 6 female) and 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). In study 1 (MON 89034), no treatment differences were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, or any measured carcass parameter. A significant difference was noted for adjusted feed conversion between MON 89034 and control birds; however, no differences were detected in individual treatment comparisons between the MON 89034 and 3 of the 4 commercial corn diets. In study 2 (MON 89034 x MON 88017), no treatment differences were observed for feed intake and most carcass parameters. When significant treatment differences were detected, no differences were observed between MON 89034 x MON 88017, its control, and 2 or more of the commercial corn diets. In each study, comparison of all parameters measured showed no differences between birds fed the test diet and the population of birds fed the control and 4 commercial corn diets. In conclusion, the test diets were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing the control and corn grain from commercial hybrids.

  3. Effects of a Yoga Program on Mood States, Quality of Life, and Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Conventional Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra Mohan; Raghuram, Nagaratna; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Kodaganur, Gopinath S; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Shashidhara, HP; Diwakar, Ravi B; Patil, Shekhar; Rao, Nalini

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy counseling on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, toxicity, and quality of life in Stage II and III breast cancer patients on conventional treatment. Methods: Ninety-eight Stage II and III breast cancer patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both at a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy counseling (n = 53) over a 24-week period. Intervention consisted of 60-min yoga sessions, daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Assessments included state-trait anxiety inventory, Beck's depression inventory, symptom checklist, common toxicity criteria, and functional living index-cancer. Assessments were done at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. Results: Both groups had similar baseline scores. There were 29 dropouts 12 (yoga) and 17 (controls) following surgery. Sixty-nine participants contributed data to the current analysis (33 in yoga, and 36 in controls). An ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline differences, showed a significant decrease for the yoga intervention as compared to the control group during RT (first result) and CT (second result), in (i) anxiety state by 4.72 and 7.7 points, (ii) depression by 5.74 and 7.25 points, (iii) treatment-related symptoms by 2.34 and 2.97 points, (iv) severity of symptoms by 6.43 and 8.83 points, (v) distress by 7.19 and 13.11 points, and (vi) and improved overall quality of life by 23.9 and 31.2 points as compared to controls. Toxicity was significantly less in the yoga group (P = 0.01) during CT. Conclusion: The results suggest a possible use for yoga as a psychotherapeutic intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. PMID:28827925

  4. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-10-01

    Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction.The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus.We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar.The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials.We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise.A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75-5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups.The number of included randomized controlled trials and the

  5. Role of frequency mismatch in neuronal communication through coherence.

    PubMed

    Sancristóbal, Belén; Vicente, Raul; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal gamma oscillations have been described in local field potentials of different brain regions of multiple species. Gamma oscillations are thought to reflect rhythmic synaptic activity organized by inhibitory interneurons. While several aspects of gamma rhythmogenesis are relatively well understood, we have much less solid evidence about how gamma oscillations contribute to information processing in neuronal circuits. One popular hypothesis states that a flexible routing of information between distant populations occurs via the control of the phase or coherence between their respective oscillations. Here, we investigate how a mismatch between the frequencies of gamma oscillations from two populations affects their interaction. In particular, we explore a biophysical model of the reciprocal interaction between two cortical areas displaying gamma oscillations at different frequencies, and quantify their phase coherence and communication efficiency. We observed that a moderate excitatory coupling between the two areas leads to a decrease in their frequency detuning, up to ∼6 Hz, with no frequency locking arising between the gamma peaks. Importantly, for similar gamma peak frequencies a zero phase difference emerges for both LFP and MUA despite small axonal delays. For increasing frequency detunings we found a significant decrease in the phase coherence (at non-zero phase lag) between the MUAs but not the LFPs of the two areas. Such difference between LFPs and MUAs behavior is due to the misalignment between the arrival of afferent synaptic currents and the local excitability windows. To test the efficiency of communication we evaluated the success of transferring rate-modulations between the two areas. Our results indicate that once two populations lock their peak frequencies, an optimal phase relation for communication appears. However, the sensitivity of locking to frequency mismatch suggests that only a precise and active control of gamma frequency could

  6. A randomized controlled feasibility trial comparing safety and effectiveness of prehospital pacing versus conventional treatment: 'PrePACE'.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Laurie J; Long, Jennifer; Vermeulen, Marian; Schwartz, Brian; Sawadsky, Bruce; Frank, Jamie; Cameron, Bruce; Burgess, Robert; Shield, Jennifer; Bagley, Paul; Mausz, Vivien; Brewer, James E; Dorian, Paul

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a prehospital randomized controlled trial comparing transcutaneous pacing (TCP) with dopamine for unstable bradycardia. Unstable bradycardic patients who failed to respond to a fluid bolus and up to 3mg atropine were enrolled. The intervention was dopamine or TCP with crossover to dopamine if TCP failed. The primary outcome was survival to discharge or 30 days. Randomization compliance, safety, follow-up rates, primary outcome, and sample size requirements were assessed. Of 383 patients with unstable bradycardia, 151 (39%) failed to respond to atropine or fluid and were eligible for enrollment and 82 (55%) were correctly enrolled. Fifty-five (36%) of eligible patients could not be enrolled for practical reasons; 3 had advance directives, 32 met inclusion criteria on arrival at hospital and in 20 cases, paramedics chose not to enroll based on the circumstances of the case. The remaining 13 were missed cases; 8 were missing randomization envelopes and in 5, the paramedic forgot. Randomization compliance was 95% (78/82). Forty-two (51%) patients were randomized to TCP and seven of these crossed over to dopamine. Two cases were randomized but did not receive the intervention; either due to lack of time or loss of IV access. Three adverse events occurred in each group. Survival to discharge or 30 days in hospital was 70% (28/40) and 69% (29/42) in the dopamine and TCP groups, respectively with 100% follow up. To detect a 10% relative difference in 30 days survival between treatment arms, a sample size of 690 per group would be required. It is feasible to conduct a prehospital randomized controlled trial of TCP for unstable bradycardia and a definitive trial would require a multi-centre study.

  7. Comparison of Piezosurgery and Conventional Rotary Instruments for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Randomized Controlled Clinical and Radiographic Trial.

    PubMed

    Arakji, Hani; Shokry, Mohamed; Aboelsaad, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars using piezosurgery versus the conventional surgical technique on postoperative sequelae and bone healing. Material and Methods. This study was carried out as a randomized controlled clinical trial: split mouth design. Twenty patients with bilateral mandibular third molar mesioangular impaction class II position B indicated for surgical extraction were treated randomly using either the piezosurgery or the conventional bur technique on each site. Duration of the procedure, postoperative edema, trismus, pain, healing, and bone density and quantity were evaluated up to 6 months postoperatively. Results. Test and control sites were compared using paired t-test. There was statistical significance in reduction of pain and swelling in test sites, where the time of the procedure was statistically increased in test site. For bone quantity and quality, statistical difference was found where test site showed better results. Conclusion. Piezosurgery technique improves quality of patient's life in form of decrease of postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling. Furthermore, it enhances bone quality within the extraction socket and bone quantity along the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar.

  8. Comparison of Piezosurgery and Conventional Rotary Instruments for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Randomized Controlled Clinical and Radiographic Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shokry, Mohamed; Aboelsaad, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars using piezosurgery versus the conventional surgical technique on postoperative sequelae and bone healing. Material and Methods. This study was carried out as a randomized controlled clinical trial: split mouth design. Twenty patients with bilateral mandibular third molar mesioangular impaction class II position B indicated for surgical extraction were treated randomly using either the piezosurgery or the conventional bur technique on each site. Duration of the procedure, postoperative edema, trismus, pain, healing, and bone density and quantity were evaluated up to 6 months postoperatively. Results. Test and control sites were compared using paired t-test. There was statistical significance in reduction of pain and swelling in test sites, where the time of the procedure was statistically increased in test site. For bone quantity and quality, statistical difference was found where test site showed better results. Conclusion. Piezosurgery technique improves quality of patient's life in form of decrease of postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling. Furthermore, it enhances bone quality within the extraction socket and bone quantity along the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar. PMID:27597866

  9. HLA-DQ Mismatches and Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jeremy R.; Coates, Patrick T.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Russ, Graeme R.; Watson, Narelle; Holdsworth, Rhonda; Wong, Germaine

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The current allocation algorithm for deceased donor kidney transplantation takes into consideration HLA mismatches at the ABDR loci but not HLA mismatches at other loci, including HLA-DQ. However, the independent effects of incompatibilities for the closely linked HLA-DQ antigens in the context of HLA-DR antigen matched and mismatched allografts are uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of HLA-DQ mismatches on renal allograft outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we examined the association between HLA-DQ mismatches and acute rejections in primary live and deceased donor kidney transplant recipients between 2004 and 2012 using adjusted Cox regression models. Results Of the 788 recipients followed for a median of 2.8 years (resulting in 2891 person-years), 321 (40.7%) and 467 (59.3%) received zero and one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, respectively. Compared with recipients who have received zero HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, those who have received one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys experienced greater numbers of any rejection (50 of 321 versus 117 of 467; P<0.01), late rejections (occurring >6 months post-transplant; 8 of 321 versus 27 of 467; P=0.03), and antibody-mediated rejections (AMRs; 12 of 321 versus 38 of 467; P=0.01). Compared with recipients of zero HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys, the adjusted hazard ratios for any and late rejections in recipients who had received one or two HLA-DQ mismatched kidneys were 1.54 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 2.19) and 2.85 (95% CI, 1.05 to 7.75), respectively. HLA-DR was an effect modifier between HLA-DQ mismatches and AMR (P value for interaction =0.02), such that the association between HLA-DQ mismatches and AMR was statistically significant in those who have received one or two HLA-DR mismatched kidneys, with adjusted hazard ratio of 2.50 (95% CI, 1.05 to 5.94). Conclusions HLA

  10. Comparative assessment of conventional and light-curable fluoride varnish in the prevention of enamel demineralization during fixed appliance therapy: a split-mouth randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mandar; Paramshivam, Ganesh; Mehta, Anurag; Singh, Surjit; Chugh, Ankita; Prashar, Anil; Chugh, Vinay Kumar

    2017-05-13

    To evaluate the effects of single application of a conventional versus light-curable fluoride varnish (LCFV) on prevention of enamel demineralization during fixed orthodontic treatment over a 4 month period. The research was designed as a split-mouth, randomized control trial (RCT). Twenty-two patients requiring fixed orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions were included in the RCT. In each patient, two diagonal quadrants (i.e. upper right and lower left, or vice versa) were randomly assigned to receive conventional fluoride varnish or LCFV. After allocation of one intervention, the other diagonal quadrants received the second intervention. At specific time intervals, premolars were extracted and sectioned, and the demineralized lesion was assessed in each group. The primary outcome was demineralized enamel lesion depth (DELD) at the end of 45, 90, and 120 days. A simple complete randomization list using random allocation rule (restricted randomization) was computer generated to ensure homogeneity of application of conventional or LCFV to each contralateral quadrant in a split-mouth design. Allocation concealment was not employed. Blinding was done only for outcome assessor because of clinical limitations. Twenty-two patients with 88 teeth were enrolled in the trial. After excluding the drop-outs, primary analysis was performed on 66 teeth distributed among two interventional groups. Mean difference between DELD among two groups was 36.6 µm [95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 34.61-38.55] and 58.5 µm [95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 55.65-61.43] at 90 and 120 days, respectively. Cluster level analysis performed by Paired t-test showed that DELD was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the conventional fluoride varnish group at the end of 90 and 120 days as compared to LCFV group. No adverse effect was observed in any patient. Being a histologic study, the role of fluoride varnish could be assessed only for 4 months. The result of this study indicate

  11. Alignment to natural and imposed mismatches between the senses.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, K; Brenner, E; van Beers, R J; Schot, W D; Smeets, J B J

    2013-04-01

    Does the nervous system continuously realign the senses so that objects are seen and felt in the same place? Conflicting answers to this question have been given. Research imposing a sensory mismatch has provided evidence that the nervous system realigns the senses to reduce the mismatch. Other studies have shown that when subjects point with the unseen hand to visual targets, their end points show visual-proprioceptive biases that do not disappear after episodes of visual feedback. These biases are indicative of intersensory mismatches that the nervous system does not align for. Here, we directly compare how the nervous system deals with natural and imposed mismatches. Subjects moved a hand-held cube to virtual cubes appearing at pseudorandom locations in three-dimensional space. We alternated blocks in which subjects moved without visual feedback of the hand with feedback blocks in which we rendered a cube representing the hand-held cube. In feedback blocks, we rotated the visual feedback by 5° relative to the subject's head, creating an imposed mismatch between vision and proprioception on top of any natural mismatches. Realignment occurred quickly but was incomplete. We found more realignment to imposed mismatches than to natural mismatches. We propose that this difference is related to the way in which the visual information changed when subjects entered the experiment: the imposed mismatches were different from the mismatch in daily life, so alignment started from scratch, whereas the natural mismatches were not imposed by the experimenter, so subjects are likely to have entered the experiment partly aligned.

  12. Oxidative mutagenesis, mismatch repair, and aging.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Amy M; Turker, Mitchell S

    2005-03-02

    A PubMed search for the term "oxidative stress" yields over 29,000 articles published on the subject over the past 10 years; more than 2000 of these articles also include the term "aging" in their title or abstract. Many theories of aging predict causal roles for oxidative stress in the myriad of pathological changes that occur as a function of age, including an increasing propensity to develop cancer. A possible link between aging and cancer is the induction and accumulation of somatic mutations caused by oxidative stress. This Review focuses on small mutational events that are induced by oxidative stress and the role of mismatch repair (MMR) in preventing their formation. It also discusses a possible inhibitory effect of oxidative stress on MMR. We speculate that a synergistic interaction between oxidative damage to DNA and reduced MMR levels will, in part, account for an accumulation of small mutational events, and hence cancer, with aging.

  13. [Cognitive evoked potentials. Perspectives for mismatch negativity].

    PubMed

    Gurtubay, I G

    2009-01-01

    The techniques of cognitive evoked potentials are considered long and technically complex, which is why their use in clinical practice is not very widespread in spite of their potential utility. Recent advances in registering and analysis, together with improvement of the software managing these signals, have appreciably reduced these problems. Mismatch negativity stands out as the most promising of all the cognitive potentials due to its special characteristics regarding its generation requisites and its proven clinical utility. The fact that it can be generated without care requirements makes it especially useful for evaluating subjects with a low level of consciousness; it serves for predicting when they will emerge from a coma, amongst other uses. The incorporation of this technique into the arsenal of neurophysiological techniques for evaluating the state of these subjects will bring a substantial improvement in the evaluation of cases whose management in clinical practice is extremely complex.

  14. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in former Soviet Union countries.

    PubMed

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-04-01

    We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The GYTS is a school-based survey, which uses a two-stage sample design to produce representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates. The GYTS was conducted in 10 out of 12 FSU countries from 1999 to 2008. The prevalence of ever smoking and current smoking, smoking initiation, and exposure to second-hand smoking decreased over time. Overall, willingness to stop smoking, supporting smoking bans, and receiving information about the dangers of smoking increased over time. Overall, our study shows that FSU countries had positive changes in tobacco-use prevalence and perception among youth over time. Our findings should be used as baseline measures for future tobacco-control interventions aimed at reducing tobacco use among youth. Moreover, our results call for the enforcement of restricting advertising for tobacco products.

  15. Spectrophotometric analysis of fluorescent zirconia abutments compared to "conventional" zirconia abutments: A within subject controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Gamper, Felix B; Sapata, Vítor M; Voce, Giuseppe; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2017-08-01

    Zirconia abutments are frequently used for implant-supported single crowns. Even though demonstrating esthetic benefits compared to metal abutments, zirconia abutments lead to an increased brightness of the peri-implant mucosa compared to natural teeth and are not ideal from an esthetic point of view. To test whether or not a fluorescent hybrid zirconia abutment offers superior esthetics compared to a non-fluorescent one-piece zirconia abutment based on spectrophotometric analysis. In 24 patients with 24 single-tooth implants, 2 types of reconstructions were fabricated: a directly veneered one-piece zirconia abutment/crown (control) and a directly veneered fluorescent hybrid zirconia abutment/crown (test). Spectrophotometric assessment was performed: prior to abutment insertion (WA), at abutment try-in (A), at the try-in of the final crowns (C). Color differences (ΔE) were assessed compared to the gingiva of natural teeth (T) and between the reconstructions. At abutment try-in, ΔE values were 8.49 ± 3.59 for AControl and 8.27 ± 4.03 for ATest compared to T. At crown insertion, ΔE values were 7.61 ± 4.03 for CControl and 8.32 ± 3.57 for CTest compared to T. The difference in ΔE values between AControl and ATest was 0.23 ± 2.54 (P = .37), whereas the difference in ΔE values between CControl and CTest was -0.66 ±3.45 (P = .48). For all cases with a mucosal thickness ≤2 mm, the comparison between CControl and CTest was significant in favor of the control group (P = .03). Both types of reconstructions were similar in terms of esthetics. Incases with a mucosal thickness of <2 mm, the soft tissue discoloration compared to the natural gingiva was more pronounced for the fluorescent hybrid zirconia reconstructions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Transplant size mismatch in restrictive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ganapathi, Asvin M; Mulvihill, Michael S; Englum, Brian R; Speicher, Paul J; Gulack, Brian C; Osho, Asishana A; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Snyder, Laurie R; Davis, Duane; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-04-01

    To maximize the benefit of lung transplantation, the effect of size mismatch on survival in lung transplant recipients with restrictive lung disease (RLD) was examined. All single and bilateral RLD lung transplants from 1987 to 2011 in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Database were identified. Donor predicted total lung capacity (pTLC):Recipient pTLC ratio (pTLCr) quantified mismatch. pTLCr was segregated into five strata. A Cox proportional hazards model evaluated the association of pTLCr with mortality hazard. To identify a critical pTLCr, a Cox model using a restricted cubic spline for pTLCr was used. A total of 6656 transplants for RLD were identified. Median pTLCr for single orthotopic lung transplant (SOLT) and bilateral orthotopic lung transplant (BOLT) was 1.0 (0.69-1.47) and 0.98 (0.66-1.45). Examination of pTLCr as a categorical variable revealed that undersizing (pTLCr <0.8) for SOLT and moderate oversizing (pTLCr = 1.1-1.2) for SOLT and BOLT had a harmful survival effect [for SOLT pTLC <0.8: HR 1.711 (95% CI 1.146-2.557), P = 0.01 and for BOLT pTLC 1.1-1.2: HR 1.717 (95% CI 1.112-2.651), P = 0.02]. Spline analysis revealed significant changes in SOLT mortality by variation of pTLCr between 0.8-0.9 and 1.1-1.2. RLD patients undergoing SOLT are susceptible to detriments of an undersized lung. RLD patients undergoing BOLT have higher risk of mortality when pTLCr falls between 1.1 and 1.2. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Robotic gait training is not superior to conventional treadmill training in parkinson disease: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carda, Stefano; Invernizzi, Marco; Baricich, Alessio; Comi, Cristoforo; Croquelois, Alexandre; Cisari, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The use of robots for gait training in Parkinson disease (PD) is growing, but no evidence points to an advantage over the standard treadmill. In this randomized, single-blind controlled trial, participants aged <75 years with early-stage PD (Hoehn-Yahr <3) were randomly allocated to 2 groups: either 30 minutes of gait training on a treadmill or in the Lokomat for 3 d/wk for 4 weeks. Patients were evaluated by a physical therapist blinded to allocation before and at the end of treatment and then at the 3- and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the 6-minute walk test. Of 334 screened patients, the authors randomly allocated 30 to receive gait training with treadmill or the Lokomat. At baseline, the 2 groups did not differ. At the 6-month follow-up, both groups had improved significantly in the primary outcome measure (treadmill: mean = 490.95 m, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 448.56-533.34, P = .0006; Lokomat: 458.6 m, 95% CI = 417.23-499.96, P = .01), but no significant differences were found between the 2 groups (P = .53). Robotic gait training with the Lokomat is not superior to treadmill training in improving gait performance in patients with PD. Both approaches are safe, with results maintained for up to 6 months.

  18. A multicentre randomized/controlled trial of a conventional versus modestly accelerated radiotherapy in the laryngeal cancer: influence of a 1 week shortening overall time.

    PubMed

    Hliniak, A; Gwiazdowska, B; Szutkowski, Z; Kraszewska, E; Kukolowicz, P; Jarzabski, A; Sochacka, B; Mazurkiewicz, M; Paprota, K; Oliskiewicz, W; Zadrozna, O; Milecki, P; Kubiak, M; Czopkiewicz, L; Jagas, M; Góźdź, S; Wieczorek, A; Woytowicz, A; Cisowska, B; Magdziarz, H; Nowakowski, S; Kośniewski, W; Laskosz, I; Serafin, A; Gradoń, E

    2002-01-01

    To compare in a phase III study the loco-regional control, disease-free survival and overall survival induced by an accelerated regimen (AF) as compared with conventional regimen (CF) and to analyze the early and late post-radiation morbidity in both arms. Patients with age < or = 75, WHO 0-1, suitable for a radical course of radiotherapy T1-T3, N0, M0, stage of glottic and supraglottic laryngeal cancer were randomized to either CF: 66Gy given in 33 fractions over 45 days or AF: 66Gy given in 33 fractions over 38 days (2 fractions every Thursday). A total of 395 patients were included from 05.1995 to 12.1998. Early toxicity: At the end of radiotherapy patients treated with AF complained for more severe reactions than patients treated with CF. In 8 weeks after treatment completion patients treated with AF complained only for more severe pain on swallowing (P=0.027). In 4 months after treatment completion all types of toxicity except for skin teleangiectasia (P=0.001) were similar in the two groups. Loco-regional control: comparison between CF and AF showed no difference in terms of loco-regional control (P=0.37). The improvement in AF in terms of loco-regional control is estimated to be 3-5% in comparison with conventional regimen and is not significant. The intensity of reactions after 4 months was similar in both arms, what suggests the possibility of further shortening of the overall time by few days or enhancing the total dose within the limits of acceptable morbidity.

  19. BARC surface property matching for negative-tone development of a conventional positive-tone photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.; Krishnamurthy, Vandana; Sullivan, Daniel M.

    2011-04-01

    The main properties controlling a successful negative-tone development (NTD) process include surface energy of the BARC or silicon hardmask, reflectivity control, and type of spin-on carbon (SOC) layer utilized. In this paper, we studied the BARC and silicon-containing hardmask properties needed to achieve successful NTD of a conventional positive-tone photoresist. The surface energy mismatch between BARC and silicon-containing hardmask poses challenges for patterning dense structures. Interaction of the SOC layer and the photoresist was observed, even with the silicon hardmask film present in between these two layers. Strict reflectivity elimination does not guarantee a successful outcome, rather precise control of reflectivity is required to enhance the overall lithographic process.

  20. Real-time comparison of conventional direct control and pattern recognition myoelectric control in a two-dimensional Fitts' law style test.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Sophie M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared real-time control performance of pattern recognition to direct control for the next generation of myoelectric controlled upper limb prostheses. Many different implementations of pattern recognition control have been proposed, with minor differentiations in the feature sets and classifiers. An objective and generalizable evaluation tool quantifying the control performance, other than classification accuracy, is needed. This paper used the implementation of such a tool through the design of a target acquisition test, similar to a Fitts' law test, relating movement time of the target acquisition to the difficulty of the target, for a given control strategy. Performance metrics such as throughput (bits/sec), completion rate (%) and path efficiency (%) allow for a complete evaluation of the described strategies. We compared direct control and pattern recognition control with the proposed test and found that 1) the test was valid for control system evaluation by following Fitts' law with high coefficients of determination for both types of control and 2) that pattern recognition significantly outperformed direct control in throughput with similar completion rates and path efficiencies. In this framework, the present pilot study supports pattern recognition as a promising strategy and forms a basis for the development of a general and objective tool for the performance evaluation of upper limb control strategies.

  1. Multicenter randomized controlled trial of conventional versus laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer within an enhanced recovery programme: EnROL.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Robin H; Francis, E Anne; Wharton, Rose; Blazeby, Jane M; Quirke, Philip; West, Nicholas P; Dutton, Susan J

    2014-06-10

    Laparoscopic resection and a multimodal approach known as an enhanced recovery program (ERP) have been major changes in colorectal perioperative care that have improved clinical outcomes for colorectal cancer resection. EnROL (Enhanced Recovery Open Versus Laparoscopic) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial examining whether the benefits of laparoscopy still exist when open surgery is optimized within an ERP. Adults with colorectal cancer suitable for elective resection were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to laparoscopic or open surgery within an ERP, stratified by center, cancer site (colon v rectum), and age group (<66 v 66-75 v >75 years) using minimization. The primary outcome was physical fatigue at 1 month postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included hospital stay, complications, other patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and physical function. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded until 7 days postsurgery or discharge if earlier. Central independent and blinded pathologic assessment of surgical quality was undertaken. A total of 204 patients (laparoscopy, n=103; open surgery, n=101) were recruited from 12 UK centers from July 2008 to April 2012. One-month physical fatigue scores were similar in both groups (mean: laparoscopy, 12.28; 95% CI, 11.37 to 13.19 v open surgery, 12.05; 95% CI, 11.14 to 12.96; adjusted mean difference, -0.23; 95% CI, -1.52 to 1.07). Median total hospital stay was significantly shorter after laparoscopic surgery (median: laparoscopy, 5; interquartile range [IQR], 4 to 9 v open surgery, 7; IQR, 5 to 11 days; P=.033). There were no differences in other secondary outcomes or in specimen quality after central pathologic review. In patients treated by experienced surgeons within an ERP, physical fatigue and other PROs were similar in both groups, but laparoscopic surgery significantly reduced length of hospital stay. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control for type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kähler, Pernille; Grevstad, Berit; Almdal, Thomas; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Vaag, Allan; Hemmingsen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the benefits and harms of targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Design A systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. Data sources The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and LILACS to January 2013. Study selection Randomised clinical trials that prespecified different targets of glycaemic control in participants at any age with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 18 randomised clinical trials included 2254 participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus. All trials had high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant effect of targeting intensive glycaemic control on all-cause mortality (risk ratio 1.16, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.08) or cardiovascular mortality (0.49, 0.19 to 1.24). Targeting intensive glycaemic control reduced the relative risks for the composite macrovascular outcome (0.63, 0.41 to 0.96; p=0.03), and nephropathy (0.37, 0.27 to 0.50; p<0.00001. The effect estimates of retinopathy, ketoacidosis and retinal photocoagulation were not consistently statistically significant between random and fixed effects models. The risk of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly increased with intensive glycaemic targets (1.40, 1.01 to 1.94). Trial sequential analyses showed that the amount of data needed to demonstrate a relative risk reduction of 10% were, in general, inadequate. Conclusions There was no significant effect towards improved all-cause mortality when targeting intensive glycaemic control compared with conventional glycaemic control. However, there may be beneficial effects of targeting intensive glycaemic control on the composite macrovascular outcome and on nephropathy, and detrimental effects on severe hypoglycaemia. Notably, the data for retinopathy and ketoacidosis were inconsistent

  3. Robust control for uncertain structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Joel; Athans, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robust control for uncertain structures are presented. Topics covered include: robust linear quadratic regulator (RLQR) formulas; mismatched LQR design; RLQR design; interpretations of RLQR design; disturbance rejection; and performance comparisons: RLQR vs. mismatched LQR.

  4. Determination of value of bovine respiratory disease control using a remote early disease identification system compared with conventional methods of metaphylaxis and visual observations.

    PubMed

    White, B J; Amrine, D E; Goehl, D R

    2015-08-01

    Mitigation of the deleterious effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important issue in the cattle industry. Conventional management of calves at high risk for BRD often includes mass treatment with antimicrobials at arrival followed by visual observation for individual clinical cases. These methods have proven effective; however, control program efficacy is influenced by the accuracy of visual observation. A remote early disease identification (REDI) system has been described that monitors cattle behavior to identify potential BRD cases. The objective of this research was to compare health and performance outcomes using either traditional BRD control (visual observation and metaphylaxis) or REDI during a 60-d postarrival phase in high-risk beef calves. The randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 8 replicates at 3 different facilities over a 19-mo period. In each replicate, a single load of calves was randomly allocated to receive either conventional management (CONV; total = 8) or REDI (total = 8) as the method for BRD control. Cattle were monitored with each diagnostic method for the first 30 d on feed and performance variables were collected until approximately 60 d after arrival. Statistical differences ( < 0.10) were not identified in common performance (ADG) or health (morbidity, first treatment success, and mortality risk) among the treatment groups. Calves in the REDI pens had a lower ( < 0.01) average number of days on feed at first treatment (9.1 ± 1.2 d) compared with CONV pens (15.8 ± 1.2 d). There were no statistical differences ( > 0.10) in risk of BRD treatment and REDI calves were not administered antimicrobials at arrival; therefore, REDI calves had a lower ( < 0.01) average number of doses of antimicrobials/calf (0.75 ± 0.1 doses) compared with CONV calves (1.67 ± 0.1 doses). In this trial, the REDI system was comparable to conventional management with the potential advantages of earlier BRD diagnosis and decreased use

  5. Removal of N-6-methyladenine by the nucleotide excision repair pathway triggers the repair of mismatches in yeast gap-repair intermediates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoge; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Gap-repair assays have been an important tool for studying the genetic control of homologous recombination in yeast. Sequence analysis of recombination products derived when a gapped plasmid is diverged relative to the chromosomal repair template additionally has been used to infer structures of strand-exchange intermediates. In the absence of the canonical mismatch repair pathway, mismatches present in these intermediates are expected to persist and segregate at the next round of DNA replication. In a mismatch repair defective (mlh1Δ) background, however, we have observed that recombination-generated mismatches are often corrected to generate gene conversion or restoration events. In the analyses reported here, the source of the aberrant mismatch removal during gap repair was examined. We find that most mismatch removal is linked to the methylation status of the plasmid used in the gap-repair assay. Whereas more than half of Dam-methylated plasmids had patches of gene conversion and/or restoration interspersed with unrepaired mismatches, mismatch removal was observed in less than 10% of products obtained when un-methylated plasmids were used in transformation experiments. The methylation-linked removal of mismatches in recombination intermediates was due specifically to the nucleotide excision repair pathway, with such mismatch removal being partially counteracted by glycosylases of the base excision repair pathway. These data demonstrate that nucleotide excision repair activity is not limited to bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions, but also targets removal of very modest perturbations in DNA structure. In addition to its effects on mismatch removal, methylation reduced the overall gap-repair efficiency, but this reduction was not affected by the status of excision repair pathways. Finally, gel purification of DNA prior to transformation reduced gap-repair efficiency four-fold in a nucleotide excision repair-defective background, indicating that the collateral

  6. Mechanisms in E. coli and Human Mismatch Repair (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Modrich, Paul

    2016-07-18

    DNA molecules are not completely stable, they are subject to chemical or photochemical damage and errors that occur during DNA replication resulting in mismatched base pairs. Through mechanistic studies Paul Modrich showed how replication errors are corrected by strand-directed mismatch repair in Escherichia coli and human cells.

  7. Speaking Self-Assessment: Mismatches between Learners' and Teachers' Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…

  8. Educational Mismatch of Graduates: A Multidimensional and Fuzzy Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betti, Gianni; D'Agostino, Antonella; Neri, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to measure the educational mismatch, seen as a problem of overeducation, using a multidimensional and fuzzy methodology. Educational mismatch can be difficult to measure because many factors can converge to its definition and the traditional unidimensional indicators presented in literature can offer a restricted view of…

  9. Identification of a mismatch-specific endonuclease in hyperthermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ishino, Sonoko; Nishi, Yuki; Oda, Soichiro; Uemori, Takashi; Sagara, Takehiro; Takatsu, Nariaki; Yamagami, Takeshi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-01-01

    The common mismatch repair system processed by MutS and MutL and their homologs was identified in Bacteria and Eukarya. However, no evidence of a functional MutS/L homolog has been reported for archaeal organisms, and it is not known whether the mismatch repair system is conserved in Archaea. Here, we describe an endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA containing a mismatched base pair, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The corresponding gene revealed that the activity originates from PF0012, and we named this enzyme Endonuclease MS (EndoMS) as the mismatch-specific Endonuclease. The sequence similarity suggested that EndoMS is the ortholog of NucS isolated from Pyrococcus abyssi, published previously. Biochemical characterizations of the EndoMS homolog from Thermococcus kodakarensis clearly showed that EndoMS specifically cleaves both strands of double-stranded DNA into 5′-protruding forms, with the mismatched base pair in the central position. EndoMS cleaves G/T, G/G, T/T, T/C and A/G mismatches, with a more preference for G/T, G/G and T/T, but has very little or no effect on C/C, A/C and A/A mismatches. The discovery of this endonuclease suggests the existence of a novel mismatch repair process, initiated by the double-strand break generated by the EndoMS endonuclease, in Archaea and some Bacteria. PMID:27001046

  10. Speaking Self-Assessment: Mismatches between Learners' and Teachers' Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…

  11. Design and analysis of mismatch probes for long oligonucleotide microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2008-08-15

    Nonspecific hybridization is currently a major concern with microarray technology. One of most effective approaches to estimating nonspecific hybridizations in oligonucleotide microarrays is the utilization of mismatch probes; however, this approach has not been used for longer oligonucleotide probes. Here, an oligonucleotide microarray was constructed to evaluate and optimize parameters for 50-mer mismatch probe design. A perfect match (PM) and 28 mismatch (MM) probes were designed for each of ten target genes selected from three microorganisms. The microarrays were hybridized with synthesized complementary oligonucleotide targets at different temperatures (e.g., 42, 45 and 50 C). In general, the probes with evenly distributed mismatches were more distinguishable than those with randomly distributed mismatches. MM probes with 3, 4 and 5 mismatched nucleotides were differentiated for 50-mer oligonucleotide probes hybridized at 50, 45 and 42 C, respectively. Based on the experimental data generated from this study, a modified positional dependent nearest neighbor (MPDNN) model was constructed to adjust the thermodynamic parameters of matched and mismatched dimer nucleotides in the microarray environment. The MM probes with four flexible positional mismatches were designed using the newly established MPDNN model and the experimental results demonstrated that the redesigned MM probes could yield more consistent hybridizations. Conclusions: This study provides guidance on the design of MM probes for long oligonucleotides (e.g., 50 mers). The novel MPDNN model has improved the consistency for long MM probes, and this modeling method can potentially be used for the prediction of oligonucleotide microarray hybridizations.

  12. Educational Mismatch of Graduates: A Multidimensional and Fuzzy Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betti, Gianni; D'Agostino, Antonella; Neri, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to measure the educational mismatch, seen as a problem of overeducation, using a multidimensional and fuzzy methodology. Educational mismatch can be difficult to measure because many factors can converge to its definition and the traditional unidimensional indicators presented in literature can offer a restricted view of…

  13. PD-1 Blockade in Tumors with Mismatch-Repair Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Le, D.T.; Uram, J.N.; Wang, H.; Bartlett, B.R.; Kemberling, H.; Eyring, A.D.; Skora, A.D.; Luber, B.S.; Azad, N.S.; Laheru, D.; Biedrzycki, B.; Donehower, R.C.; Zaheer, A.; Fisher, G.A.; Crocenzi, T.S.; Lee, J.J.; Duffy, S.M.; Goldberg, R.M.; de la Chapelle, A.; Koshiji, M.; Bhaijee, F.; Huebner, T.; Hruban, R.H.; Wood, L.D.; Cuka, N.; Pardoll, D.M.; Papadopoulos, N.; Kinzler, K.W.; Zhou, S.; Cornish, T.C.; Taube, J.M.; Anders, R.A.; Eshleman, J.R.; Vogelstein, B.; Diaz, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Somatic mutations have the potential to encode “non-self” immunogenic antigens. We hypothesized that tumors with a large number of somatic mutations due to mismatch-repair defects may be susceptible to immune checkpoint blockade. METHODS We conducted a phase 2 study to evaluate the clinical activity of pembrolizumab, an anti–programmed death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in 41 patients with progressive metastatic carcinoma with or without mismatch-repair deficiency. Pembrolizumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 14 days in patients with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancers, patients with mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancers, and patients with mismatch repair–deficient cancers that were not colorectal. The coprimary end points were the immune-related objective response rate and the 20-week immune-related progression-free survival rate. RESULTS The immune-related objective response rate and immune-related progression-free survival rate were 40% (4 of 10 patients) and 78% (7 of 9 patients), respectively, for mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancers and 0% (0 of 18 patients) and 11% (2 of 18 patients) for mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancers. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were not reached in the cohort with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancer but were 2.2 and 5.0 months, respectively, in the cohort with mismatch repair–proficient colorectal cancer (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.10 [P<0.001], and hazard ratio for death, 0.22 [P = 0.05]). Patients with mismatch repair–deficient noncolorectal cancer had responses similar to those of patients with mismatch repair–deficient colorectal cancer (immune-related objective response rate, 71% [5 of 7 patients]; immune-related progression-free survival rate, 67% [4 of 6 patients]). Whole-exome sequencing revealed a mean of 1782 somatic mutations per tumor in

  14. Tofacitinib in Combination With Conventional Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: Patient-Reported Outcomes From a Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Strand, Vibeke; Kremer, Joel M; Gruben, David; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Zwillich, Samuel H; Wallenstein, Gene V

    2017-04-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We compared patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with RA treated with tofacitinib or placebo in combination with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In a 12-month, phase III randomized controlled trial (ORAL Sync), patients (n = 795) with active RA and previous inadequate response to therapy with ≥1 conventional or biologic DMARD were randomized 4:4:1:1 to tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID), tofacitinib 10 mg BID, placebo advanced to 5 mg BID, or placebo to 10 mg BID, in combination with stable background DMARD therapy. PROs included patient global assessment of arthritis (PtGA), patient assessment of arthritis pain (Pain), physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 health survey [SF-36]), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue [FACIT-F]), and sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep [MOS Sleep]). At month 3, statistically significant improvements from baseline versus placebo were reported in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, all 8 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 10 mg BID, and in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, 7 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 5 mg BID. Improvements were sustained to month 12. Significantly more tofacitinib-treated patients reported improvements of greater than or equal to the minimum clinically important differences at month 3 versus placebo in all PROs, except the SF-36 role-emotional domain (significant for tofacitinib 10 mg BID). Patients with active RA treated with tofacitinib combined with background conventional DMARD therapy reported sustained, significant, and clinically meaningful improvements in PROs versus placebo. © 2016, The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  15. A multicenter randomized controlled trial to compare a self-ligating bracket with a conventional bracket in a UK population: Part 2: Pain perception.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shahla; Spencer, R James; Littlewood, Simon J; O'Dywer, Lian; Barber, Sophy K; Russell, Joanne S

    2016-01-01

    To compare pain experience between self-ligating and conventional preadjusted edgewise appliance systems with a two-arm parallel trial. A prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in three hospital orthodontic departments. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive treatment with either a self-ligating (3M SmartClip™) or conventional (3M Victory™) bracket system with stratification for operator and center. Standardized protocol was followed for bracket bonding procedure and archwire sequence. Subject pain was recorded using a Verbal Rating Scale to assess discomfort felt on the teeth and soft tissues at the time of the appointment and 1, 3, and 5 days after each archwire change up to the working archwire. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data by blinded assessors. One hundred thirty-eight subjects (mean age 14 years 11 months) were enrolled in the study, of which 135 subjects (97.8%) completed the study and 113 (82%) returned the required data regarding pain/discomfort. Perceived pain was statistically higher with the SmartClip™ system compared to the Victory™ system, but this difference was not deemed to be clinically significant. Discomfort was greatest after placement of the initial 0.014-inch nickel-titanium archwire, compared with subsequent wires, and was greatest on day 1, less on day 3, and much less on day 5 after each archwire change. Age and gender did not affect the level of discomfort experienced by subjects undergoing fixed appliance treatment. No clinically significant difference in pain experience was found between patients treated with a self-ligating bracket system compared to those treated with a conventional ligation system.

  16. Maladaptation and phenotypic mismatch in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar released in the wild.

    PubMed

    Stringwell, R; Lock, A; Stutchbury, C J; Baggett, E; Taylor, J; Gough, P J; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2014-12-01

    Changes in body shape, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and crypsis were compared among Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry kept as controls in captivity and those released and subsequently recaptured in the wild according to a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Hatchery fish that survived in the wild became more cryptic and displayed a much lower incidence of fin erosion and of asymmetric individuals than control fish kept in captivity. Significant differences in body shape were also apparent, and survivors had longer heads, thicker caudal peduncles and a more streamlined body shape than hatchery controls as early as 20 days following stocking, most likely as a result of phenotypic plasticity and non-random, selective mortality of maladapted phenotypes. Hatchery-reared fish typically perform poorly in the wild and the results of this study indicate that this may be due to phenotypic mismatch, i.e. because hatcheries generate fish that are phenotypically mismatched to the natural environment.

  17. A periodic table of symmetric tandem mismatches in RNA.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; McDowell, J A; Turner, D H

    1995-03-14

    The stabilities and structures of a series of RNA octamers containing symmetric tandem mismatches were studied by UV melting and imino proton NMR. The free energy increments for tandem mismatch formation are found to depend upon both mismatch sequence and adjacent base pairs. The observed sequence dependence of tandem mismatch stability is UGGU > GUUG > GAAG > or = AGGA > UUUU > CAAC > or = CUUC approximately UCCU approximately CCCC approximately ACCA approximately AAAA, and the closing base pair dependence is 5'G3'C > 5'C3'G > 5'U3'A approximately 5'A3'U. These results differ from expectations based on models used in RNA folding algorithms and from the sequence dependence observed for folding of RNA hairpins. Imino proton NMR results indicate the sequence dependence is partially due to hydrogen bonding within mismatches.

  18. Effects of an integrated Yoga Program on Self-reported Depression Scores in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Conventional Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra Mohan; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Nagendra, HR; Usharani, MR; Gopinath, KS; Diwakar, Ravi B; Patil, Shekar; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Rao, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy on self-reported symptoms of depression in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. Patients and Methods: Ninety-eight breast cancer patients with stage II and III disease from a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy (n = 53) over a 24-week period during which they underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both. The study stoppage criteria was progressive disease rendering the patient bedridden or any physical musculoskeletal injury resulting from intervention or less than 60% attendance to yoga intervention. Subjects underwent yoga intervention for 60 min daily with control group undergoing supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and symptom checklist were assessed at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. We used analysis of covariance (intent-to-treat) to study the effects of intervention on depression scores and Pearson correlation analyses to evaluate the bivariate relationships. Results: A total of 69 participants contributed data to the current analysis (yoga, n = 33, and controls, n = 36). There was 29% attrition in this study. The results suggest an overall decrease in self-reported depression with time in both the groups. There was a significant decrease in depression scores in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery, RT, and CT (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between depression scores with symptom severity and distress during surgery, RT, and CT. Conclusion: The results suggest possible antidepressant effects with yoga intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. PMID:26009671

  19. Therapeutic Risk and Benefits of Concomitantly Using Herbal Medicines and Conventional Medicines: From the Perspectives of Evidence Based on Randomized Controlled Trials and Clinical Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiu-lai; Chen, Meng; Zhu, Ling-ling

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness of the potential of herb-drug interactions (HDIs), the lack of rigorous clinical evidence regarding the significance provides a challenge for clinicians and consumers to make rational decisions about the safe combination of herbal and conventional medicines. This review addressed HDIs based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by performing a PubMed search till January 2017. Risk description and clinical risk management were described. Among 74 finally included RCTs, 17 RCTs (22.97%) simply addressed pharmacodynamic HDIs. Fifty-seven RCTs (77.03%) investigated pharmacokinetic HDIs and twenty-eight of them showed potential or actual clinical relevance. The extent of an HDI may be associated with the factors such as pharmacogenomics, dose of active ingredients in herbs, time course of interaction, characteristics of the object drugs (e.g., administration routes and pharmacokinetic profiles), modification of herbal prescription compositions, and coexistence of inducers and inhibitors. Clinical professionals should enhance risk management on HDIs such as increasing awareness of potential changes in therapeutic risk and benefits, inquiring patients about all currently used conventional medicines and herbal medicines and supplements, automatically detecting highly substantial significant HDI by computerized reminder system, selecting the alternatives, adjusting dose, reviewing the appropriateness of physician orders, educating patients to monitor for drug-interaction symptoms, and paying attention to follow-up visit and consultation. PMID:28491115

  20. Comparison of Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance and conventional occupational therapy on occupational performance in individuals with stroke: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Si-Nae; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae-Yean; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach based on cognitive strategy in occupational therapy. To investigate the effects of CO-OP approach on occupational performance in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study was designed as a 5-week, randomized, single-blind. Forty-three participants who had a diagnosis of first stroke were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 20) or the control group (n = 23). The experimental group conducted CO-OP approach while the control group conducted conventional occupational therapy based on occupational performance components. This study measured Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and post-intervention. After training, the scores of COPM and PQRS in trained task were significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group. In addition, the non-trained task was significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group in COPM and the PQRS. This study suggests that the CO-OP approach is beneficial effects on the occupational performance to improvement in individuals with hemiparetic stroke, and have positive effects on generalization and transfer of acquired skills.

  1. Late, not early mismatch responses to changes in frequency are reduced or deviant in children with dyslexia: an event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Developmental disorders of oral and written language have been linked to deficits in the processing of auditory information. However, findings have been inconsistent, both for behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Methods In this study, we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in 20 6- to 14-year-old children with developmental dyslexia and 20 age-matched controls, divided into younger (6–11 years, n = 10) and older (11–14 years, n = 10) age bands. We focused on early (mismatch negativity; MMN) and late (late discriminative negativity; LDN) conventional mismatch responses and associated measures derived from time-frequency analysis (inter-trial coherence and event-related spectral perturbation). Responses were elicited using an auditory oddball task, whereby a stream of 1000-Hz standards was interspersed with rare large (1,200 Hz) and small (1,030 Hz) frequency deviants. Results Conventional analyses revealed no significant differences between groups in the size of the MMN to either large or small frequency deviants. However, the younger age band of children with dyslexia showed an enhanced inter-trial coherence in the theta frequency band over the time window corresponding to the MMN to small deviants. By contrast, these same children showed a reduced-amplitude LDN for the small deviants relative to their age-matched controls, whilst the older children with dyslexia showed a shorter and less intense period of event-related desynchronization over this time window. Conclusions Initial detection and discrimination of auditory frequency change appears normal or even enhanced in children with dyslexia. Rather, deficits in late-stage auditory processing appear to be a feature of this population. PMID:25110526

  2. Effectiveness of conventional versus virtual reality-based balance exercises in vestibular rehabilitation for unilateral peripheral vestibular loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Dara; Herdman, Susan; Vance, Roisin; Murray, Deirdre; Malone, Kareena; Duffy, Douglas; Glennon, Aine; McConn-Walsh, Rory

    2015-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of virtual reality-based balance exercises to conventional balance exercises during vestibular rehabilitation in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular loss (UVL). Assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial. Two acute care university teaching hospitals. Patients with UVL (N=71) who had dizziness/vertigo, and gait and balance impairment. Patients with UVL were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of either conventional (n=36) or virtual reality-based (n=35) balance exercises during vestibular rehabilitation. The virtual reality-based group received an off-the-shelf virtual reality gaming system for home exercise, and the conventional group received a foam balance mat. Treatment comprised weekly visits to a physiotherapist and a daily home exercise program. The primary outcome was self-preferred gait speed. Secondary outcomes included other gait parameters and tasks, Sensory Organization Test (SOT), dynamic visual acuity, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Vestibular Rehabilitation Benefits Questionnaire, and Activities Balance Confidence Questionnaire. The subjective experience of vestibular rehabilitation was measured with a questionnaire. Both groups improved, but there were no significant differences in gait speed between the groups postintervention (mean difference, -.03m/s; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.09 to .02m/s). There were also no significant differences between the groups in SOT scores (mean difference, .82%; 95% CI, -5.00% to 6.63%) or on any of the other secondary outcomes (P>.05). In both groups, adherence to exercise was high (∼77%), but the virtual reality-based group reported significantly more enjoyment (P=.001), less difficulty with (P=.009) and less tiredness after (P=.03) balance exercises. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences in physical outcomes. Virtual reality-based balance exercises performed during vestibular rehabilitation were not superior to conventional balance

  3. Narrow-band imaging does not improve detection of colorectal polyps when compared to conventional colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial and meta-analysis of published studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A colonoscopy may frequently miss polyps and cancers. A number of techniques have emerged to improve visualization and to reduce the rate of adenoma miss. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in two clinics of the Gastrointestinal Department of the Sanitas University Foundation in Bogota, Colombia. Eligible adult patients presenting for screening or diagnostic elective colonoscopy were randomlsy allocated to undergo conventional colonoscopy or narrow-band imaging (NBI) during instrument withdrawal by three experienced endoscopists. For the systematic review, studies were identified from the Cochrane Library, PUBMED and LILACS and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results We enrolled a total of 482 patients (62.5% female), with a mean age of 58.33 years (SD 12.91); 241 into the intervention (NBI) colonoscopy and 241 into the conventional colonoscopy group. Most patients presented for diagnostic colonoscopy (75.3%). The overall rate of polyp detection was significantly higher in the conventional group compared to the NBI group (RR 0.75, 95%CI 0.60 to 0.96). However, no significant differences were found in the mean number of polyps (MD -0.1; 95%CI -0.25 to 0.05), and the mean number of adenomas (MD 0.04 95%CI -0.09 to 0.17). Meta-analysis of studies (regardless of indication) did not find any significant differences in the mean number of polyps (5 RCT, 2479 participants; WMD -0.07 95% CI -0.21 to 0.07; I2 68%), the mean number of adenomas (8 RCT, 3517 participants; WMD -0.08 95% CI -0.17; 0.01 to I2 62%) and the rate of patients with at least one adenoma (8 RCT, 3512 participants, RR 0.96 95% CI 0.88 to 1,04;I2 0%). Conclusion NBI does not improve detection of colorectal polyps when compared to conventional colonoscopy (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000456055). PMID:21943365

  4. Influence of framework design, contraction mismatch, and thermal history on porcelain checking in fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Gray, A E

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the relative influence of contraction mismatch, framework design, furnace type, cooling rate, and multiple firings on immediate or delayed checking in fixed partial dentures. Frameworks for 60 anterior bridges (three-unit fixed partial dentures) were cast from a low-expansion Au-Pd alloy (O) and a high-expansion Pd-Ag alloy (J). A high-expansion porcelain (B) was applied to each of three framework designs. Firing was performed at heating rates of 56 degrees C/min and 180 degrees C/min. Specimens were cooled at two rates after each of five glazing cycles. For O-B specimens which exhibited a negative thermal contraction mismatch between 600 degrees C and 25 degrees C, 60% of the bridge specimens failed when they were subjected to slow cooling preceded by either fast or slow heating. When J-B specimens (which exhibited a smaller negative contraction mismatch) were heated and cooled rapidly, no failures occurred through all of the firing cycles. However, cracks were observed in 13.3% of the J-B bridges which were slowly heated and rapidly cooled. Delayed cracks (after the fifth glaze cycle) developed over periods of up to two years only in bridges which were slowly cooled in the furnace chamber. The results of this study suggest that checking in conventional feldspathic porcelains can be promoted by slow cooling rates and an excessive number of firing cycles.

  5. Extracting and compensating dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain OCT imaging of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Choi, WooJhon; Baumann, Bernhard; Swanson, Eric A.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical approach to extract the dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the retina. The method draws upon an analogy with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. By exploiting mathematical similarities between the expressions for aberration in optical imaging and dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT, Shack-Hartmann principles can be extended from the two-dimensional paraxial wavevector space (or the x-y plane in the spatial domain) to the one-dimensional wavenumber space (or the z-axis in the spatial domain). For OCT imaging of the retina, different retinal layers, such as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the photoreceptor inner and outer segment junction (IS/OS), or all the retinal layers near the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be used as point source beacons in the axial direction, analogous to point source beacons used in conventional two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors for aberration characterization. Subtleties regarding speckle phenomena in optical imaging, which affect the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor used in adaptive optics, also occur analogously in this application. Using this approach and carefully suppressing speckle, the dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT retinal imaging can be successfully extracted numerically and used for numerical dispersion compensation to generate sharper, ultrahigh-resolution OCT images. PMID:23187353

  6. The efficacy of conventional radiofrequency denervation in patients with chronic low back pain originating from the facet joints: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, Chi Heon

    2017-05-30

    procedures demonstrated significant improvements in back pain relative to the control group at all times. When placed into our meta-regression model, the response to diagnostic block procedure was responsible for a statistically significant portion of treatment effect. Studies published over the last two decades revealed that radiofrequency denervation reduced back pain significantly in patients with facet joint disease compared with the MCID and control treatments. Conventional radiofrequency denervation resulted in significant reductions in low back pain originating from the facet joints in patients showing the best response to diagnostic block over the first 12 months when compared with sham procedures or epidural nerve blocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Waterpipe product packaging and labelling at the 3rd international Hookah Fair; does it comply with Article 11 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control?

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Darzi, Andrea; Lotfi, Tamara; Nakkash, Rima; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2017-08-01

    We assessed compliance of waterpipe product packaging and labelling with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Article 11. We evaluated samples collected at a trade fair against ten domains: health warning location, size, use of pictorials, use of colour, and packaging information on constituents and emissions. We also evaluated waterpipe accessories (e.g., charcoal) for misleading claims. Ten of 15 tobacco products had health warnings on their principal display areas, covering a median of 22.4 per cent (interquartile range 19.4-27.4 per cent) of those areas. Three had pictorial, in-colour health warnings. We judged all packaging information on constituents and emissions to be misleading. Eight of 13 charcoal products displayed environmentally friendly descriptors and/or claims of reduced harm that we judged to be misleading. Increased compliance with waterpipe tobacco regulation is warranted. An improved policy framework for waterpipe tobacco should also consider regulation of accessories such as charcoal products.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants: Conventional froth flotation for the IEC coal cleaning plant model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the addition of a conventional froth flotation circuit into the FORTRAN coal cleaning module of the Integrated Environmental Control (IEC) model. The purpose of this modification is to include froth flotation as an option to clean the coal fines. The current model has three beneficiation: levels (2, 3, and 4) in which different streams are washed by specific gravity equipment. Level 2 washes only the coarse stream. Level 3 washes the coarse and medium streams. Level 4 washes the coarse, medium, and fine streams. This modification adds a fifth level, which uses specific gravity equipment to wash the coarse and medium streams and froth flotation equipment for the fine stream. The specific size fractions in each stream are specified by the model user. As before, the model optimizes the yield of each circuit in order to achieve a target coal quality for the cleaned coal product.

  9. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  10. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  11. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  12. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  13. 15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). States... Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention...

  14. Efficacy of the addition of positive airway pressure to conventional chest physiotherapy in resolution of pleural effusion after drainage: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Elinaldo; Lunardi, Adriana Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Chest drainage for pleural effusion can cause pain and changes in respiratory function. It can also increase the risk of pulmonary complications and impair functional ability, which may increase length of hospital stay and the associated costs. For these reasons, surgical and clinical strategies have been adopted to reduce the duration of chest drainage. To evaluate the efficacy of the addition of intermittent positive airway pressure applied by the Muller reanimator via a rubber facial mask versus conventional physiotherapy on the duration of chest drainage (primary objective), and its effect on the recovery of respiratory function, length of hospital stay and incidence of pulmonary complications (secondary objectives). Randomised, controlled trial. Inpatients with pleural effusion, aged over 18 years, who have had chest drainage in situ for < 24hours will be recruited from two university hospitals. Patients will be excluded if they have any contraindication for the use of non-invasive positive airway pressure. After initial assessments of lung function, 156 patients will be randomised into a positive airway pressure group (positive airway pressure at 15 cmH2O plus conventional chest physiotherapy), a conventional chest physiotherapy group (conventional chest physiotherapy plus non-therapeutic positive airway pressure at 4 cmH2O) or a control group (non-therapeutic positive airway pressure at 4 cmH2O). All groups will receive treatment three times per day for 7 consecutive days. A blinded assessor will conduct all assessments. Peripheral oxygenation and chest drainage output will be measured over 7 consecutive days. Lung function will be re-assessed on Day 4 and Day 8. The criteria for removal of the chest drain will be a transudate output ≤ 200ml over 24hours and full lung expansion on chest radiography, as assessed by a blinded physician. Duration of chest drainage, length of hospital stay, and any pulmonary complications diagnosed during hospitalisation will

  15. Effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; design of a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Peul, Wilco C; Brand, Ronald; Arts, Mark P; Koes, Bart W; Berg, Annette A van den; van Buchem, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Background The usual surgical treatment of refractory sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation, is open discectomy. Minimally invasive procedures, including percutaneous therapies under local anesthesia, are increasingly gaining attention. One of these treatments is Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD). This treatment can be carried out in an outpatient setting and swift recovery and return to daily routine are suggested. Thus far, no randomized trial into cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus standard surgical procedure has been performed. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial, studying the cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus conventional open discectomy in patients with sciatica from lumbar disc herniation. Methods/design The study is a randomized prospective multi-center trial, in which two treatment strategies are compared in a parallel group design. Patients (age 18–70 years) visiting the neurosurgery department of the participating hospitals, are considered for inclusion in the trial when sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation has lasted more than 8 weeks. Patients with disc herniation smaller than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, without concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eligible for participation, and are randomized into one of two treatment arms; either Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression or conventional discectomy. The functional outcome of the patient, as assessed by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 8 weeks and 1 year after treatment, is the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome parameters are recovery as perceived by the patient, leg and back pain, incidence of re-intervention, complications, quality of life, medical consumption, absence of work and secondary costs. Discussion Open discectomy is still considered to be the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression has at least as much efficacy as the

  16. Investigating the effects of 6 months extended duration, in-centre nocturnal versus conventional haemodialysis treatment: a non-randomised, controlled feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Graham-Brown, Matthew P M; Preston, Robert; Pickering, Warren; McCann, Gerry P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In-centre nocturnal haemodialysis (INHD) is an underutilised dialysis regimen that can potentially provide patients with better clinical outcomes due to extended treatment times. We have established an INHD programme within our clinical network, fulfilling a previously unmet patient need. This feasibility study aims to gather sufficient data on numerous outcome measures to inform the design of a multicentre randomised controlled trial that will establish the potential benefits of INHD and increase the availability of this service nationally and internationally. Methods and analysis This will be a non-randomised controlled study. Prevalent patients on haemodialysis (HD) will electively change from a conventional in-centre HD regimen of 4 hours thrice weekly to a regimen of extended treatment times (5–8 hours) delivered in-centre overnight thrice weekly. After recruitment of the INHD cohort, a group of patients matched for age, gender and dialysis vintage will be selected from patients remaining on a conventional daytime dialysis programme. Outcome measures will include left ventricular mass as measured by MRI, physical performance measured by the short physical performance battery and physical activity measured by accelerometry. Additionally we will measure quality of life using validated questionnaires, nutritional status by bioimpedance spectroscopy and food diaries, and blood sampling for markers of cardiovascular disease, systemic inflammation. Suitable statistical tests shall be used to analyse the data. We will use omnibus tests to observe changes over the duration of the intervention and between groups. We will also look for associations between outcome measures that may warrant further investigation. These data will be used to inform the power calculation for future studies. Ethics and dissemination A favourable opinion was granted by Northampton Research Ethics Committee (15/EM/0268). It is anticipated that results of this study will be

  17. Radiation Exposure During Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE): A Confounder-Controlled Comparison Between a State-of-the-Art Angiography Unit and a Conventional Angiography unit.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Voigt, Wieland; Oliger, Michel Klapp; Schlett, Christopher L; Erpenbach, Stefan; Thomas, Katrina; Hatopp, Andreas; Kurz, Patrick; Richter, Goetz M

    2017-09-21

    Purpose To compare radiation exposure of a state-of-the-art and a conventional angiography unit in patients undergoing uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). Materials and Methods Between January 2009 and December 2016, 286 patients underwent UFE in our Interdisciplinary Fibroid Center. The inclusion criteria for this retrospective analysis were first-time transarterial embolization for symptomatic fibroids, bilateral embolization, procedures applying a state-of-the-art (Group 1) or a conventional angiography unit (Group 2), and bilateral technical success with an adequate embolization endpoint after the injection of microspheres. Study endpoints included radiation exposure, major complications, morphological success (MRI), and clinical success (questionnaire on quality-of-life). Propensity score matching controlled for confounders. Results The inclusion criteria were met by 58 (Group 1) and 177 (Group 2) patients. After propensity score matching, there was no significant difference between Group 1 (n = 46) and Group 2 (n = 92) regarding age, body-mass index, volume of the dominant fibroid and the uterus, fluoroscopy time, and amount of embolic agent (p ≥ 0.10 each). The dose-area product was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (1159.0 cGycm(2) vs. 3123.5 cGycm(2); p < 0.001), while major complication rates (both groups 0 %) and dominant fibroid devascularization (both groups 100 %) were equal (p > 0.99). There were no significant differences between both groups regarding shrinkage of the dominant fibroid and the uterus and no relevant differences regarding patient-reported quality-of-life. Conclusion A state-of-the-art angiography unit has the potential to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing UFE without increasing the risk of major complications and with comparably high morphological and clinical success. Key Points  · A state-of-the-art angiography unit potentially reduces radiation exposure in patients

  18. Day and night glycaemic control with a bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes: a randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Steven J; Hillard, Mallory A; Balliro, Courtney; Magyar, Kendra L; Selagamsetty, Rajendranath; Sinha, Manasi; Grennan, Kerry; Mondesir, Debbie; Ehklaspour, Laya; Zheng, Hui; Damiano, Edward R; El-Khatib, Firas H

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The safety and efficacy of continuous, multiday, automated glycaemic management has not been tested in outpatient studies of preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a bihormonal bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in this population of patients in an outpatient setting. Methods In this randomised, open-label, crossover study, we enrolled preadolescent children (aged 6–11 years) with type 1 diabetes (diagnosed for ≥1 year) who were on insulin pump therapy, from two diabetes camps in the USA. With the use of sealed envelopes, participants were randomly assigned in blocks of two to either 5 days with the bionic pancreas or conventional insulin pump therapy (control) as the first intervention, followed by a 3 day washout period and then 5 days with the other intervention. Study allocation was not masked. The autonomously adaptive algorithm of the bionic pancreas received data from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device to control subcutaneous delivery of insulin and glucagon. Conventional insulin pump therapy was administered by the camp physicians and other clinical staff in accordance with their established protocols; participants also wore a CGM device during the control period. The coprimary outcomes, analysed by intention to treat, were mean CGM-measured glucose concentration and the proportion of time with a CGM-measured glucose concentration below 3·3 mmol/L, on days 2–5. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02105324. Findings Between July 20, and Aug 19, 2014, 19 children with a mean age of 9·8 years (SD 1·6) participated in and completed the study. The bionic pancreas period was associated with a lower mean CGM-measured glucose concentration on days 2–5 than was the control period (7·6 mmol/L [SD 0·6] vs 9·3 mmol/L [1·7]; p=0·00037) and a lower proportion of time with a CGM-measured glucose concentration below 3·3 mmol/L on

  19. Day and night glycaemic control with a bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes: a randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Hillard, Mallory A; Balliro, Courtney; Magyar, Kendra L; Selagamsetty, Rajendranath; Sinha, Manasi; Grennan, Kerry; Mondesir, Debbie; Ehklaspour, Laya; Zheng, Hui; Damiano, Edward R; El-Khatib, Firas H

    2016-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of continuous, multiday, automated glycaemic management has not been tested in outpatient studies of preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a bihormonal bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in this population of patients in an outpatient setting. In this randomised, open-label, crossover study, we enrolled preadolescent children (aged 6-11 years) with type 1 diabetes (diagnosed for ≥1 year) who were on insulin pump therapy, from two diabetes camps in the USA. With the use of sealed envelopes, participants were randomly assigned in blocks of two to either 5 days with the bionic pancreas or conventional insulin pump therapy (control) as the first intervention, followed by a 3 day washout period and then 5 days with the other intervention. Study allocation was not masked. The autonomously adaptive algorithm of the bionic pancreas received data from a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device to control subcutaneous delivery of insulin and glucagon. Conventional insulin pump therapy was administered by the camp physicians and other clinical staff in accordance with their established protocols; participants also wore a CGM device during the control period. The coprimary outcomes, analysed by intention to treat, were mean CGM-measured glucose concentration and the proportion of time with a CGM-measured glucose concentration below 3·3 mmol/L, on days 2-5. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02105324. Between July 20, and Aug 19, 2014, 19 children with a mean age of 9·8 years (SD 1·6) participated in and completed the study. The bionic pancreas period was associated with a lower mean CGM-measured glucose concentration on days 2-5 than was the control period (7·6 mmol/L [SD 0·6] vs 9·3 mmol/L [1·7]; p=0·00037) and a lower proportion of time with a CGM-measured glucose concentration below 3·3 mmol/L on days 2-5 (1·2% [SD 1·1] vs 2·8% [1·2

  20. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  1. Policy makers’ viewpoints on implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Iran: A qualitative investigation of program facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Rabiei, Katayoun; Alavi, Mousa; Kelishadi, Roya; Manzouri, Leila; Abedi, Heidarali; Fereydoun-Mohaseli, Khadijeh; Azaripour-Masooleh, Hasan; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The epidemic of smoking is a great concern of health systems. Moreover, the number of smokers is increasing worldwide and this has led to an escalating trend of morbidity, mortality, and burden of smoking-related diseases. Therefore, monitoring the implementation of tobacco control laws in different countries is of extreme importance. This study aimed to describe policy makers’ experiences and perceptions of the facilitating factors of the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in Iran. METHODS This was a qualitative research in which data were collected through individual interviews. The participants included policy makers who were members of the national assembly for tobacco control. In this study, 13 unstructured interviews of about 45 to 60 minutes duration were conducted in an extrapolative manner. The qualitative content analysis method was applied until extrapolation of basic themes was complete. RESULTS As a result of the analysis, the themes of performance through training, through research, through intersectoral collaboration, and through setting priorities emerged. The emerged themes connote some critical points that have key roles in promoting the effective implementation of the WHO FCTC. Furthermore, the main role of the health sector becomes predominant. CONCLUSION The study findings suggested the managed and coordinated work as one of the main facilitating factors of the implementation of the WHO FCTC at a national level. PMID:27429629

  2. Does ergonomic mismatch at school impact pain in school children?

    PubMed

    Brewer, J M; Davis, K G; Dunning, K K; Succop, P A

    2009-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain in school-aged children is highly prevalent. While there are many potential factors relating to this discomfort, one unexplored factor is the ergonomic mismatch. The objective of this study was to determine whether the degree of mismatch between the body dimensions and the classroom furniture was associated with body discomfort. One hundred and thirty-nine children in a Midwestern U.S. school district participated in the study where demographic information, anthropometric measurements, self-reported regional body discomfort, and furniture measurements were collected. The results indicate an extremely high prevalence of ergonomic mismatch. Contrary to what was hypothesized, the ergonomic mismatch was not associated with body discomfort. The lack of association may have been a result of the extremely high prevalence of ergonomic mismatch as well as potential adaptations by the students. Although almost every student was found to not fit their desk and chairs, ergonomic mismatch had limited impact on the body discomfort. It appears that other factors such as backpack weight and time carrying may contribute more to the discomfort of students. However, caution is stress with regard to dismissing ergonomic mismatch factor as a potential risk factor since the extremely high prevalence may have washed out any effect.

  3. Randomized controlled within-subject evaluation of digital and conventional workflows for the fabrication of lithium disilicate single crowns. Part II: CAD-CAM versus conventional laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Irena; Benic, Goran I; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Mühlemann, Sven

    2017-07-01

    Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the entire digital and conventional workflows in prosthetic dentistry. The purpose of the second part of this clinical study was to compare the laboratory production time for tooth-supported single crowns made with 4 different digital workflows and 1 conventional workflow and to compare these crowns clinically. For each of 10 participants, a monolithic crown was fabricated in lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD). The computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems were Lava C.O.S. CAD software and centralized CAM (group L), Cares CAD software and centralized CAM (group iT), Cerec Connect CAD software and lab side CAM (group CiL), and Cerec Connect CAD software with centralized CAM (group CiD). The conventional fabrication (group K) included a wax pattern of the crown and heat pressing according to the lost-wax technique (IPS e.max Press). The time for the fabrication of the casts and the crowns was recorded. Subsequently, the crowns were clinically evaluated and the corresponding treatment times were recorded. The Paired Wilcoxon test with the Bonferroni correction was applied to detect differences among treatment groups (α=.05). The total mean (±standard deviation) active working time for the dental technician was 88 ±6 minutes in group L, 74 ±12 minutes in group iT, 74 ±5 minutes in group CiL, 92 ±8 minutes in group CiD, and 148 ±11 minutes in group K. The dental technician spent significantly more working time for the conventional workflow than for the digital workflows (P<.001). No statistically significant differences were found between group L and group CiD or between group iT and group CiL. No statistical differences in time for the clinical evaluation were found among groups, indicating similar outcomes (P>.05). Irrespective of the CAD-CAM system, the overall laboratory working time for a digital workflow was significantly shorter than for the conventional

  4. The effects of phenological mismatches on demography

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Høye, Toke Thomas; Inouye, David W.; Post, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is altering the phenology of species across the world, but what are the consequences of these phenological changes for the demography and population dynamics of species? Time-sensitive relationships, such as migration, breeding and predation, may be disrupted or altered, which may in turn alter the rates of reproduction and survival, leading some populations to decline and others to increase in abundance. However, finding evidence for disrupted relationships, or lack thereof, and their demographic effects, is difficult because the necessary detailed observational data are rare. Moreover, we do not know how sensitive species will generally be to phenological mismatches when they occur. Existing long-term studies provide preliminary data for analysing the phenology and demography of species in several locations. In many instances, though, observational protocols may need to be optimized to characterize timing-based multi-trophic interactions. As a basis for future research, we outline some of the key questions and approaches to improving our understanding of the relationships among phenology, demography and climate in a multi-trophic context. There are many challenges associated with this line of research, not the least of which is the need for detailed, long-term data on many organisms in a single system. However, we identify key questions that can be addressed with data that already exist and propose approaches that could guide future research. PMID:20819811

  5. Concomitant use of FSH and low-dose recombinant hCG during the late follicular phase versus conventional controlled ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Carla Andrade Rebello; Setti, Amanda Souza; Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2017-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose hCG supplementation on ICSI outcomes and controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cost. Three hundred and thirty patients undergoing ICSI were split into groups according to the COS protocol: (i) control group (n = 178), including patients undergoing conventional COS treatment; and (ii) low-dose hCG group (n = 152), including patients undergoing COS with low-dose hCG supplementation. Lower mean total doses of FSH administered and higher mean oestradiol level and mature oocyte rates were observed in the low-dose hCG group. A significantly higher fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate and blastocyst formation rate were observed in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group. The miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the control group compared to the low-dose hCG group. A significantly lower incidence of OHSS was observed in the low-dose hCG group. There was also a significantly lower gonadotropin cost in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group ($1235.0 ± 239.0×$1763.0 ± 405.3, p < 0.001). The concomitant use of low-dose hCG and FSH results in a lower abortion rate and increased number of mature oocytes retrieved, as well as improved oocyte quality, embryo quality and blastocyst formation and reduced FSH requirements.

  6. Pilot Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study of Herbal Medicine Hochuekkito as an Adjunct to Conventional Treatment for Progressed Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Yasunori; Hagiwara, Eri; Komatsu, Shigeru; Nishihira, Ryuichi; Baba, Tomohisa; Kitamura, Hideya; Sekine, Akimasa; Nakazawa, Atsuhito; Ogura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hochuekkito, a traditional herbal medicine, is occasionally prescribed in Japan to treat patients with a poor general condition. We aimed to examine whether this medicine was beneficial and tolerable for patients with progressed pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods This pilot open-label quasi-randomized controlled trial enrolled 18 patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease who had initiated antimycobacterial treatment over one year ago but were persistently culture-positive or intolerant. All patients continued their baseline treatment regimens with (n = 9) or without (n = 9) oral Hochuekkito for 24 weeks. Results Baseline characteristics were generally similar between the groups. Most patients were elderly (median age 70 years), female, had a low body mass index (<20 kg/m2), and a long-term disease duration (median approximately 8 years). After the 24-week treatment period, no patient achieved sputum conversion. Although the number of colonies in sputum tended to increase in the control group, it generally remained stable in the Hochuekkito group. Radiological disease control was frequently observed in the Hochuekkito group than the control group (8/9 vs. 3/9; p = 0.05). Patients in the Hochuekkito group tended to experience increase in body weight and serum albumin level compared with those in the control group (median body weight change: +0.4 kg vs. −0.8 kg; median albumin change: +0.2 g/dl vs. ±0.0 g/dl). No severe adverse events occurred. Conclusions Hochuekkito could be an effective, feasible adjunct to conventional therapy for patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease. Future study is needed to explore this possibility. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000009920 PMID:25093868

  7. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R.; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L.; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human–animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6–month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre–program with post–program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre–session with post–session salivary cortisol and alpha–amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty–two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6–month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT–treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice–weekly 1–h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT–treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT–treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology

  8. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) Program As a Useful Adjunct to Conventional Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Patients with Schizophrenia: Results of a Small-scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Macías, Cristina; Bowen, Jonathan; García, María L; Orejas, Olivia; Molins, Ferran; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Bulbena, Antoni; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Currently, one of the main objectives of human-animal interaction research is to demonstrate the benefits of animal assisted therapy (AAT) for specific profiles of patients or participants. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an AAT program as an adjunct to a conventional 6-month psychosocial rehabilitation program for people with schizophrenia. Our hypothesis is that the inclusion of AAT into psychosocial rehabilitation would contribute positively to the impact of the overall program on symptomology and quality of life, and that AAT would be a positive experience for patients. To test these hypotheses, we compared pre-program with post-program scores for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions questionnaire (EuroQol-5D), pre-session with post-session salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase for the last four AAT sessions, and adherence rates between different elements of the program. We conducted a randomized, controlled study in a psychiatric care center in Spain. Twenty-two institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia completed the 6-month rehabilitation program, which included individual psychotherapy, group therapy, a functional program (intended to improve daily functioning), a community program (intended to facilitate community reintegration) and a family program. Each member of the control group (n = 8) participated in one activity from a range of therapeutic activities that were part of the functional program. In place of this functional program activity, the AAT-treatment group (n = 14) participated in twice-weekly 1-h sessions of AAT. All participants received the same weekly total number of hours of rehabilitation. At the end of the program, both groups (control and AAT-treatment) showed significant improvements in positive and overall symptomatology, as measured with PANSS, but only the AAT-treatment group showed a significant improvement in negative symptomatology. Adherence to the AAT

  9. Chronic effects of cannabis use on the auditory mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Lisa-Marie; Broyd, Samantha J; Croft, Rodney; Todd, Juanita; Michie, Patricia T; Johnstone, Stuart; Murray, Robin; Solowij, Nadia

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis use is associated with the development of psychotic symptoms and increased risk for schizophrenia. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain event-related potential marker of change detection thought to index glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission, which is known to be deficient in schizophrenia. This study examined auditory MMN in otherwise healthy chronic cannabis users compared with nonuser control subjects. Forty-two chronic cannabis users and 44 nonuser healthy control subjects completed a multi-feature MMN paradigm, which included duration, frequency, and intensity deviants (deviants 6%; standards 82%). The MMN was compared between users and control subjects as well as between long- and short-term users and age- and gender-matched control subjects. Associations between MMN, cannabis use measures, and symptoms were examined. The MMN amplitude was significantly reduced to frequency but not duration or intensity deviants in overall cannabis users relative to control subjects. Frequency MMN was similarly attenuated in short- and long-term users relative to control subjects. Long-term users also exhibited reduced duration MMN relative to control subjects and short-term users and this was correlated with increased duration of exposure to cannabis and increased psychotic-like experiences during intoxication. In short-term users, a younger age of onset of regular cannabis use and greater frequency of use were associated with greater psychotic-like experiences and symptomatic distress. These results suggest impaired sensory memory that might reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dysfunction in chronic cannabis users. The pattern of MMN alterations in cannabis users differed from that typically observed in patients with schizophrenia, indicating overlapping but distinct underlying pathology. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee--study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Michalsen, Andreas; Roll, Stephanie; Morandi, Antonio; Gupta, Shivnarain; Rosenberg, Mark; Kronpass, Ludwig; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Hissar, Syed; Müller, Matthias; Kessler, Christian

    2013-05-23

    Traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine uses complex treatment approaches, including manual therapies, lifestyle and nutritional advice, dietary supplements, medication, yoga, and purification techniques. Ayurvedic strategies are often used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; however, no systematic data are available on their effectiveness in comparison with standard care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of complex Ayurvedic treatment in comparison with conventional methods of treating OA symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 150 patients between 40 and 70 years, diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee, following American College of Rheumatology criteria and an average pain intensity of ≥40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale in the affected knee at baseline will be randomized into two groups. In the Ayurveda group, treatment will include tailored combinations of manual treatments, massages, dietary and lifestyle advice, consideration of selected foods, nutritional supplements, yoga posture advice, and knee massage. Patients in the conventional group will receive self-care advice, pain medication, weight-loss advice (if overweight), and physiotherapy following current international guidelines. Both groups will receive 15 treatment sessions over 12 weeks. Outcomes will be evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a change in the score on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measurements will use WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, a pain experience scale, a quality-of-life index, a profile of mood states, and Likert scales for patient satisfaction, patient diaries, and safety. Using an adapted PRECIS scale, the trial was identified as lying mainly in the middle of the efficacy-effectiveness continuum. This trial

  11. Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine uses complex treatment approaches, including manual therapies, lifestyle and nutritional advice, dietary supplements, medication, yoga, and purification techniques. Ayurvedic strategies are often used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; however, no systematic data are available on their effectiveness in comparison with standard care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of complex Ayurvedic treatment in comparison with conventional methods of treating OA symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods and design In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 150 patients between 40 and 70 years, diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee, following American College of Rheumatology criteria and an average pain intensity of ≥40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale in the affected knee at baseline will be randomized into two groups. In the Ayurveda group, treatment will include tailored combinations of manual treatments, massages, dietary and lifestyle advice, consideration of selected foods, nutritional supplements, yoga posture advice, and knee massage. Patients in the conventional group will receive self-care advice, pain medication, weight-loss advice (if overweight), and physiotherapy following current international guidelines. Both groups will receive 15 treatment sessions over 12 weeks. Outcomes will be evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a change in the score on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measurements will use WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, a pain experience scale, a quality-of-life index, a profile of mood states, and Likert scales for patient satisfaction, patient diaries, and safety. Using an adapted PRECIS scale, the trial was identified as lying mainly in the middle of the efficacy

  12. Randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of the ultrasound-guided galvanic electrolysis technique (USGET) versus conventional electro-physiotherapeutic treatment on patellar tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Abat, F; Sánchez-Sánchez, J L; Martín-Nogueras, A M; Calvo-Arenillas, J I; Yajeya, J; Méndez-Sánchez, R; Monllau, J C; Gelber, P E

    2016-12-01

    Patellar tendinopathy has a high prevalence rate among athletes. Different therapeutic options can be found in the current literature, but none of them has been clearly established as the gold standard. The purpose of this study is to compare, in a randomized controlled trial, the clinical efficacy of eccentric exercise combined with either an ultrasound-guided galvanic electrolysis technique (USGET) or conventional electrophysiotherapy to treat patellar tendinopathy. Sixty patients diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (n = 30) received electrophysiotherapy treatment consisting of ultrasound, laser and interferential current techniques. Group 2 (n = 30) received USGET. Both groups did the same standardized eccentric exercise program. Periodic assessments of the subjects were carried out with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) score. An analysis of means and a survival study were performed. There were statistically significant differences in the VISA-P between the baseline and final follow-up in each treatment group. Group 1 (conventional electrophysiotherapy) went from 52.5 ± 18.8 to 61.9 ± 13.7 (in VISA-P < 90 subgroup) and from 69.1 ± 9.1 to 95.2 ± 2.5 (in VISA-P > 90 subgroup). Group 2 (USGET) went from 51.4 ± 17.9 to 63.3 ± 14.3 (in VISA-P < 90 subgroup) and from 66.3 ± 13.1 to 97.1 ± 1.7 (in VISA-P > 90 subgroup). There were statistically significant correlations between the baseline and final score in the VISA-P > 90 subjects upon completing the study but no statistically significant correlations between subjects with VISA-P < 90. The mean number of sessions applied was 22.6 ± 2.5 in Group 1 and 3.2 ± 0.9 in Group 2. The success probability in Group 1 was 36.1% versus 72.4% in Group 2. The difference was statistically significant. The results obtained with the combination of USGET and eccentric exercise reported

  13. A comparison of robotic walking therapy and conventional walking therapy in individuals with upper versus lower motor neuron lesions: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Esclarín-Ruz, Ana; Alcobendas-Maestro, Monica; Casado-Lopez, Rosa; Perez-Mateos, Guillermo; Florido-Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Valdizan, Esteban; Martin, Jose Luis R

    2014-06-01

    To compare a walking reeducation program with robotic locomotor training plus overground therapy (LKOGT) to conventional overground training (OGT) in individuals with incomplete upper motor neuron (UMN) or lower motor neuron (LMN) injuries having either traumatic or nontraumatic nonprogressive etiology. Randomized open controlled trial with blind evaluation by an independent observer. An inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation center. A total of 88 adults within 6 months of spinal cord injury onset (group A, 44 with UMN injury, and group B, 44 with LMN injury) were graded on the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale as C or D. Each of these groups was then randomly allocated to conditions 1 or 2. Condition 1: Subgroups A1 and B1 were treated with LKOGT for 60 minutes. Condition 2: Subgroups A2 and B2 received 60 minutes of conventional OGT 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Subjects with UMN and LMN were randomized into 2 training groups. Ten-meter walk test and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, lower extremity motor score (LEMS), and the FIM-Locomotor were secondary outcome measures. By using the LKOGT program compared with OGT, we found significant differences in the 6MWT for groups A1 and B1. LKOGT also provided higher scores than did OGT in secondary outcomes such as the LEMS and the FIM-Locomotor. Robotic-assisted step training yielded better results in the 6MWT and the LEMS in patients with UMN and LMN. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ayurvedic versus conventional dietary and lifestyle counseling for mothers with burnout-syndrome: A randomized controlled pilot study including a qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Christian S; Eisenmann, Clemens; Oberzaucher, Frank; Forster, Martin; Steckhan, Nico; Meier, Larissa; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Ayurveda claims to be effective in the treatment of psychosomatic disorders by means of lifestyle and nutritional counseling. In a randomized controlled study mothers with burnout were randomized into two groups: Ayurvedic nutritional counseling (according to tradition), and conventional nutritional counseling (following the recommendations of a family doctor). Patients received five counseling sessions over twelve weeks. Outcomes included levels of burnout, quality of life, sleep, stress, depression/anxiety, and spirituality at three and six months. It also included a qualitative evaluation of the communication processes. We randomized thirty four patients; twenty three participants were included in the per protocol analysis. No significant differences were observed between the groups. However, significant and clinically relevant intra-group mean changes for the primary outcome burnout, and secondary outcomes sleep, stress, depression and mental health were only found in the Ayurveda group. The qualitative part of the study identified different conversational styles and counseling techniques between the two study groups. In conventional consultations questions tended to be category bound, while counseling-advice was predominantly admonitory. The Ayurvedic practitioner used open-ended interrogative forms, devices for displaying understanding, and positive re-evaluation more frequently, leading to an overall less asymmetrical interaction. We found positive effects for both groups, which however were more pronounced in the Ayurvedic group. The conversational and counseling techniques in the Ayurvedic group offered more opportunities for problem description by patients as well as patient-centered practice and resource-oriented recommendations by the physician. NCT01797887. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. K.; Moody, G. B.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Larson, M. G.; Levy, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P<.01), LF (P<.01), VLF (P<.05), and TP (P<.01) and the nonlinear measure DFA (P<.05) were predictors of survival over a mean follow-up period of 1.9 years; other measures, including ApEn (P>.3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.

  16. A direct current superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer with a digital signal processor controlled flux-locked loop and comparison with a conventional analog feedback scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, P.J.; Bracht, R.R.; Flynn, E.R.; Lewis, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    A double-washer dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometer with a flux-locked loop (FLL) based on a digital signal processor (DSP) has been developed for biomagnetic applications. All of the analog electronics in the conventional FLL are replaced and implemented by the DSP except for the low-noise field-effect transistor preamplifier at the front end of the signal recovery components. The DSP performs the signal demodulation by synchronously sampling the recovered signals and applying the appropriate full wave rectification. The signals are then integrated, filtered, and applied to the output. At 4.2 K, the white flux noise of the gradiometer measured in a DSP FLL mode is about 4{mu}{phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz and the noise at 1 Hz is 13 {mu}{phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz. The corresponding noise levels in the gradiometer operated by the conventional FLL are 1.8 and 3{mu}{phi}{sub 0}/{radical}Hz. The poorer system performance in the DSP FLL compared to the analog FLL is mainly caused by the ambient field noise and interference signals picked up through the connecting cables. Additional noise is also added to the overall noise floor by the instruments employed in the DSP system in the present prototype setup. Further improvement in the noise characteristics and the dynamic behavior of the DSP SQUID gradiometer is expected when a better configuration of DSP with the associated I/O devices is implemented. Additional improvements of the DSP programs are expected by incorporating higher-order integration, adaptive control, and noise reduction schemes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Fast track multi-discipline treatment (FTMDT trial) versus conventional treatment in colorectal cancer--the design of a prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment are both increasingly used in colorectal cancer treatment, for their short-time benefits of enhanced recovery and short hospital stays. However, the benefits of the integration of the Laparoscopy-assisted surgery, fast-track perioperative treatment, and even with the Xelox chemotherapy, are still unknown. In this study, the three treatments integration is defined as "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment Model" for colorectal cancer and this model extends the benefits to the whole treatment process of colorectal cancer. The main purpose of the study is to explore the feasibility of "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" model in treatment of colorectal cancer. Methods The trial is a prospective randomized controlled study with 2 × 2 balanced factorial design. Patients eligible for the study will be randomized to 4 groups: (I) Laparoscopic surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (II) Open surgery with fast track perioperative treatment and Xelox chemotherapy; (III) Laparoscopic surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy; (IV) Open surgery with conventional perioperative treatment and mFolfox6 chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of this study is the hospital stays. The secondary endpoints are the quality of life, chemotherapy related adverse events, surgical complications and hospitalization costs. Totally, 340 patients will be enrolled with 85 patients in each group. Conclusions The study initiates a new treatment model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for colorectal cancer, and will provide feasibility evidence on the new model "Fast Track Multi-Discipline Treatment" for patients with colorectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01080547 PMID:22111914

  18. Cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a prospective randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN51857546

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Thomeer, Ralph TWM

    2006-01-01

    Background Open discectomy is the standard surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with long-lasting sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation. Minimally invasive approaches such as microendoscopic discectomy have gained attention in recent years. Reduced tissue trauma allows early ambulation, short hospital stay and quick resumption of daily activities. A comparative cost-effectiveness study has not been performed yet. We present the design of a randomised controlled trial on cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in patients with lumbar disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18–70 years) presenting with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation lasting more than 6–8 weeks are included. Patients with disc herniation larger than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, or disc herniation less than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter with concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eliglible for participation. Randomisation into microendoscopic discectomy or conventional unilateral transflaval discectomy will take place in the operating room after induction of anesthesia. The length of skin incision is equal in both groups. The primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient, measured by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica, at 8 weeks and 1 year after surgery. We will also evaluate several other outcome parameters, including perceived recovery, leg and back pain, incidence of re-operations, complications, serum creatine kinase, quality of life, medical consumption, absenteeism and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multi-institutional trial, in which two surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses are kept blinded of the allocated treatment during the follow-up period of 2 years. Discussion Currently, open discectomy is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether

  19. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. K.; Moody, G. B.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Larson, M. G.; Levy, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P<.01), LF (P<.01), VLF (P<.05), and TP (P<.01) and the nonlinear measure DFA (P<.05) were predictors of survival over a mean follow-up period of 1.9 years; other measures, including ApEn (P>.3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.

  20. Correlation between tobacco control policies, consumption of rolled tobacco and e-cigarettes, and intention to quit conventional tobacco, in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saliba, Patrick; Graffelman, Jan; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies and tobacco consumption, particularly rolling tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) users and the intent to quit smoking in 27 countries of the European Union. Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. We used the data from tobacco control activities, measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), in 27 European countries, in 2010, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption data from the Eurobarometer of 2012. Spearman correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% CIs. There was a negative correlation between TCS and prevalence of smoking (rsp=-0.41; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.07). We also found a negative correlation (rsp=-0.31) between TCS and the prevalence of ever e-cigarette users, but it was not statistically significant. Among former cigarette smokers, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between TCS and the consumption of hand-rolled tobacco (rsp=0.46; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.70). We observed a similar correlation between TCS and other tobacco products (cigars and pipe) among former cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between TCS and intent to quit smoking in the past 12 months (rsp=0.66; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87). The level of smoke-free legislation among European countries is correlated with a decrease in the prevalence of smoking of conventional cigarettes and an increase in the intent to quit smoking within the past 12 months. However, the consumption of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, is positively correlated with TCS among former cigarette smokers. Therefore, tobacco control policies should also consider other tobacco products, such as rolling tobacco, cigars and pipes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Design of exceptionally strong and conductive Cu alloys beyond the conventional speculation via the interfacial energy-controlled dispersion of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zeon Han, Seung; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kang, Joonhee; Joh, Hongrae; Kim, Sang Min; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Sung Hwan; Han, Byungchan

    2015-01-01

    The development of Cu-based alloys with high-mechanical properties (strength, ductility) and electrical conductivity plays a key role over a wide range of industrial applications. Successful design of the materials, however, has been rare due to the improvement of mutually exclusive properties as conventionally speculated. In this paper, we demonstrate that these contradictory material properties can be improved simultaneously if the interfacial energies of heterogeneous interfaces are carefully controlled. We uniformly disperse γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles over Cu matrix, and then we controlled atomic level morphology of the interface γ-Al2O3//Cu by adding Ti solutes. It is shown that the Ti dramatically drives the interfacial phase transformation from very irregular to homogeneous spherical morphologies resulting in substantial enhancement of the mechanical property of Cu matrix. Furthermore, the Ti removes impurities (O and Al) in the Cu matrix by forming oxides leading to recovery of the electrical conductivity of pure Cu. We validate experimental results using TEM and EDX combined with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which all consistently poise that our materials are suitable for industrial applications. PMID:26616045

  2. Design of exceptionally strong and conductive Cu alloys beyond the conventional speculation via the interfacial energy-controlled dispersion of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeon Han, Seung; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kang, Joonhee; Joh, Hongrae; Kim, Sang Min; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Sung Hwan; Han, Byungchan

    2015-11-01

    The development of Cu-based alloys with high-mechanical properties (strength, ductility) and electrical conductivity plays a key role over a wide range of industrial applications. Successful design of the materials, however, has been rare due to the improvement of mutually exclusive properties as conventionally speculated. In this paper, we demonstrate that these contradictory material properties can be improved simultaneously if the interfacial energies of heterogeneous interfaces are carefully controlled. We uniformly disperse γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles over Cu matrix, and then we controlled atomic level morphology of the interface γ-Al2O3//Cu by adding Ti solutes. It is shown that the Ti dramatically drives the interfacial phase transformation from very irregular to homogeneous spherical morphologies resulting in substantial enhancement of the mechanical property of Cu matrix. Furthermore, the Ti removes impurities (O and Al) in the Cu matrix by forming oxides leading to recovery of the electrical conductivity of pure Cu. We validate experimental results using TEM and EDX combined with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which all consistently poise that our materials are suitable for industrial applications.

  3. Design of exceptionally strong and conductive Cu alloys beyond the conventional speculation via the interfacial energy-controlled dispersion of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kang, Joonhee; Joh, Hongrae; Kim, Sang Min; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Sung Hwan; Han, Byungchan

    2015-11-30

    The development of Cu-based alloys with high-mechanical properties (strength, ductility) and electrical conductivity plays a key role over a wide range of industrial applications. Successful design of the materials, however, has been rare due to the improvement of mutually exclusive properties as conventionally speculated. In this paper, we demonstrate that these contradictory material properties can be improved simultaneously if the interfacial energies of heterogeneous interfaces are carefully controlled. We uniformly disperse γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles over Cu matrix, and then we controlled atomic level morphology of the interface γ-Al2O3//Cu by adding Ti solutes. It is shown that the Ti dramatically drives the interfacial phase transformation from very irregular to homogeneous spherical morphologies resulting in substantial enhancement of the mechanical property of Cu matrix. Furthermore, the Ti removes impurities (O and Al) in the Cu matrix by forming oxides leading to recovery of the electrical conductivity of pure Cu. We validate experimental results using TEM and EDX combined with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which all consistently poise that our materials are suitable for industrial applications.

  4. Country tobacco laws and article 11 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a review of tobacco packaging and labeling regulations of 25 countries.

    PubMed

    Awopegba, Ayodeji J; Cohen, Joanna E

    2013-11-06

    Urgent, evidence-based tobacco control efforts have been advocated by the WHO through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) articles and guidelines. The level of implementation of these guidelines varies by country and region. This paper identifies areas of alignment and non-alignment of country tobacco laws with respect to the FCTC's article 11 requirements, which lists guidelines for regulating tobacco packaging and labeling. Countries from each of the six WHO regions were ranked by number of smokers and 25 countries were selected, representing countries from all WHO regions with the highest number of smokers. A scoring guide based on the FCTC article 11 requirements was created and used to rank country tobacco laws and assess levels of alignment as well as identify common areas of weakness and strength. Across the countries examined, laws were generally strong in mandating the display of health warning messages on the front and back of cigarette packs and cartons. However, they were deficient in prohibiting the display of emission yields, and placing warnings at the top of the principal display area, as well as requiring health messages on tobacco's negative social and economic outcomes. Country tobacco packaging and labeling laws can be strengthened by greater compliance with the FCTC article 11 guidelines.

  5. Efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery versus conventional phacoemulsification for cataract: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Xiao, Wei; Ye, Shaobi; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) versus conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery (CPCS) in the treatment of cataract. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Nine qualified studies with a total of 989 eyes were included. Compared with CPCS, FLACS significantly reduced mean phaco energy and effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) required in the surgery. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was significantly lower in FLACS at 1 day of follow-up, but CCT and corneal endothelial cells count was comparable at 1 week of follow-up or longer. FLACS achieved a better visual outcome at postoperative 1 week and 6 months, but the difference was not significant at postoperative 1–3 months. Regard to surgical complications, the incidences of intraoperative anterior capsule tear, postoperative macular edema and elevated intraocular pressure were similar. In conclusion, femtosecond laser pretreatment can reduce phaco energy and EPT, which may reduce the heat damage to ocular tissues by ultrasound. This novel technique might be beneficial for patients with dense cataract and/or low preoperative endothelial cell values. Well-designed RCTs with longer follow-up are still necessary to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:26269445

  6. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  7. Surface reconstruction: An effective method for the growth of mismatched materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Zheng, Beining; Wu, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Long; Wu, Jie; Guo, Hongping; Huang, Keke; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-01-01

    The crystalline quality of epitaxial films depends on the degree of lattice match between substrates and films. Here, we report a growth strategy for large mismatched epi-films to grow GaSb films on Si(1 1 1) substrates. The epitaxial strategy can be influenced by controlling the surface reconstructions of Sb-treated Si(1 1 1). The film with the best quality was grown on Si(1 1 1)-(5⿿3 ÿ 5⿿3)-Sb surface due to the stress release and the formation of a self-assembled 2D fishbone structure. Controlled surface engineering provides an effective pathway towards the growth of the large mismatched materials.

  8. [Avoidance of patient-prosthesis mismatch].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Y; Hashimoto, K

    2006-04-01

    To minimize the incidence of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM), we have routinely adopted aortic root enlargement to avoid PPM for patients with small aortic annulus. The aim of this study was to review our strategy of avoiding PPM. The Carpentier-Edwards Perimount (CEP) valves were implanted in 53 patients who were mostly aged over 65 and the St. Jude Medical (SJM) mechanical valves were used in 128 patients aged under 65. A standard 21-mm SJM valve was used in only 3 patients and no 19-mm valves were employed. However, 19-mm CEP valves were used in 12 patients with a small body surface area (1.43 +/- 0.14 m2). Of these, 26 patients (14.4%) who had a small aortic annulus and 24 patients aged under 65 underwent aortic root enlargement. No patient receiving an SJM valve had an projected indexed effective orifice area (EOAI) < or = 0.85 cm2/m2 because of performing aortic valve replacement (AVR) with annular enlargement and only 2 (3.8%) out of 53 patients receiving CEP valves developed PPM. Consequently, the prevalence of PPM was 1.1% in this series. The prevalence of PPM was low in patients over 65 years old with a relatively small body size who received bioprosthetic valves. A pericardial bioprosthesis was considered to be an appropriate valve in older population with regard to avoiding PPM. In patients under 65 years old with a small annulus, the first choice for avoiding PPM is aortic annular enlargement, which may be avoided by high performance mechanical valves with larger EOA.

  9. Mismatch repair genes in renal cortical neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Baiyee, Daniel; Banner, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    Mutation of human mutL homolog 1 (MLH-1) and human mutS homolog 2 (MSH-2) has been linked with the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome and other carcinomas. Mutations of these genes in renal cell carcinomas were recently described. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of MLH-1 and MSH-2 in renal cortical neoplasms of various histological types by immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight (n = 38) resected renal tumors were obtained from the surgical pathology files of the UMass Memorial Healthcare, including clear cell carcinomas (CLEARs, n = 20), papillary carcinomas (PAPs, n = 8), chromophobe carcinomas (CHRs, n = 4), and oncocytomas (ONCs, n = 6). Positive immunostaining for MLH-1 and MSH-2 was graded by the number of positive tumor cell nuclei, as follows: 0, negative; 1, up to one third of positive nuclei; 2, one to two thirds positive; and 3, greater than two thirds positive. Loss of MLH-1 or MSH-2 was defined as a tumor with grade 0 or 1, compared with the normal tubules. Normal tubules and intercalated ducts contained cells positive for MLH-1 and MSH-2 in all cases. For both antibodies, positive staining in tumors ranged from grade 1 to 3 in the CLEAR and PAP but was only grade 2 to 3 in the CHR and ONC. Loss of MLH-1 and/or MSH-2 occurred in malignant tumors but not in ONC. Loss of MLH-1 was present in 8 (40%) of 20 CLEARs and 4 (50%) of 8 PAPs, compared with loss of MSH-2 in 4 (20%) of 20 CLEARs and 1 (25%) of 4 CHRs. Our results suggest that loss of mismatch repair genes is involved in the malignant transformation in some renal carcinomas, particularly those derived from the proximal tubules.

  10. Modeling Ketamine Effects on Synaptic Plasticity During the Mismatch Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, André; Diaconescu, Andreea O.; Kometer, Michael; Friston, Karl J.; Stephan, Klaas E.; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based investigation of mechanisms underlying the reduction of mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes under the NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine. We applied dynamic causal modeling and Bayesian model selection to data from a recent ketamine study of the roving MMN paradigm, using a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Our modeling was guided by a predictive coding framework that unifies contemporary “adaptation” and “model adjustment” MMN theories. Comparing a series of dynamic causal models that allowed for different expressions of neuronal adaptation and synaptic plasticity, we obtained 3 major results: 1) We replicated previous results that both adaptation and short-term plasticity are necessary to explain MMN generation per se; 2) we found significant ketamine effects on synaptic plasticity, but not adaptation, and a selective ketamine effect on the forward connection from left primary auditory cortex to superior temporal gyrus; 3) this model-based estimate of ketamine effects on synaptic plasticity correlated significantly with ratings of ketamine-induced impairments in cognition and control. Our modeling approach thus suggests a concrete mechanism for ketamine effects on MMN that correlates with drug-induced psychopathology. More generally, this demonstrates the potential of modeling for inferring on synaptic physiology, and its pharmacological modulation, from electroencephalography data. PMID:22875863

  11. Identifying Mismatches in Alignments of Large Anatomical Ontologies